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Sample records for human menisci preliminary

  1. T1rho MRI of Menisci in Patients with Osteoarthritis at 3T: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ligong; Chang, Gregory; Bencardino, Jenny; Babb, James S.; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Abramson, Steven; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2013-01-01

    subjects (33±6 ms and 34±6 ms, respectively). Conclusion Significant elevations of T1rho values in specific regions of menisci in both KL1–2 and KL3–4 OA patients indicate that T1rho mapping may be sensitive to meniscus degeneration. The preliminary results suggest that damage in the medial posterior subregion and medial compartment of menisci may possibly be associated with osteoarthritis. PMID:24395433

  2. Macroscopic and histopathologic analysis of human knee menisci in aging and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, C.; Grogan, S.P.; Patil, S.; Otsuki, S.; Hasegawa, A.; Koziol, J.; Lotz, M.K.; D’Lima, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Meniscus lesions following trauma or associated with osteoarthritis (OA) have been described, yet meniscus aging has not been systematically analyzed. The objectives of this study were to (i) establish standardized protocols for representative macroscopic and microscopic analysis, (ii) improve existing scoring systems, and (iii) apply these techniques to a large number of human menisci. Design Medial and lateral menisci from 107 human knees were obtained and cut in two different planes (triangle/crossection and transverse/horizontal) in three separate locations (mid portion, anterior and posterior horns). All sections included vascular and avascular regions and were graded for i) surface integrity, ii) cellularity, iii) matrix/fiber organization and collagen alignment, and iv) Safranin-O staining intensity. The cartilage in all knee compartments was also scored. Results The new macroscopic and microscopic grading systems showed high inter-reader and intra-reader intraclass correlation coefficients. The major age-related changes in menisci in joints with no or minimal OA included increased Safranin-O staining intensity, decreased cell density, the appearance of acellular zones, and evidence of mucoid degeneration with some loss of collagen fiber organization. The earliest meniscus changes occurred predominantly along the inner rim. Menisci from OA joints showed severe fibrocartilaginous separation of the matrix, extensive fraying, tears and calcification. Abnormal cell arrangements included decreased cellularity, diffuse hypercellularity along with cellular hypertrophy and abnormal cell clusters. In general, the anterior horns of both medial and lateral menisci were less affected by age and OA. Conclusions New standardized protocols and new validated grading systems allowed us to conduct a more systematic evaluation of changes in aging and OA menisci at a macroscopic and microscopic level. Several meniscus abnormalities appear to be specific to aging in

  3. Enhanced cellular infiltration of human adipose-derived stem cells in allograft menisci using a needle-punch method.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Rachel C; Charoenpanich, Adisri; Vaughn, Christopher E; Griffith, Emily H; Fisher, Matthew B; Cole, Jacqueline H; Spang, Jeffrey T; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-28

    The meniscus plays a crucial role in knee joint stability, load transmission, and stress distribution. Meniscal tears are the most common reported knee injuries, and the current standard treatment for meniscal deficiency is meniscal allograft transplantation. A major limitation of this approach is that meniscal allografts do not have the capacity to remodel and maintain tissue homeostasis due to a lack of cellular infiltration. The purpose of this study was to provide a new method for enhanced cellular infiltration in meniscal allografts. Twenty medial menisci were collected from cadaveric human sources and split into five experimental groups: (1) control native menisci, (2) decellularized menisci, (3) decellularized menisci seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC), (4) decellularized needle-punched menisci, and (5) decellularized needle-punched menisci seeded with hASC. All experimental allografts were decellularized using a combined method with trypsin EDTA and peracetic acid. Needle punching (1-mm spacing, 28 G microneedle) was utilized to improve porosity of the allograft. Samples were recellularized with hASC at a density of 250 k/g of tissue. After 28 days of in vitro culture, menisci were analyzed for mechanical, biochemical, and histological characteristics. Menisci maintained structural integrity and material properties (compressive equilibrium and dynamic moduli) throughout preparations. Increased DNA content was observed in the needle-punched menisci but not in the samples without needle punching. Histology confirmed these results, showing enhanced cellular infiltration in needle-punched samples. The enhanced infiltration achieved in this study could help meniscal allografts better remodel post-surgery. The integration of autologous adipose-derived stem cells could improve long-term efficacy of meniscal transplantation procedures by helping to maintain the meniscus in vivo.

  4. The Morphological Anatomy of the Menisci of the Knee Joint in Human Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Esra; Özgüner, Gülnur; Öztürk, Kenan; Bilkay, Cemil; Dursun, Ahmet; Sulak, Osman

    2017-08-23

    Development of the fetal period of the meniscus has been reported in different studies. Evaluation of the lateral and the medial menisci development, typing and the relationship of the tibia during the fetal period. Anatomical dissection. We were evaluated 210 knee meniscus obtained from 105 human fetuses that in age from 9-40 weeks. Fetuses were divided into four groups. Intraarticular structure were exposed. This was followed by taking pictures (Samsung WB 100 26X Optical Zoom Wide, Pekin, China) of the intra-articular structures with the help of millimetric ruler. The pictures were digitized for morphometric analyses and analyzed by Netcad 5.1 Software (Ak Mühendislik Ltd, Şti, Ankara, Turkey). The lateral and the medial meniscal areas, the lateral and the medial articular surface areas of the tibia increased throughout the gestation. We found that the medial articular surface areas was larger than the lateral articular surface areas and the difference was statistically significant. The ratio of the mean lateral and medial meniscal area to the lateral and the medial articular surface areas of the tibia was decresed gradually from the first group towards to full term. The most common shape for the medial meniscus was crescentic (50%), the lateral meniscus was C-shaped (61%). The present study aims to clarify the development of fetal menisci by providing reliable data through anatomical dissection method in a large series. The study has revealed the development of the morphological changes and the morphometric measurement of the menisci. Key words: human fetus, meniscus, development, meniscal area.

  5. Fibrous cartilage of human menisci is less shock-absorbing and energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, Mario; Wirz, Dieter; Ronken, Sarah; Hafner, Mirjam; Göpfert, Beat; Friederich, Niklaus F; Elke, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    To test meniscal mechanical properties such as the dynamic modulus of elasticity E* and the loss angle δ at two loading frequencies ω at different locations of the menisci and compare it to E* and δ of hyaline cartilage in indentation mode with spherical indenters. On nine pairs of human menisci, the dynamic E*-modulus and loss angle δ (as a measure of the energy dissipation) were determined. The measurements were performed at two different strain rates (slow sinusoidal and fast single impact) to show the strain rate dependence of the material. The measurements were compared to previous similar measurements with the same equipment on human hyaline cartilage. The resultant E* at fast indentation (median 1.16 MPa) was significantly higher, and the loss angle was significantly lower (median 10.2°) compared to slow-loading mode's E* and δ (median 0.18 MPa and 16.9°, respectively). Further, significant differences for different locations are shown. On the medial meniscus, the anterior horn shows the highest resultant dynamic modulus. In dynamic measurements with a spherical indenter, the menisci are much softer and less energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage. Further, the menisci are stiffer and less energy-dissipating in the middle, intermediate part compared to the meniscal base. In compression, the energy dissipation of meniscus cartilage plays a minor role compared to hyaline cartilage. At high impacts, energy dissipation is less than on low impacts, similar to cartilage.

  6. Knee Menisci.

    PubMed

    Bryceland, James Kevin; Powell, Andrew John; Nunn, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The menisci of the knees are semicircular fibrocartilaginous structures consisting of a hydrophilic extracellular matrix containing a network of collagen fibers, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans maintained by a cellular component. The menisci are responsible for more than 50% of load transmission across the knee and increase joint congruity thereby also aiding in fluid film lubrication of the joint. In the United Kingdom, meniscal tears are the most common form of intra-articular knee injury and one of the commonest indications for orthopedic intervention. The management of these injuries is dependent on the location within the meniscus (relative to peripheral blood supply) and the pattern of tear. Removal of meniscus is known to place the knee at increased risk of osteoarthritis; therefore repair of meniscal tears is preferable. However, a significant proportion of tears are irreparable and can only be treated by partial or even complete meniscectomy. More recent studies have shown encouraging results with meniscal replacement in this situation, though further work is required in this area.

  7. Stress-relaxation response of human menisci under confined compression conditions.

    PubMed

    Martin Seitz, Andreas; Galbusera, Fabio; Krais, Carina; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the viscoelastic properties of human meniscal tissue during stress-relaxation under confined compression conditions. Lateral and medial longitudinal meniscus plugs of 25 donor knees (ntotal=150) were exposed to stress-relaxation tests under confined compression conditions at three compression levels (ε=0.1; 0.15; 0.2). Mathematical modelling using an exponential 1D-diffusion equation was used to predict the viscoelastic properties. Subsequently, finite element (FE) models were created using identical geometry, properties and test conditions as used for the in-vitro tests. Two constitutively different underlying mathematical formulations were applied to the FE models to reveal possible differences in their predictions for the relaxation response. While the first FE model mimicked the analytical model (FE1), the second FE model used a different biphasic, non-linear approach (FE2). Regression analyses showed promising coefficients of determination (R(2)>0.73) between the experimental data and the predictions obtained from the diffusion equation and the two FE models. Mean aggregate modulus, predicted with the diffusion equation (HA=64.0 kPa) was lower than those obtained with the two FE analyses (HA,FE1=91.9 kPa; HA,FE2=81.5 kPa). Mean hydraulic permeability (kFE2=1.5×10(-15)m(4)/Ns) of the second FE2 approach was statistically lower (p<0.01) than the other permeability values (k=3.9×10(-15)m(4)/Ns; kFE1=3.4×10(-15)m(4)/Ns). These differences are mainly due to the different underlying mathematical models used. However, when compared with corresponding literature, the results of the present study indicated good agreement. The results of the present study contribute to a better understanding of the complex nature of meniscal tissue and might also have an impact on the design of future meniscal substitutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medial and Lateral Discoid Menisci of Both Knees

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hiroyuki; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Minami, Ginjiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both the medial and lateral sides are rare, and there are very few reports on cases involving both sides. We report a case of a 52-year-old female with medial and lateral discoid menisci in both knees. Arthroscopy revealed the lateral menisci of both knees were complete discoid menisci, and partial meniscectomy was performed. The medial menisci were incomplete discoid menisci, but there were no findings of abnormal mobility or injury; therefore, the medial menisci were observed without treatment. At six months postoperatively, her pain and range of motion restrictions disappeared. PMID:27894182

  9. Development and Characterization of Acellular Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds from Porcine Menisci for Use in Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ray-Neng; Jhan, Hua-Jing; Liu, Der-Zen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Mao, Yong; Kohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Given the growing number of arthritis patients and the limitations of current treatments, there is great urgency to explore cartilage substitutes by tissue engineering. In this study, we developed a novel decellularization method for menisci to prepare acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds with minimal adverse effects on the ECM. Among all the acid treatments, formic acid treatment removed most of the cellular contents and preserved the highest ECM contents in the decellularized porcine menisci. Compared with fresh porcine menisci, the content of DNA decreased to 4.10%±0.03%, and there was no significant damage to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) or collagen. Histological staining also confirmed the presence of ECM and the absence of cellularity. In addition, a highly hydrophilic scaffold with three-dimensional interconnected porous structure was fabricated from decellularized menisci tissue. Human chondrocytes showed enhanced cell proliferation and synthesis of chondrocyte ECM including type II collagen and GAG when cultured in this acellular scaffold. Moreover, the scaffold effectively supported chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, in vivo implantation was conducted in rats to assess the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. No significant inflammatory response was observed. The acellular ECM scaffold provided a native environment for cells with diverse physiological functions to promote cell proliferation and new tissue formation. This study reported a novel way to prepare decellularized meniscus tissue and demonstrated the potential as scaffolds to support cartilage repair. PMID:25919905

  10. Fuzzy rule-based approach to segment the menisci regions from MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Hata, Yutaka; Ando, Yoshiro; Ishikawa, Makato; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    1999-05-01

    Injuries of the menisci are one of the most common internal derangement of the knee. To examine them with noninvasive, we propose an automated segmentation method of the menisci region from MR image. The method is composed of two steps based on fuzzy logic. First, we segment the cartilage region by thresholding of the intensity. We then extract the candidate region of the menisci as the region between the cartilages. Second, we segment the menisci voxels from the candidate region based on fuzzy if-then rules obtained from knowledge of location and intensity. We applied our method to five MR data sets. Three of them are the normal knees and the others are with some injuries. Quantitative evaluation by a physician shows that this method can successfully segment the menisci for the all. The generated visualizations will help medical doctor to diagnose the menisci with noninvasive.

  11. Heterogeneous mechanical response of rat knee menisci to thermomechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Zernicke, R F; Vailas, A C; Shaw, S R; Bogey, R A; Hart, T J; Matsuda, J

    1986-01-01

    Thermodilatometric, dynamic thermomechanical, and light-microscopic analyses were done on the anterior and posterior regions of the rat knee menisci to correlate regional differences in morphology and extracellular matrix composition with regional mechanical behavior. Following the administration of a general anesthetic, menisci were excised from 12 young female Sprague-Dawley rats. During thermodilatometric and thermomechanical testing, tissue temperature was increased at a constant rate of 3.5 degrees C/min from 30 to 100 degrees C. Light microscopy revealed regional differences in cell density and proteoglycan content. The anterior horn was significantly heavier (greater than 87%) and thicker (greater than 60%) than the posterior region. During thermal analyses, both the anterior and posterior horns decreased in tissue thickness as the temperature increased from 30 to 73 degrees C. After 73 degrees C, however, the posterior horn expanded significantly, whereas the anterior remained in a comparatively contracted state. The rates of linear contraction and expansion of the posterior horn were seven times those of the anterior horn, and the stiffness of the anterior horn was significantly greater than the posterior horn.

  12. Distribution of glycosaminoglycans and the nonreducible collagen crosslink, pyridinoline in porcine menisci.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, T; Thompson, J R; Aherne, F X

    1986-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans and the nonreducible collagen crosslink, pyridinoline were determined in stifle joint menisci from adolescent pigs. Medial and lateral menisci were dissected into two portions, the inner third (zone 1) and the remaining two thirds (zone 2) at three different regions; anterior, central and posterior regions. Both glycosaminoglycan and pyridinoline concentrations were greater (P less than 0.05) in zone 1 than in zone 2 in both the medial and lateral menisci. In zone 1, the anterior region had a greater (P less than 0.05) glycosaminoglycan concentration than did the central and posterior regions. Light microscopic observations indicated zonal variations in collagen fiber arrangement. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3791078

  13. Interfacial phenomena and microscale transport processes in evaporating ultrathin menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchamgam, Sashidhar S.

    The study of interfacial phenomena in the three-phase contact line region, where a liquid-vapor interface intersects a solid surface, is of importance to many equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes. However, lack of experimental data on microscale transport processes controlled by interfacial phenomena has restricted progress. This thesis includes a high resolution image analyzing technique, based on reflectivity measurements, that accurately measures the thickness, contact angle and curvature profiles of ultrathin films, drops and curved menisci. In particular, the technique was used to emphasize measurements for thicknesses, delta < 100 nm, while studying delta < 2.5 mum. Using the "reflectivity technique", we studied fluid flow and heat transfer in a wickless, miniature heat pipe, a device which will be a very effective passive heat exchanger in a microgravity environment. The heat pipe is based on the Vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble (VCVB) concept. The broad objective was to increase the efficiency of the miniature heat pipe by enhancing the liquid flow towards the hotter region. This was achieved by understanding and manipulating the wetting and spreading characteristics of the liquid on the solid surface. By using a binary mixture (98% pentane and 2% octane by volume) instead of either pure pentane or octane, we were able to achieve a significant increase in the microscale phase change heat transfer. The experimental work was supported by numerical studies to understand the physics of the system at microscopic scale. In addition, using the reflectivity technique, we enhanced our understanding of interfacial phenomena in the contact line region. Experiments included flow instabilities in HFE-7000 meniscus on quartz (System S1), the spreading of a pentane (System S2 and S3), octane (System S4) and binary mixture menisci (System S5) during evaporation. The main objectives of the work are to present a new experimental technique, new observations, new data

  14. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Spielman, Zachary Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  15. Viscoelastic properties of rabbit osteoarthritic menisci: A correlation with matrix alterations.

    PubMed

    Levillain, A; Magoariec, H; Boulocher, C; Decambron, A; Viateau, V; Hoc, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of early osteoarthritis (OA) on the viscoelastic properties of rabbit menisci and to correlate the mechanical alterations with the microstructural changes. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection (ACLT) was performed in six male New-Zealand White rabbits on the right knee joint. Six healthy rabbits served as controls. Menisci were removed six weeks after ACLT and were graded macroscopically. Indentation-relaxation tests were performed in the anterior and posterior regions of the medial menisci. The collagen fibre organization and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were assessed by biphotonic confocal microscopy and histology, respectively. OA menisci displayed severe macroscopic lesions compared with healthy menisci (p=0.009). Moreover, the instantaneous and equilibrium moduli, which were 2.9±1.0MPa and 0.60±0.18MPa in the anterior region of healthy menisci, respectively, decreased significantly (p=0.03 and p=0.004, respectively) in OA menisci by 55% and 57%, respectively, indicating a global decrease in meniscal stiffness in this region. The equilibrium modulus alone decreased significantly (p=0.04) in the posterior region, going from 0.60±0.18MPa to 0.26±012MPa. This induced a loss of tissue elasticity. These mechanical changes were associated in the posterior region with a structural disruption of the superficial layers, from which the tie fibres emanate, and with a decrease in the GAG content in the anterior region. Consequently, the circumferential collagen fibres of the deep zone were dissociated and the collagen bundles were less compact. Our results demonstrate the strong meniscal modifications induced by ACLT at an early stage of OA and highlight the relationship between structural and chemical matrix alterations and mechanical properties.

  16. Human-Robot Emergency Response - Experimental Platform and Preliminary Dataset

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-28

    Human -Robot Emergency Response - Experimental Platform and Preliminary Dataset Technical Report #UM-CS-2014-006 Hee-Tae Jung, Takeshi Takahashi,and...2014 Abstract This paper presents progress towards a research infrastructure for studying human -robot performance in laboratory emergency response...scenarios and a preliminary dataset. It incorporates an emergency response team that is composed of a human participant, n ≤ 4 vision sensors in a

  17. Radiographic identification of the anterior and posterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci.

    PubMed

    James, Evan W; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; Wijdicks, Coen A; Engebretsen, Lars; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Anatomic root placement is necessary to restore native meniscal function during meniscal root repair. Radiographic guidelines for anatomic root placement are essential to improve the accuracy and consistency of anatomic root repair and to optimize outcomes after surgery. To define quantitative radiographic guidelines for identification of the anterior and posterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci on anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographic views. Descriptive laboratory study. The anterior and posterior roots of the medial and lateral menisci were identified in 12 human cadaveric specimens (average age, 51.3 years; age range, 39-65 years) and labeled using 2-mm radiopaque spheres. True AP and lateral radiographs were obtained, and 2 raters independently measured blinded radiographs in relation to pertinent landmarks and radiographic reference lines. On AP radiographs, the anteromedial and posteromedial roots were, on average, 31.9 ± 5.0 mm and 36.3 ± 3.5 mm lateral to the edge of the medial tibial plateau, respectively. The anterolateral and posterolateral roots were, on average, 37.9 ± 5.2 mm and 39.3 ± 3.8 mm medial to the edge of the lateral tibial plateau, respectively. On lateral radiographs, the anteromedial and anterolateral roots were, on average, 4.8 ± 3.7 mm and 20.5 ± 4.3 mm posterior to the anterior margin of the tibial plateau, respectively. The posteromedial and posterolateral roots were, on average, 18.0 ± 2.8 mm and 19.8 ± 3.5 mm anterior to the posterior margin of the tibial plateau, respectively. The intrarater and interrater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were >0.958, demonstrating excellent reliability. The meniscal root attachment sites were quantitatively and reproducibly defined with respect to anatomic landmarks and superimposed radiographic reference lines. The high ICCs indicate that the measured radiographic relationships are a consistent means for evaluating meniscal root positions. This study

  18. Influence of cartilage and menisci on the sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, Gianluca; Sessa, Pasquale; Ragusa, Giovanni; Ripani, Francesca Romana; Postacchini, Roberto; Masciangelo, Raffaele; Giannicola, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the magnetic resonance studies of the knee in 80 subjects, 45 men and 35 women with a mean age of 38.9 years, who showed no pathological condition of the joint. Using an imaging visualization software, the sagittal longitudinal axis of the tibia was identified. The angle between this axis and a line tangent to the bone profile of the tibial plateau (bone slope) and to the superior border of the menisci (meniscal slope) were calculated. Thickness of anterior and posterior portion of menisci and underlying cartilage were also measured. The bone slope averaged 8° and 7.7° on the medial and lateral sides, respectively. The mean meniscal slope was 4.1° and 3.3° on the medial and lateral sides, respectively, with a significant difference compared with the bone slope. Menisci and underlying cartilage were significantly thicker in their posterior than their anterior portion (7.6 and 5.2 mm, respectively, in the medial compartment; 8.6 and 5.2 mm, respectively, in the lateral compartment). The presence of cartilage and menisci implies a significant decrease in the posterior tibial slope. In the lateral compartment, the greater the bone slope, the larger the difference between bone and meniscal slope, which means that a marked posterior tilt of the lateral tibial plateau is decreased by the cartilage and meniscus. These findings should be taken into account in planning surgical procedures which affect the slope of the articular tibial surface.

  19. Mapping surface tension induced menisci with application to tensiometry and refractometry.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avanish; Kulkarni, Varun; Khor, Jian-Wei; Wereley, Steve

    2015-07-28

    In this work, we discuss an optical method for measuring surface tension induced menisci. The principle of measurement is based upon the change in the background pattern produced by the curvature of the meniscus acting as a lens. We measure the meniscus profile over an inclined glass plate and utilize the measured meniscus for estimation of surface tension and refractive index.

  20. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  1. A Preliminary Classification of Human Functional Sexual Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Lawrence; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary classification is presented for functional human sexual disorders. This system is based on objective behavior and reports of distress. Five categories of sexual disorders are proposed, including the behavioral, psychological and informational components of sexual functioning in the individual and the couple. (Author)

  2. The capillarity of nanometric water menisci confined inside closed-geometry viral cages

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, C.; Douas, M.; Miranda, R.; Castellanos, M.; Serena, P. A.; Carrascosa, J. L.; Mateu, M. G.; Marqués, M. I.; de Pablo, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an investigation of water menisci confined in closed geometries by studying the structural effects of their capillary forces on viruses during the final stage of desiccation. We used individual particles of the bacteriophage ϕ29 and the minute virus of mice. In both cases the genomic DNA was ejected from the capsid. However, although the structural integrity of the minute virus of mice was essentially preserved, the ϕ29 capsid underwent a wall-to-wall collapse. We provide evidence that the capillary forces of water confined inside the viruses are mainly responsible for these effects. Moreover, by performing theoretical simulations with a lattice gas model, we found that some structural differences between these 2 viruses may be crucial to explain the different ways in which they are affected by water menisci forces confined at the nanoscale. PMID:19307554

  3. Slip length for transverse shear flow over a periodic array of weakly curved menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2017-09-01

    By exploiting the reciprocal theorem of Stokes flow, we find an explicit expression for the first order slip length correction, for small protrusion angles, and for transverse shear over a periodic array of curved menisci. The result is the transverse flow analogue of the longitudinal flow result of Sbragaglia and Prosperetti ["A note on the effective slip properties for microchannel flows with ultrahydrophobic surfaces," Phys. Fluids 19, 043603 (2007)]. For small protrusion angles, it also generalizes the dilute-limit result of Davis and Lauga ["Geometric transition in friction for flow over a bubble mattress," Phys. Fluids 21, 011701 (2009)] to arbitrary no-shear fractions. While the leading order slip lengths for transverse and longitudinal flow over flat no-shear slots are well-known to differ by a factor of 2, the first order slip length corrections for weakly protruding menisci in each flow are found to be identical.

  4. Human excimer laser corneal surgery: preliminary report.

    PubMed Central

    L'Esperance, F A; Taylor, D M; Del Pero, R A; Roberts, A; Gigstad, J; Stokes, M T; Warner, J W; Telfair, W B; Martin, C A; Yoder, P R

    1988-01-01

    The first human trial utilizing the argon fluoride excimer laser at 193 nm to produce a superficial keratectomy in ten human eyes has been described with the histopathological evaluation of four eyes and the longer gross appearance of six eyes at intervals extending to 10 months post-excimer laser treatment. The process of laser superficial keratectomy has proved to be one of the promising areas of surgical intervention for reconstructive or refractive keratoplasty in the future. Intensive investigations need to be undertaken on the corneal wound healing process following laser ablation as well as the nature, and long-term stability of the corneal excisions or induced refractive corrections. It is essential that the optimal laser parameters be established for the various refractive corrections and other corneal surgical techniques, and that pathophysiologic and histopathologic changes that have been induced by the excimer laser-corneal tissue interaction in animals and humans be critically and extensively analyzed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 19 A FIGURE 19 B FIGURE 20 A FIGURE 20 B FIGURE 21 A FIGURE 21 B FIGURE 22 A FIGURE 22 B FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 A FIGURE 29 B FIGURE 29 C FIGURE 29 D FIGURE 30 A FIGURE 30 B FIGURE 31 A FIGURE 31 B FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 A FIGURE 37 B FIGURE 37 C FIGURE 38 A FIGURE 38 B FIGURE 39 A FIGURE 39 B FIGURE 39 C FIGURE 40 A FIGURE 40 B PMID:2979049

  5. 9.4T Human MRI: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Thomas; DelaBarre, Lance; Snyder, Carl; Tian, Jinfeng; Akgun, Can; Shrivastava, Devashish; Liu, Wanzahn; Olson, Chris; Adriany, Gregor; Strupp, John; Andersen, Peter; Gopinath, Anand; van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Garwood, Michael; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the preliminary results of the first human images at the new high-field benchmark of 9.4T. A 65-cm-diameter bore magnet was used together with an asymmetric 40-cm-diameter head gradient and shim set. A multichannel transmission line (transverse electromagnetic (TEM)) head coil was driven by a programmable parallel transceiver to control the relative phase and magnitude of each channel independently. These new RF field control methods facilitated compensation for RF artifacts attributed to destructive interference patterns, in order to achieve homogeneous 9.4T head images or localize anatomic targets. Prior to FDA investigational device exemptions (IDEs) and internal review board (IRB)-approved human studies, preliminary RF safety studies were performed on porcine models. These data are reported together with exit interview results from the first 44 human volunteers. Although several points for improvement are discussed, the preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of safe and successful human imaging at 9.4T. PMID:17075852

  6. Cartography of human diaphragmatic innervation: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Verin, Eric; Marie, Jean-Paul; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-04-30

    In humans, anatomy indicates that the phrenic nerve mainly arises from the C4 cervical root, with variable C3 and C5 contributions. How this translates into functional innervation is unknown. The diaphragm response to electrical stimulation of C3, C4 and C5 was described in three patients undergoing surgical laryngeal reinnervation with an upper phrenic root (surface chest electrodes at anterior, lateral and posterior sites; oesophageal and gastric pressures (Pes and Pga) to derive transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi)). Anatomically, the phrenic nerve predominantly originated from C4. Phrenic stimulation elicited motor responses at the three sites in the three patients, as did C4 stimulation. It produced Pdi values of 9, 11, and 14cmH(2)O in the three patients, respectively, vs. 9, 9, and 7cmH(2)O for C4. C3 stimulation produced modest Pdi responses, whereas C5 stimulation could produce Pdi responses close to those observed with C4 stimulation. These singular observations confirm the dominance of C4 in diaphragm innervation but suggest than C5 can be of importance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SARDA HITL Preliminary Human Factors Measures and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Human factors data collected during the SARDA HITL Simulation Experiment include a variety of subjective measures, including the NASA TLX, questionnaire questions regarding situational awareness, advisory usefulness, UI usability, and controller trust. Preliminary analysis of the TLX data indicate that workload may not be adversely affected by use of the advisories, additionally, the controller's subjective ratings of the advisories may suggest acceptance of the tool.

  8. Analysis of menisci formed on cones for single field of view parasite egg microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cooke, I R; Laing, C J; White, L V; Wakes, S J; Sowerby, S J

    2015-02-01

    Parasite ova caused to accumulate in a single microscopic field simplifies monitoring soil-transmitted helminthiasis by optical microscopy. Here we demonstrate new egg-accumulating geometries based on annular menisci formed on the surface of a wetted cone. Fluidic features extracted from profile images of the system provided mathematical representations of the meniscus gradient that were compared quantitatively to numerical solutions of an axisymmetric Young-Laplace equation. Our results show that the governing dynamics of these systems is dominated by the surface tension of the fluid. These image analysis and mathematical tools provide simple quantitative methods for system analysis and optimization.

  9. Anatomy and physical examination of the knee menisci: a narrative review of the orthopedic literature

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, Michael D.; Howitt, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to review the physical examination tests available to a practitioner in order to arrive at a clinical diagnosis or suspicion of a meniscal lesion. Background: The menisci transmit weight bearing forces and increase stability of the knee. The menisci also facilitate nutrition, provide lubrication and shock absorption for the articular cartilage and promote knee proprioception. The combinations of torsional and axial loading appear to be the cause of most meniscal injuries. Diagnosis of acute knee injuries has long been a topic for discussion throughout the orthopedic literature. Many clinical tests and diagnostic studies have been developed to increase the clinician’s ability to accurately diagnose these types of disorders of the knee. Conclusion: The accuracy of all diagnostic tests is thought to be dependant upon the skill of the examiner, and the severity and location of the injury. The multitude of tests described to assess meniscal lesions suggests that none are consistently reliable. However, recent research has focused on a composite score to accurately predict meniscus lesions. The combination of a comprehensive history, multiple physical tests and diagnostic imaging for confirmation is typical for a clinical meniscal lesion diagnosis while the gold standard remains the arthroscopic procedure itself. PMID:20037697

  10. Preliminary characterization of human skin microbiome in healthy Egyptian individuals.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M; Solyman, S; Taha, M; Hanora, A

    2016-07-31

    Human skin is a large, complex ecosystem that harbors diverse microbial communities. The rapid advances in molecular techniques facilitate the exploration of skin associated bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary characterization of skin associated bacterial populations in Egyptian individuals. Samples were collected from five healthy subjects from two skin sites; Antecubital Fossa (AF) and Popliteal Fossa (PF). Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA genes which were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. The two sites showed distinct diversity where PF was more diverse than AF. Taxonomic analysis of sequences revealed four main phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were the most predominant genera. Our data suggest that environmental factors can shape the composition of the skin microbiome in certain geographical regions. This study presents a new insight for subsequent analyses of human microbiome in Egypt.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant human galectin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Stacy A.; Scott, Ken; Blanchard, Helen

    2007-11-01

    Human galectin-1 has been cloned, expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of both lactose (ligand) and β-mercaptoethanol under six different conditions. The X-ray diffraction data obtained have enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for two novel crystal forms of human galectin-1. Galectin-1 is considered to be a regulator protein as it is ubiquitously expressed throughout the adult body and is responsible for a broad range of cellular regulatory functions. Interest in galectin-1 from a drug-design perspective is founded on evidence of its overexpression by many cancers and its immunomodulatory properties. The development of galectin-1-specific inhibitors is a rational approach to the fight against cancer because although galectin-1 induces a plethora of effects, null mice appear normal. X-ray crystallographic structure determination will aid the structure-based design of galectin-1 inhibitors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of human galectin-1 crystals generated under six different conditions is reported. X-ray diffraction data enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for crystals grown under two conditions, one belongs to a tetragonal crystal system and the other was determined as monoclinic P2{sub 1}, representing two new crystal forms of human galectin-1.

  12. Shape of menisci in spinning horizontal tubes: Application to contact angle determination

    SciTech Connect

    Princen, H.M.; Vaidya, R.N.

    1995-09-01

    The authors have computed the shape of an axisymmetric fluid/liquid meniscus in a capillary that is spun about its horizontal axis. The solutions were used to establish the relationship between the fluid/liquid/solid contact angle on the one hand and several experimentally accessible parameters (tube radius, interfacial tension, densities, angular velocity, and certain meniscus dimensions) on the other. This opens the way to a novel method for determining contact angles. Using the results for single menisci, the authors have in addition developed a method whereby the contact angle may be obtained from the critical speed at which a finite drop (or slug) is either released from the tube wall (if the drop phase is the less dense phase) or penetrated axially by the other phase (if the drop phase is the denser phase).

  13. Transition from stripe-like patterns to a particulate film using driven evaporating menisci.

    PubMed

    Noguera-Marín, Diego; Moraila-Martínez, Carmen L; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Better control of colloidal assembly by convective deposition is particularly helpful in particle templating. However, knowledge of the different factors that can alter colloidal patterning mechanisms is still insufficient. Deposit morphology is strongly ruled by contact line dynamics, but the wettability properties of the substrate can alter it drastically. In this work, we experimentally examined the roles of substrate contact angle hysteresis and receding contact angle using driven evaporating menisci similar to the dip-coating technique but at a low capillary number. We used smooth substrates with very different wettability properties and nanoparticles of different sizes. For fixed withdrawal velocity, evaporation conditions, and nanoparticle concentration, we analyzed the morphology of the deposits formed on each substrate. A gradual transition from stripe-like patterns to a film was observed as the contact angle hysteresis and receding contact angle were lowered.

  14. Preliminary observations on the microarchitecture of the human abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Stephanie J; Duxson, Marilyn J; Mercer, Susan R

    2007-10-01

    Precise knowledge of muscle architecture and innervation patterns is essential for the development of accurate clinical and biomechanical models. Although the gross anatomy of the human abdominal muscles has been investigated, the finer details of their microanatomy are not well described. Fascicles were systematically sampled from each of the human abdominal muscles, and small fiber bundles from selected fascicles stained with acetylcholinesterase to determine the location of motor endplate bands, myomyonal junctions, and myotendinous junctions. Statistical analysis was used to ascertain the association between fascicular length and number of endplate bands. The number of endplate bands along a fascicle was variable between different portions of each muscle, but was strongly correlated with fascicular length (r = 0.814). In fascicles less than 50 millimeters (mm) in length, only a single endplate band was generally present, while multiple endplate bands (usually two or three) were found in fascicles longer than 50 mm. The presence of myomyonal junctions throughout the longer (>50 mm) fascicles verified that they were composed of short, intrafascicularly terminating fibers, while shorter fascicles comprised fibers spanning the entire fascicular length. This preliminary study provides evidence that multiple endplate bands are contained in some regions of the abdominal muscles, an arrangement that differs from most human appendicular muscles. It is not clear whether the variations in the described fine architectural features reflect regional differences in muscle function.

  15. Predicted Loading on the Menisci during Gait: The Effect of Horn Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Trent M.; Razu, Swithin; Jahandar, Hamidreza; Stylianou, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic measurements have established a link between meniscus extrusion and meniscus degeneration as well as with knee osteoarthritis. The presented work combines medical imaging with motion capture data from two healthy female subjects to create subject specific knee models that predict tibio-menisco-femoral contact forces and ligament forces during muscle driven simulations of barefoot gait. The developed computational models were used to explore the relationship between the extent of meniscal extrusion and biomechanical function by altering the laxity of the meniscal horn attachments during gait. The extrusion distance increased as laxity increased and the amount of contact force transferred through the menisci during gait decreased rapidly as the meniscal attachments became more lax. Horn attachment lengths that were 20% longer than MRI attachment lengths resulted in an almost complete loss of force transfer through the menisci during the gait cycle. Relatively small changes (2 to 3 mm) in the lengths at which horn bundles first become taut, manifested in large changes in the capacity of the tissue to transmit forces. As meniscal horn attachment laxity increased from 80% to 120% of the MRI measured horn distance, medial meniscus extrusion increased 3.9 mm for the first subject and 2.7 mm for the second subject. For the same horn laxity changes, the percent of medial tibiofemoral contact force transmitted through the medial meniscus during early stance decreased from 51% to 8% and from 36% to 14% for the two subjects. The results of our study show that increased meniscal extrusion occurs with increased laxity of the meniscal tibia attachments and this increased laxity results in loss of meniscal function. PMID:25814179

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant human galectin-1

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacy A.; Scott, Ken; Blanchard, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Galectin-1 is considered to be a regulator protein as it is ubiquitously expressed throughout the adult body and is responsible for a broad range of cellular regulatory functions. Interest in galectin-1 from a drug-design perspective is founded on evidence of its overexpression by many cancers and its immunomodulatory properties. The development of galectin-1-specific inhibitors is a rational approach to the fight against cancer because although galectin-1 induces a plethora of effects, null mice appear normal. X-ray crystallographic structure determination will aid the structure-based design of galectin-1 inhibitors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of human galectin-1 crystals generated under six different conditions is reported. X-ray diffraction data enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for crystals grown under two conditions, one belongs to a tetragonal crystal system and the other was determined as monoclinic P21, representing two new crystal forms of human galectin-1. PMID:18007053

  17. Do Not Hallow until You Are out of the Wood! Ultrasonographic Detection of CPP Crystal Deposits in Menisci: Facts and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Georgios; Adinolfi, Antonella; Bozios, Panagiotis; Lorenzini, Sauro; Picerno, Valentina; Di Sabatino, Valentina; Bertoldi, Ilaria; Gambera, Dario; Galeazzi, Mauro; Frediani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Ultrasonography (US) has been demonstrated to be an important tool in the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystal deposition disease. The aim of our study was to individuate and describe possible pitfalls in US detection of such deposits in menisci. Patients and Methods. We enrolled all patients waiting to undergo knee replacement surgery due to osteoarthritis, for one-month period. Each patient underwent US examination of the knee, focusing on the menisci. After surgery, the menisci were examined by US, macroscopically and microscopically, using the microscopic analysis as the gold standard for CPP deposition. Results. 11 menisci of 6 patients have been studied. Ex vivo examination of menisci performed better in CPP identification than in vivo examination. The possible reasons of misinterpretation or misdiagnosis of the in vivo exam were identified and are extensively described in the paper. Also a new sign of CPP crystal deposits was found. Conclusions. This study permitted to highlight some difficulties in CPP crystal detection by US in menisci. Further studies are needed to define completely US CPP crystal aspect and to improve the sensibility and specificity of US in CPP deposition diagnosis. PMID:23970829

  18. New Careers in Human Service: A Challenge to the Two-Year College. A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Martha A.

    This preliminary report, conducted over a 1-year period, involves the identification and study of educational programs that are preparing paraprofessional personnel for human service occupations. The objectives are to describe the present status of human service occupational education, to anticipate the direction human service education will take…

  19. Computational Poromechanics of Human Knee Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Mojtaba; Li, LePing

    2012-02-01

    Extensive computer modeling has been performed in the recent decade to investigate the mechanical response of the healthy and repaired knee joints. Articular cartilages and menisci have been commonly modeled as single-phase elastic materials in the previous 3D simulations. A comprehensive study considering the interplay of the collagen fibers and fluid pressurization in the tissues in situ remains challenging. We have developed a 3D model of the human knee accounting for the mechanical function of collagen fibers and fluid flow in the cartilages and menisci. An anatomically accurate structure of the human knee was used for this purpose including bones, articular cartilages, menisci and ligaments. The fluid pressurization in the femoral cartilage and menisci under combined creep loading was investigated. Numerical results showed that fluid flow and pressure in the tissues played an important role in the mechanical response of the knee joint. The load transfer in the joint was clearly seen when the fluid pressure was considered.

  20. Material properties of individual menisci and their attachments obtained through inverse FE-analysis.

    PubMed

    Freutel, Maren; Galbusera, Fabio; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Meniscal properties for computational methods have already been proposed. However, it is well known that there is high intra subject variability in the material properties of soft tissues and that disruption of the fiber network alters the biomechanics of the meniscus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a non invasive method to determine the material properties of the individual menisci and their attachments using inverse FE-analyses. In a previous study, the 3D displacements of the meniscus and its attachments under axial joint loads were determined for intact porcine knees. To simulate the experimental response in individual FE-analyses (n=5), an anisotropic, hyperelastic meniscus matrix was embedded in a poroelastic model. During a particle swarm optimization, the difference between the force applied to the meniscus during the experiment and the femoral surface reaction force of the FE model at equilibrium was minimized by varying four material parameters. Afterwards, a prediction error was determined to describe how well the material parameter fit to each of the three displacement directions. Additionally, the stresses occurring in the meniscus were evaluated. The error of the material parameter optimization was on average 6.5±4.4%. The best fitting material parameter combination revealed an error of 1.2%. The highest stresses occurred in the region between the pars intermedia and posterior horn of the meniscus. The individual material properties of the meniscus were successfully obtained with a combination of previously reported, noninvasively measured 3D displacements and inverse FE-analyses. The methodology presented in this study is a promising contribution to the detection of degeneration within the meniscus.

  1. Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lewis, R.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, D. M.

    2012-06-01

    NASA’s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team has been developing a preliminary mission concept to assess how a human orbital mission to the martian moons might be conducted as a follow-on to an asteroid mission and possibly prior to landing on Mars.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of human cyclophilin J

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hao; Huang, Chao-Qun; Liu, He-Li; Han, Yi; Yu, Long; Bi, Ru-Chang

    2005-02-01

    Human cyclophilin J is a member of the cyclophilin family and recent studies have indicated that it plays a role in the formation of liver cancers as a regulation factor or messenger. The preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of human cyclophilin J are reported.

  3. Comparison of Kinematics and Tibiofemoral Contact Pressures for Native and Transplanted Lateral Menisci

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Patrick C.; Dolce, Donald; Jones, Hugh L.; Gale, Andrea; Hogen, Michael G.; Alder, Jason; Palmer, Jeremiah E.; Noble, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lateral meniscus transplantation is a proven treatment option for the meniscus-deficient knee, yet little is known about meniscal kinematics, strain, and tibiofemoral contact pressure changes after transplantation or the effect of altered root position in lateral meniscus transplantation. Purpose: To compare the native lateral meniscal kinematics, strain, and tibiofemoral contact pressures to a best-case scenario meniscus transplant with perfectly matched size and position and to determine how sensitive these factors are to subtle changes in shape and position by using a nonanatomic meniscus transplant position. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: The lateral menisci of 8 cadaveric knees were circumferentially implanted with radiopaque spherical markers. They were mounted to a testing apparatus applying muscle and ground-reaction forces. The meniscus was evaluated at 0°, 30°, 90°, and 115° of knee flexion using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), with a pressure sensor affixed to the lateral tibial plateau. Measurements were recorded for 3 states: the native lateral meniscus, an anatomic autograft transplant, and a nonanatomic autograft transplant with an anteriorized posterior root position. Results: After transplantation, there was less posterior displacement in both the anatomic and nonanatomic transplant states compared with the native meniscus, but this was not significant. The largest lateral translation in the native state was 2.38 ± 1.58 mm at the anterolateral region from 0° to 90°, which was increased to 3.28 ± 1.39 mm (P = .25) and 3.12 ± 1.18 mm (P = .30) in the anatomic and nonanatomic transplant states, respectively. Internal deformations of the transplant states were more constrained, suggesting less compliance. The native meniscus distributed load over 223 mm2, while both the anatomic (160 mm2) and nonanatomic (102 mm2) states concentrated pressure anteriorly to the tibial plateau centroid. Conclusion

  4. Noninvasive measurement of aluminium in human bone: preliminary human study and improved system performance.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Davis, K; Pejović-Milić, A; Chettle, D R

    2009-11-01

    Aluminium has been measured in the hands of 18 referent subjects and six aluminium welders using the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis. The minimal detection limit (MDL) in the human subjects was 28.0 microgAl/gCa, whereas it was 19.5 microgAl/gCa in calibration standards. On average the aluminium exposed subjects had higher levels of aluminium in their hands than did the referent subjects. However, this difference only just achieved significance at the 5% level and should be treated with caution, since the study had not been deliberately designed to assess this difference. Following the preliminary human study, improvements were made to the measurement system with respect to the gamma-ray detector array and to the timing sequence of irradiation-transfer-counting. These improvements were tested on the calibration standards, lowering the MDL from 19.5 microgAl/gCa to 8.32 microgAl/gCa. A similar improvement in human measurements would result in an in vivo MDL of 12.0 microgAl/gCa.

  5. Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martial Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing a preliminary Destination Mission Concept (DMC) to assess how a human orbital mission to one or both of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, might be conducted as a follow-on to a human mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and as a possible preliminary step prior to a human landing on Mars. The HAT Mars-Phobos-Deimos (MPD) mission also permits the teleoperation of robotic systems by the crew while in the Mars system. The DMC development activity provides an initial effort to identify the science and exploration objectives and investigate the capabilities and operations concepts required for a human orbital mission to the Mars system. In addition, the MPD Team identified potential synergistic opportunities via prior exploration of other destinations currently under consideration.

  6. Crystallization And Preliminary Crystallographic Analysis of Recombinant Human Galectin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.A.; Scott, K.; Blanchard, H.

    2009-06-04

    Human galectin-1 has been cloned, expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of both lactose (ligand) and {beta}-mercaptoethanol under six different conditions. The X-ray diffraction data obtained have enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for two novel crystal forms of human galectin-1.

  7. Automated segmentation and analysis of normal and osteoarthritic knee menisci from magnetic resonance images--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Paproki, A; Engstrom, C; Chandra, S S; Neubert, A; Fripp, J; Crozier, S

    2014-09-01

    To validate an automatic scheme for the segmentation and quantitative analysis of the medial meniscus (MM) and lateral meniscus (LM) in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee. We analysed sagittal water-excited double-echo steady-state MR images of the knee from a subset of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort. The MM and LM were automatically segmented in the MR images based on a deformable model approach. Quantitative parameters including volume, subluxation and tibial-coverage were automatically calculated for comparison (Wilcoxon tests) between knees with variable radiographic osteoarthritis (rOA), medial and lateral joint space narrowing (mJSN, lJSN) and pain. Automatic segmentations and estimated parameters were evaluated for accuracy using manual delineations of the menisci in 88 pathological knee MR examinations at baseline and 12 months time-points. The median (95% confidence-interval (CI)) Dice similarity index (DSI) (2 ∗|Auto ∩ Manual|/(|Auto|+|Manual|)∗ 100) between manual and automated segmentations for the MM and LM volumes were 78.3% (75.0-78.7), 83.9% (82.1-83.9) at baseline and 75.3% (72.8-76.9), 83.0% (81.6-83.5) at 12 months. Pearson coefficients between automatic and manual segmentation parameters ranged from r = 0.70 to r = 0.92. MM in rOA/mJSN knees had significantly greater subluxation and smaller tibial-coverage than no-rOA/no-mJSN knees. LM in rOA knees had significantly greater volumes and tibial-coverage than no-rOA knees. Our automated method successfully segmented the menisci in normal and osteoarthritic knee MR images and detected meaningful morphological differences with respect to rOA and joint space narrowing (JSN). Our approach will facilitate analyses of the menisci in prospective MR cohorts such as the OAI for investigations into pathophysiological changes occurring in early osteoarthritis (OA) development. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  9. Application of cell and biomaterial-based tissue engineering methods in the treatment of cartilage, menisci and ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, Tomasz; Richter, Magdalena; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Lach, Michał; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Over 20 years ago it was realized that the traditional methods of the treatment of injuries to joint components: cartilage, menisci and ligaments, did not give satisfactory results and so there is a need of employing novel, more effective therapeutic techniques. Recent advances in molecular biology, biotechnology and polymer science have led to both the experimental and clinical application of various cell types, adapting their culture conditions in order to ensure a directed differentiation of the cells into a desired cell type, and employing non-toxic and non-immunogenic biomaterial in the treatment of knee joint injuries. In the present review the current state of knowledge regarding novel cell sources, in vitro conditions of cell culture and major important biomaterials, both natural and synthetic, used in cartilage, meniscus and ligament repair by tissue engineering techniques are described, and the assets and drawbacks of their clinical application are critically evaluated.

  10. Somatic Variants in the Human Lens Epithelium: A Preliminary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Rosana; Tyagi, Manoj; Harocopos, George; Vollman, David; Bassnett, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesize that somatic mutations accumulate in cells of the human lens and may contribute to the development of cortical or posterior sub-capsular cataracts. Here, we used a Next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategy to screen for low-allelic frequency variants in DNA extracted from human lens epithelial samples. Methods Next-Generation sequencing of 151 cancer-related genes (WUCaMP2 panel) was performed on DNA extracted from post-mortem or surgical specimens obtained from 24 individuals. Usually, pairwise comparisons were made between two or more ocular samples from the same individual, allowing putative somatic variants detected in lens samples to be differentiated from germline variants. Results Use of a targeted hybridization approach enabled high sequence coverage (>1000-fold) of the WUCaMP2 genes. In addition to high-frequency variants (corresponding to homozygous or heterozygous SNPs and Indels), somatic variants with allelic frequencies of 1-4% were detected in the lens epithelial samples. The presence of one such variant, a T > C point substitution at position 32907082 in BRCA2, was verified subsequently using droplet digital PCR. Conclusions Low-allelic fraction variants are present in the human lens epithelium, at frequencies consistent with the presence of millimeter-sized clones. PMID:27537255

  11. Preliminary molecular characterization of the human pathogen Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    He, Hualiang; Cheng, Mei; Yang, Xiao; Meng, Jinxiu; He, Ai; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Zhuoya; Guo, Pengjuan; Pan, Zhihua; Zhan, Ximei

    2009-01-01

    Background Human angiostrongyliasis is an emerging food-borne public health problem, with the number of cases increasing worldwide, especially in mainland China. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of this severe disease. However, little is known about the genetics and basic biology of A. cantonensis. Results A cDNA library of A. cantonensis fourth-stage larvae was constructed, and ~1,200 clones were sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses revealed 378 cDNA clusters, 54.2% of which matched known genes at a cutoff expectation value of 10-20. Of these 378 unique cDNAs, 168 contained open reading frames encoding proteins containing an average of 238 amino acids. Characterization of the functions of these encoded proteins by Gene Ontology analysis showed enrichment in proteins with binding and catalytic activity. The observed pattern of enzymes involved in protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and glycolysis may reflect the central nervous system habitat of this pathogen. Four proteins were tested for their immunogenicity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and histopathological examinations. The specificity of each of the four proteins was superior to that of crude somatic and excretory/secretory antigens of larvae, although their sensitivity was relatively low. We further showed that mice immunized with recombinant cystatin, a product of one of the four cDNA candidate genes, were partially protected from A. cantonensis infection. Conclusion The data presented here substantially expand the available genetic information about the human pathogen A. cantonensis, and should be a significant resource for angiostrongyliasis researchers. As such, this work serves as a starting point for molecular approaches for diagnosing and controlling human angiostrongyliasis. PMID:19852860

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human glycosylated haemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Syakhovich, Vitaly E.; Saraswathi, N. T.; Ruff, Marc; Bokut, Sergey B.; Moras, Dino

    2006-02-01

    Non enzymatic modification of haemoglobin by glucose plays an important role in diabetes pathogenesis. Here the purification, characterization and crystallization of human glycosylated haemoglobin are reported. Human glycosylated haemoglobin A{sub 1C} is a stable minor variant formed in vivo by post-translational modification of the main form of haemoglobin by glucose. Crystals of oxyHbA{sub 1C} were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and PEG as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to a resolution of 2.3 Å at 120 K. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 237.98, b = 59.27, c = 137.02 Å, α = 90.00, β = 125.40, γ = 90.00°. The presence of two and a half molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 9.70 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 49%.

  13. Preliminary Exploration of Adaptive State Predictor Based Human Operator Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2012-01-01

    Control-theoretic modeling of the human operator dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long and rich history. In the last two decades, there has been a renewed interest in modeling the human operator. There has also been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. The purpose of this research is to attempt to go beyond pilot identification based on collected experimental data and to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of changing aircraft dynamics on an operator s ability to track a signal in order to eventually model a pilot adapting to changing aircraft dynamics. A gradient descent estimator and a least squares estimator with exponential forgetting used these data to predict pilot stick input. The results indicate that individual pilot characteristics and vehicle dynamics did not affect the accuracy of either estimator method to estimate pilot stick input. These methods also were able to predict pilot stick input during changing aircraft dynamics and they may have the capability to detect a change in a subject due to workload, engagement, etc., or the effects of changes in vehicle dynamics on the pilot.

  14. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Campoy, C; Jiménez, M; Olea-Serrano, M F; Moreno-Frías, M; Cañabate, F; Olea, N; Bayés, R; Molina-Font, J A

    2001-11-01

    In the face of evidence of human milk contamination by organochlorine pesticides, an analysis was performed on samples of milk obtained from healthy lactating women in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain. The samples were obtained by the Neonate Section of the Department of Pediatrics of Granada University Hospital (Neonatology Division) and by the Neonatal Service of Poniente Hospital in El Ejido, Almería. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed. The cleaning of the sample before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used silica Sep-Pak. Among other pesticides, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT and its metabolites, lindane, methoxychlor and endosulfan were identified. The presence of these products was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The identification and quantification of these organochlorine molecules is important because they have estrogenic effects.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human glycosylated haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Syakhovich, Vitaly E; Saraswathi, N T; Ruff, Marc; Bokut, Sergey B; Moras, Dino

    2006-02-01

    Human glycosylated haemoglobin A1C is a stable minor variant formed in vivo by post-translational modification of the main form of haemoglobin by glucose. Crystals of oxyHbA1C were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and PEG as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to a resolution of 2.3 A at 120 K. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 237.98, b = 59.27, c = 137.02 A, alpha = 90.00, beta = 125.40, gamma = 90.00 degrees. The presence of two and a half molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (VM) of 9.70 A3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 49%.

  16. Characterizing human retinotopic mapping with conformal geometry: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Duyan; Shi, Jie; Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Yalin

    2014-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to measure the retinotopic organization of early visual cortex in the human brain. Previous studies have identified multiple visual field maps (VFMs) based on statistical analysis of fMRI signals, but the resulting geometry has not been fully characterized with mathematical models. Here we test whether VFMs V1 and V2 obey the least restrictive of all geometric mappings; that is, whether they are anglepreserving and therefore maintain conformal mapping. We measured retinotopic organization in individual subjects using standard traveling-wave fMRI methods. Visual stimuli consisted of black and white, drifting checkerboards comprising rotating wedges and expanding rings to measure the cortical representations of polar angle and eccentricity, respectively. These representations were then projected onto a 3D cortical mesh of each hemisphere. By generating a mapped unit disk that is conformal of the VFMs using spherical stereographic projection and computing the parameterized coordinates of the eccentricity and polar angle gradients, we computed Beltrami coefficients to check whether the mapping from the visual field to the V1 and V2 cortical representations is conformal. We find that V1 and V2 exhibit local conformality. Our analysis of the Beltrami coefficient shows that selected regions of V1 and V2 that contain reasonably smooth eccentricity and polar angle gradients do show significant local conformality, warranting further investigation of this approach for analysis of early and higher visual cortex. These results suggest that such a mathematical model can be used to characterize the early VFMs in human visual cortex.

  17. [A preliminary report of two cases of human hand allograft].

    PubMed

    Pei, G; Gu, L; Yu, L

    2000-06-01

    To study the feasibility of reconstruction of amputation by hand allograft in human being. Two male recipients with traumatic right wrist amputation for 2 years, were matched respectively to two ABO- and Rh-compatible, HLA- half mpatible brain-dead donors. Direct crossmatch was performed to confirm the absence of prior sensitization to alloantigens. After amputation the donor's arm was irrigated with UW organ preservation solution at 4 degrees, and transported in a box with ice. One of the two donor arms was randomly selected and irradiated by 8 gy x-ray before transplantation. The transplantation involved radial and ulnar bone fixation, anastomoses of radial and ulnar artery, sutures of median and ulnar and radial nerves, joining of tendons except flexors digitorum superficialis, and skin closure. After surgery the patients were given wide-spectrum antibiotics, anticoagulation and antispasm agents, and immunosuppressants, which included antithymocyte globins, FK506, mycophenolic acid, prednisone systematically and fluocinolone acetonide ointment locally. Clinical observations included vital signs and circulation of the hands. Immune state was monitored by assaying C-reactive protein, Igs and PRA in the blood. Skin biopsy was done to exclude the dermal rejection. After the surgery the patients received psychotherapy and hand rehabilitation. The circulation of the transplanted hands was similar to that of replanted ones. One of the patients developed hyperglycaemia, which required insulin administration. The skin healed naturally. The nerve regeneration were found more rapid by Tinel's sign. At 7 weeks erythema papulatum occurred on the skin, which was cured by withdrawing of fluocinolone acetonide ointment and application of calamine lotion. At 4 months the function of grafted hands recovered well, which could hold a drinking cup. The nerves had grown to the end of fingers and electromyograph showed regenerative action potentials of thenal muscles. Skin biopsy

  18. Association of the type of trauma, occurrence of bone bruise, fracture and joint effusion with the injury to the menisci and ligaments in MRI of knee trauma

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Sina; Vogl, Thomas J.; Pezeshki, Mohammad Zakaria; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Pourisa, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive diagnostic tool may help clinicians in the evaluation of injuries to menisci and ligaments. Purpose this study assessed the associations between type of trauma to knee joint, bone bruise, fracture and pathological joint effusion with injuries to menisci and ligaments of knee joint. Methods we reviewed knee joint MRI of 175 patients aged less than 45 years old who were referred to MRI center of our University. Results statistical analysis showed that tearing of medial meniscus (MM) is significantly more common in sport related trauma (p= 0.045) but tearing of medial collateral ligament (MCL) is significantly more common in non-sport related trauma (p= 0.005). Existence of bone bruise in knee MRI is negatively associated with tearing of medial meniscus (MM) (p=0.004) and positively associated with tearing of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (p=0.00047) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) (p = 0.0001). Existence of fracture is associated with decreased risk of the tearing of ACL and MM (p=0.04, p=0.001 respectively). Pathologic joint effusion is significantly more common in ACL and MCL tearing (p=0.0001, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusions as diagnostic clues, bone bruise, fracture and joint effusion may help radiologists for better assessment of injury to menisci and ligaments in MRI of patients with knee trauma. PMID:27331046

  19. New understanding of the complex structure of knee menisci: implications for injury risk and repair potential for athletes.

    PubMed

    Rattner, J B; Matyas, J R; Barclay, L; Holowaychuk, S; Sciore, P; Lo, I K Y; Shrive, N G; Frank, C B; Achari, Y; Hart, D A

    2011-08-01

    Menisci help maintain the structural integrity of the knee. However, the poor healing potential of the meniscus following a knee injury can not only end a career in sports but lead to osteoarthritis later in life. Complete understanding of meniscal structure is essential for evaluating its risk for injury and subsequent successful repair. This study used novel approaches to elucidate meniscal architecture. The radial and circumferential collagen fibrils in the meniscus were investigated using novel tissue-preparative techniques for light and electron microscopic studies. The results demonstrate a unique architecture based on differences in the packaging of the fundamental collagen fibrils. For radial arrays, the collagen fibrils are arranged in parallel into ∼10 μm bundles, which associate laterally to form flat sheets of varying dimensions that bifurcate and come together to form a honeycomb network within the body of the meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential arrays display a complex network of collagen fibrils arranged into ∼5 μm bundles. Interestingly, both types of architectural organization of collagen fibrils in meniscus are conserved across mammalian species and are age and sex independent. These findings imply that disruptions in meniscal architecture following an injury contribute to poor prognosis for functional repair. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. The effect of line tension on the shape of liquid menisci near stripwise heterogeneous walls.

    PubMed

    Hoorfar, M; Amirfazli, A; Gaydos, J A; Neumann, A W

    2005-06-30

    Most attempts for the measurement of line tension in solid-liquid-vapor systems are based on the drop size dependence of contact angles of sessile drops on smooth, homogeneous solid surfaces. Despite being a well-defined thermodynamic quantity, there are still significant discrepancies in both the magnitude and sign of line tension reported in different experimental arrangements and theoretical studies. In order to broaden the scope of experimental studies of line tension, a non-axisymmetric system, i.e., a stripwise heterogeneous wall arrangement, was considered. A numerical scheme has been developed to solve simultaneously both the modified Young equation and the Laplace equation of capillarity for such a stripwise wall and to generate a series of theoretical contact lines for non-zero line tension values. These theoretical curves can be compared to experimental profiles to determine line tension. The preliminary comparison of these curves with an experimental curve suggests that the line tension value is on the order of 10(-6) (J/m), in agreement with values obtained from drop size dependence of contact angle studies. The comparison also shows that line tension in such systems cannot be as low as 10(-10) (J/m), i.e., the order of the magnitude obtained from some theoretical studies and experimental approaches.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the ZO-binding domain of human occludin

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Bi-Hung; White, Mark A.; Campbell, Gerald A.; Robert, Jebamony J.; Lee, J. Ching; Sutton, Roger B.

    2005-04-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the ZO-binding domain of human occludin. Occludin is a tight-junction protein controlling the integrity of endothelial and epithelial cell layers. It forms complexes with the cytoplasmic proteins ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3. The ZO-binding domain in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of human occludin has previously been isolated and identified. This domain, as expressed in a bacterial system or isolated from native cellular occludin, maintains its ability to bind ZO-1 and ZO-2. The crystallization conditions of the human ZO-binding domain are reported here. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and were shown to belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.3, b = 35.4, c = 107.3 Å.

  2. A preliminary analysis on the dependence of the human diseases on the relative number of sunspot.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuehua; Song, Yi

    1996-03-01

    On the basis of the solar-terrestrial relations point of view, the paper investigates the influences of solar activities upon the human race. According to the data of Nanjing Hospital for Infectious Diseases, both the curve of the occurrence of various diseases and the relative number of sunspots with time are drawn, and their related coefficients are calculated. The preliminary results show that the incidences of typhus and scarlet fever keep in step with the 11-year cycle of solar activities, they get the maximum at the same year, while other diseases are not definite.

  3. Dimensions of Human-Work Domain Interaction: A Preliminary Analysis for the Design of a Corporate Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hong

    2003-01-01

    Applies the cognitive system engineering approach to investigate human-work interaction at a corporate setting. Reports preliminary analysis of data collected from diary analysis and interview of 20 subjects. Results identify three dimensions for each of four interactive activities involved in human-work interaction and their relationships.…

  4. Dimensions of Human-Work Domain Interaction: A Preliminary Analysis for the Design of a Corporate Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hong

    2003-01-01

    Applies the cognitive system engineering approach to investigate human-work interaction at a corporate setting. Reports preliminary analysis of data collected from diary analysis and interview of 20 subjects. Results identify three dimensions for each of four interactive activities involved in human-work interaction and their relationships.…

  5. Detection and preliminary screening of the human gene expression profile for Hirschsprung's disease

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XIN; WANG, SHIQI; JIN, XIANQING; WANG, NING; LUO, YUANYUAN; TENG, YINPING

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated a genome microarray of colorectal lesions (spasm segments) in children with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), and analyzed the results. In addition, the present study screened for differentially expressed genes in children with HSCR. Microarray technology was used to examine the human gene expression profiles of the colorectal lesions (spasm segments) of six children with HSCR, and three normal colon tissue samples. The data were analyzed be determining P-values of significance and absolute fold changes. Preliminary screening was performed to identify genes exhibiting significant differential expression in children with HSCR, and these target genes were analyzed in subsequent verification and analytical investigations. Of >20,000 detected human genes, the preliminary screenings demonstrated that 3,850 genes were differentially expressed and upregulated, with P<0.05 and >2-fold absolute changes in expression. In addition, 645 differentially expressed genes with P<0.05 and >2-fold absolute changes were downregulated. Of the upregulated genes, 118 were involved in classic signaling pathways, compared with 11 of the downregulated genes (P<0.001; absolute fold change >2-fold). HSCR etiology is complex and often involves multiple gene changes. Microarray technology can produce large quantities of gene expression data simultaneously, and analyzing this data using various techniques may provide a fast and efficient method for identifying novel gene targets and for investigating the mechanisms underlying HSCR pathogenesis. PMID:26648025

  6. Preliminary perspectives on DNA collection in anti-human trafficking efforts.

    PubMed

    Katsanis, Sara H; Kim, Joyce; Minear, Mollie A; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Wagner, Jennifer K

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA methodologies have potential applications in the investigation of human trafficking cases. DNA and relationship testing may be useful for confirmation of biological relationship claims in immigration, identification of trafficked individuals who are missing persons, and family reunification of displaced individuals after mass disasters and conflicts. As these applications rely on the collection of DNA from non-criminals and potentially vulnerable individuals, questions arise as to how to address the ethical challenges of collection, security, and privacy of collected samples and DNA profiles. We administered a survey targeted to victims' advocates to gain preliminary understanding of perspectives regarding human trafficking definitions, DNA and sex workers, and perceived trust of authorities potentially involved in DNA collection. We asked respondents to consider the use of DNA for investigating adoption fraud, sex trafficking, and post-conflict child soldier cases. We found some key differences in perspectives on defining what qualifies as "trafficking." When we varied terminology between "sex worker" and "sex trafficking victim" we detected differences in perception on which authorities can be trusted. Respondents were supportive of the hypothetical models proposed to collect DNA. Most were favorable of DNA specimens being controlled by an authority outside of law enforcement. Participants voiced concerns focused on privacy, misuse of DNA samples and data, unintentional harms, data security, and infrastructure. These preliminary data indicate that while there is perceived value in programs to use DNA for investigating cases of human trafficking, these programs may need to consider levels of trust in authorities as their logistics are developed and implemented.

  7. Preliminary environmental historical results to reconstruct prehistoric human-environmental interactions in Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Roderick B.; Bácsmegi, Gábor; Sümegi, Pál

    2013-09-01

    Palaeoenvironmental research is playing an important role in recent archaeological investigations. We present preliminary results of geoarchaeological analyses conducted at a palaeochannel located between two prehistoric archaeological sites in eastern Hungary. The study area lies within the Körös River Basin in Békés County, a region of intensive human occupation beginning in the Neolithic, ca. 7550 BP, and represents only the second palynological analysis done in conjunction with archaeological investigations and adjacent to an archaeological site in the Körös region. Pollen from an environmental monolith was used to reconstruct the local vegetation composition and the human impact on arboreal and non-arboreal vegetation near the archaeological sites. Sediment analyses helped to reconstruct hydrological activity and human impact on the local palaeochannel. Results indicate that activity from the Neolithic onwards played an important role in local environmental change, including increasing sedimentation and deposition of organic matter in the local waterway, some forest clearance and a shift from primarily arboreal vegetation to more grasses on elevated surfaces. The trophic status of the local channel changed several times during the Holocene. In addition, indications that groundwater levels may have been fluctuating during the period of human occupation, when combined with the other changes in the area, provide a possible partial explanation for changing settlement patterns.

  8. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-Ray analysis of the human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jae Wan; Robinson, Robert Charles; Lee, Han Sam; Lee, Jae Il; Heo, Yong Seok; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Hyun Ju; Cho, Sung Woo; Choe, Han

    2006-01-01

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes the synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid from UDP-glucose resulting in the formation of proteoglycans that are involved in promoting normal cellular growth and migration. Overproduction of proteoglycans has been implicated in the progression of certain epithelial cancers. Here, human UGDH (hUGDH) was purified and crystallized from a solution of 0.2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M Na cacodylate, pH 6.5, and 21% PEG 8000. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 A. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit-cell parameters a = 173.25, b = 191.16, c = 225.94 A, and alpha = beta = gamma = 90.0 degrees. Based on preliminary analysis of the diffraction data, we propose that the biological unit of hUGDH is a tetramer.

  10. [Measurement and preliminary human health risk assessment of representative organochlorines in farmed Mandarin fish].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Fei, Yong; Li, Li; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Yao, En-Qin; Yao, Yu-Xin

    2011-08-01

    Concentrations of representative organochlorines (OCs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a batch of farmed mandarin fish from a cultivation pond in Wujiang City, Jiangsu Province, were determined with GC-ECD. Meanwhile, a preliminary human health risk assessment was conducted. Results showed that, the concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCBs in the farmed mandarin fish were in the range of 1.3-4.57 ng/g, 0.13-1.24 ng/g, 0.07-0.44 ng/g and 0-5.22 ng/g, respectively, with an average value of 2.96, 0.40, 1.27 and 0.7 ng/g, respectively. These values were far below the corresponding residue limits set by China's Ministry of Health and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and at the low end of the global pollution bar. Referring to the reference values given by USEPA Integrated Risk Information System, calculated non-carcinogenic hazard ratios (HRs) of DDTs, HCB and PCBs were all <1 and carcinogenic HRs of DDTs, HCHs, HCB and PCBs were all >1. The results indicated that DDTs, HCHs and HCB in farmed mandarin fish did not have negative human health influence, but existed potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Compared to rural residents, urban residents were more vulnerable to DDTs, HCHs, HCB and PCBs threats.

  11. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid-phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0-72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg of TCC in the soap used. The TCC-N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects, and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure, we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC's major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study, however, failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation.

  12. [Menisci and posture].

    PubMed

    Sérgio, J S

    2000-01-01

    The first aim of this work is not only to review the localised perspective of meniscopathy, concerned with the consequences of meniscectomy, but to also view it in a broader dimension, in the behavioural aspect--related to postural activity. The second aim is to establish the relationship between these two dimensions. Meniscopathies invariably lead to degenerative alterations of the knee joint--not sufficiently explained by the local factors--that result in a situation of osteoarthritis. Some investigators established that the osteoarthritis process should not be confined only to the mechanical responsibility, due to some studies that also confirm the existence of biochemical alterations. However, others have also shown that the nervous system (NS) is likely to influence the inflammatory manifestations through the unmyelinated afferent fibers and sympathetic efferent fibers of the joints. These fibers can interact with non-neural elements, releasing some mediators, such as P substance (PS) and norepinephrine (NE), which, by themselves, or through other substances, contribute to the exacerbation of the inflammatory process. In order to relate the facts above, this longitudinal study comprised the following approaches clinical: anthropometric; biotechnical; and posturographic. It was characterised by five moments of data collection, the periodicity of which is related to the time of the surgery: the first moment is before surgery, followed by the remaining four, at six-week intervals, the sample being composed of--15 male caucasians, aged between 20 and 30 years, working for the Air Force. These Subjects were divided into two groups, according to the amount of meniscus removed in the longitudinal direction. Group A--meniscectomy < 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of 7 subjects, with an average age of 21.4 years; and Group B, meniscectomy > 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of: 8 subjects, with an average age of 24.1 years. The statistical analysis contained a descriptive approach that was comprised of--the average, the standard deviation and the limits of variation or variation range--and an inferential approach--ANOVA-One Way. The error probability chosen was p < or = 0.05. The tendency to recover was shown from the 3rd moment onwards (12th week), muscular involution also being implied by an involution of orthostatic postural activity, which confirms the interdependence between muscular tonicity and postural activity. In what concerns metabolic alterations, there was no parallel evolution with the other variables since, when the signs of recovery of the latter were verified, the osteo-cartilaginous manifestations of destruction and reconstruction are more emphasised. On the other hand, the manifestations of postural activity reach their highest values before the manifestations protagonized by biochemical substances related to osteo-articular alterations. The accuracy of the posturographic tests for the diagnosis of deficiencies in what concerns of motor activity was shown, such as the inversion of the dislocation amplitudes on the YY' axis in relation to the XX', visible when the performance of the injured limb is evident, which leads us to admit that this fact is a consequence of meniscal pathology.

  13. Next Generation Munitions Handler: Human-Machine Interface and Preliminary Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Jansen, J.F.; Pin, F.G.; Rowe, J.C.

    1999-04-25

    The Next Generation Munitions Handler/Advanced Technology Demonstrator (NGMI-VATTD) is a technology demonstrator for the application of an advanced robotic device for re-arming U.S. Air Force (USAF) and U.S. Navy (USN) tactical fighters. It comprises two key hardware components: a heavy-lift dexterous manipulator (HDM) and a nonholonomic mobility platform. The NGMWATTD is capable of lifting weapons up to 4400 kg (2000 lb) and placing them on any weapons rack on existing fighters (including the F-22 Raptor). This report describes the NGMH mission with particular reference to human-machine interfaces. It also describes preliminary testing to garner feedback about the heavy-lift manipulator arm from experienced fighter load crewmen. The purpose of the testing was to provide preliminary information about control system parameters and to gather feed- back from users about manipulator arm functionality. To that end, the Air Force load crewmen interacted with the NGMWATTD in an informal testing session and provided feedback about the performance of the system. Certain con- trol system parameters were changed during the course of the testing and feedback from the participants was used to make a rough estimate of "good" initial operating parameters. Later, formal testing will concentrate within this range to identify optimal operating parameters. User reactions to the HDM were generally positive, All of the USAF personnel were favorably impressed with the capabilities of the system. Fine-tuning operating parameters created a system even more favorably regarded by the load crews. Further adjustment to control system parameters will result in a system that is operationally efficient, easy to use, and well accepted by users.

  14. Preliminary study of cytotoxic effects of photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy on human pancreatic cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luowei; Liu, Bolin; Chen, Yang K.; Li, Zhaoshen; Hetzel, Fred W.; Huang, Zheng

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world. The disease is very resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One reason for that is the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis. Among the current investigational approaches, targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-1/EGFR) and interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) show promises. When used alone or together, these new approaches might provide an alternative modality to treat pancreatic cancer. This study examined and compared cytotoxic effects of antibody C225 (an anti-HER-1/EGFR monoclonal antibody) and Photofrin-mediated PDT on two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPc-3, HPAF-II). Preliminary in vitro data indicated that these treatments could block various proliferation pathways of pancreatic cancer cells through different mechanisms. For instance, PDT could induce early apoptosis. C225 could induce G1 arrest. These findings might help to design new strategies such as the combination of PDT and immunotherapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human cystathionine β-synthase

    PubMed Central

    Oyenarte, Iker; Majtan, Tomas; Ereño, June; Corral-Rodríguez, María Angeles; Kraus, Jan P.; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Human cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent hemeprotein, whose catalytic activity is regulated by S-adenosylmethionine. CBS catalyzes the β-replacement reaction of homocysteine (Hcy) with serine to yield cystathionine. CBS is a key regulator of plasma levels of the thrombogenic Hcy and deficiency in CBS is the single most common cause of homocystinuria, an inherited metabolic disorder of sulfur amino acids. The properties of CBS enzymes, such as domain organization, oligomerization degree or regulatory mechanisms, are not conserved across the eukaryotes. The current body of knowledge is insufficient to understand these differences and their impact on CBS function and physiology. To overcome this deficiency, we have addressed the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a protein construct (hCBS516–525) that contains the full-length CBS from Homo sapiens (hCBS) and just lacks amino-acid residues 516–525, which are located in a disordered loop. The human enzyme yielded crystals belonging to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 124.98, b = 136.33, c = 169.83 Å and diffracting X-rays to a resolution of 3.0 Å. The crystal structure appears to contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit which presumably correspond to a dimeric form of the enzyme. PMID:23143240

  16. Effects of degeneration on the compressive and tensile properties of human meniscus.

    PubMed

    Fischenich, Kristine M; Lewis, Jackson; Kindsfater, Kirk A; Bailey, Travis S; Haut Donahue, Tammy L

    2015-06-01

    Healthy menisci function within the joint to prevent the underlying articular cartilage from excessive loads. Understanding how mechanical properties of menisci change with degeneration can drive future therapeutic studies to prevent this degeneration. Thus, the goal of this study was to characterize both compressive and tensile moduli of human menisci with varying degrees of gross damage due to osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty four paired menisci were collected from total knee joint replacement patients and the menisci were graded on a scale from 0-4 according to level of gross meniscal degeneration with 0=normal and 4=full tissue maceration. Each meniscus was then sectioned into anterior and posterior regions and subjected to indentation relaxation tests. Samples were sliced into 1mm thick strips, made into dumbbells using a custom punch, and pulled to failure. Significant decreases in instantaneous compressive modulus were seen in the lateral posterior region between grades 0 and 1 (36% decrease) and in the medial anterior regions between grades 1 and 2 (67% decrease) and 1 and 3 (72% decrease). Changes in equilibrium modulus where seen in the lateral anterior region between grades 1 and 2 (35% decrease), lateral posterior region between grades 0-2 (41% decrease), and medial anterior regions between grades 1 and 2 (59% decrease), 1 and 3 (67% decrease), 2 and 4 (54% decrease), and 3 and 4 (42% decrease). No significant changes were observed in tensile modulus across all regions and degenerative grades. The results of this study demonstrate the compressive moduli are affected even in early stages of gross degeneration, and continue to decrease with increased deterioration. However, osteoarthritic menisci retain a tensile modulus similar to that of previously reported healthy menisci. This study highlights progressive changes in meniscal mechanical compressive integrity as level of gross tissue degradation increases, and thus, early interventions should focus on

  17. A Preliminary Study of Biomonitoring for Bisphenol-A in Human Sweat.

    PubMed

    Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Wilkins, Diana G; Anderson, David J; Bailey, Nicole M; Szczotka, Kathryn M; Stanford, Joseph B

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of human exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) is hampered by the ubiquitous but transient exposure for most individuals, coupled with a short metabolic half-life which leads to high inter- and intra-individual variability. We investigated the possibility of measuring multiday exposure to BPA in human sweat among volunteer participants with the goal of identifying an exposure assessment method less affected by temporal variability. We recruited 50 participants to wear a sweat collection patch (PharmChek(®)) for 7 days with concurrent collection of daily first-morning urine. Urines and sweat patch extracts were analyzed with quantitative LC-MS-MS using a method we previously validated. In addition, a human volunteer consumed one can of commercially available soup (16 oz, 473 cm(3)) daily for 3 days and collected urine. Sweat patches (n = 2, 1 per arm) were worn for the 3 days of the study. BPA was detected in quality control specimens prepared by fortification of BPA to sweat patches, but was only detected at 5× above average background on three participant patches. Although the highest measured urine BPA concentration was 195 ng/mL for an individual with deliberate exposure, no BPA was detected above background in the corresponding sweat patches. In this preliminary investigation, the use of sweat patches primarily worn on the upper-outer arm did not detect BPA exposures that were documented by urine monitoring. The absence of BPA in sweat patches may be due to several factors, including insufficient quantity of specimen per patch, or extremely low concentrations of BPA in naturally occurring sweat, among others.

  18. Human adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of chemically burned rat cornea: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Zeppieri, Marco; Salvetat, Maria Letizia; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela; Bergamin, Natascha; Russo, Rossella; Cavaliere, Federica; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Alcalde, Ignacio; Merayo, Jesús; Brusini, Paolo; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2013-04-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) are multipotent, safe, non-immunogenic and can differentiate into functional keratocytes in situ. The topical use of ADSC derived from human processed lipoaspirate was investigated for treating injured rat cornea. A total of 19 rats were used. Six animals initially underwent corneal lesion experiments with 0.5 N NaOH (right eye) and 0.2 N (left). The 0.2 NaOH protocol was then used in 13 rats. All 26 eyes of 13 rats eyes received topical azythromycin bid for 3 d and divided into five treatment groups (n = 5 eyes/group), which included: control, stem cells, serum, stem + serum and adipose (raw human lipoaspirate). The four treatment groups received topical treatment three times daily for 3 d. Stem cells were isolated and harvested from human lipoaspirate. Topical eye drops were prepared daily with 1 × 10(5) cells/treatment. Fluorescein positive defect area and light microscope assessment was performed at 20, 28, 45, 50 and 74 h. Animals were sacrificed at 74 h for histological evaluation. Data were statistically analyzed for differences amongst groups. The stem cell-treated eyes had significantly smaller epithelial defects at each time point compared to control- and adipose-treated eyes (p < 0.05). This group showed slightly better epithelium healing than the serum and combined group, yet not significantly different. Histology showed that stem cell-treated corneas had complete re-epithelization, with less inflammatory cells and limited fibroblast activation structure compared with the control eyes. Our preliminary results show that topical treatment with ADSC seems to improve corneal wound healing.

  19. Investigation of Human Impacts on Surficial Geomorphology in Mountain Parks Using MASTER Data: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2003-12-01

    The role of humans as active agents of geomorphic change is obvious at large scales (i.e. urbanization), but is also important at smaller temporal and spatial scales due to activities such as hiking and mountain biking. The effect of these activities on soil disturbance, sediment transport, surface hydrology, and vegetation growth are not well understood in arid regions where the majority of projected population growth is expected to occur. The Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area includes several public mountain parks comprising a wide range of bedrock, structure, soils, and geomorphology. The region includes ideal sites for study as there are parks completely surrounded by urbanization (with a high degree of constant use) as well as parks more removed from the metropolitan core that experience less overall human presence. A primarily field-based approach to this study is impractical due to the large total area of investigation (approximately 1000 square kilometers). Use of high spatial and spectral resolution remotely sensed data represents a useful alternative (or complementary) approach. Airborne MODIS/ASTER Simulator (MASTER) data were obtained at a ground resolution of 5 meters/pixel over Phoenix urban and peri-urban mountain parks during April 2003. This sensor acquires data in 50 bands in the visible through mid-infrared wavelengths and captures primary rock-forming mineral (quartz, feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, etc.); weathering and pedogenetic mineral (clays, oxides, carbonates); and vegetation spectral features useful for compositional analysis. Preliminary results presented here use MASTER spectral data and band ratios to assess the degree of disturbance of surficial soils (as defined by presence of clay minerals and lack of surface crusts/pavements) associated with high- and low-use areas of mountain parks. These initial results are being used to assess the degree to which lithology, structure, vegetation, soil type, and landscape position modulate the

  20. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones: preliminary results of human feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Michael; Cunitz, Bryan; Dunmire, Barbrina; Paun, Marla; Lee, Franklin; Ross, Susan; Lingeman, James; Coburn, Michael; Wessells, Hunter; Sorensen, Mathew; Harper, Jonathan

    2014-09-03

    One in 11 Americans has experienced kidney stones, with a 50% average recurrence rate within 5-10 years. Ultrasonic propulsion (UP) offers a potential method to expel small stones or residual fragments before they become a recurrent problem. Reported here are preliminary findings from the first investigational use of UP in humans. The device uses a Verasonics ultrasound engine and Philips HDI C5-2 probe to generate real-time B-mode imaging and targeted "push" pulses on demand. There are three arms of the study: de novo stones, post-lithotripsy fragments, and the preoperative setting. A pain questionnaire is completed prior to and following the study. Movement is classified based on extent. Patients are followed for 90 days. Ten subjects have been treated to date: three de novo, five post-lithotripsy, and two preoperative. None of the subjects reported pain associated with the treatment or a treatment related adverse event, beyond the normal discomfort of passing a stone. At least one stone was moved in all subjects. Three of five post-lithotripsy subjects passed a single or multiple stones within 1-2 weeks following treatment; one subject passed two (1-2 mm) fragments before leaving clinic. In the pre-operative studies we successfully moved 7 - 8 mm stones. In four subjects, UP revealed multiple stone fragments where the clinical image and initial ultrasound examination indicated a single large stone.

  1. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones: preliminary results of human feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Michael; Cunitz, Bryan; Dunmire, Barbrina; Paun, Marla; Lee, Franklin; Ross, Susan; Lingeman, James; Coburn, Michael; Wessells, Hunter; Sorensen, Mathew; Harper, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    One in 11 Americans has experienced kidney stones, with a 50% average recurrence rate within 5–10 years. Ultrasonic propulsion (UP) offers a potential method to expel small stones or residual fragments before they become a recurrent problem. Reported here are preliminary findings from the first investigational use of UP in humans. The device uses a Verasonics ultrasound engine and Philips HDI C5-2 probe to generate real-time B-mode imaging and targeted “push” pulses on demand. There are three arms of the study: de novo stones, post-lithotripsy fragments, and the preoperative setting. A pain questionnaire is completed prior to and following the study. Movement is classified based on extent. Patients are followed for 90 days. Ten subjects have been treated to date: three de novo, five post-lithotripsy, and two preoperative. None of the subjects reported pain associated with the treatment or a treatment related adverse event, beyond the normal discomfort of passing a stone. At least one stone was moved in all subjects. Three of five post-lithotripsy subjects passed a single or multiple stones within 1–2 weeks following treatment; one subject passed two (1–2 mm) fragments before leaving clinic. In the pre-operative studies we successfully moved 7 – 8 mm stones. In four subjects, UP revealed multiple stone fragments where the clinical image and initial ultrasound examination indicated a single large stone. PMID:26203347

  2. A preliminary study of the effect of guaiphenesin on mucociliary clearance from the human lung

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, M. L.; Pavia, D.; McNicol, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Thomson, M. L., Pavia, D., and McNicol, M. W. (1973).Thorax, 28, 742-747. A preliminary study of the effect of guaiphenesin on mucociliary clearance from the human lung. The effect of guaiphenesin (administered as Robitussin1) on mucociliary clearance has been assessed in 15 subjects from the rate of removal from the lung of previously inhaled radioactive tracer particles. The guaiphenesin was compared with a positive control preparation consisting of the guaiphenesin vehicle only in two double-blind crossover trials. The first trial examined eight aged `healthy' volunteer subjects and the second trial examined seven chronic bronchitic patients. Sequential gamma counts were made from the whole lung by scintillation counters for 6 hours after inhalation and the chest was also scanned rectilinearly. In the first 5 hours after inhalation the mean rate of removal of particles and therefore of secretions was faster after guaiphenesin than after the control preparation. This difference was not statistically significant in the healthy volunteers but achieved significance (P <0·05) in the chronic bronchitic patients. Lung scans after inhaling the tracer aerosol indicated that on average the initial penetration of the particles into the lung was similar in the guaiphenesin and control runs. The faster clearance after guaiphenesin was unlikely to be due to bulk movements of mucus caused by coughing since the mean frequency of coughing during the experiment was somewhat less after the drug. PMID:4595814

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, V.S.; Natchiar, S.K.; Gritton, L.; Mullen, T.-M.; Stewart, P.L.; Nemerow, G.R.

    2010-07-22

    Replication-defective and conditionally replicating adenovirus (AdV) vectors are currently being utilized in {approx}25% of human gene transfer clinical trials. Unfortunately, progress in vector development has been hindered by a lack of accurate structural information. Here we describe the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a HAdV5 vector that displays a short flexible fiber derived from HAdV35. Crystals of Ad35F were grown in 100 mM HEPES pH 7.0, 200 mM Ca(OAc){sub 2}, 14% PEG 550 MME, 15% glycerol in 100 mM Tris-HCl 8.5. Freshly grown crystals diffracted well to 4.5 {angstrom} resolution and weakly to 3.5 {angstrom} at synchrotron sources. HAdV crystals belong to space group P1 with unit cell parameters a = 854.03 {angstrom}, b = 855.17 {angstrom}, c = 865.24 {angstrom}, {alpha} = 119.57{sup o}, {beta} = 91.71{sup o}, {gamma} = 118.08{sup o} with a single particle in the unit cell. Self-rotation and locked-rotation function analysis allowed the determination of the particle orientation. Molecular replacement, density modification and phase-extension procedures are being employed for structure determination.

  4. Preliminary report on the correlations among pineal concretions, prostatic calculi and age in human adult males.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Sano, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-09-01

    By using quantitative image analysis of soft X-ray photographs on the bulk of extracted pineal glands and prostates, we made a preliminary investigation into the correlations among pineal concretions (% by mass), prostatic calculi (% by mass) and age (years) in 40 human adult males, ranging in age from 31 to 95 years (mean (+/-SD) 69.9 +/- 15.2 years), who died and underwent the routine dissection course. The mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi were 17.68 +/- 13.56% (range 0-51.34%) and 0.93 +/- 1.31% (range 0-5.82%), respectively. There was no correlation between the mass concentration of pineal concretions and aging (r = 0.03; P < 1.0). There was no correlation between mass concentration of prostatic calculi and aging (r = 0.28; P < 0.5). No pineal concretions and no prostatic calculi were observed in seven and 10 cases, respectively; in addition, in one case, neither-concretions nor calculi were seen. From such data and from the previously reported suggestion on the counteracting functions between the pineal gland and prostate, a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi was expected. This was certainly obtained, but the correlation was low (r = -0.39; P < 0.05). Such a low correlation and no correlations between the concentrations of pineal concretions and aging or between prostatic calculi and aging may have been caused by the examination of relatively older humans. Therefore, further investigations using a number of pair samples collected from males including younger age generations will be necessary.

  5. Volume analysis of heat-induced cracks in human molars: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sandholzer, Michael A.; Baron, Katharina; Heimel, Patrick; Metscher, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Only a few methods have been published dealing with the visualization of heat-induced cracks inside bones and teeth. Aims: As a novel approach this study used nondestructive X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) for volume analysis of heat-induced cracks to observe the reaction of human molars to various levels of thermal stress. Materials and Methods: Eighteen clinically extracted third molars were rehydrated and burned under controlled temperatures (400, 650, and 800°C) using an electric furnace adjusted with a 25°C increase/min. The subsequent high-resolution scans (voxel-size 17.7 μm) were made with a compact micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174). In total, 14 scans were automatically segmented with Definiens XD Developer 1.2 and three-dimensional (3D) models were computed with Visage Imaging Amira 5.2.2. The results of the automated segmentation were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and uncorrected post hoc least significant difference (LSD) tests using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17. A probability level of P < 0.05 was used as an index of statistical significance. Results: A temperature-dependent increase of heat-induced cracks was observed between the three temperature groups (P < 0.05, ANOVA post hoc LSD). In addition, the distributions and shape of the heat-induced changes could be classified using the computed 3D models. Conclusion: The macroscopic heat-induced changes observed in this preliminary study correspond with previous observations of unrestored human teeth, yet the current observations also take into account the entire microscopic 3D expansions of heat-induced cracks within the dental hard tissues. Using the same experimental conditions proposed in the literature, this study confirms previous results, adds new observations, and offers new perspectives in the investigation of forensic evidence. PMID:25125923

  6. Immunolocalization of lymphatic vessels in human fetal knee joint tissues.

    PubMed

    Melrose, James; Little, Christopher B

    2010-08-01

    We immunolocalized lymphatic and vascular blood vessels in 12- and 14-week-old human fetal knee joint tissues using a polyclonal antibody to a lymphatic vascular endothelium specific hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and a monoclonal antibody to podoplanin (mAb D2-40). A number of lymphatic vessels were identified in the stratified connective tissues surrounding the cartilaginous knee joint femoral and tibial rudiments. These tissues also contained small vascular vessels with entrapped red blood cells which were imaged using Nomarsky DIC microscopy. Neither vascular nor lymphatic vessels were present in the knee joint cartilaginous rudiments. The menisci in 12-week-old fetal knees were incompletely demarcated from the adjacent tibial and femoral cartilaginous rudiments which was consistent with the ongoing joint cavitation process at the femoral-tibial junction. At 14 weeks of age the menisci were independent structural entities; they contained a major central blood vessel containing red blood cells and numerous communicating vessels at the base of the menisci but no lymphatic vessels. In contrast to the 12-week-old menisci, the 14-week meniscal rudiments contained abundant CD-31 and CD-34 positive but no lymphatic vessels. Isolated 14-week-old meniscal cells also were stained with the CD-31 and CD 34 antibodies; CD-68 +ve cells, also abundant in the 14-week-old menisci, were detectable to a far lesser degree in the 12-week menisci and were totally absent from the femoral and tibial rudiments. The distribution of lymphatic vessels and tissue macrophages in the fetal joint tissues was consistent with their roles in the clearance of metabolic waste and extracellular matrix breakdown products arising from the rapidly remodelling knee joint tissues.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-02-01

    The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  8. Genetic contributions to regional variability in human brain structure: methods and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Wright, I C; Sham, P; Murray, R M; Weinberger, D R; Bullmore, E T

    2002-09-01

    limbic areas loaded negatively. Bilateral insula, some frontal regions, and temporal neocortical regions functionally specialized for audition and language loaded strongly on the second PC. We conclude that large samples are required for powerful investigation of genetic effects in imaging data from twins. However, these preliminary re. sults suggest that genetic effects on structure of the human brain are regionally variable and predominantly symmetric in paralimbic structures and lateral temporal cortex.

  9. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction crystallographic study of human synaptotagmin 5 C2A domain.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaoting; Huang, Kai; Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yongxiang

    2011-11-01

    Synaptotagmin acts as the Ca(2+) sensor for neural and endocrine exocytosis. Synaptotagmin 5 has been demonstrated to play a key role in the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton ATPase and in Ca(2+)-dependent insulin exocytosis. The C2 domains modulate the interaction of synaptotagmin with the phospholipid bilayer of the presynaptic terminus and effector proteins such as the SNARE complex. This study reports the cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C2A domain of human synaptotagmin 5 with an N-terminal His(6) tag. The crystals diffracted to 1.90 Å resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6(5), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 93.97, c = 28.05 Å. A preliminary model of the protein structure has been built and refinement of the model is ongoing. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary genetic imaging study of the association between estrogen receptor-α gene polymorphisms and harsh human maternal parenting.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Michalska, Kalina J; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Hipwell, Alison E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D; Decety, Jean

    2012-09-06

    A failure of neural changes initiated by the estrogen surge in late pregnancy to reverse the valence of infant stimuli from aversive to rewarding is associated with dysfunctional maternal behavior in nonhuman mammals. Estrogen receptor-α plays the crucial role in mediating these neural effects of estrogen priming. This preliminary study examines associations between estrogen receptor-α gene polymorphisms and human maternal behavior. Two polymorphisms were associated with human negative maternal parenting. Furthermore, hemodynamic responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging to child stimuli in neural regions associated with social cognition fully mediated the association between genetic variation and negative parenting. This suggests testable hypotheses regarding a biological pathway between genetic variants and dysfunctional human maternal parenting.

  11. Preference and consequences: A preliminary look at whether preference impacts oral processing in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Vinyard, Christopher J; Thompson, Cynthia L; Doherty, Alison; Robl, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Non-human primates demonstrate food preferences much like humans. We have little insight, however, into how those preferences impact oral processing in primates. To begin describing this relationship, we conducted a preliminary analysis measuring food preference in two tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) and comparing ranked preference to physiological variables during chewing of these foods. Food preference was assessed for each monkey across 12 foods, including monkey biscuits and 11 foods consumed by humans (e.g., various fruits and nuts). Animals chose from randomized pairs of foods to generate a ranked scale across the 12 foods. Contemporaneous with preference testing, electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured for the jaw-closing muscles to assess oral physiology during chewing of these foods. As expected, these capuchins exhibited clear preferences among these 12 foods. Based on their preferences, we identified sets of preferred and non-preferred brittle (i.e., almond versus monkey chow) and ductile (i.e., dates and prunes versus apricots) foods for physiological comparisons that broadly control variation in food mechanical properties (FMPs). As expected, oral physiology varied with FMPs in each animal. Within brittle and ductile groupings, we observed several significant differences in chewing cycle length and relative muscle activation levels that are likely related to food preference. These differences tended to be complex and individual specific. The two capuchins chewed non-preferred apricots significantly faster than preferred dates and prunes. Effect sizes for preference were smaller than those for FMPs, supporting the previous focus on FMPs in primate dietary research. Although preliminary, these results suggest that food preference may influence oral physiology in non-human primates. The prospect that this relationship exists in monkeys raises the possibility that a link between food preference and oral processing in humans may be based on shared

  12. Preliminary studies of fluorescence image-guided photothermal therapy of human oesophageal adenocarcinoma in vivo using multifunctional gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabavi, Elham; Singh, Mohan; Zhou, Yu; Gallina, Maria Elena; Zhao, Hailin; Ma, Daqing; Cass, Anthony; Hanna, George; Elson, Daniel S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a preliminary in vivo study of fluorescence imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of human oesophageal adenocarcinoma using multi-functionalised gold nanorods (GNRs). After establishing tumour xenograft in mouse functionalised GNRs were administrated intravenously (IV). Fluorescence imaging was performed to detect the tumour area. The intensity of the fluorescence signal varied significantly across the tumour site and surrounding tissues. PTT was then performed using a 808 nm continuous wave diode laser to irradiate the tumour for 3 minutes, inducing a temperature rise of ~44°C, which photothermally ablated the tumour.

  13. Effects of blue-green algae extracts on the proliferation of human adult stem cells in vitro: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shytle, Douglas R; Tan, Jun; Ehrhart, Jared; Smith, Adam J; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sanberg, Paul R; Anderson, Jerry; Bickford, Paula C

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known to have a reduced restorative capacity as we age and are more vulnerable to oxidative stress resulting in a reduced ability of the body to heal itself. We have previously reported that a proprietary nutraceutical formulation, NT-020, promotes proliferation of human hematopoietic stem cells in vitro and protects stem cells from oxidative stress when given chronically to mice in vivo. Because previous reports suggest that the blue green algae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) can modulate immune function in animals, we sought to investigate the effects of AFA on human stem cells in cultures. Two AFA products were used for extraction: AFA whole (AFA-W) and AFA cellular concentrate (AFA-C). Water and ethanol extractions were performed to isolate active compounds for cell culture experiments. For cell proliferation analysis, human bone marrow cells or human CD34+ cells were cultured in 96 well plates and treated for 72 hours with various extracts. An MTT assay was used to estimate cell proliferation. We report here that the addition of an ethanol extract of AFA-cellular concentrate further enhances the stem cell proliferative action of NT-020 when incubated with human adult bone marrow cells or human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors in culture. Algae extracts alone had only moderate activity in these stem cell proliferation assays. This preliminary study suggests that NT-020 plus the ethanol extract of AFA cellular concentrate may act to promote proliferation of human stem cell populations.

  14. Computation of three-phase capillary entry pressures and arc menisci configurations in pore geometries from 2D rock images: A combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yingfang; Helland, Johan Olav; Hatzignatiou, Dimitrios G.

    2014-07-01

    We present a semi-analytical, combinatorial approach to compute three-phase capillary entry pressures for gas invasion into pore throats with constant cross-sections of arbitrary shapes that are occupied by oil and/or water. For a specific set of three-phase capillary pressures, geometrically allowed gas/oil, oil/water and gas/water arc menisci are determined by moving two circles in opposite directions along the pore/solid boundary for each fluid pair such that the contact angle is defined at the front circular arcs. Intersections of the two circles determine the geometrically allowed arc menisci for each fluid pair. The resulting interfaces are combined systematically to allow for all geometrically possible three-phase configuration changes. The three-phase extension of the Mayer and Stowe - Princen method is adopted to calculate capillary entry pressures for all determined configuration candidates, from which the most favorable gas invasion configuration is determined. The model is validated by comparing computed three-phase capillary entry pressures and corresponding fluid configurations with analytical solutions in idealized triangular star-shaped pores. It is demonstrated that the model accounts for all scenarios that have been analyzed previously in these shapes. Finally, three-phase capillary entry pressures and associated fluid configurations are computed in throat cross-sections extracted from segmented SEM images of Bentheim sandstone. The computed gas/oil capillary entry pressures account for the expected dependence of oil/water capillary pressure in spreading and non-spreading fluid systems at the considered wetting conditions. Because these geometries are irregular and include constrictions, we introduce three-phase displacements that have not been identified previously in pore-network models that are based on idealized pore shapes. However, in the limited number of pore geometries considered in this work, we find that the favorable displacements are

  15. The effect of proximal tibial corrective osteotomy on menisci, tibia and tarsal bones: a finite element model study of tibia vara.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Halil; Özkan, Arif; Mutlu, Ibrahim; Celik, Talip; Ugur, Levent; Kisioglu, Yasin

    2014-03-01

    Proximal tibial open wedge osteotomy (PTO) is a corrective operation used in the surgery of lower extremities and is applied to patients with varus deformities for sufficient correction. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the PTO can achieve decreased stress-bearing on the tibia and tarsal bones in addition to correcting the mechanical axis of the lower limb in patients with tibia vara. Three-dimensional (3D) solid modelling of the lower extremity was carried out using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)-containing images of all of the bony elements and non-bony structures. PTO was applied to the obtained deformed model in the computer environment and the correction was carried out. Stress distributions in menisci, tibia and tarsal bones were calculated. With respect to loading on the tarsal bones, the maximum equivalent stresses on all bones decreased except for the navicula in the PTO-simulated model in the current study. These results clearly indicate that PTO can achieve decreased stresses on the tarsal bones in patients with tibia vara. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Nitrogen recovery from source-separated human urine using clinoptilolite and preliminary results of its use as fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Beler-Baykal, B; Allar, A D; Bayram, S

    2011-01-01

    The use of source separated human urine as fertilizer is one of the major suggestions of the new sanitation concept ECOSAN. Urine is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium which act as plant nutrients, however its salinity is high for agricultural and landscape purposes. Moreover, characteristics change significantly throughout storage where salinity increases to higher values as the predominant form of nitrogen shifts from urea to ammonium. Transferring nitrogen in human urine onto the natural zeolite clinoptilolite and using the subsequently recovered ammonium from the exhausted clinoptilolite for agricultural/landscape purposes is suggested as an indirect route of using urine in this work. Results reporting the outcome of the proposed process together with characterization of fresh and stored urine, and preliminary work on the application of the product on the landscape plant Ficus elastica are presented. Up to 97% of the ammonium in stored urine could be transferred onto clinoptilolite through ion exchange and about 88% could be recovered subsequently from exhausted clinoptilolite, giving an overall recovery of 86%. Another important merit of the suggested process was the successful elimination of salinity. Preliminary experiments with Ficus elastica had shown that the product, i.e. clinoptilolite exhausted with ammonium, was compatible with the synthetic fertilizer tested.

  17. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human MAWDBP, a member of the phenazine biosynthesis-like protein family

    SciTech Connect

    Herde, Petra; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2006-06-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human MAWD-binding protein (MAWDBP) are described. MAWDBP is the only representative of the phenazine biosynthesis-like protein family in the human genome. Its expression is elevated in several disease processes, including insulin resistance, folate deficiency and hypotension, and it may also be involved in carcinogenesis. The exact molecular function of MAWDBP is unknown. Native and seleno-l-methionine-labelled MAWDBP were expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at room temperature from precipitants containing 10 mM KF, 14%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.4. Crystals belong to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 187, c = 241 Å, indicative of three to five monomers per asymmetric unit. Crystals were cryoprotected with 15%(v/v) glycerol and data have been collected to 2.7 Å resolution.

  18. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ..., including its effects on human health and the environment. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the environment. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide... human health or the environment. As part of the registration review process, the Agency has completed a...

  19. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... availability of the human health assessment, along with all supporting documents, and commenced a 60-day public..., Gharda Chemicals Limited, Agricultural Retailers Association, California Citrus Mutual, California Grape...

  20. Estrogen binding and estrogen receptor activity in the human prostate: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Fondo, E Y; Menendez-Botet, C J; Schwartz, M K; Whitmore, W F

    1981-03-01

    Assay of estrogen receptor activity in prostates from patients who ranged in age from 22 to 78 years and had not received any previous hormonal therapy was carried out by incubation of cytosols with (3)H-estradiol in the presence and absence of excess, nonradioactive estradiol. Hyperplastic prostatic tissues were used in the study. The kinetics of each reaction were studied and analysis of the data revealed 3.4 to 35.7 femtomoles of receptor protein per mg of cytosol protein; the dissociation constants obtained from a Scatchard plot ranged from 1.1 × 10(-10) to 1.2 × 10(-8)M.The small number of patients prevents realistic quantitative assessment of the apparent estrogen binding activity demonstrated in these preliminary studies, but the qualitative identification of such activity provides possible grounds for further insight into the hormonal mechanisms in the pathophysiology of prostatic diseases and of their responses to endocrine therapy.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the caspase-recruitment domain of human Nod1

    SciTech Connect

    Srimathi, Thiagarajan; Robbins, Sheila L.; Dubas, Rachel L.; Seo, Jang-Hoon; Park, Young Chul

    2007-01-01

    The caspase-recruitment domain of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) is known to play an important role in apoptosis and inflammation as an essential protein–protein interaction domain. The CARD of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The purified CARD was crystallized at 277 K using the microseeding method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.1, c = 80.9 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates that there is one dimeric CARD molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the IgV domain of human nectin-4

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoai; Lu, Guangwen; Cai, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Nectin-4 belongs to a family of immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Recently, nectin-4 was found to be a receptor of measles virus and the IgV domain sustains strong binding to measles virus H protein. In this study, the successful expression and purification of human nectin-4 V domain (nectin-4v) is reported. The purified protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.1, b = 51.7, c = 56.9 Å, β = 94.7°. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data was also performed. PMID:22869128

  3. Crystallization, preliminary X-ray analysis and Patterson search of a new aspartic protease isolated from human urine.

    PubMed

    Canduri, F; Teodoro, L G; Lorenzi, C C; Gomes, R A; Fontes, M R; Arni, R K; de Azevedo Júnior, W F

    1998-10-01

    Aspartic protease (EC 3.4.23) make up a widely distributed class of enzymes in animals, plants, microbes and, viruses. In animals these enzymes perform diverse functions, which range from digestion of food proteins to very specific regulatory roles. In contrast the information about the well-characterized aspartic proteases, very little is known about the corresponding enzyme in urine. A new aspartic protease isolated from human urine has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data collected to 2.45 A resolution using a synchrotron radiation source. Crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). The cell parameters obtained were a = 50.99, b = 75.56 and c = 89.90 A. Preliminary analysis revealed the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure was determined using the molecular replacement technique and is currently being refined using simulated annealing and conjugate gradient protocols.

  4. Control of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) by medicinal mushrooms, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Donatini, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary randomized study investigated the efficacy of medicinal mushrooms, Trametes versicolor (TV), Ganoderma lucidum (GL), and Laetiporus sulphureus (LS), on the clearance of oral human papillomavirus (HPV, serotypes 16 and 18). Among 472 patients who underwent oral swabs for gingivitis, 61 patients were positive for HPV16 or HPV18. Twenty patients were included in group 1 (LS) and 41 patients were included in group 2 (TV+GL) for 2 months. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPV was performed at inclusion and after 2 months. In group 1, the clearance was equal to 5% after 2 months of treatment. In group 2, the clearance was equal to 88% (P<0.001). The detection of HPV16 or HPV18 could become relevant in routine since positivity is frequent and because a harmless and costless treatment may exist. The use of TV+GL for the clearance of oral HPV deserves further investigation.

  5. Food likes and their relative importance in human eating behavior: review and preliminary suggestions for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Eertmans, A; Baeyens, F; Van den Bergh, O

    2001-08-01

    The present article reviews research about the psychological determinants of human eating behavior. A hypothetical model of food choice and intake is introduced, presenting various factors influencing eating behavior. Internal factors include sensory food aspects. Among the external factors are information, the social context and the physical environment. Processes such as mere exposure, Pavlovian conditioning and social learning shape the relationships between these factors, food liking and eating behavior. The relative contribution of the various determinants is discussed. In spite of a scarcity of studies, liking for the sensory aspects of food seems to be at the center of the development, maintenance and change of dietary patterns. Consequently, efforts for promoting healthy eating behavior might benefit from an increased attention towards learning principles and food likes in the development of interventions. Existing intervention strategies are criticized and preliminary suggestions are formulated to enhance their effectiveness.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on human Ca2+-binding protein S100B.

    PubMed

    Ostendorp, Thorsten; Heizmann, Claus W; Kroneck, Peter M H; Fritz, Günter

    2005-07-01

    S100B, a Ca2+-binding protein, acts intracellularly as a Ca2+-signalling protein but is also secreted to the extracellular space, acting in a cytokine-like manner through its receptor RAGE. Recombinant human S100B has been purified and crystallized in the Ca2+-bound state. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates that S100B can exist as a dimer and as a multimer in solution. Crystals of S100B diffract to 1.9 A and belong to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 81.6, c = 71.5 A, alpha = 90, beta = 107, gamma = 90 degrees. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicate that there are four homodimers per asymmetric unit.

  7. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  8. THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) STUDY IN ARIZONA-INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in Arizona is to determine the multimedia distribution of total human exposure to environmental pollutants in the classes of metals, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the population of Ari...

  9. THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) STUDY IN ARIZONA-INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in Arizona is to determine the multimedia distribution of total human exposure to environmental pollutants in the classes of metals, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the population of Ari...

  10. A Preliminary Study of Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lees, David; Schreiner, John; Siegel, Michael; Hiatt, Laura M.; Nourbakhsh, Illah; Simmons, Reid; Ambrose, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction (P2P-HRI) project is developing techniques to improve task coordination and collaboration between human and robot partners. Our work is motivated by the need to develop effective human-robot teams for space mission operations. A central element of our approach is creating dialogue and interaction tools that enable humans and robots to flexibly support one another. In order to understand how this approach can influence task performance, we recently conducted a series of tests simulating a lunar construction task with a human-robot team. In this paper, we describe the tests performed, discuss our initial results, and analyze the effect of intervention on task performance.

  11. Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Ming-ming; Fan, Xin-dong; Su, Li-xin

    2013-10-15

    Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.

  12. [Preparation and preliminary application of rabbit anti-human PON2 antibodies(paraoxonase-2)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Miao; Yang, Jin-Ju; Li, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Gao, Jian-En; Sun, Qi-Hong

    2008-07-01

    To preparation and characterize the rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human PON2 (paraoxonase-2). A fragment of human PON2 gene which was of low homology with rabbits but of higher hydrophilicity and immunogenicity was selected for recombinant expression in prokaryotic expression system. The rabbits were immunized with the purified GST fusion protein 3 times. The specificity and sensitivity of the anti-human PON2 polyclonal antibodies were detected by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence. The GST-PON2 fusion protein was highly expressed in Ecoli with a molecular weight of 46 kDa. Western blot analysis proved the rabbit polyclonal antibodies could specifically recognize 39 kDa native PON2 protein expressed in several cells and tissues, such as HeLa cells, U937 cells, and human liver tissue. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that PON2 protein was located in the cytoplasm of SY5Y cells. The rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human PON2 can specifically recognize natural protein expressed in human cells and tissues, Which can be used for further study and clinical detection of human PON2.

  13. [Preliminary study on force feedback of acupuncture in virtual reality based on the visible human].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo; Wang, Hai-sheng; Min, You-jiang; Yan, Zhen-guo; Hong, Z Tan; Zhuang, Tian-ge

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of virtual reality technology in the 3-D visible human body and acupuncture research. Based on the 3-D visible human fused with the localization information and hierarchy of acupoints, the paper analyzes the force against the needle and haptic rendering during the needle manipulation according to the physical properties of different tissues. A haptic model is constructed to demonstrate the force behaviors during acupuncture, and the force will be produced and passed to the manipulator by a force feedback device. It enriches the contents of 3-D visible human project, provides a dynamic simulation instrument for acupuncture teaching, and supplies a platform for acupuncture research.

  14. Human events reference for ATHEANA (HERA) database description and preliminary user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Pond, D.J.

    1998-05-27

    The Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA) is a newly developed human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology that aims to facilitate better representation and integration of human performance into probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling and quantification by analyzing risk-significant operating experience in the context of existing behavioral science models. The fundamental premise of ATHEANA is that error-forcing contexts (EFCs), which refer to combinations of equipment/material conditions and performance shaping factors (PSFs), set up or create the conditions under which unsafe actions (UAs) can occur. Because ATHEANA relies heavily on the analysis of operational events that have already occurred as a mechanism for generating creative thinking about possible EFCs, a database, called the Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA), has been developed to support the methodology. This report documents the initial development efforts for HERA.

  15. Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA) Database Description and Preliminary User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Auflick, J.L.

    1999-08-12

    The Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA) is a newly developed human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology that aims to facilitate better representation and integration of human performance into probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling and quantification by analyzing risk-significant operating experience in the context of existing behavioral science models. The fundamental premise of ATHEANA is that error forcing contexts (EFCs), which refer to combinations of equipment/material conditions and performance shaping factors (PSFs), set up or create the conditions under which unsafe actions (UAs) can occur. Because ATHEANA relies heavily on the analysis of operational events that have already occurred as a mechanism for generating creative thinking about possible EFCs, a database (db) of analytical operational events, called the Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA), has been developed to support the methodology. This report documents the initial development efforts for HERA.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human phosphate-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras-Martel, Carlos; Carpentier, Philippe; Morales, Renaud; Renault, Frédérique; Chesne-Seck, Marie-Laure; Rochu, Daniel; Masson, Patrick; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan Carlos; Chabrière, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The purification, detergent-exchange protocol and crystallization conditions that led to the discovery of HPBP are reported. HPBP is a new human apoprotein that is absent from the genomic database and is the first phosphate transporter characterized in human plasma. Human phosphate-binding protein (HPBP) was serendipitously discovered by crystallization and X-ray crystallography. HPBP belongs to a eukaryotic protein family named DING that is systematically absent from the genomic database. This apoprotein of 38 kDa copurifies with the HDL-associated apoprotein paraoxonase (PON1) and binds inorganic phosphate. HPBP is the first identified transporter capable of binding phosphate ions in human plasma. Thus, it may be regarded as a predictor of phosphate-related diseases such as atherosclerosis. In addition, HPBP may be a potential therapeutic protein for the treatment of such diseases. Here, the purification, detergent-exchange protocol and crystallization conditions that led to the discovery of HPBP are reported.

  17. Program on Public Conceptions of Science, Newsletter 8. The Ethical and Human Value Implications of Science and Technology: A Preliminary Directory Reviewing Contemporary Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A., Ed.; Holton, Gerald, Ed.

    This is a preliminary resource guide which serves as a directory to current activity in the ethical and human value implications of science and technology. The first section of the guide lists groups active in this area (primarily in the United States), compiled from responses to a letter. Part 2 provides a short list of 20th century classics…

  18. Preclinical TSPO Ligand PET to Visualize Human Glioma Xenotransplants: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Jason R.; McKinley, Eliot T.; Fu, Allie; Abel, Ty W.; Thompson, Reid C.; Chambless, Lola; Watchmaker, Jennifer M.; Harty, James P.; Cooper, Michael K.; Manning, H. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Current positron emission tomography (PET) imaging biomarkers for detection of infiltrating gliomas are limited. Translocator protein (TSPO) is a novel and promising biomarker for glioma PET imaging. To validate TSPO as a potential target for molecular imaging of glioma, TSPO expression was assayed in a tumor microarray containing 37 high-grade (III, IV) gliomas. TSPO staining was detected in all tumor specimens. Subsequently, PET imaging was performed with an aryloxyanilide-based TSPO ligand, [18F]PBR06, in primary orthotopic xenograft models of WHO grade III and IV gliomas. Selective uptake of [18F]PBR06 in engrafted tumor was measured. Furthermore, PET imaging with [18F]PBR06 demonstrated infiltrative glioma growth that was undetectable by traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Preliminary PET with [18F]PBR06 demonstrated a preferential tumor-to-normal background ratio in comparison to 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). These results suggest that TSPO PET imaging with such high-affinity radiotracers may represent a novel strategy to characterize distinct molecular features of glioma growth, as well as better define the extent of glioma infiltration for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26517124

  19. Gene Therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa Caused by MFRP Mutations: Human Phenotype and Preliminary Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Dinculescu, Astra; Estreicher, Jackie; Zenteno, Juan C.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Huang, Wei Chieh; Roman, Alejandro J.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Li, Qiuhong; Deng, Wen-Tao; Min, Seok-Hong; Chiodo, Vince A.; Neeley, Andy; Liu, Xuan; Shu, Xinhua; Matias-Florentino, Margarita; Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; Boye, Sanford L.; Cideciyan, Artur V.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a heterogeneous group of degenerations of the retina, can be due to mutations in the MFRP (membrane-type frizzled-related protein) gene. A patient with RP with MFRP mutations, one of which is novel and the first splice site mutation reported, was characterized by noninvasive retinal and visual studies. The phenotype, albeit complex, suggested that this retinal degeneration may be a candidate for gene-based therapy. Proof-of-concept studies were performed in the rd6 Mfrp mutant mouse model. The fast-acting tyrosine-capsid mutant AAV8 (Y733F) vector containing the small chicken β-actin promoter driving the wild-type mouse Mfrp gene was used. Subretinal vector delivery on postnatal day 14 prevented retinal degeneration. Treatment rescued rod and cone photoreceptors, as assessed by electroretinography and retinal histology at 2 months of age. This AAV-mediated gene delivery also resulted in robust MFRP expression predominantly in its normal location within the retinal pigment epithelium apical membrane and its microvilli. The clinical features of MFRP-RP and our preliminary data indicating a response to gene therapy in the rd6 mouse suggest that this form of RP is a potential target for gene-based therapy. PMID:22142163

  20. Gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa caused by MFRP mutations: human phenotype and preliminary proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Dinculescu, Astra; Estreicher, Jackie; Zenteno, Juan C; Aleman, Tomas S; Schwartz, Sharon B; Huang, Wei Chieh; Roman, Alejandro J; Sumaroka, Alexander; Li, Qiuhong; Deng, Wen-Tao; Min, Seok-Hong; Chiodo, Vince A; Neeley, Andy; Liu, Xuan; Shu, Xinhua; Matias-Florentino, Margarita; Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; Boye, Sanford L; Cideciyan, Artur V; Hauswirth, William W; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2012-04-01

    Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a heterogeneous group of degenerations of the retina, can be due to mutations in the MFRP (membrane-type frizzled-related protein) gene. A patient with RP with MFRP mutations, one of which is novel and the first splice site mutation reported, was characterized by noninvasive retinal and visual studies. The phenotype, albeit complex, suggested that this retinal degeneration may be a candidate for gene-based therapy. Proof-of-concept studies were performed in the rd6 Mfrp mutant mouse model. The fast-acting tyrosine-capsid mutant AAV8 (Y733F) vector containing the small chicken β-actin promoter driving the wild-type mouse Mfrp gene was used. Subretinal vector delivery on postnatal day 14 prevented retinal degeneration. Treatment rescued rod and cone photoreceptors, as assessed by electroretinography and retinal histology at 2 months of age. This AAV-mediated gene delivery also resulted in robust MFRP expression predominantly in its normal location within the retinal pigment epithelium apical membrane and its microvilli. The clinical features of MFRP-RP and our preliminary data indicating a response to gene therapy in the rd6 mouse suggest that this form of RP is a potential target for gene-based therapy.

  1. Selenium determination in whole human blood by radiochemical neutron activation analysis: preliminary results in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Sonia Edith; Martín de Portela, María Luz Pita; Resnizky, Sara Manuela

    2002-09-01

    In Argentina there are no values regarding the content selenium in food or its effect on nutritional status. Neutron activation analysis and a radiochemical separation scheme for selenium has been adjusted for blood samples from healthy adult individuals. Fasting whole blood was collected, lyophilized, packed, and irradiated in a nuclear reactor. Selenium was determined by a radiochemical separation. The method was validated using certified reference materials. The selenium concentrations (mean value +/- SD) from five pools and from 22 individual samples were 0.070 +/- 0.020 microgram/ml and 0.071 +/- 0.014 microgram/ml, respectively, ranging between 0.047 to 0.105 microgram/ml. These preliminary results show values close to those published for the population living in areas with adequate selenium intake, but lower values than those published for the USA population. However, it will be necessary to carry out nutritional status studies in other areas of Argentina, taking into account the geographic and topographic diversity of the country.

  2. Preliminary analysis of the distribution of water in human hair by small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Yash; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ramaprasad, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion and distribution of water in hair can reveal the internal structure of hair that determines the penetration of various products used to treat hair. The distribution of water into different morphological components in unmodified hair, cuticle-free hair, and hair saturated with oil at various levels of humidity was examined using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) by substituting water with deuterium oxide (D(2)O). Infrared spectroscopy was used to follow hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Water present in hair gives basically two types of responses in SANS: (i) interference patterns, and (ii) central diffuse scattering (CDS) around the beam stop. The amount of water in the matrix between the intermediate filaments that gives rise to interference patterns remained essentially constant over the 50-98% humidity range without swelling this region of the fiber extensively. This observation suggests that a significant fraction of water in the hair, which contributes to the CDS, is likely located in a different morphological region of hair that is more like pores in a fibrous structure, which leads to significant additional swelling of the fiber. Comparison of the scattering of hair treated with oil shows that soybean oil, which diffuses less into hair, allows more water into hair than coconut oil. These preliminary results illustrate the utility of SANS for evaluating and understanding the diffusion of deuterated liquids into different morphological structures in hair.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the PIN domain of human EST1A

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Zenno, Shuhei; Lee, Woo Cheol; Saigo, Kaoru; Tanokura, Masaru

    2006-07-01

    The PIN domain of human EST1A was expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Human EST1A (ever shorter telomeres 1A) is associated with most or all active telomerase in cell extracts and is involved either directly or indirectly in telomere elongation and telomere capping. The C-terminal region of EST1A contains the PIN (PilT N-terminus) domain, a putative nuclease domain. The PIN domain of human EST1A was expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 107.3, b = 51.6, c = 100.5 Å, β = 119.3°, and diffracted X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of the PIN domain and the solvent content was 57%.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human Rad GTPase

    SciTech Connect

    Yanuar, Arry; Sakurai, Shigeru; Kitano, Ken; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2005-11-01

    Human Rad has been crystallized. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Human Rad is a new member of the Ras GTPase superfamily and is overexpressed in human skeletal muscle of individuals with type II diabetes. The GTPase core domain was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified for crystallization. Crystals were obtained at 293 K by vapour diffusion using a crystallization robot. The crystals were found to belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.2, b = 58.6, c = 53.4 Å, β = 97.9°, and contained two Rad molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8.

  5. Effects of refrigeration on the bactericidal activity of human milk: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Costa, Cecilia; Silvestre, María Dolores; López, María Carmen; Plaza, Auxiliadora; Miranda, María; Guijarro, Raquel

    2007-08-01

    This study analyzed the bactericidal activity of human milk and how it is influenced by refrigerated storage. Nine samples of mature human milk were collected and divided into 3 aliquots. One was analyzed immediately, and the other 2 were refrigerated at 4 degrees C to 6 degrees C for 48 and 72 hours, respectively. All of the fresh samples exhibited bactericidal activity with an average value of 83.47% +/- 18.37%. Refrigeration for 48 hours did not cause significant modifications, whereas storage beyond 72 hours significantly lowered the degree of bacteriolysis versus fresh milk. In conclusion, human milk possesses bactericidal activity that remains stable during the first 48 hours of refrigerated storage, but it is significantly reduced beyond 72 hours.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on human Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein S100B

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorp, Thorsten; Heizmann, Claus W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Fritz, Günter

    2005-07-01

    Human recombinant EF-hand Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein S100B has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded to 1.9 Å. S100B, a Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein, acts intracellularly as a Ca{sup 2+}-signalling protein but is also secreted to the extracellular space, acting in a cytokine-like manner through its receptor RAGE. Recombinant human S100B has been purified and crystallized in the Ca{sup 2+}-bound state. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates that S100B can exist as a dimer and as a multimer in solution. Crystals of S100B diffract to 1.9 Å and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 81.6, c = 71.5 Å, α = 90, β = 107, γ = 90°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicate that there are four homodimers per asymmetric unit.

  7. The Preliminary Study Of Giant Magnetoresistance Sensor For Detection Of Oxygen In Human Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Ramli; Muhtadi, Almas Hilman; Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi; Haryanto, Freddy; Khairurrijal; Djamal, Mitra

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, there has been great progress for applications of nanomaterials in medicine field. Human body consists of many atoms and they can be treated like as nanomaterials. One of them is oxygen. Oxygen is always found in the human blood. Its concentration in human blood gives information about the metabolism in the body. The purpose of this study was to look for a possibility for developing tool to detect the concentration of oxygen in blood. In this study, the giant-magneto-resistance (GMR) sensor is implemented. The GMR sensor has many attractive features, for example: reduced size, low-power consumption, low price, as compared to other magnetic sensors and its electric and magnetic properties can be varied in very wide range. In this experiment, we developed the structure of GMR materials NiCoFe/Cu/NiCoFe sandwich as a GMR sensor. The NiCoFe/Cu/NiCoFe sandwiches were grown onto Si (111) substrates by the dc-opposed target magnetron sputtering (dc-OTMS) technique. The sputtering targets were NiCoFe and Cu. To achieve the aims of this study, the blood transports in human will be simulated using a simple experimental model. This model has some parameters representing those in blood transport. Furthermore, the nanomagnetic material will be made as a contaminant particle in blood. Using this material some properties of the transport will be investigated.

  8. Evaluation of the interaction between calcifying nanoparticles and human dental pulp cells: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Zeng, Jinfeng; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xi; Ling, Junqi

    2010-12-15

    Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs, previously called nanobacteria) are self-propagating, cultivable macromolecular complexes. Their extraordinary characteristic is that they can aggregate carbonate apatite on their envelope from soluble calcium and phosphorus at physiologic concentrations and display cytotoxic effects on murine and human fibroblast cell lines. The question arises whether CNPs contribute to the degeneration of pulp tissue and thus result in clinically significant human dental pulp stones as nidies. This study evaluates CNPs' effects upon human dental pulp cells (HDPCs, the host cells in pulp tissue). We observed the ultrastructural variation of HDPCs attacked by CNPs. The spatial relationship of HDPCs and CNPs after coculture was also identified by immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, it was verified by MTT viability assay that CNPs isolated from dental pulp stones exerted cytotoxic effect on HDPCs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the existence of CNPs might interfere with the normal physiologic function of the cells, and that might lead to dental pulp calcification. Elucidation of the cytotoxic characteristics of CNPs may offer a new perspective for understanding the etiology of human dental pulp stones.

  9. Human Relations and Community Life in Rural New York State: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    Trends, strengths and assets, weaknesses and problem areas, goals, and public policy questions in the area of human relations and community life in rural New York state are presented with supporting statistics. Trends considered include rural and elderly rural population increases; suicide, homicide, and domestic violence rate increases; demands…

  10. Guide to Paperback Translations in the Humanities: A Teacher's Handbook. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffel, Burton, Comp.

    This teacher's handbook is a guide to available paperback translations of primary material in the humanities field. The selections chosen to be included are recommended by the compiler as the best English translations available. The book is divided into sections chronologically: (1) ancient, to 450 A.D.; (2) medieval, 450-1500 A.D.; (3) early…

  11. Preliminary Humanities Tech Scout Report [and] Scouting for Multimedia, the Search Goes On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyskens, Lois

    In 1990, the Dallas County Community College District's (DCCCD's) Computer Center recruited three technology scouts (faculty members interested in media) to locate, preview, and evaluate multimedia products that could be used in the classroom. The technology scout for the humanities found and previewed products that could be used in…

  12. Preliminary evidence for an association between LRP-1 genotype and body mass index in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The LDL receptor-related protein-1 gene (LRP-1) has been associated with obesity in animal models, but no such association has yet been reported in humans. As data suggest this increase in fat mass may be mediated through a mechanism involving the clearance of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (...

  13. Lubricin expression in human osteoarthritic knee meniscus and synovial fluid: a morphological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosalia; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castorina, Sergio; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lubricin, the product of the human PRG4 (proteoglycan 4) gene, in menisci and synovial fluid from normal donors and patients with osteoarthritis (OA), using a combination of histology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting analysis, to provide further insight on the role of this protein in the progression of OA and pathological processes in the meniscus. Lubricin expression was studied in samples from 40 patients and in 9 normal donors after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Histological analysis confirmed normal microanatomy and the absence of structural changes in control samples. Menisci derived from OA patients showed evidence of structural alterations, fibrillations and clefts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed very strong lubricin immunostaining in normal menisci in contrast to weak/moderate staining seen in osteoarthritic menisci. Quantitative ELISA and Western blot analysis confirmed the above results. The findings of this study support the notion that changes in lubricin expression and boundary-lubricating ability of cartilage is followed by the development of OA. This study could provide the biological foundation for the development of novel therapeutic treatments, to be applied before the surgery, for the prevention of post-traumatic cartilage damage.

  14. Human-FES Cooperative Control for Wrist Movement: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Gui, Kai; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-06-13

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP) neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  15. Preliminary neutron diffraction analysis of challenging human manganese superoxide dismutase crystals.

    PubMed

    Azadmanesh, Jahaun; Trickel, Scott R; Weiss, Kevin L; Coates, Leighton; Borgstahl, Gloria E O

    2017-04-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are enzymes that protect against oxidative stress by dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide through cyclic reduction and oxidation of the active-site metal. The complete enzymatic mechanisms of SODs are unknown since data on the positions of hydrogen are limited. Here, methods are presented for large crystal growth and neutron data collection of human manganese SOD (MnSOD) using perdeuteration and the MaNDi beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The crystal from which the human MnSOD data set was obtained is the crystal with the largest unit-cell edge (240 Å) from which data have been collected via neutron diffraction to sufficient resolution (2.30 Å) where hydrogen positions can be observed.

  16. Implementing evidence-based practice in human service organizations: preliminary lessons from the frontlines.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves the integration of the expertise of individual practitioners with the best available evidence within the context of values and expectations of clients. Little is known about the implementation of evidence-based practice in the human services. This article is based on a comprehensive search of the literature related to the organizational factors needed to introduce EBP into a human service agency, tools for assessing organizational readiness for EBP, and lessons learned from the current implementation efforts. Three approaches to implementing EBP are investigated: the micro (increasing worker skills), macro (strengthening systems and structures), and the combination (focusing on both aspects). Conclusions and recommendations are drawn from the literature review and framed in the form of a tool for assessing organizational readiness for EBP implementation.

  17. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Shun-ichiro; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2006-03-01

    Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a haem-containing dioxygenase, was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a haem-containing dioxygenase that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the pyrrole ring of indoleamines by the insertion of molecular oxygen. This reaction is the first and the rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway, the major Trp catabolic pathway in mammals. Recombinant human IDO was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The addition of 4-phenylimidazole as a haem ligand was essential for crystallization. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.1, b = 98.0, c = 131.0 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution.

  19. Preliminary neutron diffraction analysis of challenging human manganese superoxide dismutase crystals

    PubMed Central

    Azadmanesh, Jahaun; Trickel, Scott R.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.

    2017-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are enzymes that protect against oxidative stress by dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide through cyclic reduction and oxidation of the active-site metal. The complete enzymatic mechanisms of SODs are unknown since data on the positions of hydrogen are limited. Here, methods are presented for large crystal growth and neutron data collection of human manganese SOD (MnSOD) using perdeuteration and the MaNDi beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The crystal from which the human MnSOD data set was obtained is the crystal with the largest unit-cell edge (240 Å) from which data have been collected via neutron diffraction to sufficient resolution (2.30 Å) where hydrogen positions can be observed. PMID:28368283

  20. Preliminary results of a new proposal for objective human independent striae measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, S.; Hartmann, P.; Petzold, U.; Lempa, C.

    2017-06-01

    Optical glasses with certain inner quality e.g. low striae content are essential for good optical systems. A stria is a small local change in the refractive index inside the glass resulting in a wave front distortion that can cause blurring of the image. During the production process of optical glass, striae are observed by measuring it with the so-called shadow graph method. This simple measurement displays a stria as a shadow on an observation screen. A human operator evaluates the contrast by comparing it with references. The new proposed approach uses a digital camera and image processing to measure human independent the stria level. A first repeatability measurement shows wave front deviation (maximum deviation, peak-topeak) of less than +/- 8 nm.

  1. Human-FES Cooperative Control for Wrist Movement: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Kai; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP) neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller. PMID:27990243

  2. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results.

  3. Immunofluorometric assay of human kallikrein 6 (zyme/protease M/neurosin) and preliminary clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Diamandis, E P; Yousef, G M; Soosaipillai, A R; Grass, L; Porter, A; Little, S; Sotiropoulou, G

    2000-07-01

    The human kallikrein gene family has contributed the best prostatic biomarkers currently available, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2). Recently, new members of the human kallikrein gene family have been identified. One new member is the KLK6 gene, encoding for human kallikrein 6 (hK6), which is also known as zyme/protease M/neurosin. In this paper, we describe development of antibodies and a sensitive immunofluorometric procedure for hK6 protein. Recombinant hK6 protein was used as immunogen to develop polyclonal antibodies in rabbits and mice. These antibodies were used to develop a sandwich-type time-resolved immunofluorometric procedure for hK6. The newly developed hK6 immunofluorometric assay has a detection limit of 0.5 microg/L and upper concentration range of 200 microg/L. The assay is highly specific (no detectable cross-reactivity from PSA and hK2) and was used to quantify hK6 protein in various biologic fluids. Highest concentrations of hK6 were found in milk of lactating women, cerebral spinal fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, and breast cyst fluid. hK6 was also detected in male and female serum, in the majority of seminal plasmas and in a small fraction of amniotic fluids and breast tumor cytosols. hK6 was not detectable in urine. Chromatographic studies indicated that hK6 is present in these biologic fluids in its free, 30-kDa form. This is the first reported sensitive immunofluorometric procedure for quantifying hK6 protein. hK6 is a secreted proteolytic enzyme that is found at high levels in cerebrospinal fluid and all breast secretions. This assay will facilitate further studies to examine the possible application of hK6 in diagnostics, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Characterization of the Human Proteomic Response to Hydrocodone: A Preliminary Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    hippocampus and striatum after exposure to morphine , lnt J Mol Med 18 (2006) 775-784. [50] Z.H. Wen, G.J. Wu, L.C. Hsu, W.F. Chen, J.Y. Chen, H.A...McMillin, F.M. Urry, Simultaneous determination of codeine, morphine , hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and 6-acetylmorphine in urine, serum...Simultaneous assay of morphine , morphine -3-glucuronide and morphine -6-glucuronide in human plasma using normal-phase liquid chromatography-tandem

  5. Recreational music-making modulates the human stress response: a preliminary individualized gene expression strategy.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Barry; Berk, Lee; Shannon, Mark; Sharaf, Muhammad; Westengard, Jim; Guegler, Karl J; Ruff, David W

    2005-02-01

    A central component of the complex human biological stress response is the modulation of the neuro-endocrine-immune system with its intricate feedback loops that support homeostatic regulation. Well-documented marked gene expression variability among human and animal subjects coupled with sample collection timing and delayed effects, as well as a host of molecular detection challenges renders the quest for deciphering the human biological stress response challenging from many perspectives. A novel Recreational Music-Making (RMM) program was used in combination with a new strategy for peripheral blood gene expression analysis to assess individualized genomic stress induction signatures. The expression of 45 immune response-related genes was determined using a multiplex preamplification step prior to conventional quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) mRNA analysis to characterize the multidimensional biological impact of a 2-phase controlled stress induction/amelioration experimental protocol in 32 randomly assigned individuals. In subjects performing the RMM activity following a 1-hour stress induction protocol, 19 out of 45 markers demonstrated reversal with significant (P = 0.05) Pearson correlations in contrast to 6 out of 45 markers in the resting control group and 0 out of 45 in the ongoing stressor group. The resultant amelioration of stress-induced genomic expression supports the underlying premise that RMM warrants additional consideration as a rational choice within our armamentarium of stress reduction strategies. Modulation of individualized genomic stress induction signatures in peripheral blood presents a new opportunity for elucidating the dynamics of the human stress response.

  6. Effects of Head Impact Acceleration on Human Performance: Overview and Preliminary Battery Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Rimel , Giordani, Barth, Boll, & Jane, 1981). Human performance disruptions caused by impact acceleration are the focus of the present investigation...National Safety Council, 1979; Rimel , et al., 1981; Sances, Weber, Larson, et al., 1981). Part of the NBDL modeling effort involves the use of...Unterharnscheldt, 1983). Transient reduction in the amplitude of the cortical SSEPs occurred as a linear function of the level of frontal impact (-X

  7. [Preliminary establishment of transplanted human chronic myeloid leukemia model in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Min; Ding, Xin; Zhang, Long-Zhen; Cen, Jian-Nong; Chen, Zi-Xing

    2011-12-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clonal disease derived from hematopoietic stem cells. CML stem cells were thought to be the root which could lead disease development and ultimately rapid change. However, a stable animal model for studying the characteristics of CML stem cells is currently lacking. This study was aimed to establish a transplanted human CML nude-mice model to further explore the biological behavior of CML stem cells in vivo, and to enrich CML stem cells in nude mice by series transplantation. The 4 - 6 weeks old BALB/c nude mice pretreated by splenectomy (S), cytoxan intraperitoneal injection (C) and sublethal irradiation (I) were transplanted intravenously with (5 - 7) × 10(7) of bone marrow mononuclear cells from CML patients in chronic phase. Alternatively, 4 - 6 weeks old BALB/c nude mice pretreated by lethal irradiation were transplanted intravenously with 5 × 10(6) homologous bone marrow cells of BALB/c nude mice together with (5 - 7) × 10(7) of bone marrow mononuclear cells from CML patients in chronic phase simultaneously. The leukemic cells engrafted and infiltrated in organs and bone marrow of the mice were tracked by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), plastic-embedded biopsy and flow cytometry. The results of these two methods were compared. The results showed that human CML cells engrafted and infiltrating into the bone marrow of two nude mice pretreated with SCI could be detected. In spite of the low successful rate, results suggested the feasibility of this method by using BALB/c nude mice as a human CML animal model. In contrast, in nude mice pretreated by the lethal dose irradiation, CML cells in the bone marrow could not be found. It is concluded that human bone marrow CML cells can results in leukemia in nude mice pretreated by SCI. Thus this study provides a new strategy for establishment of CML animal models which deserves further elaboration.

  8. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human agmatinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Ahn, Hyung Jun; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Ha, Jun-Yong; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2005-10-01

    Agmatine, which results from the decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of putresine and higher polyamines (spermidine and spermine). Recent studies indicate that agmatine can have several important biochemical effects in humans, ranging from effects on the central nervous system to cell proliferation in cancer and viral replication. Agmatinase catalyses the hydrolysis of agmatine to putresine and urea and is a major target for drug action and development. The human agmatinase gene encodes a 352-residue protein with a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence at the N-terminus. Human agmatinase (residues Ala36-Val352) has been overexpressed as a fusion with both N- and C-terminal purification tags in Escherichia coli and crystallized in the presence of Mn2+ and 1,6-diaminohexane at 297 K using polyethylene glycol 4000 as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K to 2.49 A from a flash-frozen crystal. The crystals are tetragonal, belonging to space group P4(2), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 114.54, c = 125.65 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees. Three monomers are likely to be present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (VM) of 3.66 A3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 66.4%.

  9. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human agmatinase

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Ahn, Hyung Jun; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Ha, Jun-Yong; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2005-01-01

    Agmatine, which results from the decarboxylation of l-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of putresine and higher polyamines (spermidine and spermine). Recent studies indicate that agmatine can have several important biochemical effects in humans, ranging from effects on the central nervous system to cell proliferation in cancer and viral replication. Agmatinase catalyses the hydrolysis of agmatine to putresine and urea and is a major target for drug action and development. The human agmatinase gene encodes a 352-residue protein with a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence at the N-terminus. Human agmatinase (residues Ala36–Val352) has been overexpressed as a fusion with both N- and C-­terminal purification tags in Escherichia coli and crystallized in the presence of Mn2+ and 1,6-diaminohexane at 297 K using polyethylene glycol 4000 as a precipitant. X-­ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K to 2.49 Å from a flash-frozen crystal. The crystals are tetragonal, belonging to space group P42, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 114.54, c = 125.65 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Three monomers are likely to be present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V M) of 3.66 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 66.4%. PMID:16511187

  10. Preliminary evidence of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae) attraction to human skin odour extracts.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario Iván; Molina, Jorge

    2010-02-01

    Host-seeking behaviour displayed by the haematophagous triatomine Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859 is influenced by different cues involving heat, moisture and odours. Concentrations of volatile odours present in human sweat and breath that activate, attract or non-attract triatomines were tested behaviourally with a double choice olfactometer in adults of R. prolixus. Attraction of a mixture of substances carried by a controlled air-stream was established and compared with volatiles from human extracts obtained by rubbing face, hands or feet. Volatiles from face and feet extracts showed a higher attraction to triatomines than hand extracts. Only volatiles from face extracts attracted significantly more insects than the other extracts when they were compared with the mixture. Face extract attractiveness was reduced at least for 1h after treatment with an anti-bacterial gel. Our experiments not only confirm that the mixture of compounds was attractive, but also suggest that probably microflora compounds present mainly in face extracts improve its attractiveness. Triatomines preference to bite on human face has epidemiological implications on vectorial Chagas disease transmission by increasing Trypanosoma cruzi contact with mucosal tissue. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling EEG fractal dimension changes in wake and drowsy states in humans--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bojić, Tijana; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Kalauzi, Aleksandar

    2010-01-21

    Aim of this preliminary study was to examine and compare topographic distribution of Higuchi's fractal dimension (FD, measure of signal complexity) of EEG signals between states of relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness, as well as their FD differences. The experiments were performed on 10 healthy individuals using a fourteen-channel montage. An explanation is offered on the causes of the detected FD changes. FD values of 60s records belonging to wake (Hori's stage 1) and drowsy (Hori's stages 2-4) states were calculated for each channel and each subject. In 136 out of 140 epochs an increase in FD was obtained. Relationship between signal FD and its relative alpha amplitude was mathematically modeled and we quantitatively demonstrated that the increase in FD was predominantly due to a reduction in alpha activity. The model was generalized to include other EEG oscillations. By averaging FD values for each channel across 10 subjects, four clusters (O2O1; T6P4T5P3; C3F3F4C4F8F7; T4T3) for the wake and two clusters (O2O1P3T6P4T5; C3C4F4F3F8T4T3F7) for the drowsy state were statistically verified. Topographic distribution of FD values in wakefulness showed a lateral symmetry and a partial fronto-occipital gradient. In drowsiness, a reduction in the number of clusters was detected, due to regrouping of channels T3, T4, O1 and O2. Topographic distribution of absolute FD differences revealed largest values at F7, O1 and F3. Reorganization of channel clusters showed that regionalized brain activity, specific for wakefulness, became more global by entering into drowsiness. Since the global increase in FD during wake-to-drowsy transition correlated with the decrease of alpha power, we inferred that increase of EEG complexity may not necessarily be an index of brain activation.

  12. Facilitating myoelectric-control with transcranial direct current stimulation: a preliminary study in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    during 'proportional EMG control’ when compared to M1 anodal and sham tDCS. Conclusions The preliminary results from healthy subjects showed specific, and at least partially antagonistic effects, of M1 and cerebellar anodal tDCS on motor performance during myoelectric control. These results are encouraging, but further studies are necessary to better define how tDCS over particular regions of the cerebellum may facilitate learning of myoelectric control for brain machine interfaces. PMID:24507410

  13. Preliminary experiments on dynamic biology of micro-organisms to avoid any specific full-blown syndrome on humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meer, Sneer

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply an efficient system to detect, identify and quicken suppression of any dangerous micro-organism which threatens the health of the human body in any form. It is well known that some specimens of this kind of possess a specific energy related to their speed of division, toxin emissions and high-powered interaction with human and animal cells which have the capacity to provide certain deadly full-blown syndromes. Many problems relating to the above-mentioned properties have not been clarified to date, and it is vital to find a rapid and valid reply as soon as possible. Inter-disciplinary sciences directed us to start some experiments to solve such problems, considering that the human body is dotted with a multiple interactive system of energy release, a fact which can explain the source of the micro-organism's energy also, for their necessity to manifest their deadly pathology. From practical preliminary experiments with some micro-mechanical systems using light-microscopy, connected to video TV Recorder System, one obtains optical enlarged TV images of certain processes which indicated the right way towards our crucial target; ie: the preparation of safe vaccines and safe medicines. This will constitute a basic system to a void deadly manifestations of dangerous micro-organisms and/or even regular infections on earth and in space, a system which will probably be applied at the ISS Space Station and other future actions in space in long and very long flights. We look forward to applying this system of dynamic biology towards preparation of a real and valid vaccine(s) against HIV virus on AIDS diseases.

  14. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Lidocaine on Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jurj, Ancuta; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Tat, Tiberiu T; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Vesa, Stefan V; Ionescu, Daniela C

    2017-03-01

    It is now well documented that certain anesthetic techniques may influence long term outcome in cancer patients undergoing surgery. More recently, local anesthetics proved certain antiproliferative effects in cancer cells. In our study, we aimed to investigate if lidocaine has antiproliferative effects in human hepatocarcinoma cells and to identify possible mechanisms of these effects. We investigated the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of lidocaine on the proliferation of cultured HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells and LX2 normal liver fibroblasts. Cells were exposed to nine different concentrations of lidocaine for 72h. MTT assay was used to investigate HepG2 and LX2 proliferation while Western blotting was used for detection of p53 expression level. Our data showed that lidocaine inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner in both HepG2 and LX2. The antiproliferative effects of lidocaine in LX2 were significantly diminished as compared with those in HepG2 (p< 0.001). Similarly, the expression level of p53 was significant decreased in HepG2 lines treated with lidocaine as compared with control and LX2 (p = 0.0241). In clinically relevant concentrations, lidocaine had significant antiproliferative effects on human hepatocarcinoma cells. These effects were time and dose-dependent. One of the possible mechanisms of these effects is by modifying the P53 expression level. The relevance of these findings in clinical practice is limited; clinical impact of these effects on the outcome of patients with hepatocarcinoma undergoing surgery or minimal invasive procedures needs to be demonstrated in future animal models and clinical studies.

  15. Evaluation of the tensile strength of the human ureter--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Yaniv; Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Averch, Timothy D; Vorp, David A

    2014-12-01

    Ureteral injuries such as avulsion are directly related to mechanical damage of the ureter. Understanding the tensile strength of this tissue may assist in prevention of iatrogenic injuries. Few published studies have looked at the mechanical properties of the animal ureter and, of those, none has determined the tensile strength of the human ureter. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to determine the tensile strength of the human ureter. We harvested 11 human proximal ureters from patients who were undergoing nephrectomy for either kidney tumors or nonfunctioning kidney. The specimens were then cut into multiple circumferentially and longitudinally oriented tissue strips for tensile testing. Strips were uniaxially stretched to failure in a tensile testing machine. The corresponding force and displacement were recorded. Finally, stress at failure was noted as the tensile strength of the sample. Circumferential tensile strength was also compared in the proximal and distal regions of the specimens. The tensile strength of the ureter in circumferential and longitudinal orientations was found to be 457.52±33.74 Ncm(-2) and 902.43±122.08 Ncm(-2), respectively (P<0.001). The circumferential strength in the proximal portion of the ureter was 409.89±35.13 Ncm(-2) in comparison with 502.89±55.85 Ncm(-2) in the distal portion (P=0.08). The circumferential tensile strength of the ureter was found to be significantly lower than the longitudinal strength. Circumferential tensile strength was also lower with more proximal parts of the ureter. This information may be important for the design of "intelligent" devices and simulators to prevent complications.

  16. Evaluation of the tensile strength of the human ureter - Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Yaniv; Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Averch, Timothy D; Vorp, David A

    2014-09-15

    Introduction: Ureteral injuries such as avulsion are directly related to mechanical damage of the ureter. Understanding the tensile strength of this tissue may assist in prevention of iatrogenic injuries. Few published studies have looked at the mechanical properties of the animal ureter, and of those none have determined the tensile strength of the human ureter. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to determine the tensile strength of the human ureter. Materials and Methods: We harvested 11 human proximal ureters from patients who were undergoing nephrectomy for either kidney tumors or non-functioning kidney. The specimens were then cut into multiple circumferentially and longitudinally-oriented tissue strips for tensile testing. Strips were uniaxially stretched to failure in a tensile testing machine. The corresponding force and displacement were recorded. Finally, stress at failure was noted as the tensile strength of the sample. Circumferential tensile strength was also compared in the proximal and distal regions of the specimens. Results: The tensile strength of the ureter in circumferential and longitudinal orientations was found to be 457.52±33.74 Ncm-2 and 902.43±122.08 Ncm-2, respectively (p<0.001). The circumferential strength in the proximal portion of the ureter was 409.89±35.13 Ncm-2 in comparison to 502.89±55.85 Ncm-2 in the distal portion (p=0.08). Conclusions: The circumferential tensile strength of the ureter was found to be significantly lower than the longitudinal strength. Circumferential tensile strength was also lower with more proximal parts of the ureter. This information may be important for the design of "intelligent" devices and simulators in order to prevent complications.

  17. NOTE: A preliminary study for non-invasive quantification of manganese in human hand bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A.; Chettle, D. R.; McNeill, F. E.; Pysklywec, M. W.; Oudyk, J.

    2008-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body, but it is also toxic when humans are excessively exposed to Mn. Blood (or serum/plasma) and other body fluids reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive measurement of Mn stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following feasibility studies, a first pilot study, using neutron activation analysis to measure Mn in the bones of the hand of ten healthy male human subjects, was conducted with the approval of the concerned research ethics boards. The participants of this study had no known history of exposure to Mn. Two volunteers were excluded from this study due to technical problems with their measurements. The inverse variance weighted mean value of Mn/Ca for the participants of this study is 0.12 ± 0.68 µg Mn/g Ca which is comparable within uncertainties with the estimated range of 0.16 0.78 µg Mn/g Ca and mean value of 0.63 ± 0.30 µg Mn/g Ca derived from cadaver data. It is recommended to investigate the use of the diagnostic technique for in vivo measurements of workers exposed occupationally to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. The technique needs further development to improve the precision of in vivo measurements in the non-exposed population.

  18. Characterization of the Human Proteomic Response to Hydrocodone: A Preliminary Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    analysis of rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum after exposure to morphine , In! J Mol Med 18 (2006) 775-784. [50] Z.H. Wen, G.J. Wu, L.C...Coles, M.M. Kushnir, G.J. Nelson, G.A. McMillin, F.M. Urry, Simultaneous determination of codeine, morphine , hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone...Jiang, M. Wehling , J.D. Hulse, P.P. Lin, Simultaneous assay of morphine , morphine -3-glucuronide and morphine -6-glucuronide in human plasma using

  19. Fukushima nuclear accident: preliminary assessment of the risks to non-human biota.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Liman, Muhammad Sanusi

    2015-02-01

    This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan.

  20. Preliminary evidence for spectral opponency in the suppression of melatonin by light in humans.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Bullough, John D; Parsons, Robert H; Rea, Mark S

    2004-02-09

    Human adult males were exposed to light from blue light emitting diodes (18 lux; 29 microW/cm) and from clear mercury vapor lamps (450 lux; 170 microW/cm) during night-time experimental sessions. Both conditions suppressed nocturnal melatonin concentrations in blood plasma with the blue light more effective than mercury at melatonin suppression. No additive model incorporating opsin photopigments either alone or in combination could explain the results, but a model incorporating an opponent mechanism was consistent with the present data as well as data from previously published studies.

  1. Caffeine as an indicator of human fecal contamination in the Sinos River: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Linden, R; Antunes, M V; Heinzelmann, L S; Fleck, J D; Staggemeier, R; Fabres, R B; Vecchia, A D; Nascimento, C A; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The preservation of hydric resources is directly related to fecal contamination monitoring, in order to allow the development of strategies for the management of polluting sources. In the present study, twenty-five water samples from six water public supply collection sites were used for the evaluation of the presence of caffeine, total and fecal coliforms. Caffeine was detected in all samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.15 ng mL-1 to 16.72 ng mL-1. Total coliforms were detected in all samples, with concentrations in the range of 52 NMP/100 mL to higher than 24196 NMP/100 mL, whether the concentration range for fecal coliforms was in the range of below 1 NMP/100 mL to 7800 NMP/100 mL. No significant correlation was found between total coliforms and caffeine concentrations (rs = 0.35, p = 0.09). However, a moderate correlation between fecal coliforms and caffeine concentrations was found (rs = 0.412, p <0.05), probably indicating a human source for these bacteria. Caffeine determination in water may be a useful strategy to evaluate water contamination by human fecal waste.

  2. Decellularized human Schneiderian membrane: electron microscopic study as a bioscaffold and preliminary cell seeding.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Khalife, Hussein H

    2014-12-01

    Perforation of maxillary sinus mucous membrane is one of the most prevalent complications during open sinus lift surgery. Moreover, such complication can usually be managed by an absorbable membrane. As far as absorbable membranes are concerned, decellularized maxillary sinus mucous membrane, which is an extracellular matrix, can be used as a biologic scaffold and an insulating membrane in sinus lifting surgery. The decellularization process of the maxillary sinus membrane was performed by means of physical and chemical procedures (liquid nitrogen and sodium dodecyl sulfate). Then this membrane was used as a bioscaffold for culturing with adult mesenchymal stem cells, which were derived from adipose tissue. Histologic evaluation of the decellularized scaffold revealed that cells of the Schneiderian membrane were compatibly removed via SDS 1%. Moreover, the scan with electron microscope (S6N - Leo vp1450, Germany) of the scaffold indicated that the collagen fibers of the decellularized maxillary sinus membrane were intact. Furthermore, the culture studies carried out showed that this scaffold supported cell seeding. The decellularized human maxillary Schneiderian membrane has a 3D structure similar to that of the extracellular matrix of human normal tissues. As a matter of fact, it can be used as a bioscaffold to support cell seeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial expression and preliminary crystallographic studies of a 149-residue fragment of human Caprin-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuhong; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Xiaolan; Du, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    Caprin-1 is an RNA-binding protein which plays critical roles in several important biological processes, including cellular proliferation, the interferon-mediated antiviral innate immune response, the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and the formation of RNA stress granules. Caprin-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including osteo­sarcoma, breast cancer, viral infections, hearing loss and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the emerging biological and physiopathological significance of Caprin-1, no structural information is available for this protein. Moreover, Caprin-1 does not have sequence similarity to any other protein with a known structure. It is therefore expected that structural studies will play a particularly crucial role in revealing the functional mechanisms of Caprin-1. Here, a protein fragment of human Caprin-1 consisting of residues 112–260 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Native and Se-SAD data sets were collected to resolutions to 2.05 and 2.65 Å, respectively, in different space groups. PMID:25760709

  4. Osteonic organization of limb bones in mammals, including humans, and birds: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Castrogiovanni, Paola; Imbesi, Rosa; Fisichella, Marco; Mazzone, Venera

    2011-01-01

    As it is well known, bone tissue is characterized by a calcified extracellular matrix which makes this tissue suitable to support the body and protect the inner organs. Lamellar bone tissue is organized in lamellae, 3-7 microm in thickness, and arranged concentrically around vascular channels: the basic structure in this type of organization is called Haversian system or osteon and the diameter of osteons depends on the number of lamellae. Shape and regional density of osteons are related to the bone segment and the specific functional requirements to meet. Aim of this study is to correlate the compact bone tissue microstructure in various classes of mammals, including humans, and birds in order to find an adequate identification key. The results of our study show that in bone tissue samples from various classes of mammals, including humans, and birds the osteonic structure shows peculiar features, often depending on the rate of bone remodelling, different in different animal species. We conclude that a careful microscopic analysis of bone tissue and the characterization of distinctive osteonic features could give a major contribution to forensic medicine to obtain a more reliable recognition of bone findings.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the human GTP fucose pyrophosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, Stephen; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L.

    2006-04-01

    The human GTP fucose pyrophosphohydrolase protein has been crystallized via the hanging-drop technique over a reservoir of polyethylene glycol (MW 8000) and ethylene glycol. The orthorhombic crystals diffract to 2.8 Å resolution. The human nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme GTP fucose pyrophosphorylase (GFPP) has been purified to homogeneity by an affinity chromatographic procedure that utilizes a novel nucleoside analog. This new purification regime results in a protein preparation that produces significantly better crystals than traditional purification methods. The purified 66.6 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized via hanging-drop vapor diffusion at 293 K. Crystals of the native enzyme diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. There is a single GFPP monomer in the asymmetric unit, giving a Matthews coefficient of 2.38 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 48.2%. A complete native data set has been collected as a first step in determining the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human Atg4B–LC3 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Satoo, Kenji; Suzuki, Nobuo N.; Fujioka, Yuko; Mizushima, Noboru; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2007-02-01

    Human Atg4B and LC3 were expressed, purified and crystallized as a complex. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å. The reversible modification of Atg8 with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is crucial for autophagy, the bulk degradation process of cytoplasmic components by the vacuolar/lysosomal system. Atg4 is a cysteine protease that is responsible for the processing and deconjugation of Atg8. Human Atg4B (HsAtg4B; a mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg4) and LC3 (a mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg8) were expressed and purified and two complexes, one consisting of HsAtg4B(1–354) and LC3(1–120) (complex I; the product complex) and the other consisting of HsAtg4B(1–354) and LC3(1–124) (complex II; the substrate complex), were crystallized using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. In both complexes His280 of HsAtg4B was mutated to alanine. The crystals belong to the same space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.5, b = 91.8, c = 102.6 Å for complex I and a = 46.9, b = 90.9, c = 102.5 Å for complex II. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å from both crystals.

  7. Technical note: 3D from standard digital photography of human crania-a preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Katz, David; Friess, Martin

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry as a tool for capturing and quantifying human skull morphology. While virtual reconstruction with 3D surface scanning technology has become an accepted part of the paleoanthropologist's tool kit, recent advances in 3D photogrammetry make it a potential alternative to dedicated surface scanners. The principal advantages of photogrammetry are more rapid raw data collection, simplicity and portability of setup, and reduced equipment costs. We tested the precision and repeatability of 3D photogrammetry by comparing digital models of human crania reconstructed from conventional, 2D digital photographs to those generated using a 3D surface scanner. Overall, the photogrammetry and scanner meshes showed low degrees of deviation from one another. Surface area estimates derived from photogrammetry models tended to be slightly larger. Landmark configurations generally did not cluster together based upon whether the reconstruction was created with photogrammetry or surface scanning technology. Average deviations of landmark coordinates recorded on photogrammetry models were within the generally allowable range of error in osteometry. Thus, while dependent upon the needs of the particular research project, 3D photogrammetry appears to be a suitable, lower-cost alternative to 3D imaging and scanning options.

  8. In vivo sodium (23Na) imaging of the human kidneys at 7 T: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Haneder, Stefan; Juras, Vladimir; Michaely, Henrik J; Deligianni, Xeni; Bieri, Oliver; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Trattnig, Siegfried; Zbýň, Štefan

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of in vivo (23)Na imaging of the corticomedullary (23)Na gradient and to measure (23)Na transverse relaxation times (T2*) in human kidneys. In this prospective, IRB-approved study, eight healthy volunteers (4 female, 4 male; mean age 29.4 ± 3.6 years) were examined on a 7-T whole-body MR system using a (23)Na-only spine-array coil. For morphological (23)Na-MRI, a 3D gradient echo (GRE) sequence with a variable echo time scheme (vTE) was used. T2* times were calculated using a multiecho 3D vTE-GRE approach. (23)Na signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were given on a pixel-by-pixel basis for a 20-mm section from the cortex in the direction of the medulla. T2* maps were calculated by fitting the (23)Na signal decay monoexponentially on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using least squares fit. Mean corticomedullary (23)Na-SNR increased from the cortex (32.2 ± 5.6) towards the medulla (85.7 ± 16.0). The SNR increase ranged interindividually from 57.2% to 66.3%. Mean (23)Na-T2* relaxation times differed statistically significantly (P < 0.001) between the cortex (17.9 ± 0.8 ms) and medulla (20.6 ± 1.0 ms). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo (23)Na MRI of the corticomedullary (23)Na gradient and to measure the (23)Na T2* relaxation times of human kidneys at 7 T. • High field MR offers new insights into renal anatomy and physiology. • (23) Na MRI of healthy human kidneys is feasible at ultra-high field. • Renal (23) Na concentration increases from the cortex in the medullary pyramid direction. • In vivo measurements of renal (23) Na-T2* times are demonstrated at 7.0 T.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of human S100A15

    SciTech Connect

    Boeshans, Karen M.; Wolf, Ronald; Voscopoulos, Christopher; Gillette, William; Esposito, Dominic; Mueser, Timothy C.; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Ahvazi, Bijan

    2006-05-01

    S100 proteins are differentially expressed during epithelial cell maturation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. The novel human S100A15 protein has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in two crystal forms, a triclinic and a monoclinic form, which diffract to 1.7 and 2.0 Å, respectively. Human S100A15 is a novel member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins and was recently identified in psoriasis, where it is significantly upregulated in lesional skin. The protein is implicated as an effector in calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although its biological function is unclear, the association of the 11.2 kDa S100A15 with psoriasis suggests that it contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease and could provide a molecular target for therapy. To provide insight into the function of S100A15, the protein was crystallized to visualize its structure and to further the understanding of how the many similar calcium-binding mediator proteins in the cell distinguish their cognate target molecules. The S100A15 protein has been cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity and produced two crystal forms. Crystals of form I are triclinic, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 44.3, c = 44.8 Å, α = 71.2, β = 68.1, γ = 67.8° and an estimated two molecules in the asymmetric unit, and diffract to 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals of form II are monoclinic, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.1, b = 33.6, c = 52.2 Å, β = 128.2° and an estimated one molecule in the asymmetric unit, and diffract to 2.0 Å resolution. This structural analysis of the human S100A15 will further aid in the phylogenic comparison between the other members of the S100 protein family, especially the highly homologous paralog S100A7.

  10. Bodyworlds and the ethics of using human remains: a preliminary discussion.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2006-09-01

    Accepting the claim that the living have some moral duties with regard to dead bodies, this paper explores those duties and how they bear on the popular travelling exhibition Bodyworlds. I argue that the concept of informed consent presupposes substantial duties to the dead, namely duties that reckon with the meaning of the act in question. An attitude of respect and not regarding human remains as mere raw material are non-alienable substantial duties. I found the ethos of Bodyworlds premature but full of promises such as public attitudes to organ donations. At the practical level I conclude that Bodyworlds should use only willed donations or unclaimed bodies for which dignified funerals are not available. In the case of live donations, Bodyworlds has a duty to participate in the medical care of needy donors. However, secrecy with regard to the source of cadavers seems to be the most troublesome aspect of Bodyworlds.

  11. Preliminary Toxicological Analysis of the Effect of Coal Slurry Impoundment Water on Human Liver Cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    Coal is usually 'washed' with water and a variety of chemicals to reduce its content of sulfur and mineral matter. The 'washings' or 'coal slurry' derived from this process is a viscous black liquid containing fine particles of coal, mineral matter, and other dissolved and particulate substances. Coal slurry may be stored in impoundments or in abandoned underground mines. Human health and environmental effects potentially resulting from leakage of chemical substances from coal slurry into drinking water supplies or aquatic ecosystems have not been systematically examined. Impoundments are semipermeable, presenting the possibility that inorganic and organic substances, some of which may be toxic, may contaminate ground or surface water. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has concluded that well water in Mingo County, West Virginia, constitutes a public health hazard.

  12. National Human Research Ethics: A Preliminary Comparative Case Study of Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Bernard; Berman, Anne H.; Bieganski, Justyna; Jones, Adele D.; Foca, Liliana; Raikes, Ben; Schiratzki, Johanna; Urban, Mirjam; Ullman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Although international research is increasing in volume and importance, there remains a dearth of knowledge on similarities and differences in “national human research ethics” (NHREs), that is, national ethical guidelines (NEGs), Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), and research stakeholder’ ethical attitudes and behaviors (EABs). We begin to address this situation by reporting upon our experiences in conducting a multinational study into the mental health of children who had a parent/carer in prison. The study was conducted in 4 countries: Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden. Data on NHREs were gathered via a questionnaire survey, two ethics-related seminars, and ongoing contact between members of the research consortium. There was correspondence but even more so divergence between countries in the availability of NEGs and IRBs and in researcher’ EABs. Differences in NHREs have implications particularly in terms of harmonization but also for ethical philosophy and practice and for research integrity. PMID:27746664

  13. Preliminary System Analysis of In Situ Resource Utilization for Mars Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Donald; Andringa, Jason; Easter, Robert; Smith, Jeffrey H .; Wilson, Thomas; Clark, D. Larry; Payne, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a system analysis of processes for utilization of Mars resources to support human exploration of Mars by production of propellants from indigenous resources. Seven ISRU processes were analyzed to determine mass. power and propellant storage volume requirements. The major elements of each process include C02 acquisition, chemical conversion, and storage of propellants. Based on a figure of merit (the ratio of the mass of propellants that must be brought from Earth in a non-ISRU mission to the mass of the ISRU system. tanks and feedstocks that must be brought from Earth for a ISRU mission) the most attractive process (by far); is one where indigenous Mars water is accessible and this is processed via Sabatier/Electrolysis to methane and oxygen. These processes are technically relatively mature. Other processes with positive leverage involve reverse water gas shift and solid oxide electrolysis.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the CARD domain of human CARMA1.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Park, Hyun Ho

    2013-04-01

    The CARMA1 signalosome, which is composed of CARMA1 [caspase recruitment domain (CARD) containing MAGUK protein 1], BCL10 (B-cell lymphoma 10) and MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1), is a molecular-signalling complex that performs pivotal functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) mediated NF-κB activation. In this study, the CARD domain of human CARMA1 (CARMA1 CARD), corresponding to amino acids 14-109, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli using an engineered C-terminal His tag. CARMA1 CARD was then purified to homogeneity and crystallized at 293 K. Finally, X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.2 Å from a crystal belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit-cell parameters a = 45.73, b = 53.37, c = 91.89 Å.

  15. Rimonabant effects on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in healthy humans: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina H C; Chagas, Marcos H N; Linares, Ila M P; Arrais, Kátia C; de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Queiroz, Maria E; Nardi, Antonio E; Huestis, Marilyn A; Hallak, Jaime E C; Zuardi, Antonio W; Moreira, Fabrício A; Crippa, José A S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that rimonabant, a cannabinoid antagonist/inverse agonist, would increase anxiety in healthy subjects during a simulation of the public speaking test. Participants were randomly allocated to receive oral placebo or 90 mg rimonabant in a double-blind design. Subjective effects were measured by Visual Analogue Mood Scale. Physiological parameters, namely arterial blood pressure and heart rate, also were monitored. Twelve participants received oral placebo and 12 received 90 mg rimonabant. Rimonabant increased self-reported anxiety levels during the anticipatory speech and performance phase compared with placebo. Interestingly, rimonabant did not modulate anxiety prestress and was not associated with sedation, cognitive impairment, discomfort, or blood pressure changes. Cannabinoid-1 antagonism magnifies the responses to an anxiogenic stimulus without interfering with the prestress phase. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system may work on-demand to counteract the consequences of anxiogenic stimuli in healthy humans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Rimonabant effects on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in healthy humans: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Chagas, Marcos H. N.; Linares, Ila M. P.; Arrais, Kátia C.; de Oliveira, Danielle C. G.; Queiroz, Maria E.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Zuardi, Antonio W.; Moreira, Fabrício A.; Crippa, José A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the hypothesis that rimonabant, a cannabinoid antagonist/inverse agonist, would increase anxiety in healthy subjects during a simulation of the public speaking test. Methods Participants were randomly allocated to receive oral placebo or 90 mg rimonabant in a double-blind design. Subjective effects were measured by Visual Analogue Mood Scale. Physiological parameters, namely arterial blood pressure and heart rate, also were monitored. Results Twelve participants received oral placebo and 12 received 90 mg rimonabant. Rimonabant increased self-reported anxiety levels during the anticipatory speech and performance phase compared with placebo. Interestingly, rimonabant did not modulate anxiety prestress and was not associated with sedation, cognitive impairment, discomfort, or blood pressure changes. Conclusions Cannabinoid-1 antagonism magnifies the responses to an anxiogenic stimulus without interfering with the prestress phase. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system may work on-demand to counteract the consequences of anxiogenic stimuli in healthy humans. PMID:24424711

  17. Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis of Human Plasma Platelet Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, U.; Wilder, C; Bahnson, B

    2009-01-01

    The plasma form of the human enzyme platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) has been crystallized, and X-ray diffraction data were collected at a synchrotron source to a resolution of 1.47 {angstrom}. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit cell parameters of a = 116.18, b = 83.06, c = 96.71 {angstrom}, and {beta} = 115.09 and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PAF-AH functions as a general anti-inflammatory scavenger by reducing the levels of the signaling molecule PAF. Additionally, the LDL bound enzyme has been linked to atherosclerosis due to its hydrolytic activities of pro-inflammatory agents, such as sn-2 oxidatively fragmented phospholipids.

  18. Preliminary System Analysis of In Situ Resource Utilization for Mars Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Donald; Andringa, Jason; Easter, Robert; Smith, Jeffrey H .; Wilson, Thomas; Clark, D. Larry; Payne, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a system analysis of processes for utilization of Mars resources to support human exploration of Mars by production of propellants from indigenous resources. Seven ISRU processes were analyzed to determine mass. power and propellant storage volume requirements. The major elements of each process include C02 acquisition, chemical conversion, and storage of propellants. Based on a figure of merit (the ratio of the mass of propellants that must be brought from Earth in a non-ISRU mission to the mass of the ISRU system. tanks and feedstocks that must be brought from Earth for a ISRU mission) the most attractive process (by far); is one where indigenous Mars water is accessible and this is processed via Sabatier/Electrolysis to methane and oxygen. These processes are technically relatively mature. Other processes with positive leverage involve reverse water gas shift and solid oxide electrolysis.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human chondroadherin

    PubMed Central

    Pramhed, Anna; Addis, Laura; Tillgren, Viveka; Wenglén, Christina; Heinegård, Dick; Logan, Derek T.

    2008-01-01

    Chondroadherin is a cartilage matrix protein that is known to mediate the adhesion of isolated chondrocytes. Its protein core is composed of 11 leucine-rich repeats flanked by cysteine-rich domains at the N- and C-terminal ends. Recombinant human chondroadherin was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.4, b = 111.3, c = 128.5 Å, β = 92.2, and are most likely to contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to at least 2.3 Å using synchrotron radiation, but structure determination using molecular replacement has so far been unsuccessful. PMID:18540064

  20. Single-photon emission computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Masdeu, J.C.; Yudd, A.; Van Heertum, R.L.; Grundman, M.; Hriso, E.; O'Connell, R.A.; Luck, D.; Camli, U.; King, L.N. )

    1991-08-01

    Depression or psychosis in a previously asymptomatic individual infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be psychogenic, related to brain involvement by the HIV or both. Although prognosis and treatment differ depending on etiology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually unrevealing in early HIV encephalopathy and therefore cannot differentiate it from psychogenic conditions. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) with HIV encephalopathy had single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings that differed from the findings in 15 patients with non-HIV psychoses and 6 controls. SPECT showed multifocal cortical and subcortical areas of hypoperfusion. In 4 cases, cognitive improvement after 6-8 weeks of zidovudine (AZT) therapy was reflected in amelioration of SPECT findings. CT remained unchanged. SPECT may be a useful technique for the evaluation of HIV encephalopathy.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human myotubularin-related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Bong, Seoung Min; Yang, Seung Won; Choi, Ji-Woong; Kim, Seung Jun; Lee, Byung Il

    2015-01-01

    Myotubularin-related protein 1 is a phosphatase that dephosphorylates phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate or phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. In this study, human MTMR1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized at 277 K using polyethylene glycol 20 000 as a precipitant. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.219, b = 96.587, c = 97.581 Å, α = 87.597, β = 86.072, γ = 77.327°. Assuming the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit, the calculated Matthews coefficient value was 2.61 Å3 Da−1 and the corresponding solvent content was 52.9%. PMID:25760698

  2. Overproduction, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the carbohydrate-recognition domain of human langerin

    SciTech Connect

    Thépaut, Michel; Vivès, Corinne; Pompidor, Guillaume; Kahn, Richard; Fieschi, Franck

    2008-02-01

    Crystals of the carbohydrate-recognition domain of human langerin were obtained that diffracted synchrotron radiation to 1.5 Å resolution. Langerin, a lectin that is specific to Langerhans cells, interacts with glyco@@conjugates through its carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). This carbohydrate binding occurs by an avidity-based mechanism that is enabled by the neck domain responsible for trimerization. Langerin binds HIV through its CRD and thus plays a protective role against its propagation by the internalization of virions in Birbeck granules. Here, the overproduction, purification and crystallization of the langerin CRD is reported. Crystals obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method allowed the collection of a complete data set to 1.5 Å resolution and belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.55, c = 90.14 Å.

  3. A preliminary study: the anti-proliferation effect of salidroside on different human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaolan; Lin, Shuxin; Yu, Daihua; Qiu, Shuifeng; Zhang, Xianqi; Mei, Ruhuan

    2010-12-01

    Salidroside (p-hydroxyphenethyl-beta-d-glucoside), which is present in all species of the genus Rhodiola, has been reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. The present study, for the first time, focused on evaluating the effects of the purified salidroside on the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines derived from different tissues, and further investigating its possible molecular mechanisms. Cell viability assay and [(3)H] thymidine incorporation were used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on cancer cell lines, and flow cytometry analyzed the change of cell cycle distribution induced by salidroside. Western immunoblotting further studied the expression changes of cyclins (cyclin D1 and cyclin B1), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and Cdc2), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1)). The results showed that salidroside inhibited the growth of various human cancer cell lines in concentration- and time-dependent manners, and the sensitivity to salidroside was different in those cancer cell lines. Salidroside could cause G1-phase or G2-phase arrest in different cancer cell lines, meanwhile, salidroside resulted in a decrease of CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin B1 and Cdc2, and upregulated the levels of p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1). Taken together, salidroside could inhibit the growth of cancer cells by modulating CDK4-cyclin D1 pathway for G1-phase arrest and/or modulating the Cdc2-cyclin B1 pathway for G2-phase arrest.

  4. A feasibility study of soft embalmed human breast tissue for preclinical trials of HIFU- preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, Joyce; Yang, Yang; Purdie, Colin; Eisma, Roos; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women in the UK, accounting for 30% of all new cancers in women, with an estimated 49,500 new cases in 20101. With the widespread negative publicity around over-diagnosis and over-treatment of low risk breast cancers, interest in the application of non-invasive treatments such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has increased. Development has begun of novel US transducers and platforms specifically designed for use with breast lesions, so as to improve the range of breast lesions that can be safely treated. However, before such transducers can be evaluated in patients in clinical trials, there is a need to establish their efficacy. A particular issue is the accuracy of temperature monitoring of FUS with MRI in the breast, since the presence of large amounts of surrounding fat can hinder temperature measurement. An appropriate anatomical model that imposes similar physical constraints to the breast and that responds to FUS in the same way would be extremely advantageous. The aim of this feasibility study is to explore the use of Thiel embalmed cadaveric tissue for these purposes. We report here the early results of laboratory-based experiments sonicating dissected breast samples from a Thiel embalmed soft human cadaver with high body mass index (BMI). A specially developed MRI compatible chamber and sample holder was developed to secure the sample and ensure reproducible sonications at the transducer focus. The efficacy of sonication was first studied with chicken breast and porcine tissue. The experiments were then repeated with the dissected fatty breast tissue samples from the soft-embalmed human cadavers. The sonicated Thiel breast tissue was examined histopathologically, which confirmed the absence of any discrete lesion. To investigate further, fresh chicken breast tissue was embalmed and the embalmed tissue was sonicated with the same parameters. The results confirmed the

  5. Preliminary analysis of stem cell-like cells in human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Li; Sha, Yong-Liang; Wu, Ye-Ming; Hu, Ji-Meng; Zhang, Min; Lv, Fan

    2015-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic neoplasm originating from the neural crest with cellular heterogeneity as one of its oncobiological characteristics. This study was undertaken to determine whether human neuroblastoma contains stem cell-like cells. Twenty patients with neuroblastoma who have been treated in our hospital since January 2005 were divided into pre-operative chemotherapy (10 patients) and non-chemotherapy (10) groups. Tumor specimens of the patients were taken and paraffin sections were made. The expressions of stem cell markers CD133, ABCG2, CD117 and nestin were immunohistochemically detected in the specimens. Neuroblastoma cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 and PI. The side population (SP) cells were analyzed by the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The disparity drug resistance to cisplatin (DDP) of SP and non-SP cells was measured with MTT colorimetric assay. The oncogenicity of SP and non-SP cells was identified in nude mice. There was no significant difference in the expression intensity of CD117 and nestin between the two groups of specimens (P>0.05). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the expression intensity of CD133 and ABCG2 (P<0.05). The SP cells accounted for 0.2%-1.3% of the total human neuroblastoma cells and were decreased to 0.1%-0.5% after verapamil treatment. The SP and non-SP cells showed disparity in cell growth experiment and drug resistance to DDP. Oncogenicity experiment revealed that nude mice could erupt tumor by an injection of l×10(6) SHSY5Y and WIV SP cells. However, the nude mice could not form tumor by an injection of l×10(6) non-SP cells. Neuroblastoma might contain cancer stem cell-like cells.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human mismatch repair protein MutS[beta

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Quincy; Orans, Jillian; Hast, Michael A.; Iyer, Ravi R.; Changela, Anita; Modrich, Paul L.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-03-16

    MutS{beta} is a eukaryotic mismatch repair protein that preferentially targets extrahelical unpaired nucleotides and shares partial functional redundancy with MutS{alpha} (MSH2-MSH6). Although mismatch recognition by MutS{alpha} has been shown to involve a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif, little is known about the lesion-binding mechanism of MutS{beta}. Combined MSH3/MSH6 deficiency triggers a strong predisposition to cancer in mice and defects in msh2 and msh6 account for roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer mutations. These three MutS homologs are also believed to play a role in trinucleotide repeat instability, which is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The baculovirus overexpression and purification of recombinant human MutS{beta} and three truncation mutants are presented here. Binding assays with heteroduplex DNA were carried out for biochemical characterization. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein bound to a heteroduplex DNA substrate are also reported.

  7. Criminalystic: effectiveness of lysochromes on the developing of invisible lipstick-contaminated lipmarks on human skin. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Esperanza; Castelló, Ana; López, Jose L; Verdú, Fernando

    2006-04-20

    Latent prints are an important evidence for identification. Nowadays, the technical means, the implementation of image processing techniques and the use of database makes it possible to detect and get information from some prints that seem to be useless at first sight. On the other hand, the possibility of using the print as a DNA source has to be considered, so as to double its identifying value. Human skin is a particularly difficult surface for developing this kind of evidences. Although different methods for locating and developing latent fingerprints on the skin have been already described, it has not been found any method, at the revised bibliography, to obtain and develop invisible lipmarks, that is, lipmarks from protective lipstick, or permanent or long-lasting lipstick. The aim of the work that follows is to determine the effectiveness of several reagents for developing invisible lipmarks on the corpses' skin. Preliminary results show that, under the described experimental conditions, the reagents used, Sudan III, Oil Red O and Sudan Black, are effective for obtaining recent latent lip prints on corpse's skin.

  8. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human Rod–Zwilch–ZW10 (RZZ) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Altenfeld, Anika; Wohlgemuth, Sabine; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Musacchio, Andrea

    2015-03-20

    The 800 kDa complex of the human Rod, Zwilch and ZW10 proteins (the RZZ complex) was reconstituted in insect cells, purified, crystallized and subjected to preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. The spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors kinetochore–microtubule attachment during mitosis. In metazoans, the three-subunit Rod–Zwilch–ZW10 (RZZ) complex is a crucial SAC component that interacts with additional SAC-activating and SAC-silencing components, including the Mad1–Mad2 complex and cytoplasmic dynein. The RZZ complex contains two copies of each subunit and has a predicted molecular mass of ∼800 kDa. Given the low abundance of the RZZ complex in natural sources, its recombinant reconstitution was attempted by co-expression of its subunits in insect cells. The RZZ complex was purified to homogeneity and subjected to systematic crystallization attempts. Initial crystals containing the entire RZZ complex were obtained using the sitting-drop method and were subjected to optimization to improve the diffraction resolution limit. The crystals belonged to space group P3{sub 1} (No. 144) or P3{sub 2} (No. 145), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 215.45, c = 458.7 Å, α = β = 90.0, γ = 120.0°.

  9. Subject-specific estimation of central aortic blood pressure via system identification: preliminary in-human experimental study.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Nima; Kim, Chang-Sei; Rashedi, Mohammad; Chappell, Alyssa; Wang, Shaohua; MacArthur, Roderick; McMurtry, M Sean; Finegan, Barry; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-10-01

    This paper demonstrates preliminary in-human validity of a novel subject-specific approach to estimation of central aortic blood pressure (CABP) from peripheral circulatory waveforms. In this "Individualized Transfer Function" (ITF) approach, CABP is estimated in two steps. First, the circulatory dynamics of the cardiovascular system are determined via model-based system identification, in which an arterial tree model is characterized based on the circulatory waveform signals measured at the body's extremity locations. Second, CABP waveform is estimated by de-convolving peripheral circulatory waveforms from the arterial tree model. The validity of the ITF approach was demonstrated using experimental data collected from 13 cardiac surgery patients. Compared with the invasive peripheral blood pressure (BP) measurements, the ITF approach yielded significant reduction in errors associated with the estimation of CABP, including 1.9-2.6 mmHg (34-42 %) reduction in BP waveform errors (p < 0.05) as well as 5.8-9.1 mmHg (67-76 %) and 6.0-9.7 mmHg (78-85 %) reductions in systolic and pulse pressure (SP and PP) errors (p < 0.05). It also showed modest but significant improvement over the generalized transfer function approach, including 0.1 mmHg (2.6 %) reduction in BP waveform errors as well as 0.7 (20 %) and 5.0 mmHg (75 %) reductions in SP and PP errors (p < 0.05).

  10. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Milian, Lara; Oliver, Maria; Zurriaga, Javier; Sancho-Tello, Maria; de Llano, Jose Javier Martin; Carda, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo, but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo. hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage. PMID:28951745

  11. Preliminary investigation of using volatile organic compounds from human expired air, blood and urine for locating entrapped people in earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Statheropoulos, M; Sianos, E; Agapiou, A; Georgiadou, A; Pappa, A; Tzamtzis, N; Giotaki, H; Papageorgiou, C; Kolostoumbis, D

    2005-08-05

    A preliminary investigation on the possibility of using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determination of expired air, blood and urine, for the early location of entrapped people in earthquakes, has been carried out. A group of 15 healthy subjects has been sampled. The identification of a common "core" of substances might provide indications of human presence that can be used for the development of a real time field analytical method for the on site detection of entrapped people. Expired air samples have been analyzed by thermal desorption GC/MS and VOCs from blood and urine by headspace SPME-GC/MS. Acetone was the only compound found common in all three matrices. Isoprene was found in both expired air and blood samples. Acetone and isoprene along with a number of saturated hydrocarbons were among the major constituents identified in expired air analysis. Various ketones (2-pentanone, 4-heptanone, 2-butanone) were also determined over urine specimens. Using the techniques and methods of field analytical chemistry and technology appears to be the proper approach for applying the results of the present study in real situations.

  12. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  13. The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on temporary threshold shift in humans: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, N; Dicorato, A; Matera, V; D'Elia, A; Quaranta, A

    2012-12-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NHIL) is a significant source of hearing loss in industrialized countries. Recent research on the cellular bases of NIHL has led to new avenues for protection through prophylactic drugs. Although in experimental animal models several compounds have shown a protective effect in NIHL, limited data are available in humans. Many authors are focusing their attention on the role of antioxidant on hearing protection. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), an essential cofactor in mitochondrial enzymes, is a novel biological antioxidant and a potent free radical scavenger and, in animal models, it has been shown to protect from age-induced and cisplatin-induced hearing loss. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid on temporary threshold shift measured 2 minutes after the end of exposure (TTS(2)) induced by a 3 kHz tone in young normally hearing subjects. Thirty young normal hearing volunteers served as control subjects. Individuals were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A (10 subjects) subjects were exposed to a 90 dB HL 3 kHz pure tone for 10 min. Group B (10 subjects) subjects were exposed to a 90 dB HL 3 kHz pure tone one hour after oral ingestion of 600 mg of ALA. Group C (10 subjects) were exposed to a 90 dB HL 3 kHz pure tone after 10 days of oral ingestion of 600 mg of ALA. Statistical analysis showed that prior to the exposure the hearing thresholds did not differ significantly among the three groups. TTS(2) of group C was significantly lower that TTS2 of Groups A and B at 6 kHz (p 0.03), and TEOAEs amplitude change after noise exposure was lower for group C compared to Groups A (p = 0.089) and B (p = 0.03). ALA is a powerful lipophilic antioxidant and free radical scavenger currently used in clinical practice. A single dose of 600 mg of dose ALA did not induce any protection on the TTS(2) induced by a 90 dB HL 3 kHz tone, while 10 days of therapeutic dosage assumption of ALA was associated with significant

  14. Human adaptation to isolated and confined environments: Preliminary findings of a seven month Antarctic winter-over human factors study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sybil

    1988-01-01

    This field study was conducted during the last decade of an austral winter-over at Palmer Station in the Antarctic. The purpose of the study was to understand temporal patterns in physiological arousal and psychological mood over the course of the mission. The investigators were principally interested in how people adapted over time to chronic and acute stressors, and how people use and modify their built environment. Physiological and psychological data were collected several times a week, and information on behavior and the use of physical facilities was collected monthly. Physiological and psychological data were compared with social changes in the setting toward the development of a sequential model of human-environment transactional relationships. Based on the study results, guidelines for design of future isolated and confined environments (ICEs) included: plan space for items which make people feel at home, provide materials to allow people to personalize their environment, allow for flexible environments, provide areas for visual and auditory privacy, equip areas for socializing and remove them from private areas, and provide facilities for exercise and for projects involving physical activity. The study offers guidelines about patterns of adaption that could be expected in an ICE, discusses how these settings can be programmed to facilitate successful adjustment, and provides information about how to design future ICE habitats to maximize a healthy living environment.

  15. A preliminary 3D computed tomography study of the human maxillary sinus and nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Butaric, Lauren N; McCarthy, Robert C; Broadfield, Douglas C

    2010-11-01

    Despite centuries of investigation, the function of the maxillary sinus (MS) and underlying patterns governing its form remain elusive. In this study, we articulate a methodology for collecting volumetric data for the MS and nasal cavity (NC) from computed tomography (CT) scans and report details for a small sample of 39 dried human crania of known ecogeographic provenience useful for assessing variation in MS size and shape. We use scaling analyses to preliminarily test the hypothesis that volumes of the nasal cavity (NCV) and maxillary sinus (MSV) are inversely correlated such that the NC covaries with size of the face, whereas the MS "fills in" the leftover space [proposed by Shea: Am J Phys Anthropol 47 (1977):289-300]. Against expectation, MSV is not significantly correlated with NCV or any cranial size variable. NCV, on the other hand, scales isometrically with facial size. The results of this pilot study suggest that NCV covaries with facial size, but that the MS does not simply fill in the leftover space in the face. The role, if any, of the MSs in midfacial function and architecture remains unclear. Larger sample sizes, additional environmental variables, and assessment of MS and NC shape are necessary to resolve this issue.

  16. [Preliminary note on the circulation of some human respiratory viruses by wild birds].

    PubMed

    Iftimovici, R; Mihail, A; Iacobesco, V; Popesco, A; Mutiu, A; Niculesco, R; Puca, D; Ignatesco, B; Tudor, S

    1978-09-01

    With a view to detecting infections and carriage of human respiratory viruses in wild birds, 349 serum samples collected from 21 bird species -- sedentary ones and birds with large or limited migration areas -- were investigated. The following antigens were used: influenza virus A/Hong Kong 1/68 (H3N2)), A2 England 42/73 (H3N2), A2 Victoria 3/75 (H3N2), A/New Jersey 8/76 (HswN1), B/Hong Kong 5/72; parainfluenza virus type I Sendai and type II, coronavirus OC/43. An elevated incidence of antibodies to A2 Victoria 3/75 (H3N2) and parainfluenza type I virus was detected in herons (Ardea cinerea, Nyctycorax myctycorax). The high incidence of antibodies to B/Hong Kong 5/72 (30.7% of the samples exhibited significant titers) found in the crow (Corvus corone sardonius) is ascribed to the fact that this bird is carnivorus, feeding on corpses of mammals.

  17. Dynamic biomechanics correlate with histopathology in human tibial cartilage: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Young, Allan A; Appleyard, Richard C; Smith, Margaret M; Melrose, James; Little, Christopher B

    2007-09-01

    Improved staging of cartilage degeneration is required, particularly during early stages when minimal surface damage is visible arthroscopically. Degradation of articular cartilage extracellular matrix, resulting from degenerative changes associated with osteoarthritis, can influence its functional properties. Cartilage mechanical properties therefore may provide a quantitative method for monitoring degenerative change in this tissue. We determined whether dynamic mechanical properties of cartilage (effective shear modulus and phase lag) measured with a handheld indenter correlated with histopathology scores, proteoglycan, and collagen content or expression of chondrocyte-specific (aggrecan, collagen II) or dedifferentiation (collagen I and III) genes in human osteoarthritic cartilage with International Cartilage Repair Society scores of 0 to 1. We observed an association between the histopathologic stage of cartilage disease and dynamic shear modulus and phase lag. In contrast, there generally was a poor relationship between cartilage biomechanical properties and biochemistry with the only noteworthy correlation being between shear modulus and collagen. Phase lag but not shear modulus correlated with gene expression. These data support the potential of dynamic indentation for assessing the stage of cartilage degeneration in tissue with minimal gross surface damage.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2.

    PubMed

    Ascher, David B; Polekhina, Galina; Parker, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) is a critical enzyme involved in the final processing of MHC class I antigens. Peptide trimming by ERAP2 and the other members of the oxytocinase subfamily is essential to customize longer precursor peptides in order to fit them to the correct length required for presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. While recent structures of ERAP1 have provided an understanding of the `molecular-ruler' mechanism of substrate selection, little is known about the complementary activities of its homologue ERAP2 despite their sharing 49% sequence identity. In order to gain insights into the structure-function relationship of the oxytocinase subfamily, and in particular ERAP2, the luminal region of human ERAP2 has been crystallized in the presence of the inhibitor bestatin. The crystals belonged to an orthorhombic space group and diffracted anisotropically to 3.3 Å resolution in the best direction on an in-house X-ray source. A molecular-replacement solution suggested that the enzyme has adopted the closed state as has been observed in other inhibitor-bound aminopeptidase structures.

  19. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I infection in Singapore: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L G; Yanagihara, R; Mora, C; Garruto, R M; Wong, T W; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection is endemic in southwestern Japan, the Caribbean basin, Colombia, Africa and in several isolated populations in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. To determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in Singapore, we tested sera from 115 hospitalized patients with acute nephritis, 50 patients with suspected leptospirosis, 34 patients with non-A, non-B hepatitis, and from 28 healthy volunteers for IgG antibodies against HTLV-I using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies were detected in sera from 6 of the 199 patients and from 3 of the 28 healthy volunteers, but these positives could not be confirmed by Western immunoblotting. Our data are consistent with other reports of low seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection despite extensive Japanese contact in Korea, Taiwan, the People's Republic of China and Micronesia. Further studies on a larger sample size, however, are necessary to confirm the absence of any focus of infection in the Singapore population.

  20. Design and preliminary testing of a handheld antagonistic SMA actuator for cancellation of human tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Essential Tremor is a debilitating disorder that in the US alone is estimated to affect up to ten million people. Unfortunately current treatments (i.e. drug therapy and surgical procedures), are limited in effectiveness and often pose a risk of adverse side-effects. In response to this problem, this paper describes an active cancellation device based on a hand-held Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated stabilization platform. The assistive device is designed to hold and stabilize various objects (e.g. eating utensils, tools, pointing implements, etc.) by sensing the user's tremor and moving the object in an opposite direction using SMA actuators configured in biologically inspired antagonistic pairs. To aid in the design, performance prediction and control of the device, a device model is described that accounts for the device kinematics, SMA thermo-mechanics, and the heat transfer resulting from electrical heating and convective cooling. The system of differential equations in this device model coupled with the controller gain can be utilized to design the operation given a frequency range and power requirement. To demonstrate this, a prototype was built and experimentally tested under external disturbances in the range of 1-5 Hz, resulting in amplitude reduction of up to 80%. The extent of cancellation measured for both single-frequencies and actual human tremor disturbances demonstrate the promise of this approach as a broadly used assistive device for the multitudes afflicted by tremor.

  1. Effects of the holmium laser on the human cornea: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Linda J.; Tassignon, Marie J.; Trau, Rene; Pels, Liesbeth; Vrensen, Gijs F.

    1996-12-01

    Treatment of peripheral post-mortem human corneas with the Holmium laser in a ring pattern resulted in opaque spots. One pair of treated eyes was immediately processed for light and electron microscopy and three other treated eyes were preserved for 4 days in medium in order to compare direct and short-term effects of the Holmium laser. Cross as well as frontal light microscopical sections of all eyes revealed interconnecting bands between the spots. At the ultrastructural level the anterior corneal tissue within these spots was characterized by coagulation of cells and collagen and shoed either a dramatic distorting effect on the epithelium in the eyes processed immediately or a single layer of flattened multi-nucleolated epithelial cells having more than one nucleolus per nucleus in the eyes stored in medium. Furthermore, the spots showed disturbed Bowman's layer, destroyed keratocytes and collagen fibrils which were either coagulated or organized chaotically. The interconnecting bands contained alternating normal and coagulated collagen fibers. The rest of the cornea outside the spots had a normal appearance. In corneas stored in medium, both keratocytes and epithelial cells over the entire cornea exhibited accumulations of cytoplasmic fibrils and glycogen particles. These phenomena were not observed in non-preserved corneas, suggesting that the differences are due to preservation and not due to the laser treatment. It is concluded that morphological changes occur mainly in the treated peripheral cornea whereas the central untreated cornea remains unaffected,indicating that the Holmium laser is a reliable instrument to treat hypermetropic patients.

  2. Preliminary micro-Raman images of normal and malignant human skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael A.; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Michael X.

    2006-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy covering a frequency range from 200 to 4000 cm -1 was used to image human skin melanocytes and keratinocytes with a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm. The cells were either cultivated on glass microscope slides or were located within thin sections of skin biopsies mounted on low fluorescence BaF II. A commercially available system was used to obtain the spectra utilizing a x100 long working distance objective with a numerical aperture of 0.8, and a cooled CCD. Both 633 and 515 nm excitations were tried, although the latter proved to be more effcient at producing Raman emission mostly due to the 1/λ 4 dependence in light scattering. Fluorescence emission from the cells was surprisingly low. The excitation power at the sample was kept below about 2 mW to avoid damaging the cells; this was the limiting factor on how quickly a Raman image could be obtained. Despite this diffculty we were able to obtain Raman images with rich information about the spectroscopic and structural features within the cytoplasm and cell nuclei. Differences were observed between the Raman images of normal and malignant cells. Spectra from purified DNA, RNA, lipids, proteins and melanin were obtained and these spectra were compared with the skin cell spectra with the aim of understanding how they are distributed over a cell and how the distribution changes between different cells.

  3. Daily feeding rhythm in proboscis monkeys: a preliminary comparison with other non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Tuuga, Augustine; Bernard, Henry; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    In non-human primates, the daily feeding rhythm, i.e., temporal fluctuation in feeding activity across the day, has been described but has rarely received much analytical interpretation, though it may play a crucial part in understanding the adaptive significance of primate foraging strategies. This study is the first to describe the detailed daily feeding rhythm in proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) based on data collected from both riverbank and inland habitats. From May 2005 to May 2006, data on feeding behavior in a group of proboscis monkeys consisting of an alpha-male, six adult females and immatures was collected via continuous focal animal sampling technique in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia. In both the male and females, the highest peak of feeding activity was in the late afternoon at 15:00-17:00, i.e., shortly before sleeping. The differences in the feeding rhythm among the seasons appeared to reflect the time spent eating fruit and/or the availability of fruit; clearer feeding peaks were detected when the monkeys spent a relevant amount of time eating fruit, but no clear peak was detected when fruit eating was less frequent. The daily feeding rhythm was not strongly influenced by daily temperature fluctuations. When comparing the daily feeding rhythm of proboscis monkeys to that of other primates, one of the most common temporal patterns detected across primates was a feeding peak in the late afternoon, although it was impossible to demonstrate this statistically because of methodological differences among studies.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human septin 1 with site-directed mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hao; Yu, Wen-bo; Li, Shu-xing; Ding, Xiang-ming; Yu, Long; Bi, Ru-Chang

    2006-02-01

    The homogeneity of septin 1 has been improved by site-directed mutation of serine residues and only a small alteration in the secondary structure is observed to arise from the mutations. Crystals of the septin 1 mutant were grown and diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Septin 1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved family of GTP-binding and filament-forming proteins named septins, which function in diverse processes including cytokinasis, vesicle trafficking, apoptosis, remodelling of the cytoskeleton, infection, neurodegeneration and neoplasia. Human septin 1 has been expressed and purified, but suffers from severe aggregation. Studies have shown that septin 1 with site-directed mutations of five serine residues (Ser19, Ser206, Ser307, Ser312 and Ser315) has a much lower degree of aggregation and better structural homogeneity and that the mutations cause only slight perturbations in the secondary structure of septin 1. This septin 1 mutant was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. The space group is P422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 106.028, c = 137.852 Å.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of a trypsin-resistant catalytic domain of human calcineurin

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lei; Roehrl, Michael H. A.; Xiao, Li; He, Xiuyun; Li, Haibin; Ge, Linhu; Shi, Bingyi

    2012-01-01

    Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, plays a key role in a number of cellular pathways, including T-cell activation, and is an important molecular target of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506. To understand the structural basis underlying the activation of calcineurin by calmodulin, X-ray crystallography was employed to solve the three-dimensional structure of the free calcineurin catalytic domain (residues 20–347 of the A subunit). To accomplish this, a bacterially expressed glutathione S-­transferase (GST) fusion protein of the human calcineurin catalytic domain was first purified by GST-affinity chromatography. After limited digestion by trypsin, the catalytic domain (Cncat) was purified using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystallization of Cncat was achieved by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at pH 6.5 using PEG 6000 as precipitant. The diffraction results showed that the Cncat crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 161.6, b = 87.4, c = 112.0 Å. There are four Cncat molecules in the asymmetric unit, with 49.5% solvent content. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.87 Å resolution and a clear molecular-replacement solution was obtained. The active site of Cncat is open to the solvent channels in the crystal packing. PMID:22691791

  6. A preliminary insight of correlation between human fecal microbial diversity and blood lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Madeeha, Ilyas Rana; Ikram, Aamer; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of human gut-derived lactic acid bacteria and yeast on cholesterol levels. Fecal samples from five healthy volunteers were examined for the level and diversity of dominant microbiota. Pichia kudriavzevii (QAUPK01, QAUPK02, QAUPK03, QAUPK04 and QAUPK05) and Candida tropicalis (QAUCT06) were identified by phenotypic methods and DNA sequencing and tested for in vitro cholesterol assimilation ability. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) between fecal microbial diversity, volunteers' age, body mass index (BMI) and serum lipid profile were established. From biochemical tests, eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (M1.1, M1.2, M2.1, M3.1, M3.2, M4.1, M5.1 and M5.2) were identified but no bsh activity was found in them. However, all yeast strains were able to assimilate cholesterol and maximum assimilation ability was shown by QAUPK03 (83.6%) and QAUPK05 (85.2%) after 72 h of growth at 37 °C.

  7. Human Lunar Mission Capabilities Using SSTO, ISRU and LOX-Augmented NTR Technologies: A Preliminary Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three 'high leverage' technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) 'in-situ' resource utilization (ISRU)--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the 'compact' dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of approximately 60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using approximately 8 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' the LERV for a 'direct return' flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine's ability to operate at any oxygen/ hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse (approximately 940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV's 'propulsion' and 'propellant modules'. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes. Concluding remarks address the issue of lunar transportation system costs from the launch vehicle perspective.

  8. Preliminary Human-in-the-Loop Assessment of Procedures for Very-Closely-Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra C.; Ballinger, Deborah S.; Trot, Greg; Hardy, Gordon H.; Panda, Ramesh C.; Lehmer, Ronald D.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Demand in the future air transportation system concept is expected to double or triple by 2025 [1]. Increasing airport arrival rates will help meet the growing demand that could be met with additional runways but the expansion airports is met with environmental challenges for the surrounding communities when using current standards and procedures. Therefore, changes to airport operations can improve airport capacity without adding runways. Building additional runways between current ones, or moving them closer, is a potential solution to meeting the increasing demand, as addressed by the Terminal Area Capacity Enhancing Concept (TACEC). TACEC requires robust technologies and procedures that need to be tested such that operations are not compromised under instrument meteorological conditions. The reduction of runway spacing for independent simultaneous operations dramatically exacerbates the criticality of wake vortex incursion and the calculation of a safe and proper breakout maneuver. The study presented here developed guidelines for such operations by performing a real-time, human-in-the-loop simulation using precision navigation, autopilot-flown approaches, with the pilot monitoring aircraft spacing and the wake vortex safe zone during the approach.

  9. Can Platelet rich plasma stimulate human ACL growth in culture? A preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Mandeep Singh; Karna, Saroj Kumar; Dhatt, Sarvdeep Singh; Behera, Prateek; Bhatia, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) contains numerous growth factors; Platelet poor plasma (PPP) is plasma proteins without platelets, containing growth factors other than platelet derived. We planned to evaluate the effect of both autologous PRP & PPP on human ACL cell growth characteristics in culture conditions to see if one was better than the other. ACL remnants were collected from eleven patients during ACL reconstruction surgery; PPP and PRP were prepared from blood of these patients. Cells were isolated, identified and cultured and were then divided into six groups. Groups A-D had Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) added to them along with different concentrations of PRP and PPP. Groups E and F had 5% and 10% PRP respectively but lacked FBS. Cell viability was assayed by MTT and Annexin V assay, and DNA content was evaluated by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. analysis of cultured cells showed that addition of PRP (5 or 10%) increased the viability of ACL cells in 4 out of 11 and promoted cell proliferation in 8 of 11 donor samples; 10% PRP was more effective than 5% PRP. However, the difference in effectiveness of 10% PRP was not significantly better than 5% PRP. 5% PPP had no significant effect on cell viability, but it led to an increase in DNA content in 5 of 11. There was no statistically significant effect of either PRP or PPP in preventing cell death (depicted by apoptosis rate). PRP may have an enhancing effect on ACL cell viability and promotion of cell proliferation but the ideal concentration of PRP for these positive effects needs to be determined before it could be used in clinical settings for enhancing primary repair of torn ACL. Also larger, more controlled and better studies are needed to confirm its clinical utility.

  10. Measurement of liver iron overload by magnetic induction using a planar gradiometer: preliminary human results.

    PubMed

    Casañas, R; Scharfetter, H; Altes, A; Remacha, A; Sarda, P; Sierra, J; Merwa, R; Hollaus, K; Rosell, J

    2004-02-01

    The measurement of hepatic iron overload is of particular interest in cases of hereditary hemochromatosis or in patients subject to periodic blood transfusion. The measurement of plasma ferritin provides an indirect estimate but the usefulness of this method is limited by many common clinical conditions (inflammation, infection, etc). Liver biopsy provides the most quantitative direct measurement of iron content in the liver but the risk of the procedure limits its acceptability. This work studies the feasibility of a magnetic induction (MI) low-cost system to measure liver iron overload. The excitation magnetic field (B0, frequency: 28 kHz) was produced by a coil, the perturbation produced by the object (deltaB) was detected using a planar gradiometer. We measured ten patients and seven volunteers in supine and prone positions. Each subject was moved in a plane parallel to the gradiometer several times to estimate measurement repeatability. The real and imaginary parts of deltaB/B0 were measured. Plastic tanks filled with water, saline and ferric solutions were measured for calibration purposes. We used a finite element model to evaluate the experimental results. To estimate the iron content we used the ratio between the maximum values for real and imaginary parts of deltaB/B0 and the area formed by the Nyquist plot divided by the maximum imaginary part. Measurements in humans showed that the contribution of the permittivity is stronger than the contribution of the permeability produced by iron stores in the liver. Defined iron estimators show a limited correlation with expected iron content in patients (R < or = 0.56). A more precise control of geometry and position of the subjects and measurements at multiple frequencies would improve the method.

  11. A preliminary study of side population cells in human gastric cancer cell line HGC-27.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ganglong; Sun, Zhenliang; Wenyong, Liu; Dongxia, Ye; Zhao, Runjia; Zhang, Xueli

    2015-03-16

    Cancer stem cell-like side population (SP) cells, which may be responsible for recurrence, tumor metastasis, and resistance to cancer therapy, have been identified and characterized in several types of cell lines from gastric cancer. However, there is no report on isolation of SP cells from human gastric cancer cell line HGC-27. This study aims to analyze the proportion of SP cells in HGC-27 cell line, differentiate SP from non-side population (NSP) cells, and determine whether the SP cells have certain biological properties of stem cells. (1) HGC-27 suspension was prepared and stained with Hoechst33342 and PI for flow cytometric isolation of SP (2). Differences in proliferation and stemness-related gene expression profiles (CD133, CD44, OCT-4, MDR1, EpCAM, and ABCG2) between SP and NSP cells were detected by gastric formation assay and quantitative real-time PCR (3). Oncogenicity of SP and NSP cells was determined in nude mice in vivo. (1) SP cells accounted for 0.1-1.0% of HGC-27 cells, and decreased to 0% after verapamil inhibition. Using flow cytometry, we sorted 7.5×10⁵ SP cells and most HGC-27 cells were NSP cells (2). Gastric formation assay and MTT demonstrated that there was a significant difference in proliferation between SP and NSP cells. Gene expression analysis showed that the expression of genes was significantly higher in SP cells (3). The oncogenicity experiment in nude mice revealed that 105 SP cells were able to form tumors, which demonstrated higher tumorigenicity than non-SP cells. These results collectively suggested that SP cells from HGC-27 cell line have some cancer stem cell properties and could be used for studying the pathogenesis of gastric cancer, which may contribute to discovery of novel therapeutic targets.

  12. A new marker for breast cancer diagnosis, human epididymis protein 4: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Umut Riza; Gunaldi, Meral; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Gündüz, Seyda; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Kocoglu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer type in women. Tumor markers have been widely used for assessing the treatment response and early diagnosis of recurrence. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is expressed in ductal carcinoma of the breast tissue; however, its serum levels and their diagnostic and prognostic potential in breast cancer have not been investigated, which was therefore the aim of the present study. The serum levels of HE4 were determined in 36 breast cancer patients, 11 ovarian cancer patients and 16 healthy volunteers. The association between clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer and serum HE4 levels was investigated. A significant difference in the median serum levels of HE4 was identified between breast cancer patients, ovarian cancer patients and healthy volunteers (P=0.013). The cutoff value for the prediction of breast cancer was determined at >13.24 pmol/l for HE4, with a sensitivity of 61.11%, specificity of 68.75%, positive predictive value of 81.48%, negative predictive value of 44.0% and accuracy of 63.46%. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the serum levels of HE4 and cancer antigen 15–3 was determined (r=0.399, P=0.026). To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to determine the diagnostic value of serum HE4 for breast cancer. A significant elevation of serum HE4 levels in patients with breast cancer compared with that in healthy controls was identified. HE4 may serve as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:27446579

  13. Preliminary study of analyzing mucosal human papillomaviruses in cutaneous warts by restriction fragment mass polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Park, So Eun; Ha, Jae Won; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Sang Seok

    2017-08-03

    Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types 1, 2, 4, 7 and 57 are reportedly found in cutaneous warts. However, there are few reports that have investigated the prevalence of mucosal HPV types in cutaneous warts. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of mucosal HPV types in patients with cutaneous warts and to determine any association between HPV types and patient characteristics. We analyzed 62 wart samples that were taken from patients who were diagnosed with cutaneous warts, and 30 normal skin samples were used as negative control. We recorded the following characteristics: sex, age, type of warts, duration of warts, number of warts and patient's immune status. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) assay was used for HPV genotyping. Of the total 62 wart samples, 50 samples (81.6%) were positive for HPV genotypes. All of the negative controls (30 samples) using normal skin showed negative reaction. Mucosal HPV types (49 samples, 84.4%) were highly detected, and high- or probable high-risk HPV types (39 samples, 67.2%) were more common than lower risk HPV types (10 samples, 17.2%). A statistically significant association was observed between sex, age, duration of warts and the risk of HPV types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to use the RFMP assay to analyze cutaneous wart-associated mucosal HPV types. The high prevalence of high-risk and probable high-risk HPV in this study is of great significance. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. [A preliminary study on the in vitro eukaryotic expression of human factor VIII cDNA].

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Wang, H; Yu, L

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the expression efficiency of a cDNA sequence of human clotting factor VIII (4.7 kb, B domain-deleted) in in vitro systems. After insertion of the cDNA into several mammalian expression vectors, such as retroviral vector pMSCV, EB virus-based vector pGRE5.2/EBV and eukaryotic expression plasmid pCI, the expression of these constructs were tested in a variety of cells. All the three kinds of constructs-pCI-VIII, pGRE5.2/EBV-VIII and pMSCV-VIII were able to direct FVIII synthesis in NIH3T3, Hela and Bosc23 cells, respectively, while the pMSCV-VIII and pGRE5.2/EBVVIII produced relatively high levels of FVIII activity (up to 0.7 units/ml and 2.0 units/ml from 24 h to 48 h, respectively, after transfection with lipofectamine). The three forms of pMSCV-VIII vector worked in a similar efficacy in Bosc 23 cells, but this function was not detected in NIH3T3, psi-Crip and GP + E86 as well as 32DC13 cells in a transient transfection assay. Moreover, the NIH3T3 and 32DC13 cells infected with culture supernatant from pMSCV-VIII transfected-Bosc23 cells (as packaging cells) unexpectedly did not produce detectable FVIII activity. Apart from the design and construction of vectors, target cell selection may play a crucial role in the efficient expression of the FVIII cDNA.

  15. Two doses of humanized anti-CD25 antibody in renal transplantation: a preliminary comparative study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Li, Xinyan; Tan, Min; Lin, Birong; Hou, Sheng; Qian, Weizhu; Li, Bohua; Zhang, Dapeng; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Tongyu; Guo, Yajun

    2009-01-01

    HuCD25mAb is a humanized anti-CD25 antibody which has the same amino acid sequence as daclizumab (Zenapax, Roche). HuCD25mAb is expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells while daclizumab is expressed in the NSO myeloma cell line. A comparative study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between huCD25mAb and daclizumab in a two-dose regimen incorporating triple immunosuppressant treatment regimens (MMF, CsA and steroids). Fifteen patients were enrolled and randomized to receive intravenous infusion of either huCD25mAb (n = 10) or daclizumab (n = 5) at a dosage of 1 mg.kg(-1) on operation day 0 and post-operation day 14. Serum concentrations of huCD25mAb and daclizumab were measured by a validated competitive ELISA. Subgroups of CD3(+), CD25(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes were monitored periodically by flow cytometry. The concentration-time curves of huCD25mAb and daclizumab were found to fit well to a one-compartment model. A significant decline of proportion (%) of CD3-CD25(+) and CD3(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes was observed 30 min after first infusion on day 0 (3.40 +/- 1.83 to 0.03 +/- 0.07, 3.35 +/- 2.02 to 0.37 +/- 0.49), and these levels remained low for at least 70 days (0.03 +/- 0.05, 0.31 +/- 0.47). All pharmacokinetic parameters of huCD25mAb seemed similar to those of daclizumab. The two-dose huCD25mAb regimen was as effective as daclizumab in rapidly achieving high therapeutic concentration in the treated patients, and a significant decrease of CD3(-)CD25(+) and CD3(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes was demonstrated. This suggests that two-dose regimen is feasible in maintaining host immunosuppression and may provide an effective and economical strategy for reducing incidence of acute graft rejection.

  16. [Survey of arsenic concentrations in Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and preliminary risk assessment of As in CHMs on human health].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Ju; Lin, Ai-Jun; Liu, Yun-Xia

    2010-12-01

    Characteristics and concentrations of As in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) from Hebei province (including samples collected from fields and from medicine markets) were investigated, and the ADI (allowable daily intake) standard value from FAO/WHO was used for preliminary assessment of As risk on human health. The results showed that the average of As concentrations in different roots which were used as medicines, ranged from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.54 mg/kg,while for shoots which were used as medicines, average value of As concentrations in Dendranthema morifolium was 1.42 mg/kg, and the range in other species was from 0.09 mg/kg to 0.27 mg/kg. Based on Green Standards of Medicinal Plants and Preparations for Foreign Trade and Economy (2.0 mg/kg), the percentage of samples with As concentrations exceeding standard was 3.27% (n = 153) in roots and 9.09% (n = 44) in shoots,and 4.57% (n = 197) in total CHMs samples. As concentrations in CHMs from fields ranged from 0.03 mg/kg to 0.73 mg/kg,which were all lower than 2.0 mg/kg. However, As concentrations in CHMs from markets ranged from 0.05 mg/kg to 7.05 mg/kg, and the concentrations of As in 6.36% of samples exceeded the limited standard. Arsenic concentrations in samples from markets were significantly higher than those from fields (p < 0.05). As concentrations in Compositae were distributed widely from 0.08 mg/kg to 7.05 mg/kg,and the average at 0.87 mg/kg,while the average of As concentrations in other six families were between 0.21 mg/kg and 0.41 mg/kg, and As levels in 75% of samples for each family were below 0.5 mg/kg. Compared to Compositae samples, the CHMs from other families have higher security. ADI regulated by FAO/WHO was used to assess As risk in CHMs on human health in this study as well. As daily intake through CHMs from markets varied from 0.90 microg/d to 19.7 microg/d, and percentages of the daily intake of As in CHMs to ADI were in the range of 0.70% to 15.4%, which indicated that As in CHMs from markets

  17. Preliminary characterization of diacylglycerol generation in human basophils: temporal relationship to histamine release and resolution of degranulation.

    PubMed

    Oriente, A; Hundley, T; Hubbard, W C; MacGlashan, D W

    1997-05-01

    Purified human basophils were examined for changes in diacylglycerol levels to determine whether the transient nature of a N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) -stimulated elevation in membrane protein kinase C (PKC) activity could be explained by the transient production of diacylglycerol (DAG). In preliminary experiments total DAG levels were measured by the DAG kinase assay. Although elevations followed stimulation with 1 microM fMLP (basal levels of 15 pmol/10(6) basophils vs. 45 pmol/10(6) basophils at the 3-min time point), there were no detectable changes in the first 60 s of the reaction. Histamine release is typically complete by 30-45 s. Measurement of inositol trisphosphate indicated a rapid increase by 5 s of 2.5 pmol/10(6) basophils. If DAG were produced at similar levels, the DAG kinase assay would not have detected the elevation. Consequently, fMLP-stimulated basophils were examined for changes in 1-stearoyl, 2-arachidonoyl, 3-sn-glycerol (SA-DAG) and 1-oleoyl, 2-arachidonoyl, 3-sn-glycerol by GC-NICIMS (negative ion chemical ionization mass spectroscopy). A 5-s elevation in these two species averaged 2 pmol/10(6) basophils, consistent with the inositol trisphosphate levels and occurring during the period of histamine release. However, a much more pronounced second phase to the SA-DAG response also occurred, mirroring the total DAG levels. This second phase of the DAG response, either total or SA-DAG, was transient on a time scale temporally coincident with the appearance and resolution of degranulation sacs as measured by fluorescence microscopy. These data suggest that there is selective generation of DAG species in the early reaction and the later appearance of DAG may be related to the formation and resolution of granule structures that follow the secretion of histamine.

  18. Non-invasive assessment of human tumour hypoxia with 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside: preliminary report of a clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Parliament, M. B.; Chapman, J. D.; Urtasun, R. C.; McEwan, A. J.; Golberg, L.; Mercer, J. R.; Mannan, R. H.; Wiebe, L. I.

    1992-01-01

    Non-invasive predictive assays which can confirm the presence or absence of hypoxic cells in human tumours show promise for understanding the natural history of tumour oxygenation, and improving the selection of patient subsets for novel radiotherapeutic strategies. Sensitiser adducts have been proposed as markers for hypoxic cells. Misonidazole analogues radiolabelled with iodine-123 have been developed for the detection of tumour hypoxia using conventional nuclear medicine techniques. In this pilot study, we have investigated one such potential marker, 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside (123I-IAZA). Patients with advanced malignancies have undergone planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging after intravenous administration of 123I-IAZA. We have observed radiotracer avidity in three out of ten tumours studied to date. Normal tissue activity of variable extent was also seen in the thyroid and salivary glands, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, intestine, and urinary bladder. Quantitative analysis of those images showing radiotracer avidity revealed tumour/normal tissue (T/N) ratios of 2.3 (primary small cell lung carcinoma), 1.9 (primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and 3.2 (brain metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma) at 18-24 h post injection. These preliminary data suggest that the use of gamma-emitter labelled 2-nitroimidazoles as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals is feasible and safe, and that metabolic binding of 123I-IAZA is observed in some, but not all tumours. The inference that tumour 123I-IAZA avidity could be a non-invasive measure of tumour hypoxia deserves independent confirmation with needle oximetry. Images p92-a Figure 2 PMID:1310253

  19. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary assessment of efficacy of mecasermin (recombinant human IGF-1) for the treatment of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khwaja, Omar S.; Ho, Eugenia; Barnes, Katherine V.; O’Leary, Heather M.; Pereira, Luis M.; Finkelstein, Yaron; Nelson, Charles A.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; DeGregorio, Geneva; Holm, Ingrid A.; Khatwa, Umakanth; Kapur, Kush; Alexander, Mark E.; Finnegan, Deirdre M.; Cantwell, Nicole G.; Walco, Alexandra C.; Rappaport, Leonard; Gregas, Matt; Fichorova, Raina N.; Shannon, Michael W.; Sur, Mriganka; Kaufmann, Walter E.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder mainly affecting females and is associated with mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein 2. Mouse models suggest that recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (rhIGF1) (mecasermin) may improve many clinical features. We evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profiles of IGF-1 in 12 girls with MECP2 mutations (9 with RTT). In addition, we performed a preliminary assessment of efficacy using automated cardiorespiratory measures, EEG, a set of RTT-oriented clinical assessments, and two standardized behavioral questionnaires. This phase 1 trial included a 4-wk multiple ascending dose (MAD) (40–120 μg/kg twice daily) period and a 20-wk open-label extension (OLE) at the maximum dose. Twelve subjects completed the MAD and 10 the entire study, without evidence of hypoglycemia or serious adverse events. Mecasermin reached the CNS compartment as evidenced by the increase in cerebrospinal fluid IGF-1 levels at the end of the MAD. The drug followed nonlinear kinetics, with greater distribution in the peripheral compartment. Cardiorespiratory measures showed that apnea improved during the OLE. Some neurobehavioral parameters, specifically measures of anxiety and mood also improved during the OLE. These improvements in mood and anxiety scores were supported by reversal of right frontal alpha band asymmetry on EEG, an index of anxiety and depression. Our data indicate that IGF-1 is safe and well tolerated in girls with RTT and, as demonstrated in preclinical studies, ameliorates certain breathing and behavioral abnormalities. PMID:24623853

  20. Potential use of mesenchymal stem cells in human meniscal repair: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    The menisci of the human knee play an important role in maintaining normal functions to provide stability and nutrition to the articular cartilage, and to absorb shock. Once injured, these important structures have very limited natural healing potential. Unfortunately, the traditional arthroscopic meniscectomy performed on these damaged menisci may predispose the joint toward early development of osteoarthritis. Although a very limited number of studies are available, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as an alternative therapeutic modality to repair human knee meniscal tears. This review summarizes the results of published applications of MSCs in human patients, which showed that the patients who received MSCs (autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells or culture-expanded bone marrow-derived stem cells) presented symptomatic improvements, along with magnetic resonance imaging evidences of the meniscal repair. PMID:28356779

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of wild-type and mutant recombinant human transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp)

    PubMed Central

    Runager, Kasper; García-Castellanos, Raquel; Valnickova, Zuzana; Kristensen, Torsten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Klintworth, Gordon K.; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp) has been linked to several corneal dystrophies as certain point mutations in the protein may give rise to a progressive accumulation of insoluble protein material in the human cornea. Little is known about the biological functions of this extracellular protein, which is expressed in various tissues throughout the human body. However, it has been found to interact with a number of extracellular matrix macromolecules such as collagens and proteoglycans. Structural information about TGFBIp might prove to be a valuable tool in the elucidation of its function and its role in corneal dystrophies caused by mutations in the TGFBI gene. A simple method for the purification of wild-type and mutant forms of recombinant human TGFBIp from human cells under native conditions is presented here. Moreover, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of TGFBIp are reported. PMID:19255489

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of an RNA aptamer in complex with the human IgG Fc fragment

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nomura, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kitatani, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Asako; Miyakawa, Shin; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Aptamers, which are folded DNA or RNA molecules, bind to target molecules with high affinity and specificity. An RNA aptamer specific for the Fc fragment of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) has recently been identified and it has been demonstrated that an optimized 24-nucleotide RNA aptamer binds to the Fc fragment of human IgG and not to other species. In order to clarify the structural basis of the high specificity of the RNA aptamer, it was crystallized in complex with the Fc fragment of human IgG1. Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.7, b = 107.2, c = 79.0 Å. A data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. PMID:18931441

  3. Preliminary study of gaze toward humans in photographs by individuals with autism, Down syndrome, or other intellectual disabilities: implications for design of visual scene displays.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Light, Janice

    2014-06-01

    Visual scene displays (VSDs) are a form of augmentative and alternative communication display in which language concepts are embedded into an image of a naturalistic event. VSDs are based on the theory that language learning occurs through interactions with other people, and recommendations for VSD design have emphasized using images of these events that include humans. However, many VSDs also include other items that could potentially be distracting. We examined gaze fixation in 18 school-aged participants with and without severe intellectual/developmental disabilities (i.e., individuals with typical development, autism, Down syndrome and other intellectual disabilities) while they viewed photographs with human figures of various sizes and locations in the image, appearing alongside other interesting, and potentially distracting items. In all groups, the human figures attracted attention rapidly (within 1.5 seconds). The proportions of each participant's own fixation time spent on the human figures were similar across all groups, as were the proportions of total fixations made to the human figures. Although the findings are preliminary, this initial evidence supports the inclusion of humans in VSD images.

  4. Performance characteristics of DRI, CEDIA, and REMEDi systems for preliminary tests of amphetamines and opiates in human urine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Kun; Dai, Yu-Shan; Lee, Choung-Huei; Liu, Chiareiy; Tsay, Wen-Ing; Li, Jih-Heng

    2006-01-01

    Arrestee urine specimens (930) were tested with DRI, CEDIA, and REMEDi; those that tested positive for amphetamines and opiates (616 and 414, respectively) were then confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The performance characteristics of these three preliminary systems were evaluated using the following commonly used parameters: true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of these methods were also calculated. Data derived from this study indicated DRI and CEDIA adapted by this study generated acceptable preliminary test results for amphetamine/methamphetamine and morphine/codeine, but not for MDA/MDMA and REMEDi has lower sensitivity than DRI and CEDIA, but with better specificity and efficiency, supporting its use under emergency room settings where drug concentrations in overdose cases are expectedly at high levels.

  5. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial solid waste: a preliminary evaluation of the potential risk of environmental and human contamination in waste disposal areas].

    PubMed

    Sisinno, Cristina L S; Pereira Netto, Annibal D; Rego, Eliane Cristina P do; Lima, Guilherme dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Proper solid waste disposal is important to avoid human and environmental contamination. The NBR 10,004 Waste Classification lists several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and indicates that the presence of at least one PAH in a waste sample is enough to classify it as hazardous. The aim of this study was a preliminary evaluation of PAHs in solid waste samples from selected industries to obtain a preliminary overview of their potential for contamination in case of improper disposal. One or more PAHs listed in NBR 10,004 (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, chrysene, or fluoranthene) were found in all samples, thus leading to their classification as hazardous waste. Our results showed that toxicologically relevant PAHs were found in all the samples, indicating that their final disposal must be performed in appropriate areas in order to minimize human health risks and environmental contamination from waste disposal areas.

  6. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human ARH3, the first eukaryotic protein-ADP-ribosylhydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Kernstock, Stefan; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Weiss, Manfred S.; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph

    2006-03-01

    Human ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3), which has been identified as an ARH by a sequence-similarity search and which cleaves the glycosidic bond of ADP-ribose attached to a protein, has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in two different space groups. ADP-ribosylhydrolases catalyze the release of ADP-ribose from ADP-ribosylated proteins via hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond between ADP-ribose and a specific amino-acid residue in a target protein. Human ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3, consisting of 347 amino-acid residues, has been cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in two different space groups. Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies yielded excellent diffraction data to a resolution of 1.6 Å.

  7. Generation and characterization of a human acellular meniscus scaffold for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, G H; Eichhorn, S; Vogt, S; Adamczyk, C; Aryee, S; Hoberg, M; Milz, S; Imhoff, A B; Tischer, T

    2009-11-01

    Meniscus tears are frequent indications for arthroscopic evaluation which can result in partial or total meniscectomy. Allografts or synthetic meniscus scaffolds have been used with varying success to prevent early degenerative joint disease in these cases. Problems related to reduced initial and long-term stability, as well as immunological reactions prevent widespread clinical use so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a new construct for tissue engineering of the human meniscus based on an acellular meniscus allograft. Human menisci (n = 16) were collected and acellularized using the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate as the main ingredient or left untreated as control group. These acellularized menisci were characterized biomechanically using a repetitive ball indentation test (Stiffness N/mm, residual force N, relative compression force N) and by histological (hematoxylin-eosin, phase-contrast) as well as immunohistochemical (collagen I, II, VI) investigation. The processed menisci histologically appeared cell-free and had biomechanical properties similar to the intact meniscus samples (p > 0.05). The collagen fiber arrangement was not altered, according to phase-contrast microscopy and immunohistochemical labeling. The removal of the immunogenic cell components combined with the preservation of the mechanically relevant parts of the extracellular matrix could make these scaffolds ideal implants for future tissue engineering of the meniscus.

  8. Preliminary Single-Center Canadian Experience of Human Normothermic Ex Vivo Liver Perfusion: Results of a Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bral, M; Gala-Lopez, B; Bigam, D; Kneteman, N; Malcolm, A; Livingstone, S; Andres, A; Emamaullee, J; Russell, L; Coussios, C; West, L J; Friend, P J; Shapiro, A M J

    2017-04-01

    After extensive experimentation, outcomes of a first clinical normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) liver trial in the United Kingdom demonstrated feasibility and clear safety, with improved liver function compared with standard static cold storage (SCS). We present a preliminary single-center North American experience using identical NMP technology. Ten donor liver grafts were procured, four (40%) from donation after circulatory death (DCD), of which nine were transplanted. One liver did not proceed because of a technical failure with portal cannulation and was discarded. Transplanted NMP grafts were matched 1:3 with transplanted SCS livers. Median NMP was 11.5 h (range 3.3-22.5 h) with one DCD liver perfused for 22.5 h. All transplanted livers functioned, and serum transaminases, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and lactate levels corrected in NMP recipients similarly to controls. Graft survival at 30 days (primary outcome) was not statistically different between groups on an intent-to-treat basis (p = 0.25). Intensive care and hospital stays were significantly more prolonged in the NMP group. This preliminary experience demonstrates feasibility as well as potential technical risks of NMP in a North American setting and highlights a need for larger, randomized studies. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Woodland biodiversity management as a tool for reducing human exposure to Ixodes ricinus ticks: a preliminary study in an english woodland.

    PubMed

    Medlock, J M; Shuttleworth, H; Copley, V; Hansford, K M; Leach, S

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings towards developing a UK-specific approach to reducing public exposure to woodland questing Ixodes ricinus tick populations by harnessing existing biodiversity-enhancing woodland ride (i.e., linear non-wooded herbaceous habitat either side of track within woodland) management strategies. This preliminary study in an English woodland firstly assesses whether ecological and environmental factors determine presence and density of questing Ixodes ricinus along woodland rides. Secondly, it sets these findings in the context of woodland ride management guidelines in England in order to understand what impact ride management strategies might have on numbers of questing ticks and tick survival. Nymph and adult I. ricinus presence and abundance were modelled in relation to relevant microclimate and ecological parameter variables. Predictor variables for increased questing nymph abundance included ride orientation, mat depth, occurrence of bracken/bramble and animal tracks, ride/path width, and sward height. Ticks thrive in the ecotonal habitat of a woodland ride, therefore we urge woodland managers to consider the impact of their ride management on ticks and human exposure to ticks. Possible recommendations for mitigating questing I. ricinus in line with biodiversity management guidelines rides are discussed in this paper and include seasonal mowing regimes, management of mulch/mat, and bracken/bramble management through use of scalloped ride edges. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Clastogenic effect of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum v. arachnoideum) diet in peripheral lymphocytes of human consumers: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Recouso, R C; Stocco dos Santos, R C; Freitas, R; Santos, R C; de Freitas, A C; Brunner, O; Beçak, W; Lindsey, C J

    2003-03-01

    Ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum v. arachnoideum) is associated with digestive tract cancer in different regions of Japan, Venezuela and Brazil. In view of reports that dietary bracken fern causes chromosomal instability in cattle, the clastogenic effect of bracken fern was investigated, in a preliminary study, in peripheral lymphocytes obtained from habitual consumers and a control group of non-consumers, which were carefully investigated about cancer history or family cancer history, negative in both cases, using protocols comparable to those previously described in studies in cattle raised on bracken pastures. Cytogenetic analysis showed significant increased levels of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromatid breaks, in cultured peripheral lymphocytes of the consumer group. There was no correlation with subjects, gender, smoking habits or alcohol consumption, and the only correlation was with prolonged exposure to dietary bracken.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Mexico: results of a preliminary study in three Mexican cities.

    PubMed

    Albert, L; Cebrián, M E; Méndez, F; Portales, A

    1980-01-01

    The results of a preliminary search to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in the adipose tissue of the inhabitants of three Mexican cities of different socioeconomic characteristics are described herein. The concentrations and percent occurrence of nine compounds found are reported. In general, the samples analyzed had a large number of different organochlorine residues per sample. The results indicate that the inhabitants have been heavily exposed to 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chloro-phenyl) ethane (DDT), and to a lesser degree, to 1,2,3,4,5,6,-hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC). The mean concentration of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) in one of the groups (18.36 ppm lipid basis) was one of the highest reported in the literature. It is also noteworthy that DDT was found in only 63, 89, and 55% of the samples from the three cities.

  12. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of the Human Long Myosin Light-Chain Kinase 1-Specific Domain IgCAM3

    SciTech Connect

    W Vallen Graham; A Magis; K Bailey; J Turner; D Ostrov

    2011-12-31

    Myosin light-chain kinase-dependent tight junction regulation is a critical event in inflammatory cytokine-induced increases in epithelial paracellular permeability. MLCK is expressed in human intestinal epithelium as two isoforms, long MLCK1 and long MLCK2, and MLCK1 is specifically localized to the tight junction, where it regulates paracellular permeability. The sole difference between these long MLCK splice variants is the presence of an immunoglobulin-like cell-adhesion molecule domain, IgCAM3, in MLCK1. To gain insight into the structure of the IgCAM3 domain, the IgCAM3 domain of MLCK1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution and were consistent with the primitive trigonal space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}.

  13. Human-Centered Technologies and Procedures for Future Air Traffic Management: A Preliminary Overview of 1996 Studies and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip; McCoy, Elaine; Denning, Rebecca; Woods, David; Sarter, Nadine; Dekker, Sidney; Billings, Charles

    1996-01-01

    In this project, we have been exploring the use of a general methodology to predict the impact of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and technologies. In applying this methodology, our emphasis has been on the importance of modeling coordination and cooperation among the multiple agents within this system, and on understanding how the interactions among these agents will be influenced as new roles, responsibilities, procedures and technologies are introduced. To accomplish this, we have been collecting data on performance under the current air traffic management system, trying to identify critical problem areas and looking for exemplars suggestive of general approaches for solving such problems. Based on the results of these field studies, we have developed a set of scenarios centered around potential future system designs, and have conducted studies using these scenarios involving a total 40 controllers, dispatchers, pilots and traffic managers. The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with an early summary of the major recommendations that have resulted from our research under the AATT Program thus far. Recommendations 1-3 deal with general approaches that our findings suggest should be incorporated in future AATT Program activities, while Recommendations 4-11 identify some specific topics and technologies that merit research and development activities. Detailed technical reports containing supporting data, as well as the results of our still ongoing analyses, will be provided at a later date. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 1 briefly describes the general design philosophy supported by our empirical studies. Section 2 presents the research methods we have used for identifying requirements for future system designs and for evaluating alternative design solutions. Section 3 discusses preliminary results from an initial set of investigations that we have conducted using these research methods. Section 4 then provides an

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wei; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2006-12-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease. Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of a group of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNAs for translation. Mutations of human and mouse GlyRSs are causally associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, the most common genetic disorder of the peripheral nervous system. As the first step towards a structure–function analysis of this disease, native human GlyRS was expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystal belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or its enantiomorphic space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.74, c = 247.18 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained one GlyRS molecule and had a solvent content of 69%.

  15. Targeting breast cancer stem cells by dendritic cell vaccination in humanized mice with breast tumor: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Phuc Van; Le, Hanh Thi; Vu, Binh Thanh; Pham, Viet Quoc; Le, Phong Minh; Phan, Nhan Lu-Chinh; Trinh, Ngu Van; Nguyen, Huyen Thi-Lam; Nguyen, Sinh Truong; Nguyen, Toan Linh; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading cancers in women. Recent progress has enabled BC to be cured with high efficiency. However, late detection or metastatic disease often renders the disease untreatable. Additionally, relapse is the main cause of death in BC patients. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are considered to cause the development of BC and are thought to be responsible for metastasis and relapse. This study aimed to target BCSCs using dendritic cells (DCs) to treat tumor-bearing humanized mice models. Materials and methods NOD/SCID mice were used to produce the humanized mice by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Human BCSCs were injected into the mammary fat pad to produce BC humanized mice. Both hematopoietic stem cells and DCs were isolated from the human umbilical cord blood, and immature DCs were produced from cultured mononuclear cells. DCs were matured by BCSC-derived antigen incubation for 48 hours. Mature DCs were vaccinated to BC humanized mice with a dose of 106 cells/mice, and the survival percentage was monitored in both treated and untreated groups. Results The results showed that DC vaccination could target BCSCs and reduce the tumor size and prolong survival. Conclusion These results suggested that targeting BCSCs with DCs is a promising therapy for BC. PMID:27499638

  16. Preliminary evidence of the presence of lymphatic vessels immunoreactive for D2-40 and Prox-1 in human pterygium.

    PubMed

    Cimpean, Anca Maria; Poenaru Sava, Mihai; Raica, Marius; Ribatti, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    Human pterygium is a benign fibrovascular outgrowth of the corneo-conjunctival junction, characterized by tissue remodeling, cellular proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation. No data are available concerning the presence of lymphatic vessels in this pathological condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against D2-40, Prox-1 and Ki-67, the presence and the proliferative activity of lymphatic vessels in human pterygium. An increased lymphatic microvessel density was observed in the human pterygium compared to the normal conjunctiva. Moreover, D2-40-positive lymphatic endothelial cells were also actively proliferating, as assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining, while in normal conjunctiva proliferating lymphatic endothelial cells were not detectable. Overall, these data clearly indicate the presence of active proliferating lymphatic vessels in human pterygium, suggesting that active lymphangiogenesis occurs in this pathological condition.

  17. Development of screening assays for nanoparticle toxicity assessment in human blood: preliminary studies with charged Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Love, Sara A; Thompson, John W; Haynes, Christy L

    2012-09-01

    As nanoparticles have found increased use in both consumer and medical applications, corresponding increases in possible exposure to humans necessitate studies examining the impacts of these nanomaterials in biological systems. This article examines the effects of approximately 30-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles, with positively and negatively charged surface coatings in human blood. Here, we study the exposure effects, with up to 72 h of exposure to 5, 15, 25 and 50 µg/ml nanoparticles on hemolysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and platelet aggregation in subsets of cells from human blood. Assessing viability with hemolysis, results show significant changes in a concentration-dependent fashion. Rates of ROS generation were investigated using the dichlorofluorscein diacetate-based assay as ROS generation is a commonly suspected mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity; herein, ROS was not a significant factor. Optical monitoring of platelet aggregation revealed that none of the examined nanoparticles induced aggregation upon short-term exposure.

  18. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wang; Pi, Xitian; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p<0.05) but is not significantly more effective than reported 3-stage impactor method (p>0.05). In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance. PMID:26934615

  19. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Pi, Xitian; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p<0.05) but is not significantly more effective than reported 3-stage impactor method (p>0.05). In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  20. Oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formulas compared to human milk--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Calzada, Catherine; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Guichardant, Michel

    2008-12-01

    Information about lipid oxidation in fresh and stored human milk compared with infant formulas is scarce. We aimed to assess n-6 and n-3 PUFA oxidation in these milks by measuring the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) content. Human milk samples (n = 4), obtained from volunteer mothers, were analyzed fresh and after 1 wk at 4 degrees C or 24 h at 18 degrees C. Vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by HPLC and fatty acid profile by GC. The 4-HHE and 4-HNE contents were measured by GC-MS. Infant formulas (n = 10) were tested; their fat droplet size was measured by laser light scattering and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Human milk samples contained 31.0 +/- 6.3 g/L of lipids and 1.14 +/- 0.26 mg/L of vitamin E. Fat droplets were smaller in infant formulas than reported in human milk. The (4-HHE/n-3 PUFA) ratio was 0.19 +/- 0.01 microg/g in fresh human milk (unchanged after storage) versus 3.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 4.3 +/- 3.8 microg/g in liquid formula. (4-HNE/n-6 PUFA) was 0.004 +/- 0.000 microg/g in fresh milk (0.03 +/- 0.01 microg/g after storage) versus 1.1 +/- 1.0 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 0.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g in liquid formula. Infant formulas also contained more MDA than human milk. n-3 PUFA were more prone to oxidation than n-6 PUFA. Whether threshold levels of 4-HHE and 4-HNE would be of health concern should be elucidated.

  1. Combination Of Static And Dynami,C Stereophotogrammetry For The Kinetic Analysis Of Human Locomotion: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaer, Alex R.; Sheffer, Daniel B.; Jones, D.; Meier, G.; Baumann, Juerg U.

    1989-04-01

    For a deeper understanding of the complexity of human walking movement not only a kinematic analysis , but also a comprehensive three-dimensional biomechanical model of the human body is required to detail the kinetic activities. This research combined static stereophotogrammetric determination of body segment mass parameters with three-dimensional gait analysis by cinephotography, direct linear transformation and two force plates. A method of combining the two independent analyses by defining the anatomical axes of each segment is shown. Practical problems arising in dynamic and stereometric analysis are demonstrated. Power spectra of a normal and a matched subject with spastic diplegia were calculated for a proper design of the kinematic analysis.

  2. Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale.

    PubMed

    Strassman, R J; Qualls, C R; Uhlenhuth, E H; Kellner, R

    1994-02-01

    Validation of animal models of hallucinogenic drugs' subjective effects requires human data. Previous human studies used varied groups of subjects and assessment methods. Rating scales for hallucinogen effects emphasized psychodynamic principles or the drugs' dysphoric properties. We describe the subjective effects of graded doses of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an endogenous hallucinogen and drug of abuse, in a group of experienced hallucinogen users. We also present preliminary data from a new rating scale for these effects. Twelve highly motivated volunteers received two doses (0.04 and 0.4 mg/kg) of intravenous (IV) dimethyltryptamine fumarate "nonblind," before entering a double-blind, saline placebo-controlled, randomized study using four doses of IV DMT. Subjects were carefully interviewed after resolution of drug effects, providing thorough and systematic descriptions of DMT's effects. They also were administered a new instrument, the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS). The HRS was drafted from interviews obtained from an independent sample of 19 experienced DMT users, and modified during early stages of the study. Psychological effects of IV DMT began almost immediately after administration, peaked at 90 to 120 seconds, and were almost completely resolved by 30 minutes. This time course paralleled DMT blood levels previously described. Hallucinogenic effects were seen after 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg of dimethyltryptamine fumarate, and included a rapidly moving, brightly colored visual display of images. Auditory effects were less common. "Loss of control," associated with a brief, but overwhelming "rush," led to a dissociated state, where euphoria alternated or coexisted with anxiety. These effects completely replaced subjects' previously ongoing mental experience and were more vivid and compelling than dreams or waking awareness. Lower doses, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/kg, were primarily affective and somaesthetic, while 0.1 mg/kg elicited the least desirable effects

  3. A preliminary evaluation of the effects of opioids on innate and adaptive human in vitro immune function.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jason W; Foulds, Gemma A; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Pockley, A Graham

    2014-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated that whereas some opioids have little effect on immunity (eg, buprenorphine), others can be immunosuppressive (eg, morphine) or immunostimulatory (eg, tramadol). However, a variety of approaches have been used, especially in vitro and animal models, and the findings are variable. We hypothesised that opioids have differential effects on immunity via direct actions on neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer (NK) and T cells, and this is the first study to systematically evaluate the influence of eight opioids on neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst responses, NK cell cytotoxicity and T cell responsiveness in vitro. Peripheral blood was obtained from healthy volunteers, and the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of morphine, tramadol, fentanyl, buprenorphine, methadone, oxycodone, diamorphine and codeine on phagocytosis and oxidative burst responses were determined using whole blood flow cytometry. The influence of opioids on the capacity of resting and IL-2 stimulated isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to kill NK cell-sensitive K562 cells, and the responsiveness of PBMC subpopulations to IL-2 and polyclonal stimulation were also evaluated. Methadone, oxycodone and diamorphine inhibited the production of IL-6 by IL-2 stimulated PBMCs. None of the opioids consistently influenced the other measured immune parameters, although there was a trend for morphine, tramadol, fentanyl and buprenorphine to inhibit phagocytosis and oxidative burst responses to Escherichia coli. Preliminary studies using standardised in vitro methodologies have demonstrated that some therapeutic opioids suppress IL-6 production. Although this might potentially suppress bacterial defence mechanisms, it would have little direct effect on anticancer immunity. These findings should be confirmed in larger in vitro and clinical studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Inna; Kessler, Naama; Moor, Nina; Klipcan, Liron; Koc, Emine; Templeton, Paul; Spremulli, Linda; Safro, Mark

    2007-09-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) are reported. Diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the mitPheRS structure was solved using the molecular-replacement method. Human monomeric mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the charging of tRNA with the cognate amino acid phenylalanine. Human mitPheRS is a chimera of the bacterial α-subunit of PheRS and the B8 domain of its β-subunit. Together, the α-subunit and the ‘RNP-domain’ (B8 domain) at the C-terminus form the minimal structural set to construct an enzyme with phenylalanylation activity. The recombinant human mitPheRS was purified to homogeneity and crystallized in complex with phenylalanine and ATP. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55, b = 90, c = 96 Å.

  5. Osmotic response of oocytes using a microscope diffusion chamber: a preliminary study comparing murine and human ova.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; McGrath, J J; Fuller, B J; Imoedemhe, D; Shaw, R W

    1988-12-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of the plasma membrane determines how cells respond to the stresses of dehydration encountered during cryopreservation. We have used a microscope diffusion chamber which allows for direct real-time observation of the dynamic osmotic response of individual cells in microvolume suspension to compare the Lp of murine and human unfertilized ova. In this system, the response of an individual cell to the induced osmotic imbalance is documented via a series of photomicrographs or videotape; from these data the Lp can be computed. Donated human preovulatory oocytes were compared with macroscopically normal human ova, 43 hr after insemination, which had failed to fertilize (Ff) and with murine ova collected 13 hr post human chorionic gonadotropin injection. The permeability coefficients were 0.65 +/- 0.43, 0.84 +/- 0.39, and 0.36 +/- 0.07 micron3/micron2/atm/min. The results suggest that it may be possible to use Ff ova for experiments to design suitable cryopreservation procedures.

  6. Selected Bibliography on Culture and Cultural Materials, Preliminary Edition. Series A: Reference Materials, Human Relations in Cultural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, E. C.; And Others

    Included in this bibliography are references to resources and materials available to the teacher and educator on human relations and cultural education. The bibliography is divided into three sections on culture, specific culture, and adult bilingual-bicultural education. The section on culture presents background information on the relation of…

  7. Selected Bibliography on Culture and Cultural Materials, Preliminary Edition. Series A: Reference Materials, Human Relations in Cultural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, E. C.; And Others

    Included in this bibliography are references to resources and materials available to the teacher and educator on human relations and cultural education. The bibliography is divided into three sections on culture, specific culture, and adult bilingual-bicultural education. The section on culture presents background information on the relation of…

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-SAA-2 from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Goud, Gaddam N; Zhan, Bin; Ordonez, Katherine; Sedlacek, Meghan; Homma, Kohei; Deumic, Vehid; Gupta, Richi; Brelsford, Jill; Price, Merelyn K; Ngamelue, Michelle N; Hotez, Peter J

    2010-02-01

    Human hookworms are among the most pathogenic soil-transmitted helminths. These parasitic nematodes have co-evolved with the host and are able to maintain a high worm burden for decades without killing the human host. However, it is possible to develop vaccines against laboratory-challenge hookworm infections using either irradiated third-state infective larvae (L3) or enzymes from the adult parasites. In an effort to control hookworm infection globally, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, a product-development partnership with the Sabin Vaccine Institute to develop new control tools including vaccines, has identified a battery of protein antigens, including surface-associated antigens (SAAs) from L3. SAA proteins are characterized by a 13 kDa conserved domain of unknown function. SAA proteins are found on the surface of infective L3 stages (and some adult stages) of different nematode parasites, suggesting that they may play important roles in these organisms. The atomic structures and function of SAA proteins remain undetermined and in an effort to remedy this situation recombinant Na-SAA-2 from the most prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Useful X-ray data have been collected to 2.3 A resolution from a crystal that belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 73.88, b = 35.58, c = 42.75 A, beta = 116.1 degrees .

  9. A preliminary human factors planning and design outline of parameters related to space station windows and CCTV monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The question of the merits of placing windows on proposed future space stations is addressed. The use of windows for human visual capabilities is compared to using closed circuit television. Placement and field of view, as well as the number of windows is discussed.

  10. Preliminary study on the time-related changes of the infrared thermal images of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng; Lin, Gang; Chen, Zhigang

    2009-08-01

    It is of great importance to study the manifestations and the influencing factors of the time-related changes of infrared thermal images (ITI) of human body since the variable body surface temperature distribution seriously affected the application of ITI in medicine. In this paper, manifestations of time-related changes of the ITI of human body from three double-blind randomized trials and their correlation with meteorological factors (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity, cold front passage and tropical cyclone landing) were studied. The trials were placebo or drug controlled studying the influences of Chinese medicine health food (including Shengsheng capsule with immunity adjustment function, Shengan capsule with sleep improvement function and Shengyi capsule with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid) on the ITI of human body. In the first thirty-six days of the trials images were scanned every six days and image data in the seven observation time spots (including the 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 day of the trial) were used for the time-related study. For every subject the scanned time was fixed in the day within two hours. The ITI features which could reflect the functions of the health foods were studied. The indexes of the features were relative magnitude (temperature difference between the viewing area and the reference area). Results showed that the variation tendencies of the trial group and control group were basically the same in placebo controlled trials and some of the long-term effects of Chinese medicine health food could be reflected significantly in certain time spots in the first thirty-six days. Time-related changes of the ITI of human body were closely related with meteorological factors but there were other influencing factors still need to be studied. As the ITI of human body could reflect the influences of Chinese medicine health foods and are closely related with meteorology, there are bright prospects for the application of ITI in

  11. Expression, purification, cocrystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of sucrose octasulfate/human complement regulator factor H SCRs 6–8

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, Beverly E.; Johnson, Steven; Roversi, Pietro; Clark, Simon J.; Tarelli, Edward; Sim, Robert B.; Day, Antony J.; Lea, Susan M.

    2007-06-01

    The crystallization of human complement regulator FH-678{sub 402H} with a glycosaminoglycan analogue is described. Human plasma protein complement factor H (FH) is an inhibitor of the spontaneously activated alternative complement pathway. An allotypic variant of FH, 402His, has been associated with age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Crystals of FH domains 6–8 (FH678) containing 402His have been grown in the presence of a polyanionic sucrose octasulfate ligand (an analogue of the natural glycosaminoglycan ligands of FH) using both native and selenomethionine-derivatized protein. Native data sets diffracting to 2.3 Å and SeMet data sets of up to 2.8 Å resolution have been collected. An anomalous difference Patterson map reveals self- and cross-peaks from two incorporated Se atoms. The corresponding selenium substructure has been solved.

  12. A morphological methodology for three-dimensional human face soft-tissue landmarks extraction: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Calignano, F; Vezzetti, E

    2011-06-01

    Assessment of facial soft tissues could be implemented using only anatomical landmarks. These points are so significant in the medical context because are able to provide significant information about the human face morphology and dimensions. At present their detection and location is made by expert physicians using palpation. Even if this procedure normally provides reliable information, the reliability of the results is proportional to the expertise of the physician. Considering that at present many physicians are beginning to use 3D scanners that provide three-dimensional data of the human face, it is possible to implement a robust and repeatable methodology that supports the physician's diagnosis. To reach this goal it is necessary to implement a methodology based on geometrical codification of landmarks and which mathematically formalizes the physician's visual and palpation analyses of the real patient.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human kallikrein 7, a serine protease of the multigene kallikrein family

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Israel S.; Ständker, Ludger; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Romero, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Human kallikreins are a group of serine proteases of high sequence homology whose genes are grouped as a single cluster at chromosome 19. Although the physiological roles of kallikreins are generally still unknown, members of the kallikrein family have been clearly implicated in pathological situations such as cancer and psoriasis. Human kallikrein 7 (hK7) has been shown to be involved in pathological keratinization, psoriasis and ovarian cancer. In order to gain insight into the molecular structure of this protein, hK7 was crystallized after recombinant production in its folded and active form using a periplasmic secretion vector in Escherichia coli. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group H32 and diffracted to 2.8 Å. The phase problem was solved by molecular replacement using the mouse kallikrein-related protein neuropsin. Completion of the model and structure refinement are under way. PMID:17671364

  14. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of human coronavirus NL63 main protease in complex with an inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenghua; Tan, Yusheng; Li, Huiyan; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jinshan; Li, Shuang; Fu, Sheng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Cheng; Su, Dan; Yang, Haitao

    2014-08-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 mainly infects younger children and causes cough, fever, rhinorrhoea, bronchiolitis and croup. It encodes two polyprotein precursors required for genome replication and transcription. Each polyprotein undergoes extensive proteolytic processing, resulting in functional subunits. This process is mainly mediated by its genome-encoded main protease, which is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, the main protease of human coronavirus NL63 was crystallized in complex with a Michael acceptor. The complex crystals diffracted to 2.85 Å resolution and belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 87.2, c = 212.1 Å. Two molecules were identified per asymmetric unit.

  16. Preliminary results on an x-direction apparent mass model of human body sitting in a cushioned, suspended seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, George Juraj; Múčka, Peter; Chmúrny, Rudolf

    2006-12-01

    For modelling purposes and for evaluation of driver's seat performance in the vertical direction various mechano-mathematical models of seated human body have been developed and standardised by the international organisation for standardisation. No such models currently exist for human body sitting in an upright or slightly inclined position in a cushioned "armchair" type seat upper part, mounted on a mechanical, pneumatic or other type vertical suspension system. The interaction with the steering wheel and/or pedals has to be taken into consideration, as well as the variable position of the upper part of the human body in respect to the cushioned back-support of a driver's seat (full back contact to no contact at all), as observed in real driving conditions. This complex problem has to be simplified first to arrive at a manageable simpler mechano-mathematical model which still reflects the main problem features. A simple linear model of the human body apparent mass in the x-direction was designed and analysed. The model accounts for the reaction from the steering wheel and contact with the cushioned back-support of the seat "armchair" part. Model parameters were identified on basis of laboratory measurements. Out of three possible variant the most appropriate was singled out. The proposed model describes the measured apparent mass curve, and also gives indicative prediction of vibration transmissibility across the fore-and-aft ( x-direction) suspension system, if mounted and enabled. The proposed model can be a starting point for a further research in this field.

  17. Normal human mitral valve proteome: A preliminary investigation by gel-based and gel-free proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Brioschi, Maura; Baetta, Roberta; Ghilardi, Stefania; Gianazza, Erica; Guarino, Anna; Parolari, Alessandro; Polvani, Gianluca; Tremoli, Elena; Banfi, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    The mitral valve is a highly complex structure which regulates blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle (LV) avoiding a significant forward gradient during diastole or regurgitation during systole. The integrity of the mitral valve is also essential for the maintenance of normal LV size, geometry, and function. Significant advances in the comprehension of the biological, functional, and mechanical behavior of the mitral valve have recently been made. However, current knowledge of protein components in the normal human mitral valve is still limited and complicated by the low cellularity of this tissue and the presence of high abundant proteins from the extracellular matrix. We employed here an integrated proteomic approach to analyse the protein composition of the normal human mitral valve and reported confident identification of 422 proteins, some of which have not been previously described in this tissue. In particular, we described the ability of pre-MS separation technique based on liquid-phase IEF and SDS-PAGE to identify the largest number of proteins. We also demonstrated that some of these proteins, e.g. αB-Crystallin, septin-11, four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 1, and dermatopontin, are synthesised by interstitial cells isolated from human mitral valves. These initial results provide a valuable basis for future studies aimed at analysing in depth the mitral valve protein composition and at investigating potential pathogenetic molecular mechanisms. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004397.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human kallikrein 7, a serine protease of the multigene kallikrein family

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández, Israel S.; Ständker, Ludger; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Romero, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant human kallikrein 7, directly synthesized in the active form in E. coli, is described. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution from native crystals. Human kallikreins are a group of serine proteases of high sequence homology whose genes are grouped as a single cluster at chromosome 19. Although the physiological roles of kallikreins are generally still unknown, members of the kallikrein family have been clearly implicated in pathological situations such as cancer and psoriasis. Human kallikrein 7 (hK7) has been shown to be involved in pathological keratinization, psoriasis and ovarian cancer. In order to gain insight into the molecular structure of this protein, hK7 was crystallized after recombinant production in its folded and active form using a periplasmic secretion vector in Escherichia coli. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group H32 and diffracted to 2.8 Å. The phase problem was solved by molecular replacement using the mouse kallikrein-related protein neuropsin. Completion of the model and structure refinement are under way.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human Ca{sup 2+}-loaded calbindin-D28k

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chang; Sun, Yuna; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Ming; Lou, Zhiyong

    2008-02-01

    Human calbindin-D28k has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Calbindin-D28k is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the troponin C superfamily. It is expressed in many tissues, including brain, intestine, kidney and pancreas, and performs roles as both a calcium buffer and a calcium sensor and carries out diverse physiological functions of importance. In order to resolve the crystal structure of human calbindin-D28k and to gain a better understanding of its biological functions, recombinant human calbindin-D28k was crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as precipitant and a 2.4 Å resolution X-ray data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.1, b = 28.2, c = 70.6 Å, β = 107.8°. The presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit is presumed, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 1.75 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}.

  20. Preliminary study on the relationship between cAMP level and gsp expression in cultured human pituitary somatotrophinomas.

    PubMed

    Lei, T; Liu, Q; Li, L; Zhang, L; Shu, K; Xue, D

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between abnormal intracellular signal transduction and tumorgenesis of human pituitary somatotrophinomas, the effects of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH) and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent GH-releasing peptide (GHRP-6) on cAMP production were observed by using cell culture and biochemical methods, and the expression of the gsp oncogene was detected by using PCR and direct sequence assay methods in 11 patients with human pituitary somatotrophinomas. It was found that GHRP-6 exerted significant stimulatory effect on cAMP production by 2 gsp-positive tumors and no effect on the gsp-negative tumors. GHRP-6 could enhance the stimulation of cAMP production induced by GHRH in tumor without gsp oncogenes. It was suggested that both GHRH and GHRP-6 exert identical effects on human pituitary soamtotrophinomas, which was contributed to the cross-talk between the two intracellular signal transduction pathways in pituitary cells.

  1. A preliminary study of the effects of handling type on horses' emotional reactivity and the human-horse relationship.

    PubMed

    Fureix, Carole; Pagès, Magali; Bon, Richard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel; Kuntz, Philippe; Gonzalez, Georges

    2009-10-01

    Handling is a crucial component of the human-horse relationship. Here, we report data from an experiment conducted to assess and compare the effect of two training methods. Two groups of six Welsh mares were trained during four sessions of 50 min, one handled with traditional exercises (halter leading, grooming/brushing, lifting feet, lunging and pseudo-saddling (using only girth and saddle pad) and the second group with natural horsemanship exercises (desensitization, yielding to body pressure, lunging and free-lunging). Emotional reactivity (ER) and the human-horse relationship (HHR) were assessed both prior to and following handling. A social isolation test, a neophobia test and a bridge test were used to assess ER. HHR was assessed through test of spontaneous approach to, and forced approach by, an unknown human. Horses' ER decreased after both types of handling as indicated by decreases in the occurrence of whinnying during stressful situations. Head movement (jerk/shake) was the most sensitive variable to handling type. In the spontaneous approach tests, horses in the traditional handling group showed higher latencies to approach a motionless person after handling than did the natural horsemanship group. Our study suggests that natural horsemanship exercises could be more efficient than traditional exercises for improving horses' HHR.

  2. Overproduction and preliminary crystallographic study of a human kynurenine aminotransferase II homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Hyongi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Shimizu, Shoko; Maeda, Nao; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2005-03-01

    A human kynurenine aminotransferase II homologue from P. horikoshii OT3 has been overproduced in E. coli, purified, and characterized. Crystals of this protein have been obtained and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 genome contains a gene encoding a human kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) homologue, which consists of 428 amino-acid residues and shows an amino-acid sequence identity of 30% to human KAT II. This gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein (Ph-KAT II) was purified. Gel-filtration chromatography showed that Ph-KAT II exists as a homodimer. Ph-KAT II exhibited enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transamination of l-kynurenine to produce kynurenic acid. Crystals of Ph-KAT II were grown using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and native X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation from station BL44XU at SPring-8. The crystals belong to the centred orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.75, b = 86.84, c = 137.30 Å. Assuming one molecule per asymmetric unit, the V{sub M} value was 2.19 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content was 43.3%.

  3. Internal morphology of the nonsyndromic prematurely fused sagittal suture in the human skull--A preliminary micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Nowaczewska, W; Ziółkowski, G; Dybała, B

    2015-10-01

    Although nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC) of the sagittal suture is a well-known type of craniosynostosis, little is currently known about the internal morphology of this prematurely fused suture in modern humans. Recently, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has been applied as a new tool for the quantitative evaluation of cranial suture morphology. However, so far there are only a small number of reports concerning studies of the internal morphology of prematurely fused sagittal suture in humans using micro-CT. The primary aim of this study was to examine the internal morphology of a completely obliterated sagittal suture in NSC. Two modern human skulls were used in this study: a skull of a child (aged 10 ± 2.5 years) displaying NSC of the sagittal suture and a skull of an adult showing non-prematurely completely obliterated sagittal suture. Quantitative variables of the sagittal sutures were assessed using method proposed by the authors. Porosity, and relative thickness of three bone layers in two examined skulls (inner cortical, diploë and outer cortical) were analysed using micro-CT in three equal sections of the sagittal suture. In the case of the prematurely fused suture, there were statistically significant differences mainly in the mean values of the porosity, thickness and relative thickness of the diploë between the anterior part and the two other parts (central and posterior) of this suture. Significant differences were also observed in some of the analysed variables between the sections of the sagittal suture of the skull with NSC and the normal skull.

  4. [Human activities, hydro-agricultural management and urinary schistosomiasis. Methodological approach and results (a preliminary study in Upper-Volta)].

    PubMed

    Le Bras, M; Faucher, P; Giap, G; Meric, D; Commenges, D; Villenave, D; Camara, S; Gatheron, C; Appriou, M

    1982-01-01

    In the schistosomiasis endemic sub-sahelian region, a study of the prevalence of the disease was carried out on three different areas: the highest was around a small river, the lowest in the hydro-agricultural management region, mean prevalence was noted around a natural lake. Human activities have been classified with regards to the areas of transmission. Activity is closely linked to prevalence. For the populations, symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis (Rudzenga) constitute a real disease, traditional healers are the masters of earth (Tengsoba), water has hardly any importance in transmission.

  5. [Prokaryotic expression and purification of human GST-Cdc25C fusion protein and preliminary detection of its function].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhong-yi; Xu, Xiao-jie; Cao, Jia; Kang, Lei; Han, Bai-yu; Jiang, Kai; Ye, Qi-nong; Du, Nan

    2012-03-01

    To clone prokaryotic expression vector of Cdc25C, purify the fusion protein of GST-Cdc25C, and identify its function preliminarily. Human Cdc25C coding region was amplified from human mammary cDNA library by PCR, and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-KG. The fusion protein GST-Cdc25C was expressed in E.coli Rossate and purified by GST-Sepharose 4B beads. The function of purified GST-Cdc25C was identified by GST pull-down assay. The GST-Cdc25C recombinant plasmid was successfully obtained by double digestion identification. The inserted fragment was confirmed correctly by sequencing. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the fusion protein was expressed. The fusion protein of about M(r); 80 000 was successfully induced, and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. GST pull-down assay showed that GST-Cdc25C could interact with Chk2 which verified its known function. Cdc25C was successfully cloned and purified.

  6. 17β-estradiol effects on human coronaries and grafts employed in myocardial revascularization: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Polvani, Gianluca; Barili, Fabio; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Dainese, Luca; Ossola, Manuela Wally; Topkara, Veli K; Grillo, Francesco; Penza, Eleonora; Tremoli, Elena; Biglioli, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to compare the in vitro effects of 17β-estradiol on human epicardial coronary arteries, resistance coronary arteries and on arterial vessels usually employed as grafts in surgical myocardial revascularization. Methods Coronary artery rings (descending coronary artery, right coronary artery, circumflex coronary artery, first septal branch) and arterial graft rings (internal thoracic artery, gastro-epiploic artery) obtained from human heart donors with heart not suitable to cardiac transplantation were connected to force transducer for isometric force recording. Precontracted specimens with and without endothelium were exposed to increasing concentration of 17β-estradiol (3–30–300–3000 nmol/l) and to vehicle (0.1% v/v ethanol). We also evaluated the effects of 17β-estradiol on vessels before and 20 minutes after exposure to L-monomethyl-arginine and indomethacin. Results 17β-estradiol induced a significant relaxation in all precontracted vessels (mean maximum effect: 78,6% ± 8,5). This effect was not different among the different rings and was not related to the presence of endothelium. N-monomethyl-L-arginine and indomethacin did not modify 17β-estradiol relaxant effect. Conclusion The vasodilator action of the 17β-estradiol is similar on coronary arteries, resistance coronary arteries and arterial vessels usually employed as grafts in myocardial revascularization. PMID:17181858

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the globular domain of the human type V myosin Myo5a.

    PubMed

    Velvarska, Hana; Niessing, Dierk

    2013-11-01

    Type V myosins constitute the main cargo-transporting class of myosin motors in higher eukaryotes. They are mainly defined by their C-terminal globular domain, which is required for cargo binding as well as for motor auto-inhibition in the absence of cargo. To date, high-resolution structures only exist for globular domains from yeast. Since the majority of cellular cargoes in yeast are very different from the cargoes in higher eukaryotes, structural insights into the domain organization of globular domains from human type V myosins are important. The globular domain of human Myo5a was cloned, expressed and crystallized and data sets were collected. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 75.04, b = 86.70, c = 131.41 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, and diffracted with data-collection quality to 2.5 Å resolution.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of human voltage-dependent anion channel isoform I (HVDAC1)

    SciTech Connect

    Meins, Thomas; Vonrhein, Clemens; Zeth, Kornelius

    2008-07-01

    The human voltage-dependent anion channel was overproduced in bacteria and refolded with the help of detergents. Extensive screening of crystallization conditions resulted in the first crystals to be obtained of this voltage-dependent anion-channel type. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 3.6 Å. The major channel by which metabolites can pass through the outer mitochondrial membrane is formed by the voltage-dependent anion-channel (VDAC) family. Functionally, VDAC is involved in the limited exchange of ATP, ADP and small hydrophilic molecules across the outer membrane. Moreover, there is compelling evidence that VDAC isoforms in mammals may act in the cross-talk between mitochondria and the cytoplasm by direct interaction with enzymes involved in energy metabolism and proteins involved in mitochondrial-induced apoptosis. To obtain a high-resolution structure of this channel, human VDAC protein isoform I was overproduced in Escherichia coli. After refolding and testing the correct fold using circular dichroism, a subsequent broad-range screening in different detergents resulted in a variety of crystals which diffracted to 3.5 Å resolution. The crystal lattice belongs to the trigonal space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.9, c = 165.7 Å and one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  9. Syzygium cumini (Jamun) reduces the radiation-induced DNA damage in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2002-06-07

    The effects of various concentrations (0.0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml) of the leaf extract of Syzygium cumini Linn. or Eugenia cumini (SC; black plum, Jamun, family Myrtaceae) was studied on the alteration in the radiation-induced micronuclei formation in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment of lymphocytes to various concentrations of SC resulted in a dose dependent increase in the micronuclei-induction, especially after 25-100 microg/ml extract. The exposure of human lymphocytes to various concentrations of SC extract before 3 Gy gamma-irradiation resulted in a significant decline in the micronuclei-induction at all the drug doses when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated cultures. A nadir in MNBNC frequency was observed for 12.5 microg/ml drug concentration, where the MNBNC frequency was approximately fourfold lower than that of the non-drug treated irradiated cultures. Therefore, this dose may be considered as an optimum dose for radiation protection. Our study demonstrates that the leaf extract of S. cumini, a plant traditionally used to treat diabetic disorders protects against the radiation-induced DNA damage.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data for the aconitase form of human iron-regulatory protein 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, J.; Darnault, C.; Moulis, J. M.

    2005-05-01

    Two crystal forms of the aconitase version of recombinant human IRP1 are reported. Iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 are closely related molecules involved in animal iron metabolism. Both proteins can bind to specific mRNA regions called iron-responsive elements and thereby control the expression of proteins involved in the uptake, storage and utilization of iron. In iron-replete cells, IRP1, but not IRP2, binds a [4Fe–4S] cluster and functions as a cytoplasmic aconitase, with simultaneous loss of its RNA-binding ability. Whereas IRP2 is known to be involved in Fe homeostasis, the role of IRP1 is less clear; it may provide a link between citrate and iron metabolisms and be involved in oxidative stress response. Here, two crystal forms of the aconitase version of recombinant human IRP1 are reported. An X-ray fluorescence measurement performed on a gold-derivative crystal showed the unexpected presence of zinc, in addition to gold and iron. Both native and MAD X-ray data at the Au, Fe and Zn absorption edges have been collected from these crystals.

  11. A metabolomic study of preterm and term human and formula milk by proton MRS analysis: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Longini, Mariangela; Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Proietti, Fabrizio; Tortoriello, Mario; Belvisi, Elisa; Vivi, Antonio; Tassini, Maria; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    To investigate changes in global metabolic profile between: 1 - breast milk and formula milk, 2 - breast milk from mothers delivering at different gestational age (GA) collected within one week from delivery, and then week by week until term equivalent age. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to analyze the water-soluble and lipid fractions extracted from 50 milk samples, 46 human milk at different GA, from 23 weeks of gestation until term equivalent age and four different formula milks. The formula milk for premature infants was the most similar to breast milk of preterm babies. Breast milk showed higher lactose concentrations than formula milk, that conversely presented higher galactose 1-phosphate and maltose concentrations. Mother's milk of very preterm babies (23-25 wks of GA) showed a different metabolic profile from preterm infants ≥29 wks of GA with a subsequent trend to similarity around the 30th week of post-natal age. Breast milk from preterm infants of 29-34 wks, collected up to 40 wks of post-natal age showed a temporal change over the first three weeks of lactation, approaching to zero with the achievement of term age. Metabolome is a promising tool to study human and artificial milk global metabolic profile.

  12. A preliminary study of viral metagenomics of French bat species in contact with humans: identification of new mammalian viruses.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Cervantes-Gonzalez, Minerva; Guigon, Ghislaine; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Maufrais, Corinne; Caro, Valérie; Bourhy, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome). We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total) in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs). Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae). In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections.

  13. Recombinant expression, purification and preliminary biophysical and structural studies of C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain from human galectin-4.

    PubMed

    Rustiguel, Joane K; Kumagai, Patricia S; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Nonato, Maria Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Galectin-4 (Gal4), a tandem-repeat type galectin, is expressed in healthy epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. Altered levels of Gal4 expression are associated with different types of cancer, suggesting its usage as a diagnostic marker as well as target for drug development. The functional data available for this class of proteins suggest that the wide spectrum of cellular activities reported for Gal4 relies on distinct glycan specificity and structural characteristics of its two carbohydrate recognition domains. In the present work, two independent constructs for recombinant expression of the C-terminal domain of human galectin-4 (hGal4-CRD2) were developed. His6-tagged and untagged recombinant proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by affinity chromatography followed by gel filtration. Correct folding and activity of hGal4-CRD2 were assessed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively. Diffraction quality crystals were obtained by vapor-diffusion sitting drop setup and the crystal structure of CRD2 was solved by molecular replacement techniques at 1.78 Å resolution. Our work describes the development of important experimental tools that will allow further studies in order to correlate structure and binding properties of hGal4-CRD2 and human galectin-4 functional activities.

  14. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Preliminary Study of Viral Metagenomics of French Bat Species in Contact with Humans: Identification of New Mammalian Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Dacheux, Laurent; Cervantes-Gonzalez, Minerva; Guigon, Ghislaine; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Maufrais, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome). We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total) in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs). Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae). In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections. PMID:24489870

  16. Trace metals and organometals in selected marine species and preliminary risk assessment to human beings in Thane Creek area, Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S; Bhalke, S; Saradhi, I V; Suseela, B; Tripathi, R M; Pandit, G G; Puranik, V D

    2007-10-01

    Trace metals and organometals were estimated in different types of marine organisms (fish, bivalve, crab and prawn) collected from the Trans-Thane Creek area, Mumbai. Thane Creek area is considered as most polluted area due to industrial discharges. Potential risks associated with consumption of marine organisms collected from this particular area to human beings were assessed. Concentrations of ten trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the edible part of marine organisms were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometer and differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric technique. Methyl mercury and tributyl tin were estimated using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer in combination with solid phase micro extraction (SPME). An assessment of the risk on human beings due to consumption of marine organism was undertaken using toxic reference benchmark, namely the reference dose (RfD). The hazard index (HI), sum of hazard quotients calculated for all the pollutant showed that the risks from consumption of fish and marine organisms as a whole were generally low and are within safe limits.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation into the Impact of a Pesticide Combination on Human Neuronal and Glial Cell Lines In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Michael D.; O'Neil, John D.; Woehrling, Elizabeth K.; Ndunge, Oscar Bate Akide; Hill, Eric J.; Menache, Andre; Reiss, Claude J.

    2012-01-01

    Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health. PMID:22880100

  18. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection of the central nervous system: a preliminary in situ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stoler, M.H.; Eskin, T.A.; Benn, S.; Angerer, R.C.; Angerer, L.M.

    1986-11-07

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are subject to a spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Recent evidence implicates the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) in the pathogenesis of some of these illnesses, although the cells infected by the virus have yet to be identified. Using in situ hybridization, the authors examined brain tissue from two patients with AIDS encephalopathy for the presence of HTLV-III RNA. In both cases, viral RNA was detected and concentrated in, though not limited to, the white matter. The CNS cells most frequently infected included macrophages, pleomorphic microglia, and multinucleated giant cells. Less frequently, cells morphologically consistent with astrocytes, oligodendroglia, and rarely neurons were also infected. The findings strengthen the association of HTLV-III with the pathogenesis of AIDS encephalopathy. In situ hybridization can be applied to routinely prepared biopsy tissue in the diagnosis of HTLV-III infection of the CNS.

  19. Using Virtual Technology to Promote Functional Communication in Aphasia: Preliminary Evidence From Interactive Dialogues With Human and Virtual Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine; Keshner, Emily; Rudnicky, Alex; Shi, Justin; Teodoro, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using a virtual clinician (VC) to promote functional communication abilities of persons with aphasia (PWAs). We aimed to determine whether the quantity and quality of verbal output in dialogues with a VC would be the same or greater than those with a human clinician (HC). Four PWAs practiced dialogues for 2 sessions each with a HC and VC. Dialogues from before and after practice were transcribed and analyzed for content. We compared measures taken before and after practice in the VC and HC conditions. Results were mixed. Participants either produced more verbal output with the VC or showed no difference on this measure between the VC and HC conditions. Participants also showed some improvement in postpractice narratives. Results provide support for the feasibility and applicability of virtual technology to real-life communication contexts to improve functional communication in PWAs.

  20. The preliminary solution structure of human p8MTCP1, a protein encoded by the putative MTCP1 oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, P.; Guignard, L.; Yang, Y.-S.; Chiche, L.; Strub, M.-P.; Hoh, F.; Stern, M.-H.; Roumestand, C.

    1998-02-01

    The NMR solution structure of the cystein-rich human p8 protein coded by the oncogene MTCP1 reveals an original scaffold consisting of three α-helices, two of them tightly held together by two disulphide bridges in an antiparallel α-hairpin. MTCP1 was found to be expressed in mature prolymphocytic leukemias. La structure RMN de la protéine humaine p8 en solution présente un repliement original en trois hélices α, deux d'entre elles étant étroitement maintenues dans une orientation antiparallèle par deux ponts disulfures. Cette protéine riche en cystéine est codée par l'oncogène MTCP1 qui est exprimé dans des leucémies prolymphocytaires de phénotype mature.

  1. Preliminary quantitative microradiography study into the distribution of bone mineralization within the basal bone of the human edentulous mandible.

    PubMed

    Hobson, R S; Beynon, A D

    1997-07-01

    Six edentulous human hemimandibles (three male, three female) of similar ages were sectioned transversely at the midline, mental foramen, midway between mental foramen and angle (body), and angle of the mandible. Planoparallel sections were prepared of the cortical plate on buccal and lingual surfaces and microradiographed alongside an aluminium step-wedge for computerized quantitative microradiography. Mean mineralization values and mineralization frequency distribution curves were calculated. Gender had no effect on the mean mineralization values, but did show a significant difference in the mineralization frequency distribution. There was no difference in mean mineralization between lingual and buccal cortical plates, but the distribution curves differed, with the lingual cortex distributions being more uniform. Each sample site was significantly different from all others, with the mental foramen and body sites showing the greatest variation in distribution of mineralization level.

  2. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the TIR domain of human Toll-like receptor 6.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-ho; Park, Hyun Ho

    2014-08-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins have been identified and shown to play a role in the innate immune response. TLR6 associated with TLR2 can recognize diacylated lipoprotein. In this study, the human TLR6 TIR domain corresponding to amino acids 640-796 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli using engineered C-terminal His tags. The TLR6 TIR domain was then purified to homogeneity and crystallized at 20°C. Finally, X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.2 Å from a crystal belonging to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.60, b = 44.20, c = 75.72 Å, β = 118.89°

  3. On the control of a robot hand by extracting neural signals from the PNS: preliminary results from a human implantation.

    PubMed

    Micera, S; Rigosa, J; Carpaneto, J; Citi, L; Raspopovic, S; Guglielmelli, E; Benvenuto, A; Rossini, L; Di Pino, G; Cavallo, G; Carrozza, M C; Cipriani, C; Hoffmann, K P; Dario, P; Rossini, P M

    2009-01-01

    The development of hybrid neuroprosthetic systems (HBSs) linking the human nervous system with artificial devices is an important area of research that is currently addressed by several groups to restore sensorimotor function in people affected by different disabilities. It is particularly important to establish a fast, intuitive, bidirectional flow of information between the nervous system of the user and the smart robotic device. Among the possible solutions to achieve this goal, interfaces with the peripheral nervous system and in particular intraneural electrodes can represent an interesting choice. In the present study, thin-film longitudinal intra-fascicular electrodes were implanted in the median and ulnar nerves of an amputee. The possibility of restoring the bidirectional link between the subject and the external world was investigated during a 4 week trial. The result showed that both the extraction of motor information and the restoration of sensory function are possible.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase, a treatment for Gaucher's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Manavalan, Partha; Edmunds, Tim; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase (N-acylsphingosyl-1-O-beta-D-glucoside:glucohydrolase) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycolipid glucocerebroside to glucose and ceramide. Inadequate levels of this enzyme underly the pathophysiology of Gaucher's disease. Cerezyme (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA) is a partially deglycosylated form of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase that is used in the treatment of Gaucher patients. Although acid beta-glucocerebrosidase belongs to a large family of glycosidases, relatively little is known regarding its structural biology. Here, the crystallization and the initial diffraction analysis of Cerezyme are reported. The crystals are C-centered orthorhombic, with unit-cell parameters a = 285.0, b = 110.2, c = 91.7 A. A 99.9% complete data set has been collected to 2.75 A with an R(sym) of 8.8%.

  5. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray analysis of Human Recombinant Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase, a treatment for Gaucher's Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana F.; Achari, Aniruddha; Manavalan, Partha; Edmunds, Tim; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase (N-acylsphingosyl - O - beta-D - glucoside:glucohydrolase) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycolipid glucocerebroside to glucose and ceramide. Inadequate levels of this enzyme underly the pathophysiology of Gaucher's disease. Cerezyme(R) (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) is a partially deglycosylated form of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase that is commercially available for the treatment of Gaucher patients. Although acid beta-glucocerebrosidase belongs to a large family of glycosidases, relatively little is known regarding its structural biology. We report the crystallization and the initial diffraction analysis of Cerezyme(R). The crystals are C-centered orthorhombic, with unit-cell parameters of a = 285.0 A, b = 110.2 A, and c = 91.7 A. A 99.9 A complete data set has been collected to 2.75 A with an R(sub sym) of 8.8 %.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase, a treatment for Gaucher's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Manavalan, Partha; Edmunds, Tim; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase (N-acylsphingosyl-1-O-beta-D-glucoside:glucohydrolase) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycolipid glucocerebroside to glucose and ceramide. Inadequate levels of this enzyme underly the pathophysiology of Gaucher's disease. Cerezyme (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA) is a partially deglycosylated form of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase that is used in the treatment of Gaucher patients. Although acid beta-glucocerebrosidase belongs to a large family of glycosidases, relatively little is known regarding its structural biology. Here, the crystallization and the initial diffraction analysis of Cerezyme are reported. The crystals are C-centered orthorhombic, with unit-cell parameters a = 285.0, b = 110.2, c = 91.7 A. A 99.9% complete data set has been collected to 2.75 A with an R(sym) of 8.8%.

  7. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray analysis of Human Recombinant Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase, a treatment for Gaucher's Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana F.; Achari, Aniruddha; Manavalan, Partha; Edmunds, Tim; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Acid beta-glucocerebrosidase (N-acylsphingosyl - O - beta-D - glucoside:glucohydrolase) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycolipid glucocerebroside to glucose and ceramide. Inadequate levels of this enzyme underly the pathophysiology of Gaucher's disease. Cerezyme(R) (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) is a partially deglycosylated form of recombinant human acid beta-glucocerebrosidase that is commercially available for the treatment of Gaucher patients. Although acid beta-glucocerebrosidase belongs to a large family of glycosidases, relatively little is known regarding its structural biology. We report the crystallization and the initial diffraction analysis of Cerezyme(R). The crystals are C-centered orthorhombic, with unit-cell parameters of a = 285.0 A, b = 110.2 A, and c = 91.7 A. A 99.9 A complete data set has been collected to 2.75 A with an R(sub sym) of 8.8 %.

  8. Using Virtual Technology to Promote Functional Communication in Aphasia: Preliminary Evidence From Interactive Dialogues With Human and Virtual Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Nadine; Keshner, Emily; Rudnicky, Alex; Shi, Justin; Teodoro, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the feasibility of using a virtual clinician (VC) to promote functional communication abilities of persons with aphasia (PWAs). We aimed to determine whether the quantity and quality of verbal output in dialogues with a VC would be the same or greater than those with a human clinician (HC). Method Four PWAs practiced dialogues for 2 sessions each with a HC and VC. Dialogues from before and after practice were transcribed and analyzed for content. We compared measures taken before and after practice in the VC and HC conditions. Results Results were mixed. Participants either produced more verbal output with the VC or showed no difference on this measure between the VC and HC conditions. Participants also showed some improvement in postpractice narratives. Conclusion Results provide support for the feasibility and applicability of virtual technology to real-life communication contexts to improve functional communication in PWAs. PMID:26431390

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human RGS10 complexed with Gαi3

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyung Ki; Rhee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Chan-Wha; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong

    2005-09-01

    Human RGS10 and Gαi3 have been overexpressed and purified. Their complex has been crystallized (space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, unit-cell parameters a = 99.88, b = 99.88, c = 144.59 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffraction data have been collected to 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. G-protein-coupled receptors, which are major targets for drug discovery, play a major role in diverse physiological processes by relating changes in the extracellular environment to intracellular functions via activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins. However, G-protein activity is also modulated by a family of proteins called regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS), which are classified into six subfamilies. RGS10 belongs to the subgroup D/R12 and is known to act specifically on activated forms of three Gα proteins (Gαi3, Gαz and Gαo but not Gαs). It is abundantly expressed in brain and immune tissues and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The RGS domain of RGS10 was cloned, purified, complexed with human Gαi3 and crystallized. The crystals containing both RGS and Gαi3 belong to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 (or P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2), with unit-cell parameters a = 99.88, b = 99.88, c = 144.59 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. A full set of diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at Pohang beamline 4A.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the kinase domain of human tousled-like kinase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Garrote, Ana M.; Redondo, Pilar; Montoya, Guillermo; Muñoz, Inés G.

    2014-02-19

    The C-terminal kinase domain of TLK2 (a human tousled-like kinase) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in chromatin dynamics, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and chromosome segregation. The two members of the family reported in humans, namely TLK1 and TLK2, localize to the cell nucleus and are capable of forming homo- or hetero-oligomers by themselves. To characterize the role of TLK2, its C-terminal kinase domain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. The latter produced the best diffracting crystal (3.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation), with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 126.05 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contained one protein molecule, with a Matthews coefficient of 4.59 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 73.23%.

  11. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Holstein, H; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2015-03-01

    The radionuclide (210)Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ((209)Po as a bio-tracer for (210)Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10 Bq (209)Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq (209)Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001-0.01% d(-1) of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10-20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific identification of human papillomavirus type in cervical smears and paraffin sections by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes: a preliminary communication

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.; Gendelman, H.E.; Naghashfar, Z.; Gupta, P.; Rosenshein, N.; Sawada, E.; Woodruff, J.D.; Shah, K.

    1985-01-01

    Cervical Papanicolaou smears and paraffin sections of biopsy specimens obtained from women attending dysplasia clinics were examined for viral DNA sequences by in situ hybridization technique using TVS-labeled cloned recombinant DNA probes of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, and 16. These and one unrelated DNA probe complementary to measles virus RNA were labeled by nick translation using either one or two TVS-labeled nucleotides. Paraffin sections and cervical smears were collected on pretreated slides, hybridized with the probes under stringent or nonstringent conditions for 50 h, and autoradiographed. Additional cervical specimens from the same women were examined for the presence of genus-specific papillomavirus capsid antigen by the immunoperoxidase technique. Preliminary results may be summarized as follows. The infecting virus could be identified in smears as well as in sections. Viral DNA sequences were detected only when there were condylomatous cells in the specimen and in only a proportion of the condylomatous cells. Even under stringent conditions, some specimens reacted with both HPV-6 and HPV-11. In some instances, the cells did not hybridize with any of the three probes even when duplicate specimens contained frankly condylomatous, capsid antigen-positive cells. In situ hybridization of Papanicolaou smears or of tissue sections is a practical method for diagnosis and follow-up of specific papillomavirus infection using routinely collected material.

  13. Preliminary analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particles (PM10) in Amritsar, India: sources, apportionment, and possible risk implications to humans.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simerpreet; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Verma, V K; Kumar, Bhupander; Kumar, Sanjay; Katnoria, Jatinder Kaur; Sharma, C S

    2013-10-01

    Preliminary analysis was performed to assess human health risks of exposure to 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by way of inhalation by children and adults living in urban area of Amritsar, Punjab, India. In particular, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) 16 priority PAH compounds were analyzed in air particulate matter (PM10) from different geographical locations by high-volume air sampler. Sum concentrations of PAHs (37-274 ng m(-3)) were comparable with those of other cities in India as well many cities on a global scale. Pyrene, naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene accounted for >80% of ∑16PAH concentrations. Furthermore, the contribution of seven carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 12% of ∑16PAHs. The estimated carcinogenicity of PAHs in terms of benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalency (BaPTEQ) was assessed and confirmed that dibenzo(a,h)anthracene was the dominant PAH contributor (88.7%) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (6.67%). Homolog pattern and diagnostic ratios of PAHs suggested that mixed pyrogenic sources--including biomass burning, coal combustion, and petrogenic sources, such as vehicular emissions--are dominant PAH sources in Amritsar. Health risk of adults and children by way of PAHs was assessed by estimating the lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) using USEPA guidelines. The assessed cancer risk (ILCR) was found to be within the acceptable range (10(-6)-10(-4)).

  14. Preliminary study on non-viral transfection of F9 (factor IX) gene by nucleofection in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas López, Susana; Garcia-Arranz, Mariano; Garcia-Olmo, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hemophilia is a rare recessive X-linked disease characterized by a deficiency of coagulation factor VIII or factor IX. Its current treatment is merely palliative. Advanced therapies are likely to become the treatment of choice for the disease as they could provide a curative treatment. Methods. The present study looks into the use of a safe non-viral transfection method based on nucleofection to express and secrete human clotting factor IX (hFIX) where human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells were used as target cells in vitro studies and NOD. Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice were used to analyze factor IX expression in vivo studies. Previously, acute liver injury was induced by an injected intraperitoneal dose of 500 mg/kg body weight of acetaminophen. Results. Nucleofection showed a percentage of positive cells ranging between 30.7% and 41.9% and a cell viability rate of 29.8%, and cells were shown to secrete amounts of hFIX between 36.8 and 71.9 ng/mL. hFIX levels in the blood of NSG mice injected with ASCs transfected with this vector, were 2.7 ng/mL 48 h after injection. Expression and secretion of hFIX were achieved both in vitro cell culture media and in vivo in the plasma of mice treated with the transfected ASCs. Such cells are capable of eventually migrating to a previously damaged target tissue (the liver) where they secrete hFIX, releasing it to the bloodstream over a period of at least five days from administration. Conclusions. The results obtained in the present study may form a preliminary basis for the establishment of a future ex vivo non-viral gene/cellular safe therapy protocol that may eventually contribute to advancing the treatment of hemophilia. PMID:27114871

  15. Exposure to Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) via Dust Ingestion, but Not Diet, Correlates with Concentrations in Human Serum: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Roosens, Laurence; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high-production-volume chemical used as flame retardant in polystyrene insulation and textiles. Because it is not chemically bound to the polymer, HBCD can migrate into the environment, contaminating indoor dust and foodstuff. Objectives We examined for the first time the relationship between combined exposure to three HBCD isomers (∑HBCDs) via ingestion of food (duplicate diets) and indoor dust and HBCD concentrations in serum for 16 Belgian adults (20–25 years of age). We also determined the chiral signatures of HBCDs to advance understanding of source-to-human enantioselective degradation and/or metabolism. Methods Concentrations and chiral signatures of α-, β-, and γ-HBCD in duplicate diets, dust, and serum were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results Dietary intakes of ∑HBCDs were 1.2–20 ng/day (average, 7.2 ng/day), whereas those estimated under average (20 mg dust/day) and high (50 mg dust/day) dust ingestion scenarios were 1.1–15 ng/day (average intake, 3.2 ng/day) and 2.8–38 ng/day (average intake, 8.0 ng/day), respectively. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs measured in blood serum were < 0.5 to 11 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (average, 2.9 ng/g lw). γ-HBCD dominated in food, whereas α-HBCD dominated in dust and was the sole isomer in serum. Although exposure via dust ingestion correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with concentrations in serum, no such correlation was evident with dietary exposure (p > 0.1). Although no enantioselective enrichment was detected in either dust or diet, substantial enrichment of (−)α-HBCD was observed in serum. Conclusions Serum concentrations of HBCDs were correlated with the exposure via dust, but not via dietary ingestion. The enrichment of the (−)α-HBCD enantiomer in humans appears to be due to in vivo enantioselective metabolism/excretion rather than ingestion of dust or diet. PMID:20049121

  16. Preliminary observations on polar body extrusion and pronuclear formation in human oocytes using time-lapse video cinematography.

    PubMed

    Payne, D; Flaherty, S P; Barry, M F; Matthews, C D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, we have used time-lapse video cinematography to study fertilization in 50 human oocytes that had undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Time-lapse recording commenced shortly after ICSI and proceeded for 17-20 h. Oocytes were cultured in an environmental chamber which was maintained under standard culture conditions. Overall, 38 oocytes (76%) were fertilized normally, and the fertilization rate and embryo quality were not significantly different from 487 sibling oocytes cultured in a conventional incubator. Normal fertilization followed a defined course of events, although the timing of these events varied markedly between oocytes. In 35 of the 38 fertilized oocytes (92%), there were circular waves of granulation within the ooplasm which had a periodicity of 20-53 min. The sperm head decondensed during this granulation phase. The second polar body was then extruded, and this was followed by the central formation of the male pronucleus. The female pronucleus formed in the cytoplasm adjacent to the second polar body at the same time as, or slightly after, the male pronucleus, and was subsequently drawn towards the male pronucleus until the two abutted. Both pronuclei then increased in size, the nucleoli moved around within the pronuclei and some nucleoli coalesced. During pronuclear growth, the organelles contracted from the cortex towards the centre of the oocyte, leaving a clear cortical zone. The oocyte decreased in diameter from 112 to 106 microm (P < 0.0001) during the course of the observation period. The female pronucleus was significantly smaller in diameter than the male pronucleus (24.1 and 22.4 microm respectively, P = 0.008) and contained fewer nucleoli (4.2 and 7.0 respectively, P < 0.0001). After time-lapse recording, oocytes were cultured for 48 h prior to embryo transfer or cryopreservation. Embryo quality was related to fertilization events and periodicity of the cytoplasmic wave, and it was found that good quality embryos

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the GST-fused human Bri3 N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Qilu; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Blonde, James Daniel; Jia, Zongchao

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization of the polyproline-rich polypeptide from human Bri3 overexpressed as a GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli is presented. Bri3 is a recently identified proline-rich transmembrane polypeptide up-regulated during TNF-mediated inflammation and immunity. The polyproline-rich N-terminal (residues 1–60) domain of Bri3 was affinity-purified to homogeneity as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Crystals were obtained in ∼3 d by the equilibrium vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 1.5–2.2 M ammonium sulfate and 0.1 M bis-tris pH 6.0. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.66, c = 57.53 Å. An X-ray data set was collected to 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation, with an R{sub sym} of 0.058 and a completeness of 95.3%. There is one molecule of the fusion protein in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to ∼35% solvent content.

  18. Feasibility study and preliminary design of load-assisting clothes for lumbar protection inspired by human musculoskeletal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Riho; Masuda, Arata; Chen, Hao; Kobayashi, Sou

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop load assisting clothes for caregivers. Low back pain is one of the most major reasons for caregivers to leave their jobs. In this study, load assisting clothes which reduce the risks of low back pain of caregivers are designed and manufactured, targeting at the use in small care-houses and family caregiving. The load assisting clothes should have two functions. One is to reduce the compressive load acting on the lumbar spine as well as the tensile load on the lumbar muscles by providing an appropriate assisting force. The other is not to interfere with wearers' motion. The proposed approach in this study is to put elastic compressive members and tensioner belts integrated in the garment to provide the assisting forces without hindering natural movement and comfortable feeling. We study human musculoskeletal systems in the lumbar part, and consider to construct a parallel reinforcement of it on the body surface by embedding passive support structures. The arrangement of those elements is determined based on the study of the principal strain directions and the non-extension directions of the body surface to manage the appropriate assisting force without spoiling the mobility. The effectiveness of the proposed support principle is verified through experimental studies.

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Human Brain Response to Oral Sucrose and its Association with Recent Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kareken, David A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Eiler, William J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A preference for sweet tastes has been repeatedly shown to be associated with alcohol preference in both animals and humans. In this study, we tested the extent to which recent drinking is related to blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) activation from an intensely sweet solution in orbitofrontal areas known to respond to primary rewards. Methods Sixteen right-handed, non-treatment seeking, healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years; 75% male) were recruited from the community. All underwent a taste test using a range of sucrose concentrations, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during pseudorandom, event-driven stimulation with water and a 0.83M concentration of sucrose in water. Results [Sucrose > Water] provoked significant BOLD activation in primary gustatory cortex and amygdala, as well as in the right ventral striatum and in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex. Drinks/drinking day correlated significantly with the activation as extracted from the left orbital area (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 after correcting for a bilateral comparison). Using stepwise multiple regression, the addition of rated sucrose-liking accounted for significantly more variance in drinks/drinking day than did left orbital activation alone (multiple R= 0.79, p = 0.002). Conclusions Both the orbitofrontal response to an intensely sweet taste, as well as rated liking of that taste, accounted for significant variance in drinking behavior. The brain response to sweet tastes may be an important phenotype of alcoholism risk. PMID:23841808

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the ternary human GM-CSF receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Guido; Hercus, Timothy R.; Xu, Yibin; Lopez, Angel F.; Parker, Michael W.; McKinstry, William J.

    2008-07-28

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a haemopoietic growth factor that acts through a ternary receptor signalling complex containing specific {alpha} (GMR{alpha}) and common {beta} ({beta}c) receptor subunits. Human GM-CSF is encoded by the gene csf2, while the genes for GMR{alpha} and {beta}c are csf2ra and csf2rb, respectively. Crystals of the ternary ectodomain complex comprising GM-CSF and the soluble extracellular regions of both the GMR{alpha} subunit and either {beta}c or its glutamine-substitution mutant N346Q were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best diffracting crystals of the ternary complex were obtained using the N346Q mutation of the {beta}c subunit. These crystals grew using polyethylene glycol 3350 with a high concentration of proline, belonged to space group P6{sub 3}22 and diffracted to 3.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  1. A preliminary analysis of within-subject variation in human serum oxidative stress parameters as a function of time.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Sandro; Gómez, Ana; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine variability at both levels of two serum oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides and carbonyl concentration) as well as total antioxidant capacity in humans as a function of time. Assays for oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were repeated in the same individuals three times daily on four particular days over a period of 51 days. The results show a high variation within subject in the concentration of these markers not only when comparing the different days (the morning values can change up to 98%), but also during the day, where the evening values can increase up to 84% with respect to those of the morning. This suggests that several measurements are required to establish the typical oxidative stress status of an individual before studying the potential effect of treatments that possibly influence oxidative damage. The observed changes during the day allowed us to speculate about the optimum temporal antioxidant delivery regimes that minimize the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. In the study, only a few general aspects of basic lifestyle habits were controlled. However, the levels of these markers are sensitive to possibly a group of factors. This points to the necessity of using a much bigger population to establish the possible contribution of each lifestyle habits to the concentration of the markers.

  2. In vitro effect of sodium nitrite on platelet aggregation in human platelet rich plasma--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kadan, M; Doğanci, S; Yildirim, V; Özgür, G; Erol, G; Karabacak, K; Avcu, F

    2015-10-01

    The role of nitrates and nitric oxide on platelet functions has obtained an increasing attention with respect to their potential effects on cardiovascular disorders. In this study we aimed to analyze the effect of sodium nitrite on platelet functions in human platelets. This in vitro study was designed to show the effect of sodium nitrite on platelet functions in seven healthy volunteers. Blood samples were centrifuged to prepare platelet rich plasma and platelet poor plasma. Platelet rich plasma was diluted with the platelet poor plasma to have a final count of 300,000 ± 25,000 platelets. Platelet rich plasma was incubated with six different increasing doses (from 10 μM to 5 mM) of sodium nitrite for 1 hour at 37°C. Then stimulating agents including collagen (3 μg ml-1), adenosine diphosphate (10 μM), and epinephrine (10 μM) were added to the cuvette. Changes in light transmission were observed for 10 minutes. In addition spontaneous aggregation were performed in control group with all aggregating agents separately. Effect of sodium nitrite on agonist-induced platelet aggregation depends on the concentration of sodium nitrite. Compared with control group, agonist-induced platelet aggregations were significantly suppressed by sodium nitrite at the concentration of 5, 1.0 and 0.5 mM. Our results suggested that sodium nitrite has inhibitory effects in vitro on platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase from the human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Marçal, D.; Rego, A. T.; Fogg, M. J.; Wilson, K. S.; Carrondo, M. A.; Enguita, F. J.

    2007-03-01

    1,3-Propanediol dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.7 Å resolution. 1,3-Propanediol dehydrogenase (1,3-PD-DH), encoded by the dhaT gene, is a key enzyme in the dissimilation process for converting glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in the human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae. Single colourless crystals were obtained from a recombinant preparation of 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.9, b = 226.6, c = 232.6 Å, β = 92.9°. The crystals probably contain two decamers in the asymmetric unit, with a V{sub M} value of 3.07 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and an estimated solvent content of 59%. Diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at the ID14-4 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the kinase domain of human tousled-like kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Ana M.; Redondo, Pilar; Montoya, Guillermo; Muñoz, Inés G.

    2014-01-01

    Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in chromatin dynamics, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and chromosome segregation. The two members of the family reported in humans, namely TLK1 and TLK2, localize to the cell nucleus and are capable of forming homo- or hetero-oligomers by themselves. To characterize the role of TLK2, its C-terminal kinase domain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4122 and cubic P213. The latter produced the best diffracting crystal (3.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation), with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 126.05 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contained one protein molecule, with a Matthews coefficient of 4.59 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 73.23%. PMID:24598926

  5. Preliminary human health risk assessment of arsenic and fluoride in tap water from Zacatecas, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Acuña, Mónica I; Mercado-Reyes, Marisa; Alegría-Torres, Jorge A; Mejía-Saavedra, José J

    2016-08-01

    Zacatecas state is located in the central area of Mexico, where the underground water contains elevated quantities of natural arsenic and fluoride. In order to estimate health risk associated with human exposure to these pollutants, tap water samples from the southern-central region of the state were analyzed. Ninety percent of the samples exceeded the levels of arsenic established by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 0.01 mg/L and 43 % exceeded the limit established by the NOM-127-SSA1(1) of 0.025 mg/L. Forty-three percent of the samples had fluoride levels above the Mexican regulation limit of 1.5 mg/L (NOM-127-SSA1). We used WHO and EPA's health risk assessment method, we estimated 80 % of the inhabitants of sites studied could be exposed to arsenic levels higher than those recommended by EPA and the WHO, 22 % could be exposed to fluoride levels higher than those recommended by EPA, and 16 % of the local population may be in risk of suffering dental fluorosis.

  6. Development of LC-QTOF-MS method for human lung tissue fingerprinting. A preliminary application to nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciborowski, Michal; Kisluk, Joanna; Pietrowska, Karolina; Samczuk, Paulina; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Kretowski, Adam; Niklinski, Jacek

    2017-09-01

    The major histologic subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) include adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC), and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). Clinical trials of targeted agents and newer chemotherapy agents yielded differences in outcomes according to histologic subgroups providing a rationale for histology-based treatment in NSCLC. Currently, NSCLC subtyping is performed based on histopathological examinations and immunohistochemistry. However available methods leave about 10% of NSCLC cases as not otherwise specified. The purpose of this study was development of an LC-QTOF-MS method for human lung tissue metabolic fingerprinting that could discriminate NSCLC histological subtypes and propose biomarkers candidates that could support proper NSCLC diagnosis. Metabolites were extracted with acetonitrile or methanol/ethanol and different chromatographic conditions were tested. In the final method 10 mg of lung tissue was homogenized with 50% methanol and metabolites were extracted with acetonitrile. Metabolites were separated on C8-RP and HILIC columns. About 3500 and 2000 of metabolic features (in both ion modes) were detected with good repeatability (CV < 20%) by RP and HILIC methods, respectively. Lung tumor and control tissue samples obtained from NSCLC patients were analyzed with developed methodology. Acylcarnitines, fatty acids, phospholipids, and amino acids were found more abundant in tumor as compared to control tissue. Acylcarnitines, lysophospholipids, creatinine, creatine, and alanine were identified as potential targets enabling classification of NSCLC subtypes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R.; Tokuoka, Keiji; Kusakari, Yukiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kai, Yasushi; Krungkrai, Jerapan; Horii, Toshihiro

    2006-06-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase of human malaria parasite P. falciparum was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC; EC 4.1.1.23) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP) and defects in the enzyme are lethal in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Active recombinant P. falciparum OMPDC (PfOMPDC) was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source. The crystal exhibits trigonal symmetry (space group R3), with hexagonal unit-cell parameters a = b = 201.81, c = 44.03 Å. With a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 46% (V{sub M} = 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1})

  8. Beyond Maslow's culture-bound linear theory: a preliminary statement of the double-Y model of basic human needs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Maslow's theory of basic human needs is criticized with respect to two of its major aspects, unidimensional linearity and cross-cultural validity. To replace Maslow's linear theory, a revised Y model is proposed on the base of Y. Yu's original Y model. Arranged on the stem of the Y are Maslow's physiological needs (excluding sexual needs) and safety needs. Satisfaction of these needs is indispensable to genetic survival. On the left arm of the Y are interpersonal and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization need. The thoughts and behaviors required for the fulfillment of these needs lead to genetic expression. Lastly, on the right arm of the Y are sexual needs, childbearing needs, and parenting needs. The thoughts and behaviors entailed in the satisfaction of these needs result in genetic transmission. I contend that needs for genetic survival and transmission are universal and that needs for genetic expression are culture-bound. Two major varieties of culture-specific expression needs are distinguished for each of the three levels of needs on the left arm of the Y model. Collectivistic needs for interpersonal affiliation and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization prevail in collectivist cultures like those found in East Asian countries. Individualistic needs are dominant in individualist cultures like those in North America and certain European nations. I construct two separate Y models, one for people in collectivist cultures and the other for those in individualist ones. In the first (the Yc model), the three levels of expression needs on the left arm are collectivistic in nature, whereas in the second (the Yi model), the three levels of needs on the left arm are individualistic in nature. Various forms of the double-Y model are formulated by conceptually combining the Yc and Yi models at the cross-cultural, crossgroup, and intra-individual levels. Research directions for testing the various aspects of the double-Y model are

  9. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibres on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M; Baad-Hansen, L; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs. The aim of this study was to determine whether bilateral local anaesthesia (LA) of the lingual nerve affects the excitability of the tongue motor cortex (MI) as measured by TMS. The effect on MEPs after bilateral LA of the lingual nerve was studied, while the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle served as a control in ten healthy participants. MEPs were measured on the right side of the tongue dorsum in four different conditions: (i) immediately prior to anaesthesia (baseline), (ii) during bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve, (iii) after anaesthesia had subjectively subsided (recovery) and (iv) 3 h after bilateral lingual block injection. MEPs were assessed using stimulus-response curves in steps of 10% of motor threshold (T). Eight stimuli were given at each stimulus level. The amplitudes of the tongue MEPs were significantly influenced by the stimulus intensity (P < 0·001) but not by condition (P = 0·186). However, post hoc tests showed that MEPS were statistically significantly higher during bilateral LA block condition compared with baseline at T + 40%, T + 50% and T + 60% (P < 0·028) and also compared with recovery at T + 60% (P = 0·010) as well as at 3 h after injection at T + 50% and T + 60% (P < 0·029). Bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve seems to be associated with a facilitation of the corticomotor pathways related to the tongue musculature.

  10. [Preliminary study on tissue-engineered cartilage with human dermal fibroblasts co-cultured with porcine chondrocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Zhou, Guang-dong; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yi-lin

    2009-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of constructing tissue-engineered cartilage with human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) in vitro. Porcine articular chondrocytes and HDFs were isolated and in vitro expanded respectively. Then they were mixed at the ratio of 1:1 (chondrocytes: fibroblasts) . The mixed cells were seeded onto polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffold at the ultimate concentration of 5.0 x 10(7)/ml as co-culture group. Chondrocytes and HDFs at the same ultimate concentration were seeded respectively onto the scaffold as chondrocyte group ( positive control group) and fibroblast group ( negative control group). The specimens were collected after in vitro culture for 8 weeks. Gross observation, histology and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the results. In chondrocyte group, the cell-scaffold constructs could maintain the original size and shape during in vitro culture. The new formed cartilage-like tissue had typical histological structure and extracellular matrix staining similar to normal cartilage. In co-culture group the constructs shrunk slightly at 8 weeks, cartilage-like tissue formed and GAG could be detected for strong expression by Safranin O staining. Furthermore, using the specific identification, a few HDFs derived cells were found to form lacuna structure at the peripheral area of cartilage-like tissue. In fibroblast group, the constructs deformed and shrunk gradually without mature cartilage lacuna in histology. The 3D-co-culture system can effectively induce the differentiation of HDFs to chondrocytes. The tissue-engineered cartilage can be constructed in vitro with the 3D-co-culture system.

  11. Preliminary investigation of bird and human movements and disease-management practices in noncommercial poultry flocks in southwestern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Theresa E; Kelton, David; Ribble, Carl; Stephen, Craig

    2011-09-01

    Understanding normal movement patterns and husbandry practices of poultry production systems is important for understanding the dynamics of disease spread, and for controlling outbreaks of highly infectious diseases, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza. To learn about these patterns in the noncommercial or "backyard" poultry-keeping sector, an open-ended questionnaire was administered to 18 backyard-flock owners in British Columbia, Canada, and responses were analyzed descriptively. Six participants reported that they visited premises that were part of the commercial poultry system in the last year; however, bird movements between commercial and noncommercial farms were always unidirectional, from commercial to backyard. Bird movements into and out of participants' flocks occurred multiple times per month (two flocks), three times per year (five flocks), once or twice a year (nine flocks) and every 3-5 yr (two flocks). Visitors had direct contact with three participants' flocks multiple times per week; for other flocks, visitors had direct contact three times or less per year. Fourteen participants rarely had direct contact with other backyard flocks, three had contact more than once per week, and one had contact every 3 mo. Participants stated that the health of their birds was excellent (7), very good (3), good (6), O.K. (1), and all right (1), and used a median of two biosecurity practices to maintain health in their flock. Our findings suggest that bird movements are not likely to transmit disease from backyard to commercial flocks; however, human movements between backyard and commercial premises could transmit diseases. Within the backyard-flock sector, the majority of small flocks appear to pose little risk of disease transmission because they are maintained in semi-isolation from other flocks; however, a minority of flocks has high contact levels with other flocks and could be important in disease spread.

  12. The effects and risks associated to mephedrone and methylone in humans: A review of the preliminary evidences.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Billieux, Joel; Benyamina, Amine; Lançon, Christophe; Cottencin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    New psychoactive substances have drastically modified the world drug scene. An increasingly popular class comprises synthetic or substituted cathinones (legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts). Among the most common psychoactive constituents of bath salts are mephedrone and methylone. Recent reports on the abuse of novel synthetic cathinone derivatives call attention to the serious physical and psychological risks resulting from their consumption, thereby emphasizing the growing use of these drugs might constitute an important public health issue. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of mephedrone and methylone in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were "mephedrone", "methylone", "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "substance abuse", "substance use disorder", "adverse effects", "fatalities". The literature search was limited to years 2005-2015 and led to the identification of 71 potentially relevant articles. To date, the actual prevalence rates of their use remains difficult to estimate. Important health-related issues have emerged in relation to the somatic, psychiatric, and addictive consequences of their use. The potential chronic health effects of their prolonged use remain to date unknown (e.g., reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential). Treatment for patients with prolonged exposure to synthetic cathinones should ideally include a drug management plan coupled with psychotherapy taking place in a structured program of care.

  13. The development and validation of a LIPUS system with preliminary observations of ultrasonic effects on human adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Marvel, Skylar; Okrasinski, Stan; Bernacki, Susan H; Loboa, Elizabeth; Dayton, Paul A

    2010-09-01

    To study the potential effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on cell response in vitro, the ability to alter LIPUS parameters is required. However, commercial LIPUS systems have very little control over parameter selection. In this study, a custom LIPUS system was designed and validated by exploring the effects of using different pulse repetition frequency (PRF) parameters on human adipose derived adult stem cells (hASCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), two common stem cell sources for creating bone constructs in vitro. Changing the PRF was found to affect cellular response to LIPUS stimulation for both cell types. Proliferation of LIPUS-stimulated cells was found to decrease for hASCs by d 7 for all three groups compared with unstimulated control cells (P = 0.008, 0.011, 0.014 for 1 Hz, 100 Hz and 1 kHz PRF, respectively) and for hMSCs by d 14 (donor 1: P = 0.0005, 0.0002, 0.0003; donor 2: P = 0.0003, 0.0002, 0.0001; for PRFs of 1 Hz, 100 Hz, and 1 kHz, respectively). Additionally, LIPUS was shown to strongly accelerate osteogenic differentiation of hASCs based on amount of calcium accretion normalized by total DNA (P = 0.003, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.032 between control/100 Hz, control/1 kHz, 1 Hz/1 kHz, and 100 Hz/1 kHz pulse repetition frequencies, respectively). These findings promote the study of using LIPUS to induce osteogenic differentiation and further encourage the exploration of LIPUS parameter optimization. The custom LIPUS system was successfully designed to allow extreme parameter variation, specifically PRF, and encourages further studies.

  14. Articular cartilage repair with recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold in a preliminary porcine study.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, Virpi; Salonius, Eve; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Järvinen, Elina; Paatela, Teemu; Meller, Anna; Hannula, Markus; Björkman, Mimmi; Pyhältö, Tuomo; Ellä, Ville; Vasara, Anna; Töyräs, Juha; Kellomäki, Minna; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a novel recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold (rhCo-PLA) in the repair of full-thickness cartilage lesions with autologous chondrocyte implantation technique (ACI). The forming repair tissue was compared to spontaneous healing (spontaneous) and repair with a commercial porcine type I/III collagen membrane (pCo). Domestic pigs (4-month-old, n = 20) were randomized into three study groups and a circular full-thickness chondral lesion with a diameter of 8 mm was created in the right medial femoral condyle. After 3 weeks, the chondral lesions were repaired with either rhCo-PLA or pCo together with autologous chondrocytes, or the lesion was only debrided and left untreated for spontaneous repair. The repair tissue was evaluated 4 months after the second operation. Hyaline cartilage formed most frequently in the rhCo-PLA treatment group. Biomechanically, there was a trend that both treatment groups resulted in better repair tissue than spontaneous healing. Adverse subchondral bone reactions developed less frequently in the spontaneous group (40%) and the rhCo-PLA treated group (50%) than in the pCo control group (100%). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups. The novel rhCo-PLA biomaterial showed promising results in this proof-of-concept study, but further studies will be needed in order to determine its effectiveness in articular cartilage repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:745-753, 2016.

  15. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Residential environmental measurements in the national human exposure assessment survey (NHEXAS) pilot study in Arizona: preliminary results for pesticides and VOCs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S M; Callahan, P J; Nishioka, M G; Brinkman, M C; O'Rourke, M K; Lebowitz, M D; Moschandreas, D J

    1999-01-01

    A major objective of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) performed in Arizona was to conduct residential environmental and biomarker measurements of selected pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), volatile organic compounds (VOCs; benzene, toluene, trichloroethene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene), and metals for total human exposure assessments. Both personal (e.g., blood, urine, dermal wipes, 24 h duplicate diet) and microenvironmental (e.g., indoor and outdoor air, house dust, foundation soil) samples were collected in each home in order to describe individual exposure via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal pathways, and to extrapolate trends to larger populations. This paper is a preliminary report of only the microenvironmental and dermal wipe data obtained for the target pesticides and VOCs, and provides comparisons with results from similar studies. Evaluations of total exposure from all sources and pathways will be addressed in future papers. The pesticides and VOCs all showed log-normal distributions of concentrations in the Arizona population sampled, and in most cases were detected with sufficient frequency to allow unequivocal description of the concentration by media at the 90th, 75th, and 50th (median) percentiles. Those combinations of pollutant and media, in which a large fraction of the measurements were below the detection limit of the analysis method used, included trichloroethene, 1,3-butadiene, and formaldehyde in outdoor air; chlorpyrifos and diazinon in outdoor air; and diazinon in dermal and window sill wipes. In general, indoor air concentrations were higher than outdoor air concentrations for all VOCs and pesticides investigated, and VOC levels were in good agreement with levels reported in other studies. In addition, the agreement obtained between co-located VOC samplers indicated that the low-cost diffusional badges used to measure concentrations are probably adequate for use in future monitoring studies. For the pesticides

  17. Characterization of site-specific biomechanical properties of human meniscus-Importance of collagen and fluid on mechanical nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Danso, E K; Mäkelä, J T A; Tanska, P; Mononen, M E; Honkanen, J T J; Jurvelin, J S; Töyräs, J; Julkunen, P; Korhonen, R K

    2015-06-01

    Meniscus adapts to joint loads by depth- and site-specific variations in its composition and structure. However, site-specific mechanical characteristics of intact meniscus under compression are poorly known. In particular, mechanical nonlinearities caused by different meniscal constituents (collagen and fluid) are not known. In the current study, in situ indentation testing was conducted to determine site-specific elastic, viscoelastic and poroelastic properties of intact human menisci. Lateral and medial menisci (n=26) were harvested from the left knee joint of 13 human cadavers. Indentation tests, using stress-relaxation and dynamic (sinusoidal) loading protocols, were conducted for menisci at different sites (anterior, middle, posterior, n=78). Sample- and site-specific axisymmetric finite element models with fibril-reinforced poroelastic properties were fitted to the corresponding stress-relaxation curves to determine the mechanical parameters. Elastic moduli, especially the instantaneous and dynamic moduli, showed site-specific variation only in the medial meniscus (p<0.05 between the sites). The instantaneous and dynamic elastic moduli of the anterior horn were significantly (p<0.05) greater in the medial than lateral meniscus. The phase angle showed no statistically significant variation between the sites (p>0.05). The values for the strain-dependent fibril network modulus (nonlinear behaviour of collagen) were significantly different (p<0.05) between all sites in the medial menisci. Additionally, there was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the strain-dependent fibril network modulus between the lateral and medial anterior horns. The initial permeability was significantly different (p<0.05) in the medial meniscus only between the middle and posterior sites. For the strain-dependent permeability coefficient, only anterior and middle sites showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in the medial meniscus. This parameter demonstrated a significant difference

  18. Stability of Menisci in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Detached growth, also referred to as dewetted growth, is a Bridgman crystal growth process in which the melt is in contact with the crucible wall but the crystal is not. A meniscus bridges the gap between the top of the crystal and the crucible wall. The meniscus shape depends on the contact angle of the melt with the crucible wall, the growth angle of the melt with respect to the solidifying crystal, the gas pressure differential, the Weber number describing the rotation rate of the crucible, and the Bond number. Only some of the meniscus shapes are stable and the stability criterion is the sign of the second variation of the potential energy upon admissible meniscus shape perturbations. The effects of confined gas volumes above and below the melt and crucible rotation are evaluated. The analysis is applicable to the non-stationary case where the crystal radius changes during growth. Static stability maps (crystal radius versus pressure differential) are obtained for a series of Bond numbers, growth angles and Weber numbers. Also, the specific cases of Ge and InSb, in both terrestrial and microgravity conditions, are analyzed. Stability was found to depend significantly on whether the interior surface was considered to be microscopically rough or smooth, corresponding to pinned or unpinned states. It was also found that all meniscus shapes are statically stable in a microgravity environment.

  19. Radial tears of the menisci: MR findings.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, G A; Miller, W J; Remo, J W; Fritts, H M; Rozansky, M I

    1994-08-01

    Radial meniscal tears have a plane of cleavage oriented across the short axis of the meniscus in the same plane in which radial images are oriented. These tears are important to recognize, because they have clinical implications different from those of other meniscal tears with respect to meniscal function, orthopedic treatment, and clinical course. Depending on their size, location, and orientation, radial tears can have different appearances on standard MR images. Certain types can be fairly subtle to diagnose. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the varied appearances of radial tears on MR images and the findings commonly associated with radial tears.

  20. Identification and quantification of nicotine biomarkers in human oral fluid from individuals receiving low-dose transdermal nicotine: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eleanor I; Norris, Hye-Ryun K; Rollins, Douglas E; Tiffany, Stephen T; Moore, Christine M; Vincent, Michael J; Agrawal, Alpana; Wilkins, Diana G

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to identify and quantify potential nicotine (NIC) biomarkers in post-exposure oral fluid samples collected from 10 NIC-abstinent human participants administered 7 mg transdermal NIC using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Oral fluid samples were collected prior to NIC patch application and at 0.5 and 0.75 h after patch removal using the Quantisal() oral fluid collection device. The validated LC-MS-MS analyte panel included nicotine-Nbeta-D-glucuronide, cotinine-N-oxide, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, norcotinine, trans-nicotine-1'-N-oxide, cotinine (COT), nornicotine, NIC, anatabine, anabasine, and cotinine-N-beta-D-glucuronide. Analytes and corresponding deuterated internal standards were extracted by solid-phase extraction. NIC and COT concentrations were quantifiable in oral fluid samples collected from 6 of the 10 participants 0.5 h after patch removal and in oral fluid samples collected from 7 of the 10 participants 0.75 h after patch removal. Based on the mean NIC and COT concentrations in oral fluid and plasma for the participants with both quantifiable NIC and COT at the 0.5 and 0.75 h collection times, the oral fluid-plasma ratio was 6.4 for NIC and 3.3 for COT. An ELISA procedure was also validated and successfully applied as a screening tool for these oral fluid samples in conjunction with LC-MS-MS confirmation. An ELISA cut-off concentration of 5.0 ng/mL provided excellent sensitivity for discrimination of COT-positive post-exposure oral fluid samples collected after low-level transdermal NIC exposure and oral fluid samples collected prior to patch application.

  1. San Mateo Creek Basin Preliminary Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of this Preliminary Assessment is to evaluate the site using the Hazard Ranking System and the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix to determine if a threat to human health and the environment exists such that further action is warranted.

  2. Fluorescence response of human HER2+ cancer- and MCF-12F normal cells to 200 MHz ultrasound microbeam stimulation: a preliminary study of membrane permeability variation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Changyang; Jakob, Anette; Lemor, Robert; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Targeted mechanical cell stimulation has been extensively studied for a better understanding of its effect on cellular mechanotransduction signaling pathways and structures by utilizing a variety of mechanical sources. In this work, an ultrasound-driven single cell stimulation method is thus proposed, and a preliminary study is carried out by comparing the fluorescence intensities representing a change in cell membrane permeability between MDA-MB-435 human HER2+ cancer cells (~40-50 μm in diameter) and MCF-12F normal cells (~50-60 μm) in the presence of ultrasound. A 200 MHz single element zinc oxide (ZnO) transducer is employed to generate ultrasound microbeam (UM) whose beamwidth and depth of focus are 9.5 μm and 60 μm, comparable to typical cell size. The cells in tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) are interrogated with 200 MHz sinusoidal bursts. The number of cycles per burst is 5 and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is 1 kHz. The temporal variation of fluorescence intensity in each cell is measured as a function of input voltage to the transducer (16, 32, and 47 V), and its corresponding fluorescence images are obtained via a confocal microscope. A systematic method for visualizing UM's focus by adding Rhodamine B to the immersion medium is also proposed to enhance the precision in aiming the beam at an individual cell. Both types of cells exhibit a decrease in the intensity upon UM irradiation. In particular, normal cells show more fluorescence reduction (down to 0.7 in normalized intensity) than cancer cells (~ 0.9) under the same excitation condition of the transducer. With UM being turned off, the normalized intensity level in normal cells is slowly increased to 1.1. The cell images taken before and after UM exposure indicate that the intensity reduction is more pronounced in those cells after exposure. Hence the results show the potential of UM as a non-invasive in vitro stimulation tool for facilitating targeted drug delivery and gene

  3. Relative device stability of anterior versus axillary needle decompression for tension pneumothorax during casualty movement: Preliminary analysis of a human cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, Matthew L; Held, Jenny M; Fluke, Laura M; McEvoy, Christian S; Inaba, Kenji; Grabo, Daniel; Martin, Matthew J; Earley, Angela S; Ricca, Robert L; Polk, Travis M

    2017-07-01

    Tension pneumothorax (tPTX) remains a significant cause of potentially preventable death in military and civilian settings. The current prehospital standard of care for tPTX is immediate decompression with a 14-gauge 8-cm angiocatheter; however, failure rates may be as high as 17% to 60%. Alternative devices, such as 10-gauge angiocatheter, modified Veress needle, and laparoscopic trocar, have shown to be potentially more effective in animal models; however, little is known about the relative insertional safety or mechanical stability during casualty movement. Seven soft-embalmed cadavers were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Chest wall thickness was measured at the second intercostal space at the midclavicular line (2MCL) and the fifth intercostal space along the anterior axillary line (5AAL). CO2 insufflation created a PTX, and needle decompression was then performed with a randomized device. Insertional depth was measured between hub and skin before and after simulated casualty transport. Thoracoscopy was used to evaluate for intrapleural placement and/or injury during insertion and after movement. Cadaver demographics, device displacement, device dislodgment, and injuries were recorded. Three decompressions were performed at each site (2MCL/5AAL), totaling 12 events per cadaver. Eighty-four decompressions were performed. Average cadaver age was 59 years, and body mass index was 24 kg/m. The CWT varied between cadavers because of subcutaneous emphysema, but the average was 39 mm at the 2MCL and 31 mm at the 5AAL. Following movement, the 2MCL site was more likely to become dislodged than the 5AAL (67% vs. 17%, p = 0.001). Median displacement also differed between 2MCL and 5AAL (23 vs. 2 mm, p = 0.001). No significant differences were noted in dislodgement or displacement between devices. Five minor lung injuries were noted at the 5AAL position. Preliminary results from this human cadaver study suggest the 5AAL position is a more stable and reliable location

  4. Relaxation-compensated CEST-MRI at 7 T for mapping of creatine content and pH--preliminary application in human muscle tissue in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rerich, Eugenia; Zaiss, Moritz; Korzowski, Andreas; Ladd, Mark E; Bachert, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The small biomolecule creatine is involved in energy metabolism. Mapping of the total creatine (mostly PCr and Cr) in vivo has been done with chemical shift imaging. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) allows an alternative detection of creatine via water MRI. Living tissue exhibits CEST effects from different small metabolites, including creatine, with four exchanging protons of its guanidinium group resonating about 2 ppm from the water peak and hence contributing to the amine proton CEST peak. The intermediate exchange rate (≈ 1000 Hz) of the guanidinium protons requires high RF saturation amplitude B1. However, strong B1 fields also label semi-solid magnetization transfer (MT) effects originating from immobile protons with broad linewidths (~kHz) in the tissue. Recently, it was shown that endogenous CEST contrasts are strongly affected by the MT background as well as by T1 relaxation of the water protons. We show that this influence can be corrected in the acquired CEST data by an inverse metric that yields the apparent exchange-dependent relaxation (AREX). AREX has some useful linearity features that enable preparation of both concentration, and--by using the AREX-ratio of two RF irradiation amplitudes B1--purely exchange-rate-weighted CEST contrasts. These two methods could be verified in phantom experiments with different concentration and pH values, but also varying water relaxation properties. Finally, results from a preliminary application to in vivo CEST imaging data of the human calf muscle before and after exercise are presented. The creatine concentration increases during exercise as expected and as confirmed by (31)P NMR spectroscopic imaging. However, the estimated concentrations obtained by our method were higher than the literature values: cCr,rest=24.5±3.74mM to cCr,ex=38.32±13.05mM. The CEST-based pH method shows a pH decrease during exercise, whereas a slight increase was observed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015

  5. A new robotic endoscope manipulator. A preliminary trial to evaluate the performance of a voice-operated industrial robot and a human assistant in several simulated and real endoscopic operations.

    PubMed

    Vara-Thorbeck, C; Muñoz, V F; Toscano, R; Gomez, J; Fernández, J; Felices, M; Garcia-Cerezo, A

    2001-09-01

    We report our learning experience in simulated and real surgical tasks with a new voice-controlled robotic endoscope manipulator: an industrial robot with the tool-holder arm modified to support the optic and camera. The manipulator control-card programs have been rewritten to meet the needs of endoscopic surgeons. For this preliminary work, systems engineers with an additional monitor monitored, recorded, and compared the percentage effectiveness and precision of the responses of the robotic and human assistant to successive oral commands during the several different experimental surgical tasks. Simultaneously, to help develop this voice-commanded system for future, more precise robotic manipulation of surgical instruments, they measured the cartesian and spherical coordinates of successive positions of the optic. In unexpectedly difficult experimental conditions, the tireless robot proved more precise and effective than the demonstrably fatigable human: the steadier screen images of the robotic manipulations helped the surgeon tie knots in 7-0 sutures.

  6. Biomechanical and cellular segmental characterization of human meniscus: building the basis for Tissue Engineering therapies.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H; Caridade, S G; Frias, A M; Silva-Correia, J; Pereira, D R; Cengiz, I F; Mano, J F; Oliveira, J M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Reis, R L

    2014-09-01

    To overcome current limitations of Tissue Engineering (TE) strategies, deeper comprehension on meniscus biology is required. This study aims to combine biomechanical segmental analysis of fresh human meniscus tissues and its correlation with architectural and cellular characterization. Morphologically intact menisci, from 44 live donors were studied after division into three radial segments. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was performed at physiological-like conditions. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis of freeze-dried samples assessed micro-structure. Flow cytometry, histology and histomorphometry were used for cellular study and quantification. Anterior segments present significantly higher damping properties. Mid body fresh medial meniscus presents higher values of E' compared to lateral. Cyclic loads influence the viscoelastic behavior of menisci. By increasing the frequency leads to an increase in stiffness. Conversely, with increasing frequencies, the capacity to dissipate energy and damping properties initially decrease and then rise again. Age and gender directly correlate with higher E' and tan δ. Micro-CT analysis revealed that mean porosity was 55.5 (21.2-89.8)% and 64.7 (47.7-81.8)% for freeze-dried lateral and medial meniscus, respectively. Predominant cells are positive for CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, and lack CD31, CD34 and CD45 (present in smaller populations). Histomorphometry revealed that cellularity decreases from vascular zone 1 to zone 3. Anterior segments of lateral and medial meniscus have inferior cellularity as compared to mid body and posterior ones. Menisci are not uniform structures. Anterior segments have lower cellularity and higher damping. Cyclic loads influence viscoelastic characteristics. Future TE therapies should consider segmental architecture, cellularity and biomechanics of fresh tissue. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: a preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-02-19

    Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude.

  8. Preliminary stages of a cross-cultural Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a measurement tool for assessing public understanding of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Manoel, André Luciano; Traebert, Jefferson; Rebello, Luísa Correa; Zapelini, Clávison Martinelli; Trevisol, Daisson José; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana

    2016-07-21

    The objective of this study was to conduct the initial stages of the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of a scale to measure the level of knowledge about HPV. The stages included: translation from English into the Portuguese spoken in Brazil; synthesis of the translated version; back-translation; analysis by an expert committee; and reliability analysis based on internal consistency and reproducibility. Cronbach's α coefficient for the instrument was 0.985. Subset analysis produced only minor variations. The correlation coefficients between the individual items and the overall result showed strong positive correlations, except for three items. Reproducibility analysis showed kappa values with substantial or moderate agreement for the majority of the items. A preliminary Brazilian version was obtained with satisfactory results, but other stages are necessary in the process of validation of the Brazilian version.

  9. Preliminary study of the human lumbar spine using speckle technique. Limits of compression, shear and torsion. Speckle photography--electronic speckle pattern interferometry.

    PubMed

    Vanneuville, G; Kyndt, T; Massaux, M; Harmand, Y; Poumarat, G; Garcier, J M; Guillot, M; Filaire, M

    1995-01-01

    Optical techniques using single wavelength lasers allow precise study of the superficial displacements of deeper anatomical structures through direct mechanical pull. Two techniques have been used in this study: 1. Double exposure speckle photography. Since 1980 the relationship between the surface displacements and minimal traction applied to the transverse processes of the spine, either unilateral or bilateral, was studied in an attempt to simulate muscular action exerted at this level. 2. Computerised speckle interferometry. This allowed analysis of the deformations between the lumbar vertebrae under vertical compression, shear or torsion outside the usual anatomical planes. This preliminary study outlines the mechanical behaviour and the plasticity of the vertebral structures but has been performed on only a few anatomical specimens thus not allowing statistical analysis. This would require a larger series.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a surface mutant of the middle domain of PB2 from human influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Qiu, Hao; Yoshida, Toru; Tsumori, Yayoi; Tsuge, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    In the last hundred years, four influenza pandemics have been experienced, beginning with that in Spain in 1918. Influenza A virus causes severe pneumonia and its RNA polymerase is an important target for drug design. The influenza A (H1N1) virus has eight ribonucleoprotein complexes, which are composed of viral RNA, RNA polymerases and nucleoproteins. PB2 forms part of the RNA polymerase complex and plays an important role in binding to the cap structure of host mRNA. The middle domain of PB2 includes a cap-binding site. The structure of PB2 from H1N1 complexed with m(7)GTP has not been reported. Plate-like crystals of the middle domain of PB2 from H1N1 were obtained, but the quality of these crystals was not good. An attempt was made to crystallize the middle domain of PB2 complexed with m(7)GTP using a soaking method; however, electron density for m(7)GTP was not observed on preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. This protein has hydrophobic residues on its surface and is stable in the presence of high salt concentrations. To improve the solubility, a surface double mutant (P453H and I471T) was prepared. These mutations change the surface electrostatic potential drastically. The protein was successfully prepared at a lower salt concentration and good cube-shaped crystals were obtained using this protein. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of this mutant of the middle domain of PB2 are reported.

  11. A Simple Food-Diverting Operation for Type 2 Diabetes Treatment. Preliminary Results in Humans with BMI 28-32 kg/m(2).

    PubMed

    Melissas, John; ErenTaskin, Halit; Peirasmakis, Drakos; Dimitriadis, Efstathios; Papadakis, Marios; Zengin, Seniyye Ulgen; Yumuk, Volkan; Taskin, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of a simple side-to-side jejunoileal anastomosis (SJA) in non-morbidly obese individuals to control type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was studied in six diabetic patients with BMI 28-32. This novel procedure was performed in two Academic Centers and preliminary data is presented. SJA bypassing a significant part of the small bowel and diverting food and biliopancretic secretions to the distal ileum was performed laparoscopically in six diabetic patients with BMI 28-32 kg/m(2). SJA was performed at a distance of 100 cm from the Treitz ligament and 150 cm from the ileocecal valve, thus a total bowel alimentary and biliopancreatic loop length of 2.5 m was created. Three of the patients (two female, one male) experienced complete remission of diabetes from the immediate postoperative period and up to 3 years after the procedure. Two other patients remained medication-free after the operation experiencing partial diabetes remission, and the third patient significantly reduced his daily insulin requirements immediately after surgery. There were no early or late postoperative complications. A simple SJA, diverting the food and biliopancreatic secretion to the distal small bowel, was able to control T2DM in all patients offering total or partial remission of the disease soon after the procedure. Those preliminary data and the simplicity of the operation are encouraging and promising. However, further studies are in progress in both Institutions to reveal the possible mechanism of diabetes control and investigate the effect of this operation on larger number of patients, with longer follow-up period.

  12. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    PubMed

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  13. Biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel for knee meniscus applications, including comparison with human donor samples.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jennifer C; Curley, Colin; Tierney, Paul; Kennedy, James E

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was the biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, in order to assess its potential for use as an artificial meniscal implant. Aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was treated with a sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution to precipitate out the polyvinyl alcohol resulting in a pliable hydrogel. The freeze-thaw process, a strictly physical method of crosslinking, was employed to crosslink the hydrogel. Development of a meniscal shaped mould and sample housing unit allowed the production of meniscal shaped hydrogels for direct comparison to human meniscal tissue. Results obtained show that compressive responses were slightly higher in PVA/Na2SO4 menisci, displaying maximum compressive loads of 2472N, 2482N and 2476N for samples having undergone 1, 3 and 5 freeze-thaw cycles respectively. When compared to the human meniscal tissue tested under the same conditions, an average maximum load of 2467.5N was observed. This suggests that the PVA/Na2SO4 menisci are mechanically comparable to the human meniscus. Biocompatibility analysis of PVA/Na2SO4 hydrogels revealed no acute cytotoxicity. The work described herein has innovative potential in load bearing applications, specifically as an alternative to meniscectomy as replacement of critically damaged meniscal tissue in the knee joint where repair is not viable.

  14. What Is the State of Human Rights Education in K-12 Schools in the United States in 2000? A Preliminary Look at the National Survey of Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Dennis N.

    Simply put, human rights education is learning that develops the knowledge, skills, and values of human rights. Growing consensus around the world recognizes education for and about human rights as essential. It can contribute to the building of free, just, and peaceful societies. Human rights education also is increasingly recognized as an…

  15. A fast multiparameter MRI approach for acute stroke assessment on a 3T clinical scanner: preliminary results in a non-human primate model with transient ischemic occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank; Li, Chun-Xia; Yan, Yumei; Nair, Govind; Nagaoka, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yoji; Zola, Stuart; Howell, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Many MRI parameters have been explored and demonstrated the capability or potential to evaluate acute stroke injury, providing anatomical, microstructural, functional, or neurochemical information for diagnostic purposes and therapeutic development. However, the application of multiparameter MRI approach is hindered in clinic due to the very limited time window after stroke insult. Parallel imaging technique can accelerate MRI data acquisition dramatically and has been incorporated in modern clinical scanners and increasingly applied for various diagnostic purposes. In the present study, a fast multiparameter MRI approach including structural T1-weighted imaging (T1W), T2-weighted imaging (T2W), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), T2-mapping, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, was implemented and optimized for assessing acute stroke injury on a 3T clinical scanner. A macaque model of transient ischemic stroke induced by a minimal interventional approach was utilized for evaluating the multiparameter MRI approach. The preliminary results indicate the surgical procedure successfully induced ischemic occlusion in the cortex and/or subcortex in adult macaque monkeys (n=4). Application of parallel imaging technique substantially reduced the scanning duration of most MRI data acquisitions, allowing for fast and repeated evaluation of acute stroke injury. Hence, the use of the multiparameter MRI approach with up to five quantitative measures can provide significant advantages in preclinical or clinical studies of stroke disease. PMID:24834423

  16. Anti-CD antibody microarray for human leukocyte morphology examination allows analyzing rare cell populations and suggesting preliminary diagnosis in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Khvastunova, Alina N.; Kuznetsova, Sofya A.; Al-Radi, Liubov S.; Vylegzhanina, Alexandra V.; Zakirova, Anna O.; Fedyanina, Olga S.; Filatov, Alexander V.; Vorobjev, Ivan A.; Ataullakhanov, Fazly

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for leukocyte sorting by a microarray of anti-cluster-of-differentiation (anti-CD) antibodies and for preparation of the bound cells for morphological or cytochemical examination. The procedure results in a “sorted” smear with cells positive for certain surface antigens localised in predefined areas. The morphology and cytochemistry of the microarray-captured normal and neoplastic peripheral blood mononuclear cells are identical to the same characteristics in a smear. The microarray permits to determine the proportions of cells positive for the CD antigens on the microarray panel with high correlation with flow cytometry. Using the anti-CD microarray we show that normal granular lymphocytes and lymphocytes with radial segmentation of the nuclei are positive for CD3, CD8, CD16 or CD56 but not for CD4 or CD19. We also show that the described technique permits to obtain a pure leukemic cell population or to separate two leukemic cell populations on different antibody spots and to study their morphology or cytochemistry directly on the microarray. In cases of leukemias/lymphomas when circulating neoplastic cells are morphologically distinct, preliminary diagnosis can be suggested from full analysis of cell morphology, cytochemistry and their binding pattern on the microarray. PMID:26212756

  17. Anti-CD antibody microarray for human leukocyte morphology examination allows analyzing rare cell populations and suggesting preliminary diagnosis in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khvastunova, Alina N; Kuznetsova, Sofya A; Al-Radi, Liubov S; Vylegzhanina, Alexandra V; Zakirova, Anna O; Fedyanina, Olga S; Filatov, Alexander V; Vorobjev, Ivan A; Ataullakhanov, Fazly

    2015-07-27

    We describe a method for leukocyte sorting by a microarray of anti-cluster-of-differentiation (anti-CD) antibodies and for preparation of the bound cells for morphological or cytochemical examination. The procedure results in a "sorted" smear with cells positive for certain surface antigens localised in predefined areas. The morphology and cytochemistry of the microarray-captured normal and neoplastic peripheral blood mononuclear cells are identical to the same characteristics in a smear. The microarray permits to determine the proportions of cells positive for the CD antigens on the microarray panel with high correlation with flow cytometry. Using the anti-CD microarray we show that normal granular lymphocytes and lymphocytes with radial segmentation of the nuclei are positive for CD3, CD8, CD16 or CD56 but not for CD4 or CD19. We also show that the described technique permits to obtain a pure leukemic cell population or to separate two leukemic cell populations on different antibody spots and to study their morphology or cytochemistry directly on the microarray. In cases of leukemias/lymphomas when circulating neoplastic cells are morphologically distinct, preliminary diagnosis can be suggested from full analysis of cell morphology, cytochemistry and their binding pattern on the microarray.

  18. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or minimal (MIN) experience. Simultaneously, they were trained on a discrimination task. Afterward, their behaviour during challenge tests was assessed. The first learning step of the task involved associating a positive sound cue with a response (approach a trough) and success of piglets depended mostly on motivation to seek for reward. Although the experience with humans did not have direct effect, the degree of fear of handler, measured based on their reactivity to a human approach test, was related to motivation to seek rewards and learning speed of this first step in stressed ROU piglets, but not in MIN and GEN piglets. In contrast, the second learning step was more cognitively challenging, since it involved discrimination learning, including negative cues during which piglets had to learn to avoid the trough. Locomotion activity, measured during an open-field test, was associated with performance of the discrimination learning. To conclude, fearfulness towards humans and locomotion activity are linked with learning performance in relation to task complexity, highlighting the necessity to take into account these factors in animal research and management.

  19. High-potentiality preliminary selection criteria and transformation time-dependent factors analysis for establishing Epstein-Barr virus transformed human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-C; Wu, J-Y; Lu, H-I; Ko, H-W; Kuo, J-L; Wang, C-Y; Shen, P-S; Hwang, S-M

    2006-12-01

    Infection of freshly isolated and cryopreserved lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) leads to the establishment of human B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Techniques for optimal infection of the lymphocytes are vital for the establishment of a human biobank. The present study found that more than half (58-86%) of such established LCLs had transport times of less than 48 h, cell densities exceeding 10(6) cells/ml and cell viabilities greater than 90%. After EBV infection, 3306 freshly isolated lymphocytes required 30.0 +/- 0.1 days to become LCLs. Conversely, 1210 cryopreserved lymphocytes required 36.2 +/- 0.4 days. Cell density and viability of the culture affected transformation time in freshly isolated lymphocytes. On the other hand, blood transport time, cryopreservation time and initial cell viability were major factors in cryopreserved specimens. These results contribute to general information concerning the establishment of a human biobank for EBV infected cells.

  20. Development and preliminary evidence for the validity of an instrument assessing implementation of human-factors principles in medication-related decision-support systems—I-MeDeSA

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Marianne; Seidling, Hanna M; Neri, Pamela M; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Duke, Jon; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Volk, Lynn A; Bates, David W

    2011-01-01

    Background Medication-related decision support can reduce the frequency of preventable adverse drug events. However, the design of current medication alerts often results in alert fatigue and high over-ride rates, thus reducing any potential benefits. Methods The authors previously reviewed human-factors principles for relevance to medication-related decision support alerts. In this study, instrument items were developed for assessing the appropriate implementation of these human-factors principles in drug–drug interaction (DDI) alerts. User feedback regarding nine electronic medical records was considered during the development process. Content validity, construct validity through correlation analysis, and inter-rater reliability were assessed. Results The final version of the instrument included 26 items associated with nine human-factors principles. Content validation on three systems resulted in the addition of one principle (Corrective Actions) to the instrument and the elimination of eight items. Additionally, the wording of eight items was altered. Correlation analysis suggests a direct relationship between system age and performance of DDI alerts (p=0.0016). Inter-rater reliability indicated substantial agreement between raters (κ=0.764). Conclusion The authors developed and gathered preliminary evidence for the validity of an instrument that measures the appropriate use of human-factors principles in the design and display of DDI alerts. Designers of DDI alerts may use the instrument to improve usability and increase user acceptance of medication alerts, and organizations selecting an electronic medical record may find the instrument helpful in meeting their clinicians' usability needs. PMID:21946241

  1. A Preliminary Study of the Therapeutic Role of Human Early Fetal Aorta-derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Inhibiting Carotid Artery Neointimal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wen, Jian-Yan; Wang, Meng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Pan, Lin; Yu, Chang-An; Lou, Jin-Ning; Liu, Peng

    2015-12-20

    Endothelial cell damage is an important pathophysiological step of restenosis after angioplasty and stenting. Cell transplantation has great therapeutic potential for endothelial recovery. We investigated the effect of transplanting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from human early fetal aortas in rat injured arteries. The carotid arterial endothelium of Sprague-Dawley rats was damaged by dilatation with a 1.5 F balloon catheter, and then EPCs derived from human early fetal aortas (<14 weeks) were injected into the lumen of the injured artery in transplanted rats, with an equal volume of normal saline injected into control rats. Rats were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment and transplanted cells were identified by immunohistochemical staining with anti-human CD31 and anti-human mitochondria antibodies. Arterial cross-sections were analyzed by pathology, immunohistochemistry, and morphometry. Green fluorescence-labeled EPCs could be seen in the endovascular surface of balloon-injured vessels after transplantation. The intimal area and intimal/medial area ratio were significantly smaller in the transplanted group than in the control (P < 0.05) and the residual lumen area was larger (P < 0.05). After EPC transplantation, a complete vascular endothelial layer was formed, which was positive for human von Willebrand factor after immunohistochemical staining, and immunohistochemical staining revealed many CD31- and mitochondria-positive cells in the re-endothelialized endothelium with EPC transplantation but not control treatment. EPCs derived from human early fetal aorta were successfully transplanted into injured vessels and might inhibit neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury.

  2. A Preliminary Study of the Therapeutic Role of Human Early Fetal Aorta-derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Inhibiting Carotid Artery Neointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wen, Jian-Yan; Wang, Meng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Pan, Lin; Yu, Chang-An; Lou, Jin-Ning; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endothelial cell damage is an important pathophysiological step of restenosis after angioplasty and stenting. Cell transplantation has great therapeutic potential for endothelial recovery. We investigated the effect of transplanting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from human early fetal aortas in rat injured arteries. Methods: The carotid arterial endothelium of Sprague-Dawley rats was damaged by dilatation with a 1.5 F balloon catheter, and then EPCs derived from human early fetal aortas (<14 weeks) were injected into the lumen of the injured artery in transplanted rats, with an equal volume of normal saline injected into control rats. Rats were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment and transplanted cells were identified by immunohistochemical staining with anti-human CD31 and anti-human mitochondria antibodies. Arterial cross-sections were analyzed by pathology, immunohistochemistry, and morphometry. Results: Green fluorescence-labeled EPCs could be seen in the endovascular surface of balloon-injured vessels after transplantation. The intimal area and intimal/medial area ratio were significantly smaller in the transplanted group than in the control (P < 0.05) and the residual lumen area was larger (P < 0.05). After EPC transplantation, a complete vascular endothelial layer was formed, which was positive for human von Willebrand factor after immunohistochemical staining, and immunohistochemical staining revealed many CD31- and mitochondria-positive cells in the re-endothelialized endothelium with EPC transplantation but not control treatment. Conclusion: EPCs derived from human early fetal aorta were successfully transplanted into injured vessels and might inhibit neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. PMID:26668152

  3. Building up Analgesia in Humans via the Endogenous μ-Opioid System by Combining Placebo and Active tDCS: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    DosSantos, Marcos F.; Martikainen, Ilkka K.; Nascimento, Thiago D.; Love, Tiffany M.; DeBoer, Misty D.; Schambra, Heidi M.; Bikson, Marom; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; DaSilva, Alexandre F.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation that has been frequently used in experimental and clinical pain studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tDCS-mediated pain control, and most important its placebo component, are not completely established. In this pilot study, we investigated in vivo the involvement of the endogenous μ-opioid system in the global tDCS-analgesia experience. Nine healthy volunteers went through positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [11C]carfentanil, a selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR) radiotracer, to measure the central MOR activity during tDCS in vivo (non-displaceable binding potential, BPND) - one of the main analgesic mechanisms in the brain. Placebo and real anodal primary motor cortex (M1/2mA) tDCS were delivered sequentially for 20 minutes each during the PET scan. The initial placebo tDCS phase induced a decrease in MOR BPND in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), precuneus, and thalamus, indicating activation of endogenous μ-opioid neurotransmission, even before the active tDCS. The subsequent real tDCS also induced MOR activation in the PAG and precuneus, which were positively correlated to the changes observed with placebo tDCS. Nonetheless, real tDCS had an additional MOR activation in the left prefrontal cortex. Although significant changes in the MOR BPND occurred with both placebo and real tDCS, significant analgesic effects, measured by improvements in the heat and cold pain thresholds, were only observed after real tDCS, not the placebo tDCS. This study gives preliminary evidence that the analgesic effects reported with M1-tDCS, can be in part related to the recruitment of the same endogenous MOR mechanisms induced by placebo, and that such effects can be purposely optimized by real tDCS. PMID:25029273

  4. Building up analgesia in humans via the endogenous μ-opioid system by combining placebo and active tDCS: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    DosSantos, Marcos F; Martikainen, Ilkka K; Nascimento, Thiago D; Love, Tiffany M; DeBoer, Misty D; Schambra, Heidi M; Bikson, Marom; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; DaSilva, Alexandre F

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation that has been frequently used in experimental and clinical pain studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tDCS-mediated pain control, and most important its placebo component, are not completely established. In this pilot study, we investigated in vivo the involvement of the endogenous μ-opioid system in the global tDCS-analgesia experience. Nine healthy volunteers went through positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [11C]carfentanil, a selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR) radiotracer, to measure the central MOR activity during tDCS in vivo (non-displaceable binding potential, BPND)--one of the main analgesic mechanisms in the brain. Placebo and real anodal primary motor cortex (M1/2mA) tDCS were delivered sequentially for 20 minutes each during the PET scan. The initial placebo tDCS phase induced a decrease in MOR BPND in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), precuneus, and thalamus, indicating activation of endogenous μ-opioid neurotransmission, even before the active tDCS. The subsequent real tDCS also induced MOR activation in the PAG and precuneus, which were positively correlated to the changes observed with placebo tDCS. Nonetheless, real tDCS had an additional MOR activation in the left prefrontal cortex. Although significant changes in the MOR BPND occurred with both placebo and real tDCS, significant analgesic effects, measured by improvements in the heat and cold pain thresholds, were only observed after real tDCS, not the placebo tDCS. This study gives preliminary evidence that the analgesic effects reported with M1-tDCS, can be in part related to the recruitment of the same endogenous MOR mechanisms induced by placebo, and that such effects can be purposely optimized by real tDCS.

  5. Preliminary Investigation of Visual Attention to Human Figures in Photographs: Potential Considerations for the Design of Aided AAC Visual Scene Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many individuals with complex communication needs may benefit from visual aided augmentative and alternative communication systems. In visual scene displays (VSDs), language concepts are embedded into a photograph of a naturalistic event. Humans play a central role in communication development and might be important elements in VSDs.…

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Visual Attention to Human Figures in Photographs: Potential Considerations for the Design of Aided AAC Visual Scene Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many individuals with complex communication needs may benefit from visual aided augmentative and alternative communication systems. In visual scene displays (VSDs), language concepts are embedded into a photograph of a naturalistic event. Humans play a central role in communication development and might be important elements in VSDs.…

  7. Preliminary exploration of HLA-A 1101-restricted human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B-specific CD8⁺ T cells in allogeneic stem-cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anbing; Hu, Jianhua; Wu, Wei; Huang, Yaping; Liang, Hanying; Wang, Huiqi; Yang, Rong; Fan, Jun

    2014-08-08

    T-cell responses directed against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) glycoprotein B (gB) contribute to protective immunity against HCMV infection in both animal models and humans. However, the gB-specific human CD8(+) T cell responses remain poorly understood. gB antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells were stained with seven major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide pentamers in 16 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A 1101-positive, HCMV-seropositive patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of these seven pentamers, the most frequent CD8(+) T-cell responses were directed against the gB332-340 peptide. These gB332-340-specific CD8(+) T cells were strongly associated with the presence of plasma HCMV immunoglobulin M in all HSCT recipients and exhibited a probable causal relationship with the level of pp65 antigenemia. Together, these data suggest a role for gB332-340-specific CD8(+) T cells in HCMV reactivation after HSCT. Furthermore, the pentamer assay may be valuable in detecting antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells.

  8. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  9. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  10. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  11. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  12. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  13. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary investigation. 457.925 Section 457.925 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program...

  14. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary investigation. 457.925 Section 457.925 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program...

  15. Effects of subinhibitory amounts of ampicillin, amoxycillin and mecillinam on the adhesion of Escherichia coli bacteria to human urinary tract epithelial cells: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Svanborg-Edén, C; Sandberg, T; Stenqvist, K; Ahlstedt, S

    1979-01-01

    Attachment to mucous surfaces may be a prerequisite for bacteria colonizing these surfaces or invading underlying tissues. Subinhibitory amounts of ampicillin and amoxycillin but not mecillinam decreased the attachment of Escherichia coli bacteria to human uro-epithelial cells in vitro. No significant synergistic effect on the attachment by the antibiotics was obtained. The present report indicates a new parameter for the study of antibacterial actions of drugs.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Loukas, Alex; Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}. Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  17. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* carbohydrate-binding protein of the human rotavirus strain Wa

    SciTech Connect

    Kraschnefski, Mark J.; Scott, Stacy A.; Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S.; Itzstein, Mark von; Blanchard, Helen

    2005-11-01

    The carbohydrate-binding component (VP8*{sub 64–223}) of the human Wa rotavirus spike protein has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in two different crystal forms. X-ray diffraction data have been collected that have enabled determination of the Wa VP8*{sub 64–223} structure by molecular replacement. Rotaviruses exhibit host-specificity and the first crystallographic information on a rotavirus strain that infects humans is reported here. Recognition and attachment to host cells, leading to invasion and infection, is critically linked to the function of the outer capsid spike protein of the rotavirus particle. In some strains the VP8* component of the spike protein is implicated in recognition and binding of sialic-acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates, thereby enabling infection by the virus. The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* core from human Wa rotavirus is reported. Two crystal forms (trigonal P3{sub 2}21 and monoclinic P2{sub 1}) have been obtained and X-ray diffraction data have been collected, enabling determination of the VP8*{sub 64–223} structure by molecular replacement.

  18. Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Luigi; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Guarnieri, Simone; Viciano, Joan; Mariggiò, Maria

    2017-03-01

    The fast, high-throughput distinction between palaeoanthropological/archaeological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medico-legal science. In this paper, a novel dating method was developed using the autofluorescence of human bones and the confocal laser scanning microscope as the means to distinguish between archaeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. Human bones exhibit fluorescence, typically induced by natural antibiotics that are absorbed by collagen, and provide secondary, exogenous fluorophores. However, primary natural fluorescence (or autofluorescence) caused by enigmatic endogenous fluorophores is also present as a micro-phenomenon, whose nature is still obscure. Here, we show that the endogenous fluorophores are mucopolysaccharides of the Rouget-Neumann sheath and, more relevant, that the intensity of the natural fluorescence in human bone decreases in a relationship to the antiquity of the samples. These results suggest that the autofluorescence of bone is a promising technique for the assessment of skeletal remains that may be potentially of medico-legal interest. A larger study is proposed to confirm these findings and to create a predictive model between the autofluorescence intensity and the time since death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics and Preliminary Observations of the Influence of Electromyostimulation on the Size and Function of Human Skeletal Muscle During 30 Days of Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A; Buchanan, Paul; Gollinick, Philip D.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    During 30 days (d) of bedrest, the practicality of using Elec- troMyoStimulation (EMS) as a deterrent to atrophy and strength loss of lower limb musculature was examined. An EMS system was developed that provided variable but quantifiable levels of EMS, and measured torque. The dominant log of three male subjects was stimulated twice daily in a 3-d on/1-d off cycle during bedrest. The non-dominant leg of each subject acted as a control. A stimulator, using a 0.3 ms monophasic 60 Hz pulse waveform, activated muscle tissue for 4 s. The output waveform from the stimulator was sequenced to the Knee Extensors (KE), Knee Flex- ors (KF), Ankle Extensors (AE), and Ankle Flexors (AF), and caused three isometric contractions of each muscle group per minute. Subject tolerance determined EMS Intensity. Each muscle group received four 5-min bouts of EMS each session with a 10 -min rest between bouts. EMS and torque levels for each muscle action were recorded directly an a computer. Overall average EMS Intensity was 197, 197, 195, and 188 mA for the KE, KF, AF, and AE, respectively. Overall average torque development for these muscle groups was 70, 16, 12, and 27 Nm, respectively. EMS intensity doubled during the study, and average torque increased 2.5 times. Average maximum torque throughout a session reached 54% of maximal voluntary for the KE and 29% for the KF. Reductions in leg volume, muscle compartment size, cross-sectional area of slow and fast-twitch fibers, strength, and aerobic enzyme activities, and increased log compliance were attenuated in the legs which received EMS during bedrest. These results indicate that similar EMS levels induce different torques among different muscle groups and that repeated exposure to EMS increases tolerance and torque development. Longer orien- tation periods, therefore, may enhance its effectiveness. Our preliminary data suggest that the efficacy of EMS as an effective countermeasure for muscle atrophy and strength loss during long

  20. Characteristics and Preliminary Observations of the Influence of Electromyostimulation on the Size and Function of Human Skeletal Muscle During 30 Days of Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A; Buchanan, Paul; Gollinick, Philip D.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    During 30 days (d) of bedrest, the practicality of using Elec- troMyoStimulation (EMS) as a deterrent to atrophy and strength loss of lower limb musculature was examined. An EMS system was developed that provided variable but quantifiable levels of EMS, and measured torque. The dominant log of three male subjects was stimulated twice daily in a 3-d on/1-d off cycle during bedrest. The non-dominant leg of each subject acted as a control. A stimulator, using a 0.3 ms monophasic 60 Hz pulse waveform, activated muscle tissue for 4 s. The output waveform from the stimulator was sequenced to the Knee Extensors (KE), Knee Flex- ors (KF), Ankle Extensors (AE), and Ankle Flexors (AF), and caused three isometric contractions of each muscle group per minute. Subject tolerance determined EMS Intensity. Each muscle group received four 5-min bouts of EMS each session with a 10 -min rest between bouts. EMS and torque levels for each muscle action were recorded directly an a computer. Overall average EMS Intensity was 197, 197, 195, and 188 mA for the KE, KF, AF, and AE, respectively. Overall average torque development for these muscle groups was 70, 16, 12, and 27 Nm, respectively. EMS intensity doubled during the study, and average torque increased 2.5 times. Average maximum torque throughout a session reached 54% of maximal voluntary for the KE and 29% for the KF. Reductions in leg volume, muscle compartment size, cross-sectional area of slow and fast-twitch fibers, strength, and aerobic enzyme activities, and increased log compliance were attenuated in the legs which received EMS during bedrest. These results indicate that similar EMS levels induce different torques among different muscle groups and that repeated exposure to EMS increases tolerance and torque development. Longer orien- tation periods, therefore, may enhance its effectiveness. Our preliminary data suggest that the efficacy of EMS as an effective countermeasure for muscle atrophy and strength loss during long

  1. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S.; Lev, Michael H.; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Methods: Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left–right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors’ custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left–right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. Results: The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors’ preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left–right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Realistic

  2. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  3. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  4. High-speed flow cytometric analysis of nanoparticle targeting to rare leukemic stem cells in peripheral human blood: preliminary in-vitro studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Christy L.; Leary, James F.

    2014-03-01

    Leukemic cancer stem cells are both stem-like and leukemic-like. This complicates their detection as rare circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of leukemia patients. The leukemic stem cells are also highly resistant to standard chemotherapeutic regimens so new therapeutic strategies need to be designed to kill the leukemic stem cells without killing normal stem cells. In these initial studies we have designed an antibody-targeted and fluorescent (Cy5.5) nanoparticle for targeting these leukemic stem cells and then introducing new strategies for killing them. Multicolor flow cytometric analyses were performed on a BD FACS Aria III. Human leukemic stem cell-like cell line RS4;11 (with putative immunophenotype CD123+/CD24+/CD38-/CD10-/Flt-3-) was used as a model human leukemic stem cell systems and were spiked into normal human peripheral blood cells containing normal blood stem-progenitor cells (immunophenotype CD123-/CD34+/CD38-) and Cy5.5-labeled nanoparticles with targeting molecule anti-CD123 antibody. An irrelevant antibody (CD71) which should not bind to any live leukemic stem cell or normal stem cell (binds erythrocytes) was used as a way of distinguishing between true-positive live and false-positive damaged/dead cells, the latter occurring at much higher frequencies than the very rare (e.g. 0.001 to 0.0001 percent frequency true leukemic stem cells). These studies are designed to measure the targeting sensitivity and specificity of the fluorescent nanoparticles to the putative rare leukemic stem cells with the eventual design to use the nanoparticles to direct killing therapeutic doses to the leukemic stem cells but not to the normal stem-progenitor cells.

  5. Human tissue-engineered bone produced in clinically relevant amounts using a semi-automated perfusion bioreactor system: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Janssen, F W; van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, R; Van Oorschot, A; Oostra, J; de Bruijn, J D; Van Blitterswijk, C A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a semi-automated perfusion bioreactor system for the production of clinically relevant amounts of human tissue-engineered bone. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) of eight donors were dynamically seeded and proliferated in a perfusion bioreactor system in clinically relevant volumes (10 cm(3)) of macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds (BCP particles, 2-6 mm). Cell load and distribution were shown using methylene blue staining. MTT staining was used to demonstrate viability of the present cells. After 20 days of cultivation, the particles were covered with a homogeneous layer of viable cells. Online oxygen measurements confirmed the proliferation of hBMSCs in the bioreactor. After 20 days of cultivation, the hybrid constructs became interconnected and a dense layer of extracellular matrix was present, as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the hBMSCs showed differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage as was indicated by collagen type I production and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. We observed no significant differences in osteogenic gene expression profiles between static and dynamic conditions like ALP, BMP2, Id1, Id2, Smad6, collagen type I, osteocalcin, osteonectin and S100A4. For the donors that showed bone formation, dynamically cultured hybrid constructs showed the same amount of bone as the statically cultured hybrid constructs. Based on these results, we conclude that a semi-automated perfusion bioreactor system is capable of producing clinically relevant and viable amounts of human tissue-engineered bone that exhibit bone-forming potential after implantation in nude mice. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Seasonal size distribution of airborne culturable bacteria and fungi and preliminary estimation of their deposition in human lungs during non-haze and haze days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Jia, Ruizhi; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Song, Yuan; Wang, Xuming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, haze events in Beijing have significantly increased in frequency. On haze days, airborne microorganisms are considered to be a potential risk factor for various health concerns. However, limited information on bioaerosols has prevented our proper understanding of the possible threat to human health due to these bioaerosols. In this study, we used a six-stage impactor for sampling culturable bioaerosols and the LUDEP 2.07 computer-based model for calculating their deposition on human lungs to investigate seasonal concentration, size distribution, and corresponding deposition efficiency and flux in the human respiratory tract during different haze-level events. The current results of the analysis of 398 samples over four seasons indicate that the concentration of culturable airborne bacteria decreased with increasing haze severity. The bioaerosol concentration ratio was skewed towards larger particle sizes on heavy haze days leading to larger bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters than on non-haze days. During nasal breathing by an adult male engaged in light exercise in an outdoor environment, the total deposition efficiency of culturable bioaerosols is 80-90% including approximately 70% in the upper respiratory tract, 5-7% in the alveoli, and about 3% in the bronchial couple with bronchiolar regions. Although the difference in culturable bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters at different haze levels was not large enough to cause obvious differences in lung deposition efficiency, the deposition fluxes clearly varied with the degree of haze owing to the varied concentration of culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. The results here could improve our understanding of the seasonal health threat due to culturable bioaerosols during non-haze and haze days.

  7. Reduction in deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets after autologous endothelial cell seeding of Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts in humans: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Ortenwall, P.; Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J.; Risberg, B.

    1987-07-01

    Autologous endothelial seeding (AES) of vascular prostheses in dogs increases thrombus-free surface and improves prosthetic prostacyclin production, patency, and the ability to withstand hematogenous challenge with bacteria. No such information is available in human subjects. In the present study one limb of an aortic Dacron bifurcation prosthesis was seeded with autologous endothelial cells (ECs) harvested from the distal portion of the saphenous vein by enzymatic treatment. The deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets on the vascular prostheses was studied 1 and 4 months after operation. In seven of nine patients seeding resulted in decreased accumulation of radiolabeled platelets compared with sham-seeded control limbs (p less than 0.04), when studied 1 month after surgery. A decrease in platelet accumulation occurred over the whole prosthesis between 1 and 4 months, and no significant difference was noted at 4 months between seeded and nonseeded graft limbs. Although the seeding density was very low (440 ECs/cm2), the observed difference in platelet accumulation for AES-treated graft limbs in the early postoperative course merits further investigation of this technique in human beings.

  8. Preliminary Study on Gene Expression of Chitinase-Like Cytokines in Human Airway Epithelial Cell Under Chitin and Chitosan Microparticles Treatment.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadi, Masumeh; Yeganeh, Farshid; Haji Molla Hoseini, Mostafa

    2016-06-01

    Small-sized chitin and chitosan microparticles (MPs) reduce allergic inflammation. We examined the capacity of these glycans to stimulate A549 human airway epithelial cells to determine the feasibility of using of these glycans as allergic therapeutic modality. A549 cells were treated with MPs and then expressions levels of chitinase domain-containing 1 (CHID1) and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) genes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. IL-6 production was measured by ELISA. Chitin MPs resulted in upregulation of CHI3L1 expression by 35.7-fold while mRNA expression did not change with chitosan MPs. Compared to the untreated group, production of IL-6 was significantly decreased in the chitosan MPs-treated group, but chitin MPs treatment cause elevation of IL-6 level. This study demonstrates that chitin potently induces CHI3L1 expression, but chitosan is relatively inert. This effect and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) suggest that chitosan MPs may possess more potential for therapeutic uses in human airway allergic inflammation.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of human interleukin-7 bound to unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of its α-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, Joseph Jr; Walsh, Scott T. R.

    2007-10-01

    Bacterial and insect cell expression systems have been developed to produce unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of human interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the extracellular domain of its α receptor, IL-7Rα. We report the crystallization and X-ray diffraction of IL-7 complexes to both unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of the IL-7Rα to 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. The interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the development, proliferation and homeostasis of T and B cells in cell-mediated immunity. Understimulation and overstimulation of the IL-7 signaling pathway leads to severe combined immunodeficiency, autoimmune reactions, heart disease and cancers. Stimulation of the IL-7 pathway begins with IL-7 binding to its α-receptor, IL-7Rα. Protein crystals of unglycosylated and glycosylated complexes of human IL-7–IL-7Rα extracellular domain (ECD) obtained using a surface entropy-reduction approach diffract to 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. Anomalous dispersion methods will be used to solve the unglycosylated IL-7–IL-7Rα ECD complex structure and this unglycosylated structure will then serve as a model in molecular-replacement attempts to solve the structure of the glycosylated IL-7–α-receptor complex.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of the complex between human centrin 2 and a peptide from the protein XPC

    SciTech Connect

    Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Christova, Petya; Shosheva, Alexandra; Stura, Enrico; Le Du, Marie Hélène; Blouquit, Yves; Duchambon, Patricia; Miron, Simona; Craescu, Constantin T.

    2006-07-01

    Production, crystallization and phasing procedures are reported for the complex of human centrin 2, lacking the first 25 residues, and a 17-residue peptide from the protein XPC. Centrins are highly conserved calcium-binding proteins involved in the nucleotide-excision repair pathway as a subunit of the heterotrimer including the XPC and hHR23B proteins. A complex formed by a Ca{sup 2+}-bound human centrin 2 construct (the wild type lacking the first 25 amino acids) with a 17-mer peptide derived from the XPC sequence (residues Asn847–Arg863) was crystallized. Data were collected to 1.65 Å resolution from crystals grown in 30% monomethyl polyethylene glycol (MPEG) 500, 100 mM NaCl and 100 mM Bicine pH 9.0. Crystals are monoclinic and belong to space group C2, with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The unit-cell parameters are a = 60.28, b = 59.42, c = 105.14 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 94.67°. A heavy-atom derivative was obtained by co-crystallization with Sr{sup 2+}. The substitution was rationalized by calorimetry experiments, which indicate a binding constant for Sr{sup 2+} of 4.0 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1}.

  11. Preliminary investigation of human serum albumin-Vβ inhibition on toxic shock syndrome induced by staphylococcus enterotoxin B in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qifeng; Li, Lin; Pian, Yaya; Hao, Huaijie; Zheng, Yuling; Zang, Yating; Jiang, Hua; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) is a superantigen that can induce massive activation of T cells with specific Vβ and inflammatory cytokine cascades, which mediate shock. To date, no SEB vaccine has been developed for preventing toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a fusion protein human serum albumin-Vβ (HSA-Vβ) on TSS induced by SEB. Compared with Vβ, the preparation of HSA-Vβ was much easier to handle owing to its solubility. Affinity testing showed that HSA-Vβ had high affinity for SEB. In vitro results showed that HSA-Vβ could effectively inhibit interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, in vivo, HSA-Vβ reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in the serum and protected mice from SEB lethal challenge when administered simultaneously with SEB or 30 min after SEB. In summary, we simplified the preparation of Vβ by fusion with HSA, creating the HSA-Vβ protein, which effectively inhibited cytokine production and protected mice from lethal challenge with SEB. These data indicated that HSA-Vβ may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SEB-induced TSS.

  12. Characterization and Cytotoxicity Analysis of a Ciprofloxacin Loaded Chitosan/Bioglass Scaffold on Cultured Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells: a Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Maha I.; Nasry, Sherine A.; Mostafa, Amani A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin (CIP) loaded on chitosan bioactive glass scaffold on human periodontal ligament stem cells (PLSCs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PLSCs obtained from human third molars, cultures treated with medium containing 15 x 15 mm chitosan/bioactive glass scaffolds without/with different concentration 0, 5, 10, and 20 % of CIP. A total of 15 x 10^3 cells were plated in 6 well plates. The attached cells of each group were harvested from the plates after 1, 4 and 8 days of culture to detect the viability of cells. The cell number was determined using a hemocytometer and the trypan blue dye-exclusion assay. Data was analyzed using normality using Shapiro-Wilk test. Comparisons between groups were made using One-way ANOVA complemented by Tukey’s test. RESULTS: When comparing the proliferation rate of cells in the four groups, no statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.633). With regards to cell viability, no statistical difference was found between the 0, 5, and 10 % CIP concentrations, while the 20 % CIP concentration demonstrated the least viability with a high statistically significant difference (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Twenty percentages CIP demonstrated the least proliferation rate and viability. PMID:27703576

  13. Preliminary observation of dynamic changes in alcohol concentration in the human brain with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a 3T MR instrument.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hitoshi; Harada, Masafumi; Sakama, Minoru; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Our purposes were to establish suitable conditions for proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure dynamic changes in alcohol concentration in the human brain, to evaluate these changes, and to compare the findings with data from analysis of breath vapor and blood samples. We evaluated 4 healthy volunteers (mean age 26.5 years; 3 males, one female) with no neurological findings. All studies were performed with 3-tesla clinical equipment using an 8-channel head coil. We applied our modified single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Continuous measurements of MRS, breath vapor, and blood samples were conducted before and after the subjects drank alcohol with a light meal. The obtained spectra were quantified by LCModel Ver. 6.1, and the accuracy of the MRS measurements was estimated using the estimated standard deviation expressed in percentage (%SD) as a criterion. Alcohol peaks after drinking were clearly detected at 1.2 ppm for all durations of measurement. Good correlations between breath vapor or blood sample and MRS were found by sub-minute MRS measurement. The continuous measurement showed time-dependent changes in alcohol in the brain and various patterns that differed among subjects. The clinical 3T equipment enables direct evaluation of sub-minute changes in alcohol metabolism in the human brain.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (hHINT2)

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Włodarczyk, Artur; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.; Nawrot, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase mainly expressed in the pancreas, liver and adrenal gland. HINT2 possibly plays a role in apoptosis, as well as being involved in steroid biosynthesis, hepatic lipid metabolism and regulation of hepatic mitochondria function. The expression level of HINT2 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. To date, endogenous substrates for this enzyme, as well as the three-dimensional structure of human HINT2, are unknown. In this study, human HINT2 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystallization was performed at 278 K using PEG 4000 as the main precipitant; the crystals, which belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.38, c = 133.25 Å, diffracted to 2.83 Å resolution. Assuming two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.63 Å3 Da−1 and 53.27%, respectively. PMID:23832208

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (hHINT2).

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Włodarczyk, Artur; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Nawrot, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase mainly expressed in the pancreas, liver and adrenal gland. HINT2 possibly plays a role in apoptosis, as well as being involved in steroid biosynthesis, hepatic lipid metabolism and regulation of hepatic mitochondria function. The expression level of HINT2 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. To date, endogenous substrates for this enzyme, as well as the three-dimensional structure of human HINT2, are unknown. In this study, human HINT2 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystallization was performed at 278 K using PEG 4000 as the main precipitant; the crystals, which belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.38, c = 133.25 Å, diffracted to 2.83 Å resolution. Assuming two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.63 Å(3) Da(-1) and 53.27%, respectively.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of the N-terminal region of the human formin-homology protein FHOD1

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Antje Rak, Alexey; Pylypenko, Olena; Ludwig, Diana; Geyer, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The N-terminal region (1–339) of the human FHOD1 protein has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. A crystal of the (C31S,C71S) mutant diffracted to around 2.3 Å resolution. Formins are key regulators of actin cytoskeletal dynamics that constitute a diverse protein family that is present in all eukaryotes examined. They typically consist of more than 1000 amino acids and are defined by the presence of two conserved regions, namely the formin homology 1 and 2 domains. Additional conserved domains comprise a GTPase-binding domain for activation, a C-terminal autoregulation motif and an N-terminal recognition domain. In this study, the N-terminal region (residues 1–339) of the human formin homology domain-containing protein 1 (FHOD1) was purified and crystallized from 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 10%(v/v) glycerol, 0.3 M magnesium chloride and 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0. Native crystals belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.4, b = 73.9, c = 78.7 Å, α = 78.2, β = 86.2, γ = 89.7°. They contain two monomers of FHOD1 in the asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of 2.3 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source.

  17. Preliminary Results Concerning the Influence of Human Kisspeptin on LH Secretion in Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio) Females at the Stage of Ovarian Recrudescence and Spawning Season.

    PubMed

    Gosiewski, Grzegorz; Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, Miroslawa; Chyb, Jaroslaw; Socha, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the experiments was to evaluate the influence of human kisspeptin on LH secretion of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) females during ovarian recrudescence and spawning season. For the experiments, human kisspeptin KISS1 (0.1 mg kg(-1) of body weight--b.w.), GnRH analogue (Des Gly(10), D-Ala(6)) GnRH-A (20 µg kg(-1) b.w.) and dopamine antagonist (pimozide) (5 mg kg(-1) b.w.) were used alone or in combinations. At 3, 6, 12, 24 hours after injection(s) blood samples were collected from all fish. LH levels were measured in plasma with the use of the ELISA method. KISS1 did not show any significant effects on spontaneous LH secretion in both tested seasons. At 12 hours sampling time (both stages of gonad maturity) a combination of tested compounds (GnRH-A+KISS1) significantly increased LH release in comparison with the control. In the stage of gonad recrudescence KISS1 significantly increased LH secretion evoked by pimozide at 24 hours. A combination of three components: KISS1, GnRH-A, and pimozide significantly decreased LH secretion in comparison to LH secretion evoked by GnRH-A and pimozide during stage of gonad recrudescence. These results suggest that kisspeptin is involved in seasonal control of reproduction in Prussian carp. The possible interaction of kisspeptin and the dopaminergic system is also discussed.

  18. Human genomic variation

    PubMed Central

    Disotell, Todd R

    2000-01-01

    The recent completion and assembly of the first draft of the human genome, which combines samples from several ethnically diverse males and females, provides preliminary data on the extent of human genetic variation. PMID:11178257

  19. Novel hybrids of metronidazole and quinolones: synthesis, bioactive evaluation, cytotoxicity, preliminary antimicrobial mechanism and effect of metal ions on their transportation by human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sheng-Feng; Peng, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hui-Zhen; Rasheed, Syed; Vijaya Kumar, Kannekanti; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2014-10-30

    A novel series of hybrids of metronidazole and quinolones as antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized. Most prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antimicrobial activities in comparison with reference drugs. Furthermore, these highly active metronidazole-quinolone hybrids showed appropriate ranges of pKa, log P and aqueous solubility to pharmacokinetic behaviors and no obvious toxicity to A549 and human hepatocyte LO2 cells. Their competitive interactions with metal ions to HSA revealed that the participation of Mg(2+) ion in compound 7d-HSA association could result in a concentration increase of free compound 7d. Molecular modeling and experimental investigation of compound 7d with DNA suggested that possible antibacterial mechanism might be in relation with multiple binding sites between bioactive molecules and topo IV-DNA complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The preliminary solution structure of human p13MTCP1, an oncogenic protein encoded by the MTCP1 gene, using 2D homonuclear NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guignard, L.; Yang, Y.-S.; Padilla, A.; Boiteau, C.; Strub, M.-P.; Hoh, F.; Stern, M.-H.; Roumestand, C.

    1998-02-01

    The human oncogenic protein p13 is coded by the gene MTCP1 which is expressed on mature prolymphocytic leukemias. We investigate its 3D structure using 2D homonuclear NMR. The main secondary structure elements found in p13MTCP1 are antiparallel β-sheets which fold in an eight-stranded orthogonal β-barrel. La protéine oncogénique humaine est codée par le gène MTCP1, exprimé dans des leucémies prolymphocytaires à phénotype mature. Sa structure 3D a été résolue par RMN 2D homonucléaire. p13MTCP1 est essentiellement composée de feuillets β antiparallèles qui s'organisent en un tonneau β orthogonal a huit brins.

  1. Characteristics and preliminary observations of the influence of electromyostimulation on the size and function of human skeletal muscle during 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul; Gollnick, Philip A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of transcutaneous electromyostimulation (EMS) on the development of atrophy and the loss of strength in lower limb musculature in humans exposed to microgravity was determined in three subjects who received EMS twice daily in a 3-d on/1-d off cycle on their dominant leg during 30 days of bedrest. The output waveform from the stimulator was sequenced to the knee extensors, knee flexors, ankle extensors, and ankle flexors, and caused three isometric contractions of each muscle group per minute. It was found that, in the dominant leg, EMS acted to attenuate the changes caused by bedrest, such as reductions in the leg volume, muscle compartment size, cross-sectional area of slow- and fast-twitch fibers, strength, and aerobic enzyme activities, and an increase in leg compliance.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human RuvB-like protein RuvBL1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorynia, Sabine; Gonçalves, Susana; Coelho, Ricardo; Lopes, Gonçalo; Thomaz, Mónica; Huber, Martina; Donner, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Human RuvB-like protein RuvBL1 plays important roles in essential signaling pathways like c-Myc and Wnt, in transcription, and in DNA repair and apoptosis. Crystals of both native and a Se-Met derivative were obtained and characterized. SAD data leading to the structure solution at 2.2 Å were measured from the Se-Met crystals. RuvBL1, an evolutionary highly conserved protein related to the AAA{sup +} family of ATPases, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystals are hexagonal and belong to space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 207.1, c = 60.7 Å and three molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  3. Preliminary paleoecological reconstruction of long-term relationship between human and environment in the northern part of Danube-along Plain, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustár, Rozália; Molnár, Dávid; Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sávai, Szilvia

    2016-06-01

    The peat bog at Ócsa is located at the northern part of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves at the transitional zone of two landscapes with different morphological characters. At the boundary of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves and the Danube-along Plain a marshland sequence can be found from Hajós to Ócsa. We extended our research to the Ócsa peat bog to complete the environmental historical investigations in the examined area, as well. The bog is located in a former pool formed by the Danube River in which aeolian sand and thick lake sediment deposited from the Late Pleistocene. The initial oligotrophic lake became mesotrophic, therefore thick carbonate sediment deposited. Afterwards, as a consequence of the Neolithic human occupations, the natural development of the lake changed drastically and the lake choked up. The pollen and quartermalacological analysis of the area support the mentioned geological processes.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human MTH1 complexed with two oxidized nucleotides, 8-oxo-dGMP and 2-oxo-dATP

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Teruya; Kitaguchi, Yuki; Miyazawa, Masayuki; Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Toma, Sachiko; Ikemizu, Shinji; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Yamagata, Yuriko

    2006-12-01

    The complexes of human MTH1 with two oxidized nucleotides, 8-oxo-dGMP and 2-oxo-dATP, were crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 1.95 and 2.22 Å resolution, respectively. Human MutT homologue 1 (hMTH1) hydrolyzes a variety of oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates, including 8-oxo-dGTP, 2-oxo-dATP, 2-oxo-ATP and 8-oxo-dATP, to their corresponding nucleoside monophosphates, while Esherichia coli MutT possesses prominent substrate specificity for 8-oxoguanine nucleotides. Three types of crystals were obtained corresponding to the following complexes: selenomethionine-labelled hMTH1 with 8-oxo-dGMP (SeMet hMTH1–8-oxo-dGMP), hMTH1 with 8-oxo-dGMP (hMTH1–8-oxo-dGMP) and hMTH1 with 2-oxo-dATP (hMTH1–2-oxo-dATP). Crystals of the SeMet hMTH1–8-oxo-dGMP complex belong to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 45.8, c = 153.6 Å, and diffracted to 2.90 Å. Crystals of hMTH1–8-oxo-dGMP and hMTH1–2-oxo-dATP belong to space groups P2{sub 1} and P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 34.0, b = 59.0, c = 65.9 Å, β = 90.7° and a = 59.2, b = 67.3, c = 80.0 Å, respectively. Their diffraction data were collected at resolutions of 1.95 and 2.22 Å, respectively.

  5. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bong, Ivyna Pau Ni; Ng, Ching Ching; Fakiruddin, Shaik Kamal; Lim, Moon Nian; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2016-11-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the functions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of NAMPT and LYST on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Transfection efficiencies were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. The NAMPT protein expression in siRNA-treated cells was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that NAMPT and LYST were successfully knockdown by siRNA transfection (p < 0.05). NAMPT or LYST gene silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells (p < 0.05). Silencing of NAMPT gene also decreased NAMPT protein levels (p < 0.01). Our study demonstrated that NAMPT and LYST play pivotal roles in the molecular pathogenesis of MM. This is the first report describing the possible functions of LYST in myelomagenesis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in MM.

  6. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Bong, Ivyna Pau Ni; Ng, Ching Ching; Fakiruddin, Shaik Kamal; Lim, Moon Nian; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the fprotein expression in unctions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of NAMPT and LYST on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Transfection efficiencies were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. The NAMPT protein expression in siRNA-treated cells was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that NAMPT and LYST were successfully knockdown by siRNA transfection (p < 0.05). NAMPT or LYST gene silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells (p < 0.05). Silencing of NAMPT gene also decreased NAMPT protein levels (p < 0.01). Our study demonstrated that NAMPT and LYST play pivotal roles in the molecular pathogenesis of MM. This is the first report describing the possible functions of LYST in myelomagenesis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in MM. PMID:27754828

  7. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-01-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1526648

  8. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the complex between a human anti-alpha toxin antibody fragment and alpha toxin.

    PubMed

    Oganesyan, Vaheh; Barnes, Arnita; Tkaczyk, Christine; Ferguson, Andrew; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin (AT) has been crystallized in complex with the Fab fragment of a human antibody (MEDI4893). This constitutes the first reported crystals of AT bound to an antibody. The monoclinic crystals belonged to space group P2₁, with unit-cell parameters a=85.52, b=148.50, c=93.82 Å, β=99.82°. The diffraction of the crystals extended to 2.56 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained two MEDI4893 Fab-AT complexes. This corresponds to a crystal volume per protein weight (VM) of 2.3 Å3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 47%. The three-dimensional structure of this complex will contribute to an understanding of the molecular basis of the interaction of MEDI4893 with AT. It will also shed light on the mechanism of action of this antibody, the current evaluation of which in the field of S. aureus-mediated diseases makes it a particularly interesting case study. Finally, this study will provide the three-dimensional structure of AT in a monomeric state for the first time.

  10. Identification and Preliminary Validation of Radiation Response Protein(s) in Human Blood for a High-throughput Molecular Biodosimetry Technology for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Vaiphei, S. Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Ksoo, Mandahakani; Kashyap, Ettrika; Sharan, Rajesh N.

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a rapid and high-throughput technology for radiation biodosimetry has been a great obstacle in our full preparedness to cope with large-scale radiological incidents. The existing cytogenetic technologies have limitations, primarily due to their time-consuming methodologies, which include a tissue culture step, and the time required for scoring. This has seriously undermined its application in a mass casualty scenario under radiological emergencies for timely triage and medical interventions. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics in the postgenomic era have opened up new platforms and avenues to discover molecular biomarkers for biodosimetry in the future. Using a genomic-to-proteomic approach, we have identified a basket of twenty “candidate” radiation response genes (RRGs) using DNA microarray and tools of bioinformatics immediately after ex vivo irradiation of freshly drawn whole blood of consenting and healthy human volunteers. The candidate RRGs have partially been validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR or qPCR) to identify potential “candidate” RRGs at mRNA level. Two potential RRGs, CDNK1A and ZNF440, have so far been identified as genes with potentials to form radiation response proteins in liquid biopsy of blood, which shall eventually form the basis of fluorescence- or ELISA-based quantitative immunoprobe assay for a high-throughput technology of molecular biodosimetry in the future. More work is continuing. PMID:28250912

  11. Apoptotic activity of genistein on human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells and preliminary exploration of its mechanisms using microarray.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huafei; Zhan, Shuxuan; Cao, Kaiming

    2008-11-01

    Soy isoflavone genistein is active against certain solid malignancies, but its direct effect on lung adenocarcinoma and its mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. In the present study, using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1, we found that genistein decreased SPC-A-1 cell viability in both a dose and time dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that genistein significantly induced arrest of SPC-A-1 cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, through DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assays, we demonstrated that the addition of genistein led to SPC-A-1 apoptosis in both a dose and time dependent manner. Finally, the apoptosis pathway-related gene expression profile affected by genistein was investigated using the oligonucleotide microarray method. The result showed that the expression profile of 20 genes (ratio of genistein group/control group >2 or <0.5) related to the apoptotic pathways changed. These genes, mainly consisting of the Bcl-2 family and TNF ligand and receptor family, are involved in regulation of the apoptosis process.

  12. Preliminary Study to Test the Feasibility of Sex Identification of Human (Homo sapiens) Bones Based on Differences in Elemental Profiles Determined by Handheld X-ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Klinhom, Sarisa; Pitakarnnop, Tanita; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2016-09-01

    Sex assignment of human remains is a crucial step in forensic anthropological studies. The aim of this study was to examine elemental differences between male and female bones using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and determine if elemental profiling could be used for sex discrimination. Cranium, humerus, and os coxae of 60 skeletons (30 male, 30 female) from the Chiang Mai University Skeletal Collection were scanned by XRF and differences in elemental profiles between male and female bones determined using discriminant analysis. In the cranium, three elements (S, Ca, Pb) were significantly higher in males and five elements (Si, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ag) plus light elements (atomic number lower than 12) were higher in females. In humerus and os coxae, nine elements were significantly higher in male and one element was higher in female samples. The accuracy rate for sex estimation was 60, 63, and 61 % for cranium, humerus, and os coxae, respectively, and 67 % when data for all three bones were combined. We conclude that there are sex differences in bone elemental profiles; however, the accuracy of XRF analyses for discriminating between male and female samples was low compared to standard morphometric and molecular methods. XRF could be used on small samples that cannot be sexed by traditional morphological methods, but more work is needed to increase the power of this technique for gender assignment.

  13. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an engineered variant of human chimera-type galectin-3 with a shortened N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ibarra, Andrea; Ruiz, Federico M; Vértesy, Sabine; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Romero, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    How lectins translate sugar-encoded information into cellular effects not only depends on glycan recognition. Other domains of the protein can contribute to the functional profile of a lectin. Human galectin-3 (Gal-3), an adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin, is composed of three different domains and is thus called a chimera-type protein. In addition to the carbohydrate-recognition domain, this lectin encompasses an N-terminal domain consisting of a peptide harbouring two phosphorylation sites and nine non-triple-helical collagen-like repeats. This region plays an as yet structurally undefined role in Gal-3 aggregation and ligand recognition. To date, crystallization of full-length Gal-3 has not been achieved. With the aim of providing structural insights into this modular organization, a Gal-3 variant was crystallized maintaining the terminal peptide and three of the nine collagen-like repeats. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.04, b = 97.96, c = 236.20 Å, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å.

  14. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human Fe65-PTB2 in complex with the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain

    SciTech Connect

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which releases the aggregation-prone amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and liberates the intracellular domain (AICD) that interacts with various adaptor proteins. The crystallized AICD–Fe65-PTB2 complex is of central importance for APP translocation, nuclear signalling, processing and Aβ generation. Alzheimer’s disease is associated with typical brain deposits (senile plaques) that mainly contain the neurotoxic amyloid β peptide. This peptide results from proteolytic processing of the type I transmembrane protein amyloid precursor protein (APP). During this proteolytic pathway the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is released into the cytosol, where it associates with various adaptor proteins. The interaction of the AICD with the C-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain of Fe65 (Fe65-PTB2) regulates APP translocation, signalling and processing. Human AICD and Fe65-PTB2 have been cloned, overproduced and purified in large amounts in Escherichia coli. A complex of Fe65-PTB2 with the C-terminal 32 amino acids of the AICD gave well diffracting hexagonal crystals and data have been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Initial phases obtained by the molecular-replacement method are of good quality and revealed well defined electron density for the substrate peptide.

  15. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Fança-Berthon, Pascale; Roller, Marc; Zafrilla, Pilar; Issaly, Nicolas; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2015-12-11

    The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae) which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or) microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives.

  16. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an engineered variant of human chimera-type galectin-3 with a shortened N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Ibarra, Andrea; Ruiz, Federico M.; Vértesy, Sabine; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Romero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    How lectins translate sugar-encoded information into cellular effects not only depends on glycan recognition. Other domains of the protein can contribute to the functional profile of a lectin. Human galectin-3 (Gal-3), an adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin, is composed of three different domains and is thus called a chimera-type protein. In addition to the carbohydrate-recognition domain, this lectin encompasses an N-terminal domain consisting of a peptide harbouring two phosphorylation sites and nine non-triple-helical collagen-like repeats. This region plays an as yet structurally undefined role in Gal-3 aggregation and ligand recognition. To date, crystallization of full-length Gal-3 has not been achieved. With the aim of providing structural insights into this modular organization, a Gal-3 variant was crystallized maintaining the terminal peptide and three of the nine collagen-like repeats. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.04, b = 97.96, c = 236.20 Å, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å. PMID:25664793

  17. [Occurrence of MRSA in pigs and in humans involved in pig production--preliminary results of a study in the northwest of Germany].

    PubMed

    Meemken, D; Cuny, C; Witte, W; Eichler, U; Staudt, R; Blaha, T

    2008-04-01

    In 2007, 678 pigs of all age groups out of 347 different farms from Lower Saxony and Northrhine-Westphalia and 86 persons occupationally exposed to pigs were investigated for their nasal colonisation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus areus (MRSA) by the Field Station for Epidemiology of the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover and the Robert Koch-Institute. At the individual animal level, a frequency of positive results of 13% (n = 85 positive animals) and at the herd level, a frequency of positive results of 18% (n = 62 positive herds) were found. All isolates were assigned to the Multilocus Sequence Typing Type ST398. Within MRSA-positive herds, there were more MRSA-negative than MRSA-positive animals. Among the occupationally exposed persons (veterinarians, laboratory personnel and meat inspection personnel), 20 persons (23%) showed a nasal colonisation with MRSA ST398. A quite strong association between the intensity of the contact to pigs with the frequency of nasal colonisation in the occupationally exposed persons was detected. None of the animals or the humans nasally colonised by MRSA ST398 showed any clinical symptoms of a staphylococcal infection. Conclusions are drawn on the herd and intra-herd prevalence of the nasal colonisation of pigs with MRSA ST398 in pigs, but especially on which questions need to be addressed by further research.

  18. Engineering of human tracheal tissue with collagen-enforced poly-lactic-glycolic acid non-woven mesh: a preliminary study in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Xue; Mao, Tianqiu; Feng, Xinghua; Ouyang, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Guifang; Chen, Fulin

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the current study is to fabricate tissue engineered trachea with poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) non-woven mesh enforced by collagen type I. PLGA fibres coated with collagen solution were put together and fabricated into the shape of a human trachea, after drying and cross-linking treatment, a non-woven mesh with "C" shape formed. Chondrocytes from sheep nasal septum cartilage were expanded in vitro and seeded into PLGA/collagen non-woven mesh in the density of 5.0 x 10(7)mL(-1). After 5 days of in vitro incubation, six Cell-PLGA/collagen composites were implanted subcutaneously into the back of 6 nude mice to prefabricate a tissue engineering trachea. Eight weeks later, the cartilage formation was observed by gross inspection and histological examination. Cartilage-like tissue in the shape of the initial PLGA/collagen scaffold had been regenerated successfully without obvious inflammatory response. The tissue engineered trachea cartilage consisted of evenly spaced lacunae embedded in matrix stained red with safranin-O staining. The amount of GAGs in tissue engineered trachea cartilage reached 71.42% of normal value in native cartilage. This study demonstrated that collagen-enforced PLGA non-woven mesh facilitated the adhesion and proliferation of chondrocytes, it also owned adequate mechanical strength to serve as an ideal scaffold for trachea tissue engineering without internal support.

  19. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the N-­terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain of human galectin-4

    PubMed Central

    Zimbardi, Ana Lucia L. R.; Pinheiro, Matheus P.; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Nonato, M. Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat-type galectin that is expressed in the epithelium of the alimentary tract from the tongue to the large intestine. Additionally, strong expression of galectin-4 can also be induced in cancers in other tissues, including the breast and liver. In order to explore its potential as a target for anticancer drug design, elucidation of the structural basis of the carbohydrate-binding specificities of galectin-4 has been focused on. As an initial step, the N-­terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain of human galectin-4 (hGal4-CRD-­1) has been successfully crystallized using the vapour-diffusion technique, a complete data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the structure has been solved by the molecular-replacement technique. The crystals belonged to space group P6122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.25, c = 108.66 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one molecule of hGal4-CRD-1, with a V M value of 2.34 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 47.51%. PMID:20445255

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaE, the adhesive subunit of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Rasulova, Fatima; Esser, Lothar; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2006-02-01

    The adhesin CfaE of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic E. coli has been crystallized. CfaE crystals diffracted X-rays to better than 2.4 Å and phasing was solved by the SIRAS method. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) represents a formidable food and waterborne diarrheal disease threat of global importance. The first step in ETEC pathogenesis is bacterial attachment to small-intestine epithelial cells via adhesive fimbriae, many of which are genetically related to the prototype colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I). The minor fimbrial subunit CfaE is required for initiation of CFA/I fimbrial assembly and mediates bacterial attachment to host cell-surface receptors. A donor-strand complemented variant of CfaE (dscCfaE) was expressed with a hexahistidine tag, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 2.4 Å resolution for both native and derivatized crystals and showed the symmetry of space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 142.9, c = 231.9 Å. Initial phases were derived from the SIRAS approach and electron density showed two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the selenium of an SeMet-derivatized crystal and from S atoms of a native crystal.

  1. Development of a single vial kit formulation of [99mTc]-labeled doxorubicin for tumor imaging and treatment response assessment-preclinical evaluation and preliminary human results.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Singh, Baljinder; Ghai, Anchal; Hazari, Puja P; Mittal, B R; Mishra, Anil K

    2015-05-30

    The present study describes the successful radiolabeling of [99mTcO(-) 4 ] with doxorubicin, and the resultant product was formulated in to a ready-to-label lyophilized single vial kit preparation for convenient use in a routine clinical setting. The radiolabeled preparation of [99mTc]-doxorubicin exhibited a high radiolabeling efficiency of more than 95.0%, serum stability for up to 24 h, and shelf-life of lyophilized cold kits was more than 6 months. Animal imaging data in tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that [99mTc]-doxorubicin accumulated in the tumor site with high target (tumor) to non-target (contra-lateral thigh) ratio (3.2 ± 0.5). The ratio decreased to 1.2 ± 0.6 indicating a good response on follow up imaging performed after 2 weeks of doxorubicin treatment. [99mTc]-doxorubicin scintigraphic data in human volunteers supported the hepato-renal excretion of the radiotracer as reflected by the increased accumulation of the radiotracer as a function of time in intestine, kidneys, and urinary bladder. Further, imaging in patients (very limited number) indicated that the technique may be useful in the detection of active sarcoma and post treatment (surgery/chemotherapy) remission or absence of the disease. The technique, however, needs validation through further preclinical evaluation and imaging in a larger number of patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Preliminary joint neutron time-of-flight and X-ray crystallographic study of human ABO(H) blood group A glycosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Schuman, B.; Fisher, S. Z.; Kovalevsky, A.; Borisova, S. N.; Palcic, M. M.; Coates, L.; Langan, P.; Evans, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    The biosyntheses of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates are conducted by glycosyltransferases. These extraordinarily diverse and widespread enzymes catalyze the formation of glycosidic bonds through the transfer of a monosaccharide from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, with the stereochemistry about the anomeric carbon being either inverted or retained. Human ABO(H) blood group A α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) generates the corresponding antigen by the transfer of N-acetylgalactos­amine from UDP-GalNAc to the blood group H antigen. To understand better how specific active-site-residue protons and hydrogen-bonding patterns affect substrate recognition and catalysis, neutron diffraction studies were initiated at the Protein Crystallography Station (PCS) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). A large single crystal was subjected to H/D exchange prior to data collection and time-of-flight neutron diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution at the PCS to ∼85% overall completeness, with complementary X-ray diffraction data collected from a crystal from the same drop and extending to 1.85 Å resolution. Here, the first successful neutron data collection from a glycosyltransferase is reported. PMID:21301100

  3. Histological and Histomorphometric Human Results of HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 Compared to Three Different Biomaterials in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation at 6 Months: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Annibali, Susanna; Iezzi, Giovanna; Sfasciotti, Gian Luca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Vozza, Iole; Mangano, Carlo; La Monaca, Gerardo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the bone regenerative potential of newly biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (HA-β-TCP 30/70), by assessing histological and histomorphometric results of human specimens retrieved from sinuses augmented with HA-β-TCP 30/70, and comparing them to anorganic bovine bone (ABB), mineralized solvent-dehydrated bone allograft (MSDBA), and equine bone (EB), after a healing period of 6 months. Four consecutive patients with edentulous atrophic posterior maxilla were included in this report. A two-stage procedure was carried out for sinus augmentation with HA-β-TCP 30/70, ABB, MSDBA, and EB. After 6 months, specimens were retrieved at the time of implant placement and processed for histological and histomorphometric analyses. At histological examination, all biomaterials were in close contact with the newly formed bone and showed the same pattern of bone formation; the grafted granules were surrounded by a bridge-like network of newly formed bone. A limited number of ABB particles were partially covered by connective tissue. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 30.2% newly formed bone for Ha-β-TCP 30/70, 20.1% for ABB, 16.4% for MSDBA, and 21.9% for EB. Within the limitations of the present investigation, these results support the successful use of HA-β-TCP 30/70 for sinus augmentation.

  4. Histological and Histomorphometric Human Results of HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 Compared to Three Different Biomaterials in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation at 6 Months: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Annibali, Susanna; Iezzi, Giovanna; Sfasciotti, Gian Luca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Vozza, Iole; Mangano, Carlo; La Monaca, Gerardo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this investigation was to examine the bone regenerative potential of newly biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (HA-β-TCP 30/70), by assessing histological and histomorphometric results of human specimens retrieved from sinuses augmented with HA-β-TCP 30/70, and comparing them to anorganic bovine bone (ABB), mineralized solvent-dehydrated bone allograft (MSDBA), and equine bone (EB), after a healing period of 6 months. Materials and Methods. Four consecutive patients with edentulous atrophic posterior maxilla were included in this report. A two-stage procedure was carried out for sinus augmentation with HA-β-TCP 30/70, ABB, MSDBA, and EB. After 6 months, specimens were retrieved at the time of implant placement and processed for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Results. At histological examination, all biomaterials were in close contact with the newly formed bone and showed the same pattern of bone formation; the grafted granules were surrounded by a bridge-like network of newly formed bone. A limited number of ABB particles were partially covered by connective tissue. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 30.2% newly formed bone for Ha-β-TCP 30/70, 20.1% for ABB, 16.4% for MSDBA, and 21.9% for EB. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the present investigation, these results support the successful use of HA-β-TCP 30/70 for sinus augmentation. PMID:26273589

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM-3) of human ELAV-type RNA-binding protein 3 (ETR-3)

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Maruthi; Sharma, Ashwani; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonically lethal abnormal vision (ELAV)-type RNA-binding protein 3 (ETR-3) has been implicated in many aspects of RNA-processing events including alternative splicing, stability, editing and translation. RNA recognition motif 3 (RRM-3) is an independent C-terminal RNA-binding domain of ETR-3 that preferentially binds to UG-rich repeats of the nuclear or cytoplasmic pre-mRNA, and along with the other domains mediates the inclusion of cardiac troponin T (c-TNT) exon 5 in embryonic muscle, which is otherwise excluded in the adult. In the present study, RRM-3 was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 3 Å resolution at the home source and belonged to space group P213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 118.5 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. There were two molecules of RRM-3 in the asymmetric unit and the calculated Matthews coefficient (V M) was 6.35 Å3 Da−1, with a solvent content of 80.62%. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement. PMID:24100559

  6. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the central zinc-binding domain of the human Mcm10 DNA-replication factor.

    PubMed

    Jung, Nam Young; Bae, Won Jin; Chang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Young Chang; Cho, Yunje

    2008-06-01

    The initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires the tightly controlled assembly of a set of replication factors. Mcm10 is a highly conserved nuclear protein that plays a key role in the initiation and elongation processes of DNA replication by providing a physical link between the Mcm2-7 complex and DNA polymerases. The central domain, which contains the CCCH zinc-binding motif, is most conserved within Mcm10 and binds to DNA and several proteins, including proliferative cell nuclear antigen. In this study, the central domain of human Mcm10 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of PEG 3350. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.6 A on a synchrotron beamline. The crystals formed belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 99.5, c = 133.0 A. According to Matthews coefficient calculations, the crystals were predicted to contain six MCM10 central domain molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  7. Can oxidative DNA damage be used as a biomarker of cancer risk in humans? Problems, resolutions and preliminary results from nutritional supplementation studies.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, B

    1998-12-01

    Damage to DNA by oxygen radicals and other reactive oxygen/nitrogen/chlorine species occurs in vivo despite the presence of multiple antioxidant defence and repair systems. Such damage is thought to make a significant contribution to the age-related development of cancer. Modulation of oxidative DNA damage by diet thus constitutes a "biomarker" putatively predictive of the effect of diet on cancer incidence, provided that DNA damage can be accurately quantitated by validated methods. Current issues addressed in this article include the problems of artifactual DNA oxidation during isolation and analysis, the relative merits of different analytical methods, the advantages and disadvantages of relying on measurement of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG, 8-oxodG) as an index of oxidative DNA damage, and the limited data that are so far available on how diet can affect "steady-state" levels of oxidative DNA damage in humans. It appears that such damage can be modulated by vegetable intake, although the effects of vegetables may be mediated by components different from the "classical" antioxidants vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene.

  8. Temporal trends in the levels of metals, PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator. Preliminary assessment of human health risks.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2015-09-01

    The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and metals were determined in soil and air samples collected near a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) located in Mataró (Catalonia, Spain), being the health risks for the population living in the vicinity of the facility subsequently assessed. We also established the temporal trends with respect to previous surveys performed in the same zone. In general terms, the highest environmental levels of the pollutants were found in the city of Mataró and were independent on the distance to the MSWI. Soil levels of metals did not show temporal variations between the current and previous campaigns. However, the concentrations of metals in air samples collected in 2011 and 2013, were lower than those found in our 2008 survey. Regarding PCDD/Fs and PCBs, no differences were noted between the levels of the current survey and those corresponding to 2008. Anyhow, the concentrations of metals, PCDD/Fs, and PCBs in soils and air did not exceed the reference values established by regulatory organizations, being also in the low range of other similar studies recently reported. Finally, the human non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks due to exposure to metals, PCDD/Fs, and PCBs, were, for the population living in the neighborhood of the MSWI, considered as acceptable according to international standards.

  9. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    PubMed

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The work compatibility improvement framework: preliminary findings of a case study for defining and measuring the human-at-work system.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A; Karwowski, W; A-Rehim, A

    2007-11-01

    Although researchers traditionally examined the 'risk' characteristics of work settings in health studies, few work models, such as the 'demand-control' and 'motivation-hygiene theory', advocated the study of the positive and the negative aspects of work for the ultimate improvement of work performance. The objectives of the current study were: (a) to examine the positive and negative characteristics of work in the machining department in a small manufacturing plant in the Midwest USA, and, (b) to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal and stress outcomes. A focus group consisting of worker experts from the different job categories in the machining department confirmed the management's concerns. Accordingly, 56 male and female workers, employed in three shifts, were surveyed on the demand/energizer profiles of work characteristics and self-reported musculoskeletal/stress symptoms. On average, one-fourth to one-third of the workers reported 'high' demand, and over 50% of the workers documented 'low' energizers for certain work domains/sub-domains, such as 'physical task content'/'organizational' work domains and 'upper body postural loading'/'time organization' work sub-domains. The prevalence of workers who reported 'high' musculoskeletal/stress disorder cases, was in the range of 25-35% and was consistent with the results of 'high' demands and 'low' energizers. The results of this case study confirm the importance of adopting a comprehensive view for work improvement and sustainable growth opportunities. It is paramount to consider the negative and positive aspects of work characteristics to ensure optimum organizational performance. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework, proposed in the reported research, is an important endeavor toward the ultimate improvement and sustainable growth of human and organizational performance.

  11. A new method for treating fecal incontinence by implanting stem cells derived from human adipose tissue: preliminary findings of a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sarveazad, Arash; Newstead, Graham L; Mirzaei, Rezvan; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Babahajian, Asrin; Mahjoubi, Bahar

    2017-02-21

    Anal sphincter defects are a major cause of fecal incontinence causing negative effects on daily life, social interactions, and mental health. Because human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hADSCs) are easier and safer to access, secrete high levels of growth factor, and have the potential to differentiate into muscle cells, we investigated the ability of hADSCs to improve anal sphincter incontinence. The present randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed on patients with sphincter defects. They were categorized into a cell group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9). Either 6 × 10(6) hADSCs per 3 ml suspended in phosphate buffer saline (treatment) or 3 ml phosphate buffer saline (placebo) was injected. Two months after surgery, the Wexner score, endorectal sonography, and electromyography (EMG) results were recorded. Comparing Wexner scores in the cell group and the control group showed no significant difference. In our EMG and endorectal sonography analysis using ImageJ/Fiji 1.46 software, the ratio of the area occupied by the muscle to total area of the lesion showed a 7.91% increase in the cell group compared with the control group. The results of the current study show that injection of hADSCs during repair surgery for fecal incontinence may cause replacement of fibrous tissue, which acts as a mechanical support to muscle tissue with contractile function. This is a key point in treatment of fecal incontinence especially in the long term and may be a major step forward. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2016022826316N2 . Retrospectively registered 7 May 2016.

  12. Modulation of Tryptophan/Serotonin Pathway by Probiotic Supplementation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Positive Patients: Preliminary Results of a New Study Approach

    PubMed Central

    Scheri, Giuseppe Corano; Fard, Saeid Najafi; Schietroma, Ivan; Mastrangelo, Andrea; Pinacchio, Claudia; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; De Girolamo, Gabriella; Cavallari, Eugenio Nelson; Statzu, Maura; Laghi, Luca; Vullo, Annamaria; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Vullo, Vincenzo; d’Ettorre, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To date, no data are available regarding the effects of probiotics on the pathway of tryptophan/serotonin metabolism among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1–infected individuals. Because a condition of dysbiosis might be responsible for the altered use of tryptophan described in this population, the aim of this study was to investigate the link between probiotic supplementation and serotonin levels in combined antiretroviral therapy–treated patients and the subsistence of an interplay with inflammation. METHODS We conducted a pilot study that included 8 HIV-positive subjects. We collected blood and fecal samples before and after 6 months of probiotic supplementation, to measure the level of serotonin in serum and tryptophan in stool, the expression of CD38 and HLA-DR on peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes (as immune activation markers), the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and IFN-γ mRNA (as markers of tryptophan metabolism and systemic inflammation). RESULTS After probiotic supplementation, we observed a significant increase in concentration of serum serotonin (P = .008) and a decreased level of tryptophan in plasma. Moreover, a significant reduction in CD38 and HLA-DR expression on the surface of peripheral CD4+ T cells (P = .008) and a reduced expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 mRNA on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P = .04) were observed. CONCLUSIONS Considering that this probiotic (Vivomixx® in EU; Visbiome® in USA) has an influence on tryptophan metabolism, larger studies on this topic are needed. PMID:28607543

  13. Effects of UVA1 Phototherapy on Expression of Human Endogenous Retroviral Sequence (HERV)-K10 gag in Morphea: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Michał Jacek; Teresiak-Mikołajczak, Ewa; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Background Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma, is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by skin fibrosis. UVA1 phototherapy is an important asset in the reduction of clinical manifestations in morphea. There are studies claiming that UV light modulates the expression of some human endogenous retroviral sequences. The aim of this study was to determine if the expression of HERV-K10 gag element is lowered by UVA1 phototherapy in morphea, a disease in which such irradiation has a soothing effect. Material/Methods The expression levels of the HERV-K10 gag were assessed by real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and skin-punch biopsies of healthy volunteers and 9 morphea patients before and after phototherapy. Additionally, correlations between the HERV-K10 gag expression and age, disease duration, the Localized Scleroderma Skin Severity Index (LoSSI), and antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers were assessed. Results In PBMC, HERV-K10 gag mRNA was significantly elevated after UVA1 phototherapy compared to healthy controls. Most of the patients responded with an increased expression level of this sequence. However, we found no statistical evidence at this point that phototherapy indeed has an effect on the HERV-K10 gag expression (there were no statistical differences in PBMC of morphea patients before and after phototherapy). Similarly, there was no statistically relevant effect of the UVA1 on the expression of HERV-K10 gag in skin. Conclusions At this point, the effect of UVA1 phototherapy on the expression of HERV-K10 gag cannot be statistically confirmed. PMID:28130554

  14. Preliminary results of space experiment: Implications for the effects of space radiation and microgravity on survival and mutation induction in human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, F.; Honma, M.; Ukai, A.; Omori, K.; Suzuki, H.; Shimazu, T.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.; Dohmae, N.; Ishioka, N.

    2012-02-01

    In view of the concern for the health of astronauts that may one day journey to Mars or the Moon, we investigated the effect that space radiation and microgravity might have on DNA damage and repair. We sent frozen human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to the International Space Station where they were maintained under frozen conditions during a 134-day mission (14 November 2008 to 28 March 2009) except for an incubation period of 8 days under 1G or μG conditions in a CO2 incubator. The incubation period started after 100 days during which the cells had been exposed to 54 mSv of space radiation. The incubated cells were then refrozen, returned to Earth, and compared to ground control samples for the determination of the influence of microgravity on cell survival and mutation induction. The results for both varied from experiment to experiment, yielding a large SD, but the μG sample results differed significantly from the 1G sample results for each of 2 experiments, with the mean ratio of μG to 1G being 0.55 for the concentration of viable cells and 0.59 for the fraction of thymidine kinase deficient (TK-) mutants. Among the mutants, non-loss of zygosity events (point mutations) were less frequent (31%) after μG incubation than after 1G incubation, which might be explained by the influence of μG on cellular metabolic or physiological function. Additional experiments are needed to clarify the effect of μG interferes on DNA repair.

  15. Phenotypic alterations in human saphenous vein culture induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipoproteins: a preliminary development of an initial atherosclerotic plaque model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of blood vessels particularly the arteries. The development of atherosclerotic plaques or atherogenesis is a complex process that is influenced by cardiovascular risk factors such as vascular inflammation and dyslipidemia. This study demonstrates the ability of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) to induce atherosclerotic plaque in human saphenous vein (HSV) organ culture. Methods Normal HSV segments, from male patients who had coronary bypass graft, were cultured in DMEM containing 5% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum. TNF-α (5 ng/ml) was applied in combination with native LDL (nLDL) or oxidized LDL (oxLDL) at the dose of 50 μg/ml for 14 days. The phenotypic changes of the organ cultures characteristic of initial atherosclerotic plaques were evaluated. The effect of anti-atherogenic agent, 17-β estradiol (E2), was also determined. Results Histologic, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that HSV rings stimulated with TNF-α + nLDL or TNF-α + oxLDL can exhibit the essential morphological features of atherogenesis, including fibrous cap formation, cholesterol clefts, evident thickening of the intimal layer, increased proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and migration to the subendothelial layer, significant SMC foam cell formation, and increased expression of adhesion molecules in the vascular wall. Addition of E2 (50 nM) to the culture significantly modulated the critical changes. Consistently, mRNA profiling of the HSV model revealed that 50 of 84 genes of atherosclerosis were up-regulated. Conclusions Phenotypic changes characteristic of the initial development of atherosclerotic plaques can be induced in HSV organ culture. PMID:24010774

  16. Sleep and arousal patterns of co-sleeping human mother/infant pairs: a preliminary physiological study with implications for the study of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    PubMed

    McKenna, J J; Mosko, S; Dungy, C; McAninch, J

    1990-11-01

    The prevailing research design for studying infant sleep erroneously assumes the species-wide normalcy of solitary nocturnal sleep rather than a social sleeping environment. In fact, current clinical perspectives on infant sleep, which are based exclusively on studies of solitary sleeping infants, may partly reflect culturally induced rather than species-typical infant sleep patterns which can only be gleaned, we contend here, from infants sleeping with their parents--the context within which, and for well over 4 million years, the hominid infant's sleep, breathing, and arousal patterns evolved. Our physiological study of five co-sleeping mother-infant pairs in a sleep lab is the first study of its kind to document the unfolding sleep patterns of mothers and infants sleeping in physical contact. Our data show that co-sleeping mothers and infants exhibit synchronous arousals, which, because of the suspected relationship between arousal and breathing stability in infants, have important implications for how we study environmental factors possibly related to some forms of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). While our data show that co-sleeping mothers and infants also experience many moments of physiological independence from each other, it is clear that the temporal unfolding of particular sleep stages and awake periods of the mother and infant become entwined and that on a minute-to-minute basis, throughout the night, much sensory communication is occurring between them. Our research acknowledges the human infant's evolutionary past and considers the implications that nocturnal separation (a historically novel and alien experience for them) has for maternal and infant well-being in general and SIDS research strategies in particular.

  17. Preliminary efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and quality of life study of pegylated recombinant human arginase 1 in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yau, Thomas; Cheng, Paul N; Chan, Pierre; Chen, Li; Yuen, Jimmy; Pang, Roberta; Fan, Sheung Tat; Wheatley, Denys N; Poon, Ronnie T

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety profile, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and quality of life of pegylated recombinant human arginase 1 (Peg-rhAgr1) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients were given weekly doses of Peg-rhAgr1 (1600 U/kg). Tumour response was assessed every 8 weeks using RECIST 1.1 and modified RECIST criteria. A total of 20 patients were recruited, of whom 15 were deemed evaluable for treatment efficacy. Eighteen patients (90%) were hepatitis B carriers. Median age was 61.5 (range 30-75). Overall disease control rate was 13%, with 2 of the 15 patients achieving stable disease for >8 weeks. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.67-1.73) months, with median overall survival (OS) of all 20 enrolled patients being 5.2 (95% CI: 3.3-12.0) months. PFS was significantly prolonged in patients with adequate arginine depletion (ADD) >2 months versus those who had ≤2 months of ADD (6.4 versus 1.7 months; p = 0.01). The majority of adverse events (AEs) were grade 1/2 non-hematological toxicities. Transient liver dysfunctions (25%) were the most commonly reported serious AEs and likely due to disease progression. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data showed that Peg-rhAgr1 induced rapid and sustained arginine depletion. The overall quality of life of the enrolled patients was well preserved. Peg-rhAgr1 is well tolerated with a good toxicity profile in patients with advanced HCC. A weekly dose of 1600 U/kg is sufficient to induce ADD. Significantly longer PFS times were recorded for patients who had ADD for >2 months.

  18. [A preliminary study on the effects of feto-maternal microchimerism in activated human leukocyte antigen haploidentical mobilized peripheral blood stem cells on treatment of solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shui; Yu, Jin-pu; Li, Hui; An, Xiu-mei; Xin, Ning; Ren, Xiu-bao

    2009-10-01

    To study the effect of feto-maternal microchimerism in the treatment of activated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haploidentical mobilized peripheral blood cells against solid tumors. Genomic DNA samples of 25 pairs of HLA haploidentical donors and recipients were extracted. The donor-derived HLA-DRB loci were detected with nested PCR-sequence specific primer (SSP) typing. The mixed lymphocyte proliferation action between the patients and respective donors, the engraftment of donor's cells and the serum levels of Th1/Th2 type of cytokines were measured with MTT, FISH and ELISA method respectively. The survival time of patients with or without feto-maternal microchimerism were compared as well. Using nested PCR-SSP typing, the positive rates of feto-maternal microchimerism in the 25 pairs of HLA haploidentical donors and recipients were 40% in the maternal/children pairs and 0 in the paternal/children pairs. The chimerism positive patients showed less proliferation activity when cocultured with respective donors as compared with unrelated ones (P = 0.03). Only one chimerism positive patient experienced the engraft of donor's cell 3 months after treatment as the donor derived XX chromosome was identified with FISH. When the data of chimerism positive patients were deleted, the serum levels of IFNgamma 1 month after treatment dropped dramatically from 171.4 (26.3 approximately 258.4) ng/L to 29.4 (1.2 approximately 39.9) ng/L. The survival time in chimerism positive patients of the maternal/children pairs was significantly longer than that in chimerism negative patients, which was (31.2 +/- 4.3) months and (11.1 +/- 3.3) months, respectively (P = 0.036). Feto-maternal microchimerism might induce anergy in the HLA haploidentical donors, favor the engraftment of donor's progenitors and maintenance of positive microenvironment and prolong the survival time.

  19. A preliminary technical study on sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced changes of the nano-structural and macro-mechanical properties in human iliotibial tract specimens.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Niels; Huster, Daniel; Boldt, Andreas; Hädrich, Carsten; Koch, Holger; Möbius, Robert; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Scheidt, Holger A

    2016-08-01

    Acellular scaffolds are frequently used for the surgical repair of ligaments and tendons. Even though data on the macro-mechanical properties related to the acellularization process exist, corresponding data on the nano-structural properties are still lacking. Such data would help identify target proteins of the formed extracellular matrix that are chemically altered by the acellularization. In this study we examined the altered structure by comparing molecular properties of collagens from native and acellular iliotibial tract samples to the macroscopic stress-strain behavior of tract samples. Matched pairs of five human iliotibial tract samples were obtained from five donors (mean age 28.2±4.7 years). One of each pair was acellularized using 1vol% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for 7 days. (13)C magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C CP MAS NMR) was utilized to compare the collagen overall secondary structure and internal dynamics of collagen-typical amino acid proteins. The resulting data was compared to age-matched stress-strain data of tract samples obtained in an uniaxial tensile setup and histologically. Typical and nearly identical collagen (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra were found in the tract samples before and after acellularization with SDS. The characteristic collagen backbone remained intact in the native and acellular samples. Collagen molecular composition was largely unaltered in both conditions. Furthermore, a similar dynamic behavior was found for the amino acids Hyp γ, Pro α/Hyp α, Ala α, Gly α and Ala β. These minute alterations in the collagens' molecular properties related to acellularization with SDS were in line with the similarly minute changes in the macro-mechanical tensile behavior, such as the elastic modulus and ultimate stress. Histology showed intact type I collagens, minute amounts of elastins before and after acellularization and evidence for acellularization-induced reductions of proteoglycans. Nano

  20. Human Dosimetry and Preliminary Tumor Distribution of (superscript)18F-Fluoropaclitaxel in Healthy Volunteers and Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients Using PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdziel, K.A.; Logan, J.; Kurdziel, K.A.; Kalen, J.D.; Hirsch, J.I.; Wilson, J.D.; Bear, H.D.; Logan, J.; McCumisky, J.; Moorman-Sykes, K.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.L.

    2011-08-17

    demonstrates the feasibility of using {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel PET/CT tumor imaging and provides radiation dosimetry measurements in humans. Although further study is needed, it is hoped that the measured intratumoral {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel distribution can serve as a surrogate for paclitaxel, and potentially other chemotherapeutic agent retention, in solid tumors.

  1. Preliminary screening of differentially expressed genes involved in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene-mediated proliferation in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Gang; Li, Yi; Lv, YangFan; Dai, Huanzi; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Qiao-Nan

    2015-04-01

    Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is essential in human brain development and has been linked to several cancer types and neuro-developmental disorders. This study aims to screen the MeCP2 related differentially expressed genes and discover the therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma. CCK8 assay was used to detect the proliferation and SaOS2 and U2OS cells. Apoptosis of cells was detected by flow cytometry analysis that monitored Annexin V-APC/7-DD binding and 7-ADD uptake simultaneously. Denaturing formaldehyde agarose gel electrophoresis was employed to examine the quality of total RNA 18S and 28S units. Gene chip technique was utilized to discover the differentially expressed genes correlated with MeCP2 gene. Differential gene screening criteria were used to screen the changed genes. The gene up-regulation or down-regulation more than 1.5 times was regarded as significant differential expression genes. The CCK8 results indicated that the cell proliferation of MeCP2 silencing cells (LV-MeCP2-RNAi) was significantly decreased compared to non-silenced cells (LV-MeCP2-RNAi-CN) (P < 0.05). MeCP2 silencing could also induce significant apoptosis compared to non-silenced cells (P < 0.05); 107 expression changed genes were screened from a total of 49,395 transcripts. Among the total 107 transcripts, 34 transcripts were up-regulated and 73 transcripts were down-regulated. There were five significant differentially expressed genes, including IGFBP4, HOXC8, LMO4, MDK, and CTGF, which correlated with the MeCP2 gene. The methylation frequency of CpG in IGFBP4 gene could achieve 55%. In conclusion, the differentially expressed IGFBP4, HOXC8, LMO4, MDK, and CTGF genes may be involved in MeCP2 gene-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells.

  2. Minimally invasive trans-mediastinal endoscopic approach to insert phrenic stimulation electrodes in the human diaphragm: a preliminary description in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Assouad, Jalal; Masmoudi, Hicham; Steltzlen, Camille; Grunenwald, Dominique; Delmas, Vincent; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Diaphragm pacing by phrenic nerve (PN) stimulation is currently used for patients with central respiratory paralysis to be weaned from mechanical ventilation. Electrodes are inserted either through bilateral thoracotomy or through four ports laparoscopy. The aim of this experimental work is to demonstrate the feasibility of trans-mediastinal bilateral implantation of PN electrodes using a flexible gastroscope introduced through a cervical incision in human cadavers. Ten refrigerated and non-embalmed cadavers were used. The gastroscope was introduced through a cervical incision into the latero-tracheal space and then subsequently into both pleura by opening the mediastinal pleura. After identification of the PN, electrodes were introduced through an intercostal space to the desired diaphragmatic location using a long, pliable needle with the electrode loaded in its lumen. Results are described for each hemi-diaphragm not for an anatomic subject. Mediastinal exploration and introduction of the video gastroscope into the pleural cavities proved easy in all subjects. Pleural adherences were present in five hemi-diaphragms. The central tendon of both hemi-diaphragms could be identified unambiguously in all the subjects. Identification of the entry point of the phrenic nerve into the diaphragm was straightforward in 10 hemi-diaphragms. In the remaining 10, this proved more difficult because of mediastinal fat or lung parenchyma. Introduction of the electrode-holding needles through the intercostal space and their insertion close to the phrenic nerve entry point was also easy. Withdrawal of the needle from the diaphragm and 'capture' of the hook were successful on the first attempt in 14 hemi-diaphragms, but failed in six others in whom a second attempt was necessary. Trans-mediastinal implantation of PN stimulation electrodes is possible using a flexible endoscope. This application of endoscopic surgery could allow a minimally invasive placement of PN electrodes in

  3. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Divan, P.; Dunn, K.; Kojima, J.

    1981-01-01

    Computerization of aerodynamic theory has progressed to state where analysis of complete aircraft configurations can be performed in single program. Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System, APAS, is comprehensive aerodynamic analysis system, based on linearized potential theory. Three-dimensional configurations (with or without jet flaps) having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed with APAS. As preliminary design aid, APAS allows designer to survey systematically large number of alternative configurations and component geometries economically.

  4. Segmental and regional quantification of 3D cellular density of human meniscus from osteoarthritic knee.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Ibrahim Fatih; Pereira, Hélder; Pêgo, José Miguel; Sousa, Nuno; Espregueira-Mendes, João; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Reis, Rui Luís

    2017-06-01

    The knee menisci have important roles in the knee joint. Complete healing of the meniscus remains a challenge in the clinics. Cellularity is one of the most important biological parameters that must be taken into account in regenerative strategies. However, knowledge on the 3D cellularity of the human meniscus is lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was to quantify the 3D cellular density of human meniscus from the osteoarthritic knee in a segmental and regional manner with respect to laterality. Human lateral menisci were histologically processed and stained with Giemsa for histomorphometric analysis. The cells were counted in an in-depth fashion. 3D cellular density in the vascular region (27 199 cells/mm(3) ) was significantly higher than in the avascular region (12 820 cells/mm(3) ). The cells were observed to possess two distinct morphologies, roundish or flattened. The 3D density of cells with fibrochondrocyte morphology (14 705 cells/mm(3) ) was significantly greater than the 3D density of the cells with fibroblast-like cell morphology (5539 cells/mm(3) ). The best-fit equation for prediction of the 3D density of cells with fibrochondrocyte morphology was found to be: Density of cells with fibrochondrocyte morphology = 1.22 × density of cells withfibroblast-like cell morphology + 7750. The present study revealed the segmental and regional 3D cellular density of human lateral meniscus from osteoarthritic knee with respect to laterality. This crucial but so far missing information will empower cellular strategies aiming at meniscus tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Preliminary Cruise Report - Iguana Expedition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A preliminary cruise report of Expedition Iguana , 31 March 1972-11 May 1972, gives some preliminary results, list of equipment and, personnel, stations and data gathered, and track and topographic plots. (Author)

  6. Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-06

    ... Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets   The data files available through this web page and ftp links are preliminary ... geometric corrections. Caution should be used for science analysis. At a later date, more qualified versions will be made public.   ...

  7. Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-29

    ISS029-E-011867 (29 Sept. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 29 commander, works with the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) control box in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station in preparation for another session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE) hardware.

  8. Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of preliminary examination of the Genesis sample collectors is to provide information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. Similarly, the information will be used by the Genesis Sample Allocation sub-committee of CAPTEM to determine the optimum allocation scheme, and by the Genesis Curator to determine the processing sequence for allocation production. The plan includes a decision process and detailed examination and documentation protocol for whole arrays and individual collectors (wafers, concentrator targets, bulk metallic glass, gold foil, and polished aluminum). It also includes a plan for communicating the information obtained to the scientific community. The plan does not include a detailed plan for preliminary examination of the SRC lid foil collectors, the process for removal of individual collectors from their frames, or for the subsequent subdivision of collector materials for allocation.

  9. On Preliminary Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  10. Existence and Stability of Menisci in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2011-01-01

    Detached growth, also referred to as dewetted growth, is a Bridgman crystal growth process in which the melt is in contact with the crucible wall but the crystal is not. A meniscus bridges the gap between the top of the crystal and the crucible wall. The Young-Laplace capillary equation was used to calculate the crystal radii of detached states as a function of the pressure differential across the meniscus. The detached states depend on the contact angle of the melt with the crucible wall, the growth angle of the melt with respect to the solidifying crystal, and the Bond number. A static stability analysis was performed on the calculated detached states. The stability criterion was the sign of the second variation of the potential energy upon admissible meniscus shape perturbations. The conditions considered corresponded to the growth of Ge and InSb, in both terrestrial and microgravity conditions. Stability was found to depend significantly on whether the interior surface was considered to be microscopically rough or smooth, corresponding to pinned or unpinned states. It was also found that all meniscus shapes which are single-valued functions of the radius are statically stable in a microgravity environment.

  11. Experiments and Modeling of Evaporating/Condensing Menisci

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Discuss the Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) experiment and how it aims to achieve a better understanding of the physics of evaporation and condensation and how they affect cooling processes in microgravity using a remotely controlled microscope and a small cooling device.

  12. Preliminary results of DISTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedfer, Y.

    1998-05-01

    DISTO is a spectrometer experiment installed at Saturne in Saclay to study strangeness production in p¯p reactions. It has entered its production phase in the second semester of 1996 and is to complete it by the time Saturne closes at the end of 1997. Preliminary results bearing on the two main items of its physics program. viz. polarization in associated hyperon production and OZ1 rule assessment in vector meson production, and obtained at 2.85 GeV are presented.

  13. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  14. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  15. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This six large gunite storage tanks considered as a group is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long-range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives, (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. This report presents the results of the preliminary decommission study for the six gunite storage tanks.

  16. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum.

  17. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  18. Hyperelastic properties of human meniscal attachments.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Adam C; Moyer, John T; Villegas, Diego F; Odegard, Gregory M; Haut Donahue, Tammy L

    2011-02-03

    Meniscal attachments are ligamentous tissues anchoring the menisci to the underlying subchondral bone. Currently little is known about the behavior of meniscal attachments, with only a few studies quantitatively documenting their properties. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the tensile mechanical properties of human meniscal attachments in the transverse direction, curve fit experimental Cauchy stress-stretch data to evaluate the hyperelastic behavior, and couple these results with previously obtained longitudinal data to generate a more complete constitutive model. Meniscal attachment specimens were tested using a uniaxial tension test with the collagen fibers oriented perpendicular to the loading axis. Tests were run until failure and load-optical displacement data was recorded for each test. The medial posterior attachment was shown to have a significantly greater elastic modulus (6.42±0.78 MPa) and ultimate stress (1.73±0.32 MPa) when compared to the other three attachments. The Mooney-Rivlin material model was selected as the best fit for the transverse data and used in conjunction with the longitudinal data. A novel computational approach to determining the transition point between the toe and linear regions is presented for the hyperelastic stress-stretch curves. Results from piece-wise non-linear longitudinal curve fitting correlate well with previous linear elastic and SEM findings. These data can be used to advance the design of meniscal replacements and improve knee joint finite element models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HYPERELASTIC PROPERTIES OF HUMAN MENISCAL ATTACHMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Adam C.; Moyer, John T.; Villegas, Diego F.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Donahue, Tammy L. Haut

    2010-01-01

    Meniscal attachments are ligamentous tissues anchoring the menisci to the underlying subchondral bone. Currently little is known about the behavior of meniscal attachments, with only a few studies quantitatively documenting their properties. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the tensile mechanical properties of human meniscal attachments in the transverse direction, curve fit experimental Cauchy stress-stretch data to evaluate the hyperelastic behavior, and couple those results with previously obtained longitudinal data to generate a more complete constitutive model. Meniscal attachment specimens were tested using a uniaxial tension test with the collagen fibers oriented perpendicular to the loading axis. Tests were run until failure and load-optical displacement data was recorded for each test. The medial posterior attachment was shown to have a significantly greater elastic modulus (5.38±0.77 MPa) and ultimate stress (1.73±0.32 MPa) when compared to the other three attachments. The Mooney-Rivlin material model was selected as the best fit for the transverse data and used in conjunction with the longitudinal data. A novel computational approach to determining the transition point between the toe and linear regions is presented for the hyperelastic stress stretch curves. Results from piece-wise non-linear longitudinal curve fitting correlate well with previous linear elastic and SEM findings. These data can be used to advance the design of meniscal replacements and improve knee joint finite element models. PMID:20980006

  20. Matrix formation is enhanced in co-cultures of human meniscus cells with bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Norah-Faye; Mulet-Sierra, Aillette; Jomha, Nadr M; Adesida, Adetola B

    2013-12-01

    The ultimate aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to supplement meniscus cells for meniscus tissue engineering and regeneration. Human menisci were harvested from three patients undergoing total knee replacements. Meniscus cells were released from the menisci after collagenase treatment. BMSCs were harvested from the iliac crest of three patients and were expanded in culture until passage 2. Primary meniscus cells and BMSCs were co-cultured in vitro in three-dimensional (3D) pellet culture at three different cell-cell ratios for 3 weeks under normal (21% O2 ) or low (3% O2 ) oxygen tension in the presence of serum-free chondrogenic medium. Pure BMSCs and pure meniscus cell pellets served as control groups. The tissue generated was assessed biochemically, histochemically and by quantitative RT-PCR. Co-cultures of primary meniscus cells and BMSCs resulted in tissue with increased (1.3-1.7-fold) deposition of proteoglycan (GAG) extracellular matrix (ECM) relative to tissues derived from BMSCs or meniscus cells alone under 21% O2 . GAG matrix formation was also enhanced (1.3-1.6-fold) under 3% O2 culture conditions. Alcian blue staining of generated tissue confirmed increased deposition of GAG-rich matrix. mRNA expression of type I collagen (COL1A2), type II collagen (COL2A1) and aggrecan were upregulated in co-cultured pellets. However, SOX9 and HIF-1α mRNA expression were not significantly modulated by co-culture. Co-culture of primary meniscus cells with BMSCs resulted in increased ECM formation. Co-delivery of meniscus cells and BMSCs can, in principle, be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies to repair meniscus defects.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  2. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-one low-level liquid radioactive waste collection and storage tanks are part of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. D D of eight of the nine groups of surplus tanks are considered in this report.

  3. Preliminary reference Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  4. Lockheed Martin T-Rex: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    T-Rex is a robot which may be used in toxic or flammable environments. The assessment of the T-Rex conducted at the Lockheed Martin facility was limited in its scope. The scope of the assessment was directed by the type of equipment being used and the amount of accessibility to the equipment. Due to severe time constraints--the assessment was conducted in one day--human factors interface activities were limited. This should be considered a preliminary assessment. This report covers aspects of the technology that were available to the assessment team. Recommendations for future evaluation of this technology are also included. The contents are as follows: Electrical Considerations; General Electrical Consideration; Trailing Cables; Grounding; Surface High Voltage Distribution; Low and Medium Voltage Alternating Current Circuits; Potential for Harmful Human Factor Incidents and Enterprise Disablement; Exclusion Zone Emergency Maintenance; and Recommendations.

  5. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Mendez, B.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Postberg, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Schmitz, S.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Srama, R.; Stadermann, F. J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Susini, J.; Sutton, S.; Trieloff, M.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE.

  6. Comparative Soot Diagnostics: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Gard, Melissa Y.

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for the Comparative Soot Diagnostics (CSD) experiment lies in the broad practical importance of understanding combustion generated particulate. Depending upon the circumstances, particulate matter can affect the durability and performance of combustion equipment, can be a pollutant, can be used to detect fires and, in the form of soot, can be the dominant source of radiant energy from flames. The nonbuoyant structure of most flames of practical interest makes understanding of soot processes in low gravity flames important to our ability to predict fire behavior on earth. These studies also have direct applications to fire safety in human-crew spacecraft, since smoke is the indicator used for automated detection in current spacecraft. In the earliest missions (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo), the crew quarters were so cramped that it was considered reasonable that the astronauts would rapidly detect any fire. The Skylab module, however, included approximately 20 UV-sensing fire detectors. The Space Shuttle has 9 particle-ionization smoke detectors in the mid-deck and flight deck and Spacelab has six additional particle-ionization smoke detectors. The designated detectors for the ISS are laser-diode, forward-scattering, smoke or particulate detectors. Current plans for the ISS call for two detectors in the open area of the module, and detectors in racks that have both cooling air flow and electrical power. Due to the complete absence of data concerning the nature of particulate and radiant emission from incipient and fully developed low-g fires, all three of these detector systems were designed based upon l-g test data and experience. As planned mission durations and complexity increase and the volume of spacecraft increases, the need for and importance of effective, crew-independent, fire detection grows significantly. To provide this level of protection, more knowledge is needed concerning low-gravity fire phenomena and, in particular, how they might be

  7. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time.

  8. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  9. SLS-1 flight experiments preliminary significant results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) is the first of a series of dedicated life sciences Spacelab missions designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and the subsequent readaptation to 1 gravity (1 G). Hypotheses generated from the physiological effects observed during earlier missions led to the formulation of several integrated experiments to determine the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena. The 18 experiments selected for flight on SLS-1 investigated the cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, regulatory physiology, musculoskeletal, and neuroscience disciplines in both human and rodent subjects. The SLS-1 preliminary results gave insight to the mechanisms involved in the adaptation to the microgravity environment and readaptation when returning to Earth. The experimental results will be used to promote health and safety for future long duration space flights and, as in the past, will be applied to many biomedical problems encountered here on Earth.

  10. SLS-1 flight experiments preliminary significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) is the first of a series of dedicated life sciences Spacelab missions designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and the subsequent readaptation to 1 gravity (1 G). Hypotheses generated from the physiological effects observed during earlier missions led to the formulation of several integrated experiments to determine the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena. The 18 experiments selected for flight on SLS-1 investigated the cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, regulatory physiology, musculoskeletal, and neuroscience disciplines in both human and rodent subjects. The SLS-1 preliminary results gave insight to the mechanisms involved in the adaptation to the microgravity environment and readaptation when returning to Earth. The experimental results will be used to promote health and safety for future long duration space flights and, as in the past, will be applied to many biomedical problems encountered here on Earth.

  11. PRODUCTION OF A PRELIMINARY QUALITY CONTROL PIPELINE FOR SINGLE NUCLEI RNA-SEQ AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE ANALYSIS OF CELL TYPE DIVERSITY OF POST-MORTEM HUMAN BRAIN NEOCORTEX.

    PubMed

    Aevermann, Brian; McCorrison, Jamison; Venepally, Pratap; Hodge, Rebecca; Bakken, Trygve; Miller, Jeremy; Novotny, Mark; Tran, Danny N; Diezfuertes, Francisco; Christiansen, Lena; Zhang, Fan; Steemers, Frank; Lasken, Roger S; Lein, E D; Schork, Nicholas; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing of the RNA content of single cells or single nuclei (sc/nRNA-seq) has become a powerful approach to understand the cellular complexity and diversity of multicellular organisms and environmental ecosystems. However, the fact that the procedure begins with a relatively small amount of starting material, thereby pushing the limits of the laboratory procedures required, dictates that careful approaches for sample quality control (QC) are essential to reduce the impact of technical noise and sample bias in downstream analysis applications. Here we present a preliminary framework for sample level quality control that is based on the collection of a series of quantitative laboratory and data metrics that are used as features for the construction of QC classification models using random forest machine learning approaches. We've applied this initial framework to a dataset comprised of 2272 single nuclei RNA-seq results and determined that ~79% of samples were of high quality. Removal of the poor quality samples from downstream analysis was found to improve the cell type clustering results. In addition, this approach identified quantitative features related to the proportion of unique or duplicate reads and the proportion of reads remaining after quality trimming as useful features for pass/fail classification. The construction and use of classification models for the identification of poor quality samples provides for an objective and scalable approach to sc/nRNA-seq quality control.

  12. PRODUCTION OF A PRELIMINARY QUALITY CONTROL PIPELINE FOR SINGLE NUCLEI RNA-SEQ AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE ANALYSIS OF CELL TYPE DIVERSITY OF POST-MORTEM HUMAN BRAIN NEOCORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Aevermann, Brian; McCorrison, Jamison; Venepally, Pratap; Hodge, Rebecca; Bakken, Trygve; Miller, Jeremy; Novotny, Mark; Tran, Danny N.; Diez-Fuertes, Francisco; Christiansen, Lena; Zhang, Fan; Steemers, Frank; Lasken, Roger S.; Lein, Ed; Schork, Nicholas; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing of the RNA content of single cells or single nuclei (sc/nRNA-seq) has become a powerful approach to understand the cellular complexity and diversity of multicellular organisms and environmental ecosystems. However, the fact that the procedure begins with a relatively small amount of starting material, thereby pushing the limits of the laboratory procedures required, dictates that careful approaches for sample quality control (QC) are essential to reduce the impact of technical noise and sample bias in downstream analysis applications. Here we present a preliminary framework for sample level quality control that is based on the collection of a series of quantitative laboratory and data metrics that are used as features for the construction of QC classification models using random forest machine learning approaches. We’ve applied this initial framework to a dataset comprised of 2272 single nuclei RNA-seq results and determined that ~79% of samples were of high quality. Removal of the poor quality samples from downstream analysis was found to improve the cell type clustering results. In addition, this approach identified quantitative features related to the proportion of unique or duplicate reads and the proportion of reads remaining after quality trimming as useful features for pass/fail classification. The construction and use of classification models for the identification of poor quality samples provides for an objective and scalable approach to sc/nRNA-seq quality control. PMID:27897007

  13. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  14. T1ρ MR Imaging of Human Musculoskeletal System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ligong; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the direct visualization of human musculoskeletal (MSK) system, especially all diarthrodial tissues including cartilage, bone, menisci, ligaments, tendon, hip, synovium etc. Conventional MR imaging techniques based on T1- and T2-weighted, proton density (PD) contrast are inconclusive in quantifying early biochemically degenerative changes in MSK system in general and articular cartilage in particular. In recent years, quantitative MR parameter mapping techniques have been used to quantify the biochemical changes in articular cartilage with a special emphasis on evaluating joint injury, cartilage degeneration, and soft tissue repair. In this article, we will focus on cartilage biochemical composition, basic principles of T1ρ MR imaging, implementation of T1ρ pulse sequences, biochemical validation, and summarize the potential applications of T1ρ MR imaging technique in MSK diseases including osteoarthritis (OA), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and knee joint repair. Finally, we will also review the potential advantages, challenges, and future prospects of T1ρ MR imaging for widespread clinical translation. PMID:24935818

  15. T₁ρ MRI of human musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligong; Regatte, Ravinder R

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the direct visualization of the human musculoskeletal (MSK) system, especially all diarthrodial tissues including cartilage, bone, menisci, ligaments, tendon, hip, synovium, etc. Conventional MRI techniques based on T1 - and T2 -weighted, proton density (PD) contrast are inconclusive in quantifying early biochemically degenerative changes in MSK system in general and articular cartilage in particular. In recent years, quantitative MR parameter mapping techniques have been used to quantify the biochemical changes in articular cartilage, with a special emphasis on evaluating joint injury, cartilage degeneration, and soft tissue repair. In this article we focus on cartilage biochemical composition, basic principles of T1ρ MRI, implementation of T1ρ pulse sequences, biochemical validation, and summarize the potential applications of the T1ρ MRI technique in MSK diseases including osteoarthritis (OA), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and knee joint repair. Finally, we also review the potential advantages, challenges, and future prospects of T1ρ MRI for widespread clinical translation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  17. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  18. 40 CFR 161.170 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by an integrated system, the applicant must provide a preliminary analysis of each technical grade of active ingredient contained in the product to identify all... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 161.170 Section...

  19. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  20. Safety, Tolerability, and Preliminary Activity of LB-100, an Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A, in Patients with Relapsed Solid Tumors: An Open-Label, Dose Escalation, First-in-Human, Phase I Trial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent; Mansfield, Aaron S; Braiteh, Fadi; Richards, Donald; Durivage, Henry; Ungerleider, Richard S; Johnson, Francis; Kovach, John S

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the MTD and to assess the safety, tolerability, and potential activity of LB-100, a first-in-class small-molecule inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in adult patients with progressive solid tumors.Experimental Design: LB-100 was administered intravenously daily for 3 days in 21-day cycles in a 3 + 3 dose escalation design.Results: There were 29 patient entries over 7 dose escalations. One patient stopped treatment after one dose because of an acute infection and was reenrolled after recovery; each course was analyzed as a separate patient entry. Two patients had dose-limiting toxicity (reversible increases in serum creatinine or calculated serum creatinine clearance) at the 3.1 mg/m(2) level. Probable or possible study drug-related grade 3 adverse events occurred in 6 (20.7%) patients [anemia (n = 2), decreased creatinine clearance, dyspnea, hyponatremia, and lymphopenia]. Ten (50%) of 20 response-evaluable patients had stable disease for four or more cycles. One patient with pancreatic adenocarcinoma had a partial response noted after 10 cycles, which was maintained for five additional cycles. The other patients achieving stable disease had one of the following: fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, thymoma, atypical carcinoid of lung, or ovarian, testicular, breast (n = 2), and prostate cancer. The recommended phase II dose of LB-100 is 2.33 mg/m(2) daily for 3 days every 3 weeks.Conclusions: The safety, tolerability, preliminary evidence of antitumor activity, and novel mechanism of action of LB-100 support its continued development alone and in combination with other therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 23(13); 3277-84. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the N-terminal calmodulin-like domain of the human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/P{sub i} carrier SCaMC1

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qin Brüschweiler, Sven; Chou, James J.

    2013-12-24

    The N-terminal calmodulin-like domain of the human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/P{sub i} carrier SCaMC1 was crystallized in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution from crystals which belonged to space group P6{sub 2}22.

  2. Health assessment for Monsanto Corporation, Augusta, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD001700699. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-19

    The Monsanto Corporation 75-acre site is located in Augusta (Richmond County), Georgia. Preliminary on-site groundwater sampling results (the most recent occurring in 1986) identified arsenic, the only contaminant reported. Based on available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances.

  3. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  4. Synthesis and preliminary mechanistic evaluation of 5-(p-tolyl)-1-(quinolin-2-yl)pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid amides with potent antiproliferative activity on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cankara Pirol, Şeyma; Çalışkan, Burcu; Durmaz, Irem; Atalay, Rengül; Banoglu, Erden

    2014-11-24

    We synthesized a series of novel amide derivatives of 5-(p-tolyl)-1-(quinolin-2-yl)pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid and assessed their antiproliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines (Huh7, human liver; MCF7, breast and HCT116, colon carcinoma cell lines) with the sulforhodamine B assay. Compound 4j with 2-chloro-4-pyridinyl group in the amide part exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against all cell lines with IC50 values of 1.6 μM, 3.3 μM and 1.1 μM for Huh7, MCF7 and HCT116 cells, respectively, and produced dramatic cell cycle arrest at SubG1/G1 phase as an indicator of apoptotic cell death induction. On the basis of their high potency in cellular environment, these straightforward pyrazole-3-carboxamide derivatives may possess potential in the design of more potent compounds for intervention with cancer cell proliferation.

  5. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  6. The MUNU experiment : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busto, J.; MUNU Collaboration

    2000-06-01

    The MUNU collaboration has built a detector to study overlineνe - e - scattering at low energy. From the results we expect to increase the sensitivity to the neutrino magnetic moment. The detector used, a 1 m 3 T.P.C. surrounded by an anti-Compton scintillator, is running at the Bugey nuclear plant. Some preliminary results will be presented in the following.

  7. Lunar Excavator Preliminary Test Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This video shows a preliminary test of the boom and bucket wheel assembly of the lunar excavator prototype developed by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. According to Michael Duke, director for the center, the wheel on the end of the boom can dig up 45.36 kilograms (100 pounds) of dirt each hour which is several times the weight of the entire device.

  8. Lunar Excavator Preliminary Test Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This video shows a preliminary test of the boom and bucket wheel assembly of the lunar excavator prototype developed by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. According to Michael Duke, director for the center, the wheel on the end of the boom can dig up 45.36 kilograms (100 pounds) of dirt each hour which is several times the weight of the entire device.

  9. Human, Humanities, Humanitarian, Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Adams, Samuel H.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the development of secular humanism in education and calls for educators to present their students with a "real" picture of the world, including the values upon which the Unites States was founded. (FL)

  10. Preliminary Studies for “Biomedical Analysis of Human Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight (Hair)” Project: An Analysis of Trace Elements in the Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Riyo; Yamada, Shin; Terada, Masahiro; Aiba, Tatsuya; Ishida, Satoru; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Majima, Hideyuki; Mukai, Chiaki

    The analysis of biospecimens from astronauts reveals considerable important information about their healthcare, but transportation of such samples will become difficult after the retirement of the Space Shuttles. We focused on hair, which is one of the easiest specimens to obtain, store and return, and planned this "Biomedical Analysis of Human Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight (Hair)" study. The main objective of the present part is to verify whether changes in mineral metabolism can be detected through analysis of hair shafts from astronauts on the International Space Station.Ground-based studies were performed to establish an optimum methodology for analyzing trace elements (e.g., calcium, sulfur and chlorine) on the cross-sectional surface of a hair shaft. By using Electron Prove Micro Analyzer (EPMA), we could identify the distribution of minerals in human scalp hairs. In another animal study, a centrally distributed concentration of calcium was observed in hairs from the mice exposed to microgravity. In this paper, we will report on the overall research plan and the progress we have made to date.

  11. Reconstruction of the abdominal wall by using a combination of the human acellular dermal matrix implant and an interpositional omentum flap after extensive tumor resection in patients with abdominal wall neoplasm: A preliminary result

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yan; Tang, Rui; Gong, Ding-Quan; Qian, Yun-Liang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To present our trial using a combination of the human acellular dermal matrix (HADM) implant and an interpositional omentum flap to repair giant abdominal wall defects after extensive tumor resection. METHODS: Between February and October of 2007, three patients with giant defects of the abdominal wall after extensive tumor resection underwent reconstruction with a combination of HADM and omentum flap. Postoperative morbidities and signs of herniation were monitored. RESULTS: The abdominal wall reconstruction was successful in these three patients, there was no severe morbidity and no signs of herniation in the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The combination of HADM and omentum flap offers a new, safe and effective alternative to traditional forms in the repair of giant abdominal wall defects. Further analysis of the long-term outcome and more cases are needed to assess the reliability of this technique. PMID:18205267

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the N-terminal calmodulin-like domain of the human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier SCaMC1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Brüschweiler, Sven; Chou, James J

    2014-01-01

    SCaMC is an ATP-Mg/Pi carrier protein located at the mitochondrial inner membrane. SCaMC has an unusual N-terminal Ca(2+)-binding domain (NTD) in addition to its characteristic six-helix transmembrane bundle. The NTD of human SCaMC1 (residues 1-193) was expressed and purified in order to study its role in Ca(2+)-regulated ATP-Mg/Pi transport mediated by its transmembrane domain. While Ca(2+)-bound NTD could be crystallized, the apo state resisted extensive crystallization trials. Selenomethionine-labeled Ca(2+)-bound NTD crystals, which belonged to space group P6(2)22 with one molecule per asymmetric unit, diffracted X-rays to 2.9 Å resolution.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human major histocompatibility antigen HLA-B*2703 complexed with a viral peptide and with a self-peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, Bernhard; Biesiadka, Jacek; Saenger, Wolfram

    2005-04-01

    The product of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene HLA-B*2703 differs from that of the prototypical subtype HLA-B*2705 by a single amino acid at heavy-chain residue 59 that is involved in anchoring the peptide N-terminus within the A pocket of the molecule. Two B*2703–peptide complexes were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. A pocket of the molecule, two HLA-B*2703–peptide complexes were crystallized and data sets were collected to high resolution using synchrotron radiation. The product of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene HLA-B*2703 differs from that of the prototypical subtype HLA-B*2705 by a single amino acid at heavy-chain residue 59 that is involved in anchoring the peptide N-terminus within the A pocket of the molecule. Two B*2703–peptide complexes were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} (pVIPR peptide) or P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (pLMP2 peptide). Data sets were collected to 1.55 Å (B*2703–pVIPR) or 2.0 Å (B*2703–pLMP2) resolution using synchrotron radiation. With B*2705–pVIPR as a search model, a clear molecular-replacement solution was found for both B*2703 complexes.

  14. [Preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium species].

    PubMed

    Balejová, Magda

    2010-06-01

    Preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium spp. is based on evaluating their microscopic and macroscopic morphology, Gram staining (Gram stain-positive structure of the bacterial wall), positive production of lecithinase, lipase and proteolytic activity on egg yolk agar, and simple chemical tests. If this preliminary identification is not sufficient, biochemical identification is performed, along with 16S-rRNA sequencing of the bacterial genome. The article comments on options of preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium spp.

  15. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  16. Integral lift engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, W.; Leto, A.; Schaefer, R.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary mechanical design of a complete lift fan engine system is reported. A description of the lift fan engine, layout drawings of the components and complete engine, and a discussion of the design analyses and results are presented. The design features and areas of analysis include fan and compressor rotor blades of composite construction, a combustor folded over the compressor, relatively high-temperature blades in the high-pressure turbine, the first stage of the low-pressure turbine used for bearing support and ducting of lubricant to the bearings, a complete lubrication system, critical speeds of the shafting, and vibration and flutter of the blading.

  17. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  18. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  19. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  20. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of crystals from the recombinantly expressed human major histocompatibility antigen HLA-B*2704 in complex with a viral peptide and with a self-peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, Bernhard; Biesiadka, Jacek; Saenger, Wolfram

    2005-10-01

    Crystallization of HLA-B*2704 in complex with two peptides. The product of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene HLA-B*2704 differs from that of the prototypical subtype HLA-B*2705 by three amino acids at heavy-chain residues 77 (Ser instead of Asp), 152 (Glu instead of Val) and 211 (Gly instead of Ala). In contrast to the ubiquitous HLA-B*2705 subtype, HLA-B*2704 occurs only in orientals. Both subtypes are strongly associated with spondyloarthropathies and the peptides presented by these subtypes are suspected to play a role in disease pathogenesis. HLA-B*2704 was crystallized in complex with a viral peptide and with a self-peptide using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG as a precipitant. Both crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Data sets were collected to 1.60 Å (complex with the self-peptide pVIPR) or to 1.90 Å (complex with the viral peptide pLMP2) resolution using synchrotron radiation. With HLA-B*2705 complexed with pVIPR as a search model, unambiguous molecular-replacement solutions were found for the complexes of HLA-B*2704 with both peptides.

  1. Descent advisor preliminary field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional- and flight-management-system-equipped jet transports, to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 sec late with a standard deviation of 13.1 sec. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  2. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1960-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.

  3. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  4. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  5. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  6. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  7. Use of computerized tomography and chest x-rays in evaluating efficacy of aerosolized recombinant human DNase in cystic fibrosis patients younger than age 5 years: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nasr, S Z; Kuhns, L R; Brown, R W; Hurwitz, M E; Sanders, G M; Strouse, P J

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest and chest x-rays (CXR) to determine efficacy of inhaled recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients younger than 5 years of age. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of 12 patients with CF younger than 5 years of age, attending the University of Michigan Cystic Fibrosis Center (Ann Arbor, MI) was conducted. The changes in the HRCT and CXR score from baseline to day 100 of therapy were assessed using a previously validated scoring system. The mean changes of HRCT scores between the rhDNase and placebo groups were found to be significant at the 95% level, with mean change +/- SE mean of - 1.00 +/- 0.53 and 0.58 +/- 0.24 for rhDNase and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.02). The difference in CXR score was not significant between the two groups. An analysis was performed to relate HRCT subscores to CXR score; only thickening of the intra-interlobular septae was significantly correlated with the total CXR score (r = - 0.7, P < 0.01). There was improvement in the parents' assessments of the patients' well-being, with improvement in physical activity, decreased cough, sleep quality, and appetite in those subjects receiving rhDNase. We conclude that the administration of rhDNase was associated with improvement in the HRCT scan in CF patients younger than 5 years of age. Findings indicate that HRCT of the chest is useful and sensitive in studying responses to therapy in patients with CF lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of HRCT to assess the effectiveness of a therapeutic modality in so young a CF patient population.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection for the determination of quetiapine in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Bellomarino, Sara A; Brown, Allyson J; Conlan, Xavier A; Barnett, Neil W

    2009-03-15

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection methodology is reported for the determination of the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine and the observation of its major active and inactive metabolites in human urine and serum. The method uses a monolithic chromatographic column allowing high flow rates of 3 mLmin(-1) enabling rapid quantification. Flow injection analysis (FIA) with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection and HPLC time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) were used for the determination of quetiapine in a pharmaceutical preparation to establish its suitability as a calibration standard. The limit of detection achieved with FIA was 2 x 10(-11) molL(-1) in simple aqueous solution. The limits of detection achieved with HPLC were 7 x 10(-8) and 2 x 10(-10) molL(-1) in urine and serum, respectively. The calibration range for FIA was between 5 x 10(-9) and 1 x 10(-6) molL(-1). The calibration ranges for HPLC were between 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-4) and 1 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-4) molL(-1) in urine and serum, respectively. The quetiapine concentrations in patient samples were found to be 3 x 10(-6) molL(-1) in urine and 7 x 10(-7) molL(-1) in serum. Without the need for preconcentration, the HPLC detection limits compared favourably with those in previously published methodologies. The metabolites were identified using HPLC-TOF-MS.

  9. Derivation of extracellular fluid volume fraction and equivalent dielectric constant of the cell membrane from dielectric properties of the human body. Part 2: A preliminary study for tracking the progression of surgical tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Tatara, T; Tsuzaki, K

    2000-07-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume fraction and equivalent dielectric constant of the cell membrane epsilon m, derived from the dielectric properties of the human body can track the progression of surgical tissue injury. Frequency-dependent dielectric constants and electrical conductivities of body segments are obtained at surgical (trunk) and non-surgical sites (arm and leg) from five patients who have undergone oesophageal resections, before and at the end of surgery and on the day after the operation. The ECF volume fraction and the equivalent epsilon m of body segments are estimated by fitting the dielectric data for body segments to the cell suspension model incorporating fat tissue, and their time-course changes are compared between body segments. By the day after the operation, the estimated ECF volume fraction has increased in all body segments compared with that before surgery, by 0.13 in the arm, 0.16 in the trunk and 0.14 in the leg (p < 0.05), indicating postoperative fluid accumulation in the extracellular space. In contrast, the estimated equivalent epsilon m shows a different time course between body segments on the day after the operation, characterised by a higher change ratio of epsilon m of the trunk (1.34 +/- 0.66, p < 0.05), from that of the arm (0.66 +/- 0.34) and leg (0.61 +/- 0.11). The results suggest that the equivalent epsilon m of a body segment at a surgical site can track pathophysiological cell changes following surgical tissue injury.

  10. Preliminary evidence of anxiolytic effects of the CRF(1) receptor antagonist R317573 in the 7.5% CO(2) proof-of-concept experimental model of human anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jayne E; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Diaper, Alison; Phillips, Suzanne; Schmidt, Me; van der Ark, P; Dourish, Colin T; Dawson, Gerard R; Nutt, David J

    2011-09-01

    We have validated the use of prolonged inhalation of 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as a human model of anxiety and have shown that drugs from two prototypical classes of anxiolytics, benzodiazepines and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, attenuate CO(2)-induced symptoms (Bailey et al., 2007a). Preclinical evidence suggests that drugs acting at the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system may be useful for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other stress-related disorders (Valdez, 2006), hence we have now examined the effects of a CRF(1) receptor antagonist in the 7.5% CO(2) model. In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, study in 32 healthy participants we examined the effects of 7 days of treatment with the CRF(1) receptor antagonist, R317573, at a dose that shows a favourable safety profile and is comparable with those effective in preclinical models (40 mg). On day 8, eight of the placebo-treated group received lorazepam (LZP) 2 mg as a positive control. All participants underwent 20 min inhalation of 7.5% CO(2)-enriched air. Subjective reports of peak gas effects were assessed using visual analogue scales and questionnaires. The mean age of participants was 26 years, and 13 were male. The peak effects of CO(2) were expressed as a difference from baseline scores obtained while breathing air alone. Compared with placebo (PLAC), both drug groups showed a decrease in all subjective symptoms, total score on the panic symptom inventory (CRF 11 [2.6], PLAC 16.4 [3.1], LZP 2.9 [3.0]) and a generalized anxiety disorder symptom scale (CRF 2.2 [1.5], PLAC 8.2 [2.2], LZP 1.1 [1.5]). We have shown that a drug that acts to inhibit the CRF(1) receptor shows efficacy in the 7.5% CO(2) model of anxiety in healthy participants.

  11. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human major histocompatibility antigen HLA-B*1402 in complex with a viral peptide and with a self-peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pravin; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Volz, Armin; Ziegler, Andreas; Saenger, Wolfram

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization of HLA-B*1402 in complex with two peptides is reported. The product of the human major histocompatibility (HLA) class I allele HLA-B*1402 only differs from that of allele HLA-B*1403 at amino-acid position 156 of the heavy chain (Leu in HLA-B*1402 and Arg in HLA-B*1403). However, both subtypes are known to be differentially associated with the inflammatory rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in black populations in Cameroon and Togo. HLA-B*1402 is not associated with AS, in contrast to HLA-B*1403, which is associated with this disease in the Togolese population. The products of these alleles can present peptides with Arg at position 2, a feature shared by a small group of other HLA-B antigens, including HLA-B*2705, the prototypical AS-associated subtype. Complexes of HLA-B*1402 with a viral peptide (RRRWRRLTV, termed pLMP2) and a self-peptide (IRAAPPPLF, termed pCatA) were prepared and were crystallized using polyethylene glycol as precipitant. The complexes crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1} (pLMP2) and P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (pCatA) and diffracted synchrotron radiation to 2.55 and 1.86 Å resolution, respectively. Unambiguous solutions for both data sets were obtained by molecular replacement using a peptide-complexed HLA-B*2705 molecule (PDB code) as a search model.

  12. PET Imaging of D2/3 agonist binding in healthy human subjects with the radiotracer [11C]-N-propyl-nor-apomorphine (NPA): preliminary evaluation and reproducibility studies

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, W. Gordon; Mason, N. Scott; Laymon, Charles M.; Lopresti, Brian J; Price, Julie C.; Kendro, Steve; Vora, Shivangi; Litschge, Maralee; Mountz, James M.; Mathis, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    of the human striatum. PMID:19301416

  13. Global precipitation measurement (GPM) preliminary design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    2008-10-01

    The overarching Earth science mission objective of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes. This will enable improved prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and future generations. The specific scientific objectives of GPM are advancing: Precipitation Measurement through combined use of active and passive remote-sensing techniques, Water/Energy Cycle Variability through improved knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and fresh water availability, Climate Prediction through better understanding of surface water fluxes, soil moisture storage, cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent heat release, Weather Prediction through improved numerical weather prediction (NWP) skills from more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous rain rates with better error characterizations and improved assimilation methods, Hydrometeorological Prediction through better temporal sampling and spatial coverage of highresolution precipitation measurements and innovative hydro-meteorological modeling. GPM is a joint initiative with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and other international partners and is the backbone of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Precipitation Constellation. It will unify and improve global precipitation measurements from a constellation of dedicated and operational active/passive microwave sensors. GPM is completing the Preliminary Design Phase and is advancing towards launch in 2013 and 2014.

  14. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  15. GSDO PDR (Preliminary Design Review) Morning Meeting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Mike Bolger, program manager for the Ground Systems Development and Operations, or GSDO, Program speaks to participants during completion of the preliminary design review in the Mission Briefing Room inside the Operations and Checkout Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Representatives from NASA, its contractor partners and experts from across the aerospace industry met in the Mission Briefing Room inside the Operations and Checkout Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida to conclude the initial design and technology development phase. Completion of this review has validated that the baseline architecture is sound and aligns with the agency's exploration objectives. NASA is developing the Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft to provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit, with the flexibility to launch spacecraft for crew and cargo missions, including to an asteroid and Mars. Orion’s first unpiloted test flight is scheduled to launch later this year atop a Delta IV rocket. A second uncrewed flight test is scheduled for fiscal year 2018 on the Space Launch System rocket. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/orion. Photo credit: NASA/Cory Huston

  16. GSDO PDR (Preliminary Design Review) Morning Meeting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – The Ground Systems Development and Operations, or GSDO, Program completed its preliminary design review which allows development of the ground systems to proceed to detailed design. Representatives from NASA, its contractor partners and experts from across the aerospace industry met in the Mission Briefing Room inside the Operations and Checkout Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida to conclude the initial design and technology development phase. Completion of this review has validated that the baseline architecture is sound and aligns with the agency's exploration objectives. NASA is developing the Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft to provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit, with the flexibility to launch spacecraft for crew and cargo missions, including to an asteroid and Mars. Orion’s first unpiloted test flight is scheduled to launch later this year atop a Delta IV rocket. A second uncrewed flight test is scheduled for fiscal year 2018 on the Space Launch System rocket. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/orion. Photo credit: NASA/Cory Huston

  17. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  18. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The...