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Sample records for human muscle stem

  1. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J; Aagaard, Per; Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Conboy, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans. Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response to muscle attrition, due to diminished activation of Notch compounded by elevated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/phospho Smad3 (pSmad3). Furthermore, this work reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) signalling declines in human muscle with age, and is important for activating Notch in human muscle stem cells. This molecular understanding, combined with data that human satellite cells remain intrinsically young, introduced novel therapeutic targets. Indeed, activation of MAPK/Notch restored ‘youthful’ myogenic responses to satellite cells from 70-year-old humans, rendering them similar to cells from 20-year-old humans. These findings strongly suggest that aging of human muscle maintenance and repair can be reversed by ‘youthful’ calibration of specific molecular pathways. PMID:20049743

  2. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  3. Regenerative potential of human muscle stem cells in chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inflammation is a profound systemic modification of the cellular microenvironment which could affect survival, repair and maintenance of muscle stem cells. The aim of this study was to define the role of chronic inflammation on the regenerative potential of satellite cells in human muscle. Methods As a model for chronic inflammation, 11 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were included together with 16 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) as controls. The mean age of both groups was 64 years, with more females in the RA group compared to the OA group. During elective knee replacement surgery, a muscle biopsy was taken from the distal musculus vastus medialis. Cell populations from four RA and eight OA patients were used for extensive phenotyping because these cell populations showed no spontaneous differentiation and myogenic purity greater than 75% after explantation. Results After mononuclear cell explantation, myogenic purity, viability, proliferation index, number of colonies, myogenic colonies, growth speed, maximum number of population doublings and fusion index were not different between RA and OA patients. Furthermore, the expression of proteins involved in replicative and stress-induced premature senescence and apoptosis, including p16, p21, p53, hTERT and cleaved caspase-3, was not different between RA and OA patients. Mean telomere length was shorter in the RA group compared to the OA group. Conclusions In the present study we found evidence that chronic inflammation in RA does not affect the in vitro regenerative potential of human satellite cells. Identification of mechanisms influencing muscle regeneration by modulation of its microenvironment may, therefore, be more appropriate. PMID:22171690

  4. In vivo myogenic potential of human CD133+ muscle-derived stem cells: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Elisa; Riederer, Ingo; Chaouch, Soraya; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Di Santo, James; Torrente, Yvan; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Mouly, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, numerous reports have identified in mouse different sources of myogenic cells distinct from satellite cells that exhibited a variable myogenic potential in vivo. Myogenic stem cells have also been described in humans, although their regenerative potential has rarely been quantified. In this study, we have investigated the myogenic potential of human muscle-derived cells based on the expression of the stem cell marker CD133 as compared to bona fide satellite cells already used in clinical trials. The efficiency of these cells to participate in muscle regeneration and contribute to the renewal of the satellite cell pool, when injected intramuscularly, has been evaluated in the Rag2(-/-) gammaC(-/-) C5(-/-) mouse in which muscle degeneration is induced by cryoinjury. We demonstrate that human muscle-derived CD133+ cells showed a much greater regenerative capacity when compared to human myoblasts. The number of fibers expressing human proteins and the number of human cells in a satellite cell position are all dramatically increased when compared to those observed after injection of human myoblasts. In addition, CD133+/CD34+ cells exhibited a better dispersion in the host muscle when compared to human myoblasts. We propose that muscle-derived CD133+ cells could be an attractive candidate for cellular therapy.

  5. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion.

  6. In Vivo Myogenic Potential of Human CD133+ Muscle-derived Stem Cells: A Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Elisa; Riederer, Ingo; Chaouch, Soraya; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Di Santo, James; Torrente, Yvan; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Mouly, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, numerous reports have identified in mouse different sources of myogenic cells distinct from satellite cells that exhibited a variable myogenic potential in vivo. Myogenic stem cells have also been described in humans, although their regenerative potential has rarely been quantified. In this study, we have investigated the myogenic potential of human muscle–derived cells based on the expression of the stem cell marker CD133 as compared to bona fide satellite cells already used in clinical trials. The efficiency of these cells to participate in muscle regeneration and contribute to the renewal of the satellite cell pool, when injected intramuscularly, has been evaluated in the Rag2−/− γC−/− C5−/− mouse in which muscle degeneration is induced by cryoinjury. We demonstrate that human muscle–derived CD133+ cells showed a much greater regenerative capacity when compared to human myoblasts. The number of fibers expressing human proteins and the number of human cells in a satellite cell position are all dramatically increased when compared to those observed after injection of human myoblasts. In addition, CD133+/CD34+ cells exhibited a better dispersion in the host muscle when compared to human myoblasts. We propose that muscle-derived CD133+ cells could be an attractive candidate for cellular therapy. PMID:19623164

  7. Fibroblast growth factor-23 induces cellular senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chisato; Iso, Yoshitaka; Mizukami, Takuya; Otabe, Koji; Sasai, Masahiro; Kurata, Masaaki; Sanbe, Takeyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Miyazaki, Akira; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-02-12

    Although muscle wasting and/or degeneration are prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease, it remains unknown whether FGF-23 influences muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in skeletal muscle are distinct from satellite cells and have a known association with muscle degeneration. In this study we sought to investigate the effects of FGF-23 on MSCs isolated from human skeletal muscle in vitro. The MSCs expressed FGF receptors (1 through 4) and angiotensin-II type 1 receptor, but no traces of the Klotho gene were detected. MSCs and satellite cells were treated with FGF-23 and angiotensin-II for 48 h. Treatment with FGF-23 significantly decreased the number of MSCs compared to controls, while treatment with angiotensin-II did not. FGF-23 and angiotensin-II both left the cell counts of the satellite cells unchanged. The FGF-23-treated MSCs exhibited the senescent phenotype, as judged by senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, cell morphology, and increased expression of p53 and p21 in western blot analysis. FGF-23 also significantly altered the gene expression of oxidative stress regulators in the cells. In conclusion, FGF-23 induced premature senescence in MSCs from skeletal muscle via the p53/p21/oxidative-stress pathway. The interaction between the MSCs and FGF-23 may play a key role in the impaired muscle reparative mechanisms of chronic kidney disease.

  8. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Matthew E; Pavlath, Grace K

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  9. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  10. Influence of micropattern width on differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells to vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tomoko; Wang, Xinlong; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, various approaches have been taken to generate functional muscle tissue by tissue engineering. However, in vitro methods to generate smooth muscle with physiologically aligned structure remains limited. In order to mimic the in vivo highly organized structure of smooth muscle cells, we used micropatterning technology for engineering parallel aligned cells. In this study, a gradient micropattern of different width of cell-adhesive polystyrene stripes (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000μm) was prepared and the effects of micropattern width on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) orientation, morphology and smooth muscle cell differentiation were investigated. The width of micropattern stripes showed obvious effect on cell orientation, morphology and smooth muscle cell differentiation. The cells showed higher degree of orientation when the micropattern stripes became narrower. Higher expression of calponin and smooth muscle actin was observed among the narrow micropatterns ranging from 200μm to 20μm, compared to the non-patterned area and wide micropattern areas which showed similar levels of expression.

  11. Neuromuscular junction formation between human stem cell-derived motoneurons and human skeletal muscle in a defined system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiufang; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Stancescu, Maria; Vandenburgh, Herman H; Hickman, James J

    2011-12-01

    Functional in vitro models composed of human cells will constitute an important platform in the next generation of system biology and drug discovery. This study reports a novel human-based in vitro Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ) system developed in a defined serum-free medium and on a patternable non-biological surface. The motoneurons and skeletal muscles were derived from fetal spinal stem cells and skeletal muscle stem cells. The motoneurons and skeletal myotubes were completely differentiated in the co-culture based on morphological analysis and electrophysiology. NMJ formation was demonstrated by phase contrast microscopy, immunocytochemistry and the observation of motoneuron-induced muscle contractions utilizing time-lapse recordings and their subsequent quenching by d-Tubocurarine. Generally, functional human based systems would eliminate the issue of species variability during the drug development process and its derivation from stem cells bypasses the restrictions inherent with utilization of primary human tissue. This defined human-based NMJ system is one of the first steps in creating functional in vitro systems and will play an important role in understanding NMJ development, in developing high information content drug screens and as test beds in preclinical studies for spinal or muscular diseases/injuries such as muscular dystrophy, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord repair.

  12. Robust derivation of epicardium and its differentiated smooth muscle cell progeny from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Dharini; Gambardella, Laure; Bernard, William G; Serrano, Felipe; Mascetti, Victoria L; Pedersen, Roger A; Talasila, Amarnath; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-04-15

    The epicardium has emerged as a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor source with therapeutic potential for coronary smooth muscle cell, cardiac fibroblast (CF) and cardiomyocyte regeneration, owing to its fundamental role in heart development and its potential ability to initiate myocardial repair in injured adult tissues. Here, we describe a chemically defined method for generating epicardium and epicardium-derived smooth muscle cells (EPI-SMCs) and CFs from human pluripotent stem cells (HPSCs) through an intermediate lateral plate mesoderm (LM) stage. HPSCs were initially differentiated to LM in the presence of FGF2 and high levels of BMP4. The LM was robustly differentiated to an epicardial lineage by activation of WNT, BMP and retinoic acid signalling pathways. HPSC-derived epicardium displayed enhanced expression of epithelial- and epicardium-specific markers, exhibited morphological features comparable with human foetal epicardial explants and engrafted in the subepicardial space in vivo. The in vitro-derived epicardial cells underwent an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition when treated with PDGF-BB and TGFβ1, resulting in vascular SMCs that displayed contractile ability in response to vasoconstrictors. Furthermore, the EPI-SMCs displayed low density lipoprotein uptake and effective lowering of lipoprotein levels upon treatment with statins, similar to primary human coronary artery SMCs. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that HPSC-derived epicardium and EPI-SMCs could serve as important tools for studying human cardiogenesis, and as a platform for vascular disease modelling and drug screening.

  13. Robust derivation of epicardium and its differentiated smooth muscle cell progeny from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Dharini; Gambardella, Laure; Bernard, William G.; Serrano, Felipe; Mascetti, Victoria L.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Talasila, Amarnath; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The epicardium has emerged as a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor source with therapeutic potential for coronary smooth muscle cell, cardiac fibroblast (CF) and cardiomyocyte regeneration, owing to its fundamental role in heart development and its potential ability to initiate myocardial repair in injured adult tissues. Here, we describe a chemically defined method for generating epicardium and epicardium-derived smooth muscle cells (EPI-SMCs) and CFs from human pluripotent stem cells (HPSCs) through an intermediate lateral plate mesoderm (LM) stage. HPSCs were initially differentiated to LM in the presence of FGF2 and high levels of BMP4. The LM was robustly differentiated to an epicardial lineage by activation of WNT, BMP and retinoic acid signalling pathways. HPSC-derived epicardium displayed enhanced expression of epithelial- and epicardium-specific markers, exhibited morphological features comparable with human foetal epicardial explants and engrafted in the subepicardial space in vivo. The in vitro-derived epicardial cells underwent an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition when treated with PDGF-BB and TGFβ1, resulting in vascular SMCs that displayed contractile ability in response to vasoconstrictors. Furthermore, the EPI-SMCs displayed low density lipoprotein uptake and effective lowering of lipoprotein levels upon treatment with statins, similar to primary human coronary artery SMCs. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that HPSC-derived epicardium and EPI-SMCs could serve as important tools for studying human cardiogenesis, and as a platform for vascular disease modelling and drug screening. PMID:25813541

  14. Combined biophysical and soluble factor modulation induces cardiomyocyte differentiation from human muscle derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tchao, Jason; Han, Lu; Lin, Bo; Yang, Lei; Tobita, Kimimasa

    2014-01-01

    Cellular cardiomyoplasty has emerged as a novel therapy to restore contractile function of injured failing myocardium. Human multipotent muscle derived stem cells (MDSC) can be a potential abundant, autologous cell source for cardiac repair. However, robust conditions for cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation are not well established for this cell type. We have developed a new method for CM differentiation from human MDSC that combines 3-dimensional artificial muscle tissue (AMT) culture with temporally controlled biophysical cell aggregation and delivery of 4 soluble factors (microRNA-206 inhibitor, IWR-1, Lithium Chloride, and BMP-4) (4F-AG-AMT). The 4F-AG-AMT displayed cardiac-like response to β-adrenergic stimulation and contractile properties. 4F-AG-AMT expressed major cardiac (NKX2-5, GATA4, TBX5, MEF2C) transcription factors and structural proteins. They also express cardiac gap-junction protein, connexin-43, similar to CMs and synchronized spontaneous calcium transients. These results highlight the importance of temporal control of biophysical and soluble factors for CM differentiation from MDSCs. PMID:25310989

  15. Differentiation of Human Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells into Smooth-Muscle Cells: Two Novel Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Libang; Geng, Zhaohui; Nickel, Thomas; Johnson, Caitlin; Gao, Lin; Dutton, James; Hou, Cody; Zhang, Jianyi

    2016-01-01

    Conventional protocols for differentiating human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can be inefficient and generally fail to yield cells with a specific SMC phenotype (i.e., contractile or synthetic SMCs). Here, we present two novel hiPSC-SMC differentiation protocols that yield SMCs with predominantly contractile or synthetic phenotypes. Flow cytometry analyses of smooth-muscle actin (SMA) expression indicated that ~45% of the cells obtained with each protocol assumed an SMC phenotype, and that the populations could be purified to ~95% via metabolic selection. Assessments of cellular mRNA and/or protein levels indicated that SMA, myosin heavy chain II, collagen 1, calponin, transgelin, connexin 43, and vimentin expression in the SMCs obtained via the Contractile SMC protocol and in SMCs differentiated via a traditional protocol were similar, while SMCs produced via the Sythetic SMC protocol expressed less calponin, more collagen 1, and more connexin 43. Differences were also observed in functional assessments of the two SMC populations: the two-dimensional surface area of Contractile SMCs declined more extensively (to 12% versus 44% of original size) in response to carbachol treatment, while quantification of cell migration and proliferation were greater in Synthetic SMCs. Collectively, these data demonstrate that our novel differentiation protocols can efficiently generate SMCs from hiPSCs. PMID:26771193

  16. Keratose Hydrogels Promote Vascular Smooth Muscle Differentiation from C-kit Positive Human Cardiac Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Benjamin T; Simmons, Jamelle; Chen, Miao; Fan, Huimin; Barron, Catherine; Liu, Zhongmin; Van Dyke, Mark; He, Jia-Qiang

    2017-03-28

    Stem cell-based therapies have demonstrated great potential for the treatment of cardiac diseases, e.g., myocardial infarction; however, low cell viability, low retention/engraftment, and uncontrollable in vivo differentiation after transplantation are still major limitations, which lead low therapeutic efficiency. Biomaterials provide a promising solution to overcome these issues due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low/non-immunogenicity, and low/non-cytotoxicity. The present study aims to investigate the impacts of Keratose (KOS) hydrogel biomaterial on cellular viability, proliferation, and differentiation of c-kit+ human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs). Briefly, hCSCs were cultured on both KOS hydrogel-coated dishes and regular tissue culture dishes (Blank control). Cell viability, stemness, proliferation, cellular morphology, and cardiac lineage differentiation were compared between KOS hydrogel and the Blank control at different time points. We found that KOS hydrogel is effective in maintaining hCSCs without any observable toxic effects, although cell size and proliferation rate appeared smaller on the KOS hydrogel compared to the Blank control. To our surprise, KOS hydrogel significantly promoted vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation (~72%), while on the Blank control dishes, most of the hCSCs (~78%) became cardiomyocytes. Further, we also observed "endothelial cell tube-like" microstructures formed by differentiated VSMCs only on KOS hydrogel, suggesting a potential capability of the hCSC-derived VSMCs for in vitro angiogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to discover the preferred differentiation of hCSCs toward VSMCs on KOS hydrogel. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. This innovative methodology may offer a new approach to generate a robust number of VSMCs simply by culturing hCSCs on KOS hydrogel, and the resulting VSMCs may be used in animal studies and clinical trials in

  17. Fast-Degradable Microbeads Encapsulating Human Umbilical Cord Stem Cells in Alginate for Muscle Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are inexhaustible and can be obtained without an invasive surgery. To date, there has been no report on seeding hUCMSCs in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate hUCMSC seeding in a scaffold for muscle engineering and (2) develop a novel construct consisting of hUCMSC-encapsulating and fast-degradable microbeads inside a hydrogel matrix. The rationale was that the hydrogel matrix would maintain the defect volume, while the microbeads would degrade to release the cells and concomitantly create macropores in the matrix. hUCMSCs were encapsulated in alginate-fibrin microbeads, which were packed in an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified alginate matrix (AM). This construct is referred to as hUCMSC-microbead-AM. The control consisted of the usual cell encapsulation in AM without microbeads (referred to as hUCMSC-AM). In the hUCMSC-AM construct, the hUCMSCs showed as round dots with no spreading at 1–14 days. In contrast, cells in the hUCMSC-microbead-AM construct had a healthy spreading and elongated morphology. The microbeads successfully degraded and released the cells at 8 days. Myogenic expressions for hUCMSC-microbead-AM were more than threefold those of hUCMSC-AM (p<0.05). Immunofluorescence for myogenic markers was much stronger for hUCMSC-microbead-AM than hUCMSC-AM. Muscle creatine kinase of hUCMSC-microbead-AM at 14 days was twofold that of hUCMSC-AM (p<0.05). In conclusion, hUCMSC encapsulation in novel fast-degradable microbeads inside a hydrogel matrix was investigated for muscle engineering. Compared to the usual method of seeding cells in a hydrogel matrix, hUCMSC-microbead-AM construct had greatly improved cell viability and myogenic differentiation, and hence, is promising to enhance muscle regeneration. PMID:22697426

  18. Alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and structure integrity in chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shih-Chieh; Kuo, Pei-Yin; Chang, Ching-Fang; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Ho, Larry Low-Tone

    2006-06-01

    The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) during chondrogenesis was investigated by the use of pellet culture. Undifferentiated hMSCs expressed low but detectable amounts of SMA and the addition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) to the culture medium increased SMA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Differentiation in pellet culture was rapidly induced in the presence of TGF-beta1 and was accompanied by the development of annular layers at the surface of the pellet. These peripheral layers lacked expression of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen during early differentiation. Progress in differentiation increased the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen and the expression of SMA in these layers. Double-staining for type II collagen and SMA by immunofluorescence demonstrated the differentiation of hMSCs into cells positive for these two proteins. The addition of cytochalasin D, a potent inhibitor of the polymerization of actin microfilaments, caused damage to the structural integrity and surface smoothness of the chondrogenic pellets. The SMA-positive cells in the peripheral layers of the chondrogenic pellets mimic those within the superficial layer of articular cartilage and are speculated to play a major role in cartilage development and maintenance.

  19. Neuromuscular junction formation between human stem-cell-derived motoneurons and rat skeletal muscle in a defined system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiufang; Das, Mainak; Rumsey, John; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James

    2010-12-01

    To date, the coculture of motoneurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a defined in vitro system has only been described in one study and that was between rat MNs and rat skeletal muscle. No in vitro studies have demonstrated human MN to rat muscle synapse formation, although numerous studies have attempted to implant human stem cells into rat models to determine if they could be of therapeutic use in disease or spinal injury models, although with little evidence of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation. In this report, MNs differentiated from human spinal cord stem cells, together with rat skeletal myotubes, were used to build a coculture system to demonstrate that NMJ formation between human MNs and rat skeletal muscles is possible. The culture was characterized by morphology, immunocytochemistry, and electrophysiology, while NMJ formation was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and videography. This defined system provides a highly controlled reproducible model for studying the formation, regulation, maintenance, and repair of NMJs. The in vitro coculture system developed here will be an important model system to study NMJ development, the physiological and functional mechanism of synaptic transmission, and NMJ- or synapse-related disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as for drug screening and therapy design.

  20. Human umbilical cord stem cell encapsulation in novel macroporous and injectable fibrin for muscle tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Qianming; Trotman, Carroll Ann

    2012-01-01

    There has been little research on the seeding of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were: (i) to seed hUCMSCs in a fibrin hydrogel containing fast-degradable microbeads (dMBs) to create macropores to enhance cell viability; and (ii) to investigate the encapsulated cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation for muscle tissue engineering. Mass fractions of 0–80% of dMBs were tested, and 35% of dMBs in fibrin was shown to avoid fibrin shrinkage while creating macropores and promoting cell viability. This construct was referred to as “dMB35”. Fibrin without dMBs was termed “dMB0”. Microbead degradation created macropores in fibrin and improved cell viability. The percentage of live cells in dMB35 reached 91% at 16 days, higher than the 81% in dMB0 (p < 0.05). Live cell density in dMB35 was 1.6-fold that of dMB0 (p < 0.05). The encapsulated hUCMSCs proliferated, increasing the cell density by 2.6 times in dMB35 from 1 to 16 days. MTT activity for dMB35 was substantially higher than that for dMB0 at 16 days (p < 0.05). hUCMSCs in dMB35 had high gene expressions of myotube markers of myosin heavy chain 1 (MYH1) and alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3). Elongated, multinucleated cells were formed with positive staining of myogenic specific proteins including myogenin, MYH, ACTN and actin alpha 1. Moreover, a significant increase in cell fusion was detected with myogenic induction. In conclusion, hUCMSCs were encapsulated in fibrin with degradable microbeads for the first time, achieving greatly enhanced cell viability and successful myogenic differentiation with formation of multinucleated myotubes. The injectable and macroporous fibrin–dMB–hUCMSC construct may be promising for muscle tissue engineering applications. PMID:22902812

  1. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Vascular Progenitor Cells Capable of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Katherine L; Obrtlikova, Petra; Alvarez, Diego F; King, Judy A; Keirstead, Susan A; Allred, Jeremy R; Kaufman, Dan S

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Previous studies have demonstrated development of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as separate cell lineages derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We demonstrate CD34+ cells isolated from differentiated hESCs function as vascular progenitor cells capable of producing both ECs and SMCs. These studies better define the developmental origin and reveal the relationship between these two cell types, as well as provide a more complete biological characterization. MATERIALS AND METHODS hESCs are co-cultured on M2-10B4 stromal cells or Wnt1 expressing M2-10B4 for 13–15 days to generate a CD34+ cell population. These cells are isolated using a magnetic antibody separation kit and cultured on fibronectin coated dishes in EC medium. To induce SMC differentiation, culture medium is changed and a morphological and phenotypic change occurs within 24–48 hours. RESULTS CD34+ vascular progenitor cells give rise to ECs and SMCs. The two populations express respective cell specific transcripts and proteins, exhibit intracellular calcium in response to various agonists, and form robust tube-like structures when co-cultured in Matrigel. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured under SMC conditions do not exhibit a change in phenotype or genotype. Wnt1 overexpressing stromal cells produced an increased number of progenitor cells. CONCLUSIONS The ability to generate large numbers of ECs and SMCs from a single vascular progenitor cell population is promising for therapeutic use to treat a variety of diseased and ischemic conditions. The step-wise differentiation outlined here is an efficient, reproducible method with potential for large scale cultures suitable for clinical applications. PMID:20067819

  2. A comparison of bone regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells and muscle-derived stem cells and the critical role of BMP.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueqin; Usas, Arvydas; Tang, Ying; Lu, Aiping; Tan, Jian; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Kozemchak, Adam M; Wang, Bing; Cummins, James H; Tuan, Rocky S; Huard, Johnny

    2014-08-01

    Adult multipotent stem cells have been isolated from a variety of human tissues including human skeletal muscle, which represent an easily accessible source of stem cells. It has been shown that human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (hMDSCs) are muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells capable of multipotent differentiation. Although hMDSCs can undergo osteogenic differentiation and form bone when genetically modified to express BMP2; it is still unclear whether hMDSCs are as efficient as human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) for bone regeneration. The current study aimed to address this question by performing a parallel comparison between hMDSCs and hBMMSCs to evaluate their osteogenic and bone regeneration capacities. Our results demonstrated that hMDSCs and hBMMSCs had similar osteogenic-related gene expression profiles and had similar osteogenic differentiation capacities in vitro when transduced to express BMP2. Both the untransduced hMDSCs and hBMMSCs formed very negligible amounts of bone in the critical sized bone defect model when using a fibrin sealant scaffold; however, when genetically modified with lenti-BMP2, both populations successfully regenerated bone in the defect area. No significant differences were found in the newly formed bone volumes and bone defect coverage between the hMDSC and hBMMSC groups. Although both cell types formed mature bone tissue by 6 weeks post-implantation, the newly formed bone in the hMDSCs group underwent quicker remodelling than the hBMMSCs group. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that hMDSCs are as efficient as hBMMSCs in terms of their bone regeneration capacity; however, both cell types required genetic modification with BMP in order to regenerate bone in vivo.

  3. The human desmin promoter drives robust gene expression for skeletal muscle stem cell-mediated gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Jonuschies, Jacqueline; Antoniou, Michael; Waddington, Simon; Boldrin, Luisa; Muntoni, Francesco; Thrasher, Adrian; Morgan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LVs) represent suitable candidates to mediate gene therapy for muscular dystrophies as they infect dividing and non-dividing cells and integrate their genetic material into the host genome, thereby theoretically mediating longterm expression. We evaluated the ability of LVs where a GFP reporter gene was under the control of five different promoters, to transduce and mediate expression in myogenic and non-myogenic cells in vitro and in skeletal muscle fibres and stem (satellite) cells in vivo. We further analysed lentivirally-transduced satellite cell-derived myoblasts following their transplantation into dystrophic, immunodeficient mouse muscles. The spleen focus-forming virus promoter mediated the highest gene expression in all cell types; the CBX3-HNRPA2B1 ubiquitously-acting chromatin opening element (UCOE) promoter was also active in all cells, whereas the human desmin promoter in isolation or fused with UCOE had lower activity in non-muscle cells. Surprisingly, the human skeletal muscle actin promoter was also active in immune cells. The human desmin promoter mediated robust, persistent reporter gene expression in myogenic cells in vitro, and satellite cells and muscle fibres in vivo. The human desmin promoter combined with UCOE did not significantly increase transgene expression. Therefore, our data indicate that the desmin promoter is suitable for the development of therapeutic purposes.

  4. Smooth-muscle-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells support and augment cord-like structures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vo, Elaine; Hanjaya-Putra, Donny; Zha, Yuanting; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon

    2010-06-01

    Engineering vascularized tissue is crucial for its successful implantation, survival, and integration with the host tissue. Vascular smooth muscle cells (v-SMCs) provide physical support to the vasculature and aid in maintaining endothelial viability. In this study, we show an efficient derivation of v-SMCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and demonstrate their functionality and ability to support the vasculature in vitro. Human ESCs were differentiated in monolayers and supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Human ESC-derived smooth-muscle-like cells (SMLCs) were found to highly express specific smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers--including alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, SM22, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain--to produce and secrete fibronectin and collagen, and to contract in response to carbachol. In vitro tubulogenesis assays revealed that these hESC-derived SMLCs interacted with human endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs) to form longer and thicker cord-like structures in vitro. We have demonstrated a simple protocol for the efficient derivation of highly purified SMLCs from hESCs. These in vitro functional SMLCs interacted with EPCs to support and augment capillary-like structures (CLSs), demonstrating the potential of hESCs as a cell source for therapeutic vascular tissue engineering.

  5. VCAM-1 expression on dystrophic muscle vessels has a critical role in the recruitment of human blood-derived CD133+ stem cells after intra-arterial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gavina, Manuela; Belicchi, Marzia; Rossi, Barbara; Ottoboni, Linda; Colombo, Fabio; Meregalli, Mirella; Battistelli, Maurizio; Forzenigo, Laura; Biondetti, Piero; Pisati, Federica; Parolini, Daniele; Farini, Andrea; Issekutz, Andrew C; Bresolin, Nereo; Rustichelli, Franco; Constantin, Gabriela; Torrente, Yvan

    2006-10-15

    Recently our group demonstrated the myogenic capacity of human CD133(+) cells isolated from peripheral blood when delivered in vivo through the arterial circulation into the muscle of dystrophic scid/mdx mice. CD133(+) stem cells express the adhesion molecules CD44, LFA-1, PSGL-1, alpha4-integrins, L-selectin, and chemokine receptor CCR7. Moreover these cells adhere in vitro to VCAM-1 spontaneously and after stimulation with CCL19. Importantly, after muscle exercise, we found that the expression of VCAM-1 is strongly up-regulated in dystrophic muscle vessels, whereas the number of rolling and firmly adhered CD133(+) stem cells significantly increased. Moreover, human dystrophin expression was significantly increased when muscle exercise was performed 24 hours before the intra-arterial injection of human CD133(+) cells. Finally, treatment of exercised dystrophic mice with anti-VCAM-1 antibodies led to a dramatic blockade of CD133(+) stem cell migration into the dystrophic muscle. Our results show for the first time that the expression of VCAM-1 on dystrophic muscle vessels induced by exercise controls muscle homing of human CD133(+) stem cells, opening new perspectives for a potential therapy of muscular dystrophy based on the intra-arterial delivery of CD133(+) stem cells.

  6. Enhanced elastin synthesis and maturation in human vascular smooth muscle tissue derived from induced-pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eoh, Joon H; Shen, Nian; Burke, Jacqueline A; Hinderer, Svenja; Xia, Zhiyong; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining vascular smooth muscle tissue with mature, functional elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Poor elastin secretion and organization leads to a loss of specialization in contractile smooth muscle cells, resulting in over proliferation and graft failure. In this study, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into early smooth muscle cells, seeded onto a hybrid poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate/poly (l-lactide) (PEGdma-PLA) scaffold and cultured in a bioreactor while exposed to pulsatile flow, towards maturation into contractile smooth muscle tissue. We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow on cellular organization as well as elastin expression and assembly in the engineered tissue compared to a static control through immunohistochemistry, gene expression and functionality assays. We show that culturing under pulsatile flow resulted in organized and functional hiPSC derived smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue with robust, well-organized cells and elastic fibers and the supporting microfibril proteins necessary for elastic fiber assembly. Through qRT-PCR analysis, we found significantly increased expression of elastin, fibronectin, and collagen I, indicating the synthesis of necessary extracellular matrix components. Functionality assays revealed that hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue cultured in the bioreactor had an increased calcium signaling and contraction in response to a cholinergic agonist, significantly higher mature elastin content and improved mechanical properties in comparison to the static control. The findings presented here detail an effective approach to engineering elastic human vascular smooth muscle tissue with the functionality necessary for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  7. Aging, metabolism and stem cells: Spotlight on muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    García-Prat, Laura; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-04-15

    All tissues and organs undergo a progressive regenerative decline as they age. This decline has been mainly attributed to loss of stem cell number and/or function, and both stem cell-intrinsic changes and alterations in local niches and/or systemic environment over time are known to contribute to the stem cell aging phenotype. Advancing in the molecular understanding of the deterioration of stem cell cells with aging is key for targeting the specific causes of tissue regenerative dysfunction at advanced stages of life. Here, we revise exciting recent findings on why stem cells age and the consequences on tissue regeneration, with a special focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle. We also highlight newly identified common molecular pathways affecting diverse types of aging stem cells, such as altered proteostasis, metabolism, or senescence entry, and discuss the questions raised by these findings. Finally, we comment on emerging stem cell rejuvenation strategies, principally emanating from studies on muscle stem cells, which will surely burst tissue regeneration research for future benefit of the increasing human aging population.

  8. Unique proliferation response in odontoblastic cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells by cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2015-02-01

    A pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture (CM: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 activity have been shown to increase the proliferation of rat dental pulp cells and murine stem cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. This suggests that MMP-3 may regulate wound healing and regeneration in the odontoblast-rich dental pulp. Here, we determined whether these results can be extrapolated to human dental pulp by investigating the effects of CM-induced MMP-3 up-regulation on the proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells. We used siRNA to specifically reduce MMP-3 expression. We found that CM treatment increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels as well as MMP-3 activity. Cell proliferation was also markedly increased, with no changes in apoptosis, upon treatment with CM and following the application of exogenous MMP-3. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases were constitutively expressed during all experiments and unaffected by MMP-3. Although treatment with MMP-3 siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, it also unexpectedly increased apoptosis. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed by exogenous MMP-3. These results demonstrate that cytokine-induced MMP-3 activity regulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in human odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce MMP-3 activity in human odontoblast-like cells. • Increased MMP-3 activity can promote cell proliferation in odontoblasts. • Specific loss of MMP-3 increases apoptosis in odontoblasts. • MMP-3 has potential as a promising new target for pupal repair and regeneration.

  9. Epigenetic reprogramming of human embryonic stem cells into skeletal muscle cells and generation of contractile myospheres.

    PubMed

    Albini, Sonia; Coutinho, Paula; Malecova, Barbora; Giordani, Lorenzo; Savchenko, Alex; Forcales, Sonia Vanina; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2013-03-28

    Direct generation of a homogeneous population of skeletal myoblasts from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and formation of three-dimensional contractile structures for disease modeling in vitro are current challenges in regenerative medicine. Previous studies reported on the generation of myoblasts from ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EB), but not from undifferentiated ESCs, indicating the requirement for mesodermal transition to promote skeletal myogenesis. Here, we show that selective absence of the SWI/SNF component BAF60C (encoded by SMARCD3) confers on hESCs resistance to MyoD-mediated activation of skeletal myogenesis. Forced expression of BAF60C enables MyoD to directly activate skeletal myogenesis in hESCs by instructing MyoD positioning and allowing chromatin remodeling at target genes. BAF60C/MyoD-expressing hESCs are epigenetically committed myogenic progenitors, which bypass the mesodermal requirement and, when cultured as floating clusters, give rise to contractile three-dimensional myospheres composed of skeletal myotubes. These results identify BAF60C as a key epigenetic determinant of hESC commitment to the myogenic lineage and establish the molecular basis for the generation of hESC-derived myospheres exploitable for "disease in a dish" models of muscular physiology and dysfunction.

  10. Differential gene expression profiling of human adipose stem cells differentiating into smooth muscle-like cells by TGFβ1/BMP4.

    PubMed

    Elçin, Ayşe Eser; Parmaksiz, Mahmut; Dogan, Arin; Seker, Sukran; Durkut, Serap; Dalva, Klara; Elçin, Yaşar Murat

    2017-03-15

    Regenerative repair of the vascular system is challenging from the perspectives of translational medicine and tissue engineering. There are fundamental hurdles in front of creating bioartificial arteries, which involve recaputilation of the three-layered structure under laboratory settings. Obtaining and maintaining smooth muscle characteristics is an important limitation, as the transdifferentiated cells fail to display mature phenotype. This study aims to shed light on the smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). To this end, we first acquired hASCs from lipoaspirate samples. Upon characterization, the cells were induced to differentiate into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using a variety of inducer combinations. Among all, TGFβ1/BMP4 combination had the highest differentiation efficiency, based on immunohistochemical analyses. hSM-like cell samples were compared to hASCs and to the positive control, human coronary artery-smooth muscle cells (hCA-SMCs) through gene transcription profiling. Microarray findings revealed the activation of gene groups that function in smooth muscle differentiation, signaling pathways, extracellular modeling and cell proliferation. Our results underline the effectiveness of the growth factors and suggest some potential variables for detecting the SM-like cell characteristics. Evidence in transcriptome level was used to evaluate the TGFβ1/BMP4 combination as a previously unexplored effector for the smooth muscle differentiation of adipose stem cells.

  11. Tissue engineering the mechanosensory circuit of the stretch reflex arc with human stem cells: Sensory neuron innervation of intrafusal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiufang; Colon, Alisha; Akanda, Nesar; Spradling, Severo; Stancescu, Maria; Martin, Candace; Hickman, James J

    2017-04-01

    Muscle spindles are sensory organs embedded in the belly of skeletal muscles that serve as mechanoreceptors detecting static and dynamic information about muscle length and stretch. Through their connection with proprioceptive sensory neurons, sensation of axial body position and muscle movement are transmitted to the central nervous system. Impairment of this sensory circuit causes motor deficits and has been linked to a wide range of diseases. To date, no defined human-based in vitro model of the proprioceptive sensory circuit has been developed. The goal of this study was to develop a human-based in vitro muscle sensory circuit utilizing human stem cells. A serum-free medium was developed to drive the induction of intrafusal fibers from human satellite cells by actuation of a neuregulin signaling pathway. Both bag and chain intrafusal fibers were generated and subsequently validated by phase microscopy and immunocytochemistry. When co-cultured with proprioceptive sensory neurons derived from human neuroprogenitors, mechanosensory nerve terminal structural features with intrafusal fibers were demonstrated. Most importantly, patch-clamp electrophysiological analysis of the intrafusal fibers indicated repetitive firing of human intrafusal fibers, which has not been observed in human extrafusal fibers.

  12. Direct muscle delivery of GDNF with human mesenchymal stem cells improves motor neuron survival and function in a rat model of familial ALS.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; McHugh, Jacalyn; Tork, Craig; Shelley, Brandon; Hayes, Antonio; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aebischer, Patrick; Svendsen, Clive N

    2008-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which there is a progressive loss of motor neurons and their connections to muscle, leading to paralysis. In order to maintain muscle connections in a rat model of familial ALS (FALS), we performed intramuscular transplantation with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) used as "Trojan horses" to deliver growth factors to the terminals of motor neurons and to the skeletal muscles. hMSCs engineered to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hMSC-GDNF) were transplanted bilaterally into three muscle groups. The cells survived within the muscle, released GDNF, and significantly increased the number of neuromuscular connections and motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord at mid-stages of the disease. Further, intramuscular transplantation with hMSC-GDNF was found to ameliorate motor neuron loss within the spinal cord where it connects with the limb muscles receiving transplants. While disease onset was similar in all the animals, hMSC-GDNF significantly delayed disease progression, increasing overall lifespan by up to 28 days, which is one of the largest effects on survival noted for this rat model of FALS. This preclinical data provides a novel and practical approach toward ex vivo gene therapy for ALS.

  13. Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Wharton's Jelly of the Umbilical Cord and Conditioned Media on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Using a Myectomy Model

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, T.; Armada-da Silva, P. A. S.; Amorim, I.; Rêma, A.; Caseiro, A. R.; Gärtner, A.; Rodrigues, M.; Lopes, M. A.; Bártolo, P. J.; Santos, J. D.; Luís, A. L.; Maurício, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has good regenerative capacity, but the extent of muscle injury and the developed fibrosis might prevent complete regeneration. The in vivo application of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) of the umbilical cord and the conditioned media (CM) where the HMSCs were cultured and expanded, associated with different vehicles to induce muscle regeneration, was evaluated in a rat myectomy model. Two commercially available vehicles and a spherical hydrogel developed by our research group were used. The treated groups obtained interesting results in terms of muscle regeneration, both in the histological and in the functional assessments. A less evident scar tissue, demonstrated by collagen type I quantification, was present in the muscles treated with HMSCs or their CM. In terms of the histological evaluation performed by ISO 10993-6 scoring, it was observed that HMSCs apparently have a long-term negative effect, since the groups treated with CM presented better scores. CM could be considered an alternative to the in vivo transplantation of these cells, as it can benefit from the local tissue response to secreted molecules with similar results in terms of muscular regeneration. Searching for an optimal vehicle might be the key point in the future of skeletal muscle tissue engineering. PMID:25379040

  14. Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Wharton's Jelly of the Umbilical Cord and Conditioned Media on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Using a Myectomy Model.

    PubMed

    Pereira, T; Armada-da Silva, P A S; Amorim, I; Rêma, A; Caseiro, A R; Gärtner, A; Rodrigues, M; Lopes, M A; Bártolo, P J; Santos, J D; Luís, A L; Maurício, A C

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has good regenerative capacity, but the extent of muscle injury and the developed fibrosis might prevent complete regeneration. The in vivo application of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) of the umbilical cord and the conditioned media (CM) where the HMSCs were cultured and expanded, associated with different vehicles to induce muscle regeneration, was evaluated in a rat myectomy model. Two commercially available vehicles and a spherical hydrogel developed by our research group were used. The treated groups obtained interesting results in terms of muscle regeneration, both in the histological and in the functional assessments. A less evident scar tissue, demonstrated by collagen type I quantification, was present in the muscles treated with HMSCs or their CM. In terms of the histological evaluation performed by ISO 10993-6 scoring, it was observed that HMSCs apparently have a long-term negative effect, since the groups treated with CM presented better scores. CM could be considered an alternative to the in vivo transplantation of these cells, as it can benefit from the local tissue response to secreted molecules with similar results in terms of muscular regeneration. Searching for an optimal vehicle might be the key point in the future of skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  15. A human iPSC model of Hutchinson Gilford Progeria reveals vascular smooth muscle and mesenchymal stem cell defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinqiu; Lian, Qizhou; Zhu, Guili; Zhou, Fan; Sui, Lin; Tan, Cindy; Mutalif, Rafidah Abdul; Navasankari, Raju; Zhang, Yuelin; Tse, Hung-Fat; Stewart, Colin L; Colman, Alan

    2011-01-07

    The segmental premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by a truncated and farnesylated form of Lamin A called progerin. HGPS affects mesenchymal lineages, including the skeletal system, dermis, and vascular smooth muscle (VSMC). To understand the underlying molecular pathology of HGPS, we derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from HGPS dermal fibroblasts. The iPSCs were differentiated into neural progenitors, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, VSMCs, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Progerin levels were highest in MSCs, VSMCs, and fibroblasts, in that order, with these lineages displaying increased DNA damage, nuclear abnormalities, and HGPS-VSMC accumulating numerous calponin-staining inclusion bodies. Both HGPS-MSC and -VSMC viability was compromised by stress and hypoxia in vitro and in vivo (MSC). Because MSCs reside in low oxygen niches in vivo, we propose that, in HGPS, this causes additional depletion of the MSC pool responsible for replacing differentiated cells lost to progerin toxicity.

  16. Human Muscle Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  17. Repairing skeletal muscle: regenerative potential of skeletal muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dellavalle, Arianna; Diaz-Manera, Jordi; Messina, Graziella; Cossu, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle damaged by injury or by degenerative diseases such as muscular dystrophy is able to regenerate new muscle fibers. Regeneration mainly depends upon satellite cells, myogenic progenitors localized between the basal lamina and the muscle fiber membrane. However, other cell types outside the basal lamina, such as pericytes, also have myogenic potency. Here, we discuss the main properties of satellite cells and other myogenic progenitors as well as recent efforts to obtain myogenic cells from pluripotent stem cells for patient-tailored cell therapy. Clinical trials utilizing these cells to treat muscular dystrophies, heart failure, and stress urinary incontinence are also briefly outlined. PMID:20051632

  18. Functional expression of smooth muscle-specific ion channels in TGF-β1-treated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Won Sun; Heo, Soon Chul; Jeon, Eun Su; Hong, Da Hye; Son, Youn Kyoung; Ko, Jae-Hong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) have the power to differentiate into various cell types including chondrocytes, osteocytes, adipocytes, neurons, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells. We characterized the functional expression of ion channels after transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced differentiation of hASCs, providing insights into the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The treatment of hASCs with TGF-β1 dramatically increased the contraction of a collagen-gel lattice and the expression levels of specific genes for smooth muscle including α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth mucle-myosin heavy chain, smoothelin-B, myocardin, and h-caldesmon. We observed Ca2+, big-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa), and voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) currents in TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs and not in undifferentiated hASCs. The currents share the characteristics of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that the L-type (Cav1.2) and T-type (Cav3.1, 3.2, and 3.3), known to be expressed in vascular SMCs, dramatically increased along with the Cavβ1 and Cavβ3 subtypes in TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Although the expression-level changes of the β-subtype BKCa channels varied, the major α-subtype BKCa channel (KCa1.1) clearly increased in the TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Most of the Kv subtypes, also known to be expressed in vascular SMCs, dramatically increased in the TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Our results suggest that TGF-β1 induces the increased expression of vascular SMC-like ion channels and the differentiation of hASCs into contractile vascular SMCs. PMID:23761629

  19. Functional expression of smooth muscle-specific ion channels in TGF-β(1)-treated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Sun; Heo, Soon Chul; Jeon, Eun Su; Hong, Da Hye; Son, Youn Kyoung; Ko, Jae-Hong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Jin

    2013-08-15

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) have the power to differentiate into various cell types including chondrocytes, osteocytes, adipocytes, neurons, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells. We characterized the functional expression of ion channels after transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced differentiation of hASCs, providing insights into the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The treatment of hASCs with TGF-β1 dramatically increased the contraction of a collagen-gel lattice and the expression levels of specific genes for smooth muscle including α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth mucle-myosin heavy chain, smoothelin-B, myocardin, and h-caldesmon. We observed Ca(2+), big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa), and voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) currents in TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs and not in undifferentiated hASCs. The currents share the characteristics of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that the L-type (Cav1.2) and T-type (Cav3.1, 3.2, and 3.3), known to be expressed in vascular SMCs, dramatically increased along with the Cavβ1 and Cavβ3 subtypes in TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Although the expression-level changes of the β-subtype BKCa channels varied, the major α-subtype BKCa channel (KCa1.1) clearly increased in the TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Most of the Kv subtypes, also known to be expressed in vascular SMCs, dramatically increased in the TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Our results suggest that TGF-β1 induces the increased expression of vascular SMC-like ion channels and the differentiation of hASCs into contractile vascular SMCs.

  20. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Gene Therapy of Degenerative Muscle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Loperfido, Mariana; Steele-Stallard, Heather B; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; VandenDriessche, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent a unique source for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. The intrinsic features of these cells such as their easy accessibility and their capacity to be expanded indefinitely overcome some limitations of conventional adult stem cells. Furthermore, the possibility to derive patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in combination with the current development of gene modification methods could be used for autologous cell therapies of some genetic diseases. In particular, muscular dystrophies are considered to be a good candidate due to the lack of efficacious therapeutic treatments for patients to date, and in view of the encouraging results arising from recent preclinical studies. Some hurdles, including possible genetic instability and their efficient differentiation into muscle progenitors through vector/transgene-free methods have still to be overcome or need further optimization. Additionally, engraftment and functional contribution to muscle regeneration in pre-clinical models need to be carefully assessed before clinical translation. This review offers a summary of the advanced methods recently developed to derive muscle progenitors from pluripotent stem cells, as well as gene therapy by gene addition and gene editing methods using ZFNs, TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9. We have also discussed the main issues that need to be addressed for successful clinical translation of genetically corrected patient-specific pluripotent stem cells in autologous transplantation trials for skeletal muscle disorders.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Immuno-Magnetically Sorted Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells Derived from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Restoring Urethral Sphincter Function.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Green, Morgaine; Wen, Yan; Wei, Yi; Wani, Prachi; Wang, Zhe; Reijo Pera, Renee; Chen, Bertha

    2017-04-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-based cell therapy holds promise for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, safety concerns, especially tumorgenic potential of residual undifferentiated cells in hiPSC derivatives, are major barriers for its clinical translation. An efficient, fast and clinical-scale strategy for purifying committed cells is also required. Our previous studies demonstrated the regenerative effects of hiPSC-derived smooth muscle progenitor cells (pSMCs) on the injured urethral sphincter in SUI, but the differentiation protocol required fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) which is not practical for autologous clinical applications. In this study, we examined the efficacy and safety of hiPSC-derived pSMC populations sorted by FDA-approved magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) using cell-surface marker CD34 for restoring urethral sphincter function. Although the heterogeneity of MACS-sorted pSMCs was higher than that of FACS-sorted pSMCs, the percentage of undifferentiated cells dramatically decreased after directed differentiation in vitro. In vivo studies demonstrated long-term cell integration and no tumor formation of MACS-sorted pSMCs after transplantation. Furthermore, transplantation of MACS-sorted pSMCs into immunodeficient SUI rats was comparable to transplantation with FACS-sorted pSMCs for restoration of the extracellular matrix metabolism and function of the urethral sphincter. In summary, purification of hiPSC derivatives using MACS sorting for CD34 expression represent an efficient approach for production of clinical-scale pSMCs for autologous stem cell therapy for regeneration of smooth muscle tissues. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1158-1167.

  2. Clones of ectopic stem cells in the regeneration of muscle defects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rujing; Chen, Mo; Lee, Chang Hun; Yoon, Richard; Lal, Shan; Mao, Jeremy J

    2010-10-20

    Little is known about whether clones of ectopic, non-muscle stem cells contribute to muscle regeneration. Stem/progenitor cells that are isolated for experimental research or therapeutics are typically heterogeneous. Non-myogenic lineages in a heterogeneous population conceptually may compromise tissue repair. In this study, we discovered that clones of mononucleated stem cells of human tooth pulp fused into multinucleated myotubes that robustly expressed myosin heavy chain in vitro with or without co-culture with mouse skeletal myoblasts (C2C12 cells). Cloned cells were sustainably Oct4+, Nanog+ and Stro1+. The fusion indices of myogenic clones were approximately 16-17 folds greater than their parent, heterogeneous stem cells. Upon infusion into cardio-toxin induced tibialis anterior muscle defects, undifferentiated clonal progenies not only engrafted and colonized host muscle, but also expressed human dystrophin and myosin heavy chain more efficaciously than their parent heterogeneous stem cell populations. Strikingly, clonal progenies yielded ∼9 times more human myosin heavy chain mRNA in regenerating muscles than those infused with their parent, heterogeneous stem cells. The number of human dystrophin positive cells in regenerating muscles infused with clonal progenies was more than ∼3 times greater than muscles infused with heterogeneous stem cells from which clonal progenies were derived. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of ectopic myogenic clones in muscle regeneration.

  3. Proliferation of myogenic stem cells in human skeletal muscle in response to low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Aagaard, Per; Bech, Rune Dueholm; Nygaard, Tobias; Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Wernbom, Mathias; Suetta, Charlotte; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2012-09-01

    Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction has been shown to elicit substantial increases in muscle mass and muscle strength; however, the effect on myogenic stem cells (MSCs) and myonuclei number remains unexplored. Ten male subjects (22.8 ± 2.3 years)performed four sets of knee extensor exercise (20% 1RM) to concentric failure during bloodflow restriction (BFR) of the proximal thigh (100 mmHg), while eight work-matched controls(21.9 ± 3.0 years) trained without BFR (control, CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 days. Maximal isometric knee extensor strength (MVC) was examined pre- and post-training, while muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline (Pre), after 8 days intervention(Mid8) and 3 (Post3) and 10 days (Post10) post training to examine changes in myofibre area (MFA), MSC and myonuclei number. MVC increased by 7.1% (Post5) and 10.6% (Post12)(P <0.001) with BFR training, while type I and II MFA increased by 38% (Mid8), 35 – 37%(Post3) and 31 – 32% (Post10) (P <0.001). MSCs per myofibre increased with BFR training from 0.10 ± 0.01 (Pre) to 0.38 ± 0.02 (Mid8), 0.36 ± 0.04 (Post3) and 0.25 ± 0.02 (Post10) (P <0.001). Likewise, myonuclei per myofibre increased from 2.49 ± 0.07 (Pre) to 3.30 ± 0.22(Mid8), 3.20 ± 0.16 (Post3) and 3.11 ± 0.11 (Post10), (P<0.01). Although MFA increased in CON at Mid8, it returned to baseline at Post3. No changes in MSC or myonuclei number were observed in CON. This study is the first to show that short-term low-load resistance exercise performed with partial blood flow restriction leads to marked proliferation of myogenic stem cells and resulting myonuclei addition in human skeletal muscle, which is accompanied by substantial myofibre hypertrophy.

  4. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-11-21

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.

  5. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Maki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Soeda, Shuichi; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+) cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm) bridging an acellular conduit. After 8–12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells) were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90%) of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap) was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon) and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus) recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks) of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk

  6. Vascular progenitor cells isolated from human embryonic stem cells give rise to endothelial and smooth muscle like cells and form vascular networks in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lino S; Gerecht, Sharon; Shieh, Hester F; Watson, Nicki; Rupnick, Maria A; Dallabrida, Susan M; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Langer, Robert

    2007-08-03

    We report that human embryonic stem cells contain a population of vascular progenitor cells that have the ability to differentiate into endothelial-like and smooth muscle (SM)-like cells. Vascular progenitor cells were isolated from EBs grown in suspension for 10 days and were characterized by expression of the endothelial/hematopoietic marker CD34 (CD34+ cells). When these cells are subsequently cultured in EGM-2 (endothelial growth medium) supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (50 ng/mL), they give rise to endothelial-like cells characterized by a cobblestone cell morphology, expression of endothelial markers (platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1, CD34, KDR/Flk-1, vascular endothelial cadherin, von Willebrand factor), incorporation of acetylated low-density lipoprotein, and formation of capillary-like structures when placed in Matrigel. In contrast, when CD34+ cells are cultured in EGM-2 supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (50 ng/mL), they give rise to SM-like cells characterized by spindle-shape morphology, expression of SM cell markers (alpha-SM actin, SM myosin heavy chain, calponin, caldesmon, SM alpha-22), and the ability to contract and relax in response to common pharmacological agents such as carbachol and atropine but rarely form capillary-like structures when placed in Matrigel. Implantation studies in nude mice show that both cell types contribute to the formation of human microvasculature. Some microvessels contained mouse blood cells, which indicates functional integration with host vasculature. Therefore, the vascular progenitors isolated from human embryonic stem cells using methods established in the present study could provide a means to examine the mechanisms of endothelial and SM cell development, and they could also provide a potential source of cells for vascular tissue engineering.

  7. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells as a Source of Smooth Muscle Cells in the Regeneration of Muscular Layer of Urinary Bladder Wall

    PubMed Central

    SALEM, Salah Abood; HWIE, Angela Ng Min; SAIM, Aminuddin; CHEE KONG, Christopher Ho; SAGAP, Ismail; SINGH, Rajesh; YUSOF, Mohd Reusmaazran; MD ZAINUDDIN, Zulkifili; HJ IDRUS, Ruszymah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adipose tissue provides an abundant source of multipotent cells, which represent a source of cell-based regeneration strategies for urinary bladder smooth muscle repair. Our objective was to confirm that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be differentiated into smooth muscle cells. Methods: In this study, adipose tissue samples were digested with 0.075% collagenase, and the resulting ADSCs were cultured and expanded in vitro. ADSCs at passage two were differentiated by incubation in smooth muscle inductive media (SMIM) consisting of MCDB I31 medium, 1% FBS, and 100 U/mL heparin for three and six weeks. ADSCs in non-inductive media were used as controls. Characterisation was performed by cell morphology and gene and protein expression. Result: The differentiated cells became elongated and spindle shaped, and towards the end of six weeks, sporadic cell aggregation appeared that is typical of smooth muscle cell culture. Smooth muscle markers (i.e. alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA), calponin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC)) were used to study gene expression. Expression of these genes was detected by PCR after three and six weeks of differentiation. At the protein expression level, ASMA, MHC, and smoothelin were expressed after six weeks of differentiation. However, only ASMA and smoothelin were expressed after three weeks of differentiation. Conclusion: Adipose tissue provides a possible source of smooth muscle precursor cells that possess the potential capability of smooth muscle differentiation. This represents a promising alternative for urinary bladder smooth muscle repair. PMID:24044001

  8. A Novel Method for Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Smooth Muscle-Like Cells on Clinically Deliverable Thermally Induced Phase Separation Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Nina; Ahmadi, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Muscle degeneration is a prevalent disease, particularly in aging societies where it has a huge impact on quality of life and incurs colossal health costs. Suitable donor sources of smooth muscle cells are limited and minimally invasive therapeutic approaches are sought that will augment muscle volume by delivering cells to damaged or degenerated areas of muscle. For the first time, we report the use of highly porous microcarriers produced using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) to expand and differentiate adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) into smooth muscle-like cells in a format that requires minimal manipulation before clinical delivery. AdMSCs readily attached to the surface of TIPS microcarriers and proliferated while maintained in suspension culture for 12 days. Switching the incubation medium to a differentiation medium containing 2 ng/mL transforming growth factor beta-1 resulted in a significant increase in both the mRNA and protein expression of cell contractile apparatus components caldesmon, calponin, and myosin heavy chains, indicative of a smooth muscle cell-like phenotype. Growth of smooth muscle cells on the surface of the microcarriers caused no change to the integrity of the polymer microspheres making them suitable for a cell-delivery vehicle. Our results indicate that TIPS microspheres provide an ideal substrate for the expansion and differentiation of AdMSCs into smooth muscle-like cells as well as a microcarrier delivery vehicle for the attached cells ready for therapeutic applications. PMID:25205072

  9. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed

  10. The emergence of Pax7-expressing muscle stem cells during vertebrate head muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Julia Meireles; Hawrot, Katarzyna; Sharpe, Colin; Noble, Anna; Wood, William M.; Jorge, Erika C.; Goldhamer, David J.; Kardon, Gabrielle; Dietrich, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Pax7 expressing muscle stem cells accompany all skeletal muscles in the body and in healthy individuals, efficiently repair muscle after injury. Currently, the in vitro manipulation and culture of these cells is still in its infancy, yet muscle stem cells may be the most promising route toward the therapy of muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophies. It is often overlooked that muscular dystrophies affect head and body skeletal muscle differently. Moreover, these muscles develop differently. Specifically, head muscle and its stem cells develop from the non-somitic head mesoderm which also has cardiac competence. To which extent head muscle stem cells retain properties of the early head mesoderm and might even be able to switch between a skeletal muscle and cardiac fate is not known. This is due to the fact that the timing and mechanisms underlying head muscle stem cell development are still obscure. Consequently, it is not clear at which time point one should compare the properties of head mesodermal cells and head muscle stem cells. To shed light on this, we traced the emergence of head muscle stem cells in the key vertebrate models for myogenesis, chicken, mouse, frog and zebrafish, using Pax7 as key marker. Our study reveals a common theme of head muscle stem cell development that is quite different from the trunk. Unlike trunk muscle stem cells, head muscle stem cells do not have a previous history of Pax7 expression, instead Pax7 expression emerges de-novo. The cells develop late, and well after the head mesoderm has committed to myogenesis. We propose that this unique mechanism of muscle stem cell development is a legacy of the evolutionary history of the chordate head mesoderm. PMID:26042028

  11. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Haagsman, Henk P.; Roelen, Bernard A.J.

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  12. Novel insight into stem cell trafficking in dystrophic muscles.

    PubMed

    Farini, Andrea; Villa, Chiara; Manescu, Adrian; Fiori, Fabrizio; Giuliani, Alessandra; Razini, Paola; Sitzia, Clementina; Del Fraro, Giulia; Belicchi, Marzia; Meregalli, Mirella; Rustichelli, Franco; Torrente, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Recently published reports have described possible cellular therapy approaches to regenerate muscle tissues using arterial route delivery. However, the kinetic of distribution of these migratory stem cells within injected animal muscular dystrophy models is unknown. Using living X-ray computed microtomography, we established that intra-arterially injected stem cells traffic to multiple muscle tissues for several hours until their migration within dystrophic muscles. Injected stem cells express multiple traffic molecules, including VLA-4, LFA-1, CD44, and the chemokine receptor CXCR4, which are likely to direct these cells into dystrophic muscles. In fact, the majority of intra-arterially injected stem cells access the muscle tissues not immediately after the injection, but after several rounds of recirculation. We set up a new, living, 3D-imaging approach, which appears to be an important way to investigate the kinetic of distribution of systemically injected stem cells within dystrophic muscle tissues, thereby providing supportive data for future clinical applications.

  13. Highly efficient, functional engraftment of skeletal muscle stem cells in dystrophic muscles.

    PubMed

    Cerletti, Massimiliano; Jurga, Sara; Witczak, Carol A; Hirshman, Michael F; Shadrach, Jennifer L; Goodyear, Laurie J; Wagers, Amy J

    2008-07-11

    Satellite cells reside beneath the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers and include cells that act as precursors for muscle growth and repair. Although they share a common anatomical localization and typically are considered a homogeneous population, satellite cells actually exhibit substantial heterogeneity. We used cell-surface marker expression to purify from the satellite cell pool a distinct population of skeletal muscle precursors (SMPs) that function as muscle stem cells. When engrafted into muscle of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, purified SMPs contributed to up to 94% of myofibers, restoring dystrophin expression and significantly improving muscle histology and contractile function. Transplanted SMPs also entered the satellite cell compartment, renewing the endogenous stem cell pool and participating in subsequent rounds of injury repair. Together, these studies indicate the presence in adult skeletal muscle of prospectively isolatable muscle-forming stem cells and directly demonstrate the efficacy of myogenic stem cell transplant for treating muscle degenerative disease.

  14. Differentiation rather than aging of muscle stem cells abolishes their telomerase activity

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Matthew S.; Carlson, Morgan E.; Conboy, Irina M.

    2009-01-01

    A general feature of stem cells is the ability to routinely proliferate in order to build, maintain, and repair organ systems. Accordingly, embryonic and germline, as well as some adult stem cells, produce the telomerase enzyme at various levels of expression. Our results show that, while muscle is a largely post-mitotic tissue, the muscle stem cells (satellite cells) that maintain this biological system throughout adult life do indeed display robust telomerase activity. Conversely, primary myoblasts (the immediate progeny of satellite cells) quickly and dramatically down-regulate telomerase activity. This work thus suggests that satellite cells, and early transient myoblasts, may be more promising therapeutic candidates for regenerative medicine than traditionally utilized myoblast cultures. Muscle atrophy accompanies human aging, and satellite cells endogenous to aged muscle can be triggered to regenerate old tissue by exogenous molecular cues. Therefore, we also examined whether these aged muscle stem cells would produce tissue that is “young” with respect to telomere maintenance. Interestingly, this work shows that the telomerase activity in muscle stem cells is largely retained into old age wintin inbred “long” telomere mice and in wild-derived short telomere mouse strains, and that age-specific telomere shortening is undetectable in the old differentiated muscle fibers of either strain. Summarily, this work establishes that young and old muscle stem cells, but not necessarily their progeny, myoblasts, are likely to produce tissue with normal telomere maintenance when used in molecular and regenerative medicine approaches for tissue repair. PMID:19455648

  15. Invited review: Stem cells and muscle diseases: advances in cell therapy strategies.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Elisa; Gidaro, Teresa; Bigot, Anne; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Mouly, Vincent; Trollet, Capucine

    2015-04-01

    Despite considerable progress to increase our understanding of muscle genetics, pathophysiology, molecular and cellular partners involved in muscular dystrophies and muscle ageing, there is still a crucial need for effective treatments to counteract muscle degeneration and muscle wasting in such conditions. This review focuses on cell-based therapy for muscle diseases. We give an overview of the different parameters that have to be taken into account in such a therapeutic strategy, including the influence of muscle ageing, cell proliferation and migration capacities, as well as the translation of preclinical results in rodent into human clinical approaches. We describe recent advances in different types of human myogenic stem cells, with a particular emphasis on myoblasts but also on other candidate cells described so far [CD133+ cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cells (ALDH+), muscle-derived stem cells (MuStem), embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS)]. Finally, we provide an update of ongoing clinical trials using cell therapy strategies.

  16. Muscle Stem Cells: A Model System for Adult Stem Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Ddw; Perdiguero, Eusebio

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells, originally termed satellite cells for their position adjacent to differentiated muscle fibers, are absolutely required for the process of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. In the last decade, satellite cells have become one of the most studied adult stem cell systems and have emerged as a standard model not only in the field of stem cell-driven tissue regeneration but also in stem cell dysfunction and aging. Here, we provide background in the field and discuss recent advances in our understanding of muscle stem cell function and dysfunction, particularly in the case of aging, and the potential involvement of muscle stem cells in genetic diseases such as the muscular dystrophies.

  17. Advancements in stem cells treatment of skeletal muscle wasting

    PubMed Central

    Meregalli, Mirella; Farini, Andrea; Sitzia, Clementina; Torrente, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, in which progressive muscle wasting and weakness is often associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. Although physiological properties of skeletal muscle tissue are now well known, no treatments are effective for these diseases. Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells) and also by interfering with the malignant processes that originate in pathological tissues, such as uncontrolled fibrosis and inflammation. Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging. PMID:24575052

  18. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    SciTech Connect

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal {beta} III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  19. Embryonic and embryonic-like stem cells in heart muscle engineering.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2011-02-01

    Cardiac muscle engineering is evolving rapidly and may ultimately be exploited to (1) model cardiac development, physiology, and pathology; (2) identify and validate drug targets; (3) assess drug safety and efficacy; and (4) provide therapeutic substitute myocardium. The ultimate success in any of these envisioned applications depends on the utility of human cells and their assembly into myocardial equivalents with structural and functional properties of mature heart muscle. Embryonic stem cells appear as a promising cell source in this respect, because they can be cultured reliably and differentiated robustly into cardiomyocytes. Despite their unambiguous cardiogenicity, data on advanced maturation and seamless myocardial integration of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in vivo are sparse. Additional concerns relate to the limited control over cardiomyogenic specification and cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro as well as the risk of teratocarcinoma formation and immune rejection of stem cell implants in vivo. Through the invent of embryonic-like stem cells - such as parthenogenetic stem cells, male germline stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells - some but certainly not all of these issues may be addressed, albeit at the expense of additional concerns. This review will discuss the applicability of embryonic and embryonic-like stem cells in myocardial tissue engineering and address issues that require particular attention before the potential of stem cell-based heart muscle engineering may be fully exploited. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  20. Transcriptional networks that regulate muscle stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Punch, Vincent G; Jones, Andrew E; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Muscle stem cells comprise different populations of stem and progenitor cells found in embryonic and adult tissues. A number of signaling and transcriptional networks are responsible for specification and survival of these cell populations and regulation of their behavior during growth and regeneration. Muscle progenitor cells are mostly derived from the somites of developing embryos, while satellite cells are the progenitor cells responsible for the majority of postnatal growth and adult muscle regeneration. In resting muscle, these stem cells are quiescent, but reenter the cell cycle during their activation, whereby they undergo decisions to self-renew, proliferate, or differentiate and fuse into multinucleated myofibers to repair damaged muscle. Regulation of muscle stem cell activity is under the precise control of a number of extrinsic signaling pathways and active transcriptional networks that dictate their behavior, fate, and regenerative potential. Here, we review the networks responsible for these different aspects of muscle stem cell biology and discuss prevalent parallels between mechanisms regulating the activity of embryonic muscle progenitor cells and adult satellite cells.

  1. Human Satellite Cell Transplantation and Regeneration from Diverse Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoti; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Kouklis, Gayle; Tian, Hua; Hesse, Robert; Garland, Catharine; Sbitany, Hani; Hansen, Scott; Seth, Rahul; Knott, P. Daniel; Hoffman, William Y.; Pomerantz, Jason H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Identification of human satellite cells that fulfill muscle stem cell criteria is an unmet need in regenerative medicine. This hurdle limits understanding how closely muscle stem cell properties are conserved among mice and humans and hampers translational efforts in muscle regeneration. Here, we report that PAX7 satellite cells exist at a consistent frequency of 2–4 cells/mm of fiber in muscles of the human trunk, limbs, and head. Xenotransplantation into mice of 50–70 fiber-associated, or 1,000–5,000 FACS-enriched CD56+/CD29+ human satellite cells led to stable engraftment and formation of human-derived myofibers. Human cells with characteristic PAX7, CD56, and CD29 expression patterns populated the satellite cell niche beneath the basal lamina on the periphery of regenerated fibers. After additional injury, transplanted satellite cells robustly regenerated to form hundreds of human-derived fibers. Together, these findings conclusively delineate a source of bona-fide endogenous human muscle stem cells that will aid development of clinical applications. PMID:26352798

  2. Human Satellite Cell Transplantation and Regeneration from Diverse Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoti; Wilschut, Karlijn J; Kouklis, Gayle; Tian, Hua; Hesse, Robert; Garland, Catharine; Sbitany, Hani; Hansen, Scott; Seth, Rahul; Knott, P Daniel; Hoffman, William Y; Pomerantz, Jason H

    2015-09-08

    Identification of human satellite cells that fulfill muscle stem cell criteria is an unmet need in regenerative medicine. This hurdle limits understanding how closely muscle stem cell properties are conserved among mice and humans and hampers translational efforts in muscle regeneration. Here, we report that PAX7 satellite cells exist at a consistent frequency of 2-4 cells/mm of fiber in muscles of the human trunk, limbs, and head. Xenotransplantation into mice of 50-70 fiber-associated, or 1,000-5,000 FACS-enriched CD56(+)/CD29(+) human satellite cells led to stable engraftment and formation of human-derived myofibers. Human cells with characteristic PAX7, CD56, and CD29 expression patterns populated the satellite cell niche beneath the basal lamina on the periphery of regenerated fibers. After additional injury, transplanted satellite cells robustly regenerated to form hundreds of human-derived fibers. Together, these findings conclusively delineate a source of bona-fide endogenous human muscle stem cells that will aid development of clinical applications.

  3. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  4. Trichinella spiralis in human muscle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked ... produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts may cause muscle pain and ...

  5. Role of muscle stem cells during skeletal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Abou-Khalil, Rana; Yang, Frank; Lieu, Shirley; Julien, Anais; Perry, Jaselle; Pereira, Catia; Relaix, Frédéric; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph; Colnot, Céline

    2015-05-01

    Although the importance of muscle in skeletal regeneration is well recognized clinically, the mechanisms by which muscle supports bone repair have remained elusive. Muscle flaps are often used to cover the damaged bone after traumatic injury yet their contribution to bone healing is not known. Here, we show that direct bone-muscle interactions are required for periosteum activation and callus formation, and that muscle grafts provide a source of stem cells for skeletal regeneration. We investigated the role of satellite cells, the muscle stem cells. Satellite cells loss in Pax7(-/-) mice and satellite cell ablation in Pax7(Cre) (ERT) (2/) (+) ;DTA(f/f) mice impaired bone regeneration. Although satellite cells did not contribute as a large source of cells endogenously, they exhibited a potential to contribute to bone repair after transplantation. The fracture healing phenotype in Pax7(Cre) (ERT) (2/) (+) ;DTA(f/f) mice was associated with decreased bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), insulin-like growth factor 1, and fibroblast growth factor 2 expression that are normally upregulated in response to fracture in satellite cells. Exogenous rhBMP2 improved bone healing in Pax7(Cre) (ERT) (2/) (+) ;DTA(f/f) mice further supporting the role of satellite cells as a source of growth factors. These results provide the first functional evidence for a direct contribution of muscle to bone regeneration with important clinical implications as it may impact the use of muscle flaps, muscle stem cells, and growth factors in orthopedic applications.

  6. Stem Cell Antigen-1 in Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Harold S.; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1 in normal, post-natal muscle has not been thoroughly investigated. We systematically compared Sca-1-/- (KO) and Sca-1+/+ (WT) mice and hindlimb muscles to elucidate the tissue, contractile, and functional effects of Sca-1 in young and aging animals. Comparison of muscle volume, fibrosis, myofiber cross-sectional area, and Pax7+ myoblast number showed little differences between ages or genotypes. Exercise protocols, however, demonstrated decreased stamina in KO versus WT mice, with young KO mice achieving results similar to aging WT animals. In addition, KO mice did not improve with practice, while WT animals demonstrated conditioning over time. Surprisingly, myomechanical analysis of isolated muscles showed that KO young muscle generated more force and experienced less fatigue. However, KO muscle also demonstrated incomplete relaxation with fatigue. These findings suggest that Sca-1 is necessary for muscle conditioning with exercise, and that deficient conditioning in Sca-1 KO animals becomes more pronounced with age. PMID:24042315

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of two stem cell markers of α-smooth muscle actin and STRO-1 during wound healing of human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Yoshiba, Nagako; Yoshiba, Kunihiko; Ohkura, Naoto; Shigetani, Yoshimi; Takei, Erika; Hosoya, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Okiji, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies have employed two markers, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and STRO-1, to detect cells with mesenchymal stem cell properties in dental pulp. The present study aimed to explore the expression profile of α-SMA and STRO-1 in intact dental pulp as well as during wound healing in adult dental pulp tissue. Healthy pulps were mechanically exposed and capped with the clinically used materials MTA (ProRoot White MTA) or Ca(OH)₂ to induce a mineralized barrier at the exposed surface. After 7-42 days, the teeth were extracted and processed for immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies against α-SMA, STRO-1 and nestin (a neurogenic cytoskeletal protein expressed in odontoblasts). In normal pulp, α-SMA was detected in vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Double immunofluorescent staining with STRO-1 and α-SMA showed that STRO-1 was localized in vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes and endothelial cells, in addition to nerve fibers. During the process of dental pulp healing, numerous α-SMA-positive cells emerged at the wound margin at 14 days, and the initially formed mineralized barrier was lined with α-SMA-positive cells similar in appearance to reparative odontoblasts, some of which co-expressed nestin. STRO-1 was abundant in nerve fibers. In the advanced stage of mineralized barrier formation at 42 days, cells lining the barrier were stained with nestin, and no staining of α-SMA was detected in those cells. These observations indicate that α-SMA-positive cells temporarily appear along the wound margin during the earlier phase of mineralized barrier formation and STRO-1 is confined in vascular and neuronal elements.

  8. Biomechanical Origins of Muscle Stem Cell Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, James B; Cheng, Richard Y; Davoudi, Sadegh; Gilbert, Penney M

    2016-04-10

    Skeletal muscle, the most abundant and widespread tissue in the human body, contracts upon receiving electrochemical signals from the nervous system to support essential functions such as thermoregulation, limb movement, blinking, swallowing and breathing. Reconstruction of adult muscle tissue relies on a pool of mononucleate, resident muscle stem cells, known as "satellite cells", expressing the paired-box transcription factor Pax7 necessary for their specification during embryonic development and long-term maintenance during adult life. Satellite cells are located around the myofibres in a niche at the interface of the basal lamina and the host fibre plasma membrane (i.e., sarcolemma), at a very low frequency. Upon damage to the myofibres, quiescent satellite cells are activated and give rise to a population of transient amplifying myogenic progenitor cells, which eventually exit the cell cycle permanently and fuse to form new myofibres and regenerate the tissue. A subpopulation of satellite cells self-renew and repopulate the niche, poised to respond to future demands. Harnessing the potential of satellite cells relies on a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms guiding their regulation in vivo. Over the past several decades, studies revealed many signal transduction pathways responsible for satellite cell fate decisions, but the niche cues driving the activation and silencing of these pathways are less clear. Here we explore the scintillating possibility that considering the dynamic changes in the biophysical properties of the skeletal muscle, namely stiffness, and the stretch and shear forces to which a myofibre can be subjected to may provide missing information necessary to gain a full understanding of satellite cell niche regulation.

  9. Regenerative function of immune system: Modulation of muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saini, Jasdeep; McPhee, Jamie S; Al-Dabbagh, Sarah; Stewart, Claire E; Al-Shanti, Nasser

    2016-05-01

    Ageing is characterised by progressive deterioration of physiological systems and the loss of skeletal muscle mass is one of the most recognisable, leading to muscle weakness and mobility impairments. This review highlights interactions between the immune system and skeletal muscle stem cells (widely termed satellite cells or myoblasts) to influence satellite cell behaviour during muscle regeneration after injury, and outlines deficits associated with ageing. Resident neutrophils and macrophages in skeletal muscle become activated when muscle fibres are damaged via stimuli (e.g. contusions, strains, avulsions, hyperextensions, ruptures) and release high concentrations of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors into the microenvironment. These localised responses serve to attract additional immune cells which can reach in excess of 1×10(5) immune cell/mm(3) of skeletal muscle in order to orchestrate the repair process. T-cells have a delayed response, reaching peak activation roughly 4 days after the initial damage. The cytokines and growth factors released by activated T-cells play a key role in muscle satellite cell proliferation and migration, although the precise mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. T-cells in older people display limited ability to activate satellite cell proliferation and migration which is likely to contribute to insufficient muscle repair and, consequently, muscle wasting and weakness. If the factors released by T-cells to activate satellite cells can be identified, it may be possible to develop therapeutic agents to enhance muscle regeneration and reduce the impact of muscle wasting during ageing and disease.

  10. Muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells are hematopoietic in origin

    PubMed Central

    McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L.; Jackson, Kathyjo A.; Camargo, Fernando D.; Ferrari, Giuliana; Mavilio, Fulvio; Goodell, Margaret A.

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been shown that mononuclear cells from murine skeletal muscle contain the potential to repopulate all major peripheral blood lineages in lethally irradiated mice, but the origin of this activity is unknown. We have fractionated muscle cells on the basis of hematopoietic markers to show that the active population exclusively expresses the hematopoietic stem cell antigens Sca-1 and CD45. Muscle cells obtained from 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6-CD45.1 mice and enriched for cells expressing Sca-1 and CD45 were able to generate hematopoietic but not myogenic colonies in vitro and repopulated multiple hematopoietic lineages of lethally irradiated C57BL/6-CD45.2 mice. These data show that muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells are likely derived from the hematopoietic system and are a result not of transdifferentiation of myogenic stem cells but instead of the presence of substantial numbers of hematopoietic stem cells in the muscle. Although CD45-negative cells were highly myogenic in vitro and in vivo, CD45-positive muscle-derived cells displayed only very limited myogenic activity and only in vivo. PMID:11830662

  11. Therapies for sarcopenia and regeneration of old skeletal muscles: more a case of old tissue architecture than old stem cells.

    PubMed

    Grounds, Miranda D

    2014-01-01

    Age related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) reduces independence and the quality of life for individuals, and leads to falls and fractures with escalating health costs for the rapidly aging human population. Thus there is much interest in developing interventions to reduce sarcopenia. One area that has attracted recent attention is the proposed use of myogenic stem cells to improve regeneration of old muscles. This mini-review challenges the fundamental need for myogenic stem cell therapy for sarcopenia. It presents evidence that demonstrates the excellent capacity of myogenic stem cells from very old rodent and human muscles to form new muscles after experimental myofiber necrosis. The many factors required for successful muscle regeneration are considered with a strong focus on integration of components of old muscle bioarchitecture. The fundamental role of satellite cells in homeostasis of normal aging muscles and the incidence of endogenous regeneration in old muscles is questioned. These issues, combined with problems for clinical myogenic stem cell therapies for severe muscle diseases, raise fundamental concerns about the justification for myogenic stem cell therapy for sarcopenia.

  12. Age-Associated Methylation Suppresses SPRY1, Leading to a Failure of Re-quiescence and Loss of the Reserve Stem Cell Pool in Elderly Muscle.

    PubMed

    Bigot, Anne; Duddy, William J; Ouandaogo, Zamalou G; Negroni, Elisa; Mariot, Virginie; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Harmon, Brennan; Wielgosik, Aurore; Loiseau, Camille; Devaney, Joe; Dumonceaux, Julie; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Duguez, Stéphanie

    2015-11-10

    The molecular mechanisms by which aging affects stem cell number and function are poorly understood. Murine data have implicated cellular senescence in the loss of muscle stem cells with aging. Here, using human cells and by carrying out experiments within a strictly pre-senescent division count, we demonstrate an impaired capacity for stem cell self-renewal in elderly muscle. We link aging to an increased methylation of the SPRY1 gene, a known regulator of muscle stem cell quiescence. Replenishment of the reserve cell pool was modulated experimentally by demethylation or siRNA knockdown of SPRY1. We propose that suppression of SPRY1 by age-associated methylation in humans inhibits the replenishment of the muscle stem cell pool, contributing to a decreased regenerative response in old age. We further show that aging does not affect muscle stem cell senescence in humans.

  13. Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang; Price, Feodor

    2013-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle in mammals is a stable tissue under normal circumstances but has remarkable ability to repair after injury. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process involving the activation of various cellular and molecular responses. As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. The self-renewing proliferation of satellite cells not only maintains the stem cell population but also provides numerous myogenic cells, which proliferate, differentiate, fuse, and lead to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. The complex behavior of satellite cells during skeletal muscle regeneration is tightly regulated through the dynamic interplay between intrinsic factors within satellite cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche/microenvironment. For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. Here, we review some recent advances, with focuses on functions of satellite cells and their niche during the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23303905

  14. Skeletal muscle patch engineering on synthetic and acellular human skeletal muscle originated scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ay, Birol; Karaoz, Erdal; Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Kenar, Halime

    2017-03-01

    The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue is currently performed by transplanting a muscle tissue graft from local or distant sites of the patient's body, but this practice leads to donor site morbidity in case of large defects. With the aim of providing an alternative treatment approach, skeletal muscle tissue formation potential of human myoblasts and human menstrual blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMB-MSCs) on synthetic [poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone), 70:30] scaffolds with oriented microfibers, human muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), and their hybrids was investigated in this study. The reactive muscle ECM pieces were chemically crosslinked to the synthetic scaffolds to produce the hybrids. Cell proliferation assay WST-1, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and immunostaining were carried out after culturing the cells on the scaffolds. The ECM and the synthetic scaffolds were effective in promoting spontaneous myotube formation from human myoblasts. Anisotropic muscle patch formation was more successful when human myoblasts were grown on the synthetic scaffolds. Nonetheless, spontaneous differentiation could not be induced in hMB-MSCs on any type of the scaffolds. Human myoblast-synthetic scaffold combination is promising as a skeletal muscle patch, and can be improved further to serve as a fast integrating functional patch by introducing vascular and neuronal networks to the structure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 879-890, 2017.

  15. A cautionary tale for autologous vascular tissue engineering: impact of human demographics on the ability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to recruit and differentiate into smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Krawiec, Jeffrey T; Weinbaum, Justin S; St Croix, Claudette M; Phillippi, Julie A; Watkins, Simon C; Rubin, J Peter; Vorp, David A

    2015-02-01

    Autologous tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) generated using adult stem cells have shown promising results, but many preclinical evaluations do not test the efficacy of stem cells from patient populations likely to need therapy (i.e., elderly and diabetic humans). Two critical functions of these cells will be (i) secreting factors that induce the migration of host cells into the graft and (ii) differentiating into functional vascular cells themselves. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) sourced from diabetic and elderly patients have a reduced ability to promote human smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and differentiation potential toward SMCs, two important processes in stem cell-based tissue engineering of vascular grafts. SMC monolayers were disrupted in vitro by a scratch wound and were induced to close the wound by exposure to media conditioned by AD-MSCs from healthy, elderly, and diabetic patients. Media conditioned by AD-MSCs from healthy patients promoted the migration of SMCs and did so in a dose-dependent manner; heating the media to 56°C eliminated the media's potency. AD-MSCs from diabetic and elderly patients had a decreased ability to differentiate into SMCs under angiotensin II stimulation; however, only AD-MSCs from elderly donors were unable to promote SMC migration. Gender and body-mass index of the patients showed no effect on either critical function of AD-MSCs. In conclusion, AD-MSCs from elderly patients may not be suitable for autologous TEBVs due to inadequate promotion of SMC migration and differentiation.

  16. Conditioned medium derived from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells regenerates atrophied muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Z-Hun; Kim, Sun-Mi; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the regenerative effects and regulatory mechanisms of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs)-derived conditioned medium (CM) in atrophied muscles using an in vivo model. To determine the appropriate harvest point of UC-CM, active factor content was analyzed in the secretome over time. A muscle atrophy model was induced in rats by hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks. Next, UC-CM was injected directly into the soleus muscle of both hind legs to assess its regenerative efficacy on atrophy-related factors after 1 week of HS. During HS, muscle mass and muscle fiber size were significantly reduced by over 2-fold relative to untreated controls. Lactate accumulation within the muscles was similarly increased. By contrast, all of the above analytical factors were significantly improved in HS-induced rats by UC-CM injection compared with saline injection. Furthermore, the expression levels of desmin and skeletal muscle actin were significantly elevated by UC-CM treatment. Importantly, UC-CM effectively suppressed expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin E3-ligases, muscle ring finger 1 and muscle atrophy F-box by 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively. UC-CM exerted its actions by stimulating the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling cascade. These findings suggest that UC-CM provides an effective stimulus to recover muscle status and function in atrophied muscles.

  17. Human embryonic stem cells and cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Hauch, Kip D; Xu, Chunhui; Laflamme, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The muscle lost after a myocardial infarction is replaced with noncontractile scar tissue, often initiating heart failure. Whole-organ cardiac transplantation is the only currently available clinical means of replacing the lost muscle, but this option is limited by the inadequate supply of donor hearts. Thus, cell-based cardiac repair has attracted considerable interest as an alternative means of ameliorating cardiac injury. Because of their tremendous capacity for expansion and unquestioned cardiac potential, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an attractive candidate cell source for obtaining cardiomyocytes and other useful mesenchymal cell types for such therapies. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes exhibit a committed cardiac phenotype and robust proliferative capacity, and recent testing in rodent infarct models indicates that they can partially remuscularize injured hearts and improve contractile function. Although the latter successes give good reason for optimism, considerable challenges remain in the successful application of hESCs to cardiac repair, including the need for preparations of high cardiac purity, improved methods of delivery, and approaches to overcome immune rejection and other causes of graft cell death. This review will describe the phenotype of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes and preclinical experience with these cells and will consider strategies to overcoming the aforementioned challenges.

  18. Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite.

    PubMed

    Jack, Gregory S; Zhang, Rong; Lee, Min; Xu, Yuhan; Wu, Ben M; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2009-07-01

    Human adipose stem cells were cultured in smooth muscle inductive media and seeded into synthetic bladder composites to tissue engineer bladder smooth muscle. 85:15 Poly-lactic-glycolic acid bladder dome composites were cast using an electropulled microfiber luminal surface combined with an outer porous sponge. Cell-seeded bladders expressed smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, calponinin, and caldesmon via RT-PCR and immunoflourescence. Nude rats (n=45) underwent removal of half their bladder and repair using: (i) augmentation with the adipose stem cell-seeded composites, (ii) augmentation with a matched acellular composite, or (iii) suture closure. Animals were followed for 12 weeks post-implantation and bladders were explanted serially. Results showed that bladder capacity and compliance were maintained in the cell-seeded group throughout the 12 weeks, but deteriorated in the acellular scaffold group sequentially with time. Control animals repaired with sutures regained their baseline bladder capacities by week 12, demonstrating a long-term limitation of this model. Histological analysis of explanted materials demonstrated viable adipose stem cells and increasing smooth muscle mass in the cell-seeded scaffolds with time. Tissue bath stimulation demonstrated smooth muscle contraction of the seeded implants but not the acellular implants after 12 weeks in vivo. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and short term physical properties of bladder tissue engineered from adipose stem cells.

  19. Human jaw and muscle modelling.

    PubMed

    Peck, Christopher C; Hannam, Alan G

    2007-04-01

    Dynamic mathematical modelling is an invaluable method to help understand the biomechanics of the anatomically and functionally complex masticatory system. It provides insight into variables which are impossible to measure directly such as joint loads and individual muscle tensions, and into physical relationships between jaw structure and function. Individual parameters can be modified easily to understand their influence on function. Our models are constructed with best available structural and functional data, and evaluated against human jaw behaviour. Image data provide hard and soft tissue morphology and the jaw's inertial properties. The drive to the system is provided by actuators which simulate active and passive jaw muscle properties. In whole-jaw modelling, muscle models which behave plausibly rather than mimic the ultra-structural cross-bridge interactions are common since they are computationally feasible. Whole-jaw models have recently incorporated flexible finite-elements to explore tissue distortion in the temporomandibular joint and tongue movements. Furthermore, the jaw has been integrated with laryngeal models to explore complex tasks such as swallowing. These dynamic models have helped better understand joint loading, movement constraints and muscle activation strategies. Future directions will include further incorporation of rigid and flexible model dynamics and the creation of subject-specific models to better understand the functional implications of pathology.

  20. Hypoxia Enhances Differentiation of Hair Follicle-Associated-Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells to Cardiac-Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kyoumi; Hamada, Yuko; Arakawa, Nobuko; Yamazaki, Aiko; Tohgi, Natsuko; Aki, Ryoichi; Mii, Sumiyuki; Hoffman, Robert M; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2017-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the neural stem-cell marker nestin is expressed in hair-follicle stem cells located in the bulge area which are termed hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells from mouse and human could form spheres in culture, termed hair spheres, which are keratin 15-negative and nestin-positive and could differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that nestin-expressing stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models. Recently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells differentiated to beating cardiac muscle cells. We recently observed that isoproterenol directs HAP stem cells to differentiate to cardiac-muscle cells in large numbers in culture compared to HAP stem cells not supplemented with isoproterenol. The addition of activin A, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor, along with isoproternal, induced the cardiac muscle cells to form tissue sheets of beating heart muscle cells. In the present study, we report that, under hypoxic conditions, HAP stem cells differentiated to troponin-positive cardiac-muscle cells at a higher rate that under normoxic conditions. Hypoxia did not influence the differentiation to other cell types. For future use of HAP stem cells for cardiac muscle regeneration, hypoxia should enhance the rate of differentiation thereby providing patients more opportunities to use their own HAP stem cells which are easily accessible, for this purpose. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 554-558, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Rejuvenating stem cells to restore muscle regeneration in aging

    PubMed Central

    Bengal, Eyal; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Serrano, Antonio L.; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-01-01

    Adult muscle stem cells, originally called satellite cells, are essential for muscle repair and regeneration throughout life. Besides a gradual loss of mass and function, muscle aging is characterized by a decline in the repair capacity, which blunts muscle recovery after injury in elderly individuals. A major effort has been dedicated in recent years to deciphering the causes of satellite cell dysfunction in aging animals, with the ultimate goal of rejuvenating old satellite cells and improving muscle function in elderly people. This review focuses on the recently identified network of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors and processes contributing to the decline of satellite cells in old animals. Some studies suggest that aging-related satellite-cell decay is mostly caused by age-associated extrinsic environmental changes that could be reversed by a “youthful environment”. Others propose a central role for cell-intrinsic mechanisms, some of which are not reversed by environmental changes. We believe that these proposals, far from being antagonistic, are complementary and that both extrinsic and intrinsic factors contribute to muscle stem cell dysfunction during aging-related regenerative decline. The low regenerative potential of old satellite cells may reflect the accumulation of deleterious changes during the life of the cell; some of these changes may be inherent (intrinsic) while others result from the systemic and local environment (extrinsic). The present challenge is to rejuvenate aged satellite cells that have undergone reversible changes to provide a possible approach to improving muscle repair in the elderly. PMID:28163911

  2. Embryonic stem cell patents and human dignity.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2007-09-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells.

  3. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

  4. Possible Muscle Repair in the Human Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Sommese, Linda; Zullo, Alberto; Schiano, Concetta; Mancini, Francesco P; Napoli, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The regenerative potential of tissues and organs could promote survival, extended lifespan and healthy life in multicellular organisms. Niches of adult stemness are widely distributed and lead to the anatomical and functional regeneration of the damaged organ. Conversely, muscular regeneration in mammals, and humans in particular, is very limited and not a single piece of muscle can fully regrow after a severe injury. Therefore, muscle repair after myocardial infarction is still a chimera. Recently, it has been recognized that epigenetics could play a role in tissue regrowth since it guarantees the maintenance of cellular identity in differentiated cells and, therefore, the stability of organs and tissues. The removal of these locks can shift a specific cell identity back to the stem-like one. Given the gradual loss of tissue renewal potential in the course of evolution, in the last few years many different attempts to retrieve such potential by means of cell therapy approaches have been performed in experimental models. Here we review pathways and mechanisms involved in the in vivo repair of cardiovascular muscle tissues in humans. Moreover, we address the ongoing research on mammalian cardiac muscle repair based on adult stem cell transplantation and pro-regenerative factor delivery. This latter issue, involving genetic manipulations of adult cells, paves the way for developing possible therapeutic strategies in the field of cardiovascular muscle repair.

  5. Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, David B; Nguyen, Phong Dang; Siegel, Ashley L; Ehrlich, Ophelia V; Sonntag, Carmen; Phan, Jennifer M N; Berger, Silke; Ratnayake, Dhanushika; Hersey, Lucy; Berger, Joachim; Verkade, Heather; Hall, Thomas E; Currie, Peter D

    2016-07-08

    Skeletal muscle is an example of a tissue that deploys a self-renewing stem cell, the satellite cell, to effect regeneration. Recent in vitro studies have highlighted a role for asymmetric divisions in renewing rare "immortal" stem cells and generating a clonal population of differentiation-competent myoblasts. However, this model currently lacks in vivo validation. We define a zebrafish muscle stem cell population analogous to the mammalian satellite cell and image the entire process of muscle regeneration from injury to fiber replacement in vivo. This analysis reveals complex interactions between satellite cells and both injured and uninjured fibers and provides in vivo evidence for the asymmetric division of satellite cells driving both self-renewal and regeneration via a clonally restricted progenitor pool.

  6. Action of obestatin in skeletal muscle repair: stem cell expansion, muscle growth, and microenvironment remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-06-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration.

  7. Action of Obestatin in Skeletal Muscle Repair: Stem Cell Expansion, Muscle Growth, and Microenvironment Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration. PMID:25762009

  8. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Keelin; Chan, Jerry

    2006-09-01

    Stem cells have been isolated at all stages of development from the early developing embryo to the post-reproductive adult organism. However, the fetal environment is unique as it is the only time in ontogeny that there is migration of stem cells in large numbers into different organ compartments. While fetal neural and haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been well characterised, only recently have mesenchymal stem cells from the human fetus been isolated and evaluated. Our group have characterised in human fetal blood, liver and bone marrow a population of non-haemopoietic, non-endothelial cells with an immunophenotype similar to adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells, human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC), are true multipotent stem cells with greater self-renewal and differentiation capacity than their adult counterparts. They circulate in first trimester fetal blood and have been found to traffic into the maternal circulation, engrafting in bone marrow, where they remain microchimeric for decades after pregnancy. Though fetal microchimerism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, the biological role of hfMSC microchimerism is unknown. Potential downstream applications of hfMSC include their use as a target cell for non-invasive pre-natal diagnosis from maternal blood, and for fetal cellular and gene therapy. Using hfMSC in fetal therapy offers the theoretical advantages of avoidance of immune rejection, increased engraftment, and treatment before disease pathology sets in. Aside from allogeneic hfMSC in utero transplantation, the use of autologous hfMSC has been brought a step forward with the development of early blood sampling techniques, efficient viral transduction and clonal expansion. Work is ongoing to determine hfMSC fate post-transplantation in murine models of genetic disease. In this review we will examine what is known about hfMSC biology, as well as discussing areas for future research. The

  9. Vessel-associated stem cells from skeletal muscle: From biology to future uses in cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Sancricca, Cristina; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Gliubizzi, Carla; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Gidaro, Teresa; Morosetti, Roberta

    2010-06-26

    Over the last years, the existence of different stem cells with myogenic potential has been widely investigated. Besides the classical skeletal muscle progenitors represented by satellite cells, numerous multipotent and embryologically unrelated progenitors with a potential role in muscle differentiation and repair have been identified. In order to conceive a therapeutic approach for degenerative muscle disorders, it is of primary importance to identify an ideal stem cell endowed with all the features for a possible use in vivo. Among all emerging populations, vessel-associated stem cells are a novel and promising class of multipotent progenitors of mesodermal origin and with high myogenic potential which seem to best fit all the requirements for a possible cell therapy. In vitro and in vivostudies have already tested the effectiveness and safety of vessel-associated stem cells in animal models. This leads to the concrete possibility in the future to start pilot human clinical trials, hopefully opening the way to a turning point in the treatment of genetic and acquired muscle disorders.

  10. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  11. Rejuvenation of the muscle stem cell population restores strength to injured aged muscles.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Benjamin D; Gilbert, Penney M; Porpiglia, Ermelinda; Mourkioti, Foteini; Lee, Steven P; Corbel, Stephane Y; Llewellyn, Michael E; Delp, Scott L; Blau, Helen M

    2014-03-01

    The elderly often suffer from progressive muscle weakness and regenerative failure. We demonstrate that muscle regeneration is impaired with aging owing in part to a cell-autonomous functional decline in skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Two-thirds of MuSCs from aged mice are intrinsically defective relative to MuSCs from young mice, with reduced capacity to repair myofibers and repopulate the stem cell reservoir in vivo following transplantation. This deficiency is correlated with a higher incidence of cells that express senescence markers and is due to elevated activity of the p38α and p38β mitogen-activated kinase pathway. We show that these limitations cannot be overcome by transplantation into the microenvironment of young recipient muscles. In contrast, subjecting the MuSC population from aged mice to transient inhibition of p38α and p38β in conjunction with culture on soft hydrogel substrates rapidly expands the residual functional MuSC population from aged mice, rejuvenating its potential for regeneration and serial transplantation as well as strengthening of damaged muscles of aged mice. These findings reveal a synergy between biophysical and biochemical cues that provides a paradigm for a localized autologous muscle stem cell therapy for the elderly.

  12. Rejuvenation of the aged muscle stem cell population restores strength to injured aged muscles

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Benjamin D.; Gilbert, Penney M.; Porpiglia, Ermelinda; Mourkioti, Foteini; Lee, Steven P.; Corbel, Stephane Y.; Llewellyn, Michael E.; Delp, Scott L.; Blau, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    The aged suffer from progressive muscle weakness and regenerative failure. We demonstrate that muscle regeneration is impaired with aging due in part to a cell-autonomous functional decline in skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Two-thirds of aged MuSCs are intrinsically defective relative to young MuSCs, with reduced capacity to repair myofibers and repopulate the stem cell reservoir in vivo following transplantation due to a higher incidence of cells that express senescence markers and that have elevated p38α/β MAPK activity. We show that these limitations cannot be overcome by transplantation into the microenvironment of young recipient muscles. In contrast, subjecting the aged MuSC population to transient inhibition of p38α/β in conjunction with culture on soft hydrogel substrates rapidly expands the residual functional aged MuSC population, rejuvenating its potential for regeneration, serial transplantation, and strengthening damaged muscles of aged mice. These findings reveal a synergy between biophysical and biochemical cues that provides a paradigm for a localized autologous muscle stem cell therapy in aged individuals. PMID:24531378

  13. Potential of laryngeal muscle regeneration using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dirja, Bayu Tirta; Yoshie, Susumu; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Nomoto, Yukio; Wada, Ikuo; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a new potential cell source for laryngeal muscle regeneration in the treatment of vocal fold atrophy after recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can lead to degeneration, atrophy, and loss of force of the thyroarytenoid muscle. At present, there are some treatments such as thyroplasty, arytenoid adduction, and vocal fold injection. However, such treatments cannot restore reduced mass of the thyroarytenoid muscle. iPS cells have been recognized as supplying a potential resource for cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of iPS cells for the regeneration of laryngeal muscle through the evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods Skeletal muscle cells were generated from tdTomato-labeled iPS cells using embryoid body formation. Differentiation into skeletal muscle cells was analyzed by gene expression and immunocytochemistry. The tdTomato-labeled iPS cell-derived skeletal muscle cells were transplanted into the left atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle. To evaluate the engraftment of these cells after transplantation, immunohistochemistry was performed. Results The tdTomato-labeled iPS cells were successfully differentiated into skeletal muscle cells through an in vitro experiment. These cells survived in the atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle after transplantation.

  14. Arginine Methylation by PRMT1 Regulates Muscle Stem Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Roméo Sébastien; Vogel, Gillian; Li, Xing; Yu, Zhenbao; Li, Shawn; Richard, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    Quiescent muscle stem cells (MSCs) become activated in response to skeletal muscle injury to initiate regeneration. Activated MSCs proliferate and differentiate to repair damaged fibers or self-renew to maintain the pool and ensure future regeneration. The balance between self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation is a tightly regulated process controlled by a genetic cascade involving determinant transcription factors such as Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and MyoG. Recently, there have been several reports about the role of arginine methylation as a requirement for epigenetically mediated control of muscle regeneration. Here we report that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is expressed in MSCs and that conditional ablation of PRMT1 in MSCs using Pax7(CreERT2) causes impairment of muscle regeneration. Importantly, PRMT1-deficient MSCs have enhanced cell proliferation after injury but are unable to terminate the myogenic differentiation program, leading to regeneration failure. We identify the coactivator of Six1, Eya1, as a substrate of PRMT1. We show that PRMT1 methylates Eya1 in vitro and that loss of PRMT1 function in vivo prevents Eya1 methylation. Moreover, we observe that PRMT1-deficient MSCs have reduced expression of Eya1/Six1 target MyoD due to disruption of Eya1 recruitment at the MyoD promoter and subsequent Eya1-mediated coactivation. These findings suggest that arginine methylation by PRMT1 regulates muscle stem cell fate through the Eya1/Six1/MyoD axis.

  15. Skeletal muscle perfusion and stem cell delivery in muscle disorders using intra-femoral artery canulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Nadine; Hunt, Samuel D; Wu, Jianbo; Darabi, Radbod

    2015-11-15

    Muscular dystrophies are among major inherited muscle disorders characterized by progressive muscle damage and fibrosis with no definitive cure. Recently, gene or cell based therapies have been developed to restore the missing gene expression or replace the damaged tissues. In order to test the efficiency of these therapies in mice models of muscular dystrophies, the arterial route of delivery is very advantageous as it provides uniform muscle exposure to the therapeutic agents or cells. Although there are few reports of arterial delivery of the therapeutic agents or cells in mice, there is no in-depth description and evaluation of its efficacy in perfusion of downstream muscles. This study is aimed to develop a practical method for intra-femoral artery perfusion in mice and to evaluate perfusion efficiency using near-infrared-fluorescence (NIRF) imaging as well as histology following stem cell delivery. Our results provide a practical guide to perform this delicate method in mice. By using a sensitive fluorescent dye, different muscle groups of the hindlimb have been evaluated for proper perfusion. As the final step, we have validated the efficiency of arterial cell delivery into muscles using human iPS-derived myogenic cells in an immunodeficient mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (NSG-mdx(4cv)).

  16. Brief report: Blockade of Notch signaling in muscle stem cells causes muscular dystrophic phenotype and impaired muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuibin; Shen, Huangxuan; Jin, Baofeng; Gu, Yumei; Chen, Zirong; Cao, Chunxia; Hu, Chengbin; Keller, Charles; Pear, Warren S; Wu, Lizi

    2013-04-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a group of devastating diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration, with etiologies including muscle gene mutations and regenerative defects of muscle stem cells. Notch signaling is critical for skeletal myogenesis and has important roles in maintaining the muscle stem cell pool and preventing premature muscle differentiation. To investigate the functional impact of Notch signaling blockade in muscle stem cells, we developed a conditional knock-in mouse model in which endogenous Notch signaling is specifically blocked in muscle stem cell compartment. Mice with Notch signaling inhibition in muscle stem cells showed several muscular dystrophic features and impaired muscle regeneration. Analyses of satellite cells and isolated primary myoblasts revealed that Notch signaling blockade in muscle stem cells caused reduced activation and proliferation of satellite cells but enhanced differentiation of myoblasts. Our data thus indicate that Notch signaling controls processes that are critical to regeneration in muscular dystrophy, suggesting that Notch inhibitor therapies could have potential side effects on muscle functions.

  17. Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from adult mouse adipose, muscle, and fetal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hulong; Yu, Bing; Huang, Zhiqing; Yang, Xuerong; Liu, Zehui; Mao, Xiangbing; Tian, Gang; He, Jun; Han, Guoquan; Chen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Chen, Daiwen

    2013-02-01

    Recently, increasing evidence supports that adult stem cells are the part of a natural system for tissue growth and repair. This study focused on the differences of mesenchymal stem cells from adult adipose (ADSCs), skeletal muscle (MDSCs) and fetal muscle (FMSCs) in biological characteristics, which is the key to cell therapy success. Stem cell antigen 1 (Sca-1) expression of MDSCs and FMSCs at passage 3 was two times more than that at passage 1 (P < 0.0001). After 28-day myogenic induction, higher expression levels of skeletal muscle-specific genes were observed in MDSCs than FMSCs (P < 0.01), and the lowest expression levels were demonstrated in ADSCs among three cells (P < 0.01). Besides, M-Cad and MyHC expressions in ADSCs were not detected by immunofluorescence or real-time quantitative PCR. Furthermore, after 14 days adipogenic induction, PPARγ2, LPL and aP2 mRNA expressions were higher in ADSCs vs. MDSCs (P < 0.01). Besides, MSCs from adult or fetal muscle expressed higher OCN and OPN than ADSCs after 28 days osteogenic induction (P < 0.01). Taken together, our results suggested that cell source and developmental stage had great impacts on biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells, and proper consideration of all the issues is necessary.

  18. Muscle reorganisation through local injection of stem cells in the diaphragm of mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The diaphragm is the major respiratory muscle affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and is responsible for causing 80% of deaths. The use of mechanical forces that act on the body or intermittent pressure on the airways improves the quality of life of patients but does not prevent the progression of respiratory failure. Thus, diseases that require tissue repair, such as DMD, represent a group of pathologies that have great potential for cell therapy. The application of stem cells directly into the diaphragm instead of systemic application can reduce cell migration to other affected areas and increase the chances of muscle reorganisation. The mdx mouse is a suitable animal model for this research because its diaphragmatic phenotype is similar to human DMD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential cell implantation in the diaphragm muscle after the xenotransplantation of stem cells. Methods A total of 9 mice, including 3 control BALB/Cmice, 3 5-month-old mdx mice without stem cell injections and 3 mdx mice injected with stem cells, were used. The animals injected with stem cells underwent laparoscopy so that stem cells from GFP-labelled rabbit olfactory epithelium could be locally injected into the diaphragm muscle. After 8 days, all animals were euthanised, and the diaphragm muscle was dissected and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results Both the fresh diaphragm tissue and immunohistochemical analyses showed immunopositive GFP labelling of some of the cells and immunonegativity of myoblast bundles. In the histological analysis, we observed a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate as well as the presence of a few peripheral nuclei and myoblast bundles. Conclusion We were able to implant stem cells into the diaphragm via local injection, which promoted moderate muscle reorganisation. The presence of myoblast bundles cannot be attributed to stem cell incorporation because there was no immunopositive

  19. Distinct and Overlapping Sarcoma Subtypes Initiated from Muscle Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Jordan M.; Añó, Leonor; Li, Zhizhong; Van Mater, David; Bennett, Brian D.; Sachdeva, Mohit; Lagutina, Irina; Zhang, Minsi; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Dodd, Leslie G.; Cardona, Diana M.; Dodd, Rebecca D.; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Lepper, Christoph; Linardic, Corinne M.; Mukherjee, Sayan; Grosveld, Gerard C.; Fan, Chen-Ming; Kirsch, David G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, while undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in adults. To investigate the myogenic cell(s) of origin of these sarcomas, we used Pax7-CreER and MyoD-CreER mice to transform Pax7+ and MyoD+ myogenic progenitors by expressing oncogenic KrasG12D and deleting p53 in vivo. Pax7-CreER mice developed RMS and UPS, while MyoD-CreER mice developed UPS. Using gene set enrichment analysis, RMS and UPS each clustered specifically within their human counterparts. These results suggest that RMS and UPS have distinct and overlapping cells of origin within the muscle lineage. Taken together, we have established novel mouse models of soft tissue sarcoma from muscle stem and progenitor cells. SIGNIFICANCE Although muscle stem cells have been presumed to be a cell of origin for RMS, studies with constitutive Cre drivers expressed in Myf6-expressing cells or adipocyte P2-expressing cells suggest that cells of origin for RMS can be differentiated myofibers or adipogenic precursors, respectively. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Myf6 is expressed in muscle stem cell precursors, revealing a potential limitation of utilizing constitutive Cre drivers for cell of origin studies. Here, using inducible CreER mice, we mutate genes relevant to human RMS specifically in Pax7-expressing or MyoD-expressing cells. Our results suggest that RMS can be initiated in muscle stem cells, while UPS can be initiated in activated (Pax7+MyoD+) satellite cells. PMID:24239359

  20. Laminin regulates PDGFRβ+ cell stemness and muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Norris, Erin H.; E. Mason, Christopher; Strickland, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Muscle-resident PDGFRβ+ cells, which include pericytes and PW1+ interstitial cells (PICs), play a dual role in muscular dystrophy. They can either undergo myogenesis to promote muscle regeneration or differentiate into adipocytes and other cells to compromise regeneration. How the differentiation and fate determination of PDGFRβ+ cells are regulated, however, remains unclear. Here, by utilizing a conditional knockout mouse line, we report that PDGFRβ+ cell-derived laminin inhibits their proliferation and adipogenesis, but is indispensable for their myogenesis. In addition, we show that laminin alone is able to partially reverse the muscle dystrophic phenotype in these mice at the molecular, structural and functional levels. Further RNAseq analysis reveals that laminin regulates PDGFRβ+ cell differentiation/fate determination via gpihbp1. These data support a critical role of laminin in the regulation of PDGFRβ+ cell stemness, identify an innovative target for future drug development and may provide an effective treatment for muscular dystrophy. PMID:27138650

  1. In vivo gene editing in dystrophic mouse muscle and muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tabebordbar, Mohammadsharif; Zhu, Kexian; Cheng, Jason K W; Chew, Wei Leong; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Yan, Winston X; Maesner, Claire; Wu, Elizabeth Y; Xiao, Ru; Ran, F Ann; Cong, Le; Zhang, Feng; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Church, George M; Wagers, Amy J

    2016-01-22

    Frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, compromise myofiber integrity and drive muscle deterioration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Removing one or more exons from the mutated transcript can produce an in-frame mRNA and a truncated, but still functional, protein. In this study, we developed and tested a direct gene-editing approach to induce exon deletion and recover dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 endonucleases coupled with paired guide RNAs flanking the mutated Dmd exon23 resulted in excision of intervening DNA and restored the Dmd reading frame in myofibers, cardiomyocytes, and muscle stem cells after local or systemic delivery. AAV-Dmd CRISPR treatment partially recovered muscle functional deficiencies and generated a pool of endogenously corrected myogenic precursors in mdx mouse muscle.

  2. A bioengineered niche preserves the quiescence of muscle stem cells and enhances their therapeutic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Quarta, Marco; Brett, Jamie O.; DiMarco, Rebecca; De Morree, Antoine; Boutet, Stephane C.; Chacon, Robert; Gibbons, Michael C.; Garcia, Victor A.; Su, James; Shrager, Joseph B.; Heilshorn, Sarah; Rando, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    A promising therapeutic strategy for diverse genetic disorders involves transplantation of autologous stem cells that have been genetically corrected ex vivo. A major challenge in such approaches is a loss of stem cell potency during stem cell culture. Here we describe a system for maintaining muscle stem cells (MuSCs) in vitro in a potent, quiescent state. Using a machine learning method, we identified a molecular signature of quiescence and used it to screen for factors that could maintain mouse MuSC quiescence, thus defining a quiescence medium (QM). We also designed artificial muscle fibers (AMFs) that mimic the native myofiber of the MuSC niche. Mouse MuSCs maintained in QM on AMFs showed enhanced potential for engraftment, tissue regeneration and self-renewal after transplantation in mice. An artificial niche adapted to human MuSCs showed similarly prolonged quiescence in vitro and enhanced potency in vivo. Our approach for maintaining quiescence may be applicable to stem cells from a range of other tissues. PMID:27240197

  3. Regulation of skeletal muscle stem cells by fibroblast growth factors.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, Bradley; Vogler, Thomas Orion; Gadek, Katherine; Olwin, Bradley B

    2017-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential for self-renewal of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and required for maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. Satellite cells express high levels of FGF receptors 1 and 4, low levels of FGF receptor 3, and little or no detectable FGF receptor 2. Of the multiple FGFs that influence satellite cell function in culture, FGF2 and FGF6 are the only members that regulate satellite cell function in vivo by activating ERK MAPK, p38α/β MAPKs, PI3 kinase, PLCγ and STATs. Regulation of FGF signaling is complex in satellite cells, requiring Syndecan-4, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, as well as ß1-integrin and fibronectin. During aging, reduced responsiveness to FGF diminishes satellite cell self-renewal, leading to impaired skeletal muscle regeneration and depletion of satellite cells. Mislocalization of ß1-integrin, reductions in fibronectin, and alterations in heparan sulfate content all contribute to reduced FGF responsiveness in satellite cells. How these cell surface proteins regulate satellite cell self-renewal is incompletely understood. Here we summarize the current knowledge, highlighting the role(s) for FGF signaling in skeletal muscle regeneration, satellite cell behavior, and age-induced muscle wasting. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Arginine Methylation by PRMT1 Regulates Muscle Stem Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Roméo Sébastien; Vogel, Gillian; Li, Xing; Yu, Zhenbao; Li, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quiescent muscle stem cells (MSCs) become activated in response to skeletal muscle injury to initiate regeneration. Activated MSCs proliferate and differentiate to repair damaged fibers or self-renew to maintain the pool and ensure future regeneration. The balance between self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation is a tightly regulated process controlled by a genetic cascade involving determinant transcription factors such as Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and MyoG. Recently, there have been several reports about the role of arginine methylation as a requirement for epigenetically mediated control of muscle regeneration. Here we report that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is expressed in MSCs and that conditional ablation of PRMT1 in MSCs using Pax7CreERT2 causes impairment of muscle regeneration. Importantly, PRMT1-deficient MSCs have enhanced cell proliferation after injury but are unable to terminate the myogenic differentiation program, leading to regeneration failure. We identify the coactivator of Six1, Eya1, as a substrate of PRMT1. We show that PRMT1 methylates Eya1 in vitro and that loss of PRMT1 function in vivo prevents Eya1 methylation. Moreover, we observe that PRMT1-deficient MSCs have reduced expression of Eya1/Six1 target MyoD due to disruption of Eya1 recruitment at the MyoD promoter and subsequent Eya1-mediated coactivation. These findings suggest that arginine methylation by PRMT1 regulates muscle stem cell fate through the Eya1/Six1/MyoD axis. PMID:27849571

  5. Sympathetic innervation of human muscle spindles

    PubMed Central

    Radovanovic, Dina; Peikert, Kevin; Lindström, Mona; Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of sympathetic innervation in human muscle spindles, using antibodies against neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A total of 232 muscle spindles were immunohistochemically examined. NPY and NPY receptors were found on the intrafusal fibers, on the blood vessels supplying muscle spindles and on free nerve endings in the periaxial space. TH-immunoreactivity was present mainly in the spindle nerve and vessel. This is, to our knowledge, the first morphological study concerning the sympathetic innervation of the human muscle spindles. The results provide anatomical evidence for direct sympathetic innervation of the intrafusal fibers and show that sympathetic innervation is not restricted to the blood vessels supplying spindles. Knowledge about direct sympathetic innervation of the muscle spindle might expand our understanding of motor and proprioceptive dysfunction under stress conditions, for example, chronic muscle pain syndromes. PMID:25994126

  6. Sympathetic innervation of human muscle spindles.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Dina; Peikert, Kevin; Lindström, Mona; Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of sympathetic innervation in human muscle spindles, using antibodies against neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A total of 232 muscle spindles were immunohistochemically examined. NPY and NPY receptors were found on the intrafusal fibers, on the blood vessels supplying muscle spindles and on free nerve endings in the periaxial space. TH-immunoreactivity was present mainly in the spindle nerve and vessel. This is, to our knowledge, the first morphological study concerning the sympathetic innervation of the human muscle spindles. The results provide anatomical evidence for direct sympathetic innervation of the intrafusal fibers and show that sympathetic innervation is not restricted to the blood vessels supplying spindles. Knowledge about direct sympathetic innervation of the muscle spindle might expand our understanding of motor and proprioceptive dysfunction under stress conditions, for example, chronic muscle pain syndromes.

  7. Decellularized ECM effects on human mesenchymal stem cell stemness and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rao Pattabhi, Sudhakara; Martinez, Jessica S; Keller, Thomas C S

    2014-01-01

    Microenvironment extracellular matrices (ECMs) influence cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The ECMs of different microenvironments have distinctive compositions and architectures. This investigation addresses effects ECMs deposited by a variety of cell types and decellularized with a cold-EDTA protocol have on multipotent human mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (hMSC) behavior and differentiation. The cold-EDTA protocol removes intact cells from ECM, with minimal ECM damage and contamination. The decellularized ECMs deposited by cultured hMSCs, osteogenic hMSCs, and two smooth muscle cell (SMC) lines were tested for distinctive effects on the behavior and differentiation of early passage ('naïve') hMSC plated and cultured on the decellularized ECMs. Uninduced hMSC decellularized ECM enhanced naïve hMSC proliferation and cell motility while maintaining stemness. Decellularized ECM deposited by osteogenic hMSCs early in the differentiation process stimulated naïve hMSCs osteogenesis and substrate biomineralization in the absence of added dexamethasone, but this osteogenic induction potential was lower in ECMs decellularized later in the osteogenic hMSC differentiation process. Decellularized ECMs deposited by two smooth muscle cell lines induced naïve hMSCs to become smooth muscle cell-like with distinctive phenotypic characteristics of contractile and synthetic smooth muscle cells. This investigation demonstrates a useful approach for obtaining functional cell-deposited ECM and highlights the importance of ECM specificity in influencing stem cell behavior.

  8. Engraftment of FACS Isolated Muscle Stem Cells into Injured Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Matthew; Sacco, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cell (MuSC) isolation and transplantation are invaluable tools to assess their capacity for self-renewal and tissue repair. Significant technical advances in recent years have led to the optimization of these approaches, improving our ability to assess MuSC regenerative potential. Here, we describe the procedures for Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)-based isolation of MuSC, their intramuscular transplantation, and analysis of their engraftment into host tissues.

  9. Chromatin signaling in muscle stem cells: interpreting the regenerative microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Brancaccio, Arianna; Palacios, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Muscle regeneration in the adult occurs in response to damage at expenses of a population of adult stem cells, the satellite cells. Upon injury, either physical or genetic, signals released within the satellite cell niche lead to the commitment, expansion and differentiation of the pool of muscle progenitors to repair damaged muscle. To achieve this goal satellite cells undergo a dramatic transcriptional reprogramming to coordinately activate and repress specific subset of genes. Although the epigenetics of muscle regeneration has been extensively discussed, less emphasis has been put on how extra-cellular cues are translated into the specific chromatin reorganization necessary for progression through the myogenic program. In this review we will focus on how satellite cells sense the regenerative microenvironment in physiological and pathological circumstances, paying particular attention to the mechanism through which the external stimuli are transduced to the nucleus to modulate chromatin structure and gene expression. We will discuss the pathways involved and how alterations in this chromatin signaling may contribute to satellite cells dysfunction during aging and disease. PMID:25904863

  10. Searching for proprioceptors in human facial muscles.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Juan L; Abbate, Francesco; de Vicente, Juan C; Cobo, Juan; Vega, José A

    2017-02-15

    The human craniofacial muscles innervated by the facial nerve typically lack muscle spindles. However these muscles have proprioception that participates in the coordination of facial movements. A functional substitution of facial proprioceptors by cutaneous mechanoreceptors has been proposed but at present this alternative has not been demonstrated. Here we have investigated whether other kinds of sensory structures are present in two human facial muscles (zygomatic major and buccal). Human checks were removed from Spanish cadavers, and processed for immunohistochemical detection of nerve fibers (neurofilament proteins and S100 protein) and two putative mechanoproteins (acid-sensing ion channel 2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) associated with mechanosensing. Nerves of different calibers were found in the connective septa and within the muscle itself. In all the muscles analysed, capsular corpuscle-like structures resembling elongated or round Ruffini-like corpuscles were observed. Moreover the axon profiles within these structures displayed immunoreactivity for both putative mechanoproteins. The present results demonstrate the presence of sensory structures in facial muscles that can substitute for typical muscle spindles as the source of facial proprioception.

  11. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  12. Asymmetric deformation of contracting human gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Hodgson, John A; Edgerton, V Reggie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2012-02-01

    Muscle fiber deformation is related to its cellular structure, as well as its architectural arrangement within the musculoskeletal system. While playing an important role in aponeurosis displacement, and efficiency of force transmission to the tendon, such deformation also provides important clues about the underlying mechanical structure of the muscle. We hypothesized that muscle fiber cross section would deform asymmetrically to satisfy the observed constant volume of muscle during a contraction. Velocity-encoded, phase-contrast, and morphological magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to measure changes in fascicle length, pinnation angle, and aponeurosis separation of the human gastrocnemius muscle during passive and active eccentric ankle joint movements. These parameters were then used to subsequently calculate the in-plane muscle area subtended by the two aponeuroses and fascicles and to calculate the in-plane (dividing area by fascicle length), and through-plane (dividing muscle volume by area) thicknesses. Constant-volume considerations of the whole-muscle geometry require that, as fascicle length increases, the muscle fiber cross-sectional area must decrease in proportion to the length change. Our empirical findings confirm the definition of a constant-volume rule that dictates that changes in the dimension perpendicular to the plane, i.e., through-plane thickness, (-6.0% for passive, -3.3% for eccentric) equate to the reciprocal of the changes in area (6.8% for passive, 3.7% for eccentric) for both exercise paradigms. The asymmetry in fascicle cross-section deformation for both passive and active muscle fibers is established in this study with a ∼22% in-plane and ∼6% through-plane fascicle thickness change. These fiber deformations have functional relevance, not only because they affect the force production of the muscle itself, but also because they affect the characteristics of adjacent muscles by deflecting their line of pull.

  13. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  14. Selective Expansion of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells From Bulk Muscle Cells in Soft Three-Dimensional Fibrin Gel.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pei; Zhou, Yalu; Wu, Furen; Hong, Yuanfan; Wang, Xin; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Mosenson, Jeffrey; Wu, Wen-Shu

    2017-02-28

    Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) exhibit robust myogenic potential in vivo, thus providing a promising curative treatment for muscle disorders. Ex vivo expansion of adult MuSCs is highly desired to achieve a therapeutic cell dose because of their scarcity in limited muscle biopsies. Sorting of pure MuSCs is generally required for all the current culture systems. Here we developed a soft three-dimensional (3D) salmon fibrin gel culture system that can selectively expand mouse MuSCs from bulk skeletal muscle preparations without cell sorting and faithfully maintain their regenerative capacity in culture. Our study established a novel platform for convenient ex vivo expansion of MuSCs, thus greatly advancing stem cell-based therapies for various muscle disorders. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  15. Evidence for Human Lung Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kajstura, Jan; Rota, Marcello; Hall, Sean R.; Hosoda, Toru; D’Amario, Domenico; Sanada, Fumihiro; Zheng, Hanqiao; Ogórek, Barbara; Rondon-Clavo, Carlos; Ferreira-Martins, João; Matsuda, Alex; Arranto, Christian; Goichberg, Polina; Giordano, Giovanna; Haley, Kathleen J.; Bardelli, Silvana; Rayatzadeh, Hussein; Liu, Xiaoli; Quaini, Federico; Liao, Ronglih; Leri, Annarosa; Perrella, Mark A.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Anversa, Piero

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although progenitor cells have been described in distinct anatomical regions of the lung, description of resident stem cells has remained elusive. METHODS Surgical lung-tissue specimens were studied in situ to identify and characterize human lung stem cells. We defined their phenotype and functional properties in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS Human lungs contain undifferentiated human lung stem cells nested in niches in the distal airways. These cells are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent in vitro. After injection into damaged mouse lung in vivo, human lung stem cells form human bronchioles, alveoli, and pulmonary vessels integrated structurally and functionally with the damaged organ. The formation of a chimeric lung was confirmed by detection of human transcripts for epithelial and vascular genes. In addition, the self-renewal and long-term proliferation of human lung stem cells was shown in serial-transplantation assays. CONCLUSIONS Human lungs contain identifiable stem cells. In animal models, these cells participate in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. They have the undemonstrated potential to promote tissue restoration in patients with lung disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:21561345

  16. GLUT-3 expression in human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Peng, B. H.; Popov, V. L.; Hudnall, S. D.; Campbell, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsy homogenates contain GLUT-3 mRNA and protein. Before these studies, it was unclear where GLUT-3 was located in muscle tissue. In situ hybridization using a midmolecule probe demonstrated GLUT-3 within all muscle fibers. Fluorescent-tagged antibody reacting with affinity-purified antibody directed at the carboxy-terminus demonstrated GLUT-3 protein in all fibers. Slow-twitch muscle fibers, identified by NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining, possessed more GLUT-3 protein than fast-twitch fibers. Electron microscopy using affinity-purified primary antibody and gold particle-tagged second antibody showed that the majority of GLUT-3 was in association with triads and transverse tubules inside the fiber. Strong GLUT-3 signals were seen in association with the few nerves that traversed muscle sections. Electron microscopic evaluation of human peripheral nerve demonstrated GLUT-3 within the axon, with many of the particles related to mitochondria. GLUT-3 protein was found in myelin but not in Schwann cells. GLUT-1 protein was not present in nerve cells, axons, myelin, or Schwann cells but was seen at the surface of the peripheral nerve in the perineurium. These studies demonstrated that GLUT-3 mRNA and protein are expressed throughout normal human skeletal muscle, but the protein is predominantly found in the triads of slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  17. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were chemically permeabilized with saponin, which selectively perforates the sarcolemma and facilitates the loss of cytosolic content without altering mitochondrial membranes, structure, and subcellular interactions. High-resolution respirometry was performed on permeabilized muscle biopsy preparations. By use of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P ≤ 0.003). The addition of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within the mitochondrial intermembrane space with the pyruvate subsequently taken into the mitochondrial matrix where it enters the TCA cycle and is ultimately oxidized.

  18. Preparation of adult muscle fiber-associated stem/precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Michael J; Conboy, Irina M

    2010-01-01

    In our studies of muscle regeneration we have developed, modified, and optimized techniques to isolate and study the stem and precursor cells to muscle tissue. Our goals have been to obtain for study muscle fibers in bulk, or the fiber-associated cells, separately from the other cells found in muscle. Using these techniques, myofiber-associated cells may be isolated from neonatal through adult muscle, from resting or from regenerating muscle, thus allowing one to investigate the cellular populations participating during the time course of these events. The protocol is applicable to any age and condition of muscle and may be adapted for other tissues.

  19. Pluripotent stem cell derivation and differentiation toward cardiac muscle: novel techniques and advances in patent literature.

    PubMed

    Quattrocelli, Mattia; Thorrez, Lieven; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2013-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cells hold unprecedented potential for regenerative medicine, disease modeling and drug screening. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), standard model for pluripotency studies, have been recently flanked by induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs are obtained from somatic cells via epigenetic and transcriptional reprogramming, overcoming ESC-related ethical issues and enabling the possibility of donor-matching pluripotent cell lines. Since the European Court of Justice banned patents involving embryo disaggregation to generate human ESCs, iPSCs can now fuel the willingness of European companies to invest in treatments based on stem cells. Moreover, iPSCs share many unique features of ESCs, such as unlimited self-renewal potential and broad differentiation capability, even though iPSCs seem more susceptible to genomic instability and display epigenetic biases as compared to ESCs. Both ESCs and iPSCs have been intensely investigated for cardiomyocyte production and cardiac muscle regeneration, both in human and animal models. In vitro and in vivo studies are continuously expanding and refining this field via genetic manipulation and cell conditioning, trying to achieve standard and reproducible products, eligible for clinical and biopharmaceutical scopes. This review focuses on the recently growing body of patents, concerning technical advances in production, expansion and cardiac differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs.

  20. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research..., scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the...

  1. Muscle repair and regeneration: stem cells, scaffolds, and the contributions of skeletal muscle to amphibian limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Milner, Derek J; Cameron, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a robust innate capability for repair of tissue damage. Natural repair of muscle damage is a stepwise process that requires the coordinated activity of a number of cell types, including infiltrating macrophages, resident myogenic and non-myogenic stem cells, and connective tissue fibroblasts. Despite the proficiency of this intrinsic repair capability, severe injuries that result in significant loss of muscle tissue overwhelm the innate repair process and require intervention if muscle function is to be restored. Recent advances in stem cell biology, regenerative medicine, and materials science have led to attempts at developing tissue engineering-based methods for repairing severe muscle defects. Muscle tissue also plays a role in the ability of tailed amphibians to regenerate amputated limbs through epimorphic regeneration. Muscle contributes adult stem cells to the amphibian regeneration blastema, but it can also contribute blastemal cells through the dedifferentiation of multinucleate myofibers into mononuclear precursors. This fascinating plasticity and its contributions to limb regeneration have prompted researchers to investigate the potential for mammalian muscle to undergo dedifferentiation. Several works have shown that mammalian myotubes can be fragmented into mononuclear cells and induced to re-enter the cell cycle, but mature myofibers are resistant to fragmentation. However, recent works suggest that there may be a path to inducing fragmentation of mature myofibers into proliferative multipotent cells with the potential for use in muscle tissue engineering and regenerative therapies.

  2. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    selected muscles that have been examined in human electromyographic studies. Neck muscle function and morphology can be studied at a detailed level using exercise-induced shifts in magnetic resonance images.

  3. Distinct and overlapping sarcoma subtypes initiated from muscle stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Blum, Jordan M; Añó, Leonor; Li, Zhizhong; Van Mater, David; Bennett, Brian D; Sachdeva, Mohit; Lagutina, Irina; Zhang, Minsi; Mito, Jeffrey K; Dodd, Leslie G; Cardona, Diana M; Dodd, Rebecca D; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Lepper, Christoph; Linardic, Corinne M; Mukherjee, Sayan; Grosveld, Gerard C; Fan, Chen-Ming; Kirsch, David G

    2013-11-27

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, whereas undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in adults. To investigate the myogenic cell(s) of origin of these sarcomas, we used Pax7-CreER and MyoD-CreER mice to transform Pax7(+) and MyoD(+) myogenic progenitors by expressing oncogenic Kras(G12D) and deleting Trp53 in vivo. Pax7-CreER mice developed RMS and UPS, whereas MyoD-CreER mice developed UPS. Using gene set enrichment analysis, RMS and UPS each clustered specifically within their human counterparts. These results suggest that RMS and UPS have distinct and overlapping cells of origin within the muscle lineage. Taking them together, we have established mouse models of soft tissue sarcoma from muscle stem and progenitor cells.

  4. Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to muscle fiber to model Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Chal, Jérome; Oginuma, Masayuki; Al Tanoury, Ziad; Gobert, Bénédicte; Sumara, Olga; Hick, Aurore; Bousson, Fanny; Zidouni, Yasmine; Mursch, Caroline; Moncuquet, Philippe; Tassy, Olivier; Vincent, Stéphane; Miyanari, Ayako; Bera, Agata; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Guevara, Getzabel; Hestin, Marie; Kennedy, Leif; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Drayton, Bernadette; Cherrier, Thomas; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Gussoni, Emanuela; Relaix, Frédéric; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Pourquié, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    During embryonic development, skeletal muscles arise from somites, which derive from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Using PSM development as a guide, we establish conditions for the differentiation of monolayer cultures of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into PSM-like cells without the introduction of transgenes or cell sorting. We show that primary and secondary skeletal myogenesis can be recapitulated in vitro from the PSM-like cells, providing an efficient, serum-free protocol for the generation of striated, contractile fibers from mouse and human pluripotent cells. The mouse ES cells also differentiate into Pax7(+) cells with satellite cell characteristics, including the ability to form dystrophin(+) fibers when grafted into muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Fibers derived from ES cells of mdx mice exhibit an abnormal branched phenotype resembling that described in vivo, thus providing an attractive model to study the origin of the pathological defects associated with DMD.

  5. Requirement of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion for skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-02-10

    Fusion of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells is required for proper development and regeneration, however the significance of this process during adult muscle hypertrophy has not been explored. In response to muscle overload after synergist ablation in mice, we show that myomaker, a muscle specific membrane protein essential for myoblast fusion, is activated mainly in muscle progenitors and not myofibers. We rendered muscle progenitors fusion-incompetent through genetic deletion of myomaker in muscle stem cells and observed a complete reduction of overload-induced hypertrophy. This blunted hypertrophic response was associated with a reduction in Akt and p70s6k signaling and protein synthesis, suggesting a link between myonuclear accretion and activation of pro-hypertrophic pathways. Furthermore, fusion-incompetent muscle exhibited increased fibrosis after muscle overload, indicating a protective role for normal stem cell activity in reducing myofiber strain associated with hypertrophy. These findings reveal an essential contribution of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion during physiological adult muscle hypertrophy.

  6. Requirement of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion for skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Qingnian; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Fusion of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells is required for proper development and regeneration, however the significance of this process during adult muscle hypertrophy has not been explored. In response to muscle overload after synergist ablation in mice, we show that myomaker, a muscle specific membrane protein essential for myoblast fusion, is activated mainly in muscle progenitors and not myofibers. We rendered muscle progenitors fusion-incompetent through genetic deletion of myomaker in muscle stem cells and observed a complete reduction of overload-induced hypertrophy. This blunted hypertrophic response was associated with a reduction in Akt and p70s6k signaling and protein synthesis, suggesting a link between myonuclear accretion and activation of pro-hypertrophic pathways. Furthermore, fusion-incompetent muscle exhibited increased fibrosis after muscle overload, indicating a protective role for normal stem cell activity in reducing myofiber strain associated with hypertrophy. These findings reveal an essential contribution of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion during physiological adult muscle hypertrophy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20007.001 PMID:28186492

  7. MicroRNA-29a in Adult Muscle Stem Cells Controls Skeletal Muscle Regeneration During Injury and Exercise Downstream of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2.

    PubMed

    Galimov, Artur; Merry, Troy L; Luca, Edlira; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Mizbani, Amir; Turcekova, Katarina; Hartung, Angelika; Croce, Carlo M; Ristow, Michael; Krützfeldt, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The expansion of myogenic progenitors (MPs) in the adult muscle stem cell niche is critical for the regeneration of skeletal muscle. Activation of quiescent MPs depends on the dismantling of the basement membrane and increased access to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). Here, we demonstrate using microRNA (miRNA) profiling in mouse and human myoblasts that the capacity of FGF2 to stimulate myoblast proliferation is mediated by miR-29a. FGF2 induces miR-29a expression and inhibition of miR-29a using pharmacological or genetic deletion decreases myoblast proliferation. Next generation RNA sequencing from miR-29a knockout myoblasts (Pax7(CE/+) ; miR-29a(flox/flox) ) identified members of the basement membrane as the most abundant miR-29a targets. Using gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we confirm that miR-29a coordinately regulates Fbn1, Lamc1, Nid2, Col4a1, Hspg2 and Sparc in myoblasts in vitro and in MPs in vivo. Induction of FGF2 and miR-29a and downregulation of its target genes precedes muscle regeneration during cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury. Importantly, MP-specific tamoxifen-induced deletion of miR-29a in adult skeletal muscle decreased the proliferation and formation of newly formed myofibers during both CTX-induced muscle injury and after a single bout of eccentric exercise. Our results identify a novel miRNA-based checkpoint of the basement membrane in the adult muscle stem cell niche. Strategies targeting miR-29a might provide useful clinical approaches to maintain muscle mass in disease states such as ageing that involve aberrant FGF2 signaling.

  8. Molecular circuitry of stem cell fate in skeletal muscle regeneration, ageing, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Almada, Albert E.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite cells are adult myogenic stem cells that function to repair damaged muscle. The enduring capacity for muscle regeneration requires efficient satellite cell expansion after injury, differentiation to produce myoblasts that can reconstitute damaged fibers, and self-renewal to replenish the muscle stem cell pool for subsequent rounds of injury and repair. Emerging studies indicate that misregulations of satellite cell fate and function contribute to age-associated muscle dysfunction and influence the severity of muscle diseases, including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). It has also become apparent that satellite cell fate during muscle regeneration, aging, and in the context of DMD is governed by an intricate network of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators. Targeted manipulation of this network may offer unique opportunities for muscle regenerative medicine. PMID:26956195

  9. Use of human perivascular stem cells for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Zara, Janette N; Corselli, Mirko; Chiang, Michael; Yuan, Wei; Nguyen, Virginia; Askarinam, Asal; Goyal, Raghav; Siu, Ronald K; Scott, Victoria; Lee, Min; Ting, Kang; Péault, Bruno; Soo, Chia

    2012-05-25

    Human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) can be isolated in sufficient numbers from multiple tissues for purposes of skeletal tissue engineering. PSCs are a FACS-sorted population of 'pericytes' (CD146+CD34-CD45-) and 'adventitial cells' (CD146-CD34+CD45-), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of mesenchymal stem cells. PSCs, like MSCs, are able to undergo osteogenic differentiation, as well as secrete pro-osteogenic cytokines. In the present protocol, we demonstrate the osteogenicity of PSCs in several animal models including a muscle pouch implantation in SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice, a SCID mouse calvarial defect and a femoral segmental defect (FSD) in athymic rats. The thigh muscle pouch model is used to assess ectopic bone formation. Calvarial defects are centered on the parietal bone and are standardly 4 mm in diameter (critically sized). FSDs are bicortical and are stabilized with a polyethylene bar and K-wires. The FSD described is also a critical size defect, which does not significantly heal on its own. In contrast, if stem cells or growth factors are added to the defect site, significant bone regeneration can be appreciated. The overall goal of PSC xenografting is to demonstrate the osteogenic capability of this cell type in both ectopic and orthotopic bone regeneration models.

  10. The effects of age upon the expression of three miRNAs in muscle stem cells isolated from two different porcine skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Zoe; Sweetman, Dylan; Loughna, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and an impaired ability of this tissue to compensate for trauma. Studies in rodents and humans have also shown that resident stem cells within muscle have a reduced ability to proliferate and differentiate. In this study muscle stem cells have been isolated from two muscles, the diaphragm (DIA) and the semimembranosus (SM), from young and old pigs. The levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs) were measured when cells were in a proliferative phase and after 24 and 72h in differentiation medium. All three miRNAs are abundant in skeletal muscle with miR-1 and miR-206 known to regulate myogenic differentiation and miR-24 is involved in cell cycle regulation. The levels of expression of Pax7 and the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin were also measured. There were marked differences in expression of all three miRNAs between the two age groups. Both miR-1 and miR-206 were reduced in the cells from the older animals. In contrast miR-24 expression was significantly higher in cells from older animals under differentiation conditions. There were also significant differences in the relative expression of all three miRNAs between cells from the SM and DIA in both young and old animals. The changes in miRNA expression described in this study that relate to age, may play a role in the impaired differentiation capacity of older muscle stem cells.

  11. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Sabine; Renninger, Markus; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Wiesner, Tina; Just, Lothar; Bonin, Michael; Aicher, Wilhelm; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Mattheus, Ulrich; Mack, Andreas; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Minger, Stephen; Matzkies, Matthias; Reppel, Michael; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Skutella, Thomas

    2008-11-20

    Human primordial germ cells and mouse neonatal and adult germline stem cells are pluripotent and show similar properties to embryonic stem cells. Here we report the successful establishment of human adult germline stem cells derived from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis. Cellular and molecular characterization of these cells revealed many similarities to human embryonic stem cells, and the germline stem cells produced teratomas after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. The human adult germline stem cells differentiated into various types of somatic cells of all three germ layers when grown under conditions used to induce the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. We conclude that the generation of human adult germline stem cells from testicular biopsies may provide simple and non-controversial access to individual cell-based therapy without the ethical and immunological problems associated with human embryonic stem cells.

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and human muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C

    2001-01-01

    During exercise, changes occur at many sites in the motor pathway, including the muscle fiber, motoneuron, motor cortex, and "upstream" of the motor cortex. Some of the changes result in fatigue, which can be defined as a decrease in ability to produce maximal muscle force voluntarily. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the human motor cortex reveals changes in both motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the silent period during and after fatiguing voluntary contractions in normal subjects. The relationship of these changes to loss of force or fatigue is unclear. However, during a sustained maximal contraction TMS evokes extra force from the muscle and thus demonstrates the development of suboptimal output from the motor cortex, that is, fatigue at a supraspinal level. In some patients with symptoms of fatigue, the response to TMS after exercise is altered, but the changed MEP behavior is not yet linked to particular symptoms or pathology.

  13. [Research progress of induced pluripotent stem cells in treatment of muscle atrophy].

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhongkai; Yang, Chensong; Sun, Guixin

    2016-03-01

    Muscle atrophy caused by nerve injury is a common and difficult clinical problem. The development of stem cell researches has opened up a new way for the treatment of nerve injury-induced muscle atrophy. The induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs)can differentiate into various types of cells and have more advantages than embryonic stem cells (ESCs). After being transplanted into the damaged area, iPSCs are guided by neurogenic signals to the lesion sites, to repair the damaged nerve, promote generation of axon myelination, rebuild neural circuits and restore physiological function. Meanwhile, iPSCs can also differentiate into muscle cells and promote muscle tissue regeneration. Therefore, it would be possible to attenuate muscle atrophy caused by nerve injury with iPSCs treatment.

  14. Slow-Adhering Stem Cells Derived from Injured Skeletal Muscle Have Improved Regenerative Capacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    levels represent a major determi- nant in the regenerative capacity of muscle stem cells. Mol Biol Cell 2009, 20:509–520 43. Quintero AJ, Wright VJ, Fu...injury on their characteristics and engraftment potential has yet to be described. In the present study, slow-adhering stem cells (SASCs) from both...laceration-injured and control noninjured skeletal muscles in mice were iso- lated and studied. Migration and proliferation rates, multidifferentiation

  15. Skeletal muscle responses to unloading in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G.; Tesch, P.; Hather, B.; Adams, G.; Buchanan, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of unloading on skeletal muscle structure. Method: Eight subjects walked on crutches for six weeks with a 110 cm elevated sole on the right shoe. This removed weight bearing by the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of both lower limbs and biopsies of the left m. vastus laterallis (VL) were used to study muscle structure. Results: Unloading decreased (P less than 0.05) muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the knee extensors 16 percent. The knee flexors showed about 1/2 of this response (-7 percent, P less than 0.05). The three vasti muscles each showed decreases (P less than 0.05) of about 15 percent. M. rectus femoris did not change. Mean fiber CSA in VL decreased (P less than 0.05) 14 percent with type 2 and type 1 fibers showing reductions of 15 and 11 percent respectively. The ankle extensors showed a 20 percent decrease (P less than 0.05) in CSA. The reduction for the 'fast' m. gastrocnemius was 27 percent compared to the 18 percent decrease for the 'slow' soleus. Summary: The results suggest that decreases in muscle CSA are determined by the relative change in impact loading history because atrophy was (1) greater in extensor than flexor muscles, (2) at least as great in fast as compared to slow muscles or fibers, and (3) not dependent on single or multi-joint function. They also suggest that the atrophic responses to unloading reported for lower mammals are quantitatively but not qualitatively similar to those of humans.

  16. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Dystrophic Dog Muscle after MuStem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Babarit, Candice; Larcher, Thibaut; Dubreil, Laurence; Leroux, Isabelle; Zuber, Céline; Ledevin, Mireille; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Fromes, Yves; Cherel, Yan; Guevel, Laetitia; Rouger, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background Several adult stem cell populations exhibit myogenic regenerative potential, thus representing attractive candidates for therapeutic approaches of neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). We have recently shown that systemic delivery of MuStem cells, skeletal muscle-resident stem cells isolated in healthy dog, generates the remodelling of muscle tissue and gives rise to striking clinical benefits in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog. This global effect, which is observed in the clinically relevant DMD animal model, leads us to question here the molecular pathways that are impacted by MuStem cell transplantation. To address this issue, we compare the global gene expression profile between healthy, GRMD and MuStem cell treated GRMD dog muscle, four months after allogenic MuStem cell transplantation. Results In the dystrophic context of the GRMD dog, disease-related deregulation is observed in the case of 282 genes related to various processes such as inflammatory response, regeneration, calcium ion binding, extracellular matrix organization, metabolism and apoptosis regulation. Importantly, we reveal the impact of MuStem cell transplantation on several molecular and cellular pathways based on a selection of 31 genes displaying signals specifically modulated by the treatment. Concomitant with a diffuse dystrophin expression, a histological remodelling and a stabilization of GRMD dog clinical status, we show that cell delivery is associated with an up-regulation of genes reflecting a sustained enhancement of muscle regeneration. We also identify a decreased mRNA expression of a set of genes having metabolic functions associated with lipid homeostasis and energy. Interestingly, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is highly enhanced in GRMD dog muscle after systemic delivery of MuStem cells. Conclusions Overall, our results provide the first high-throughput characterization of GRMD dog muscle and throw new light on the

  17. Making Skeletal Muscle from Progenitor and Stem Cells: Development versus Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lydia; Rozo, Michelle E.; Lepper, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    For locomotion, vertebrate animals use the force generated by contractile skeletal muscles. These muscles form an actin/myosin-based bio-machinery that is attached to skeletal elements to effect body movement and maintain posture. The mechanics, physiology, and homeostasis of skeletal muscles in normal and disease states are of significant clinical interest. How muscles originate from progenitors during embryogenesis has attracted considerable attention from developmental biologists. How skeletal muscles regenerate and repair themselves after injury by the use of stem cells is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis throughout lifetime. In recent years, much progress has been made towards uncovering the origins of myogenic progenitors and stem cells as well as the regulation of these cells during development and regeneration. PMID:22737183

  18. Exercise-induced stem cell activation and its implication for cardiovascular and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Brixius, Klara; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization, and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem cell-induced regeneration in the cardiovascular and the skeletal muscle system. In addition, it discusses whether exercise may improve and support stem cell transplantation in situations of cardiovascular disease or muscular dystrophy.

  19. Human embryonic stem cells and lung regeneration.

    PubMed

    Varanou, A; Page, C P; Minger, S L

    2008-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation stage embryos. Their unique potential to give rise to all differentiated cell types has generated great interest in stem cell research and the potential that it may have in developmental biology, medicine and pharmacology. The main focus of stem cell research has been on cell therapy for pathological conditions with no current methods of treatment, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac pathology, retinal dysfunction and lung and liver disease. The overall aim is to develop methods of application either of pure cell populations or of whole tissue parts to the diseased organ under investigation. In the field of pulmonary research, studies using human embryonic stem cells have succeeded in generating enriched cultures of type II pneumocytes in vitro. On account of their potential of indefinite proliferation in vitro, embryonic stem cells could be a source of an unlimited supply of cells available for transplantation and for use in gene therapy. Uncovering the ability to generate such cell types will expand our understanding of biological processes to such a degree that disease understanding and management could change dramatically.

  20. Smooth muscles and stem cells of embryonic guts express KIT, PDGFRRA, CD34 and many other stem cell antigens: suggestion that GIST arise from smooth muscles and gut stem cells.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is believed to original from interstitial cells of (ICC) present in Auerbach's nerve plexus. GIST frequently shows gain-of-function mutations of KIT and PDGFRA. In practical pathology, GIST is diagnosed by positive immunostaining or KIT and/or CD34. The author herein demonstrates that human embryonic gastrointestinal tract smooth muscles (HEGITSM) and human embryonic stem gastrointestinal cells (HEGISC) consistently express KIT, CD34, NCAM, PDGFRA and other stem cell (SC) antigens NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin, bcl-2, ErbB, and MET throughout the embryonic development of 7-40 gestational week (GW). CK14 was negative. The author examines 42 cases (7-40 GW) of embryonic GI tract (EGI). The HEGISM, HEGIST, and gall bladder smooth muscles (SM) were consistently positive for KIT, CD34, NCAM, PDGFRA, synaptophysin, chromogranin, NSE, bcl-2, ErbB2, and MET in foregut, stomach, GB, midgut, and hindgut throughout the fetal life (7-40 GW). The stem cells (SC) were seen to create the SM, nerves, ICC, and other all structures of GI tract. In adult gastrointestinal walls (n=30), KIT, CD34, PDGFRA, and S100 proteins were expressed in Auerbach's nerve plexus and ICC. The bronchial and vascular SM of embryos did not express these molecules. In GIST, frequent expressions of KIT (100%, 30/30), CD34 (90%, 27/30), and PDGFRA (83%, 25/30) were seen. In general, characteristics of tumors recapitulate their embryonic life. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that GIST may be originated from GI SM and/or GI SC in addition to ICC.

  1. Imbalance between pSmad3 and Notch induces CDK inhibitors in old muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Morgan E; Hsu, Michael; Conboy, Irina M

    2008-07-24

    Adult skeletal muscle robustly regenerates throughout an organism's life, but as the muscle ages, its ability to repair diminishes and eventually fails. Previous work suggests that the regenerative potential of muscle stem cells (satellite cells) is not triggered in the old muscle because of a decline in Notch activation, and that it can be rejuvenated by forced local activation of Notch. Here we report that, in addition to the loss of Notch activation, old muscle produces excessive transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta (but not myostatin), which induces unusually high levels of TGF-beta pSmad3 in resident satellite cells and interferes with their regenerative capacity. Importantly, endogenous Notch and pSmad3 antagonize each other in the control of satellite-cell proliferation, such that activation of Notch blocks the TGF-beta-dependent upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p15, p16, p21 and p27, whereas inhibition of Notch induces them. Furthermore, in muscle stem cells, Notch activity determines the binding of pSmad3 to the promoters of these negative regulators of cell-cycle progression. Attenuation of TGF-beta/pSmad3 in old, injured muscle restores regeneration to satellite cells in vivo. Thus a balance between endogenous pSmad3 and active Notch controls the regenerative competence of muscle stem cells, and deregulation of this balance in the old muscle microniche interferes with regeneration.

  2. Human Skeletal Muscle-derived CD133(+) Cells Form Functional Satellite Cells After Intramuscular Transplantation in Immunodeficient Host Mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jinhong; Chun, Soyon; Asfahani, Rowan; Lochmüller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of muscular dystrophies. In addition to muscle fiber formation, reconstitution of functional stem cell pool by donor cells is vital for long-term treatment. We show here that some CD133(+) cells within human muscle are located underneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers, in the position of the muscle satellite cell. Cultured hCD133(+) cells are heterogeneous and multipotent, capable of forming myotubes and reserve satellite cells in vitro. They contribute to extensive muscle regeneration and satellite cell formation following intramuscular transplantation into irradiated and cryodamaged tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient Rag2-/γ chain-/C5-mice. Some donor-derived satellite cells expressed the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, indicating that they were activated. In addition, when transplanted host muscles were reinjured, there was significantly more newly-regenerated muscle fibers of donor origin in treated than in control, nonreinjured muscles, indicating that hCD133(+) cells had given rise to functional muscle stem cells, which were able to activate in response to injury and contribute to a further round of muscle regeneration. Our findings provide new evidence for the location and characterization of hCD133(+) cells, and highlight that these cells are highly suitable for future clinical application.

  3. Human skeletal muscle-derived CD133(+) cells form functional satellite cells after intramuscular transplantation in immunodeficient host mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jinhong; Chun, Soyon; Asfahani, Rowan; Lochmüller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of muscular dystrophies. In addition to muscle fiber formation, reconstitution of functional stem cell pool by donor cells is vital for long-term treatment. We show here that some CD133(+) cells within human muscle are located underneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers, in the position of the muscle satellite cell. Cultured hCD133(+) cells are heterogeneous and multipotent, capable of forming myotubes and reserve satellite cells in vitro. They contribute to extensive muscle regeneration and satellite cell formation following intramuscular transplantation into irradiated and cryodamaged tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient Rag2-/γ chain-/C5-mice. Some donor-derived satellite cells expressed the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, indicating that they were activated. In addition, when transplanted host muscles were reinjured, there was significantly more newly-regenerated muscle fibers of donor origin in treated than in control, nonreinjured muscles, indicating that hCD133(+) cells had given rise to functional muscle stem cells, which were able to activate in response to injury and contribute to a further round of muscle regeneration. Our findings provide new evidence for the location and characterization of hCD133(+) cells, and highlight that these cells are highly suitable for future clinical application.

  4. Myf5 haploinsufficiency reveals distinct cell fate potentials for adult skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Chrétien, Fabrice; Jory, Aurélie; Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Negroni, Elisa; Flamant, Patricia; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Di Santo, James; Cumano, Ana; Mouly, Vincent; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2012-04-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cell fate in adult mice is regulated by crucial transcription factors, including the determination genes Myf5 and Myod. The precise role of Myf5 in regulating quiescent muscle stem cells has remained elusive. Here we show that most, but not all, quiescent satellite cells express Myf5 protein, but at varying levels, and that resident Myf5 heterozygous muscle stem cells are more primed for myogenic commitment compared with wild-type satellite cells. Paradoxically however, heterotypic transplantation of Myf5 heterozygous cells into regenerating muscles results in higher self-renewal capacity compared with wild-type stem cells, whereas myofibre regenerative capacity is not altered. By contrast, Pax7 haploinsufficiency does not show major modifications by transcriptome analysis. These observations provide a mechanism linking Myf5 levels to muscle stem cell heterogeneity and fate by exposing two distinct and opposing phenotypes associated with Myf5 haploinsufficiency. These findings have important implications for how stem cell fates can be modulated by crucial transcription factors while generating a pool of responsive heterogeneous cells.

  5. Arsenic Promotes NF-Kb-Mediated Fibroblast Dysfunction and Matrix Remodeling to Impair Muscle Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changqing; Ferrari, Ricardo; Beezhold, Kevin; Stearns-Reider, Kristen; D’Amore, Antonio; Haschak, Martin; Stolz, Donna; Robbins, Paul D.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a global health hazard that impacts over 140 million individuals worldwide. Epidemiological studies reveal prominent muscle dysfunction and mobility declines following arsenic exposure; yet, mechanisms underlying such declines are unknown. The objective of this study was to test the novel hypothesis that arsenic drives a maladaptive fibroblast phenotype to promote pathogenic myomatrix remodeling and compromise the muscle stem (satellite) cell (MuSC) niche. Mice were exposed to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic in drinking water before receiving a local muscle injury. Arsenic-exposed muscles displayed pathogenic matrix remodeling, defective myofiber regeneration and impaired functional recovery, relative to controls. When naïve human MuSCs were seeded onto three-dimensional decellularized muscle constructs derived from arsenic-exposed muscles, cells displayed an increased fibrogenic conversion and decreased myogenicity, compared with cells seeded onto control constructs. Consistent with myomatrix alterations, fibroblasts isolated from arsenic-exposed muscle displayed sustained expression of matrix remodeling genes, the majority of which were mediated by NF-κB. Inhibition of NF-κB during arsenic exposure preserved normal myofiber structure and functional recovery after injury, suggesting that NF-κB signaling serves as an important mechanism of action for the deleterious effects of arsenic on tissue healing. Taken together, the results from this study implicate myomatrix biophysical and/or biochemical characteristics as culprits in arsenic-induced MuSC dysfunction and impaired muscle regeneration. It is anticipated that these findings may aid in the development of strategies to prevent or revert the effects of arsenic on tissue healing and, more broadly, provide insight into the influence of the native myomatrix on stem cell behavior. PMID:26537186

  6. Generation of skeletal muscle from transplanted embryonic stem cells in dystrophic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagavati, Satyakam . E-mail: satyakamb@hotmail.com; Xu Weimin

    2005-07-29

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have great therapeutic potential because of their capacity to proliferate extensively and to form any fully differentiated cell of the body, including skeletal muscle cells. Successful generation of skeletal muscle in vivo, however, requires selective induction of the skeletal muscle lineage in cultures of ES cells and following transplantation, integration of appropriately differentiated skeletal muscle cells with recipient muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe progressive muscle wasting disease due to a mutation in the dystrophin gene and the mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD, are characterized by the absence of the muscle membrane associated protein, dystrophin. Here, we show that co-culturing mouse ES cells with a preparation from mouse muscle enriched for myogenic stem and precursor cells, followed by injection into mdx mice, results occasionally in the formation of normal, vascularized skeletal muscle derived from the transplanted ES cells. Study of this phenomenon should provide valuable insights into skeletal muscle development in vivo from transplanted ES cells.

  7. Muscle regeneration by adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells attached to injectable PLGA spheres.

    PubMed

    Kim, MiJung; Choi, Yu Suk; Yang, Seung Hye; Hong, Hea-Nam; Cho, Sung-Woo; Cha, Sang Myun; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Chan Wha; Kwon, Seog Woon; Park, Chan Jeoung

    2006-09-22

    The [corrected] use of adult stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising approach for skeletal muscle repair. We have evaluated the combination of adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (ADSCs) obtained from autologous liposuction and injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) spheres for muscle regeneration. ADSCs attached to PLGA spheres and PLGA spheres alone were cultured in myogenic medium for 21 days and injected subcutaneously into the necks of nude mice. After 30 and 60 days, the mice were sacrificed, and newly formed tissues were analyzed by immunostaining, H and E staining, and RT-PCR. We found that ADSCs attached to PLGA spheres, but not PLGA spheres alone, were able to generate muscle tissue. These findings suggest that ADSCs and PLGA spheres are useful materials for muscle tissue engineering and that their combination can be used in clinical settings for muscle regeneration.

  8. The central role of muscle stem cells in regenerative failure with aging

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Helen M; Cosgrove, Benjamin D; Ho, Andrew T V

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass, function, and repair capacity all progressively decline with aging, restricting mobility, voluntary function, and quality of life. Skeletal muscle repair is facilitated by a population of dedicated muscle stem cells (MuSCs), also known as satellite cells, that reside in anatomically defined niches within muscle tissues. In adult tissues, MuSCs are retained in a quiescent state until they are primed to regenerate damaged muscle through cycles of self-renewal divisions. With aging, muscle tissue homeostasis is progressively disrupted and the ability of MuSCs to repair injured muscle markedly declines. Until recently, this decline has been largely attributed to extrinsic age-related alterations in the microenvironment to which MuSCs are exposed. However, as highlighted in this Perspective, recent reports show that MuSCs also progressively undergo cell-intrinsic alterations that profoundly affect stem cell regenerative function with aging. A more comprehensive understanding of the interplay of stem cell–intrinsic and extrinsic factors will set the stage for improving cell therapies capable of restoring tissue homeostasis and enhancing muscle repair in the aged. PMID:26248268

  9. Muscle spindles in human tibialis anterior encode muscle fascicle length changes.

    PubMed

    Day, James; Bent, Leah R; Birznieks, Ingvars; Macefield, Vaughan G; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2017-04-01

    Muscle spindles provide exquisitely sensitive proprioceptive information regarding joint position and movement. Through passively driven length changes in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), muscle spindles detect joint rotations because of their in-parallel mechanical linkage to muscle fascicles. In human microneurography studies, muscle fascicles are assumed to follow the MTU and, as such, fascicle length is not measured in such studies. However, under certain mechanical conditions, compliant structures can act to decouple the fascicles, and, therefore, the spindles, from the MTU. Such decoupling may reduce the fidelity by which muscle spindles encode joint position and movement. The aim of the present study was to measure, for the first time, both the changes in firing of single muscle spindle afferents and changes in muscle fascicle length in vivo from the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) during passive rotations about the ankle. Unitary recordings were made from 15 muscle spindle afferents supplying TA via a microelectrode inserted into the common peroneal nerve. Ultrasonography was used to measure the length of an individual fascicle of TA. We saw a strong correlation between fascicle length and firing rate during passive ankle rotations of varying rates (0.1-0.5 Hz) and amplitudes (1-9°). In particular, we saw responses observed at relatively small changes in muscle length that highlight the sensitivity of the TA muscle to small length changes. This study is the first to measure spindle firing and fascicle dynamics in vivo and provides an experimental basis for further understanding the link between fascicle length, MTU length, and spindle firing patterns.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Muscle spindles are exquisitely sensitive to changes in muscle length, but recordings from human muscle spindle afferents are usually correlated with joint angle rather than muscle fascicle length. In this study, we monitored both muscle fascicle length and spindle firing from the human tibialis

  10. Changes in Communication between Muscle Stem Cells and their Environment with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Thorley, Matthew; Malatras, Apostolos; Duddy, William; Le Gall, Laura; Mouly, Vincent; Butler Browne, Gillian; Duguez, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with both muscle weakness and a loss of muscle mass, contributing towards overall frailty in the elderly. Aging skeletal muscle is also characterised by a decreasing efficiency in repair and regeneration, together with a decline in the number of adult stem cells. Commensurate with this are general changes in whole body endocrine signalling, in local muscle secretory environment, as well as in intrinsic properties of the stem cells themselves. The present review discusses the various mechanisms that may be implicated in these age-associated changes, focusing on aspects of cell-cell communication and long-distance signalling factors, such as levels of circulating growth hormone, IL-6, IGF1, sex hormones, and inflammatory cytokines. Changes in the local environment are also discussed, implicating IL-6, IL-4, FGF-2, as well as other myokines, and processes that lead to thickening of the extra-cellular matrix. These factors, involved primarily in communication, can also modulate the intrinsic properties of muscle stem cells, including reduced DNA accessibility and repression of specific genes by methylation. Finally we discuss the decrease in the stem cell pool, particularly the failure of elderly myoblasts to re-quiesce after activation, and the consequences of all these changes on general muscle homeostasis. PMID:27858742

  11. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    robust and reproducible methodology to detect, quantify and isolate stem cells in normal human mammary tissue, using a xenotransplantation system...covers the first year of the grant, during which substantial progress has been made in the development and validation of the xenotransplantation assay...Subrenal xenotransplantation surgery. The hair on the back of anesthetized mice was shaved, and the skin swabbed with 70% alcohol. An anterior to

  12. Aging of human muscle: understanding sarcopenia at the single muscle cell level.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Walter R; Zayas, Ana Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Natividad

    2012-02-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age, also known as sarcopenia, is a major scientific and public health problem. Muscle atrophy is associated with the loss of functional capacity and poor health outcomes in elderly men and women. A detailed understanding of this problem in humans can be enhanced by the use of experiments with single muscle fibers. It is likely that both muscle atrophy and a decrease in muscle-fiber quality contribute to muscle dysfunction among the elderly. A better understanding of sarcopenia at the single-fiber level may lead to the design of more effective rehabilitative interventions.

  13. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Appendix……………………………………………………………………………… 11 Eirew,P., Stingl,J., Raouf,A., Turashvili,G., Aparicio ,S., Emerman,J.T., and Eaves,C.J. A method for... Aparicio , Joanne Emerman and Connie Eaves. A method for quantifying normal human mammary epithelial stem cells with in vivo regenerative ability...Abstracts Peter Eirew, John Stingl, Afshin Raouf, Gulisa Turshvili, Sam Aparicio , Joanne Emerman and Connie Eaves, “Identification of Human Mammary

  14. Adult vascular smooth muscle cells in culture express neural stem cell markers typical of resident multipotent vascular stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eimear; Mooney, Ciaran J; Hakimjavadi, Roya; Fitzpatrick, Emma; Guha, Shaunta; Collins, Laura E; Loscher, Christine E; Morrow, David; Redmond, Eileen M; Cahill, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    Differentiation of resident multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) or de-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) might be responsible for the SMC phenotype that plays a major role in vascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis and restenosis. We examined vSMCs from three different species (rat, murine and bovine) to establish whether they exhibit neural stem cell characteristics typical of MVSCs. We determined their SMC differentiation, neural stem cell marker expression and multipotency following induction in vitro by using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MVSCs isolated from rat aortic explants, enzymatically dispersed rat SMCs and rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells served as controls. Murine carotid artery lysates and primary rat aortic vSMCs were both myosin-heavy-chain-positive but weakly expressed the neural crest stem cell marker, Sox10. Each vSMC line examined expressed SMC differentiation markers (smooth muscle α-actin, myosin heavy chain and calponin), neural crest stem cell markers (Sox10(+), Sox17(+)) and a glia marker (S100β(+)). Serum deprivation significantly increased calponin and myosin heavy chain expression and decreased stem cell marker expression, when compared with serum-rich conditions. vSMCs did not differentiate to adipocytes or osteoblasts following adipogenic or osteogenic inductive stimulation, respectively, or respond to transforming growth factor-β1 or Notch following γ-secretase inhibition. Thus, vascular SMCs in culture express neural stem cell markers typical of MVSCs, concomitant with SMC differentiation markers, but do not retain their multipotency. The ultimate origin of these cells might have important implications for their use in investigations of vascular proliferative disease in vitro.

  15. Myogenic progenitors and imaging single-cell flow analysis: a model to study commitment of adult muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trapecar, Martin; Kelc, Robi; Gradisnik, Lidija; Vogrin, Matjaz; Rupnik, Marjan Slak

    2014-12-01

    Research on skeletal muscles suffers from a lack of appropriate human models to study muscle formation and regeneration on the regulatory level of single cells. This hampers both basic understanding and the development of new therapeutic approaches. The use of imaging multicolour flow cytometry and myogenic stem cells can help fill this void by allowing researchers to visualize and quantify the reaction of individual cultured cells to bioactives or other physiological impulses. As proof of concept, we subjected human CD56+ satellite cells to reference bioactives follistatin and Malva sylvestris extracts and then used imaging multicolor flow cytometry to visualize the stepwise activation of myogenic factors MyoD and myogenin in individual cells. This approach enabled us to evaluate the potency of these bioactives to stimulate muscle commitment. To validate this method, we used multi-photon confocal microscopy to confirm the potential of bioactives to stimulate muscle differentiation and expression of desmin. Imaging multicolor flow cytometry revealed statistically significant differences between treated and untreated groups of myogenic progenitors and we propose the utilization of this concept as an integral part of future muscle research strategies.

  16. Immortalization of primary human smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Reyes, N; Halbert, C L; Smith, P P; Benditt, E P; McDougall, J K

    1992-01-01

    Primary human aortic and myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were immortalized using an amphotropic recombinant retroviral construct containing the E6 and E7 open reading frames (ORFs) of human papillomavirus type 16. The SMCs expressing the E6/E7 ORFs have considerably elevated growth rates when compared with nonimmortalized control cells and show no signs of senescence with long-term passage. The first SMC line derived in this study has been maintained in continuous tissue culture for greater than 1 year (greater than 180 population doublings). The immortalized SMCs have decreased cell size and decreased content of muscle-specific alpha-actin filaments as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Southern blot analysis has demonstrated the stable integration of the E6/E7 ORFs in the retrovirally infected cells, and radioimmunoprecipitation has confirmed the continued expression of the E6 and E7 genes. Cytogenetic studies of the SMC lines have revealed essentially diploid populations except for the myometrial clonal line, which became aneuploid at late passage (greater than 125 doublings). These cell lines were not tumorigenic in nude mice. Images PMID:1311088

  17. Dickkopf Homolog 3 Induces Stem Cell Differentiation into Smooth Muscle Lineage via ATF6 Signalling*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocong; Karamariti, Eirini; Simpson, Russell; Wang, Wen; Xu, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a key component of healthy and tissue engineered vessels and play a crucial role in vascular development and the pathogenic events of vascular remodeling i.e. restenosis. However, the cell source from which they can be isolated is limited. Embryonic stem (ES) cells that have the remarkable capability to differentiate into vascular SMCs in response to specific stimuli provide a useful model for studying SMC differentiation. Previous studies suggested that dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3) has a role in human partially induced pluripotent stem cell to SMC differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of DKK3 is essential for the expression of SMC markers and myocardin at both the mRNA and protein levels during mouse ES cell differentiation into SMCs (ESC-SMC differentiation). Overexpression of DKK3 leads to further up-regulation of the aforementioned markers. Further investigation indicates that DKK3 added as a cytokine activates activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), leading to the increased binding of ATF6 on the myocardin promoter and increased its expression. In addition, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) promotes the expression of ATF6 and leads to further increase of myocardin transcription. Our findings offer a novel mechanism by which DKK3 regulates ESC-SMC differentiation by activating ATF6 and promoting myocardin expression. PMID:26105053

  18. Molecular biology of human muscle disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, P.W.; Epstein, H.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The molecular revolution that is transforming the entire biomedical field has had far-reaching impact in its application to inherited human muscle disease. The gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy was one of the first cloned without knowledge of the defective protein product. This success was based upon the availability of key chromosomal aberrations that provided molecular landmarks for the disease locus. Subsequent discoveries regarding the mode of expression for this gene, the structure and localization of its protein product dystrophin, and molecular diagnosis of affected and carrier individuals constitute a paradigm for investigation of human genetics. Finding the gene for myotonic muscular dystrophy is requiring the brute force approach of cloning several million bases of DNA, identifying expressed sequences, and characterizing candidate genes. The gene that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been found serendipitously to be one of the genetic markers on chromosome 14, the {beta} myosin heavy chain.

  19. The arrector pili muscle, the bridge between the follicular stem cell niche and the interfollicular epidermis.

    PubMed

    Torkamani, Niloufar; Rufaut, Nicholas; Jones, Leslie; Sinclair, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Proximally, the arrector pili muscle (APM) attaches to the follicular stem cell niche in the bulge, but its distal properties are comparatively unclear. In this work, a novel method employing an F-actin probe, phalloidin, was employed to visualize the APM anatomy. Phalloidin staining of the APM was validated by comparison with conventional antibodies/stains and by generating three-dimensional reconstructions. The proximal attachment of the APM to the bulge in 8 patients with androgenic alopecia was studied using Masson's trichrome stain. Phalloidin visualized extensive branching of the APM. The distal end of the human APM exhibits a unique "C"-shaped structure connecting to the dermal-epidermal junction. The proximal APM attachment was observed to be lost or extremely miniaturized in androgenic alopecia. The unique shape, location, and attachment sites of the APM suggest a significant role for this muscle in maintaining follicular integrity. Proximally, the APM encircles the follicular unit and only attaches to the primary hair follicle in the bulge; this attachment is lost in irreversible hair loss. The APM exhibits an arborized morphology as it ascends toward the epidermis, and anchors to the basement membrane.

  20. Stem Cells and Tissue Niche: Two Faces of the Same Coin of Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Scicchitano, Bianca Maria; Sica, Gigliola; Musarò, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Capacity of adult muscle to regenerate in response to injury stimuli represents an important homeostatic process. Regeneration is a highly coordinated program that partially recapitulates the embryonic developmental program. However, muscle regeneration is severely compromised in several pathological conditions. It is likely that the restricted tissue repair program under pathological conditions is due to either progressive loss of stem cell populations or to missing signals that limit the damaged tissues to efficiently activate a regenerative program. It is therefore plausible that loss of control over these cell fates might lead to a pathological cell transdifferentiation, limiting the ability of a pathological muscle to sustain an efficient regenerative process. The critical role of microenvironment on stem cells activity and muscle regeneration is discussed. PMID:28078070

  1. Human embryonic stem cells and respect for life

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to stimulate academic discussion about the ethical justification of using human primordial stem cells for tissue transplantation, cell replacement, and gene therapy. There are intriguing alternatives to using embryos obtained from elective abortions and in vitro fertilisation to reconstitute damaged or dysfunctional human organs. These include the expansion and transplantation of latent adult progenitor cells. Key Words: Primordial stem cell research • embryonic stem cells • pluripotent stem cells • embryo research PMID:10860206

  2. Endothelial cells direct mesenchymal stem cells toward a smooth muscle cell fate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cho-Hao; Lilly, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    Under defined conditions, mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into unique cell types, making them attractive candidates for cell-based disease therapies. Ischemic diseases would greatly benefit from treatments that include the formation of new blood vessels from mesenchymal stem cells. However, blood vessels are complex structures composed of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and their assembly and function in a diseased environment is reliant upon joining with the pre-existing vasculature. Although endothelial cell/smooth muscle cell interactions are well known, how endothelial cells may influence mesenchymal stem cells and facilitate their differentiation has not been defined. Therefore, we sought to explore how endothelial cells might drive mesenchymal stem cells toward a smooth muscle fate. Our data show that cocultured endothelial cells induce smooth muscle cell differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells. Endothelial cells can promote a contractile phenotype, reduce proliferation, and enhance collagen synthesis and secretion. Our data show that Notch signaling is essential for endothelial cell-dependent differentiation, and this differentiation pathway is largely independent of growth factor signaling mechanisms.

  3. Isolation of skeletal muscle stem cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Cheung, Tom H; Charville, Gregory W; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-10-01

    The prospective isolation of purified stem cell populations has dramatically altered the field of stem cell biology, and it has been a major focus of research across tissues in different organisms. Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) are now among the most intensely studied stem cell populations in mammalian systems, and the prospective isolation of these cells has allowed cellular and molecular characterizations that were not dreamed of a decade ago. In this protocol, we describe how to isolate MuSCs from limb muscles of adult mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We provide a detailed description of the physical and enzymatic dissociation of mononucleated cells from limb muscles, a procedure that is essential in order to maximize cell yield. We also describe a FACS-based method that is used subsequently to obtain highly pure populations of either quiescent or activated MuSCs (VCAM(+)CD31(-)CD45(-)Sca1(-)). The isolation process takes ∼5-6 h to complete. The protocol also allows for the isolation of endothelial cells, hematopoietic cells and mesenchymal stem cells from muscle tissue.

  4. Myostatin: a modulator of skeletal-muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Walsh, F S; Celeste, A J

    2005-12-01

    Myostatin, or GDF-8 (growth and differentiation factor-8), was first identified through sequence identity with members of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein)/TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily. The skeletal-muscle-specific expression pattern of myostatin suggested a role in muscle development. Mice with a targeted deletion of the myostatin gene exhibit a hypermuscular phenotype. In addition, inactivating mutations in the myostatin gene have been identified in 'double muscled' cattle breeds, such as the Belgian Blue and Piedmontese, as well as in a hypermuscular child. These findings define myostatin as a negative regulator of skeletal-muscle development. Myostatin binds with high affinity to the receptor serine threonine kinase ActRIIB (activin type IIB receptor), which initiates signalling through a smad2/3-dependent pathway. In an effort to validate myostatin as a therapeutic target in a post-embryonic setting, a neutralizing antibody was developed by screening for inhibition of myostatin binding to ActRIIB. Administration of this antimyostatin antibody to adult mice resulted in a significant increase in both muscle mass and functional strength. Importantly, similar results were obtained in a murine model of muscular dystrophy, the mdx mouse. Unlike the myostatin-deficient animals, which exhibit both muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, the antibody-treated mice demonstrate increased musculature through a hypertrophic mechanism. These results validate myostatin inhibition as a therapeutic approach to muscle wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy, sarcopenic frailty of the elderly and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  5. Aging of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix drives a stem cell fibrogenic conversion.

    PubMed

    Stearns-Reider, Kristen M; D'Amore, Antonio; Beezhold, Kevin; Rothrauff, Benjamin; Cavalli, Loredana; Wagner, William R; Vorp, David A; Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Shinde, Sunita; Zhang, Changqing; Barchowsky, Aaron; Rando, Thomas A; Tuan, Rocky S; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2017-03-30

    Age-related declines in skeletal muscle regeneration have been attributed to muscle stem cell (MuSC) dysfunction. Aged MuSCs display a fibrogenic conversion, leading to fibrosis and impaired recovery after injury. Although studies have demonstrated the influence of in vitro substrate characteristics on stem cell fate, whether and how aging of the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects stem cell behavior has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the direct effect of the aged muscle ECM on MuSC lineage specification. Quantification of ECM topology and muscle mechanical properties reveals decreased collagen tortuosity and muscle stiffening with increasing age. Age-related ECM alterations directly disrupt MuSC responses, and MuSCs seeded ex vivo onto decellularized ECM constructs derived from aged muscle display increased expression of fibrogenic markers and decreased myogenicity, compared to MuSCs seeded onto young ECM. This fibrogenic conversion is recapitulated in vitro when MuSCs are seeded directly onto matrices elaborated by aged fibroblasts. When compared to young fibroblasts, fibroblasts isolated from aged muscle display increased nuclear levels of the mechanosensors, Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), consistent with exposure to a stiff microenvironment in vivo. Accordingly, preconditioning of young fibroblasts by seeding them onto a substrate engineered to mimic the stiffness of aged muscle increases YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation and promotes secretion of a matrix that favors MuSC fibrogenesis. The findings here suggest that an age-related increase in muscle stiffness drives YAP/TAZ-mediated pathogenic expression of matricellular proteins by fibroblasts, ultimately disrupting MuSC fate.

  6. Preparation and Culture of Myogenic Precursor Cells/Primary Myoblasts from Skeletal Muscle of Adult and Aged Humans.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Arroquia, Ana; Clegg, Peter D; Molloy, Andrew P; Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna

    2017-02-16

    Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on muscle growth (hypertrophy), atrophy and regeneration. During ageing and in several diseases, muscle wasting occurs. Loss of muscle mass and function is associated with muscle fiber type atrophy, fiber type switching, defective muscle regeneration associated with dysfunction of satellite cells, muscle stem cells, and other pathophysiological processes. These changes are associated with changes in intracellular as well as local and systemic niches. In addition to most commonly used rodent models of muscle ageing, there is a need to study muscle homeostasis and wasting using human models, which due to ethical implications, consist predominantly of in vitro cultures. Despite the wide use of human Myogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs) and primary myoblasts in myogenesis, there is limited data on using human primary myoblast and myotube cultures to study molecular mechanisms regulating different aspects of age-associated muscle wasting, aiding in the validation of mechanisms of ageing proposed in rodent muscle. The use of human MPCs, primary myoblasts and myotubes isolated from adult and aged people, provides a physiologically relevant model of molecular mechanisms of processes associated with muscle growth, atrophy and regeneration. Here we describe in detail a robust, inexpensive, reproducible and efficient protocol for the isolation and maintenance of human MPCs and their progeny - myoblasts and myotubes from human muscle samples using enzymatic digestion. Furthermore, we have determined the passage number at which primary myoblasts from adult and aged people undergo senescence in an in vitro culture. Finally, we show the ability to transfect these myoblasts and the ability to characterize their proliferative and differentiation capacity and propose their suitability for performing functional studies of molecular mechanisms of myogenesis and muscle wasting in vitro.

  7. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    9 Appendix……………………………………………………………………………… 10 Eirew,P., Stingl,J., Raouf,A., Turashvili,G., Aparicio ,S., Emerman,J.T., and Eaves,C.J. A...Peter Eirew, John Stingl, Afshin Raouf, Gulisa Turashvili, Samuel Aparicio , Joanne Emerman and Connie Eaves. A method for quantifying normal human...Eirew, Afshin Raouf, John Stingl, Gulisa Turashvili, Allen Delaney, Joanne Emerman, Marco Marra and Samuel Aparicio . “Stem Cells in the Mammary Gland

  8. Identification of a new stem cell population that generates Drosophila flight muscles.

    PubMed

    Gunage, Rajesh D; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2014-08-18

    How myoblast populations are regulated for the formation of muscles of different sizes is an essentially unanswered question. The large flight muscles of Drosophila develop from adult muscle progenitor (AMP) cells set-aside embryonically. The thoracic segments are all allotted the same small AMP number, while those associated with the wing-disc proliferate extensively to give rise to over 2500 myoblasts. An initial amplification occurs through symmetric divisions and is followed by a switch to asymmetric divisions in which the AMPs self-renew and generate post-mitotic myoblasts. Notch signaling controls the initial amplification of AMPs, while the switch to asymmetric division additionally requires Wingless, which regulates Numb expression in the AMP lineage. In both cases, the epidermal tissue of the wing imaginal disc acts as a niche expressing the ligands Serrate and Wingless. The disc-associated AMPs are a novel muscle stem cell population that orchestrates the early phases of adult flight muscle development.

  9. Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0176 TITLE: Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 July 2015 Annual 01-July 2014 -- 30 Jun 2015 Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem...induced pluripotent stem cells by Atoh1 induction can be efficiently transformed by MYC oncogene to form aggressive brain tumors that recapitulate human

  10. Human skeletal muscle responses to spaceflight and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollnick, Philip D.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Saltin, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    The current status of knowledge concerning the effects of unweighting skeletal muscle is summarized. The results of both ground-based and space-based animal studies are reviewed which show that there is rapid loss in muscle mass, primarily in slow-twitch muscle, of the rat during unweighting of muscle. There is also a shift in the myosin isoforms with muscles such that slow-twitch muscles take on many of the characteristics of fast-twitch muscles. Ground-based studies in human suggest that programs of electrical stimulation can be developed to simulate normal muscular contractions. Attempts to develop countermeasures to the adverse effects of space travel on muscular functions in humans have not been successful to date.

  11. Clonal multipotency of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells between mesodermal and ectodermal lineage.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Okada, Yoshinori; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Tono, Kayoko; Masuda, Maki; Wada, Mika; Hoshi, Akio; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Akatsuka, Akira

    2007-09-01

    The differentiation potential of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) after in vitro culture and in vivo transplantation has been extensively studied. However, the clonal multipotency of MDSCs has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that single skeletal muscle-derived CD34-/CD45- (skeletal muscle-derived double negative [Sk-DN]) cells exhibit clonal multipotency that can give rise to myogenic, vasculogenic, and neural cell lineages after in vivo single cell-derived single sphere implantation and in vitro clonal single cell culture. Muscles from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were enzymatically dissociated and sorted based on CD34 and CD45. Sk-DN cells were clone-sorted into a 96-well plate and were cultured in collagen-based medium with basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor for 14 days. Individual colony-forming units (CFUs) were then transplanted directly into severely damaged muscle together with 1 x 10(5) competitive carrier Sk-DN cells obtained from wild-type mice muscle expanded for 5 days under the same culture conditions using 35-mm culture dishes. Four weeks after transplantation, implanted GFP+ cells demonstrated differentiation into endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and neural cell (Schwann cell) lineages. This multipotency was also confirmed by expression of mRNA markers for myogenic (MyoD, myf5), neural (Musashi-1, Nestin, neural cell adhesion molecule-1, peripheral myelin protein-22, Nucleostemin), and vascular (alpha-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, vascular endothelial-cadherin, tyrosine kinase-endothelial) stem cells by clonal (single-cell derived) single-sphere reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Approximately 70% of clonal CFUs exhibited expression of all three cell lineages. These findings support the notion that Sk-DN cells are a useful tool for damaged muscle-related tissue reconstitution by synchronized vasculogenesis, myogenesis, and neurogenesis.

  12. Telocytes and putative stem cells in ageing human heart.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Laurentiu M; Curici, Antoanela; Wang, Enshi; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Tradition considers that mammalian heart consists of about 70% non-myocytes (interstitial cells) and 30% cardiomyocytes (CMs). Anyway, the presence of telocytes (TCs) has been overlooked, since they were described in 2010 (visit www.telocytes.com). Also, the number of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has not accurately estimated in humans during ageing. We used electron microscopy to identify and estimate the number of cells in human atrial myocardium (appendages). Three age-related groups were studied: newborns (17 days-1 year), children (6-17 years) and adults (34-60 years). Morphometry was performed on low-magnification electron microscope images using computer-assisted technology. We found that interstitial area gradually increases with age from 31.3 ± 4.9% in newborns to 41 ± 5.2% in adults. Also, the number of blood capillaries (per mm(2) ) increased with several hundreds in children and adults versus newborns. CMs are the most numerous cells, representing 76% in newborns, 88% in children and 86% in adults. Images of CMs mitoses were seen in the 17-day newborns. Interestingly, no lipofuscin granules were found in CMs of human newborns and children. The percentage of cells that occupy interstitium were (depending on age): endothelial cells 52-62%; vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes 22-28%, Schwann cells with nerve endings 6-7%, fibroblasts 3-10%, macrophages 1-8%, TCs about 1% and stem cells less than 1%. We cannot confirm the popular belief that cardiac fibroblasts are the most prevalent cell type in the heart and account for about 20% of myocardial volume. Numerically, TCs represent a small fraction of human cardiac interstitial cells, but because of their extensive telopodes, they achieve a 3D network that, for instance, supports CSCs. The myocardial (very) low capability to regenerate may be explained by the number of CSCs, which decreases fivefold by age (from 0.5% to 0.1% in newborns versus adults).

  13. Control of abdominal muscles by brain stem respiratory neurons in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.; Ezure, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the control of abdominal muscles by the brain stem respiratory neurons was investigated in decerebrate unanesthetized cats. First, it was determined which of the brain stem respiratory neurons project to the lumbar cord (from which the abdominal muscles receive part of their innervation), by stimulating the neurons monopolarly. In a second part of the study, it was determined if lumbar-projecting respiratory neurons make monosynaptic connections with abdominal motoneurons; in these experiments, discriminate spontaneous spikes of antidromically acivated expiratory (E) neurons were used to trigger activity from both L1 and L2 nerves. A large projection was observed from E neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group to the contralateral upper lumber cord. However, cross-correlation experiments found only two (out of 47 neuron pairs tested) strong monosynaptic connections between brain stem neurons and abdominal motoneurons.

  14. Nucleofection of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Siemen, Henrike; Nix, Michael; Endl, Elmar; Koch, Philipp; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Brüstle, Oliver

    2005-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells provide an important tool for the study of human development, disease, and tissue regeneration. Technologies for efficient genetic modification are required to exploit hES cells fully for these applications. Here we present a customized protocol for the transfection of hES cells with the Nucleofector technology and compare its efficiency with conventional electroporation and lipofection. Cell survival and transfection efficiency were quantified using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter construct. Our optimized nucleofection parameters yielded survival rates >70%. Under these conditions, 66% of the surviving cells showed transgene expression 24 h after nucleofection. Transfected cells maintained expression of the pluripotency- associated markers Tra-1-60, Tra-1-81, and Oct4 and could be expanded to stably transgene-expressing clones. The low quantities of hES cells and DNA required for nucleofection could make this method an attractive tool for miniaturized high throughput screening (HTS) applications.

  15. Human Skeletal Muscle Health with Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappe, Scott

    2012-07-01

    This lecture will overview the most recent aerobic and resistance exercise programs used by crewmembers while aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for six months and examine its effectiveness for protecting skeletal muscle health. Detailed information on the exercise prescription program, whole muscle size, whole muscle performance, and cellular data obtained from muscle biopsy samples will be presented. Historically, detailed information on the exercise program while in space has not been available. These most recent exercise and muscle physiology findings provide a critical foundation to guide the exercise countermeasure program forward for future long-duration space missions.

  16. Muscle protein analysis. II. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of normal and diseased human skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Barany, M.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1980-07-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the major proteins of normal and pathological human-muscle samples. The normal human-muscle pattern contains four myosin light chains: three that co-migrate with the myosin light chains from rabbit fast muscle (extensor digitorum longus), and one that co-migrates with the light chain 2 from rabbit slow muscle (soleus). Of seven Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples, four yielded patterns with decreased amounts of actin and myosin relative to normal muscle, while three samples gave patterns comparable to that for normal muscle. Six samples from patients with myotonic dystrophy also gave normal patterns. In nemaline rod myopathy, in contrast, the pattern was deficient in two of the fast-type myosin light chains.

  17. Passive mechanical properties of human gastrocnemius muscle tendon units, muscle fascicles and tendons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hoang, P D; Herbert, R D; Todd, G; Gorman, R B; Gandevia, S C

    2007-12-01

    This study provides the first in vivo measures of the passive length-tension properties of relaxed human muscle fascicles and their tendons. A new method was used to derive passive length-tension properties of human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units from measures of ankle stiffness obtained at a range of knee angles. Passive length-tension curves of the muscle-tendon unit were then combined with ultrasonographic measures of muscle fascicle length and pennation to determine passive length-tension curves of the muscle fascicles and tendons. Mean slack lengths of the fascicles, tendons and whole muscle-tendon units were 3.3+/-0.5 cm, 39.5+/-1.6 cm and 42.3+/-1.5 cm, respectively (means +/- s.d., N=6). On average, the muscle-tendon units were slack (i.e. their passive tension was zero) over the shortest 2.3+/-1.2 cm of their range. With combined changes of knee and ankle angles, the maximal increase in length of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit above slack length was 6.7+/-1.9 cm, of which 52.4+/-11.7% was due to elongation of the tendon. Muscle fascicles and tendons underwent strains of 86.4+/-26.8% and 9.2+/-4.1%, respectively, across the physiological range of lengths. We conclude that the relaxed human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit falls slack over about one-quarter of its in vivo length and that muscle fascicle strains are much greater than tendon strains. Nonetheless, because the tendons are much longer than the muscle fascicles, tendons contribute more than half of the total compliance of the muscle-tendon unit.

  18. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a method to maximize the beneficial effects of muscle stem cells transplanted into dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Giovanna; Ferrari, Ricardo Jose; Weiss, Christopher; Deasy, Bridget M; Boninger, Michael L; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Huard, Johnny; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2013-01-01

    Cellular therapy is a potential approach to improve the regenerative capacity of damaged or diseased skeletal muscle. However, its clinical use has often been limited by impaired donor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation following transplantation. Additionally, functional improvements after transplantation are all-too-often negligible. Because the host microenvironment plays an important role in the fate of transplanted cells, methods to modulate the microenvironment and guide donor cell behavior are warranted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for 1 or 4 weeks following muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC) transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle can modulate the fate of donor cells and enhance their contribution to muscle regeneration and functional improvements. Animals submitted to 4 weeks of NMES after transplantation demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the number of dystrophin+ myofibers as compared to control transplanted muscles. These findings were concomitant with an increased vascularity in the MDSC+NMES group when compared to non-stimulated counterparts. Additionally, animals subjected to NMES (with or without MDSC transplantation) presented an increased maximal specific tetanic force when compared to controls. Although cell transplantation and/or the use of NMES resulted in no changes in fatigue resistance, the combination of both MDSC transplantation and NMES resulted in a faster recovery from fatigue, when compared to non-injected and non-stimulated counterparts. We conclude that NMES is a viable method to improve MDSC engraftment, enhance dystrophic muscle strength, and, in combination with MDSC transplantation, improve recovery from fatigue. These findings suggest that NMES may be a clinically-relevant adjunct approach for cell transplantation into skeletal muscle.

  19. Chromatin modifications as determinants of muscle stem cell quiescence and chronological aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Cheung, Tom H; Charville, Gregory W; Hurgo, Bernadette Marie Ceniza; Leavitt, Tripp; Shih, Johnathan; Brunet, Anne; Rando, Thomas A

    2013-07-11

    The ability to maintain quiescence is critical for the long-term maintenance of a functional stem cell pool. To date, the epigenetic and transcriptional characteristics of quiescent stem cells and how they change with age remain largely unknown. In this study, we explore the chromatin features of adult skeletal muscle stem cells, or satellite cells (SCs), which reside predominantly in a quiescent state in fully developed limb muscles of both young and aged mice. Using a ChIP-seq approach to obtain global epigenetic profiles of quiescent SCs (QSCs), we show that QSCs possess a permissive chromatin state in which few genes are epigenetically repressed by Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and a large number of genes encoding regulators that specify nonmyogenic lineages are demarcated by bivalent domains at their transcription start sites (TSSs). By comparing epigenetic profiles of QSCs from young and old mice, we also provide direct evidence that, with age, epigenetic changes accumulate and may lead to a functional decline in quiescent stem cells. These findings highlight the importance of chromatin mapping in understanding unique features of stem cell identity and stem cell aging.

  20. Tonic muscle pain does not increase fusimotor drive to human leg muscles: implications for chronic muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G; Birznieks, Ingvars

    2013-06-01

    Experimental pain induced in animals has shown that noxious stimulation of group III and IV afferents increases the firing of muscle spindles via a reflex excitation of fusimotor (γ) motoneurones. Chronic muscle pain has been hypothesized to develop as a result of a vicious cycle involving this mechanism. In order to explore the effects of long-lasting muscle pain on the fusimotor system, single unit muscle spindle afferents were recorded from 15 subjects. Afferent activity was recorded from foot and ankle extensor muscles whilst infusing hypertonic saline into the tibialis anterior muscle of the ipsilateral leg, producing moderate-strong pain lasting for ∼60 min. A change in fusimotor drive was inferred by observing changes in the mean discharge rate of spontaneously active muscle spindle afferents. Homonymous and heteronymous muscles remained relaxed and showed no increase in activity, arguing against any fusimotor-driven increase in motor activity, and there was no net change in the firing of muscle spindle afferents. We conclude that long-lasting stimulation of group III and IV afferents fails to excite fusimotor neurones and increase muscle spindle discharge. Accordingly, the vicious cycle theory has no functional basis for the development of myalgia in human subjects.

  1. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  2. Human muscle spindle sensitivity reflects the balance of activity between antagonistic muscles.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Michael

    2014-10-08

    Muscle spindles are commonly considered as stretch receptors encoding movement, but the functional consequence of their efferent control has remained unclear. The "α-γ coactivation" hypothesis states that activity in a muscle is positively related to the output of its spindle afferents. However, in addition to the above, possible reciprocal inhibition of spindle controllers entails a negative relationship between contractile activity in one muscle and spindle afferent output from its antagonist. By recording spindle afferent responses from alert humans using microneurography, I show that spindle output does reflect antagonistic muscle balance. Specifically, regardless of identical kinematic profiles across active finger movements, stretch of the loaded antagonist muscle (i.e., extensor) was accompanied by increased afferent firing rates from this muscle compared with the baseline case of no constant external load. In contrast, spindle firing rates from the stretching antagonist were lowest when the agonist muscle powering movement (i.e., flexor) acted against an additional resistive load. Stepwise regressions confirmed that instantaneous velocity, extensor, and flexor muscle activity had a significant effect on spindle afferent responses, with flexor activity having a negative effect. Therefore, the results indicate that, as consequence of their efferent control, spindle sensitivity (gain) to muscle stretch reflects the balance of activity between antagonistic muscles rather than only the activity of the spindle-bearing muscle.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling of Muscle Stem Cells Identifies Novel Regulators of Postnatal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Rochat, Anne; Mademtzoglou, Despoina; Morais, Jessica; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Auradé, Frédéric; Chang, Ted Hung-Tse; Zammit, Peter S.; Relaix, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration require a population of muscle stem cells, the satellite cells, located in close contact to the myofiber. These cells are specified during fetal and early postnatal development in mice from a Pax3/7 population of embryonic progenitor cells. As little is known about the genetic control of their formation and maintenance, we performed a genome-wide chronological expression profile identifying the dynamic transcriptomic changes involved in establishment of muscle stem cells through life, and acquisition of muscle stem cell properties. We have identified multiple genes and pathways associated with satellite cell formation, including set of genes specifically induced (EphA1, EphA2, EfnA1, EphB1, Zbtb4, Zbtb20) or inhibited (EphA3, EphA4, EphA7, EfnA2, EfnA3, EfnA4, EfnA5, EphB2, EphB3, EphB4, EfnBs, Zfp354c, Zcchc5, Hmga2) in adult stem cells. Ephrin receptors and ephrins ligands have been implicated in cell migration and guidance in many tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we show that Ephrin receptors and ephrins ligands are also involved in regulating the adult myogenic program. Strikingly, impairment of EPHB1 function in satellite cells leads to increased differentiation at the expense of self-renewal in isolated myofiber cultures. In addition, we identified new transcription factors, including several zinc finger proteins. ZFP354C and ZCCHC5 decreased self-renewal capacity when overexpressed, whereas ZBTB4 increased it, and ZBTB20 induced myogenic progression. The architectural and transcriptional regulator HMGA2 was involved in satellite cell activation. Together, our study shows that transcriptome profiling coupled with myofiber culture analysis, provides an efficient system to identify and validate candidate genes implicated in establishment/maintenance of muscle stem cells. Furthermore, tour de force transcriptomic profiling provides a wealth of data to inform for future stem cell-based muscle therapies. PMID:27446912

  4. RhoA mediates defective stem cell function and heterotopic ossification in dystrophic muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaodong; Usas, Arvydas; Tang, Ying; Lu, Aiping; Wang, Bing; Weiss, Kurt; Huard, Johnny

    2013-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) and fatty infiltration (FI) often occur in diseased skeletal muscle and have been previously described in various animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, the pathological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice and dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout (dKO) mice are mouse models of DMD; however, mdx mice display a strong muscle regeneration capacity, while dKO mice exhibit a much more severe phenotype, which is similar to patients with DMD. Our results revealed that more extensive HO, but not FI, occurred in the skeletal muscle of dKO mice versus mdx mice, and RhoA activation specifically occurred at the sites of HO. Moreover, the gene expression of RhoA, BMPs, and several inflammatory factors were significantly up-regulated in muscle stem cells isolated from dKO mice; while inactivation of RhoA in the cells with RhoA/ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 led to reduced osteogenic potential and improved myogenic potential. Finally, inactivation of RhoA signaling in the dKO mice with Y-27632 improved muscle regeneration and reduced the expression of BMPs, inflammation, HO, and intramyocellular lipid accumulation in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results revealed that RhoA represents a major molecular switch in the regulation of HO and muscle regeneration in dystrophic skeletal muscle of mice.

  5. Origin of the styloglossus muscle in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vazquez, J F; de la Cuadra Blanco, C; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-05-01

    The origin of the styloglossus muscle was histologically studied bilaterally in nine human fetuses (18 sides). In all cases, the muscle originated in Reichert's cartilage, which gives rise to the temporal styloid process. We identified three types of variation: type A, an accessory muscle fascicle originating from the mandibular angle, found in 7 cases (12 sides); type B, where the styloglossus muscle was attached to the mandibular angle by fibrous tracts, found in three cases (4 sides); and type C, where an accessory muscle fascicle arose from the fibrous tract connecting Reichert's cartilage to the mandibular angle; found in one case. In all cases (2 sides), the styloglossus muscle was innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Relationships between the styloglossus muscle and vasculonervous elements of the prestyloid and retrostyloid spaces were analysed.

  6. Origin of the styloglossus muscle in the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vazquez, J F; de la Cuadra Blanco, C; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the styloglossus muscle was histologically studied bilaterally in nine human fetuses (18 sides). In all cases, the muscle originated in Reichert's cartilage, which gives rise to the temporal styloid process. We identified three types of variation: type A, an accessory muscle fascicle originating from the mandibular angle, found in 7 cases (12 sides); type B, where the styloglossus muscle was attached to the mandibular angle by fibrous tracts, found in three cases (4 sides); and type C, where an accessory muscle fascicle arose from the fibrous tract connecting Reichert's cartilage to the mandibular angle; found in one case. In all cases (2 sides), the styloglossus muscle was innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Relationships between the styloglossus muscle and vasculonervous elements of the prestyloid and retrostyloid spaces were analysed. PMID:16637887

  7. Muscle-Bound Primordial Stem Cells Give Rise to Myofiber-Associated Myogenic and Non-Myogenic Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Chapal-Ilani, Noa; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Horovitz, Inna; Reizel, Yitzhak; Benayahu, Dafna; Shapiro, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Myofiber cultures give rise to myogenic as well as to non-myogenic cells. Whether these myofiber-associated non-myogenic cells develop from resident stem cells that possess mesenchymal plasticity or from other stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unsolved. To address this question, we applied a method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations to MSCs and myogenic and non-myogenic cells from individual myofibers that were cultured at clonal density. Our analyses show that (i) in addition to myogenic progenitors, myofibers also harbor non-myogenic progenitors of a distinct, yet close, lineage; (ii) myofiber-associated non-myogenic and myogenic cells share the same muscle-bound primordial stem cells of a lineage distinct from bone marrow MSCs; (iii) these muscle-bound primordial stem-cells first part to individual muscles and then differentiate into myogenic and non-myogenic stem cells. PMID:22022423

  8. Inspiratory muscle training attenuates the human respiratory muscle metaboreflex

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Jonathan D; Guenette, Jordan A; Rupert, Jim L; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would attenuate the sympathetically mediated heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases normally observed during fatiguing inspiratory muscle work. An experimental group (Exp, n = 8) performed IMT 6 days per week for 5 weeks at 50% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), while a control group (Sham, n = 8) performed IMT at 10% MIP. Pre- and post-training, subjects underwent a eucapnic resistive breathing task (RBT) (breathing frequency = 15 breaths min−1, duty cycle = 0.70) while HR and MAP were continuously monitored. Following IMT, MIP increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the Exp group (−125 ± 10 to −146 ± 12 cmH2O; mean ±s.e.m.) but not in the Sham group (−141 ± 11 to −148 ± 11 cmH2O). Prior to IMT, the RBT resulted in significant increases in HR (Sham: 59 ± 2 to 83 ± 4 beats min−1; Exp: 62 ± 3 to 83 ± 4 beats min−1) and MAP (Sham: 88 ± 2 to 106 ± 3 mmHg; Exp: 84 ± 1 to 99 ± 3 mmHg) in both groups relative to rest. Following IMT, the Sham group observed similar HR and MAP responses to the RBT while the Exp group failed to increase HR and MAP to the same extent as before (HR: 59 ± 3 to 74 ± 2 beats min−1; MAP: 84 ± 1 to 89 ± 2 mmHg). This attenuated cardiovascular response suggests a blunted sympatho-excitation to resistive inspiratory work. We attribute our findings to a reduced activity of chemosensitive afferents within the inspiratory muscles and may provide a mechanism for some of the whole-body exercise endurance improvements associated with IMT. PMID:17855758

  9. Clinical potentials of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mora, Cristina; Serzanti, Marialaura; Consiglio, Antonella; Memo, Maurizio; Dell'Era, Patrizia

    2017-02-08

    Aging, injuries, and diseases can be considered as the result of malfunctioning or damaged cells. Regenerative medicine aims to restore tissue homeostasis by repairing or replacing cells, tissues, or damaged organs, by linking and combining different disciplines including engineering, technology, biology, and medicine. To pursue these goals, the discipline is taking advantage of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), a peculiar type of cell possessing the ability to differentiate into every cell type of the body. Human PSCs can be isolated from the blastocysts and maintained in culture indefinitely, giving rise to the so-called embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, since 2006, it is possible to restore in an adult cell a pluripotent ESC-like condition by forcing the expression of four transcription factors with the rejuvenating reprogramming technology invented by Yamanaka. Then the two types of PSC can be differentiated, using standardized protocols, towards the cell type necessary for the regeneration. Although the use of these derivatives for therapeutic transplantation is still in the preliminary phase of safety and efficacy studies, a lot of efforts are presently taking place to discover the biological mechanisms underlying genetic pathologies, by differentiating induced PSCs derived from patients, and new therapies by challenging PSC-derived cells in drug screening.

  10. Hierarchization of myogenic and adipogenic progenitors within human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Didier F; Clement, Noémie; Loubat, Agnès; Plaisant, Magali; Sacconi, Sabrina; Kurzenne, Jean-Yves; Desnuelle, Claude; Dani, Christian; Dechesne, Claude A

    2010-12-01

    Skeletal muscle cells constitute a heterogeneous population that maintains muscle integrity through a high myogenic regenerative capacity. More unexpectedly, this population is also endowed with an adipogenic potential, even in humans, and intramuscular adipocytes have been found to be present in several disorders. We tested the distribution of myogenic and adipogenic commitments in human muscle-derived cells to decipher the cellular basis of the myoadipogenic balance. Clonal analysis showed that adipogenic progenitors can be separated from myogenic progenitors and, interestingly, from myoadipogenic bipotent progenitors. These progenitors were isolated in the CD34(+) population on the basis of the expression of CD56 and CD15 cell surface markers. In vivo, these different cell types have been found in the interstitial compartment of human muscle. In vitro, we show that the proliferation of bipotent myoadipogenic CD56(+)CD15(+) progenitors gives rise to myogenic CD56(+)CD15(-) progenitors and adipogenic CD56(-)CD15(+) progenitors. A cellular hierarchy of muscle and fat progenitors thus occurs within human muscle. These results provide cellular bases for adipogenic differentiation in human skeletal muscle, which may explain the fat development encountered in different muscle pathological situations.

  11. Optical control of muscle function by transplantation of stem cell-derived motor neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Bryson, J Barney; Machado, Carolina Barcellos; Crossley, Martin; Stevenson, Danielle; Bros-Facer, Virginie; Burrone, Juan; Greensmith, Linda; Lieberam, Ivo

    2014-04-04

    Damage to the central nervous system caused by traumatic injury or neurological disorders can lead to permanent loss of voluntary motor function and muscle paralysis. Here, we describe an approach that circumvents central motor circuit pathology to restore specific skeletal muscle function. We generated murine embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons that express the light-sensitive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2, which we then engrafted into partially denervated branches of the sciatic nerve of adult mice. These engrafted motor neurons not only reinnervated lower hind-limb muscles but also enabled their function to be restored in a controllable manner using optogenetic stimulation. This synthesis of regenerative medicine and optogenetics may be a successful strategy to restore muscle function after traumatic injury or disease.

  12. Intestinal smooth muscle cells locally enhance stem cell factor (SCF) production against gastrointestinal nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    Smooth muscle cells can produce stem cell factor (SCF) in the normal state for the preservation of mast cells, but it is still unknown whether smooth muscle cells can enhance SCF production in response to the pathological stimuli. The present study showed that smooth muscle cells in mast cell-increased regions around worm cysts of intestinal nematodes significantly enhanced SCF gene expression compared with mast cell non-increased regions in same sample. SCF gene expression in mast cell non-increased regions in nematode-infected mice showed almost the same level as in non-infected control groups. These results indicate that smooth muscle cells can locally enhance SCF gene expression, and may have a role in local immunological reactions as growth factor-producing cells.

  13. Brain Connectivity Associated with Muscle Synergies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Manku; Yani, Moheb S.; Asavasopon, Skulpan; Fisher, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    The human brain is believed to simplify the control of the large number of muscles in the body by flexibly combining muscle coordination patterns, termed muscle synergies. However, the neural connectivity allowing the human brain to access and coordinate muscle synergies to accomplish functional tasks remains unknown. Here, we use a surprising pair of synergists in humans, the flexor hallucis longus (FHL, a toe flexor) and the anal sphincter, as a model that we show to be well suited in elucidating the neural connectivity underlying muscle synergy control. First, using electromyographic recordings, we demonstrate that voluntary FHL contraction is associated with synergistic anal sphincter contraction, but voluntary anal sphincter contraction occurs without FHL contraction. Second, using fMRI, we show that two important medial wall motor cortical regions emerge in relation to these tasks: one located more posteriorly that preferentially activates during voluntary FHL contraction and one located more anteriorly that activates during both voluntary FHL contraction as well as voluntary anal sphincter contraction. Third, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we demonstrate that the anterior region is more likely to generate anal sphincter contraction than FHL contraction. Finally, using a repository resting-state fMRI dataset, we demonstrate that the anterior and posterior motor cortical regions have significantly different functional connectivity with distinct and distant brain regions. We conclude that specific motor cortical regions in humans provide access to different muscle synergies, which may allow distinct brain networks to coordinate muscle synergies during functional tasks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the human nervous system coordinates activity in a large number of muscles is a fundamental question. The brain and spinal cord are believed to simplify the control of muscles by grouping them into functional units called muscle synergies. Motor cortex is

  14. Possible Local Stem Cells Activation by Microcurrent Application in Experimentally Injured Soleus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zickri, Maha Baligh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe injuries in skeletal muscle result in muscle weakness that delays recovery and contribute to progressive decline in muscle function. Microcurrent therapy (MCT) is a novel treatment method used in soft tissue injury and tissue regeneration therapy. The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle tissue resides in satellite cells, the quiescent adult stem cells. Aim: The present work aimed at investigating the relation between microcurrent therapy and local stem cells in regeneration of induced skeletal muscle injury in albino rat. Materials and methods: Twenty six adult male albino rats were divided into Sham group, Injury group (I): subjected to soleus muscle injury and subdivided into subgroups I1 & I2 sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks after injury respectively. Microcurrent group (M): subjected to muscle injury and micro-current was applied. The animals were subdivided into subgroups M1 and M2 sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks after injury. Histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed. Results: Atypical fibers widely separated by infiltrating cells and strong acidophilic sarcoplasm with focal vacuolations were found in injury group. In M1 subgroup few atypical fibers were found. In M2 subgroup multiple typical fibers were detected. A significant decrease in the mean area of atypical fibers, a significant increase in the mean area% of alpha SMA+ve cells and that of CD34+ve cells were found in microcurrent group compared to injury group. Conclusion: A definite therapeutic effect of the microcurrent was found on induced skeletal muscle injury. This effect was proved to be related to satellite cell activation. PMID:25473445

  15. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on induced skeletal muscle chemodenervation atrophy in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Azza S; Al-Ghonemy, Nabila M; Ahmed, Samah M; Mohamed, Samar R

    2017-04-01

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a potential therapeutic tool for improvement of skeletal muscle recovery after induced chemodenervation atrophy by repeated local injection of botulinum toxin-A in the right tibialis anterior muscle of adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were classified into control and experimental groups. Experimental group was further subdivided into 3 equal subgroups; induced atrophy, BM-MSCs treated and recovery groups. Biochemical analysis of serum LDH, CK and Real-time PCR for Bcl-2, caspase 3 and caspase 9 was measured. Skeletal muscle sections were stained with H and E, Mallory trichrome, and Immunohistochemical reaction for Bax and CD34. Improvement in the skeletal muscle histological structure was noticed in BM-MSCs treated group, however, in the recovery group, some sections showed apparent transverse striations and others still affected. Immunohistochemical reaction of Bax protein showed strong positive immunoreaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers in the induced atrophy group. BM-MSCs treated group showed weak positive reaction while the recovery group showed moderate reaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical reaction for CD34 revealed occasional positive CD34 stained cells in the induced atrophy group. In BM-MSCs treated group, multiple positive CD34 stained cells were detected. However, recovery group showed some positive CD34 stained cells at the periphery of the muscle fibers. Marked improvement in the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles after BM-MSCs therapy. Hence, stem cell therapy provides a new hope for patients suffering from myopathies and severe injuries.

  16. Lengthening the stem: allowing federally funded researchers to derive human pluripotent stem cells from embryos.

    PubMed

    Casell, J H

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in fetal tissue research and stem cell research have led to dramatic breakthroughs in the search for cures for Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and a host of neurological disorders. Because this research involves fetal tissue and stem cells from human embryos, many complicated ethical and legal implications surround it. This Note explores the history of fetal tissue research and stem cell research, examines the surrounding ethical and legal issues, looks at the current state of federal law, and concludes that Congress should allow federally funded researchers to derive stem cells from discarded human embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization clinics.

  17. Observational Study on the Occurrence of Muscle Spindles in Human Digastric and Mylohyoideus Muscles

    PubMed Central

    De Santanna, Amleto; Cervioni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Although the occurrence of muscle spindles (MS) is quite high in most skeletal muscles of humans, few MS, or even absence, have been reported in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. Even if this condition is generally accepted and quoted in many papers and books, observational studies are scarce and based on histological sections of a low number of specimens. The aim of the present study is to confirm previous data, assessing MS number in a sample of digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. We investigated 11 digastric and 6 mylohyoideus muscles from 13 donors. Muscle samples were embedded in paraffin wax, cross-sectioned in a rostrocaudal direction, and stained using haematoxylin-eosin. A mean of 5.1 ± 1.1 (range 3–7) MS was found in digastric muscles and mean of 0.5 ± 0.8 (range 0–2) in mylohyoideus muscles. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found with the control sample, confirming the correctness of the histological procedure. Our results support general belief that the absolute number of spindles is sparse in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. External forces, such as food resistance during chewing or gravity, do not counteract jaw-opening muscles. It is conceivable that this condition gives them a limited proprioceptive importance and a reduced need for having specific receptors as MS. PMID:25165696

  18. Observational study on the occurrence of muscle spindles in human digastric and mylohyoideus muscles.

    PubMed

    Saverino, Daniele; De Santanna, Amleto; Simone, Rita; Cervioni, Stefano; Cattrysse, Erik; Testa, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Although the occurrence of muscle spindles (MS) is quite high in most skeletal muscles of humans, few MS, or even absence, have been reported in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. Even if this condition is generally accepted and quoted in many papers and books, observational studies are scarce and based on histological sections of a low number of specimens. The aim of the present study is to confirm previous data, assessing MS number in a sample of digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. We investigated 11 digastric and 6 mylohyoideus muscles from 13 donors. Muscle samples were embedded in paraffin wax, cross-sectioned in a rostrocaudal direction, and stained using haematoxylin-eosin. A mean of 5.1 ± 1.1 (range 3-7) MS was found in digastric muscles and mean of 0.5 ± 0.8 (range 0-2) in mylohyoideus muscles. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found with the control sample, confirming the correctness of the histological procedure. Our results support general belief that the absolute number of spindles is sparse in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. External forces, such as food resistance during chewing or gravity, do not counteract jaw-opening muscles. It is conceivable that this condition gives them a limited proprioceptive importance and a reduced need for having specific receptors as MS.

  19. Human skeletal muscle protein breakdown during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein. Excretion of 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) in the urine is a useful measurement of myofibrillar protein breakdown. Bed rest, particularly with 6 degrees head-down tilt, is an accepted ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this report were to compare 3-MH excretion from two Life Sciences shuttle missions (duration 9.5 and 15 days, n = 9) and from 17 days of bed rest (n = 7) with 6 degrees head-down tilt. The bed rest study was designed to mimic an actual Life Sciences spaceflight and so incorporated an extensive battery of physiological tests focused on the musculoskeletal system. Results showed that nitrogen retention, based on excretion of nitrogen in the urine, was reduced during both bed rest [from 22 +/- 1 to 1 +/- 5 mg N x kg(-1) x day(-1) (n = 7; P < 0.05)] and spaceflight [from 57 +/- 9 to 19 +/- 3 mg N x kg(-1) x day(-1) (n = 9; P < 0.05)]. 3-MH excretion was unchanged with either bed rest [pre-bed rest 5.30 +/- 0.29 vs. bed rest 5.71 +/- 0.30 micromol 3-MH x kg(-1) x day(-1), n = 7; P = not significant (NS)] or spaceflight [preflight 4.98 +/- 0.37 vs. 4.59 +/- 0.39 micromol 3-MH x kg(-1) x day(-1) in-flight, n = 9; P = NS]. We conclude that 1) 3-MH excretion was unaffected by spaceflight on the shuttle or with bed rest plus exercise, and 2) because protein breakdown (elevated 3-MH) was increased on Skylab but not on the shuttle, it follows that muscle protein breakdown is not an inevitable consequence of spaceflight.

  20. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy as a Counter-Measure for Human Exploration of Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, S.; Roach, A.-N.; Ramsahai, S.; Kim, B. C.; Fitzgerald, W.; Riley, D. A.; Gonda, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Human exploration of deep space depends, in part, on our ability to counter severe/invasive disorders that astronauts experience in space environments. The known symptoms include hematological/cardiac abnormalities,bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders, and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, we have advanced a hypothesis that ome of the space-caused disorders maybe amenable to hematopoietis stem cell therapy(HSCT) so as to maintain promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia beta-thaiassemia) as well as spaceflight (hindlimb unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, in the case of HSCT for muscle loss, the beta-galactosidese marked HSCs were detected in the hindlimbs of unloaded mouse following transplantation by -X-gal wholemaunt staining procedure. Histochemicaland physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. HSCT for immunodeficiency was investigated ising beta-galactosidese gene-tagged Escherichia coli as the infectious agent. Results of the X-gal staining procedure indicated the rapeutic role of the HSCT. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  1. A subpopulation of adult skeletal muscle stem cells retains all template DNA strands after cell division.

    PubMed

    Rocheteau, Pierre; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Siegl-Cachedenier, Irene; Blasco, Maria A; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2012-01-20

    Satellite cells are adult skeletal muscle stem cells that are quiescent and constitute a poorly defined heterogeneous population. Using transgenic Tg:Pax7-nGFP mice, we show that Pax7-nGFP(Hi) cells are less primed for commitment and have a lower metabolic status and delayed first mitosis compared to Pax7-nGFP(Lo) cells. Pax7-nGFP(Hi) can give rise to Pax7-nGFP(Lo) cells after serial transplantations. Proliferating Pax7-nGFP(Hi) cells exhibit lower metabolic activity, and the majority performs asymmetric DNA segregation during cell division, wherein daughter cells retaining template DNA strands express stem cell markers. Using chromosome orientation-fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that all chromatids segregate asymmetrically, whereas Pax7-nGFP(Lo) cells perform random DNA segregation. Therefore, quiescent Pax7-nGFP(Hi) cells represent a reversible dormant stem cell state, and during muscle regeneration, Pax7-nGFP(Hi) cells generate distinct daughter cell fates by asymmetrically segregating template DNA strands to the stem cell. These findings provide major insights into the biology of stem cells that segregate DNA asymmetrically.

  2. Stem Cell Differentiation Toward the Myogenic Lineage for Muscle Tissue Regeneration: A Focus on Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Shi, Xuetao; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Salehi, Sahar; Fujie, Toshinori; Bae, Hojae; Ramalingam, Murugan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is one of the important ways for regenerating functionally defective muscles. Among the myopathies, the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive disease due to mutations of the dystrophin gene leading to progressive myofiber degeneration with severe symptoms. Although current therapies in muscular dystrophy are still very challenging, important progress has been made in materials science and in cellular technologies with the use of stem cells. It is therefore useful to review these advances and the results obtained in a clinical point of view. This article focuses on the differentiation of stem cells into myoblasts, and their application in muscular dystrophy. After an overview of the different stem cells that can be induced to differentiate into the myogenic lineage, we introduce scaffolding materials used for muscular tissue engineering. We then described some widely used methods to differentiate different types of stem cell into myoblasts. We highlight recent insights obtained in therapies for muscular dystrophy. Finally, we conclude with a discussion on stem cell technology. We discussed in parallel the benefits brought by the evolution of the materials and by the expansion of cell sources which can differentiate into myoblasts. We also discussed on future challenges for clinical applications and how to accelerate the translation from the research to the clinic in the frame of DMD.

  3. An in vivo model of human small intestine using pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Watson, Carey L; Mahe, Maxime M; Múnera, Jorge; Howell, Jonathan C; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Poling, Holly M; Schweitzer, Jamie I; Vallance, Jefferson E; Mayhew, Christopher N; Sun, Ying; Grabowski, Gregory; Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Spence, Jason R; Shroyer, Noah F; Wells, James M; Helmrath, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary epithelial cultures or digested tissue from surgical biopsies that include mesenchymal cells transplanted on biodegradable scaffolds. Here, we generated human intestinal organoids (HIOs) produced in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that can engraft in vivo. These HIOs form mature human intestinal epithelium with intestinal stem cells contributing to the crypt-villus architecture and a laminated human mesenchyme, both supported by mouse vasculature ingrowth. In vivo transplantation resulted in marked expansion and maturation of the epithelium and mesenchyme, as demonstrated by differentiated intestinal cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells), presence of functional brush-border enzymes (lactase, sucrase-isomaltase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4) and visible subepithelial and smooth muscle layers when compared with HIOs in vitro. Transplanted intestinal tissues demonstrated digestive functions as shown by permeability and peptide uptake studies. Furthermore, transplanted HIO-derived tissue was responsive to systemic signals from the host mouse following ileocecal resection, suggesting a role for circulating factors in the intestinal adaptive response. This model of the human small intestine may pave the way for studies of intestinal physiology, disease and translational studies.

  4. Stem cells migration during skeletal muscle regeneration - the role of Sdf-1/Cxcr4 and Sdf-1/Cxcr7 axis.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Kamil; Kołodziejczyk, Aleksandra; Sikorska, Maria; Płaczkiewicz, Jagoda; Cichosz, Paulina; Kowalewska, Magdalena; Stremińska, Władysława; Jańczyk-Ilach, Katarzyna; Koblowska, Marta; Fogtman, Anna; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Ciemerych, Maria A; Brzoska, Edyta

    2016-10-13

    The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro. Importantly, we identified that Sdf-1 caused an increase in the expression of tetraspanin CD9 - adhesion protein involved in myoblasts fusion. In the current study we aimed to uncover the details of molecular mechanism of Sdf-1 action. We focused at the Sdf-1 receptors - Cxcr4 and Cxcr7, as well as signaling pathways induced by these molecules in primary myoblasts, as well as various stem cells - mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells, i.e. the cells of different migration and myogenic potential. We showed that Sdf-1 altered actin organization via FAK (focal adhesion kinase), Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42), and Rac-1 (Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1). Moreover, we showed that Sdf-1 modified the transcription profile of genes encoding factors engaged in cells adhesion and migration. As the result, cells such as primary myoblasts or embryonic stem cells, became characterized by more effective migration when transplanted into regenerating muscle.

  5. Vitamin D induces myogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Braga, Melissa; Simmons, Zena; Norris, Keith C; Ferrini, Monica G; Artaza, Jorge N

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a serious disorder associated with health conditions such as aging, chronic kidney disease and AIDS. Vitamin D is most widely recognized for its regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis in relation to bone development and maintenance. Recently, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve muscle performance and reduce the risk of falls in vitamin D deficient older adults. However, little is known of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) or the role it plays in myogenic differentiation. We examined the effect of 1,25-D3 on myogenic cell differentiation in skeletal muscle derived stem cells. Primary cultures of skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated from the tibialis anterior, soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of 8-week-old C57/BL6 male mice and then treated with 1,25-D3 The efficiency of satellite cells isolation determined by PAX7+ cells was 81%, and they expressed VDR. Incubation of satellite cells with 1,25-D3 induces increased expression of: (i) MYOD, (ii) MYOG, (iii) MYC2, (iv) skeletal muscle fast troponin I and T, (v) MYH1, (vi) IGF1 and 2, (vii) FGF1 and 2, (viii) BMP4, (ix) MMP9 and (x) FST. It also promotes myotube formation and decreases the expression of MSTN. In conclusion, 1,25-D3 promoted a robust myogenic effect on satellite cells responsible for the regeneration of muscle after injury or muscle waste. This study provides a mechanistic justification for vitamin D supplementation in conditions characterized by loss of muscle mass and also in vitamin D deficient older adults with reduced muscle mass and strength, and increased risk of falls.

  6. Directed differentiation of human pluripotent cells to neural crest stem cells.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Laura; Kulik, Michael J; Page, Austin T; Park, Sarah S; Lauderdale, James D; Cunningham, Michael L; Dalton, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) have the potential to generate a wide range of cell types including melanocytes; peripheral neurons; and smooth muscle, bone, cartilage and fat cells. This protocol describes in detail how to perform a highly efficient, lineage-specific differentiation of human pluripotent cells to a NCSC fate. The approach uses chemically defined media under feeder-free conditions, and it uses two small-molecule compounds to achieve efficient conversion of human pluripotent cells to NCSCs in ~15 d. After completion of this protocol, NCSCs can be used for numerous applications, including the generation of sufficient cell numbers to perform drug screens, for the development of cell therapeutics on an industrial scale and to provide a robust model for human disease. This protocol can be also be applied to patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and thus used to further the knowledge of human disease associated with neural crest development, for example, Treacher-Collins Syndrome.

  7. Reflex control of human jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Türker, Kemal S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss what is known about the reflex control of the human masticatory system and to propose a method for standardized investigation. Literature regarding the current knowledge of activation of jaw muscles, receptors involved in the feedback control, and reflex pathways is discussed. The reflexes are discussed under the headings of the stimulation conditions. This was deliberately done to remind the reader that under each stimulation condition, several receptor systems are activated, and that it is not yet possible to stimulate only one afferent system in isolation in human mastication experiments. To achieve a method for uniform investigation, we need to set a method for stimulation of the afferent pathway under study with minimal simultaneous activation of other receptor systems. This stimulation should also be done in an efficient and reproducible way. To substantiate our conviction to standardize the stimulus type and parameters, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical and electrical stimuli. For mechanical stimulus to be delivered in a reproducible way, the following precautions are suggested: The stimulus delivery system (often a probe attached to a vibrator) should be brought into secure contact with the area of stimulation. To minimize the slack between the probe, the area to be stimulated should be taken up by the application of pre-load, and the delivered force should be recorded in series. Electrical stimulus has advantages in that it can be delivered in a reproducible way, though its physiological relevance can be questioned. It is also necessary to standardize the method for recording and analyzing the responses of the motoneurons to the stimulation. For that, a new technique is introduced, and its advantages over the currently used methods are discussed. The new method can illustrate the synaptic potential that is induced in the motoneurons without the errors that are unavoidable in the current

  8. Preparation of Collagen-Coated Gels that Maximize In Vitro Myogenesis of Stem Cells by Matching the Lateral Elasticity of In Vivo Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Tathagata; Rehfeldt, Florian; Sweeney, H. Lee; Discher, Dennis E.

    2011-01-01

    The physical nature of a cell’s microenvironment – including the elasticity of the surrounding tissue – appears to exert a significant influence on cell morphology, cytoskeleton, and gene expression. We have previously shown that committed muscle cells will develop sarcomeric striations of skeletal muscle myosin II only when the cells are grown on a compliant gel that closely matches the passive compliance of skeletal muscle. We have more recently shown with the same types of elastic gels that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) maximally express myogenic genes, even in the absence of tailored soluble factors. Here, we provide detailed methods not only for how we make and nanomechanically characterize hydrogels of muscle-like elasticity, but also how we culture MSCs and characterize their myogenic induction by whole human genome transcript analysis. PMID:20405368

  9. A developmentally regulated switch from stem cells to dedifferentiation for limb muscle regeneration in newts.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hibiki Vincent; Ng, Nathaniel Chuen Yin; Yang Yu, Zhan; Casco-Robles, Martin Miguel; Maruo, Fumiaki; Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Chiba, Chikafumi

    2016-03-30

    The newt, a urodele amphibian, is able to repeatedly regenerate its limbs throughout its lifespan, whereas other amphibians deteriorate or lose their ability to regenerate limbs after metamorphosis. It remains to be determined whether such an exceptional ability of the newt is either attributed to a strategy, which controls regeneration in larvae, or on a novel one invented by the newt after metamorphosis. Here we report that the newt switches the cellular mechanism for limb regeneration from a stem/progenitor-based mechanism (larval mode) to a dedifferentiation-based one (adult mode) as it transits beyond metamorphosis. We demonstrate that larval newts use stem/progenitor cells such as satellite cells for new muscle in a regenerated limb, whereas metamorphosed newts recruit muscle fibre cells in the stump for the same purpose. We conclude that the newt has evolved novel strategies to secure its regenerative ability of the limbs after metamorphosis.

  10. From skeletal muscle to stem cells: an innovative and minimally-invasive process for multiple species.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, J; Lejeune, J-Ph; Sandersen, C; Niesten, A; Lagneaux, L; Serteyn, D

    2017-04-06

    Bone marrow and adipose tissue represent the two most commonly exploited sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells for musculoskeletal applications. Unfortunately the sampling of bone marrow and fat tissue is invasive and does not always lead to a sufficient number of cells. The present study describes a novel sampling method based on microbiopsy of skeletal muscle in man, pigs, dogs and horses. The process includes explant of the sample, Percoll density gradient for isolation and subsequent culture of the cells. We further characterized the cells and identified their clonogenic and immunomodulatory capacities, their immune-phenotyping behavior and their capability to differentiate into chondroblasts, osteoblasts and adipocytes. In conclusion, this report describes a novel and easy-to-use technique of skeletal muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cell harvest, culture, characterization. This technique is transposable to a multitude of different animal species.

  11. A developmentally regulated switch from stem cells to dedifferentiation for limb muscle regeneration in newts

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hibiki Vincent; Ng, Nathaniel Chuen Yin; Yang Yu, Zhan; Casco-Robles, Martin Miguel; Maruo, Fumiaki; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.; Chiba, Chikafumi

    2016-01-01

    The newt, a urodele amphibian, is able to repeatedly regenerate its limbs throughout its lifespan, whereas other amphibians deteriorate or lose their ability to regenerate limbs after metamorphosis. It remains to be determined whether such an exceptional ability of the newt is either attributed to a strategy, which controls regeneration in larvae, or on a novel one invented by the newt after metamorphosis. Here we report that the newt switches the cellular mechanism for limb regeneration from a stem/progenitor-based mechanism (larval mode) to a dedifferentiation-based one (adult mode) as it transits beyond metamorphosis. We demonstrate that larval newts use stem/progenitor cells such as satellite cells for new muscle in a regenerated limb, whereas metamorphosed newts recruit muscle fibre cells in the stump for the same purpose. We conclude that the newt has evolved novel strategies to secure its regenerative ability of the limbs after metamorphosis. PMID:27026263

  12. In vivo passive mechanical behaviour of muscle fascicles and tendons in human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Robert D; Clarke, Jillian; Kwah, Li Khim; Diong, Joanna; Martin, Josh; Clarke, Elizabeth C; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2011-11-01

    Ultrasound imaging was used to measure the length of muscle fascicles in human gastrocnemius muscles while the muscle was passively lengthened and shortened by moving the ankle. In some subjects the muscle belly 'buckled' at short lengths. When the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit was passively lengthened from its shortest in vivo length by dorsiflexing the ankle, increases in muscle-tendon length were not initially accompanied by increases in muscle fascicle lengths (fascicle length remained constant), indicating muscle fascicles were slack at short muscle-tendon lengths. The muscle-tendon length at which slack is taken up differs among fascicles: some fascicles begin to lengthen at very short muscle-tendon lengths whereas other fascicles remain slack over a large range of muscle-tendon lengths. This suggests muscle fascicles are progressively 'recruited' and contribute sequentially to muscle-tendon stiffness during passive lengthening of the muscle-tendon unit. Even above their slack lengths muscle fascicles contribute only a small part (<~30%) of the total change in muscle-tendon length. The contribution of muscle fascicles to muscle-tendon length increases with muscle length. The novelty of this work is that it reveals a previously unrecognised phenomenon (buckling at short lengths), posits a new mechanism of passive mechanical properties of muscle (recruitment of muscle fascicles), and confirms with high-resolution measurements that the passive compliance of human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units is due largely to the tendon. It would be interesting to investigate if adaptations of passive properties of muscles are associated with changes in the distribution of muscle lengths at which fascicles fall slack.

  13. Nucleosome Organization in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Puya G; Pedersen, Brian A; Taylor, Jared F; Khattab, Omar S; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Yumay; Jacobsen, Steven E; Wang, Ping H

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental repeating unit of eukaryotic chromatin is the nucleosome. Besides being involved in packaging DNA, nucleosome organization plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and cellular identity. Currently, there is much debate about the major determinants of the nucleosome architecture of a genome and its significance with little being known about its role in stem cells. To address these questions, we performed ultra-deep sequencing of nucleosomal DNA in two human embryonic stem cell lines and integrated our data with numerous epigenomic maps. Our analyses have revealed that the genome is a determinant of nucleosome organization with transcriptionally inactive regions characterized by a "ground state" of nucleosome profiles driven by underlying DNA sequences. DNA sequence preferences are associated with heterogeneous chromatin organization around transcription start sites. Transcription, histone modifications, and DNA methylation alter this "ground state" by having distinct effects on both nucleosome positioning and occupancy. As the transcriptional rate increases, nucleosomes become better positioned. Exons transcribed and included in the final spliced mRNA have distinct nucleosome profiles in comparison to exons not included at exon-exon junctions. Genes marked by the active modification H3K4m3 are characterized by lower nucleosome occupancy before the transcription start site compared to genes marked by the inactive modification H3K27m3, while bivalent domains, genes associated with both marks, lie exactly in the middle. Combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks (chromatin states) are associated with unique nucleosome profiles. Nucleosome organization varies around transcription factor binding in enhancers versus promoters. DNA methylation is associated with increasing nucleosome occupancy and different types of methylations have distinct location preferences within the nucleosome core particle. Finally, computational analysis of nucleosome

  14. Human Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes: An Alternative ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical spills and associated deaths in the US has increased 2.6-fold and 16-fold from 1983 to 2012, respectfully. In addition, the number of chemicals to which humans are exposed to in the environment has increased almost 10-fold from 2001 to 2013 within the US. Internationally, a WHO report on the global composite impact of chemicals on health reported that 16% of the total burden of cardiovascular disease was attributed to environmental chemical exposure with 2.5 million deaths per year. Clearly, the cardiovascular system, at all its various developmental and life stages, represents a critical target organ system that can be adversely affected by existing and emerging chemicals (e.g., engineered nanomaterials) in a variety of environmental media. The ability to assess chemical cardiac risk and safety is critically needed but extremely challenging due to the number and categories of chemicals in commerce, as indicated. This presentation\\session will evaluate the use of adult human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, and existing platforms, as an alternative model to evaluate environmental chemical cardiac toxicity as well as provide key information for the development of predictive adverse outcomes pathways associated with environmental chemical exposures. (This abstract does not represent EPA policy) Rapid and translatable chemical safety screening models for cardiotoxicity current status for informing regulatory decisions, a workshop sponsored by the Society

  15. [Research with human embryo stem cells. Foundations and judicial limits].

    PubMed

    Eser, Albin; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2004-01-01

    Research with human embryos, and particularly, the use for scientific purposes of human embryonic stem cells has given raise to different sort of problems at the international level. One of the most strict regulation in this field, is this lecture Professors Albin Eser and Hans-Georg Koch analyse the german legal framework in relation with the use of embryos and human embryonic stem cells for scientific purposes.

  16. Muscle-driven finite element simulation of human foot movements.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a finite element scheme for realistic muscle-driven simulation of human foot movements. The scheme is used to simulate human ankle plantar flexion. A three-dimensional anatomically detailed finite element model of human foot and lower leg is developed and the idea of generating natural foot movement based entirely on the contraction of the plantar flexor muscles is used. The bones, ligaments, articular cartilage, muscles, tendons, as well as the rest soft tissues of human foot and lower leg are included in the model. A realistic three-dimensional continuum constitutive model that describes the biomechanical behaviour of muscles and tendons is used. Both the active and passive properties of muscle tissue are accounted for. The materials for bones and ligaments are considered as homogeneous, isotropic and linearly elastic, whereas the articular cartilage and the rest soft tissues (mainly fat) are defined as hyperelastic materials. The model is used to estimate muscle tissue deformations as well as stresses and strains that develop in the lower leg muscles during plantar flexion of the ankle. Stresses and strains that develop in Achilles tendon during such a movement are also investigated.

  17. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porzionato, Andrea; Sfriso, Maria Martina; Pontini, Alex; Macchi, Veronica; Petrelli, Lucia; Pavan, Piero G.; Natali, Arturo N.; Bassetto, Franco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits) and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation. PMID:26140375

  18. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human fetal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Pascale V

    2016-02-01

    Pluripotency defines the ability of stem cells to differentiate into all the lineages of the three germ layers and self-renew indefinitely. Somatic cells can regain the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells following ectopic expression of a set of transcription factors or, in certain circumstances, via modulation of culture conditions and supplementation with small molecule, that is, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we discuss the use of fetal tissues for reprogramming, focusing in particular on stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid, and the development of chemical reprogramming. We next address the advantages and disadvantages of deriving pluripotent cells from fetal tissues and the potential clinical applications.

  19. Human embryonic stem cell derivation and directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Trounson, A

    2005-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are produced from normal, chromosomally aneuploid and mutant human embryos, which are available from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for infertility or preimplantation diagnosis. These hESC lines are an important resource for functional genomics, drug screening and eventually cell and gene therapy. The methods for deriving hESCs are well established and repeatable, and are relatively successful, with a ratio of 1:10 to 1:2 hESC lines established to embryos used. hESCs can be formed from morula and blastocyst-stage embryos and from isolated inner cell mass cell (ICM) clusters. The hESCs can be formed and maintained on mouse or human somatic cells in serum-free conditions, and for several passages in cell-free cultures. The hESCs can be transfected with DNA constructs. Their gene expression profiles are being described and immunological characteristics determined. They may be grown indefinitely in culture while maintaining their original karyotype but this must be confirmed from time to time. hESCs spontaneously differentiate in the absence of the appropriate cell feeder layer, when overgrown in culture and when isolated from the ESC colony. All three major embryonic lineages are produced in differentiating attachment cultures and in unattached embryoid bodies. Cell progenitors of interest can be identified by markers, expression of reporter genes and characteristic morphology, and the culture thereafter enriched for further culture to more mature cell types. The most advanced directed differentiation pathways have been developed for neural cells and cardiac muscle cells, but many other cell types including haematopoietic progenitors, endothelial cells, lung alveoli, keratinocytes, pigmented retinal epithelium, neural crest cells and motor neurones, hepatic progenitors and cells that have some markers of gut tissue and pancreatic cells have been produced. The prospects for regenerative medicine are significant and there is much

  20. Morphology of muscle attachment sites in the modern human hand does not reflect muscle architecture

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Hatala, E. M.; Hatala, K. G.; Hiles, S.; Rabey, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a sample of modern humans, we tested the hypothesis that aspects of hand muscle architecture that are known to be influenced by behavior correlate with the size and shape of their associated entheses. Results show no consistent relationships between these behaviorally-influenced aspects of muscle architecture and entheseal morphology. Consequently, it is likely premature to infer patterns of behavior, such as stone tool making in fossil hominins, from these same entheses. PMID:27334440

  1. Morphology of muscle attachment sites in the modern human hand does not reflect muscle architecture.

    PubMed

    Williams-Hatala, E M; Hatala, K G; Hiles, S; Rabey, K N

    2016-06-23

    Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a sample of modern humans, we tested the hypothesis that aspects of hand muscle architecture that are known to be influenced by behavior correlate with the size and shape of their associated entheses. Results show no consistent relationships between these behaviorally-influenced aspects of muscle architecture and entheseal morphology. Consequently, it is likely premature to infer patterns of behavior, such as stone tool making in fossil hominins, from these same entheses.

  2. Human skeletal muscle xenograft as a new preclinical model for muscle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanfan; King, Oliver D.; Rahimov, Fedik; Jones, Takako I.; Ward, Christopher W.; Kerr, Jaclyn P.; Liu, Naili; Emerson, Charles P.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Partridge, Terence A.; Wagner, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Development of novel therapeutics requires good animal models of disease. Disorders for which good animal models do not exist have very few drugs in development or clinical trial. Even where there are accepted, albeit imperfect models, the leap from promising preclinical drug results to positive clinical trials commonly fails, including in disorders of skeletal muscle. The main alternative model for early drug development, tissue culture, lacks both the architecture and, usually, the metabolic fidelity of the normal tissue in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate the feasibility and validity of human to mouse xenografts as a preclinical model of myopathy. Human skeletal muscle biopsies transplanted into the anterior tibial compartment of the hindlimbs of NOD-Rag1null IL2rγnull immunodeficient host mice regenerate new vascularized and innervated myofibers from human myogenic precursor cells. The grafts exhibit contractile and calcium release behavior, characteristic of functional muscle tissue. The validity of the human graft as a model of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is demonstrated in disease biomarker studies, showing that gene expression profiles of xenografts mirror those of the fresh donor biopsies. These findings illustrate the value of a new experimental model of muscle disease, the human muscle xenograft in mice, as a feasible and valid preclinical tool to better investigate the pathogenesis of human genetic myopathies and to more accurately predict their response to novel therapeutics. PMID:24452336

  3. Human uterine stem/progenitor cells: their possible role in uterine physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tetsuo; Masuda, Hirotaka; Ono, Masanori; Kajitani, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2010-07-01

    The human uterus mainly consists of the endometrium and the outer smooth muscle layer termed the myometrium. The uterus harbours the exceptional and remarkable regenerative ability responsible for cyclical regeneration and remodelling throughout the reproductive life. The uterus must swiftly and cooperatively enlarge to hold the growing foetus during pregnancy. Furthermore, the endometrium, in particular the functionalis layer, must also regenerate, differentiate and regress with each menstrual cycle under hormonal control. Endometrial regeneration from the basal layer is thought to contribute to replacement of the functionalis layer followed by its slough off during menses and parturition. These morphological and functional features of human endometrium can be reproduced in murine models in which severely immunodeficient mice are xenotransplanted with dispersed human endometrial cells under the kidney capsule. The uterine myometrium possesses the similar plasticity of the endometrium. This is demonstrated by multiple cycles of pregnancy-induced enlargement and regression after parturition. It is likely that regeneration and remodelling in the female reproductive tract are achieved presumably through endometrial and myometrial stem cell systems. Recent evidence now supports the existence of these stem cell systems in humans. Here, we will review our current understanding of uterine stem/progenitor cells. We also propose a novel hypothetical model in which stem cell activities explain the physiological remodelling and regeneration of the human uterus and the pathogenesis of gynaecological diseases such as endometriosis.

  4. Myotubes derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells mirror in vivo insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Iovino, Salvatore; Burkart, Alison M; Warren, Laura; Patti, Mary Elizabeth; Kahn, C Ronald

    2016-02-16

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) represent a unique tool for the study of the pathophysiology of human disease, because these cells can be differentiated into multiple cell types in vitro and used to generate patient- and tissue-specific disease models. Given the critical role for skeletal muscle insulin resistance in whole-body glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes, we have created a novel cellular model of human muscle insulin resistance by differentiating iPS cells from individuals with mutations in the insulin receptor (IR-Mut) into functional myotubes and characterizing their response to insulin in comparison with controls. Morphologically, IR-Mut cells differentiated normally, but had delayed expression of some muscle differentiation-related genes. Most importantly, whereas control iPS-derived myotubes exhibited in vitro responses similar to primary differentiated human myoblasts, IR-Mut myotubes demonstrated severe impairment in insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Transcriptional regulation was also perturbed in IR-Mut myotubes with reduced insulin-stimulated expression of metabolic and early growth response genes. Thus, iPS-derived myotubes from individuals with genetically determined insulin resistance demonstrate many of the defects observed in vivo in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle and provide a new model to analyze the molecular impact of muscle insulin resistance.

  5. Shared muscle synergies in human walking and cycling.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Filipe O; Torricelli, Diego; Moreno, Juan C; Taylor, Julian; Gomez-Soriano, Julio; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Piazza, Stefano; Santos, Cristina; Pons, José L

    2014-10-15

    The motor system may rely on a modular organization (muscle synergies activated in time) to execute different tasks. We investigated the common control features of walking and cycling in healthy humans from the perspective of muscle synergies. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) muscle synergies extracted from walking trials are similar to those extracted during cycling; 2) muscle synergies extracted from one of these motor tasks can be used to mathematically reconstruct the electromyographic (EMG) patterns of the other task; 3) muscle synergies of cycling can result from merging synergies of walking. A secondary objective was to identify the speed (and cadence) at which higher similarities emerged. EMG activity from eight muscles of the dominant leg was recorded in eight healthy subjects during walking and cycling at four matched cadences. A factorization technique [nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF)] was applied to extract individual muscle synergy vectors and the respective activation coefficients behind the global muscular activity of each condition. Results corroborated hypotheses 2 and 3, showing that 1) four synergies from walking and cycling can successfully explain most of the EMG variability of cycling and walking, respectively, and 2) two of four synergies from walking appear to merge together to reconstruct one individual synergy of cycling, with best reconstruction values found for higher speeds. Direct comparison of the muscle synergy vectors of walking and the muscle synergy vectors of cycling (hypothesis 1) produced moderated values of similarity. This study provides supporting evidence for the hypothesis that cycling and walking share common neuromuscular mechanisms.

  6. Intramuscular architecture of the autochthonous back muscles in humans.

    PubMed

    Stark, Heiko; Fröber, Rosemarie; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-02-01

    Many training concepts take muscle properties such as contraction speed or muscle topography into account to achieve an optimal training outcome. Thus far, the internal architecture of muscles has largely been neglected, although it is well known that parameters such as pennation angles or the lengths of fascicles but also the proportions of fleshy and tendinous fascicle parts have a major impact on the contraction behaviour of a muscle. Here, we present the most detailed description of the intramuscular fascicle architecture of the human perivertebral muscles available so far. For this, one adult male cadaver was studied. Our general approach was to digitize the geometry of each fascicle of the muscles of back proper (Erector spinae) - the Spinalis thoracis, Iliocostalis lumborum, Longissimus thoracis and the Multifidus thoracis et lumborum - and of the deep muscles of the abdomen - Psoas minor, Psoas major and Quadratus lumborum - during a layerwise dissection. Architectural parameters such as fascicle angles to the sagittal and the frontal planes as well as fascicle lengths were determined for each fascicle, and are discussed regarding their consequences for the function of the muscle. For example, compared with the other dorsovertebral muscles, the Longissimus thoracis can produce greater shortening distances because of its relatively long fleshy portions, and it can store more elastic energy due to both its relatively long fleshy and tendinous fascicle portions. The Quadratus lumborum was outstanding because of its many architectural subunits defined by distinct attachment sites and fascicle lengths. The presented database will improve biomechanical models of the human trunk by allowing the incorporation of anisotropic muscle properties such as the fascicle direction into finite element models. This information will help to increase our understanding of the functionality of the human back musculature, and may thereby improve future training concepts.

  7. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to approximately 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow.

  8. Effect of Dexamethasone, Insulin and EGF on the Myogenic Potential on Human Endometrial Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Jalali Tehrani, Hora; Parivar, Kazem; Ai, Jafar; Kajbafzadeh, Abdolmohammad; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Human endometrium contains mesenchymal stem cells (eMSC) which have the ability to differentiate into three cell lineages and the potential in therapeutic applications. We hypothesize that using environmental induction in culture media such as dexamethasone, human recombinant insulin and human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) can differentiate endometrial stem cells into myoblast. These agents have a broad range of effects in myoblast differentiation in-vitro. We used immunohystochemistry analysis and RT –PCR to evaluate the presence of skeletal muscle - specific proteins some of which are expressed in the early stage of differentiation including myoD and Desmin which expressed at later stages of differentiation. In conclusion eMSC can differentiate in culture media which contains above mentioned factors and use for therapeutic purpose in muscular degenerative disease. PMID:25237362

  9. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what's wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to control

  10. Muscle biopsies show that FES of denervated muscles reverses human muscle degeneration from permanent spinal motoneuron lesion.

    PubMed

    Kern, Helmut; Rossini, Katia; Carraro, Ugo; Mayr, Winfried; Vogelauer, Michael; Hoellwarth, Ursula; Hofer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents biopsy analyses in support of the clinical evidence of muscle recovery induced by a new system of life-long functional-electrical-stimulation (FES) training in permanent spinal-motoneuron-denervated human muscle. Not earlier than 1 year after subjects experienced complete conus cauda lesion, their thigh muscles were electrically stimulated at home for several years with large skin surface electrodes and an expressly designed stimulator that delivered much longer impulses than those presently available for clinical use. The poor excitability of long-term denervated muscles was first improved by several months of twitch-contraction training. Then, the muscles were tetanically stimulated against progressively increased loads. Needle biopsies of vastus lateralis from long-term denervated subjects showed severe myofiber atrophy or lipodystrophy beginning 2 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). Muscle biopsies from a group of 3.6- to 13.5-year denervated subjects, who underwent 2.4 to 9.3 years of FES, show that this progressive training almost reverted long-term muscle atrophy/degeneration.

  11. Molecular imaging of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Narsinh, Kazim H; Cao, Feng; Wu, Joseph C

    2009-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a renewable source of differentiated cell types that may be employed in various tissue regeneration strategies. However, clinical implementation of cell transplantation therapy is hindered by legitimate concerns regarding the in vivo teratoma formation of undifferentiated hESCs and host immune reactions to allogenic cells. Investigating in vivo hESC behaviour and the ultimate feasibility of cell transplantation therapy necessitates the development of novel molecular imaging techniques to longitudinally monitor hESC localization, proliferation, and viability in living subjects. An innovative approach to harness the respective strengths of various imaging platforms is the creation and use of a fusion reporter construct composed of red fluorescent protein (RFP), firefly luciferase (fluc), and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk). The imaging modalities made available by use of this construct, including optical fluorescence, bioluminescence, and positron emission tomography (PET), mat be adapted to investigate a variety of physiological phenomena, including the spatio-temporal kinetics of hESC engraftment and proliferation in living subjects. This chapter describes the applications of reporter gene imaging to accelerate basic science research and clinical studies involving hESCs through (1) isolation of a homogenous hESC population, (2) noninvasive, longitudinal tracking of the location and proliferation of hESCs administered to a living subject, and (3) ablation of the hESC graft in the event of cellular misbehavior.

  12. Patenting human genes and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Rendon, Enca; Blake, Derek J

    2007-01-01

    Cell lines and genetically modified single cell organisms have been considered patentable subjects for the last two decades. However, despite the technical patentability of genes and stem cell lines, social and legal controversy concerning their 'ownership' has surrounded stem cell research in recent years. Some granted patents on stem cells with extremely broad claims are casting a shadow over the commercialization of these cells as therapeutics. However, in spite of those early patents, the number of patent applications related to stem cells is growing exponentially. Both embryonic and adult stem cells have the ability to differentiate into several cell lineages in an organism as a result of specific genetic programs that direct their commitment and cell fate. Genes that control the pluripotency of stem cells have been recently identified and the genetic manipulation of these cells is becoming more efficient with the advance of new technologies. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on pluripotency genes, gene transfer into stem cells and genetic reprogramming and takes the hematopoietic and embryonic stem cell as model systems.

  13. Methods for derivation of multipotent neural crest cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Avery, John; Dalton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multipotent, neural crest cells (NCCs) produce a wide-range of cell types during embryonic development. This includes melanocytes, peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. The protocol described here allows for highly-efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to a neural crest fate within 15 days. This is accomplished under feeder-free conditions, using chemically defined medium supplemented with two small molecule inhibitors that block glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling. This technology is well-suited as a platform to understand in greater detail the pathogenesis of human disease associated with impaired neural crest development/migration. PMID:25986498

  14. Patterning as a signature of human epidermal stem cell regulation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Allon M.; Nikolaidou-Neokosmidou, Varvara; Doupé, David P.; Jones, Philip H.; Simons, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how stem cells are regulated in adult tissues is a major challenge in cell biology. In the basal layer of human epidermis, clusters of almost quiescent stem cells are interspersed with proliferating and differentiating cells. Previous studies have shown that the proliferating cells follow a pattern of balanced stochastic cell fate. This behaviour enables them to maintain homeostasis, while stem cells remain confined to their quiescent clusters. Intriguingly, these clusters reappear spontaneously in culture, suggesting that they may play a functional role in stem cell auto-regulation. We propose a model of pattern formation that explains how clustering could regulate stem cell activity in homeostatic tissue through contact inhibition and stem cell aggregation. PMID:21632613

  15. Noninvasive pulsed focused ultrasound allows spatiotemporal control of targeted homing for multiple stem cell types in murine skeletal muscle and the magnitude of cell homing can be increased through repeated applications

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Scott R.; Ziadloo, Ali; Kim, Saejeong J.; Nguyen, Ben A.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are promising therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases and intravenous injection is the most desirable route of administration clinically. Subsequent homing of exogenous stem cells to pathological loci is frequently required for therapeutic efficacy and is mediated by chemo attractants (cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factors). Homing processes are inefficient and depend on short-lived pathological inflammation that limits the window of opportunity for cell injections. Noninvasive pulsed focused ultrasound (plus), which emphasizes mechanical ultrasound-tissue interactions, can be precisely targeted in the body and is a promising approach to target and maximize stem cell delivery by stimulating chemo attractant expression in plus-treated tissue prior to cell infusions. We demonstrate that plus is nondestructive to marine skeletal muscle tissue (no necrosis, hemorrhage, or muscle stem cell activation) and initiates a largely M2-type macrophage response. We also demonstrate local up regulation of chemo attractants in plus-treated skeletal muscle leads to enhance homing, permeability, and retention of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and human endothelial precursor cells (EPC). Furthermore, the magnitude of MSC or EPC homing was increased when plus treatments and cell infusions were repeated daily. This study demonstrates that plus defines transient “molecular zip codes” of elevated chemo attractants in targeted muscle tissue, which effectively provides spatiotemporal control and tenability of the homing process for multiple stem cell types. plus is a clinically-translatable modality that may ultimately improve homing efficiency and flexibility of cell therapies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23922277

  16. Reconstitution of experimental neurogenic bladder dysfunction using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masahiro; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Tono, Kayoko; Okada, Yoshinori; Masuda, Maki; Akatsuka, Akira; Hoshi, Akio; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2010-05-15

    BACKGROUND.: Postoperative neurogenic bladder dysfunction is a major complication of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer and is mainly caused by unavoidable damage to the bladder branch of the pelvic plexus (BBPP) associated with colateral blood vessels. Thus, we attempted to reconstitute disrupted BBPP and blood vessels using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells that show synchronized reconstitution capacity of vascular, muscular, and peripheral nervous systems. METHODS.: Under pentobarbital anesthesia, intravesical pressure by electrical stimulation of BBPP was measured as bladder function. The distal portion of BBPP with blood vessels was then cut unilaterally (experimental neurogenic bladder model). Measurements were performed before, immediately after, and at 4 weeks after transplantation as functional recovery. Stem cells were obtained from the right soleus and gastrocnemius muscles after enzymatic digestion and cell sorting as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD34/45 (Sk-DN). Suspended cells were autografted around the damaged region, whereas medium alone and CD45 cells were transplanted as control groups. To determine the morphological contribution of the transplanted cells, stem cells obtained from green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse muscles were transplanted into a nude rat model and were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS.: At 4 weeks after surgery, the transplantation group showed significantly higher functional recovery ( approximately 80%) than the two controls ( approximately 28% and 24%). The transplanted cells showed an incorporation into the damaged peripheral nerves and blood vessels after differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and fibroblasts around the bladder. CONCLUSION.: Transplantation of multipotent Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of damaged BBPP.

  17. Human fallopian tube: a new source of multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells discarded in surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Perin, Paulo M; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Maluf, Mariangela; Halpern, Silvio; Secco, Mariane; Bueno, Daniela F; Vieira, Natassia M; Zucconi, Eder; Zatz, Mayana

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility of using stem cells for regenerative medicine has opened a new field of investigation. The search for sources to obtain multipotent stem cells from discarded tissues or through non-invasive procedures is of great interest. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from umbilical cords, dental pulp and adipose tissue, which are all biological discards, are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, bone and cartilage cell lineages. The aim of this study was to isolate, expand, characterize and assess the differentiation potential of MSCs from human fallopian tubes (hFTs). Methods Lineages of hFTs were expanded, had their karyotype analyzed, were characterized by flow cytometry and underwent in vitro adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and myogenic differentiation. Results Here we show for the first time that hFTs, which are discarded after some gynecological procedures, are a rich additional source of MSCs, which we designated as human tube MSCs (htMSCs). Conclusion Human tube MSCs can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro, present a mesenchymal profile and are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, cartilage and bone in vitro. PMID:19538712

  18. Development of Human Muscle Protein Measurement with MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chen; Evans, Harlan; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1997-01-01

    It is known that micro-gravity has a strong influence on the human musculoskeletal system. A number of studies have shown that significant changes in skeletal muscles occur in both space flight and bedrest simulation. In our 5 week bedrest study, the cross-sectional area of soleus-gastrocnemius decreased about 12% while the cross-sectional area of anterior calf muscles decreased about 4%. Using volume measurements, these losses increased after 17 weeks to approximately 30% and 21% respectively. Significant muscle atrophy was also found on the SL-J crew members after only 8 days in space. It is important that these effects are fully understood so that countermeasures can be developed. The same knowledge might also be useful in preventing muscle atrophy related to other medical problems. A major problem with anatomical measurements of muscle during bed rest and microgravity is the influence of fluid shifts and water balance on the measurement of muscle volume, especially when the exposure duration is short and the atrophy is relatively small. Fluid shifts were documented in Skylab by visual observations of blood vessel distention, rapid changes in limb volume, center of mass measurements and subjective descriptions such as puffy faces and head fullness. It has been reported that the muscle water content of biopsied soleus muscles decreased following 8 hours of head down tilt bed rest. Three aspects of fluid shifts that can affect volume measurements are: first, the shift of fluid that occurs whenever there is a change from upright to a recumbent position and vice versa; second, the potential for fluid accumulation in the lower limbs resulting from muscle damage caused by overextending atrophied muscle or swelling caused by deconditioned precapillary sphincter muscles during reambulation; third, the net change of hydration level during and after bed rest or spaceflight. Because of these transitory fluid shifts, muscle protein is expected to represent muscle capacity

  19. Embryonic death and the creation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Landry, Donald W; Zucker, Howard A

    2004-11-01

    The creation of human embryonic stem cells through the destruction of a human embryo pits the value of a potential therapeutic tool against that of an early human life. This contest of values has resulted in a polarized debate that neglects areas of common interest and perspective. We suggest that a common ground for pursuing research on human embryonic stem cells can be found by reconsidering the death of the human embryo and by applying to this research the ethical norms of essential organ donation.

  20. Adaptations of human skeletal muscle fibers to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, M. Kathleen; Allen, David L.; Mohajerani, Laleh; Greenisen, Michael C.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    1995-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle fibers seem to share most of the same interrelationships among myosin ATPase activity, myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype, mitochondrial enzyme activities, glycolytic enzyme activities, and cross-sectional area (CSA) as found in rat, cat, and other species. One difference seems to be that fast fibers with high mitochrondrial content occur less frequently in humans than in the rat or cat. Recently, we have reported that the type of MHC expressed and the size of the muscle fibers in humans that have spent 11 days in space change significantly. Specifically, about 8% more fibers express fast MHCs and all phenotypes atrophy in the vastus lateralis (VL) post compared to preflight. In the present paper we examine the relationships among the population of myonuclei, MHC type, and CSA of single human muscle fibers before and after spaceflight. These are the first data that define the relationship among the types of MHC expressed, myonuclei number, and myonuclei domain of single fibers in human muscle. We then compare these data to similar measures in the cat. In addition, the maximal torque that can be generated by the knee extensors and their fatigability before and after spaceflight are examined. These data provide some indication of the potential physiologica consequences of the muscle adaptations that occur in humans in response to spaceflight.

  1. Peak muscle perfusion and oxygen uptake in humans: importance of precise estimates of muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Râdegran, G; Blomstrand, E; Saltin, B

    1999-12-01

    The knee extensor exercise model was specifically developed to enable in vivo estimates of peak muscle blood flow and O(2) uptake in humans. The original finding, using thermodilution measurements to measure blood flow in relation to muscle mass [P. Andersen and B. Saltin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 366: 233-249, 1985], was questioned, however, as the measurements were two- to threefold higher than those previously obtained with the (133)Xe clearance and the plethysmography technique. As thermodilution measurements have now been confirmed by other methods and independent research groups, we aimed to address the impact of muscle mass estimates on the peak values of muscle perfusion and O(2) uptake. In the present study, knee extensor volume was determined from multiple measurements with computer tomography along the full length of the muscle. In nine healthy humans, quadriceps muscle volume was 2.36 +/- 0.17 (range 1. 31-3.27) liters, corresponding to 2.48 +/- 0.18 (range 1.37-3.43) kg. Anthropometry overestimated the muscle volume by approximately 21-46%, depending on whether quadriceps muscle length was estimated from the patella to either the pubic bone, inguinal ligament, or spina iliaca anterior superior. One-legged, dynamic knee extensor exercise up to peak effort of 67 +/- 7 (range 55-100) W rendered peak values for leg blood flow (thermodilution) of 5.99 +/- 0.66 (range 4.15-9.52) l/min and leg O(2) uptake of 856 +/- 109 (range 590-1,521) ml/min. Muscle perfusion and O(2) uptake reached peak values of 246 +/- 24 (range 149-373) and 35.2 +/- 3.7 (range 22.6-59. 6) ml. min(-1). 100 g muscle(-1), respectively. These peak values are approximately 19-33% larger than those attained by applying anthropometric muscle mass estimates. In conclusion, the present findings emphasize that peak perfusion and O(2) uptake in human skeletal muscle may be up to approximately 30% higher than previous anthropometric-based estimates that use equivalent techniques for blood flow

  2. Isolation and Quantitative Immunocytochemical Characterization of Primary Myogenic Cells and Fibroblasts from Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Agley, Chibeza C.; Rowlerson, Anthea M.; Velloso, Cristiana P.; Lazarus, Norman L.; Harridge, Stephen D. R.

    2015-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the action of satellite cells, which are the resident muscle stem cells. These can be isolated from human muscle biopsy samples using enzymatic digestion and their myogenic properties studied in culture. Quantitatively, the two main adherent cell types obtained from enzymatic digestion are: (i) the satellite cells (termed myogenic cells or muscle precursor cells), identified initially as CD56+ and later as CD56+/desmin+ cells and (ii) muscle-derived fibroblasts, identified as CD56– and TE-7+. Fibroblasts proliferate very efficiently in culture and in mixed cell populations these cells may overrun myogenic cells to dominate the culture. The isolation and purification of different cell types from human muscle is thus an important methodological consideration when trying to investigate the innate behavior of either cell type in culture. Here we describe a system of sorting based on the gentle enzymatic digestion of cells using collagenase and dispase followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) which gives both a high purity (>95% myogenic cells) and good yield (~2.8 x 106 ± 8.87 x 105 cells/g tissue after 7 days in vitro) for experiments in culture. This approach is based on incubating the mixed muscle-derived cell population with magnetic microbeads beads conjugated to an antibody against CD56 and then passing cells though a magnetic field. CD56+ cells bound to microbeads are retained by the field whereas CD56– cells pass unimpeded through the column. Cell suspensions from any stage of the sorting process can be plated and cultured. Following a given intervention, cell morphology, and the expression and localization of proteins including nuclear transcription factors can be quantified using immunofluorescent labeling with specific antibodies and an image processing and analysis package. PMID:25650991

  3. Generation of skeletal muscle cells from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells as an in vitro model and for therapy of muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Sabrina; Donadoni, Chiara; Rizzo, Federica; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness likely associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. At present, no cures or efficacious treatments are available for these diseases, but cell transplantation could be a potential therapeutic strategy. Transplantation of myoblasts using satellite cells or other myogenic cell populations has been attempted to promote muscle regeneration, based on the hypothesis that the donor cells repopulate the muscle and contribute to its regeneration. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and more recently induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could generate an unlimited source of differentiated cell types, including myogenic cells. Here we review the literature regarding the generation of myogenic cells considering the main techniques employed to date to elicit efficient differentiation of human and murine ESCs or iPSCs into skeletal muscle. We also critically analyse the possibility of using these cellular populations as an alternative source of myogenic cells for cell therapy of MDs. PMID:22129481

  4. WNT3A promotes myogenesis of human embryonic stem cells and enhances in vivo engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongsung; Suk, Samuel; Shih, Yu-Ru Vernon; Seo, Timothy; Du, Bin; Xie, Yun; Li, Ziyang; Varghese, Shyni

    2014-01-01

    The ability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into skeletal muscle cells is an important criterion in using them as a cell source to ameliorate skeletal muscle impairments. However, differentiation of hESCs into skeletal muscle cells still remains a challenge, often requiring introduction of transgenes. Here, we describe the use of WNT3A protein to promote in vitro myogenic commitment of hESC-derived cells and their subsequent in vivo function. Our findings show that the presence of WNT3A in culture medium significantly promotes myogenic commitment of hESC-derived progenitors expressing a mesodermal marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA), as evident from the expression of myogenic markers, including DES, MYOG, MYH1, and MF20. In vivo transplantation of these committed cells into cardiotoxin-injured skeletal muscles of NOD/SCID mice reveals survival and engraftment of the donor cells. The cells contributed to the regeneration of damaged muscle fibers and the satellite cell compartment. In lieu of the limited cell source for treating skeletal muscle defects, the hESC-derived PDGFRA+ cells exhibit significant in vitro expansion while maintaining their myogenic potential. The results described in this study provide a proof-of-principle that myogenic progenitor cells with in vivo engraftment potential can be derived from hESCs without genetic manipulation. PMID:25084050

  5. Physiological characterization of human muscle acetylcholine receptors from ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Palma, Eleonora; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Conti, Luca; Deflorio, Cristina; Frasca, Vittorio; Manteca, Alessia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Roseti, Cristina; Torchia, Gregorio; Limatola, Cristina; Grassi, Francesca; Miledi, Ricardo

    2011-12-13

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to muscle paralysis. Research in transgenic mice suggests that the muscle actively contributes to the disease onset, but such studies are difficult to pursue in humans and in vitro models would represent a good starting point. In this work we show that tiny amounts of muscle from ALS or from control denervated muscle, obtained by needle biopsy, are amenable to functional characterization by two different technical approaches: "microtransplantation" of muscle membranes into Xenopus oocytes and culture of myogenic satellite cells. Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents and unitary events were characterized in oocytes and multinucleated myotubes. We found that ALS acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) retain their native physiological characteristics, being activated by ACh and nicotine and blocked by α-bungarotoxin (α-BuTX), d-tubocurarine (dTC), and galantamine. The reversal potential of ACh-evoked currents and the unitary channel behavior were also typical of normal muscle AChRs. Interestingly, in oocytes injected with muscle membranes derived from ALS patients, the AChRs showed a significant decrease in ACh affinity, compared with denervated controls. Finally, riluzole, the only drug currently used against ALS, reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the ACh-evoked currents, indicating that its action remains to be fully characterized. The two methods described here will be important tools for elucidating the role of muscle in ALS pathogenesis and for developing drugs to counter the effects of this disease.

  6. Human muscle proteins: analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1983-09-01

    Proteins from single frozen sections of human muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorography or Coomassie Blue staining. The major proteins were identical in different normal muscles obtained from either sex at different ages, and in Duchenne and myotonic dystrophy samples. Congenital myopathy denervation atrophy, polymyositis, and Becker's muscular dystrophy samples, however, showed abnormal myosin light chain compositions, some with a decrease of fast-fiber myosin light chains and others with a decrease of slow-fiber light chains. These protein alterations did not correlate with any specific disease, and may be cause by generalized muscle-fiber damage.

  7. Myosin Heavy Chain Composition of the Human Genioglossus Muscle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Megan; Luo, Qingwei; Sokoloff, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The human tongue muscle genioglossus (GG) is active in speech, swallowing, respiration, and oral transport, behaviors encompassing a wide range of tongue shapes and movement speeds. Studies demonstrate substantial diversity in patterns of human GG motor unit activation, but whether this is accompanied by complex expression of muscle…

  8. In vivo localized proton spectroscopic studies of human gastrocnemius muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, P.A.; Jackson, E.F.; Hazle, J.D.; Fotedar, L.K.; Kulkarni, M.V.; Flamig, D.P.

    1988-10-01

    In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of gastrocnemius muscle were performed in six normal volunteers. Both spatially resolved spectroscopy (SPARS) and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequences were used for volume localization. A number of water suppression sequences have been combined with these localization schemes. Among the various techniques investigated in these studies, STEAM with an inversion pulse (T1-discriminated spectrum) seems to have the best potential for in vivo localized high-resolution proton spectroscopy studies of human muscle.

  9. Human embryonic stem cells vs human induced pluripotent stem cells for cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Barad, Lili; Schick, Revital; Zeevi-Levin, Naama; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Binah, Ofer

    2014-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any specialized cell type, including cardiomyocytes. Therefore, hESC-derived and hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs and hiPSC-CMs, respectively) offer great potential for cardiac regenerative medicine. Unlike some organs, the heart has a limited ability to regenerate, and dysfunction resulting from significant cardiomyocyte loss under pathophysiological conditions, such as myocardial infarction (MI), can lead to heart failure. Unfortunately, for patients with end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation remains the main alternative, and it is insufficient, mainly because of the limited availability of donor organs. Although left ventricular assist devices are progressively entering clinical practice as a bridge to transplantation and even as an optional therapy, cell replacement therapy presents a plausible alternative to donor organ transplantation. During the past decade, multiple candidate cells were proposed for cardiac regeneration, and their mechanisms of action in the myocardium have been explored. The purpose of this article is to critically review the comprehensive research involving the use of hESCs and hiPSCs in MI models and to discuss current controversies, unresolved issues, challenges, and future directions.

  10. Human muscle precursor cells overexpressing PGC-1α enhance early skeletal muscle tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Haralampieva, Deana; Salemi, Souzan; Dinulovic, Ivana; Sulser, Tullio; M Ametamey, Simon; Handschin, Christoph; Eberli, Daniel

    2017-02-03

    Muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are activated satellite cells capable of muscle fiber reconstruction. Therefore, autologous MPC transplantation is envisioned for the treatment of muscle diseases. However, the density of MPCs, as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential gradually decline with age. The goal of this research was to genetically modify human MPCs (hMPCs) to overexpress the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1α), a key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation, and thereby to enhance early skeletal muscle formation and quality. We were able to confirm the sustained myogenic phenotype of the genetically modified hMPCs. While maintaining their viability and proliferation potential, PGC-1α modified hMPCs showed an enhanced myofiber formation capacity in vitro. Engineered muscle tissues were harvested 1, 2 and 4 weeks after subcutaneous injection of cell-collagen suspensions and histological analysis confirmed the earlier myotube formation in PGC-1α modified samples, predominantly of slow twitch myofibers. Increased contractile protein levels were detected by Western Blot. In summary, by genetically modifying hMPCs to overexpress PGC-1α we were able to promote early muscle fiber formation in vitro and in vivo, with an initial switch to slow type myofibers. Therefore, overexpressing PGC-1α is novel strategy to further enhance skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  11. Muscle Derived Stem Cells Stimulate Muscle Myofiber Repair and Counteract Fat Infiltration in a Diabetic Mouse Model of Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, J; Kovanecz, I; Awadalla, N; Gelfand, R; Sinha-Hikim, I; White, RA; Gonzalez-Cadavid, NF

    2017-01-01

    Background Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) affects patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and obesity, with high risk of amputation and post-surgical mortality, and no effective medical treatment. Stem cell therapy, mainly with bone marrow mesenchymal, adipose derived, endothelial, hematopoietic, and umbilical cord stem cells, is promising in CLI mouse and rat models and is in clinical trials. Their general focus is on angiogenic repair, with no reports on the alleviation of necrosis, lipofibrosis, and myofiber regeneration in the ischemic muscle, or the use of Muscle Derived Stem Cells (MDSC) alone or in combination with pharmacological adjuvants, in the context of CLI in T2D. Methods Using a T2D mouse model of CLI induced by severe unilateral femoral artery ligation, we tested: a) the repair efficacy of MDSC implanted into the ischemic muscle and the effects of concurrent intraperitoneal administration of a nitric oxide generator, molsidomine; and b) whether MDSC may partially counteract their own repair effects by stimulating the expression of myostatin, the main lipofibrotic agent in the muscle and inhibitor of muscle mass. Results MDSC: a) reduced mortality, and b) in the ischemic muscle, increased stem cell number and myofiber central nuclei, reduced fat infiltration, myofibroblast number, and myofiber apoptosis, and increased smooth muscle and endothelial cells, as well as neurotrophic factors. The content of myosin heavy chain 2 (MHC-2) myofibers was not restored and collagen was increased, in association with myostatin overexpression. Supplementation of MDSC with molsidomine failed to stimulate the beneficial effects of MDSC, except for some reduction in myostatin overexpression. Molsidomine given alone was rather ineffective, except for inhibiting apoptosis and myostatin overexpression. Conclusions MDSC improved CLI muscle repair, but molsidomine did not stimulate this process. The combination of MDSC with anti-myostatin approaches should be explored to restore

  12. The human tongue slows down to speak: muscle fibers of the human tongue.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai; Amirali, Asif; Su, Hungxi; Sobotka, Stanislaw

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of four neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2-year-old human, a newborn human, an adult with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), and a macaque monkey. The average percentage of slow MFs in adult and the 2-year-old muscle specimens was 54%, the IPD was 45%, while the neonatal human (32%) and macaque monkey (28%) had markedly fewer slow MFs. In contrast, the tongue muscles of the rat and cat have been reported to have no slow MFs. There was a marked spatial gradient in the distribution of slow MFs with the highest percentages found medially and posteriorly. Normal adult tongue muscles were found to have a variety of uniquely specialized features including MF-type grouping (usually found in neuromuscular disorders), large amounts of loose connective tissue, and short branching MFs. In summary, normal adult human tongue muscles have by far the highest proportion of slow MFs of any mammalian tongue studied to date. Moreover, adult human tongue muscles have multiple unique anatomic features. As the tongue shape changes that are seen during speech articulation are unique to humans, we hypothesize that the large proportion of slow MFs and the anatomical specializations observed in the adult human tongue have evolved to perform these movements.

  13. TAK1 modulates satellite stem cell homeostasis and skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Hindi, Sajedah M; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Akira, Shizuo; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-12-09

    Satellite cells are resident adult stem cells that are required for regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, signalling mechanisms that regulate satellite cell function are less understood. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is important in satellite stem cell homeostasis and function. Inactivation of TAK1 in satellite cells inhibits muscle regeneration in adult mice. TAK1 is essential for satellite cell proliferation and its inactivation causes precocious differentiation. Moreover, TAK1-deficient satellite cells exhibit increased oxidative stress and undergo spontaneous cell death, primarily through necroptosis. TAK1 is required for the activation of NF-κB and JNK in satellite cells. Forced activation of NF-κB improves survival and proliferation of TAK1-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, TAK1-mediated activation of JNK is essential to prevent oxidative stress and precocious differentiation of satellite cells. Collectively, our study suggests that TAK1 is required for maintaining the pool of satellite stem cells and for regenerative myogenesis.

  14. Autofluorescent particles of human uterine muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gosden, R. G.; Hawkins, H. K.; Gosden, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Smooth muscle tissue collected from the uterine fundus of 24 patients undergoing hysterectomy was examined for chromolipoid pigments by histochemical and electron microscopic techniques. Certain cytoplasmic particles were found, mainly in smooth muscle cells, which exhibited characteristic autofluorescence, sudanophilia, and acid phosphatase activity but did not correspond to any typical pigment described previously. These particles were present in all subjects and they tended to increase in number with age. Chemical tests on tissue lipid extracts failed to prove that vitamin A was responsible for the fluorescence. The ultrastructural appearance of the particles somewhat variable, but most particles were rounded and of low electron density, with a lucent central space and dense bodies, probably lysosomes, at the periphery. The whole complex was enclosed by a single trilaminar membrane. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 4 PMID:645817

  15. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Spanidis, Ypatios; Liosi, Maria; Apostolou, Anna; Priftis, Alexandros; Haroutounian, Serko; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of polyphenolic extracts derived from the stems of three Greek grape varieties (Moshomayro, Mavrotragano and Mandilaria) in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells. We also investigated the effects of the polyphenolic composition on the antioxidant effects of the grape stem extracts. For this purpose, the endothelial and muscle cells were treated with low non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts for 24 h in order to assess the effects of the extracts on cellular redox status using oxidative stress biomarkers. The oxidative stress markers were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (CARB) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels. The results revealed that treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 14.8% and the CARB levels by 25.9 %, while it increased the GSH levels by 15.8% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mavrotragano extract significantly increased the GSH levels by 20.2%, while it significantly decreased the TBARS and CARB levels by 12.5% and 16.6%, respectively. Treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 47.3 %, the CARB levels by 39.0 % and the ROS levels by 21.8%, while it increased the GSH levels by 22.6% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mavrotragano significantly decreased the TBARS, CARB and ROS levels by 36.2%, 35.9% and 16.5%, respectively. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledgel, our results demonstrate for the first time that treatment with grape stem extracts at low concentrations improves the redox status of endothelial and muscle cells. Thus, grape stem extracts may be used for developing antioxidant food supplements or biofunctional foods. However, it was also found that the polyphenolic composition of grape stem

  16. Therapeutic effects of mouse adipose-derived stem cells and losartan in the skeletal muscle of injured mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Joo; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Myeong-Mi; Hwang, Meeyul; Kim, Choong-Yong; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are an attractive source of cells for stem cell therapy. Losartan has been reported to improve ASC transplantation in injured mouse muscles. In the present study, we investigated whether the combined treatment of losartan and ASCs in the injured muscles of mdx mice improves regeneration. The combined treatment of ASCs and losartan remarkably improved muscle regeneration and induced muscle hypertrophy. In addition, ASCs and losartan treatment downregulated transforming growth factor-β and inhibited muscle fibrosis. We observed cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and dystrophin in the muscle samples of mice transplanted with GFP-positive ASCs. In the coculture in vitro experiment, we also observed that the GFP ASCs differentiated into dystrophin-expressing myotubes. The present study shows that the combination of transplanted ASCs and treatment with losartan ameliorated muscle fibrosis and improved muscle regeneration in injured mdx mice. Thus, we suggest that combined treatment with losartan and ASCs could help to improve muscle regeneration in the muscles of injured patients, including DMD patients.

  17. The production and directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trounson, Alan

    2006-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are being rapidly produced from chromosomally euploid, aneuploid, and mutant human embryos that are available from in vitro fertilization clinics treating patients for infertility or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. These hESC lines are an important resource for functional genomics, drug screening, and, perhaps eventually, cell and gene therapy. The methods for deriving hESCs are well established and repeatable and are relatively successful with a ratio of 1:10 to 1:2 new hESC lines produced from 4- to 8-d-old morula and blastocysts and from isolated inner cell mass cell clusters of human blastocysts. The hESCs can be formed and maintained on human somatic cells in humanized serum-free culture conditions and for several passages in cell-free culture systems. The hESCs can be transfected with DNA constructs. Their gene expression profiles are being described and immunological characteristics determined. They may be grown indefinitely in vitro while maintaining their original karyotype and epigenetic status, but this needs to be confirmed from time to time in long-term cultures. hESCs spontaneously differentiate in the absence of the appropriate cell feeder layer, when overgrown in culture and when isolated from the ESC colony. All three major embryonic lineages are produced in differentiating flat attachment cultures and unattached embryoid bodies. Cell progenitors of interest can be identified by markers, expression of reporter genes, and characteristic morphology, and the cells thereafter enriched for progenitor types and further culture to more mature cell types. Directed differentiation systems are well developed for ectodermal pathways that result in neural and glial cells and the mesendodermal pathway for cardiac muscle cells and many other cell types including hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial cells. Directed differentiation into endoderm has been more difficult to achieve, perhaps because of the lack of markers of

  18. Cryopreservation of Human Stem Cells for Clinical Application: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem cells have been used in a clinical setting for many years. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for the treatment of both haematological and non-haematological disease; while more recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow have been the subject of both laboratory and early clinical studies. Whilst these cells show both multipotency and expansion potential, they nonetheless do not form stable cell lines in culture which is likely to limit the breadth of their application in the field of regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells, capable of forming stable cell lines which retain the capacity to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. This makes them of special significance in both regenerative medicine and toxicology. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may also provide a similar breadth of utility without some of the confounding ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. An essential pre-requisite to the commercial and clinical application of stem cells are suitable cryopreservation protocols for long-term storage. Whilst effective methods for cryopreservation and storage have been developed for haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic cells and iPS cells have proved more refractory. This paper reviews the current state of cryopreservation as it pertains to stem cells and in particular the embryonic and iPS cell. PMID:21566712

  19. Voluntary and reflex control of the human temporalis muscle.

    PubMed

    Scott, B J J; Mason, A G; Cadden, S W

    2002-07-01

    Electromyographic recordings (EMGs) were made in 10 human subjects from the anterior and posterior parts of the temporalis muscle using skin surface electrodes. The activities produced by voluntary maximal clenching tasks and the reflex responses to electrical stimulation of the muco-gingival junction were studied. In most subjects, maximum activity in both parts of the muscle occurred when clenching in the intercuspal position (anterior temporalis: 7 of 10 subjects; posterior temporalis: 9 of 10 subjects). Clenching maximally in the retruded position usually resulted in less activity; when this activity was expressed as a percentage of the maximum achieved by each subject for that part of the muscle, the median values were: anterior temporalis, 68% and posterior temporalis, 79%. Clenching in the protruded position produced little or no activity (median values: anterior temporalis, 3%; posterior temporalis, 5%). There were no significant differences between the EMG activities of the anterior and posterior parts of the muscle during these tasks when the activities were normalized to the maximum achieved in each part of the muscle. Application of electrical stimuli at the muco-gingival junction (upper incisor region) produced reflex inhibitions and excitations in both parts of the muscle. There were no significant differences in the thresholds of these reflexes between the anterior and posterior parts of the muscle. Furthermore, there was little difference between the two parts of the muscle in terms of the latencies, durations and magnitudes of the responses. Thus the results of the study suggest that there are similar neural control mechanisms for the anterior and posterior parts of the temporalis muscle despite the common view that these parts of the muscle have different functions.

  20. Load compensating responses of human abdominal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lansing, R. W.; Meyerink, L.

    1981-01-01

    1. We studied abdominal muscle responses to positive pressure loads applied suddenly to the external airway while subjects held a constant lung volume against steady pressure. The pre-loading holding pressure was 6 cm H2O, and the loading pressures were 6 or 12 cm H2O lasting for 2 sec. 2. Surface electromyograms (e.m.g.) were recorded over the internal oblique, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. The latency and pattern of the e.m.g. reactions were studied by measuring the raw record for each loading trial, and by averaging the rectified e.m.g. for many trials. 3. No responses were obtained if subjects were instructed not to respond to the loads. When instructed and trained to maintain their pre-load position in spite of the load, a two-phase compensatory response was found. The initial response (phase I) was 100-300 msec in duration; it was followed by a continuous e.m.g. discharge (phase II) which continued to the offset of the pressure load. Subjects were also trained to make a single respiratory effort as quickly as possible after the load onset or after just an auditory stimulus. These were simple reaction time tasks of a traditional kind and the e.m.g. responses elicited were single, brief bursts. 4. For all subjects and experimental conditions the e.m.g. response of the internal oblique occurred first, followed by the external oblique and then the rectus abdominis. For the `maintain position' task, phase I latencies (internal oblique) averaged 66-90 msec for individual subjects, but for single trials with optimal conditions of practice and preparatory intervals these ranged from 42 to 110 msec with a third of the reactions occurring within 50-60 msec. 5. The latencies for reaction time responses to loading were about 6 msec shorter than the phase I latencies. The latency distributions for the two types of responses were similar, and both were affected to the same degree by practice, and changing the length and variability of the preparatory

  1. Physiological and ultrastructural features of human induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cell-derived skeletal myocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Gunnar; Lainé, Jeanne; Darabi, Radbod; Fournier, Emmanuel; Perlingeiro, Rita; Tabti, Nacira

    2014-06-03

    Progress has recently been made toward the production of human skeletal muscle cells from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the functional and ultrastructural characterization, which is crucial for disease modeling and drug discovery, remains to be documented. We show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the electrophysiological properties of human iPS-derived skeletal myocytes are strictly similar to those of their embryonic stem (ES) cell counterparts, and both are typical of aneural mammalian skeletal muscle. In both cell types, intracellular calcium signaling that links membrane depolarization to contraction occurs in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), a unique feature of skeletal muscle. Detailed analysis of the Ca(2+) signal revealed diverse kinetics of the rising phase, and hence various rates in the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This was mirrored by ultrastructural evidence of Ca(2+) release units, which varied in location, shape, and size. Thus, the excitation-contraction coupling machinery of both iPS- and ES-derived skeletal myocytes was functional and specific, but did not reach full maturity in culture. This is in contrast with the myofibrillar network, which displayed the same organization as in adult skeletal muscle. Overall, the present study validates the human iPS-based skeletal myocyte model in comparison with the embryonic system, and provides the functional and ultrastructural basis for its application to human skeletal muscle diseases.

  2. Retention of stemness and vasculogenic potential of human umbilical cord blood stem cells after repeated expansions on PES-nanofiber matrices

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Matthew; Das, Manjusri; Kanji, Suman; Lu, Jingwei; Aggarwal, Reeva; Chakraborty, Debanjan; Sarkar, Chandrani; Yu, Hongmei; Mao, Hai-Quan; Basu, Sujit; Pompili, Vincent J.; Das, Hiranmoy

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in cardiovascular medicine, ischemic diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of ischemic diseases show great promise, limited availability of biologically functional stem cells mired the application of stem cell-based therapies. Previously, we reported a PES-nanofiber based ex vivo stem cell expansion technology, which supports expansion of human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived CD133+/CD34+ progenitor cells ~225 fold. Herein, we show that using similar technology and subsequent re-expansion methods, we can achieve ~5 million-fold yields within 24 days of the initial seeding. Interestingly, stem cell phenotype was preserved during the course of the multiple expansions. The high level of the stem cell homing receptor, CXCR4 was expressed in the primary expansion cells, and was maintained throughout the course of re-expansions. In addition, re-expanded cells preserved their multi-potential differential capabilities in vitro such as, endothelial and smooth muscle lineages. Moreover, biological functionality of the re-expanded cells was preserved and was confirmed by a murine hind limb ischemia model for revascularization. These cells could also be genetically modified for enhanced vasculogenesis. Immunohistochemical evidences support enhanced expression of angiogenic factors responsible for this enhanced neovascularization. These data further confirms that nanofiber-based ex-vivo expansion technology can generate sufficient numbers of biologically functional stem cells for potential clinical applications. PMID:25002260

  3. Respiratory effects of the scalene and sternomastoid muscles in humans.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Alexandre; Schneider, Emmanuelle; Gevenois, Pierre-Alain; De Troyer, Andre

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that in normal humans the change in airway opening pressure (DeltaPao) produced by all the parasternal and external intercostal muscles during a maximal contraction is approximately -18 cmH(2)O. This value is substantially less negative than DeltaPao values recorded during maximal static inspiratory efforts in subjects with complete diaphragmatic paralysis. In the present study, therefore, the respiratory effects of the two prominent inspiratory muscles of the neck, the sternomastoids and the scalenes, were evaluated by application of the Maxwell reciprocity theorem. Seven healthy subjects were placed in a computed tomographic scanner to determine the fractional changes in muscle length during inflation from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity and the masses of the muscles. Inflation induced greater shortening of the scalenes than the sternomastoids in every subject. The inspiratory mechanical advantage of the scalenes thus averaged (mean +/- SE) 3.4 +/- 0.4%/l, whereas that of the sternomastoids was 2.0 +/- 0.3%/l (P < 0.001). However, sternomastoid muscle mass was much larger than scalene muscle mass. As a result, DeltaPao generated by a maximal contraction of either muscle would be 3-4 cmH(2)O, which is about the same as DeltaPao generated by the parasternal intercostals in all interspaces.

  4. Photobiomodulation in human muscle tissue: an advantage in sports performance?

    PubMed

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared (NIR) light to stimulate, heal, and regenerate damaged tissue. Both preconditioning (light delivered to muscles before exercise) and PBM applied after exercise can increase sports performance in athletes. This review covers the effects of PBM on human muscle tissue in clinical trials in volunteers related to sports performance and in athletes. The parameters used were categorized into those with positive effects or no effects on muscle performance and recovery. Randomized controlled trials and case-control studies in both healthy trained and untrained participants, and elite athletes were retrieved from MEDLINE up to 2016. Performance metrics included fatigue, number of repetitions, torque, hypertrophy; measures of muscle damage and recovery such as creatine kinase and delayed onset muscle soreness. Searches retrieved 533 studies, of which 46 were included in the review (n = 1045 participants). Studies used single laser probes, cluster of laser diodes, LED clusters, mixed clusters (lasers and LEDs), and flexible LED arrays. Both red, NIR, and red/NIR mixtures were used. PBM can increase muscle mass gained after training, and decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in muscle biopsies. We raise the question of whether PBM should be permitted in athletic competition by international regulatory authorities.

  5. A three-dimensional atlas of human tongue muscles.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai

    2013-07-01

    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue's anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue.

  6. Pten is necessary for the quiescence and maintenance of adult muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Feng; Bi, Pengpeng; Wang, Chao; Shan, Tizhong; Nie, Yaohui; Ratliff, Timothy L.; Gavin, Timothy P.; Kuang, Shihuan

    2017-01-01

    Satellite cells (SCs) are myogenic stem cells required for regeneration of adult skeletal muscles. A proper balance among quiescence, activation and differentiation is essential for long-term maintenance of SCs and their regenerative function. Here we show a function of Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue) in quiescent SCs. Deletion of Pten in quiescent SCs leads to their spontaneous activation and premature differentiation without proliferation, resulting in depletion of SC pool and regenerative failure. However, prior to depletion, Pten-null activated SCs can transiently proliferate upon injury and regenerate injured muscles, but continually decline during regeneration, suggesting an inability to return to quiescence. Mechanistically, Pten deletion increases Akt phosphorylation, which induces cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 and suppression of Notch signalling. Accordingly, constitutive activation of Notch1 prevents SC depletion despite Pten deletion. Our findings delineate a critical function of Pten in maintaining SC quiescence and reveal an interaction between Pten and Notch signalling. PMID:28094257

  7. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Expression in Normal and Diseased Human Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oronzi Scott, M.; Sylvester, J. E.; Heiman-Patterson, T.; Shi, Y.-J.; Fieles, W.; Stedman, H.; Burghes, A.; Ray, P.; Worton, R.; Fischbeck, K. H.

    1988-03-01

    A probe for the 5' end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene was used to study expression of the gene in normal human muscle, myogenic cell cultures, and muscle from patients with DMD. Expression was found in RNA from normal fetal muscle, adult cardiac and skeletal muscle, and cultured muscle after myoblast fusion. In DMD muscle, expression of this portion of the gene was also revealed by in situ RNA hybridization, particularly in regenerating muscle fibers.

  8. Progress in stem cell therapy for major human neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Morales, P L; Revilla, A; Ocaña, I; González, C; Sainz, P; McGuire, D; Liste, I

    2013-10-01

    Human neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, stroke or spinal cord injury are caused by the loss of neurons and glial cells in the brain or spinal cord in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Stem cell technology has become an attractive option to investigate and treat these diseases. Several types of neurons and glial cells have successfully been generated from stem cells, which in some cases, have ameliorated some dysfunctions both in animal models of neurological disorders and in patients at clinical level. Stem cell-based therapies can be beneficial by acting through several mechanisms such as cell replacement, modulation of inflammation and trophic actions. Here we review recent and current remarkable clinical studies involving stem cell-based therapy for AD and stroke and provide an overview of the different types of stem cells available nowadays, their main properties and how they are developing as a possible therapy for neurological disorders.

  9. Electrically Stimulated Adipose Stem Cells on Polypyrrole-Coated Scaffolds for Smooth Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Björninen, Miina; Gilmore, Kerry; Pelto, Jani; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Wallace, Gordon; Grijpma, Dirk; Haimi, Suvi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a reliable, repeatable, and cost-efficient way in a 3D environment. Long pulse (1 ms) or short pulse (0.25 ms) biphasic electric current at a frequency of 10 Hz was applied to ASCs to study the effects of ES on ASC viability and differentiation towards SMCs on the PPy-coated scaffolds. PPy-coated scaffolds promoted proliferation and induced stronger calponin, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in ASCs compared to uncoated scaffolds. ES with 1 ms pulse width increased the number of viable cells by day 7 compared to controls and remained at similar levels to controls by day 14, whereas shorter pulses significantly decreased viability compared to the other groups. Both ES protocols supported smooth muscle expression markers. Our results indicate that electrical stimulation on PPy-coated scaffolds applied through the novel 3D ES device is a valid approach for vascular smooth muscle tissue engineering.

  10. Dystrophin expression in muscle stem cells regulates their polarity and asymmetric division

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Nicolas A.; Wang, Yu Xin; von Maltzahn, Julia; Pasut, Alessandra; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Brun, Caroline E.; Rudnicki, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Dystrophin is expressed in differentiated myofibers where it is required for sarcolemmal integrity, and loss-of-function mutations in its gene result in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a disease characterized by progressive and severe skeletal muscle degeneration. Here we found that dystrophin is also highly expressed in activated muscle stem cells (also known as satellite cells) where it associates with the Ser/Thr kinase Mark2 (also known as Par1b), an important regulator of cell polarity. In the absence of dystrophin, expression of Mark2 protein is downregulated, resulting in the inability to polarize Pard3 to the opposite side of the cell. Consequently, the number of asymmetric divisions is strikingly reduced in dystrophin-deficient satellite cells, while also displaying a loss of polarity, abnormal division patterns including centrosome amplification, impaired mitotic spindle orientation, and prolonged cell divisions. Altogether, these intrinsic defects strongly reduce the generation of myogenic progenitors needed for proper muscle regeneration. Therefore, we conclude that dystrophin has an essential role in the regulation of satellite cell polarity and asymmetric division. Our findings indicate that muscle wasting in DMD is not only caused by myofiber fragility, but is also exacerbated by impaired regeneration due to intrinsic satellite cell dysfunction. PMID:26569381

  11. Dystrophin expression in muscle stem cells regulates their polarity and asymmetric division.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Wang, Yu Xin; von Maltzahn, Julia; Pasut, Alessandra; Bentzinger, C Florian; Brun, Caroline E; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Dystrophin is expressed in differentiated myofibers, in which it is required for sarcolemmal integrity, and loss-of-function mutations in the gene that encodes it result in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a disease characterized by progressive and severe skeletal muscle degeneration. Here we found that dystrophin is also highly expressed in activated muscle stem cells (also known as satellite cells), in which it associates with the serine-threonine kinase Mark2 (also known as Par1b), an important regulator of cell polarity. In the absence of dystrophin, expression of Mark2 protein is downregulated, resulting in the inability to localize the cell polarity regulator Pard3 to the opposite side of the cell. Consequently, the number of asymmetric divisions is strikingly reduced in dystrophin-deficient satellite cells, which also display a loss of polarity, abnormal division patterns (including centrosome amplification), impaired mitotic spindle orientation and prolonged cell divisions. Altogether, these intrinsic defects strongly reduce the generation of myogenic progenitors that are needed for proper muscle regeneration. Therefore, we conclude that dystrophin has an essential role in the regulation of satellite cell polarity and asymmetric division. Our findings indicate that muscle wasting in DMD not only is caused by myofiber fragility, but also is exacerbated by impaired regeneration owing to intrinsic satellite cell dysfunction.

  12. Regulation of Muscle Stem Cell Functions: A Focus on the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Segalés, Jessica; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2016-01-01

    Formation of skeletal muscle fibers (myogenesis) during development and after tissue injury in the adult constitutes an excellent paradigm to investigate the mechanisms whereby environmental cues control gene expression programs in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) by acting on transcriptional and epigenetic effectors. Here we will review the molecular mechanisms implicated in the transition of satellite cells throughout the distinct myogenic stages (i.e., activation from quiescence, proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal). We will also discuss recent findings on the causes underlying satellite cell functional decline with aging. In particular, our review will focus on the epigenetic changes underlying fate decisions and on how the p38 MAPK signaling pathway integrates the environmental signals at the chromatin to build up satellite cell adaptive responses during the process of muscle regeneration, and how these responses are altered in aging. A better comprehension of the signaling pathways connecting external and intrinsic factors will illuminate the path for improving muscle regeneration in the aged. PMID:27626031

  13. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  14. Human embryonic stem cell lines model experimental human cytomegalovirus latency.

    PubMed

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Kalejta, Robert F

    2013-05-28

    Herpesviruses are highly successful pathogens that persist for the lifetime of their hosts primarily because of their ability to establish and maintain latent infections from which the virus is capable of productively reactivating. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a betaherpesvirus, establishes latency in CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells during natural infections in the body. Experimental infection of CD34(+) cells ex vivo has demonstrated that expression of the viral gene products that drive productive infection is silenced by an intrinsic immune defense mediated by Daxx and histone deacetylases through heterochromatinization of the viral genome during the establishment of latency. Additional mechanistic details about the establishment, let alone maintenance and reactivation, of HCMV latency remain scarce. This is partly due to the technical challenges of CD34(+) cell culture, most notably, the difficulty in preventing spontaneous differentiation that drives reactivation and renders them permissive for productive infection. Here we demonstrate that HCMV can establish, maintain, and reactivate in vitro from experimental latency in cultures of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for which spurious differentiation can be prevented or controlled. Furthermore, we show that known molecular aspects of HCMV latency are faithfully recapitulated in these cells. In total, we present ESCs as a novel, tractable model for studies of HCMV latency.

  15. Relationship between Human Aging Muscle and Oxidative System Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Doria, Enrico; Buonocore, Daniela; Focarelli, Angela; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is a complex process that in muscle is usually associated with a decrease in mass, strength, and velocity of contraction. One of the most striking effects of ageing on muscle is known as sarcopenia. This inevitable biological process is characterized by a general decline in the physiological and biochemical functions of the major systems. At the cellular level, aging is caused by a progressive decline in mitochondrial function that results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the addition of a single electron to the oxygen molecule. The aging process is characterized by an imbalance between an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in the organism and the antioxidant defences as a whole. The goal of this review is to examine the results of existing studies on oxidative stress in aging human skeletal muscles, taking into account different physiological factors (sex, fibre composition, muscle type, and function). PMID:22685621

  16. Prospect of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest Stem Cells in Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Lu, Qiqi; Gao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) represent a transient and multipotent cell population that contributes to numerous anatomical structures such as peripheral nervous system, teeth, and cornea. NCSC maldevelopment is related to various human diseases including pigmentation abnormalities, disorders affecting autonomic nervous system, and malformations of teeth, eyes, and hearts. As human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can serve as an unlimited cell source to generate NCSCs, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs can be a valuable tool to study the underlying mechanisms of NCSC-associated diseases, which paves the way for future therapies for these abnormalities. In addition, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs with the capability of differentiating to various cell types are highly promising for clinical organ repair and regeneration. In this review, we first discuss NCSC generation methods from human pluripotent stem cells and differentiation mechanism of NCSCs. Then we focus on the clinical application potential of hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs on peripheral nerve injuries, corneal blindness, tooth regeneration, pathological melanogenesis, Hirschsprung disease, and cardiac repair and regeneration. PMID:28090209

  17. The ethics of human stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Outka, Gene

    2002-06-01

    The medical and clinical promise of stem cell research is widely heralded, but moral judgments about it collide. This article takes general stock of such judgments and offers one specific resolution. It canvasses a spectrum of value judgments on sources, complicity, adult stem cells, and public and private contexts. It then examines how debates about abortion and stem cell research converge and diverge. Finally, it proposes to extend the principle of "nothing is lost" to current debates. This extension links historical discussions of the ethics of direct killing with unprecedented possibilities that in vitro fertilization procedures yield. A definite normative region to inhabit is located, within a larger range of rival value judgments. The creation of embryos for research purposes only should be resisted, yet research on "excess' embryos is permissible by virtue of an appeal to the "nothing is lost" principle.

  18. Isolation and Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and Dendritic Cells from Humans and Mice.

    PubMed

    Kar, Srabani; Mitra, Shinjini; Banerjee, Ena Ray

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are cells capable of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into specific phenotypes. They are an essential part of tissue engineering, which is used in regenerative medicine in case of degenerative diseases. In this chapter, we describe the methods of isolating and culturing various types of stem cells, like human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs), murine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBM-MSCs), murine adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (mAD-MSCs), and murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (mBMDCs). All these cell types can be used in tissue engineering techniques.

  19. Development of the stapedius muscle and pyramidal eminence in humans.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to systematize the key developmental phases of the stapedius muscle and the pyramidal eminence to clarify their formation, as well as to understand the variations and anomalies that can affect these structures. Sixty human embryos and fetuses between 38 days and 17 weeks of development were studied. The stapedius muscle is formed by two anlagen, one for the tendon, which derives from the internal segment of the interhyale, and another for the belly, located in the second pharyngeal arch medial to the facial nerve and near the interhyale but forming a completely independent anlage. In the interhyale, two segments were differentiated, these forming an angle; at the vertex, the belly of the stapedius muscle is attached. The internal segment is located from the attachment of the belly of the stapedius muscle to the anlage of the stapes, forming the anlage of the tendon of the stapedius muscle. The external segment completely disappears at the beginning of the fetal period. The pyramidal eminence is formed by an anlage independent of Reichert's cartilage, from the mesenchymal tissue of the tympanic cavity, which condenses around the belly of the stapedius muscle from 12 weeks of post-conception development. The length of the tendon of the stapedius muscle in adults varies, depending on the attachment site of the belly of the stapedius muscle in the interhyale, which would determine the length of the internal segment (anlage of the tendon) and consequently the tendon length. This variation depends on the greater or lesser persistence of the angulation observed during development, between the tendon and the belly of the stapedius muscle.

  20. Development of the stapedius muscle and pyramidal eminence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to systematize the key developmental phases of the stapedius muscle and the pyramidal eminence to clarify their formation, as well as to understand the variations and anomalies that can affect these structures. Sixty human embryos and fetuses between 38 days and 17 weeks of development were studied. The stapedius muscle is formed by two anlagen, one for the tendon, which derives from the internal segment of the interhyale, and another for the belly, located in the second pharyngeal arch medial to the facial nerve and near the interhyale but forming a completely independent anlage. In the interhyale, two segments were differentiated, these forming an angle; at the vertex, the belly of the stapedius muscle is attached. The internal segment is located from the attachment of the belly of the stapedius muscle to the anlage of the stapes, forming the anlage of the tendon of the stapedius muscle. The external segment completely disappears at the beginning of the fetal period. The pyramidal eminence is formed by an anlage independent of Reichert’s cartilage, from the mesenchymal tissue of the tympanic cavity, which condenses around the belly of the stapedius muscle from 12 weeks of post-conception development. The length of the tendon of the stapedius muscle in adults varies, depending on the attachment site of the belly of the stapedius muscle in the interhyale, which would determine the length of the internal segment (anlage of the tendon) and consequently the tendon length. This variation depends on the greater or lesser persistence of the angulation observed during development, between the tendon and the belly of the stapedius muscle. PMID:19531086

  1. Towards a global human embryonic stem cell bank.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Savulescu, Julian

    2007-08-01

    An increasingly unbridgeable gap exists between the supply and demand of transplantable organs. Human embryonic stem cell technology could solve the organ shortage problem by restoring diseased or damaged tissue across a range of common conditions. However, such technology faces several largely ignored immunological challenges in delivering cell lines to large populations. We address some of these challenges and argue in favor of encouraging contribution or intentional creation of embryos from which widely immunocompatible stem cell lines could be derived. Further, we argue that current immunological constraints in tissue transplantation demand the creation of a global stem cell bank, which may hold particular promise for minority populations and other sub-groups currently marginalized from organ procurement and allocation systems. Finally, we conclude by offering a number of practical and ethically oriented recommendations for constructing a human embryonic stem cell bank that we hope will help solve the ongoing organ shortage problem.

  2. [Electrophysiology and calcium signalling in human bronchial smooth muscle].

    PubMed

    Marthan, R; Hyvelin, J M; Roux, E; Savineau, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recently, cells isolated from airways have been used to characterize precisely the electrophysiological properties of this smooth muscle and to describe the changes in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) occurring upon agonist stimulation. Although most studies have produced consistent results in terms of types of ion channel and pathways of calcium signalling implicated in the mechanical activity of airways, there are differences according to (i) the site along the bronchial tree (trachea vs. bronchi); (ii) the proliferating status of the cells (freshly isolated vs. cultured) and (iii) the species (human vs. animals). With regard to the electrophysiological properties of airway smooth muscle, the contribution to [Ca2+]i rise of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels depends on the balance between depolarization related to non-specific cation channel and/or chloride channel activation and hyperpolarization related to activation of a variety of potassium channels. Most of the above-mentioned channels appear to be controlled, directly or indirectly, by agonists in human bronchial smooth muscle. With regard to calcium signalling, the pattern of agonist-induced [Ca2+]i responses, the so-called [Ca2+]i oscillations, has been observed recently in freshly isolated airway smooth muscle cells. The role and the calcium sources involved in these oscillations in human bronchial smooth muscle are currently being investigated.

  3. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  4. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-02-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development 'in a dish'. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development.

  5. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  6. Expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the regenerating human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Filipović, D; Pirkmajer, S; Mis, K; Mars, T; Grubic, Z

    2011-01-01

    Many stress conditions are accompanied by skeletal muscle dysfunction and regeneration, which is essentially a recapitulation of the embryonic development. However, regeneration usually occurs under conditions of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis activation and therefore increased glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the main determinant of cellular responsiveness to GCs, exists in two isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in humans. While the role of GRalpha is well characterized, GRbeta remains an elusive player in GC signalling. To elucidate basic characteristics of GC signalling in the regenerating human skeletal muscle we assessed GRalpha and GRbeta expression pattern in cultured human myoblasts and myotubes and their response to 24-hour dexamethasone (DEX) treatment. There was no difference in GRalpha mRNA and protein expression or DEX-mediated GRalpha down-regulation in myoblasts and myotubes. GRbeta mRNA level was very low in myoblasts and remained unaffected by differentiation and/or DEX. GRbeta protein could not be detected. These results indicate that response to GCs is established very early during human skeletal muscle regeneration and that it remains practically unchanged before innervation is established. Very low GRbeta mRNA expression and inability to detect GRbeta protein suggests that GRbeta is not a major player in the early stages of human skeletal muscle regeneration.

  7. Cryopreservation of human pluripotent stem cells: a general protocol.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is an essential technique to preserve stem cells, semipermanently sustaining their potentials. There are two main approaches of cryopreservation for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The first is the vitrification, which involves instantaneous freeze and thaw of hPSCs. The second is the conventional slow-cooling method and a rapid thaw. Both cryopreservation protocols have been standardized and optimized to yield high survivability of hPSCs.

  8. Modeling anesthetic developmental neurotoxicity using human stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaowen; Twaroski, Danielle; Bosnjak, Zeljko J.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting pre-clinical evidence in rodents and non-human primates has demonstrated that prolonged exposure of developing animals to general anesthetics can induce widespread neuronal cell death followed by long-term memory and learning disabilities. In vitro experimental evidence from cultured neonatal animal neurons confirmed the in vivo findings. However, there is no direct clinical evidence of the detrimental effects of anesthetics in human fetuses, infants, or children. Development of an in vitro neurogenesis system using human stem cells has opened up avenues of research for advancing our understanding of human brain development and the issues relevant to anesthetic-induced developmental toxicity in human neuronal lineages. Recent studies from our group, as well as other groups, showed that isoflurane influences human neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis, while ketamine induces neuroapoptosis. Application of this high throughput in vitro stem cell neurogenesis approach is a major stride toward assuring the safety of anesthetic agents in young children. This in vitro human model allows us to (1) screen the toxic effects of various anesthetics under controlled conditions during intense neuronal growth, (2) find the trigger for the anesthetic-induced catastrophic chain of toxic events, and (3) develop prevention strategies to avoid this toxic effect. In this paper, we reviewed the current findings in anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity studies, specifically focusing on the in vitro human stem cell model. PMID:23859832

  9. Vascular potential of human pluripotent stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death and disability in the US. Understanding the biological activity of stem and progenitor cells, and their ability to contribute to the repair, regeneration and remodeling of the heart and blood vessels affected by pathological processes is an ess...

  10. Nestin-expressing stem cells from the hair follicle can differentiate into motor neurons and reduce muscle atrophy after transplantation to injured nerves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chuansen; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    We have previously shown that nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells from the mouse and human are multipotent and can differentiate into many cell types, including neurons and glial cells. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can effect nerve and spinal cord repair upon transplantation in mouse models. In the present study, nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were induced by retinoic acid and fetal bovine serum to differentiate and then transplanted together with Matrigel into the transected distal sciatic or tibial nerve stump of transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Control mice were transplanted with Matrigel only. The transplanted cells appeared neuron like, with large round nuclei and long extensions. Immunofluorescence staining showed that some of the transplanted cells in the distal nerve stump expressed the neuron marker Tuj1 as well as motor neuron markers Isl 1/2 and EN1. These transplanted cells contacted each other as well as host nerve fibers. Two weeks post-transplantation, nerve fibers in the distal sciatic nerve stump of the transplanted mice had greater expression of motor neuron markers and neurotrophic factor-3 than those in the Matrigel-only transplanted mice. Muscle fiber areas in the nestin-expressing stem cell plus Matrigel-transplanted animals were much bigger than that in the Matrigel-only transplanted animals after 4 weeks. The present results suggest that transplanted nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into motor neurons and reduce muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve transection. This study demonstrates a new and accessible neuron source to reduce muscle atrophy after nerve injury.

  11. Nutrition and muscle loss in humans during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The protein loss in humans during spaceflight is partly due to a normal adaptive response to a decreased work load on the muscles involved in weight bearing. The process is mediated by changes in prostaglandin release, secondary to the decrease in tension on the affected muscles. On missions, where there is a high level of physical demands on the astronauts, there tends to be an energy deficit, which adds to the muscle protein loss and depletes the body fat reserves. While the adaptive response is a normal part of homeostasis, the additional protein loss from an energy deficit can, in the long run, have a negative effect on health and capability of humans to live and work in space and afterward return to Earth.

  12. An in vivo model of human small intestine using pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Carey L; Mahe, Maxime M; Múnera, Jorge; Howell, Jonathan C; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Poling, Holly M; Schweitzer, Jamie I; Vallance, Jefferson E; Mayhew, Christopher N; Sun, Ying; Grabowski, Gregory; Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Spence, Jason R; Shroyer, Noah F; Wells, James M; Helmrath, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant1,2. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary epithelial cultures or digested tissue from surgical biopsies that include mesenchymal cells transplanted on biodegradable scaffolds3,4. Here, we generated human intestinal organoids (HIOs) produced in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)5,6 that can engraft in vivo. These HIOs form mature human intestinal epithelium with intestinal stem cells contributing to the cryptvillus architecture and a laminated human mesenchyme, both supported by mouse vasculature ingrowth. In vivo transplantation resulted in marked expansion and maturation of the epithelium and mesenchyme, as demonstrated by differentiated intestinal cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells), presence of functional brush-border enzymes (lactase, sucrase-isomaltase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4) and visible subepithelial and smooth muscle layers when compared with HIOs in vitro. Transplanted intestinal tissues demonstrated digestive functions as shown by permeability and peptide uptake studies. Furthermore, transplanted HIO-derived tissue was responsive to systemic signals from the host mouse following ileocecal resection, suggesting a role for circulating factors in the intestinal adaptive response7–9. This model of the human small intestine may pave the way for studies of intestinal physiology, disease and translational studies. PMID:25326803

  13. The Synergistic Effect of Treadmill Running on Stem-Cell Transplantation to Heal Injured Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Ricardo J.; Distefano, Giovanna; Plassmeyer, Joshua M.; Carvell, George E.; Deasy, Bridget M.; Boninger, Michael L.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Huard, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    Muscle-derived stem-cell (MDSC) transplantation presents a promising method for the treatment of muscle injuries. This study investigated the ability of exercise to enhance MDSC transplantation into the injured muscle. Mice were divided into four groups: contusion + phosphate-buffered saline (C + PBS; n = 14 muscles), C + MDSC transplantation (n = 12 muscles), C + PBS + treadmill running (C + PBS + TM; n = 17 muscles), and C + MDSC + TM (n = 13 muscles). One day after injury, the TM groups began running for 1 or 5 weeks. Two days after injury, muscles of C + MDSC and C + MDSC + TM groups were injected with MDSCs. One or 5 weeks later, the number and differentiation of transplanted MDSCs, myofiber regeneration, collagen I formation, and vascularity were assessed histologically. In vitro, MDSCs were subjected to mechanical stimulation, and growth kinetics were quantified. In vitro, mechanical stimulation decreased the MDSC population doubling time (18.6 ± 1.6 h) and cell division time (10.9 ± 0.7 h), compared with the controls (population doubling time: 23.0 ± 3.4 h; cell division time: 13.3 ± 1.1 h) (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). In vivo, 5 weeks of TM increased the myogenic contribution of transplanted MDSCs, compared with the controls (p = 0.02). C + MDSC, C + PBS + TM, and C + MDSC + TM demonstrated decreased fibrosis at 5 weeks, compared with the C + PBS controls (p = 0.00, p = 0.03, and p = 0.02, respectively). Results suggest that the mechanical stimulation favors MDSC proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo, and that exercise enhances MDSC transplantation after injury. PMID:19788347

  14. Exploring the stem cell and non-stem cell constituents of human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Indumathi, S; Dhanasekaran, M; Rajkumar, J S; Sudarsanam, D

    2013-05-01

    The immense potency of nutritional components of human breast milk and importance of breastfeeding is known worldwide. Recent researches had identified stem cells as integral component of human breast milk. Nevertheless, there is little proof of evidence on the stem cell constituents of breast milk. It is imperative to explore the cellular constituents of human breast milk, including of stem cells, to open new avenue in child's development and regeneration. Thus, we aimed at identifying the cellular constituents of human breast milk by phenotypic characterisation of diverse cell surface markers of hematopoietic stem cells (CD 34, CD 133, CD 117), mesenchymal stem cells (CD 90, CD 105, CD 73), myoepithelial cells (CD 29, CD 44), Immune cells (CD 209, CD 86, CD 83, CD 14, CD 13, HLADR, CD 45), as well as cell adhesion molecules (CD 31, CD 54, CD 166, CD 106, CD 49d), and other markers (ABCG2, CD140b) using flowcytometry. We found a lower expression of CD 34 (13.07 ± 2.0 %), CD 90 (7.79 ± 0.8 %) and CD 73 (2.19 ± 0.41 %), indicating scanty hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell population in human breast milk. On contrary, myoepithelial progenitors, cell adhesion molecules, immune cells and growth factors were identified as the major constituents of breast milk. Overall, this study illuminates the benefits of breast feeding as breast milk encompasses heterogeneous cellular components that benefits child's growth, immunity and development. However, further research on these constituents of human breast milk will widen their applicability in treatment of neonatal disorders.

  15. Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Osterlund, Catharina; Liu, Jing-Xia; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2011-04-01

    Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior.

  16. miR-128 regulates differentiation of hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells into smooth muscle cells by targeting SMAD2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Pang, Li; Zhao, Huiying; Song, Lei; Wang, Yuehui; Sun, Qi; Guo, Chunjie; Wang, Bin; Qin, Xiujiao; Pan, Aiqun

    2016-05-01

    Human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs) are an important source of cardiovascular tissue engineering for their differentiation potential into smooth muscle cells (SMCs), yet the molecular pathways underlying such fate determination is unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in cell differentiation. In present study, we found that miR-128 was remarkably decreased during the differentiation of hHFMSCs into SMCs induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Moreover, overexpression of miR-128 led to decreased expression of SMC cellular marker proteins, such as smooth muscle actin (SMA) and calponin, in TGF-β1-induced SMC differentiation. Further, we identified that miR-128 targeted the 3'-UTR of SMAD2 transcript for translational inhibition of SMAD2 protein, and knockdown of SMAD2 abrogated the promotional effect of antagomir-128 (miR-128 neutralizer) on SMC differentiation. These results suggest that miR-128 regulates the differentiation of hHFMSCs into SMCs via targeting SMAD2, a main transcription regulator in TGF-β signaling pathway involving SMC differentiation. The miR-128/SMAD2 axis could therefore be considered as a candidate target in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for SMCs.

  17. Concise Review: Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells and Cardiac Lineage: Potential for Heart Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Narmeen; Tchao, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Valuable and ample resources have been spent over the last two decades in pursuit of interventional strategies to treat the unmet demand of heart failure patients to restore myocardial structure and function. At present, it is clear that full restoration of myocardial structure and function is outside our reach from both clinical and basic research studies, but it may be achievable with a combination of ongoing research, creativity, and perseverance. Since the 1990s, skeletal myoblasts have been extensively investigated for cardiac cell therapy of congestive heart failure. Whereas the Myoblast Autologous Grafting in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (MAGIC) trial revealed that transplanted skeletal myoblasts did not integrate into the host myocardium and also did not transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes despite some beneficial effects on recipient myocardial function, recent studies suggest that skeletal muscle-derived stem cells have the ability to adopt a cardiomyocyte phenotype in vitro and in vivo. This brief review endeavors to summarize the importance of skeletal muscle stem cells and how they can play a key role to surpass current results in the future and enhance the efficacious implementation of regenerative cell therapy for heart failure. PMID:24371329

  18. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye. PMID:27151778

  19. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  20. Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hather, Bruce M.; Adams, Gregory R.; Tesch, Per A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The morphological responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting were assessed by analyzing multiple transaxial magnetic resonance (MR) images of both lower limbs and skeletal muscle biopsies of the unweighted lower limb before and after six weeks of unilaterial (left) lower limb suspension (ULLS). Results indicated that, as a results of 6 weeks of unweighting (by the subjects walking on crutches using only one limb), the cross sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle of the unweighted left limb decreased 12 percent, while the CSA of the right thigh muscle did not change. The decrease was due to a twofold greater response of the knee extensors than the knee flexors. The pre- and post-ULLS biopsies of the left vastus lateralis showed a 14 percent decrease in average fiber CSA due to unweighting. The number of capillaries surrounding the different fiber types was unchanged after ULLS. Results showed that the adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting are qualitatively, but not quantitatively, similar to those of lower mammals and not necessarily dependent on the fiber-type composition.

  1. Tirasemtiv amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Richard; Saikali, Khalil G; Chou, Willis; Russell, Alan J; Chen, Michael M; Vijayakumar, Vipin; Stoltz, Randall R; Baudry, Stephane; Enoka, Roger M; Morgans, David J; Wolff, Andrew A; Malik, Fady I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In this study we tested the hypothesis that tirasemtiv, a selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activator that sensitizes the sarcomere to calcium, could amplify the response of muscle to neuromuscular input in humans. Methods: Healthy men received tirasemtiv and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 4-period, crossover design. The deep fibular nerve was stimulated transcutaneously to activate the tibialis anterior muscle and produce dorsiflexion of the foot. The force–frequency relationship of tibialis anterior dorsiflexion was assessed after dosing. Results: Tirasemtiv increased force produced by the tibialis anterior in a dose-, concentration-, and frequency-dependent manner with the largest increases [up to 24.5% (SE 3.1), P < 0.0001] produced at subtetanic nerve stimulation frequencies (10 Hz). Conclusions: The data confirm that tirasemtiv amplifies the response of skeletal muscle to nerve input in humans. This outcome provides support for further studies of tirasemtiv as a potential therapy in conditions marked by diminished neuromuscular input. Muscle Nerve 50: 925–931, 2014 PMID:24634285

  2. Artificial muscle: the human chimera is the future.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, P

    2011-12-14

    Severe heart failure and cerebral stroke are broadly associated with the impairment of muscular function that conventional treatments struggle to restore. New technologies enable the construction of "smart" materials that could be of great help in treating diseases where the main problem is muscle weakness. These materials "behave" similarly to biological systems, because the material directly converts energy, for example electrical energy into movement. The extension and contraction occur silently like in natural muscles. The real challenge is to transfer this amazing technology into devices that restore or replace the mechanical function of failing muscle. Cardiac assist devices based on artificial muscle technology could envelope a weak heart and temporarily improve its systolic function, or, if placed on top of the atrium, restore the atrial kick in chronic atrial fibrillation. Artificial sphincters could be used to treat urinary incontinence after prostatectomy or faecal incontinence associated with stomas. Artificial muscles can restore the ability of patients with facial paralysis due to stroke or nerve injury to blink. Smart materials could be used to construct an artificial oesophagus including peristaltic movement and lower oesophageal sphincter function to replace the diseased oesophagus thereby avoiding the need for laparotomy to mobilise stomach or intestine. In conclusion, in the near future, smart devices will integrate with the human body to fill functional gaps due to organ failure, and so create a human chimera.

  3. Physiological characterization of human muscle acetylcholine receptors from ALS patients

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Conti, Luca; Deflorio, Cristina; Frasca, Vittorio; Manteca, Alessia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Roseti, Cristina; Torchia, Gregorio; Limatola, Cristina; Grassi, Francesca; Miledi, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to muscle paralysis. Research in transgenic mice suggests that the muscle actively contributes to the disease onset, but such studies are difficult to pursue in humans and in vitro models would represent a good starting point. In this work we show that tiny amounts of muscle from ALS or from control denervated muscle, obtained by needle biopsy, are amenable to functional characterization by two different technical approaches: “microtransplantation” of muscle membranes into Xenopus oocytes and culture of myogenic satellite cells. Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents and unitary events were characterized in oocytes and multinucleated myotubes. We found that ALS acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) retain their native physiological characteristics, being activated by ACh and nicotine and blocked by α-bungarotoxin (α-BuTX), d-tubocurarine (dTC), and galantamine. The reversal potential of ACh-evoked currents and the unitary channel behavior were also typical of normal muscle AChRs. Interestingly, in oocytes injected with muscle membranes derived from ALS patients, the AChRs showed a significant decrease in ACh affinity, compared with denervated controls. Finally, riluzole, the only drug currently used against ALS, reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the ACh-evoked currents, indicating that its action remains to be fully characterized. The two methods described here will be important tools for elucidating the role of muscle in ALS pathogenesis and for developing drugs to counter the effects of this disease. PMID:22128328

  4. INVITED REVIEW: Evolution of meat animal growth research during the past 50 years: Adipose and muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dodson, M V; Allen, R E; Du, M; Bergen, W G; Velleman, S G; Poulos, S P; Fernyhough-Culver, M; Wheeler, M B; Duckett, S K; Young, M R I; Voy, B H; Jiang, Z; Hausman, G J

    2015-02-01

    If one were to compare today's animal growth research to research from a mere 50 yr ago, one would see programs with few similarities. The evolution of this research from whole-animal through cell-based and finally molecular and genomic studies has been enhanced by the identification, isolation, and in vitro evaluation of adipose- and muscle-derived stem cells. This paper will highlight the struggles and the milestones that make this evolving area of research what it is today. The contribution of adipose and muscle stem cell research to development and growth, tissue regeneration, and final carcass composition are reviewed.

  5. Re-Evaluation of Sarcolemma Injury and Muscle Swelling in Human Skeletal Muscles after Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Liu, Jing-Xia; Carlsson, Lena; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Stål, Per S.

    2013-01-01

    The results regarding the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on muscle tissue are often conflicting and the aetiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by eccentric exercise is still unclear. This study aimed to re-evaluate the paradigm of muscular alterations with regard to muscle sarcolemma integrity and fibre swelling in human muscles after voluntary eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Ten young males performed eccentric exercise by downstairs running. Biopsies from the soleus muscle were obtained from 6 non-exercising controls, 4 exercised subjects within 1 hour and 6 exercised subjects at 2–3 days and 7–8 days after the exercise. Muscle fibre sarcolemma integrity, infiltration of inflammatory cells and changes in fibre size and fibre phenotype composition as well as capillary supply were examined with specific antibodies using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Although all exercised subjects experienced DOMS which peaked between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, no significant sarcolemma injury or inflammation was detected in any post exercise group. The results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise. The fibre size was 24% larger at 7–8 days than at 2–3 days post exercise (p<0.05). In contrast, the value of capillary number per fibre area tended to decrease from 2–3 days to 7–8 days post exercise (lower in 5 of the 6 subjects at 7–8 days than at 2–3 days; p<0.05). Thus, the increased fibre size at 7–8 days post exercise was interpreted to reflect fibre swelling. Because the fibre swelling did not appear at the time that DOMS peaked (between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise), we concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS. PMID:23614012

  6. Re-evaluation of sarcolemma injury and muscle swelling in human skeletal muscles after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Liu, Jing-Xia; Carlsson, Lena; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Stål, Per S

    2013-01-01

    The results regarding the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on muscle tissue are often conflicting and the aetiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by eccentric exercise is still unclear. This study aimed to re-evaluate the paradigm of muscular alterations with regard to muscle sarcolemma integrity and fibre swelling in human muscles after voluntary eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Ten young males performed eccentric exercise by downstairs running. Biopsies from the soleus muscle were obtained from 6 non-exercising controls, 4 exercised subjects within 1 hour and 6 exercised subjects at 2-3 days and 7-8 days after the exercise. Muscle fibre sarcolemma integrity, infiltration of inflammatory cells and changes in fibre size and fibre phenotype composition as well as capillary supply were examined with specific antibodies using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Although all exercised subjects experienced DOMS which peaked between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, no significant sarcolemma injury or inflammation was detected in any post exercise group. The results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise. The fibre size was 24% larger at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days post exercise (p<0.05). In contrast, the value of capillary number per fibre area tended to decrease from 2-3 days to 7-8 days post exercise (lower in 5 of the 6 subjects at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days; p<0.05). Thus, the increased fibre size at 7-8 days post exercise was interpreted to reflect fibre swelling. Because the fibre swelling did not appear at the time that DOMS peaked (between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise), we concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS.

  7. Production of hepatocyte like cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Nicholas R.F; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Touboul, Thomas; Vallier, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    Large scale production of hepatocytes from a variety of genetic backgrounds would be beneficial for drug screening and to provide a source of cells to be used as a substitute for liver transplantation. However, fully functional primary hepatocytes remain difficult to expand in vitro and circumventing this problem by using an alternative source of cells is desirable. Here, we describe a 25 day protocol to direct the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into a near homogenous population of hepatocyte-like cells. As cells progress through this protocol they express genes in a chronological manner similar to that described during in-vivo hepatic development. The protocol relies on culture systems devoid of serum, feeders or complex extra-cellular matrices enabling molecular analyses without interference from unknown factors. This approach works efficiently with human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells and was recently used to model liver diseases in vitro. PMID:23424751

  8. Development of Scalable Culture Systems for Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azarin, Samira M.; Palecek, Sean P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, in therapeutic applications will require the development of robust, scalable culture technologies for undifferentiated cells. Advances made in large-scale cultures of other mammalian cells will facilitate expansion of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but challenges specific to hESCs will also have to be addressed, including development of defined, humanized culture media and substrates, monitoring spontaneous differentiation and heterogeneity in the cultures, and maintaining karyotypic integrity in the cells. This review will describe our current understanding of environmental factors that regulate hESC self-renewal and efforts to provide these cues in various scalable bioreactor culture systems. PMID:20161686

  9. Programming human pluripotent stem cells into white and brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ahfeldt, Tim; Schinzel, Robert T.; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Hendrickson, David; Kaplan, Adam; Lum, David H.; Camahort, Raymond; Xia, Fang; Shay, Jennifer; Rhee, Eugene P.; Clish, Clary B.; Deo, Rahul C.; Shen, Tony; Lau, Frank H.; Cowley, Alicia; Mowrer, Greg; Al-Siddiqi, Heba; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Musunuru, Kiran; Gerszten, Robert E.; Rinn, John L.; Cowan, Chad A.

    2012-01-01

    The utility of human pluripotent stem cells is dependent on efficient differentiation protocols that convert these cells into relevant adult cell types. Here we report the robust and efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into white or brown adipocytes. We found that inducible expression of PPARG2 alone or combined with CEBPB and/or PRDM16 in mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells programmed their development towards a white or brown adipocyte cell fate with efficiencies of 85%–90%. These adipocytes retained their identity independent of transgene expression, could be maintained in culture for several weeks, expressed mature markers and had mature functional properties such as lipid catabolism and insulin-responsiveness. When transplanted into mice, the programmed cells gave rise to ectopic fat pads with the morphological and functional characteristics of white or brown adipose tissue. These results indicate that the cells could be used to faithfully model human disease. PMID:22246346

  10. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options.

  11. Modulation of Stem Cell Differentiation and Myostatin as an Approach to Counteract Fibrosis in Muscle Dystrophy and Regeneration after Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    07-1-0181 TITLE: Modulation of Stem Cell Differentiation and Myostatin as an Approach to Counteract Fibrosis in Muscle Dystrophy and...views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army...Myostatin as an Approach to Counteract Fibrosis in Muscle Dystrophy and Regeneration after Injury Dr. Nestor Gonzalez-Cadavid Charles R. Drew

  12. Mitochondrial respiration regulates adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmin; Marsboom, Glenn; Toth, Peter T; Rehman, Jalees

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells which can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue as well as other tissues and have the capacity to differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal cell types such as adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Differentiation of stem cells into mature cell types is guided by growth factors and hormones, but recent studies suggest that metabolic shifts occur during differentiation and can modulate the differentiation process. We therefore investigated mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration and the mitochondrial membrane potential during adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs. In addition, we inhibited mitochondrial function to assess its effects on adipogenic differentiation. Our data show that mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption increase markedly during adipogenic differentiation, and that reducing mitochondrial respiration by hypoxia or by inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain significantly suppresses adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we used a novel approach to suppress mitochondrial activity using a specific siRNA-based knockdown of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), which also resulted in an inhibition of adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, our data demonstrates that increased mitochondrial activity is a prerequisite for MSC differentiation into adipocytes. These findings suggest that metabolic modulation of adult stem cells can maintain stem cell pluripotency or direct adult stem cell differentiation.

  13. Inhibitory action of relaxin on human cervical smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Wiqvist, N; Sahni, S; Lindblom, B

    1984-09-01

    The influence of purified porcine relaxin on contractility of human cervical smooth muscle was investigated in vitro. Strips of cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy from pregnant and nonpregnant women and were mounted in a superfused organ chamber for isometric measurement of contractile activity. Relaxin (0.005-25 micrograms/ml) inhibited the spontaneous contractions in cervical strips from 18% of nonpregnant, 68% of early pregnant, and in 100% of term pregnant women. These results indicate that relaxin has an inhibitory action on cervical smooth muscle and that this effect is more constantly detected as pregnancy proceeds.

  14. Stem and progenitor cell dysfunction in human trisomies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Binbin; Filippi, Sarah; Roy, Anindita; Roberts, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Trisomy 21, the commonest constitutional aneuploidy in humans, causes profound perturbation of stem and progenitor cell growth, which is both cell context dependent and developmental stage specific and mediated by complex genetic mechanisms beyond increased Hsa21 gene dosage. While proliferation of fetal hematopoietic and testicular stem/progenitors is increased and may underlie increased susceptibility to childhood leukemia and testicular cancer, fetal stem/progenitor proliferation in other tissues is markedly impaired leading to the characteristic craniofacial, neurocognitive and cardiac features in individuals with Down syndrome. After birth, trisomy 21-mediated premature aging of stem/progenitor cells may contribute to the progressive multi-system deterioration, including development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25520324

  15. Immunohistochemical toolkit for tracking and quantifying xenotransplanted human stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Justine; Li, Ké; Lopez, Xavier Moles; Blanchard, Stéphane; Barbot, Paul; Rorive, Sandrine; Decaestecker, Christine; Pochet, Roland; Bohl, Delphine; Lepore, Angelo C; Salmon, Isabelle; Nicaise, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Aim Biomarker-based tracking of human stem cells xenotransplanted into animal models is crucial for studying their fate in the field of cell therapy or tumor xenografting. Materials & methods Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the expression of three human-specific biomarkers: Ku80, human mitochondria (hMito) and Alu. Results We showed that Ku80, hMito and Alu biomarkers are broadly expressed in human tissues with no or low cross-reactivity toward rat, mouse or pig tissues. In vitro, we demonstrated that their expression is stable over time and does not change along the differentiation of human-derived induced pluripotent stem cells or human glial-restricted precursors. We tracked in vivo these cell populations after transplantation in rodent spinal cords using aforementioned biomarkers and human-specific antibodies detecting apoptotic, proliferating or neural-committed cells. Conclusion This study assesses the human-species specificity of Ku80, hMito and Alu, and proposes useful biomarkers for characterizing human stem cells in xenotransplantation paradigms. PMID:25159062

  16. A fetal human heart cardiac-inducing RNA (CIR) promotes the differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kochegarov, Andrei; Moses-Arms, Ashley; Lemanski, Larry F

    2015-08-01

    A specific human fetal heart RNA has been discovered, which has the ability to induce myocardial cell formation from mouse embryonic and human-induced pluripotent stem cells in culture. In this study, commercially obtained RNA from human fetal heart was cloned, sequenced, and synthesized using standard laboratory approaches. Molecular analyses of the specific fetal cardiac-inducing RNA (CIR), revealed that it is a fragment of N-sulfoglucosaminesulfohydrolase and the caspase recruitment domain family member 14 precursor. Stem cells transfected with CIRs often form into spindle-shaped cells characteristic of cardiomyocytes,and express the cardiac-specific contractile protein marker, troponin-T, in addition to tropomyosin and α-actinin as detected by immunohistochemical staining. Expression of these contractile proteins showed organization into sarcomeric myofibrils characteristic of striated cardiac muscle cells. Computer analyses of the RNA secondary structures of the active CIR show significant similarities to a RNA from salamander or myofibril-inducing RNA (MIR), which also promotes non-muscle cells to differentiate into cardiac muscle. Thus, these two RNAs, salamander MIR and the newly discovered human-cloned CIR reported here, appear to have evolutionarily conserved secondary structures suggesting that both play major roles in vertebrate heart development and, particularly, in the differentiation of cardiomyocytes from non-muscle cells during development.

  17. The relationship between human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase activity and muscle aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Love, Lorenzo K; LeBlanc, Paul J; Inglis, J Greig; Bradley, Nicolette S; Choptiany, Jon; Heigenhauser, George J F; Peters, Sandra J

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for regulating the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for use in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. PDH is regulated through phosphorylation and inactivation by PDH kinase (PDK) and dephosphorylation and activation by PDH phosphatase (PDP). The effect of endurance training on PDK in humans has been investigated; however, to date no study has examined the effect of endurance training on PDP in humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in PDP activity and PDP1 protein content in human skeletal muscle across a range of muscle aerobic capacities. This association is important as higher PDP activity and protein content will allow for increased activation of PDH, and carbohydrate oxidation. The main findings of this study were that 1) PDP activity (r(2) = 0.399, P = 0.001) and PDP1 protein expression (r(2) = 0.153, P = 0.039) were positively correlated with citrate synthase (CS) activity as a marker for muscle aerobic capacity; 2) E1α (r(2) = 0.310, P = 0.002) and PDK2 protein (r(2) = 0.229, P =0.012) are positively correlated with muscle CS activity; and 3) although it is the most abundant isoform, PDP1 protein content only explained ∼ 18% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.184, P = 0.033). In addition, PDP1 in combination with E1α explained ∼ 38% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.383, P = 0.005), suggesting that there may be alternative regulatory mechanisms of this enzyme other than protein content. These data suggest that with higher muscle aerobic capacity (CS activity) there is a greater capacity for carbohydrate oxidation (E1α), in concert with higher potential for PDH activation (PDP activity).

  18. Secretome profiling of primary human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sonja; Raschke, Silja; Knebel, Birgit; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Passlack, Waltraud; Muller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Franz, Thomas; Li, Xinping; Dicken, Hans-Dieter; Eckardt, Kristin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Ouwens, D Margriet; Eckel, Jürgen; Kotzka, Jorg; Lehr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue that secretes various proteins. These so-called myokines have been proposed to affect muscle physiology and to exert systemic effects on other tissues and organs. Yet, changes in the secretory profile may participate in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. The present study aimed at characterizing the secretome of differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSkMC) derived from healthy, adult donors combining three different mass spectrometry based non-targeted approaches as well as one antibody based method. This led to the identification of 548 non-redundant proteins in conditioned media from hSkmc. For 501 proteins, significant mRNA expression could be demonstrated. Applying stringent consecutive filtering using SignalP, SecretomeP and ER_retention signal databases, 305 proteins were assigned as potential myokines of which 12 proteins containing a secretory signal peptide were not previously described. This comprehensive profiling study of the human skeletal muscle secretome expands our knowledge of the composition of the human myokinome and may contribute to our understanding of the role of myokines in multiple biological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.

  19. Regional Differences in Muscle Energy Metabolism in Human Muscle by 31P-Chemical Shift Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kime, Ryotaro; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Hongo, Yoshinori; Ohno, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Ayumi; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported significant region-dependent differences in the fiber-type composition of human skeletal muscle. It is therefore hypothesized that there is a difference between the deep and superficial parts of muscle energy metabolism during exercise. We hypothesized that the inorganic phosphate (Pi)/phosphocreatine (PCr) ratio of the superficial parts would be higher, compared with the deep parts, as the work rate increases, because the muscle fiber-type composition of the fast-type may be greater in the superficial parts compared with the deep parts. This study used two-dimensional 31Phosphorus Chemical Shift Imaging (31P-CSI) to detect differences between the deep and superficial parts of the human leg muscles during dynamic knee extension exercise. Six healthy men participated in this study (age 27±1 year, height 169.4±4.1 cm, weight 65.9±8.4 kg). The experiments were carried out with a 1.5-T superconducting magnet with a 5-in. diameter circular surface coil. The subjects performed dynamic one-legged knee extension exercise in the prone position, with the transmit-receive coil placed under the right quadriceps muscles in the magnet. The subjects pulled down an elastic rubber band attached to the ankle at a frequency of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 Hz for 320 s each. The intracellular pH (pHi) was calculated from the median chemical shift of the Pi peak relative to PCr. No significant difference in Pi/PCr was observed between the deep and the superficial parts of the quadriceps muscles at rest. The Pi/PCr of the superficial parts was not significantly increased with increasing work rate. Compared with the superficial areas, the Pi/PCr of the deep parts was significantly higher (p<0.05) at 1 Hz. The pHi showed no significant difference between the two parts. These results suggest that muscle oxidative metabolism is different between deep and superficial parts of quadriceps muscles during dynamic exercise.

  20. Isoproterenol directs hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells to differentiate in vitro to cardiac muscle cells which can be induced to form beating heart-muscle tissue sheets.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Aiko; Yashiro, Masateru; Mii, Sumiyuki; Aki, Ryoichi; Hamada, Yuko; Arakawa, Nobuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Hoffman, Robert M; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Nestin-expressing hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the follicle. Previous studies have shown that HAP stem cells can differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells effected nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models. Recently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells differentiated to beating cardiac muscle cells. The differentiation potential to cardiac muscle cells was greatest in the upper part of the follicle. The beat rate of the cardiac muscle cells was stimulated by isoproterenol. In the present study, we observed that isoproterenol directs HAP stem cells to differentiate to cardiac muscle cells in large numbers in culture compared to HAP stem cells not supplemented with isoproterenol. The addition of activin A, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor, along with isoproternal, induced the cardiac muscle cells to form tissue sheets of beating heart muscle cells. These results demonstrate that HAP stem cells have great potential to form beating cardiac muscle cells in tissue sheets.

  1. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem... on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a technical problem,...

  2. International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research (December 2006).

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-03-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, prepared by an international group of leading stem cell scientists, bioethicists and lawyers, build on the proposals previously drafted by agencies active in the conduct and funding of stem cell science. They aim not to duplicate existing codes of ethics in research with humans or animals, but to address special sensitivities about human embryo research and acquisition of ova, sperm, embryos and somatic tissues from often vulnerable or dependent donors. Guidelines concern the procurement of research materials, the derivation of stem cells, and banking , distribution and use of cells and cell lines derived from pre-implantation stages of human development. They categorize research that on ethical grounds requires special stem cell research oversight (SCRO), and indicate how that should be undertaken. They emphasize international collaboration in these activities, to maximize benefits to humanity.

  3. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  4. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-06-26

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine.

  5. On the German debate on human embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Jan

    2004-10-01

    Germany since 1990 has one of the strictest human embryo protection laws, yet according to the Stem Cell Act of 2002 allows, under strict conditions, the import and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) for high priority research goals. The author tries to show how this is taken to be coherent by the parliamentary majority (though not necessarily by the general public) in Germany. In doing so, he firstly looks into the chronicle of the debate in Germany showing its different stages since 1999, then dwells upon the relation between the law and the role of ethics in this issue, and thirdly presents the two fundamentally different positions of the German debate, that is, that the human embryo created for IVF purposes is a human being and stands from its very beginnings under the constitutional principles of respect for, and protection of, human life versus the position that before being implanted the human embryo may become a human being and therefore belongs to the human species only potentially, so that its right to life protection may be assessable over against other high priority goals, such as research aiming at possible help for patients with life-endangering diseases. In spite of the Stem Cell Act of 2002, the debate of the German general public goes on, especially due to the recent EU 6th Research Framework Program which plans to also fund hESC research.

  6. Stemness enhancement of human neural stem cells following bone marrow MSC coculture.

    PubMed

    Haragopal, Hariprakash; Yu, Dou; Zeng, Xiang; Kim, Soo-Woo; Han, In-Bo; Ropper, Alexander E; Anderson, Jamie E; Teng, Yang D

    2015-01-01

    Rapid loss of stemness capacity in purified prototype neural stem cells (NSCs) remains a serious challenge to basic and clinical studies aiming to repair the central nervous system. Based on the essential role of mesodermal guidance in the process of neurulation, we hypothesized that coculture of human NSCs (hNSCs) with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hMSCs) could enhance the stemness of hNSCs through Notch-1 signaling. We have now tested the hypothesis by assessing behaviors of hNSCs and hMSCs under systematically designed coculture conditions relative to monocultures, with or without Notch-1 manipulation in vitro. Our data demonstrate that expression levels of Notch-1 and Hes-1 as determined by immunocytochemistry are significantly higher in hNSCs cocultured with hMSCs than those of controls. Furthermore, coculturing significantly increases immunoreactivity of CD15, a neural stemness marker, but decreases CD24, a marker of neural/neuronal commitment in hNSCs. The effect is independent from the physical status of cell growth since coculture and notch signaling actually promotes hNSC adhesion. Importantly, coculture with hMSCs markedly augments hNSC proliferation rate (e.g., higher yield in G2/M phase subpopulation in a notch-dependent manner detected by flow cytometry) without diminishing their lineage differentiation capabilities. The results suggest that coculture of hNSCs with hMSCs enhances stemness biology of hNSCs partially via activation of Notch-1 signal transduction. Our finding sheds new light on mesoderm-ectoderm cell fate determination via contact-based hMSC-hNSC interactions and provides mechanistic leads for devising effective regimens to sustain and augment stemness of in vitro established hNSC and hMSC lines for basic science, translational and clinical applications.

  7. Arsenic Exposure Transforms Human Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells into a Cancer Stem-like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tokar, Erik J.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inorganic arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental carcinogen affecting millions of people worldwide. Evolving theory predicts that normal stem cells (NSCs) are transformed into cancer stem cells (CSCs) that then drive oncogenesis. In humans, arsenic is carcinogenic in the urogenital system (UGS), including the bladder and potentially the prostate, whereas in mice arsenic induces multiorgan UGS cancers, indicating that UGS NSCs may represent targets for carcinogenic initiation. However, proof of emergence of CSCs induced by arsenic in a stem cell population is not available. Methods We continuously exposed the human prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cell line WPE-stem to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (5 μM) in vitro and determined the acquired cancer phenotype. Results WPE-stem cells rapidly acquired a malignant CSC-like phenotype by 18 weeks of exposure, becoming highly invasive, losing contact inhibition, and hypersecreting matrix metalloproteinase-9. When hetero-transplanted, these cells (designated As-CSC) formed highly pleomorphic, aggressive tumors with immature epithelial- and mesenchymal-like cells, suggesting a highly pluripotent cell of origin. Consistent with tumor-derived CSCs, As-CSCs formed abundant free-floating spheres enriched in CSC-like cells, as confirmed by molecular analysis and the fact that only these floating cells formed xenograft tumors. An early loss of NSC self-renewal gene expression (p63, ABCG2, BMI-1, SHH, OCT-4, NOTCH-1) during arsenite exposure was subsequently reversed as the tumor suppressor gene PTEN was progressively suppressed and the CSC-like phenotype acquired. Conclusions Arsenite transforms prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells into CSC-like cells, indicating that it can produce CSCs from a model NSC population. PMID:20056578

  8. Nuclear Nox4 Role in Stemness Power of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maraldi, Tullia; Guida, Marianna; Zavatti, Manuela; Resca, Elisa; Bertoni, Laura; La Sala, Giovanni B.; De Pol, Anto

    2015-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) are an attractive source for cell therapy due to their multilineage differentiation potential and accessibility advantages. However the clinical application of human stem cells largely depends on their capacity to expand in vitro, since there is an extensive donor-to-donor heterogeneity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes of stem cells, including pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and stress resistance. The mode of action of ROS is also dependent on the localization of their target molecules. Thus, the modifications induced by ROS can be separated depending on the cellular compartments they affect. NAD(P)H oxidase family, particularly Nox4, has been known to produce ROS in the nucleus. In the present study we show that Nox4 nuclear expression (nNox4) depends on the donor and it correlates with the expression of transcription factors involved in stemness regulation, such as Oct4, SSEA-4, and Sox2. Moreover nNox4 is linked with the nuclear localization of redox sensitive transcription factors, as Nrf2 and NF-κB, and with the differentiation potential. Taken together, these results suggest that nNox4 regulation may have important effects in stem cell capability through modulation of transcription factors and DNA damage. PMID:26273418

  9. Changes in motor cortical excitability during human muscle fatigue.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J L; Butler, J E; Allen, G M; Gandevia, S C

    1996-01-01

    1. The excitability of the motor cortex was investigated during fatiguing con of the elbow flexors in human subjects. During sustained contractions at 30 and 1 voluntary force (MVC), the short-latency electromyographic responses (EMG) evoke brachii and brachioradialis by transcranial magnetic stimulation increased in si EMG in the elbow flexors following the evoked muscle potential (silent period), duration during a sustained MVC but not during 30% MVCs nor during a sustained M muscle (adductor pollicis). 2. When the blood supply to brachioradialis was blocked with sphygmomanometer cuff sustained MVC, the changes in EMG responses to transcranial stimulation rapidly control values, This suggests that changes in these responses during fatigue wer small-diameter muscle afferents. 3. Tendon vibration during sustained MVCs indicated that the changes in the resp cortial stimulation were not mediated by reduced muscle spindle inputs. 4. Muscle action potentials evoked in brachioradialis by electrical stimulation cervicomedullary junction did not increase in size during sustained MVCs. Thus, cortically evoked responses during sustained MVCs reflects a change in cortical Although the silent period following cervicomedullary stimulation lengthened, it substantially shorter than the cortically evoked silent period. 5. The altered EMG responses to transcranial stimulation during fatigue suggest exitation and increased inhibition in the motor cortex. As these changes were un manipulation of afferent input they presumably result from intrinsic cortical pr altered voluntary drive to the motor cortex. Images Figure 1 PMID:8821148

  10. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Powell, Courtney A; Smiley, Beth L; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2002-11-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  11. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  12. Transcriptome-scale similarities between mouse and human skeletal muscles with normal and myopathic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Alvin T; Kang, Peter B; Kohane, Isaac S; Kunkel, Louis M

    2006-01-01

    Background Mouse and human skeletal muscle transcriptome profiles vary by muscle type, raising the question of which mouse muscle groups have the greatest molecular similarities to human skeletal muscle. Methods Orthologous (whole, sub-) transcriptome profiles were compared among four mouse-human transcriptome datasets: (M) six muscle groups obtained from three mouse strains (wildtype, mdx, mdx5cv); (H1) biopsied human quadriceps from controls and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients; (H2) four different control human muscle types obtained at autopsy; and (H3) 12 different control human tissues (ten non-muscle). Results Of the six mouse muscles examined, mouse soleus bore the greatest molecular similarities to human skeletal muscles, independent of the latters' anatomic location/muscle type, disease state, age and sampling method (autopsy versus biopsy). Significant similarity to any one mouse muscle group was not observed for non-muscle human tissues (dataset H3), indicating this finding to be muscle specific. Conclusion This observation may be partly explained by the higher type I fiber content of soleus relative to the other mouse muscles sampled. PMID:16522209

  13. Human haematopoietic stem cell lineage commitment is a continuous process.

    PubMed

    Velten, Lars; Haas, Simon F; Raffel, Simon; Blaszkiewicz, Sandra; Islam, Saiful; Hennig, Bianca P; Hirche, Christoph; Lutz, Christoph; Buss, Eike C; Nowak, Daniel; Boch, Tobias; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Ho, Anthony D; Huber, Wolfgang; Trumpp, Andreas; Essers, Marieke A G; Steinmetz, Lars M

    2017-03-20

    Blood formation is believed to occur through stepwise progression of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) following a tree-like hierarchy of oligo-, bi- and unipotent progenitors. However, this model is based on the analysis of predefined flow-sorted cell populations. Here we integrated flow cytometric, transcriptomic and functional data at single-cell resolution to quantitatively map early differentiation of human HSCs towards lineage commitment. During homeostasis, individual HSCs gradually acquire lineage biases along multiple directions without passing through discrete hierarchically organized progenitor populations. Instead, unilineage-restricted cells emerge directly from a 'continuum of low-primed undifferentiated haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells' (CLOUD-HSPCs). Distinct gene expression modules operate in a combinatorial manner to control stemness, early lineage priming and the subsequent progression into all major branches of haematopoiesis. These data reveal a continuous landscape of human steady-state haematopoiesis downstream of HSCs and provide a basis for the understanding of haematopoietic malignancies.

  14. Transcription Factor Rational Design Improves Directed Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Skeletal Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Manuel AFV; Janssen, Josephine M; Nguyen, Quynh G; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Hauschka, Stephen D; Dickson, George; de Vries, Antoine AF

    2011-01-01

    There is great interest in transdifferentiating cells from one lineage into those of another and in dedifferentiating mature cells back into a stem/progenitor cell state by deploying naturally occurring transcription factors (TFs). Often, however, steering cellular differentiation pathways in a predictable and efficient manner remains challenging. Here, we investigated the principle of combining domains from different lineage-specific TFs to improve directed cellular differentiation. As proof-of-concept, we engineered the whole-human TF MyoDCD, which has the NH2-terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) and adjacent DNA-binding motif of MyoD COOH-terminally fused to the TAD of myocardin (MyoCD). We found via reporter gene and marker protein assays as well as by a cell fusion readout system that, targeting the TAD of MyoCD to genes normally responsive to the skeletal muscle-specific TF MyoD enforces more robust myogenic reprogramming of nonmuscle cells than that achieved by the parental, prototypic master TF, MyoD. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) transduced with a codon-optimized microdystrophin gene linked to a synthetic striated muscle-specific promoter and/or with MyoD or MyoDCD were evaluated for complementing the genetic defect in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) myocytes through heterotypic cell fusion. Cotransduction of hMSCs with MyoDCD and microdystrophin led to chimeric myotubes containing the highest dystrophin levels. PMID:21266958

  15. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned media prevent muscle atrophy by suppressing muscle atrophy-related proteins and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Mi; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Jin-Ho; Kim, Z-Hun; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) has been reported with various types of disease models. Here, we examine the therapeutic effect of umbilical cord MSC-CM (UCMSC-CM) on muscle-related disease, using a dexamethasone (Dex)-induced muscle atrophy in vitro model. The expressions of muscle atrophy-related proteins (MuRF-1 and MAFbx) and muscle-specific proteins (desmin and myogenin) were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The level of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) dye assay. The expression of antioxidant enzymes (copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), and catalase (CAT)) was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When L6 cells were exposed to Dex, the expression of muscle atrophy-related proteins was increased by 50-70%, and the expression of muscle-specific proteins was in turn decreased by 23-40%. Conversely, when the L6 cells were co-treated with UCMSC-CM and Dex, the expression of muscle atrophy-related proteins was reduced in a UCMSC-CM dose-dependent manner and the expression of muscle-specific proteins was restored to near-normal levels. Moreover, ROS generation was effectively suppressed and the expression of antioxidant enzymes was recovered to a normal degree. These data imply that UCMSC-CM clearly has the potential to prevent muscle atrophy. Thus, our present study offers fundamental data on the potential treatment of muscle-related disease using UCMSC-CM.

  16. Carotid baroreceptor-muscle sympathetic relation in humans.

    PubMed

    Rea, R F; Eckberg, D L

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the relation between carotid distending pressure and muscle sympathetic activity in humans. Carotid baroreceptors of nine healthy subjects were compressed or stretched for 5 s with graded neck pressure or suction (+40 to -65 mmHg), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was recorded. The results delineate several features of human baroreflex function. First, the carotid-muscle sympathetic relation is well described by an inverse sigmoid function. Second, a linear relation exists between carotid distending pressure and sympathetic outflow over a range of approximately 25 mmHg. Third, sympathetic responses to changes of carotid pressures are asymmetric; increases of sympathetic activity during carotid compression are much greater than reductions of sympathetic activity during carotid stretch. Fourth, at rest, normal subjects operate near the threshold level for sympathetic excitation. Thus the carotid-muscle sympathetic baroreflex is poised to oppose reductions more effectively than elevations of arterial pressure, and the range of pressures over which the reflex is active is wider than thought hitherto.

  17. Increased proteasome activity determines human embryonic stem cell identity

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez, David; Boyer, Leah; Morantte, Ianessa; Lutz, Margaret; Merkwirth, Carsten; Joyce, Derek; Spencer, Brian; Page, Lesley; Masliah, Eliezer; Berggren, W. Travis; Gage, Fred H.; Dillin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are able to replicate continuously in the absence of senescence and, therefore, are immortal in culture1,2. While genome stability is central for survival of stem cells; proteome stability may play an equally important role in stem cell identity and function. Additionally, with the asymmetric divisions invoked by stem cells, the passage of damaged proteins to daughter cells could potentially destroy the resulting lineage of cells. We hypothesized that stem cells have an increased proteostasis ability compared to their differentiated counterparts and asked whether proteasome activity differed among human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Notably, hESC populations exhibit a high proteasome activity that is correlated with increased levels of the 19S proteasome subunit PSMD11/RPN-63–5 and a corresponding increased assembly of the 26S/30S proteasome. Ectopic expression of PSMD11 is sufficient to increase proteasome assembly and activity. Proteasome inhibition affects pluripotency of hESCs inducing differentiation towards specific cell lineages. FOXO4, an insulin/IGF-1 responsive transcription factor associated with long lifespan in invertebrates6,7, regulates proteasome activity by modulating the expression of PSMD11 in hESCs. Our results establish a novel regulation of proteostasis in hESCs that links longevity and stress resistance in invertebrates with hESC function and identity. PMID:22972301

  18. Stem cell programs are retained in human leukemic lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Zhou, X; Li, Z; Li, Z-Q; Duan, C; Liu, T; Zhang, F; Huang, Y; Zhang, Y; Gao, F; Guo, Y; Gupta, R; Chen, G; Enver, T; Tang, J; Hong, D

    2015-04-16

    Leukemic lymphoblasts within different immunophenotypic populations possess stem cell properties. However, whether or not the self-renewal program is retained from stem cells or conferred on progenitors by leukemogenic molecules remains unknown. We have addressed the issue in the context of TEL-AML1-associated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by profiling a refined program edited from genes essential for self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and B-cell development. Bioinformatic analysis shows that ALL populations are loosely clustered and close to the normal population that contains stem and primitive progenitor cells. This finding indicates that immunophenotypes do not reflect maturation stages in ALL and that the self-renewal program may be retained from stem cells. Results of assessing 'first hit' function of TEL-AML1 in different populations of normal cells demonstrate the molecular model. Therefore, the current study shows a leukemogenic scenario of human ALL in which programs of stem cells are sustained in distinct fractions by leukemogenic mutations.

  19. Imagining STEM Higher Education Futures: Advancing Human Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores a conceptual approach to the question of what it means to provide a university education that addresses equity, and encourages the formation of STEM graduates oriented to public-good values and with commitments to making professional contributions to society which will advance human well-being. It considers and rejects…

  20. Rapid neurogenesis through transcriptional activation in human stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Busskamp, Volker; Lewis, Nathan E; Guye, Patrick; Ng, Alex HM; Shipman, Seth L; Byrne, Susan M; Sanjana, Neville E; Murn, Jernej; Li, Yinqing; Li, Shangzhong; Stadler, Michael; Weiss, Ron; Church, George M

    2014-01-01

    Advances in cellular reprogramming and stem cell differentiation now enable ex vivo studies of human neuronal differentiation. However, it remains challenging to elucidate the underlying regulatory programs because differentiation protocols are laborious and often result in low neuron yields. Here, we overexpressed two Neurogenin transcription factors in human-induced pluripotent stem cells and obtained neurons with bipolar morphology in 4 days, at greater than 90% purity. The high purity enabled mRNA and microRNA expression profiling during neurogenesis, thus revealing the genetic programs involved in the rapid transition from stem cell to neuron. The resulting cells exhibited transcriptional, morphological and functional signatures of differentiated neurons, with greatest transcriptional similarity to prenatal human brain samples. Our analysis revealed a network of key transcription factors and microRNAs that promoted loss of pluripotency and rapid neurogenesis via progenitor states. Perturbations of key transcription factors affected homogeneity and phenotypic properties of the resulting neurons, suggesting that a systems-level view of the molecular biology of differentiation may guide subsequent manipulation of human stem cells to rapidly obtain diverse neuronal types. PMID:25403753

  1. STEM and the Arts and Humanities: Debunking a False Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The false dichotomy that suggests schools must choose between STEM (or STEAM) and the humanities would not merit the time it takes to write an article if not for a dangerous crescendo of backlash clouding the senses of boards and administrations around the independent school world. In this article, the author, an upper school principal of Taipei…

  2. Expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chou, Song; Chu, Pat; Hwang, William; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-10-08

    A recent Science paper reported a purine derivative that expands human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in culture (Boitano et al., 2010) by antagonizing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Major problems need to be overcome before ex vivo HSC expansion can be used clinically.

  3. Expression of muscle-gene-specific isozymes of phosphorylase and creatine kinase in innervated cultured human muscle

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Isozymes of creatine kinase and glycogen phosphorylase are excellent markers of skeletal muscle maturation. In adult innervated muscle only the muscle-gene-specific isozymes are present, whereas aneurally cultured human muscle has predominantly the fetal pattern of isozymes. We have studied the isozyme pattern of human muscle cultured in monolayer and innervated by rat embryo spinal cord explants for 20-42 d. In this culture system, large groups of innervated muscle fibers close to the ventral part of the spinal cord explant continuously contracted. The contractions were reversibly blocked by 1 mM d- tubocurarine. In those innervated fibers, the total activity and the muscle-gene-specific isozymes of both enzymes increased significantly. The amount of muscle-gene-specific isozymes directly correlated with the duration of innervation. Control noninnervated muscle fibers from the same dishes as the innervated fibers remained biochemically immature. This study demonstrated that de novo innervation of human muscle cultured in monolayer exerts a time-related maturational influence that is not mediated by a diffusable neural factor. PMID:3771644

  4. Human neural stem cells promote proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and enhance angiogenesis in ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seung U; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem cells into the dentate gyrus or ventricle of rodents has been reportedly to enhance neurogenesis. In this study, we examined endogenous stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the ischemic rat brain after the transplantation of human neural stem cells. Focal cerebral ischemia in the rat brain was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Human neural stem cells were transplanted into the subventricular zone. The behavioral performance of human neural stem cells-treated ischemic rats was significantly improved and cerebral infarct volumes were reduced compared to those in untreated animals. Numerous transplanted human neural stem cells were alive and preferentially localized to the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled endogenous neural stem cells were observed in the subventricular zone and hippocampus, where they differentiated into cells immunoreactive for the neural markers doublecortin, neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein in human neural stem cells-treated rats, but not in the untreated ischemic animals. The number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive ⁄ anti-von Willebrand factor-positive proliferating endothelial cells was higher in the ischemic boundary zone of human neural stem cells-treated rats than in controls. Finally, transplantation of human neural stem cells in the brains of rats with focal cerebral ischemia promoted the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neural-like cells, and enhanced angiogenesis. This study provides valuable insights into the effect of human neural stem cell transplantation on focal cerebral ischemia, which can be applied to the development of an effective therapy for stroke.

  5. Reflex influences on muscle spindle activity in relaxed human leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Gandevia, S C; Miller, S; Aniss, A M; Burke, D

    1986-07-01

    The study was designed to determine whether low-threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents from the foot reflexly activate gamma-motoneurons innervating relaxed muscles of the leg. In 15 experiments multiunit recordings were made from 21 nerve fascicles innervating triceps surae or tibialis anterior. In a further nine experiments the activity of 19 identified single muscle spindle afferents was recorded, 13 from triceps surae, 5 from tibialis anterior, and 1 from extensor digitorum longus. Trains of electrical stimuli (5 stimuli, 300 Hz) were delivered to the sural nerve at the ankle (intensity, twice sensory threshold) and the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle (intensity, 1.1 times motor threshold for the small muscles of the foot). In addition, a tap on the appropriate tendon at varying times after the stimuli was used to assess the dynamic responsiveness of the afferents under study. The conditioning electrical stimuli did not change the discharge of single spindle afferents. Recordings of rectified and averaged multiunit activity also revealed no change in the overall level of background neural activity following the electrical stimuli. The afferent responses to tendon taps did not differ significantly whether or not they were preceded by stimulation of the sural or posterior tibial nerves. These results suggest that low-threshold afferents from the foot do not produce significant activation of fusimotor neurons in relaxed leg muscles, at least as judged by their ability to alter the discharge of muscle spindle afferents. As there may be no effective background activity in fusimotor neurons innervating relaxed human muscles, it is possible that these inputs from the foot could influence the fusimotor system during voluntary contractions when the fusimotor neurons have been brought to firing threshold. In one subject trains of stimuli were delivered to the posterior tibial nerve at painful levels (30 times motor threshold). They produced an acceleration of the

  6. Morphometric and Statistical Analysis of the Palmaris Longus Muscle in Human and Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Maior, Rafael Souto; Davaasuren, Munkhzul; Paraguassú-Chaves, Carlos Alberto; Nishijo, Hisao; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing. PMID:24860810

  7. Muscles do more positive than negative work in human locomotion

    PubMed Central

    DeVita, Paul; Helseth, Joseph; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2008-01-01

    Summary Muscle work during level walking and ascent and descent ramp and stairway walking was assessed in order to explore the proposition that muscles perform more positive than negative work during these locomotion tasks. Thirty four healthy human adults were tested while maintaining a constant average walking velocity in the five gait conditions. Ground reaction force and sagittal plane kinematic data were obtained during the stance phases of these gaits and used in inverse dynamic analyses to calculate joint torques and powers at the hip, knee and ankle. Muscle work was derived as the area under the joint power vs time curves and was partitioned into positive, negative and net components. Dependent t-tests were used to compare positive and negative work in level walking and net joint work between ascent and descent gaits on the ramp and stairs (P<0.010). Total negative and positive work in level walking was −34 J and 50 J, respectively, with the difference in magnitude being statistically significant (P<0.001). Level walking was therefore performed with 16 J of net positive muscle work per step. The magnitude of the net work in ramp ascent was 25% greater than the magnitude of net work in ramp descent (89 vs −71 J m−1, P<0.010). Similarly, the magnitude of the net work in stair ascent was 43% greater than the magnitude of net work in stair descent (107 vs −75 J step−1, P<0.000). We identified three potential causes for the reduced negative vs positive work in these locomotion tasks: (1) the larger magnitude of the accelerations induced by the larger ground reaction forces in descending compared to ascending gaits elicited greater energy dissipation in non-muscular tissues, (2) the ground reaction force vector was directed closer to the joint centers in ramp and stair descent compared to ascent, which reduced the load on the muscular tissues and their energy dissipating response, and (3) despite the need to produce negative muscle work in descending

  8. Muscle Gene Expression Patterns in Human Rotator Cuff Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Alexander; McCarthy, Meagan; Pichika, Rajeswari; Sato, Eugene J.; Lieber, Richard L.; Schenk, Simon; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff pathology is a common source of shoulder pain with variable etiology and pathoanatomical characteristics. Pathological processes of fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis have all been invoked as causes for poor outcomes after rotator cuff tear repair. The aims of this study were to measure the expression of key genes associated with adipogenesis, myogenesis, and fibrosis in human rotator cuff muscle after injury and to compare the expression among groups of patients with varied severities of rotator cuff pathology. Methods: Biopsies of the supraspinatus muscle were obtained arthroscopically from twenty-seven patients in the following operative groups: bursitis (n = 10), tendinopathy (n = 7), full-thickness rotator cuff tear (n = 8), and massive rotator cuff tear (n = 2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to characterize gene expression pathways involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. Results: Patients with a massive tear demonstrated downregulation of the fibrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle was not in a state of active change and may have difficulty responding to stimuli. Patients with a full-thickness tear showed upregulation of fibrotic and adipogenic genes; at the tissue level, these correspond to the pathologies most detrimental to outcomes of surgical repair. Patients with bursitis or tendinopathy still expressed myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle may be attempting to accommodate the mechanical deficiencies induced by the tendon tear. Conclusions: Gene expression in human rotator cuff muscles varied according to tendon injury severity. Patients with bursitis and tendinopathy appeared to be expressing pro-myogenic genes, whereas patients with a full-thickness tear were expressing genes associated with fatty atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, patients with a massive tear appeared to have downregulation of all gene programs except inhibition of

  9. Induced pluripotent stem cells from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimei; Liu, Jinyu; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Gaofeng; Gao, Yunhe; Liu, Xuejuan; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Yulin

    2013-08-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides an alternative to using embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human hair follicles (hHF-MSCs) are easily accessible, reproducible by direct plucking of human hairs. Whether these hHF-MSCs can be reprogrammed has not been previously reported. Here we report the generation of iPSCs from hHF-MSCs obtained by plucking several hairs. hHF-MSCs were isolated from hair follicle tissues and their mesenchymal nature confirmed by detecting cell surface antigens and multilineage differentiation potential towards adipocytes and osteoblasts. They were then reprogrammed into iPSCs by lentiviral transduction with Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. hHF-MSC-derived iPSCs appeared indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in colony morphology, expression of alkaline phosphotase, and expression of specific hESCs surface markers, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, Tra-1-60, Tra-1-81, Nanog, Oct4, E-Cadherin and endogenous pluripotent genes. When injected into immunocompromised mice, hHF-MSC-derived iPSCs formed teratomas containing representatives of all three germ layers. This is the first study to report reprogramming of hHF-MSCs into iPSCs.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Nora; Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva; Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs; Apati, Agota

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  11. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M; Offerhaus, G Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J P L; Clevers, Hans

    2015-05-07

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain genetically and phenotypically stable. Here we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted gene modification of four of the most commonly mutated colorectal cancer genes (APC, P53 (also known as TP53), KRAS and SMAD4) in cultured human intestinal stem cells. Mutant organoids can be selected by removing individual growth factors from the culture medium. Quadruple mutants grow independently of all stem-cell-niche factors and tolerate the presence of the P53 stabilizer nutlin-3. Upon xenotransplantation into mice, quadruple mutants grow as tumours with features of invasive carcinoma. Finally, combined loss of APC and P53 is sufficient for the appearance of extensive aneuploidy, a hallmark of tumour progression.

  12. Muscle Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of DMD Associated Cardiomyopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Neuromuscul Disord. 2010;20(11):693-700. 19. Hulver MW, Dohm GL. The molecular mechanism linking muscle fat accumulation to insulin resistance. Proc...many animal models of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, little is known about the correlated molecular mechanisms involved in the...little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanisms that cause HO. The RhoA-Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway has been shown to function as a

  13. Distant cis Regulatory Elements in Human Skeletal Muscle Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Rachel Patton; Zhou, Vicky W.; Yuh, Tiffany; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying gene regulatory elements and their target genes in human cells remains a significant challenge. Despite increasing evidence of physical interactions between distant regulatory elements and gene promoters in mammalian cells, many studies consider only promoter-proximal regulatory regions. We identify putative cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in human skeletal muscle differentiation by combining myogenic TF binding data before and after differentiation with histone modification data in myoblasts. CRMs that are distant (>20 kb) from muscle gene promoters are common and are more likely than proximal promoter regions to show differentiation-specific changes in myogenic TF binding. We find that two of these distant CRMs, known to activate transcription in differentiating myoblasts, interact physically with gene promoters (PDLIM3 and ACTA1) during differentiation. Our results highlight the importance of considering distal CRMs in investigations of mammalian gene regulation and support the hypothesis that distant CRM-promoter looping contacts are a general mechanism of gene regulation. PMID:21907276

  14. Central nervous system control of the laryngeal muscles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2005-01-01

    Laryngeal muscle control may vary for different functions such as: voice for speech communication, emotional expression during laughter and cry, breathing, swallowing, and cough. This review discusses the control of the human laryngeal muscles for some of these different functions. Sensori-motor aspects of laryngeal control have been studied by eliciting various laryngeal reflexes. The role of audition in learning and monitoring ongoing voice production for speech is well known; while the role of somatosensory feedback is less well understood. Reflexive control systems involving central pattern generators may contribute to swallowing, breathing and cough with greater cortical control during volitional tasks such as voice production for speech. Volitional control is much less well understood for each of these functions and likely involves the integration of cortical and subcortical circuits. The new frontier is the study of the central control of the laryngeal musculature for voice, swallowing and breathing and how volitional and reflexive control systems may interact in humans. PMID:15927543

  15. Protein hairy enhancer of split-1 expression during differentiation of muscle-derived stem cells into neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mina; Guo, Zhanpeng; Liu, Kun; Mei, Xifan; Fang, Shiqiang; Zeng, Jinhao; Wang, Yansong; Yuan, Yajiang

    2012-10-05

    Muscle-derived stem cells were isolated from the skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats aged 3 days old. Cells at passage 5 were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, 20 μg/L nerve growth factor, 20 μg/L basic fibroblast growth factor and 1% (v/v) penicillin for 6 days. Cells presented with long processes, similar to nerve cells. Connections were formed between cell processes. Immunocytochemical staining with neuron specific enolase verified that cells differentiated into neuron-like cells. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry and western blot results revealed that the expression of protein hairy enhancer of split-1 was significantly reduced. These results indicate that low expression of protein hairy enhancer of split-1 participates in the differentiation of muscle-derived stem cells into neuron-like cells.

  16. Anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity of the ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. F.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinoriya, Pooja; Irchhaiya, R.; Sharma, Bhawna; Sahu, Gayatri; Kumar, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant and muscle relxant activity of ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata in mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of stems of D. falcata (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and muscle relaxant activity at the same dose level using rota rod and traction test in mice. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. D. falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited seizures induced by MES, reduced the duration of Hind limb tonic extensor phase (HLTE) and a decline in motor coordination. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and muscle relaxant activity. PMID:22144780

  17. Tendon biomechanical properties enhance human wrist muscle specialization.

    PubMed

    Loren, G J; Lieber, R L

    1995-07-01

    Biomechanical properties of human wrist tendons were measured under loads predicted to be experienced by those tendons under physiological conditions. This was accomplished by measuring the architectural properties of the five prime wrist movers--extensors carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), flexor carpi radials (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)--and predicting their maximum tension (P0) using a specific tension value (22.5 N cm-2. Loading the corresponding tendons to P0 resulted in significantly different strain among tendons (p < 0.01) with the largest strain observed in the FCU (3.68 +/- 0.31%) and the smallest strain observed in the ECRL (1.78 +/- 0.14%). Further, strain magnitude was significantly positively correlated with the tendon length-to-fiber length ratio of the muscle-tendon unit, a measure of the intrinsic compliance of the muscle-tendon unit. Theoretical modeling of the magnitude of muscle sarcomere shortening expected based on the measured biomechanical properties revealed a maximum sarcomere length decrease of about 0.6 micron for the FCU to a minimum of about 0.2 micron for the ECRB at P0. Thus, tendon compliance may, but does not necessarily, result in significant modification of muscle force generation. The significant variation in tendon biomechanical properties was not observed using traditional elongation-to-failure methods on the same specimens. Thus, the use of elongation-to-failure experiments for determination of tendon properties may not be reasonable when the purpose of such studies is to infer physiological function. These data indicate that muscle-tendon units show remarkable specialization and that tendon intrinsic properties accentuate the muscle architectural specialization already present.

  18. Existence of reserve quiescent stem cells in adults, from amphibians to humans.

    PubMed

    Young, H E

    2004-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the phenomenon of tissue restoration in amphibians and higher order animals. These theories include dedifferentiation of damaged tissues, transdifferentiation of lineage-committed stem cells, and activation of quiescent stem cells. Young and colleagues demonstrated that connective tissues throughout the body contain multiple populations of quiescent lineage-committed progenitor stem cells and lineage-uncommitted pluripotent stem cells. Subsequent cloning and cell sorting studies identified quiescent lineage-uncommitted pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells, capable of forming any mesodermal cell type, and pluripotent epiblastic-like stem cells, capable of forming any somatic cell type. Based on their studies, they propose at least 11 categories of quiescent reserve stem cells resident within postnatal animals, including humans. These categories are pluripotent epiblastic-like stem cells, pluripotent ectodermal stem cells, pluripotent epidermal stem cells, pluripotent neuronal stem cells, pluripotent neural crest stem cells, pluripotent mesenchymal (mesodermal) stem cells, pluripotent endodermal stem cells, multipotent progenitor stem cells, tripotent progenitor stem cells, bipotent progenitor stem cells, and unipotent progenitor stem cells. Thus, activation of quiescent reserve stem cells, i.e., lineage-committed progenitor stem cells and lineage-uncommitted pluripotent stem cells, resident within the connective tissues could provide for the continual maintenance and repair of the postnatal organism after birth.

  19. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases.

  20. Ex vivo nanofiber expansion and genetic modification of human cord blood-derived progenitor/stem cells enhances vasculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Das, Hiranmoy; Abdulhameed, Nasreen; Joseph, Matthew; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Mao, Hai-Quan; Pompili, Vincent J

    2009-01-01

    The stem cell therapy for treating ischemic diseases is promising; however, the limited availability and compromised quality of progenitor cells in aged and diseased patients limit its therapeutic use. Here we report a nanofiber-based ex vivo stem cell expansion technology and proangiogenic growth factors overexpression of human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived progenitor cells to enhance angiogenic potential of therapeutic stem cells. The progenitor cells were expanded approximately 225-fold on nanofiber-based serum-free ex vivo expansion culture technique without inducing differentiation. The expanded cells express high levels of stem cell homing receptor, CXCR4, and adhesion molecule, LFA-1. The nanofiber-expanded stem cells uptake AcLDL effectively, and migrate efficiently in an in vitro transmigration assay. These expanded cells can also differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro. In a NOD/SCID mouse hind limb vascular injury model, nanofiber-expanded cells were more effective in blood flow restoration and this effect was further augmented by VEGF(164) and PDGF-BB, growth factor overexpression. The data indicate that nanofiber-based ex vivo expansion technology can provide an essential number of therapeutic stem cells. Additionally, proangiogenic growth factors overexpression in progenitor cells can potentially improve autologous or allogeneic stem cell therapy for ischemic diseases.

  1. Skeletal muscle stem cells express anti-apoptotic ErbB receptors during activation from quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, Jon P. . E-mail: j.p.golding@open.ac.uk; Calderbank, Emma; Partridge, Terence A.; Beauchamp, Jonathan R.

    2007-01-15

    To be effective for tissue repair, satellite cells (the stem cells of adult muscle) must survive the initial activation from quiescence. Using an in vitro model of satellite cell activation, we show that erbB1, erbB2 and erbB3, members of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase family, appear on satellite cells within 6 h of activation. We show that signalling via erbB2 provides an anti-apoptotic survival mechanism for satellite cells during the first 24 h, as they progress to a proliferative state. Inhibition of erbB2 signalling with AG825 reduced satellite cell numbers, concomitant with elevated caspase-8 activation and TUNEL labelling of apoptotic satellite cells. In serum-free conditions, satellite cell apoptosis could be largely prevented by a mixture of erbB1, erbB3 and erbB4 ligand growth factors, but not by neuregulin alone (erbB3/erbB4 ligand). Furthermore, using inhibitors specific to discrete intracellular signalling pathways, we identify MEK as a pro-apoptotic mediator, and the erbB-regulated factor STAT3 as an anti-apoptotic mediator during satellite cell activation. These results implicate erbB2 signalling in the preservation of a full compliment of satellite cells as they activate in the context of a damaged muscle.

  2. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body γ-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10 mGy/day; moderate, 50 mGy/day; high, 250 mGy/day) for 30 days. No hormetic responses in proliferation, differentiation, or self-renewal of satellite cells were observed in low-dose radiation-exposed mice at the acute phase. However, at the chronic phase, population expansion of satellite cell-derived progeny was slightly decreased in mice exposed to low-dose radiation. Taken together, low-dose ionizing irradiation may suppress satellite cell function, rather than induce hormetic health benefits, in skeletal muscle in adult mice. PMID:25869487

  3. Crosstalk of mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages promotes cardiac muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Guoru; Wang, Yaling; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yang; An, Yu; Li, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has potential therapeutic effects on cardiac muscle repair. However, the underlying mechanism remains not completely clarified. Here we show that transplantation of MSCs significantly increased local recruitment of macrophages to facilitate cardiac muscle repair. MSCs-induced recovery of cardiac function and attenuation of fibrosis after injury were all abolished by either impaired macrophage infiltration, or by MSCs depletion after macrophage recruitment. However, angiogenesis seemed to be only affected by depletion of macrophages, but not by depletion of MSCs, suggesting that macrophages are responsible for the augmented angiogenesis after MSCs transplantation, while MSCs do not directly contribute to angiogenesis in the functional cardiac repair. Moreover, high level of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) was detected in macrophages and high level of BMP7 was detected in MSCs, suggesting that MSCs not only may recruit macrophages to enhance angiogenesis to promote regeneration, but also may secrete BMP7 to contradict the fibrogenic effect of TGFβ1 by macrophages. Our study thus sheds new insight on the interaction of MSCs and macrophages in a functional cardiac repair triggered by MSCs transplantation.

  4. High efficiency of muscle regeneration after human myoblast clone transplantation in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Huard, J; Verreault, S; Roy, R; Tremblay, M; Tremblay, J P

    1994-01-01

    SCID mouse tibialis anterior muscles were first irradiated to prevent regeneration by host myoblasts and injected with notexin to damage the muscle fibers and trigger regeneration. The muscles were then injected with roughly 5 million human myoblasts. 1 mo later, 16-33% of the normal number of muscle fibers were present in the injected muscle, because of incomplete regeneration. However, > 90% of these muscle fibers contained human dystrophin. Some newly formed muscle fibers had an accumulation of human dystrophin and desmin on a part of their membrane. Such accumulations have been demonstrated at neuromuscular junctions before suggesting that the new muscle fibers are innervated and functional. The same pool of clones of human myoblasts produced only < or = 4% of muscle fibers containing human dystrophin when injected in nude mice muscles. Several of the human myoblasts did not fuse and remained in interstitial space or tightly associated with muscle fibers suggesting that some of them have formed satellite cells. Moreover, cultures of 98% pure human myoblasts were obtained from transplanted SCID muscles. In some mice where the muscle regeneration was not complete, the muscle fibers containing human dystrophin also expressed uniformly HLA class 1, confirming that the fibers are of human origin. The presence of hybrid muscle fibers containing human dystrophin and mouse MHC was also demonstrated following transplantation. These results establish that in absence of an immune reaction, transplanted human myoblasts participate to the muscle regeneration with a high degree of efficacy even if the animals were killed only 1 mo after the transplantation. Images PMID:8113396

  5. Cancer stem cells in human gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriya, Chiharu; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Saitoh, Anri; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Imai, Kohzoh

    2016-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the main causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignancies and still the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Because gastrointestinal CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel cancer treatment is imperative. The first reported CSCs in a gastrointestinal tumor were found in colorectal cancer in 2007. Subsequently, CSCs were reported in other gastrointestinal cancers, such as esophagus, stomach, liver, and pancreas. Specific phenotypes could be used to distinguish CSCs from non-CSCs. For example, gastrointestinal CSCs express unique surface markers, exist in a side-population fraction, show high aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, form tumorspheres when cultured in non-adherent conditions, and demonstrate high tumorigenic potential in immunocompromised mice. The signal transduction pathways in gastrointestinal CSCs are similar to those involved in normal embryonic development. Moreover, CSCs are modified by the aberrant expression of several microRNAs. Thus, it is very difficult to target gastrointestinal CSCs. This review focuses on the current research on gastrointestinal CSCs and future strategies to abolish the gastrointestinal CSC phenotype.

  6. Identification of Small Molecules Which Induce Skeletal Muscle Differentiation in Embryonic Stem Cells via Activation of the Wnt and Inhibition of Smad2/3 and Sonic Hedgehog Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunwoo; Haller, Corinne; Manneville, Carole; Doll, Thierry; Fruh, Isabelle; Keller, Caroline Gubser; Richards, Shola M; Ibig-Rehm, Yvonne; Patoor, Maude; Goette, Marjo; Bouchez, Laure C; Mueller, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    The multilineage differentiation capacity of mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells offers a testing platform for small molecules that mediate mammalian lineage determination and cellular specialization. Here we report the identification of two small molecules which drives mouse 129 ES cell differentiation to skeletal muscle with high efficiency without any genetic modification. Mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) were used to screen a library of 1,000 small molecules to identify compounds capable of inducing high levels of Pax3 mRNA. Stimulation of EBs with SMIs (skeletal muscle inducer, SMI1 and SMI2) from the screen resulted in a high percentage of intensively twitching skeletal muscle fibers 3 weeks after induction. Gene expression profiling studies that were carried out for mode of actions analysis showed that SMIs activated genes regulated by the Wnt pathway and inhibited expression of Smad2/3 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) target genes. A combination of three small molecules known to modulate these three pathways acted similarly to the SMIs found here, driving ES cells from 129 as well as Balb/c and C57Bl/6 to skeletal muscle. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the SMI drives ES cells to skeletal muscle via concerted activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of Smad2/3 signaling and Shh pathways. This provides important developmental biological information about skeletal muscle differentiation from embryonic stem cells and may lead to the development of new therapeutics for muscle disease.

  7. Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miller; Miller, Matthew L; McHenry, Lauren K; Zheng, Tina; Zhen, Qiqi; Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin; Conklin, Bruce R; Bronner, Marianne E; Weiss, William A

    2016-01-27

    Neural crest cells (NCC) are stem cells that generate different lineages, including neuroendocrine, melanocytic, cartilage, and bone. The differentiation potential of NCC varies according to the level from which cells emerge along the neural tube. For example, only anterior "cranial" NCC form craniofacial bone, whereas solely posterior "trunk" NCC contribute to sympathoadrenal cells. Importantly, the isolation of human fetal NCC carries ethical and scientific challenges, as NCC induction typically occur before pregnancy is detectable. As a result, current knowledge of NCC biology derives primarily from non-human organisms. Important differences between human and non-human NCC, such as expression of HNK1 in human but not mouse NCC, suggest a need to study human NCC directly. Here, we demonstrate that current protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (PSC) to NCC are biased toward cranial NCC. Addition of retinoic acid drove trunk-related markers and HOX genes characteristic of a posterior identity. Subsequent treatment with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) enhanced differentiation to sympathoadrenal cells. Our approach provides methodology for detailed studies of human NCC, and clarifies roles for retinoids and BMPs in the differentiation of human PSC to trunk NCC and to sympathoadrenal lineages.

  8. Experimental neck muscle pain impairs standing balance in humans.

    PubMed

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Impaired postural control has been reported in patients with chronic neck pain of both traumatic and non-traumatic etiologies, but whether painful stimulation of neck muscle per se can affect balance control during quiet standing in humans remains unclear. The purpose of the present experiment was thus to investigate the effect of experimental neck muscle pain on standing balance in young healthy adults. To achieve this goal, 16 male university students were asked to stand upright as still as possible on a force platform with their eyes closed in two conditions of No pain and Pain of the neck muscles elicited by experimental painful electrical stimulation. Postural control and postural performance were assessed by the displacements of the center of foot pressure (CoP) and of the center of mass (CoM), respectively. The results showed increased CoP and CoM displacements variance, range, mean velocity, and mean and median frequencies in the Pain relative to the No pain condition. The present findings emphasize the destabilizing effect of experimental neck muscle pain per se, and more largely stress the importance of intact neck neuromuscular function on standing balance.

  9. Human induced pluripotent stem cells: A disruptive innovation.

    PubMed

    De Vos, J; Bouckenheimer, J; Sansac, C; Lemaître, J-M; Assou, S

    2016-01-01

    This year (2016) will mark the 10th anniversary of the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The finding that the transient expression of four transcription factors can radically remodel the epigenome, transcriptome and metabolome of differentiated cells and reprogram them into pluripotent stem cells has been a major and groundbreaking technological innovation. In this review, we discuss the major applications of this technology that we have grouped in nine categories: a model to study cell fate control; a model to study pluripotency; a model to study human development; a model to study human tissue and organ physiology; a model to study genetic diseases in a dish; a tool for cell rejuvenation; a source of cells for drug screening; a source of cells for regenerative medicine; a tool for the production of human organs in animals.

  10. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  11. ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1) controls proliferation and myogenic differentiation of muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Figeac, Nicolas; Serralbo, Olivier; Marcelle, Christophe; Zammit, Peter S

    2014-02-01

    Satellite cells are resident stem cells of skeletal muscle, supplying myoblasts for post-natal muscle growth, hypertrophy and repair. Many regulatory networks control satellite cell function, which includes EGF signalling via the ErbB family of receptors. Here we investigated the role of ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1) in regulation of myogenic stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Ebp1 is a well-conserved DNA/RNA binding protein that is implicated in cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation in many cell types. Of the two main Ebp1 isoforms, only p48 was expressed in satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts. Although not present in quiescent satellite cells, p48 was strongly induced during activation, remaining at high levels during proliferation and differentiation. While retroviral-mediated over-expression of Ebp1 had only minor effects, siRNA-mediated Ebp1 knockdown inhibited both proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts, with a clear failure of myotube formation. Ebp1-knockdown significantly reduced ErbB3 receptor levels, yet over-expression of ErbB3 in Ebp1 knockdown cells did not rescue differentiation. Ebp1 was also expressed by muscle cells during developmental myogenesis in mouse. Since Ebp1 is well-conserved between mouse and chick, we switched to chick to examine its role in muscle formation. In chick embryo, Ebp1 was expressed in the dermomyotome, and myogenic differentiation of muscle progenitors was inhibited by specific Ebp1 down-regulation using shRNA electroporation. These observations demonstrate a conserved function of Ebp1 in the regulation of embryonic muscle progenitors and adult muscle stem cells, which likely operates independently of ErbB3 signaling.

  12. Biobanking human embryonic stem cell lines: policy, ethics and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy discussions relating to their establishment or maintenance. It is argued (1) that 'ethical arguments' are often more important in the establishment phase and 'efficiency arguments' more important in the maintenance phase, and (2) that arguments relating to the interests of embryo and gamete donors are curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse. This to some extent artificially isolates this discourse from the broader discussions about the flows of reproductive materials and tissues in modern society, and such isolation may lead to the interests of important actors being ignored in the policy making process.

  13. Measurement of human embryonic stem cell in the growing cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zhao, L.; Oh, Steve K. W.; Chong, W. K.; Ong, J. K.; Chen, Allen K.; Choo, Andre B. H.

    2008-09-01

    A measurement and imaging system has been developed for in-line continuous measurement of live, unmodified, human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The measurement will not affect cell growth, structure, sterility and suitability for clinical use. The stem cell imaging system (SCIS) can be used to support the optimization of automated stem cell growth for invitro study and for high-volume bio-manufacture. This paper present the experimental and analysis for the optimization of system parameters. A non-linear lighting is developed to obtain a clear images. The individual cluster can be traced from day one to day two. The whole system is calibrated with measurement microscope and haemacytometer. The measurement accuracy is better than 90%.

  14. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio . E-mail: ccd29400@nyc.odn.ne.jp; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-08-31

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche.

  15. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Julie M; Thompson, Timothy; Geskin, Albert; LaFramboise, William; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  16. Muscle-derived stem/progenitor cell dysfunction limits healthspan and lifespan in a murine progeria model.

    PubMed

    Lavasani, Mitra; Robinson, Andria R; Lu, Aiping; Song, Minjung; Feduska, Joseph M; Ahani, Bahar; Tilstra, Jeremy S; Feldman, Chelsea H; Robbins, Paul D; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Huard, Johnny

    2012-01-03

    With ageing, there is a loss of adult stem cell function. However, there is no direct evidence that this has a causal role in ageing-related decline. We tested this using muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells (MDSPCs) in a murine progeria model. Here we show that MDSPCs from old and progeroid mice are defective in proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Intraperitoneal administration of MDSPCs, isolated from young wild-type mice, to progeroid mice confer significant lifespan and healthspan extension. The transplanted MDSPCs improve degenerative changes and vascularization in tissues where donor cells are not detected, suggesting that their therapeutic effect may be mediated by secreted factor(s). Indeed, young wild-type-MDSPCs rescue proliferation and differentiation defects of aged MDSPCs when co-cultured. These results establish that adult stem/progenitor cell dysfunction contributes to ageing-related degeneration and suggests a therapeutic potential of post-natal stem cells to extend health.

  17. Dragons, Ladybugs, and Softballs: Girls' STEM Engagement with Human-Centered Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomoll, Andrea; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Šabanovic, Selma; Francisco, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Early experiences in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are important for getting youth interested in STEM fields, particularly for girls. Here, we explore how an after-school robotics club can provide informal STEM experiences that inspire students to engage with STEM in the future. Human-centered robotics, with its emphasis on the…

  18. Characterisation of human soft palate muscles with respect to fibre types, myosins and capillary supply

    PubMed Central

    STÅL, PER S.; LINDMAN, ROLF

    2000-01-01

    Four human soft palate muscles, and palatopharyngeus, the uvula, the levator and tensor veli palatini were examined using enzyme-histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods and compared with human limb and facial muscles. Our results showed that each palate muscle had a distinct morphological identity and that they generally shared more similarities with facial than limb muscles. The palatopharyngeus and uvula muscles contained 2 of the highest proportions of type II fibres ever reported for human muscles. In contrast, the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles contained predominantly type I fibres. A fetal myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC), not usually found in normal adult limb muscles, was present in a small number of fibres in all palate muscles. The mean muscle fibre diameter was smaller than in limb muscles and the individual and intramuscular variability in diameter and shape was considerable. All palate muscles had a high capillary density and an unusually high mitochondrial enzyme activity in the type II fibres, in comparison with limb muscles. No ordinary muscle spindles were observed. The fibre type and MyHC composition indicate that the palatopharyngeus and uvula muscles are functionally involved in quick movements whereas the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles perform slower and more continuous contractions. The high aerobic capacity and the rich capillarisation suggest that the palate muscles are relatively fatigue resistant. Absence of ordinary muscle spindles indicates a special proprioceptive control system. The special morphology of the palate muscles may be partly related to the unique anatomy with only one skeletal insertion, a feature consistent with muscle work at low load and tension and which may influence the cytoarchitecture of these muscles. Other important factors determining the special morphological characteristics might be specific functional requirements, distinct embryological origin and phylogenetic factors

  19. Integrating human stem cell expansion and neuronal differentiation in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Costa, Eunice M; Sousa, Marcos FQ; Alves, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    Background Human stem cells are cellular resources with outstanding potential for cell therapy. However, for the fulfillment of this application, major challenges remain to be met. Of paramount importance is the development of robust systems for in vitro stem cell expansion and differentiation. In this work, we successfully developed an efficient scalable bioprocess for the fast production of human neurons. Results The expansion of undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NTera2/cl.D1 cell line) as 3D-aggregates was firstly optimized in spinner vessel. The media exchange operation mode with an inoculum concentration of 4 × 105 cell/mL was the most efficient strategy tested, with a 4.6-fold increase in cell concentration achieved in 5 days. These results were validated in a bioreactor where similar profile and metabolic performance were obtained. Furthermore, characterization of the expanded population by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that NT2 cells maintained their stem cell characteristics along the bioreactor culture time. Finally, the neuronal differentiation step was integrated in the bioreactor process, by addition of retinoic acid when cells were in the middle of the exponential phase. Neurosphere composition was monitored and neuronal differentiation efficiency evaluated along the culture time. The results show that, for bioreactor cultures, we were able to increase significantly the neuronal differentiation efficiency by 10-fold while reducing drastically, by 30%, the time required for the differentiation process. Conclusion The culture systems developed herein are robust and represent one-step-forward towards the development of integrated bioprocesses, bridging stem cell expansion and differentiation in fully controlled bioreactors. PMID:19772662

  20. Metabolic heterogeneity in human calf muscle during maximal exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenborne, K. Free Univ. of Brussels ); McCully, K.; Kakihira, H.; Prammer. M.; Bolinger, L.; Detre, J.A.; Walter, G.; Chance, B.; Leigh. J.S. ); De Meirleir, K. )

    1991-07-01

    Human skeletal muscle is composed of various muscle fiber types. The authors hypothesized that differences in metabolism between fiber types could be detected noninvasively with {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during maximal exercise. This assumes that during maximal exercise all fiber types are recruited and all vary in the amount of acidosis. The calf muscles of seven subjects were studied. Two different coils were applied: an 11-cm-diameter surface coil and a five-segment meander coil. The meander coil was used to localize the {sup 31}P signal to either the medial or the lateral gastrocnemius. Maximal exercise, consisting of rapid plantar flexions, resulted in an 83.7% {plus minus} 7.8% decrease of the phosphocreatine pool and an 8-fold increase of the inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) pool. At rest the P{sub i} pool was observed as a single resonance (pH 7.0). Toward the end of the first minute of exercise, three subjects showed three distinct P{sub i} peaks. During the second minute of exercise the pH values stabilized. The same pattern was seen when the signal was collected from the medial or lateral gastrocnemius. In four subjects only two distinct P{sub i} peaks were observed. The P{sub i} peaks had differing relative areas in different subjects, but they were reproducible in each individual. This method allowed is to study the appearance and disappearance of the different P{sub i} peaks, together with the changes in pH. Because multiple P{sub i} peaks were seen in single muscles they most likely identify different muscle fiber types.

  1. Exercise-induced histone modifications in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McGee, Sean L; Fairlie, Erin; Garnham, Andrew P; Hargreaves, Mark

    2009-12-15

    Skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise confer many of the health benefits of physical activity and occur partly through alterations in skeletal muscle gene expression. The exact mechanisms mediating altered skeletal muscle gene expression in response to exercise are unknown. However, in recent years, chromatin remodelling through epigenetic histone modifications has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism controlling gene expression in general. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise on global histone modifications that mediate chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activation in human skeletal muscle in response to exercise. In addition, we sought to examine the signalling mechanisms regulating these processes. Following 60 min of cycling, global histone 3 acetylation at lysine 9 and 14, a modification associated with transcriptional initiation, was unchanged from basal levels, but was increased at lysine 36, a site associated with transcriptional elongation. We examined the regulation of the class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are enzymes that suppress histone acetylation and have been implicated in the adaptations to exercise. While we found no evidence of proteasomal degradation of the class IIa HDACs, we found that HDAC4 and 5 were exported from the nucleus during exercise, thereby removing their transcriptional repressive function. We also observed activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in response to exercise, which are two kinases that induce phosphorylation-dependent class IIa HDAC nuclear export. These data delineate a signalling pathway that might mediate skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise.

  2. Radiofrequency energy loop primes cardiac, neuronal, and skeletal muscle differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells: a new tool for improving tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Margherita; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Santaniello, Sara; Castagna, Alessandro; Pigliaru, Gianfranco; Gualini, Sara; Fontani, Vania; Ventura, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves from Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) technologies have become ubiquitous, with Internet access spreading into homes, and public areas. The human body harbors multipotent stem cells with various grading of potentiality. Whether stem cells may be affected by Wi-Fi RF energy remains unknown. We exposed mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to a Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), an innovative device delivering Wi-Fi RF of 2.4 GHz with its conveyer electrodes immersed into the culture medium. Cell responses were investigated by real-time PCR, Western blot, and confocal microscopy. Single RF burst duration, radiated power, electric and magnetic fields, specific absorption rate, and current density in culture medium were monitored. REAC stimulation primed transcription of genes involved in cardiac (GATA4, Nkx-2.5, and prodynorphin), skeletal muscle (myoD) and neuronal (neurogenin1) commitment, while downregulating the self renewal/pluripotency-associated genes Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog. REAC exposure enhanced the expression of cardiac, skeletal, and neuronal lineage-restricted marker proteins. The number of spontaneously beating ES-derived myocardial cells was also increased. In conclusion, REAC stimulation provided a "physical milieu" optimizing stem cell expression of pluripotentiality and the attainment of three major target lineages for regenerative medicine, without using chemical agonists or vector-mediated gene delivery.

  3. Xeno-free culture of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Rosita; Ström, Susanne; Holm, Frida; Feki, Anis; Hovatta, Outi

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell culture systems that rely on undefined animal-derived components introduce variability to the cultures and complicate their therapeutic use. The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the development of methods to produce induced pluripotent stem cells combined with their potential to treat human diseases have accelerated the drive to develop xenogenic-free, chemically defined culture systems that support pluripotent self-renewal and directed differentiation. In this chapter, we describe four xeno-free culture systems that have been successful in supporting undifferentiated growth of hPSCs as well as methods for xeno-free subculture and cryopreservation of hPSCs. Each culture system consists of a xeno-free growth medium and xeno-free substratum: (1) TeSR2™ with human recombinant laminin (LN-511); (2) NutriStem™ with LN-511; (3) RegES™ with human foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs); (4) KO-SR Xeno-Free™/GF cocktail with CELLstart™ matrix.

  4. Identification of a candidate stem cell in human gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Rohan; Li, Yaming; Fohrer, Helene; Guzik, Lynda; Stolz, Donna Beer; Chandran, Uma R.; LaFramboise, William A.; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no reports of the identification of stem cells in the human gallbladder. The differences between human gallbladder and intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) cells have also not been explored. The goals of this study were to evaluate if human fetal gallbladder contains a candidate stem cell population and if fetal gallbladder cells are distinct from fetal IHBD cells. We found that EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ cells represent the cell population most enriched for clonal self-renewal from primary gallbladder. Primary EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ cells gave rise to EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ and EpCAM+CD44+CD13− cells in vitro, and gallbladder cells expanded in vitro exhibited short-term engraftment in vivo. Last, we found that CD13, CD227, CD66, CD26 and CD49b were differentially expressed between gallbladder and IHBD cells cultured in vitro indicating clear phenotypic differences between the two cell populations. Microarray analyses of expanded cultures confirmed that both cell types have unique transcriptional profiles with predicted functional differences in lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and drug metabolism. In conclusion, we have isolated a distinct clonogenic population of epithelial cells from primary human fetal gallbladder with stem cell characteristics and found it to be unique compared to IHBD cells. PMID:25765520

  5. Differentiation of isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ji-Ming; Duan, Hong-Tao; Kong, Jia-Hui; Wang, Yue-Xin; Dong, Meng; Bi, Xue; Song, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether umbilical cord human mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro. METHODS The umbilical cords were obtained from pregnant women with their written consent and the approval of the Clinic Ethnics Committee. UC-MSC were isolated by adherent culture in the medium contains 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), then they were maintained in the medium contain 10% FBS and induced to neural cells in neural differentiation medium. We investigated whether UC-MSC was able to differentiate into neural stem cell and neuron in vitro by using flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence (IF) analyzes. RESULTS A substantial number of UC-MSC was harvested using the tissue explants adherent method at about 2wk. Flow cytometric study revealed that these cells expressed common markers of MSCs, such as CD105 (SH2), CD73 (SH3) and CD90. After induction of differentiation of neural stem cells, the cells began to form clusters; RT-PCR and IF showed that the neuron specific enolase (NSE) and neurogenic differentiation 1-positive cells reached 87.3%±14.7% and 72.6%±11.8%, respectively. Cells showed neuronal cell differentiation after induced, including neuron-like protrusions, plump cell body, obviously and stronger refraction. RT-PCR and IF analysis showed that microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and nuclear factor-M-positive cells reached 43.1%±10.3% and 69.4%±19.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION Human umbilical cord derived MSCs can be cultured and proliferated in vitro and differentiate into neural stem cells, which may be a valuable source for cell therapy of neurodegenerative eye diseases. PMID:26949608

  6. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Gojo, Satoshi; Mazda, Osam

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► iPS-derived cells express myostatin and its receptor upon myoblast differentiation. ► Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by inhibiting MyoD and Myo5a induction. ► Silencing of myostatin promotes differentiation of human iPS cells into myoblasts. -- Abstract: Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases.

  7. Muscle Cramps and Neuropathies in Patients with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Peter D.; Wolff, Daniel; Grauer, Oliver; Angstwurm, Klemens; Jarius, Sven; Wandinger, Klaus P.; Holler, Ernst; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm; Kleiter, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an immune-mediated multisystemic disorder and the leading cause of morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Peripheral nervous system manifestations of GVHD are rare but often disabling. Whereas immune-mediated neuropathies are an established feature of GVHD, muscle cramps are not well characterized. Methods In a single-centre retrospective cohort we studied 27 patients (age 23 to 69 years) with GVHD (acute n = 6, chronic n = 21) who complained of symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system complications. Clinical, laboratory and neurophysiological findings were evaluated by descriptive statistics and regression analysis to detect factors associated with muscle cramps. Patient’s sera were examined for anti-neuronal antibodies. Results Nine patients had polyneuropathy, 4 had muscle cramps, and 14 had both. Median onset of polyneuropathy and muscle cramps was 6 and 9 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. Neurophysiology revealed a predominantly axonal polyneuropathy in 20 of 26 patients. In 4 of 19 patients electromyography showed signs of myopathy or myositis. Muscle cramps were more frequent during chronic than acute GVHD and affected muscles other than calves in 15 of 18 patients. They typically occurred daily, lasted 1 to 10 minutes with medium to severe pain intensity, compromised daily activity or sleep in 12, and were refractory to therapy in 4 patients. Muscle cramps were less likely with tacrolimus treatment and signs of severe polyneuropathy, but more likely with myopathic changes in electromyography and with incipient demyelinating polyneuropathy, shown by increased high frequency attenuation of the tibial nerve. Serological studies revealed antinuclear or antimitochondrial antibodies in a subset of patients. Two of 16 patients had a serum reactivity against peripheral nervous tissue. Conclusion Muscle cramps are associated with

  8. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in the Human Fetal Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Metsuyanim, Sally; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Buzhor, Ella; Omer, Dorit; Pode-Shakked, Naomi; Ben-Hur, Herzl; Halperin, Reuvit; Schneider, David; Dekel, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    In the human fetal kidney (HFK) self-renewing stem cells residing in the metanephric mesenchyme (MM)/blastema are induced to form all cell types of the nephron till 34th week of gestation. Definition of useful markers is crucial for the identification of HFK stem cells. Because wilms' tumor, a pediatric renal cancer, initiates from retention of renal stem cells, we hypothesized that surface antigens previously up-regulated in microarrays of both HFK and blastema-enriched stem-like wilms' tumor xenografts (NCAM, ACVRIIB, DLK1/PREF, GPR39, FZD7, FZD2, NTRK2) are likely to be relevant markers. Comprehensive profiling of these putative and of additional stem cell markers (CD34, CD133, c-Kit, CD90, CD105, CD24) in mid-gestation HFK was performed using immunostaining and FACS in conjunction with EpCAM, an epithelial surface marker that is absent from the MM and increases along nephron differentiation and hence can be separated into negative, dim or bright fractions. No marker was specifically localized to the MM. Nevertheless, FZD7 and NTRK2 were preferentially localized to the MM and emerging tubules (<10% of HFK cells) and were mostly present within the EpCAMneg and EpCAMdim fractions, indicating putative stem/progenitor markers. In contrast, single markers such as CD24 and CD133 as well as double-positive CD24+CD133+ cells comprise >50% of HFK cells and predominantly co-express EpCAMbright, indicating they are mostly markers of differentiation. Furthermore, localization of NCAM exclusively in the MM and in its nephron progenitor derivatives but also in stroma and the expression pattern of significantly elevated renal stem/progenitor genes Six2, Wt1, Cited1, and Sall1 in NCAM+EpCAM- and to a lesser extent in NCAM+EpCAM+ fractions confirmed regional identity of cells and assisted us in pinpointing the presence of subpopulations that are putative MM-derived progenitor cells (NCAM+EpCAM+FZD7+), MM stem cells (NCAM+EpCAM-FZD7+) or both (NCAM+FZD7+). These results and

  9. A Novel Human Tissue-Engineered 3-D Functional Vascularized Cardiac Muscle Construct

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, Mani T.; Fuseler, John W.; Davis, Jeffrey M.; Price, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Organ tissue engineering, including cardiovascular tissues, has been an area of intense investigation. The major challenge to these approaches has been the inability to vascularize and perfuse the in vitro engineered tissue constructs. Attempts to provide oxygen and nutrients to the cells contained in the biomaterial constructs have had varying degrees of success. The aim of this current study is to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) model of vascularized cardiac tissue to examine the concurrent temporal and spatial regulation of cardiomyogenesis in the context of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis during stem cell cardiac regeneration. In order to achieve the above aim, we have developed an in vitro 3-D functional vascularized cardiac muscle construct using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived embryonic cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-ECMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). First, to generate the prevascularized scaffold, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (hCMVECs) and hMSCs were co-cultured onto a 3-D collagen cell carrier (CCC) for 7 days under vasculogenic culture conditions. In this milieu, hCMVECs/hMSCs underwent maturation, differentiation, and morphogenesis characteristic of microvessels, and formed extensive plexuses of vascular networks. Next, the hiPSC-ECMs and hMSCs were co-cultured onto this generated prevascularized CCCs for further 7 or 14 days in myogenic culture conditions. Finally, the vascular and cardiac phenotypic inductions were analyzed at the morphological, immunological, biochemical, molecular, and functional levels. Expression and functional analyses of the differentiated cells revealed neo-angiogenesis and neo-cardiomyogenesis. Thus, our unique 3-D co-culture system provided us the apt in vitro functional vascularized 3-D cardiac patch that can be utilized for cellular cardiomyoplasty. PMID:28194397

  10. A Novel Human Tissue-Engineered 3-D Functional Vascularized Cardiac Muscle Construct.

    PubMed

    Valarmathi, Mani T; Fuseler, John W; Davis, Jeffrey M; Price, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Organ tissue engineering, including cardiovascular tissues, has been an area of intense investigation. The major challenge to these approaches has been the inability to vascularize and perfuse the in vitro engineered tissue constructs. Attempts to provide oxygen and nutrients to the cells contained in the biomaterial constructs have had varying degrees of success. The aim of this current study is to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) model of vascularized cardiac tissue to examine the concurrent temporal and spatial regulation of cardiomyogenesis in the context of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis during stem cell cardiac regeneration. In order to achieve the above aim, we have developed an in vitro 3-D functional vascularized cardiac muscle construct using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived embryonic cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-ECMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). First, to generate the prevascularized scaffold, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (hCMVECs) and hMSCs were co-cultured onto a 3-D collagen cell carrier (CCC) for 7 days under vasculogenic culture conditions. In this milieu, hCMVECs/hMSCs underwent maturation, differentiation, and morphogenesis characteristic of microvessels, and formed extensive plexuses of vascular networks. Next, the hiPSC-ECMs and hMSCs were co-cultured onto this generated prevascularized CCCs for further 7 or 14 days in myogenic culture conditions. Finally, the vascular and cardiac phenotypic inductions were analyzed at the morphological, immunological, biochemical, molecular, and functional levels. Expression and functional analyses of the differentiated cells revealed neo-angiogenesis and neo-cardiomyogenesis. Thus, our unique 3-D co-culture system provided us the apt in vitro functional vascularized 3-D cardiac patch that can be utilized for cellular cardiomyoplasty.

  11. Skeletal muscle vasodilation during systemic hypoxia in humans.

    PubMed

    Dinenno, Frank A

    2016-01-15

    In humans, the net effect of acute systemic hypoxia in quiescent skeletal muscle is vasodilation despite significant reflex increases in muscle sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve activity. This vasodilation increases tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery to maintain tissue oxygen consumption. Although several mechanisms may be involved, we recently tested the roles of two endothelial-derived substances during conditions of sympathoadrenal blockade to isolate local vascular control mechanisms: nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs). Our findings indicate that 1) NO normally plays a role in regulating vascular tone during hypoxia independent of the PG pathway; 2) PGs do not normally contribute to vascular tone during hypoxia, however, they do affect vascular tone when NO is inhibited; 3) NO and PGs are not independently obligatory to observe hypoxic vasodilation when assessed as a response from rest to steady-state hypoxia; and 4) combined NO and PG inhibition abolishes hypoxic vasodilation in human skeletal muscle. When the stimulus is exacerbated via combined submaximal rhythmic exercise and systemic hypoxia to cause further red blood cell (RBC) deoxygenation, skeletal muscle blood flow is augmented compared with normoxic exercise via local dilator mechanisms to maintain oxygen delivery to active tissue. Data obtained in a follow-up study indicate that combined NO and PG inhibition during hypoxic exercise blunts augmented vasodilation and hyperemia compared with control (normoxic) conditions by ∼50%; however, in contrast to hypoxia alone, the response is not abolished, suggesting that other local substances are involved. Factors associated with greater RBC deoxygenation such as ATP release, or nitrite reduction to NO, or both likely play a role in regulating this response.

  12. Fast-muscle-specific expression of human aldolase A transgenes.

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, M; Maire, P; Concordet, J P; Moch, C; Porteu, A; Kahn, A; Daegelen, D

    1994-01-01

    The expression of the human aldolase A gene is controlled by three alternative promoters. In transgenic mice, pN and pH are active in all tissues whereas pM is activated specifically in adult muscles composed mainly of fast, glycolytic fibers. To detect potential regulatory regions involved in the fast-muscle-specific activation of pM, we analyzed DNase I hypersensitivity in a 4.3-kbp fragment from the 5' end of the human aldolase A gene. Five hypersensitive sites were located near the transcription initiation site of each promoter in those transgenic-mouse tissues in which the corresponding promoter was active. Only one muscle-specific hypersensitive site was detected, mapping near pM. To functionally delimit the elements required for muscle-specific activity of pM, we performed a deletion analysis of the aldolase A 5' region in transgenic mice. Our results show that a 280-bp fragment containing 235 bp of pM proximal upstream sequences together with the noncoding M exon is sufficient for tissue-specific expression of pM. When a putative MEF-2-binding site residing in this proximal pM region is mutated, pM is still active and no change in its tissue specificity is detected. Furthermore, we observed a modulation of pM activity by elements lying further upstream and downstream from pM. Interestingly, pM was expressed in a tissue-specific way in all transgenic mice in which the 280-bp region was present (32 lines and six founder animals). This observation led us to suggest that the proximal pM region contains elements that are able to override to some extent the effects of the surrounding chromatin. Images PMID:7935397

  13. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a systematic reappraisal via the genostem experience.

    PubMed

    Charbord, Pierre; Livne, Erella; Gross, Gerhard; Häupl, Thomas; Neves, Nuno M; Marie, Pierre; Bianco, Paolo; Jorgensen, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Genostem (acronym for "Adult mesenchymal stem cells engineering for connective tissue disorders. From the bench to the bed side") has been an European consortium of 30 teams working together on human bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) biological properties and repair capacity. Part of Genostem activity has been dedicated to the study of basic issues on undifferentiated MSCs properties and on signalling pathways leading to the differentiation into 3 of the connective tissue lineages, osteoblastic, chondrocytic and tenocytic. We have evidenced that native bone marrow MSCs and stromal cells, forming the niche of hematopoietic stem cells, were the same cellular entity located abluminally from marrow sinus endothelial cells. We have also shown that culture-amplified, clonogenic and highly-proliferative MSCs were bona fide stem cells, sharing with other stem cell types the major attributes of self-renewal and of multipotential priming to the lineages to which they can differentiate (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells/pericytes). Extensive transcription profiling and in vitro and in vivo assays were applied to identify genes involved in differentiation. Thus we have described novel factors implicated in osteogenesis (FHL2, ITGA5, Fgf18), chondrogenesis (FOXO1A) and tenogenesis (Smad8). Another part of Genostem activity has been devoted to studies of the repair capacity of MSCs in animal models, a prerequisite for future clinical trials. We have developed novel scaffolds (chitosan, pharmacologically active microcarriers) useful for the repair of both bone and cartilage. Finally and most importantly, we have shown that locally implanted MSCs effectively repair bone, cartilage and tendon.

  14. Isolation of pluripotent neural crest-derived stem cells from adult human tissues by connexin-43 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Daniel; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles; Cheung, Herman S

    2013-11-01

    Identification and isolation of pluripotent stem cells in adult tissues represent an important advancement in the fields of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. For several years, research has been performed on the identification of biomarkers that can isolate stem cells residing in neural crest (NC)-derived adult tissues. The NC is considered a good model in stem cell biology as cells from it migrate extensively and contribute to the formation of diverse tissues in the body during organogenesis. Migration of these cells is modulated, in part, by gap junction communication among the cell sheets. Here we present a study in which, selection of connexin 43 (Cx43) expressing cells from human adult periodontal ligament yields a novel pluripotent stem cell population. Cx43⁺ periodontal ligament stem cells express pluripotency-associated transcription factors OCT4, Nanog, and Sox2, as well as NC-specific markers Sox10, p75, and Nestin. When injected in vivo into an immunodeficient mouse model, these cells were capable of generating teratomas with tissues from the three embryological germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Furthermore, the cells formed mature structures of tissues normally arising from the NC during embryogenesis such as eccrine sweat glands of the human skin, muscle, neuronal tissues, cartilage, and bone. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the human origin of the neoplastic cells as well as the ectodermal and endodermal nature of some of the structures found in the tumors. These results suggest that Cx43 may be used as a biomarker to select and isolate the remnant NC pluripotent stem cells from adult human tissues arising from this embryological structure. The isolation of these cells through routine medical procedures such as wisdom teeth extraction further enhances their applicability to the regenerative medicine field.

  15. Counteracting bone fragility with human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ranzoni, Anna M.; Corcelli, Michelangelo; Hau, Kwan-Leong; Kerns, Jemma G.; Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra; Jones, Gemma N.; Moschidou, Dafni; Dala-Ali, Benan; Goodship, Allen E.; De Coppi, Paolo; Arnett, Timothy R.; Guillot, Pascale V.

    2016-01-01

    The impaired maturation of bone-forming osteoblasts results in reduced bone formation and subsequent bone weakening, which leads to a number of conditions such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Transplantation of human fetal mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed as skeletal anabolic therapy to enhance bone formation, but the mechanisms underlying the contribution of the donor cells to bone health are poorly understood and require further elucidation. Here, we show that intraperitoneal injection of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AFSCs) into a mouse model of OI (oim mice) reduced fracture susceptibility, increased bone strength, improved bone quality and micro-architecture, normalised bone remodelling and reduced TNFα and TGFβ sigalling. Donor cells engrafted into bones and differentiated into osteoblasts but importantly, also promoted endogenous osteogenesis and the maturation of resident osteoblasts. Together, these findings identify AFSC transplantation as a countermeasure to bone fragility. These data have wider implications for bone health and fracture reduction. PMID:27995994

  16. Afferent contribution to locomotor muscle activity during unconstrained overground human walking: an analysis of triceps surae muscle fascicles.

    PubMed

    af Klint, R; Cronin, N J; Ishikawa, M; Sinkjaer, T; Grey, M J

    2010-03-01

    Plantar flexor series elasticity can be used to dissociate muscle-fascicle and muscle-tendon behavior and thus afferent feedback during human walking. We used electromyography (EMG) and high-speed ultrasonography concomitantly to monitor muscle activity and muscle fascicle behavior in 19 healthy volunteers as they walked across a platform. On random trials, the platform was dropped (8 cm, 0.9 g acceleration) or held at a small inclination (up to +/-3 degrees in the parasagittal plane) with respect to level ground. Dropping the platform in the mid and late phases of stance produced a depression in the soleus muscle activity with an onset latency of about 50 ms. The reduction in ground reaction force also unloaded the plantar flexor muscles. The soleus muscle fascicles shortened with a minimum delay of 14 ms. Small variations in platform inclination produced significant changes in triceps surae muscle activity; EMG increased when stepping on an inclined surface and decreased when stepping on a declined surface. This sensory modulation of the locomotor output was concomitant with changes in triceps surae muscle fascicle and gastrocnemius tendon length. Assuming that afferent activity correlates to these mechanical changes, our results indicate that within-step sensory feedback from the plantar flexor muscles automatically adjusts muscle activity to compensate for small ground irregularities. The delayed onset of muscle fascicle movement after dropping the platform indicates that at least the initial part of the soleus depression is more likely mediated by a decrease in force feedback than length-sensitive feedback, indicating that force feedback contributes to the locomotor activity in human walking.

  17. Human Skeletal Muscle Disuse Atrophy: Effects on Muscle Protein Synthesis, Breakdown, and Insulin Resistance—A Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Rudrappa, Supreeth S.; Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Smith, Kenneth; Idris, Iskandar; Atherton, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing burden of an aging population and pandemic of metabolic syndrome worldwide demands further understanding of the modifiable risk factors in reducing disability and morbidity associated with these conditions. Disuse skeletal muscle atrophy (sometimes referred to as “simple” atrophy) and insulin resistance are “non-pathological” events resulting from sedentary behavior and periods of enforced immobilization e.g., due to fractures or elective orthopedic surgery. Yet, the processes and drivers regulating disuse atrophy and insulin resistance and the associated molecular events remain unclear—especially in humans. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of relationships between muscle protein turnover, insulin resistance and muscle atrophy during disuse, principally in humans. Immobilization lowers fasted state muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and induces fed-state “anabolic resistance.” While a lack of dynamic measurements of muscle protein breakdown (MPB) precludes defining a definitive role for MPB in disuse atrophy, some proteolytic “marker” studies (e.g., MPB genes) suggest a potential early elevation. Immobilization also induces muscle insulin resistance (IR). Moreover, the trajectory of muscle atrophy appears to be accelerated in persistent IR states (e.g., Type II diabetes), suggesting IR may contribute to muscle disuse atrophy under these conditions. Nonetheless, the role of differences in insulin sensitivity across distinct muscle groups and its effects on rates of atrophy remains unclear. Multifaceted time-course studies into the collective role of insulin resistance and muscle protein turnover in the setting of disuse muscle atrophy, in humans, are needed to facilitate the development of appropriate countermeasures and efficacious rehabilitation protocols. PMID:27610086

  18. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and rat colon smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gómez, A; Martos, F; Bellido, I; Marquez, E; Garcia, A J; Pavia, J; Sanchez de la Cuesta, F

    1992-06-09

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and rat colon smooth muscle homogenates were characterized with [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) by ligand binding studies. [3H]NMS saturation experiments show the existence of a homogeneous population of non-interacting binding sites with similar affinity (KD values of 1.38 +/- 0.20 nM in human colon smooth muscle and 1.48 +/- 0.47 nM in rat colon smooth muscle) and with Hill slopes close to unity in both samples of tissue. However, a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in muscarinic receptor density (Bmax) is found in human colon (29.9 +/- 2.9 fmol/mg protein) compared with rat colon (17.2 +/- 1.5 fmol/mg protein). Inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by non-labelled compounds shows the following order in human colon: atropine greater than AF-DX 116 greater than pirenzepine. Whereas in rat colon the rank order obtained is atropine greater than pirenzepine greater than AF-DX 116. Atropine and pirenzepine bind to a homogeneous population of binding sites, although pirenzepine shows higher affinity to bind to the sites present in rat colon (Ki = 1.08 +/- 0.08 microM) than those in human colon (Ki = 1.74 +/- 0.02 microM) (P less than 0.05). Similarly, IC50 values obtained in AF-DX 116 competition experiments were significantly different (P less than 0.01) in human colon (IC50 = 1.69 +/- 0.37 microM) than in rat colon (IC50 = 3.78 +/- 0.75 microM). Unlike atropine and pirenzepine, the inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by AF-DX 116 did not yield a simple mass-action binding curve (nH less than 1, P less than 0.01) suggesting the presence of more than one subtype of muscarinic receptor in both species. Computer analysis of these curves with a two binding site model suggests the presence of two populations of receptor. The apparent Ki1 value for the high affinity binding site is 0.49 +/- 0.07 microM for human colon smooth muscle and 0.33 +/- 0.05 microM for rat colon smooth muscle. The apparent Ki2 for the low affinity binding site is 8

  19. Directed Induction of Functional Motor Neuron-Like Cells from Genetically Engineered Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hwan-Woo; Cho, Jung-Sun; Park, Chul-Kyu; Jung, Sung Jun; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Shin-Jae; Oh, Seog Bae; Park, Young-Seok; Chang, Mi-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Cell replacement using stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach to treat degenerative motor neuron (MN) disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a desirable cell source for autologous cell replacement therapy to treat nervous system injury due to their plasticity, low immunogenicity, and a lower risk of tumor formation than embryonic stem cells. However, hMSCs are inefficient with regards to differentiating into MN-like cells. To solve this limitation, we genetically engineered hMSCs to express MN-associated transcription factors, Olig2 and Hb9, and then treat the hMSCs expressing Olig2 and Hb9 with optimal MN induction medium (MNIM). This method of induction led to higher expression (>30% of total cells) of MN markers. Electrophysiological data revealed that the induced hMSCs had the excitable properties of neurons and were able to form functional connections with muscle fibers in vitro. Furthermore, when the induced hMSCs were transplanted into an injured organotypic rat spinal cord slice culture, an ex vivo model of spinal cord injury, they exhibited characteristics of MNs. The data strongly suggest that induced Olig2/Hb9-expressing hMSCs were clearly reprogrammed and directed toward a MN-like lineage. We propose that methods to induce Olig2 and Hb9, followed by further induction with MNIM have therapeutic potential for autologous cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative MN disorders. PMID:22496912

  20. Oct4 expression in adult human stem cells: evidence in support of the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tai, Mei-Hui; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kiupel, Matti; Webster, Joshua D; Olson, L Karl; Trosko, James E

    2005-02-01

    The Oct3/4 gene, a POU family transcription factor, has been noted as being specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells and in tumor cells but not in cells of differentiated tissues. With the ability to isolate adult human stem cells it became possible to test for the expression of Oct3/4 gene in adult stem cells and to test the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis. Using antibodies and PCR primers we tested human breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, mesenchyme and gastric stem cells, the cancer cell lines HeLa and MCF-7 and human, dog and rat tumors for Oct4 expression. The results indicate that adult human stem cells, immortalized non-tumorigenic cells and tumor cells and cell lines, but not differentiated cells, express Oct4. Oct4 is expressed in a few cells found in the basal layer of human skin epidermis. The data demonstrate that adult stem cells maintain expression of Oct4, consistent with the stem cell hypothesis of carcinogenesis.

  1. Effect of Reishi polysaccharides on human stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wong, Chi-Huey; Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi

    2010-12-15

    The polysaccharide fraction of Ganoderma lucidum (F3) was found to benefit our health in many ways by influencing the activity of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, F3 was found to promote the adipose tissue MSCs' aggregation and chondrosphere formation, with the increase of CAM (N-CAM, I-CAM) expressions and autokine (BMP-2, IL-11, and aggrecan) secretions, in an in vitro chondrogenesis assay. In a stem cell expansion culture, it possesses the thrombopoietin (TPO) and GM-CSF like functions to enhance the survival/renewal abilities of primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs). F3 was found to promote the dendrite growth of blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the expression of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of immature dendritic cells (DC). On the other hand, F3 exhibited inhibitory effects on blood endothelial progenitor (EPC) colony formation, with concomitant reduction of cell surface endoglin (CD105) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) marker expressions, in the presence of angiogenic factors. A further cytokine array analysis revealed that F3 indeed inhibited the angiogenin synthesis and enhanced IL-1, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES, and GRO productions in the blood EPC derivation culture. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the polysaccharide fraction of G. lucidum F3 exhibits cytokine and chemokine like functions which are beneficial to human tissue stem/progenitor cells by modulating their CAM expressions and biological activities. These findings provide us a better the observation that F3 glycopolysaccharides indeed possesses anti-angiogenic and immune-modulating functions and promotes hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homing for better human tissue protection, reducing disease progression and health.

  2. Preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells treat myasthenia gravis in a humanized preclinical model

    PubMed Central

    Sudres, Muriel; Maurer, Marie; Robinet, Marieke; Bismuth, Jacky; Truffault, Frédérique; Girard, Diane; Dragin, Nadine; Attia, Mohamed; Fadel, Elie; Santelmo, Nicola; Sicsic, Camille; Brenner, Talma

    2017-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) with anti–acetylcholine receptor (AChR) Abs is an autoimmune disease characterized by severe defects in immune regulation and thymic inflammation. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display immunomodulatory features, we investigated whether and how in vitro–preconditioned human MSCs (cMSCs) could treat MG disease. We developed a new humanized preclinical model by subcutaneously grafting thymic MG fragments into immunodeficient NSG mice (NSG-MG model). Ninety percent of the animals displayed human anti-AChR Abs in the serum, and 50% of the animals displayed MG-like symptoms that correlated with the loss of AChR at the muscle endplates. Interestingly, each mouse experiment recapitulated the MG features of each patient. We next demonstrated that cMSCs markedly improved MG, reducing the level of anti-AChR Abs in the serum and restoring AChR expression at the muscle endplate. Resting MSCs had a smaller effect. Finally, we showed that the underlying mechanisms involved (a) the inhibition of cell proliferation, (b) the inhibition of B cell–related and costimulatory molecules, and (c) the activation of the complement regulator DAF/CD55. In conclusion, this study shows that a preconditioning step promotes the therapeutic effects of MSCs via combined mechanisms, making cMSCs a promising strategy for treating MG and potentially other autoimmune diseases.

  3. Generation of folliculogenic human epithelial stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Burrows, Michelle; Liu, Shujing; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Guo, Wei; Kumar, Suresh; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells (EpSCs) in the hair follicle bulge are required for hair follicle growth and cycling. The isolation and propagation of human EpSCs for tissue engineering purposes remains a challenge. Here we develop a strategy to differentiate human iPSCs (hiPSCs) into CD200+/ITGA6+ EpSCs that can reconstitute the epithelial components of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. The hiPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells show a similar gene expression signature as EpSCs directly isolated from human hair follicles. Human iPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells are capable of generating all hair follicle lineages including the hair shaft, and the inner and outer root sheaths in skin reconstitution assays. The regenerated hair follicles possess a KRT15+ stem cell population and produce hair shafts expressing hair-specific keratins. These results suggest an approach for generating large numbers of human EpSCs for tissue engineering and new treatments for hair loss, wound healing and other degenerative skin disorders.

  4. Human spermatagonial stem cells: a novel therapeutic hope for cardiac regeneration and repair?

    PubMed

    Guan, Kaomei; Cheng, I-Fen; Baazm, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Although the identification and characterization of human spermatogonial stem cells was reported nearly 50 years ago, great progress has been made only in the last few years. Spermatogonial stem cells attract a great deal of researchers' attention because of their unique characteristics, including the ability to be converted spontaneously into pluripotent germline stem cells with embryonic stem cell-like properties. Pluripotent stem cells are able to differentiate into any desired cell type in the body; therefore, they are the most promising cell source for organ regeneration. The advantages of pluripotent germline stem cells over other stem cells are that they maintain a high degree of DNA integrity and can resolve some ethical and immunological problems related to human embryonic stem cells. In this article we address the origin, characteristics and pluripotency of spermatogonial stem cells. Their contribution to stem cell-based organ regeneration therapy with special emphasis on cardiac regeneration and repair in the future is also discussed.

  5. [Ethical justification for human stem cell research. The view of the German Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research].

    PubMed

    Siep, L

    2008-09-01

    According to the German Stem Cell Act the Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research (ZES) advices the competent authority (Robert Koch Institute) as to whether an application to import human embryonic stem-cells for research is "ethically justifiable" ("ethisch vertretbar"). The law does indeed specify some conditions of this justification, but without precisely defining them. This article clarifies the committee's understanding of ethically justifiable research. It deals with misunderstandings of the law and problems involved in its application.

  6. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine P.; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y.; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Cook, Anthony L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  7. Severely Atrophic Human Muscle Fibers With Nuclear Misplacement Survive Many Years of Permanent Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Likewise in rodents, after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) the lower motor neuron (LMN) denervated human muscle fibers lose completely the myofibrillar apparatus and the coil distribution of myonuclei that are relocated in groups (nuclear clumps) in the center of severely atrophic muscle fibers. Up to two years of LMN denervation the muscle fibers with nuclear clumps are very seldom, but in this cohort of patients the severely atrophic muscle fibers are frequent in muscle biopsies harvested three to six years after SCI. Indeed, the percentage increased to 27 ± 9% (p< 0.001), and then abruptly decreased from the 6th year onward, when fibrosis takes over to neurogenic muscle atrophy. Immunohistochemical analyses shown that nuclear misplacements occurred in both fast and slow muscle fibers. In conclusion, human muscle fibers survive permanent denervation much longer than generally accepted and relocation of nuclei is a general behavior in long term denervated muscle fibers. PMID:27478559

  8. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT. PMID:27445844

  9. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles.

    PubMed

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on-1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on-3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased "voluntary activation." In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  10. The effects of experimental muscle and skin pain on the static stretch sensitivity of human muscle spindles in relaxed leg muscles

    PubMed Central

    Birznieks, Ingvars; Burton, Alexander R; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that noxious inputs onto γ-motoneurons can cause an increase in the activity of muscle spindles, and it has been proposed that this causes a fusimotor-driven increase in muscle stiffness that is believed to underlie many chronic pain syndromes. To test whether experimental pain also acts on the fusimotor system in humans, unitary recordings were made from 19 spindle afferents (12 Ia, 7 II) located in the ankle and toe extensors or peronei muscles of awake human subjects. Muscle pain was induced by bolus intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml 5% hypertonic saline into tibialis anterior (TA); skin pain was induced by 0.2 ml injection into the overlying skin. Changes in fusimotor drive to the muscle spindles were inferred from changes in the mean discharge frequency and discharge variability of spindle endings in relaxed muscle. During muscle pain no afferents increased their discharge activity: seven afferents (5 Ia, 2 II) showed a decrease and six (4 Ia, 2 II) afferents were not affected. During skin pain of 13 afferents discharge rate increased in one (Ia) and decreased in two (1 Ia, 1 II). On average, the overall discharge rate decreased during muscle pain by 6.1% (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon), but remained essentially the same during skin pain. There was no detectable correlation between subjective pain level and the small change in discharge rate of muscle spindles. Irrespective of the type of pain, discharge variability parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05; Wilcoxon). We conclude that, contrary to the ‘vicious cycle’ hypothesis, acute activation of muscle or skin nociceptors does not cause a reflex increase in fusimotor drive in humans. Rather, our results are more aligned with the pain adaptation model, based on clinical studies predicting pain-induced reductions of agonist muscle activity. PMID:18403422

  11. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    PubMed

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  12. Human embryonic stem cells derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Masahito; Amato, Paula; Sparman, Michelle; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Ma, Hong; Kang, Eunju; Fulati, Alimujiang; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Masterson, Keith; Larson, Janine; Eaton, Deborah; Sadler-Fredd, Karen; Battaglia, David; Lee, David; Wu, Diana; Jensen, Jeffrey; Patton, Phillip; Gokhale, Sumita; Stouffer, Richard L; Wolf, Don; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2013-06-06

    Reprogramming somatic cells into pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been envisioned as an approach for generating patient-matched nuclear transfer (NT)-ESCs for studies of disease mechanisms and for developing specific therapies. Past attempts to produce human NT-ESCs have failed secondary to early embryonic arrest of SCNT embryos. Here, we identified premature exit from meiosis in human oocytes and suboptimal activation as key factors that are responsible for these outcomes. Optimized SCNT approaches designed to circumvent these limitations allowed derivation of human NT-ESCs. When applied to premium quality human oocytes, NT-ESC lines were derived from as few as two oocytes. NT-ESCs displayed normal diploid karyotypes and inherited their nuclear genome exclusively from parental somatic cells. Gene expression and differentiation profiles in human NT-ESCs were similar to embryo-derived ESCs, suggesting efficient reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state.

  13. Developing Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Grafting in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0366 TITLE: Developing human embryonic stem cells ...Mar 04 – 28 Feb 07 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing human embryonic stem cells for grafting in Parkinson’s disease 5a...TERMS Parkinson’s disease, transplantation, embryonic stem cell , neuronal differentiation, dopamine, xenograft, functional recovery 16. SECURITY

  14. Human hTM. cap alpha. gene: Expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, A.R.; Gooding, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from a human skeletal muscle library which contains the complete protein-coding sequence of a skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. This cDNA sequence defines a fourth human tropomyosin gene, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene, which is distinct from the hTM/sub nm/ gene encoding a closely related isoform of skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. In cultured human fibroblasts, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene encodes both skeletal-muscle- and smooth-muscle-type ..cap alpha..-tropomyosins by using an alternative mRNA-splicing mechanism.

  15. Over-expression of HSP47 augments mouse embryonic stem cell smooth muscle differentiation and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mei Mei; Yin, Xiaoke; Potter, Claire; Yu, Baoqi; Cai, Hao; Di Bernardini, Elisabetta; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-01-01

    In the recent decade, embryonic stem cells (ESC) have emerged as an attractive cell source of smooth muscle cells (SMC) for vascular tissue engineering owing to their unlimited self-renewal and differentiation capacities. Despite their promise in therapy, their efficacy is still hampered by the lack of definitive SMC differentiation mechanisms and difficulties in successful trafficking of the ESC towards a site of injury or target tissue. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a 47-kDa molecular chaperone that is required for the maturation of various types of collagen and has been shown to be a critical modulator of different pathological and physiological processes. To date, the role of HSP47 on ESC to SMC differentiation or ESC chemotaxis is not known and may represent a potential molecular approach by which ESC can be manipulated to increase their efficacy in clinic. We provide evidence that HSP47 is highly expressed during ESC differentiation into the SMC lineage and that HSP47 reduction results in an attenuation of the differentiation. Our experiments using a HSP47 plasmid transfection system show that gene over-expression is sufficient to induce ESC-SMC differentiation, even in the absence of exogenous stimuli. Furthermore, HSP47 over-expression in ESC also increases their chemotaxis and migratory responses towards a panel of chemokines, likely via the upregulation of chemokine receptors. Our findings provide direct evidence of induced ESC migration and differentiation into SMC via the over-expression of HSP47, thus identifying a novel approach of molecular manipulation that can potentially be exploited to improve stem cell therapy for vascular repair and regeneration.

  16. Defining the nature of human pluripotent stem cell progeny.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Michaela; Chan, David N; Ha, Iris; Case, Dana; Cui, Yongyan; Van Handel, Ben; Mikkola, Hanna Ka; Lowry, William E

    2012-01-01

    While it is clear that human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can differentiate to generate a panoply of various cell types, it is unknown how closely in vitro development mirrors that which occurs in vivo. To determine whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) make equivalent progeny, and whether either makes cells that are analogous to tissue-derived cells, we performed comprehensive transcriptome profiling of purified PSC derivatives and their tissue-derived counterparts. Expression profiling demonstrated that hESCs and hiPSCs make nearly identical progeny for the neural, hepatic, and mesenchymal lineages, and an absence of re-expression from exogenous reprogramming factors in hiPSC progeny. However, when compared to a tissue-derived counterpart, the progeny of both hESCs and hiPSCs maintained expression of a subset of genes normally associated with early mammalian development, regardless of the type of cell generated. While pluripotent genes (OCT4, SOX2, REX1, and NANOG) appeared to be silenced immediately upon differentiation from hPSCs, genes normally unique to early embryos (LIN28A, LIN28B, DPPA4, and others) were not fully silenced in hPSC derivatives. These data and evidence from expression patterns in early human fetal tissue (3-16 weeks of development) suggest that the differentiated progeny of hPSCs are reflective of very early human development (< 6 weeks). These findings provide support for the idea that hPSCs can serve as useful in vitro models of early human development, but also raise important issues for disease modeling and the clinical application of hPSC derivatives.

  17. Lipid storage changes in human skeletal muscle during detraining

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Wen, Caiyun; Li, Jiance; Harris, M. Brennan; Liu, Yung-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training is known to increase intramuscular triglyceride content in both trained and untrained legs. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) of both trained and untrained legs during detraining. We measured both IMCL and EMCL levels in previously trained vs. untrained legs during 4-weeks of detraining after 6-weeks of strength training. Eight young men (aged 21.4 ± 1.4 years) trained their vastus lateralis muscle in one leg using a dynamometer, whereas the contralateral leg served as untrained control. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), IMCL, EMCL, total creatine (creatine + phophocreatine) of extensor (vastus lateralis) muscles were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectra (1H-MRS) before training, 3 days after and 28 days after the last bout of training. CSA was increased in both legs by Day 3 after training, and was still high at Day 28 post-training; IMCL increased in both legs by Day 3 after training, then decreased at Day 28 post-training only in the untrained leg; EMCL shows no significant change by Day 3 after training, but at Day 28 post-training has increased in the trained leg and decreased in the untrained leg; total creatine did not change significantly. Conclusion: Decreases of IMCL and EMCL storages in previously untrained leg during detraining indicates an ectopic influence on tissue lipid storage by different metabolic demand among tissues in the same human body. PMID:26578981

  18. Transdifferentiation of human endothelial progenitors into smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, HaYeun; Atchison, Leigh; Chen, Zaozao; Chakraborty, Syandan; Jung, Youngmee; Truskey, George A; Christoforou, Nicolas; Leong, Kam W

    2016-04-01

    Access to smooth muscle cells (SMC) would create opportunities for tissue engineering, drug testing, and disease modeling. Herein we report the direct conversion of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) by induced expression of MYOCD. The EPC undergo a cytoskeletal rearrangement resembling that of mesenchymal cells within 3 days post initiation of MYOCD expression. By day 7, the reprogrammed cells show upregulation of smooth muscle markers ACTA2, MYH11, and TAGLN by qRT-PCR and ACTA2 and MYH11 expression by immunofluorescence. By two weeks, they resemble umbilical artery SMC in microarray gene expression analysis. The iSMC, in contrast to EPC control, show calcium transients in response to phenylephrine stimulation and a contractility an order of magnitude higher than that of EPC as determined by traction force microscopy. Tissue-engineered blood vessels constructed using iSMC show functionality with respect to flow- and drug-mediated vasodilation and vasoconstriction.

  19. Generation of Multipotent Foregut Stem Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Nicholas R.F.; Fordham, Robert P.; Syed, Yasir A.; Moignard, Victoria; Berry, Andrew; Bautista, Ruben; Hanley, Neil A.; Jensen, Kim B.; Vallier, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    Summary Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) could provide an infinite source of clinically relevant cells with potential applications in regenerative medicine. However, hPSC lines vary in their capacity to generate specialized cells, and the development of universal protocols for the production of tissue-specific cells remains a major challenge. Here, we have addressed this limitation for the endodermal lineage by developing a defined culture system to expand and differentiate human foregut stem cells (hFSCs) derived from hPSCs. hFSCs can self-renew while maintaining their capacity to differentiate into pancreatic and hepatic cells. Furthermore, near-homogenous populations of hFSCs can be obtained from hPSC lines which are normally refractory to endodermal differentiation. Therefore, hFSCs provide a unique approach to bypass variability between pluripotent lines in order to obtain a sustainable source of multipotent endoderm stem cells for basic studies and to produce a diversity of endodermal derivatives with a clinical value. PMID:24319665

  20. CXCR4 activation promotes differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Hua, Qiuhong; Tang, Kaiyi; Shi, Changjie; Xie, Xin; Zhang, Ru

    2016-11-19

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many fundamental cellular responses such as growth, death, movement, transcription and excitation. Their roles in human stem cell neural specialization are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to identify GPCRs that may play a role in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to neural stem cells (NSCs). Using a feeder-free hESC neural differentiation protocol, we found that the expression of several chemokine receptors changed dramatically during the hESC/NSC transition. Especially, the expression of CXCR4 increased approximately 50 folds in NSCs compared to the original hESCs. CXCR4 agonist SDF-1 promoted, whereas the antagonist AMD3100 delayed the neural induction process. In consistence with antagonizing CXCR4, knockdown of CXCR4 in hESCs also blocked the neural induction and cells with reduced CXCR4 were rarely positive for Nestin and Sox1-staining. Taken together, our results suggest that CXCR4 is involved in the neural induction process of hESC and it might be considered as a target to facilitate NSC production from hESCs in regenerative medicine.

  1. PTEN deficiency reprogrammes human neural stem cells towards a glioblastoma stem cell-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shunlei; Yuan, Guohong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Ren, Ruotong; Li, Jingyi; Zhang, Weizhou; Wu, Jun; Xu, Xiuling; Fu, Lina; Li, Ying; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Weiqi; Bai, Ruijun; Yi, Fei; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Gao, Hua; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Zhang, Chuanbao; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Chen, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaomin; Jiang, Tao; Qu, Jing; Tang, Fuchou; Liu, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in many types of cancers. Here we show that targeted disruption of PTEN leads to neoplastic transformation of human neural stem cells (NSCs), but not mesenchymal stem cells. PTEN-deficient NSCs display neoplasm-associated metabolic and gene expression profiles and generate intracranial tumours in immunodeficient mice. PTEN is localized to the nucleus in NSCs, binds to the PAX7 promoter through association with cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB)/CREB binding protein (CBP) and inhibits PAX7 transcription. PTEN deficiency leads to the upregulation of PAX7, which in turn promotes oncogenic transformation of NSCs and instates ‘aggressiveness' in human glioblastoma stem cells. In a large clinical database, we find increased PAX7 levels in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. Furthermore, we identify that mitomycin C selectively triggers apoptosis in NSCs with PTEN deficiency. Together, we uncover a potential mechanism of how PTEN safeguards NSCs, and establish a cellular platform to identify factors involved in NSC transformation, potentially permitting personalized treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26632666

  2. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial stem cells on bioengineered matrices for corneal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Alexandra; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Ratnayake, Anjula; Petrovski, Goran; Uusitalo, Hannu; Skottman, Heli; Rafat, Mehrdad

    2016-05-01

    Corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs), a type of tissue-specific stem cells located in the limbal palisades of Vogt at the corneo-scleral junction. Acute trauma or inflammatory disorders of the ocular surface can destroy these stem cells, leading to limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) - a painful and vision-threatening condition. Treating these disorders is often challenging and complex, especially in bilateral cases with extensive damage. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide new opportunities for corneal reconstruction using cell-based therapy. Here, we investigated the use of hPSC-derived LESC-like cells on bioengineered collagen matrices in serum-free conditions, aiming for clinical applications to reconstruct the corneal epithelium and partially replace the damaged stroma. Differentiation of hPSCs towards LESC-like cells was directed using small-molecule induction followed by maturation in corneal epithelium culture medium. After four to five weeks of culture, differentiated cells were seeded onto bioengineered matrices fabricated as transparent membranes of uniform thickness, using medical-grade porcine collagen type I and a hybrid cross-linking technology. The bioengineered matrices were fully transparent, with high water content and swelling capacity, and parallel lamellar microstructure. Cell proliferation of hPSC-LESCs was significantly higher on bioengineered matrices than on collagen-coated control wells after two weeks of culture, and LESC markers p63 and cytokeratin 15, along with proliferation marker Ki67 were expressed even after 30 days in culture. Overall, hPSC-LESCs retained their capacity to self-renew and proliferate, but were also able to terminally differentiate upon stimulation, as suggested by protein expression of cytokeratins 3 and 12. We propose the use of bioengineered collagen matrices as carriers for the clinically-relevant hPSC-derived LESC-like cells, as a novel tissue engineering approach for

  3. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental stem cells and amniotic stem cells, with respect to their differentiation lineages, passage numbers and animal model studies. Amniotic stem cells have a greater number of differentiation lineages than dental stem cells. On the contrary, dental stem cells showed the highest number of passages compared to amniotic stem cells. For tissue regeneration based on animal studies, amniotic stem cells showed the shortest time to regenerate in comparison with dental stem cells.

  4. Human brain stem structures respond differentially to noxious heat.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH) with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by functional MRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). In a second experiment, we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e., the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH.

  5. Establishment of Cancer Stem Cell Cultures from Human Conventional Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Palmini, Gaia; Zonefrati, Roberto; Mavilia, Carmelo; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Luzi, Ettore; Marini, Francesca; Franchi, Alessandro; Capanna, Rodolfo; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The current improvements in therapy against osteosarcoma (OS) have prolonged the lives of cancer patients, but the survival rate of five years remains poor when metastasis has occurred. The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) theory holds that there is a subset of tumor cells within the tumor that have stem-like characteristics, including the capacity to maintain the tumor and to resist multidrug chemotherapy. Therefore, a better understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis is needed in order to advance the development of targeted therapies to eradicate this particular subset and to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients. Isolating CSCs, establishing cell cultures of CSCs, and studying their biology are important steps to improving our understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis. The establishment of human-derived OS-CSCs from biopsies of OS has been made possible using several methods, including the capacity to create 3-dimensional stem cell cultures under nonadherent conditions. Under these conditions, CSCs are able to create spherical floating colonies formed by daughter stem cells; these colonies are termed "cellular spheres". Here, we describe a method to establish CSC cultures from primary cell cultures of conventional OS obtained from OS biopsies. We clearly describe the several passages required to isolate and characterize CSCs. PMID:27768062

  6. Mechanical effects of muscle contraction increase intravascular ATP draining quiescent and active skeletal muscle in humans.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Richards, Jennifer C; Dinenno, Frank A

    2013-04-01

    Intravascular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) evokes vasodilation and is implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise. Mechanical stresses to erythrocytes and endothelial cells stimulate ATP release in vitro. How mechanical effects of muscle contractions contribute to increased plasma ATP during exercise is largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that simulated mechanical effects of muscle contractions increase [ATP](venous) and ATP effluent in vivo, independent of changes in tissue metabolic demand, and further increase plasma ATP when superimposed with mild-intensity exercise. In young healthy adults, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF) (Doppler ultrasound) and plasma [ATP](v) (luciferin-luciferase assay), then calculated forearm ATP effluent (FBF×[ATP](v)) during rhythmic forearm compressions (RFC) via a blood pressure cuff at three graded pressures (50, 100, and 200 mmHg; Protocol 1; n = 10) and during RFC at 100 mmHg, 5% maximal voluntary contraction rhythmic handgrip exercise (RHG), and combined RFC + RHG (Protocol 2; n = 10). [ATP](v) increased from rest with each cuff pressure (range 144-161 vs. 64 ± 13 nmol/l), and ATP effluent was graded with pressure. In Protocol 2, [ATP](v) increased in each condition compared with rest (RFC: 123 ± 33; RHG: 51 ± 9; RFC + RHG: 96 ± 23 vs. Mean Rest: 42 ± 4 nmol/l; P < 0.05), and ATP effluent was greatest with RFC + RHG (RFC: 5.3 ± 1.4; RHG: 5.3 ± 1.1; RFC + RHG: 11.6 ± 2.7 vs. Mean Rest: 1.2 ± 0.1 nmol/min; P < 0.05). We conclude that the mechanical effects of muscle contraction can 1) independently elevate intravascular ATP draining quiescent skeletal muscle without changes in local metabolism and 2) further augment intravascular ATP during mild exercise associated with increases in metabolism and local deoxygenation; therefore, it is likely one stimulus for increasing intravascular ATP during exercise in humans.

  7. Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gafni, Ohad; Weinberger, Leehee; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Manor, Yair S; Chomsky, Elad; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kalma, Yael; Viukov, Sergey; Maza, Itay; Zviran, Asaf; Rais, Yoach; Shipony, Zohar; Mukamel, Zohar; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Zerbib, Mirie; Geula, Shay; Caspi, Inbal; Schneir, Dan; Shwartz, Tamar; Gilad, Shlomit; Amann-Zalcenstein, Daniela; Benjamin, Sima; Amit, Ido; Tanay, Amos; Massarwa, Rada; Novershtern, Noa; Hanna, Jacob H

    2013-12-12

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and can be preserved in vitro in a naive inner-cell-mass-like configuration by providing exogenous stimulation with leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and small molecule inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 and GSK3β signalling (termed 2i/LIF conditions). Hallmarks of naive pluripotency include driving Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) transcription by its distal enhancer, retaining a pre-inactivation X chromosome state, and global reduction in DNA methylation and in H3K27me3 repressive chromatin mark deposition on developmental regulatory gene promoters. Upon withdrawal of 2i/LIF, naive mouse ES cells can drift towards a primed pluripotent state resembling that of the post-implantation epiblast. Although human ES cells share several molecular features with naive mouse ES cells, they also share a variety of epigenetic properties with primed murine epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). These include predominant use of the proximal enhancer element to maintain OCT4 expression, pronounced tendency for X chromosome inactivation in most female human ES cells, increase in DNA methylation and prominent deposition of H3K27me3 and bivalent domain acquisition on lineage regulatory genes. The feasibility of establishing human ground state naive pluripotency in vitro with equivalent molecular and functional features to those characterized in mouse ES cells remains to be defined. Here we establish defined conditions that facilitate the derivation of genetically unmodified human naive pluripotent stem cells from already established primed human ES cells, from somatic cells through induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming or directly from blastocysts. The novel naive pluripotent cells validated herein retain molecular characteristics and functional properties that are highly similar to mouse naive ES cells, and distinct from conventional primed human pluripotent cells. This includes competence in the generation

  8. Cripto is essential to capture mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Fiorenzano, Alessandro; Pascale, Emilia; D'Aniello, Cristina; Acampora, Dario; Bassalert, Cecilia; Russo, Francesco; Andolfi, Gennaro; Biffoni, Mauro; Francescangeli, Federica; Zeuner, Ann; Angelini, Claudia; Chazaud, Claire; Patriarca, Eduardo J; Fico, Annalisa; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2016-09-02

    Known molecular determinants of developmental plasticity are mainly transcription factors, while the extrinsic regulation of this process has been largely unexplored. Here we identify Cripto as one of the earliest epiblast markers and a key extracellular determinant of the naive and primed pluripotent states. We demonstrate that Cripto sustains mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal by modulating Wnt/β-catenin, whereas it maintains mouse epiblast stem cell (EpiSC) and human ESC pluripotency through Nodal/Smad2. Moreover, we provide unprecedented evidence that Cripto controls the metabolic reprogramming in ESCs to EpiSC transition. Remarkably, Cripto deficiency attenuates ESC lineage restriction in vitro and in vivo, and permits ESC transdifferentiation into trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that Cripto has earlier functions than previously recognized. All together, our studies provide novel insights into the current model of mammalian pluripotency and contribute to the understanding of the extrinsic regulation of the first cell lineage decision in the embryo.

  9. Cripto is essential to capture mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Fiorenzano, Alessandro; Pascale, Emilia; D'Aniello, Cristina; Acampora, Dario; Bassalert, Cecilia; Russo, Francesco; Andolfi, Gennaro; Biffoni, Mauro; Francescangeli, Federica; Zeuner, Ann; Angelini, Claudia; Chazaud, Claire; Patriarca, Eduardo J.; Fico, Annalisa; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Known molecular determinants of developmental plasticity are mainly transcription factors, while the extrinsic regulation of this process has been largely unexplored. Here we identify Cripto as one of the earliest epiblast markers and a key extracellular determinant of the naive and primed pluripotent states. We demonstrate that Cripto sustains mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal by modulating Wnt/β-catenin, whereas it maintains mouse epiblast stem cell (EpiSC) and human ESC pluripotency through Nodal/Smad2. Moreover, we provide unprecedented evidence that Cripto controls the metabolic reprogramming in ESCs to EpiSC transition. Remarkably, Cripto deficiency attenuates ESC lineage restriction in vitro and in vivo, and permits ESC transdifferentiation into trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that Cripto has earlier functions than previously recognized. All together, our studies provide novel insights into the current model of mammalian pluripotency and contribute to the understanding of the extrinsic regulation of the first cell lineage decision in the embryo. PMID:27586544

  10. Task Dependent Motor Strategy of Human Triceps Surae Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Hideaki; Ihashi, Kouji; Ichie, Masayoshi; Handa, Yasunobu

    2004-01-01

    Even though many investigators have analyzed the functional difference of the three heads of triceps surae in human, none of them succeeded to clarify the distinctive functional difference of those three muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the integrated EMGs (IEMGs) of the triceps surae muscle, gastrocnemius and soleus, were task dependent. IEMGs of the medial head of the gastrocnemius (GM), lateral head of the gastrocnemius (GL), and soleus (SO) were investigated at three different knee joint angles, at four different duration of ramp contraction, with the generation of a single ongoing force, from 0 to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Three-way ANOVAs for repeated measures were used to estimate differences in IEMG values in each of the GM, GL, and SO, taken at four different durations of ramp contraction (5, 10, 15 and 20 s), at three different knee joint angles (0 deg, 30 deg and 90 deg), across ankle plantar flexion levels of force (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% MVC). According to three-way ANOVAs for repeated measures, IEMG of the GM muscle showed a first-order interaction between force and knee joint angle. In addition, IEMG of the GL muscle showed first-order interactions between the level of force and knee joint angle, and between the level of force and duration of ramp contraction. Furthermore, IEMG of the SO showed a main effect only on level of force. These results suggest that the each head of the triceps surae may work task dependently. PMID:25792933

  11. Human amniotic fluid stem cell preconditioning improves their regenerative potential.

    PubMed

    Rota, Cinzia; Imberti, Barbara; Pozzobon, Michela; Piccoli, Martina; De Coppi, Paolo; Atala, Anthony; Gagliardini, Elena; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Benedetti, Valentina; Fabricio, Aline S C; Squarcina, Elisa; Abbate, Mauro; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Marina

    2012-07-20

    Human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells, a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells that share characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells, have been regarded as promising candidate for cell therapy. Taking advantage by the well-established murine model of acute kidney injury (AKI), we studied the proregenerative effect of hAFS cells in immunodeficient mice injected with the nephrotoxic drug cisplatin. Infusion of hAFS cells in cisplatin mice improved renal function and limited tubular damage, although not to control level, and prolonged animal survival. Human AFS cells engrafted injured kidney predominantly in peritubular region without acquiring tubular epithelial markers. Human AFS cells exerted antiapoptotic effect, activated Akt, and stimulated proliferation of tubular cells possibly via local release of factors, including interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, and stromal cell-derived factor-1, which we documented in vitro to be produced by hAFS cells. The therapeutic potential of hAFS cells was enhanced by cell pretreatment with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which markedly ameliorated renal function and tubular injury by increasing stem cell homing to the tubulointerstitial compartment. By in vitro studies, GDNF increased hAFS cell production of growth factors, motility, and expression of receptors involved in cell homing and survival. These findings indicate that hAFS cells can promote functional recovery and contribute to renal regeneration in AKI mice via local production of mitogenic and prosurvival factors. The effects of hAFS cells can be remarkably enhanced by GDNF preconditioning.

  12. Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Preconditioning Improves Their Regenerative Potential

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Cinzia; Imberti, Barbara; Pozzobon, Michela; Piccoli, Martina; De Coppi, Paolo; Atala, Anthony; Gagliardini, Elena; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Benedetti, Valentina; Fabricio, Aline S.C.; Squarcina, Elisa; Abbate, Mauro; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells, a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells that share characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells, have been regarded as promising candidate for cell therapy. Taking advantage by the well-established murine model of acute kidney injury (AKI), we studied the proregenerative effect of hAFS cells in immunodeficient mice injected with the nephrotoxic drug cisplatin. Infusion of hAFS cells in cisplatin mice improved renal function and limited tubular damage, although not to control level, and prolonged animal survival. Human AFS cells engrafted injured kidney predominantly in peritubular region without acquiring tubular epithelial markers. Human AFS cells exerted antiapoptotic effect, activated Akt, and stimulated proliferation of tubular cells possibly via local release of factors, including interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, and stromal cell–derived factor-1, which we documented in vitro to be produced by hAFS cells. The therapeutic potential of hAFS cells was enhanced by cell pretreatment with glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which markedly ameliorated renal function and tubular injury by increasing stem cell homing to the tubulointerstitial compartment. By in vitro studies, GDNF increased hAFS cell production of growth factors, motility, and expression of receptors involved in cell homing and survival. These findings indicate that hAFS cells can promote functional recovery and contribute to renal regeneration in AKI mice via local production of mitogenic and prosurvival factors. The effects of hAFS cells can be remarkably enhanced by GDNF preconditioning. PMID:22066606

  13. Radiation response of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad S; Stemig, Melissa E; Takahashi, Yutaka; Hui, Susanta K

    2015-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human pluripotent stem cells are comparable with bone marrow-derived MSCs in their function and immunophenotype. The purpose of this exploratory study was comparative evaluation of the radiation responses of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow- (BMMSCs) and from human embryonic stem cells (hESMSCs). BMMSCs and hESMSCs were irradiated at 0 Gy (control) to 16 Gy using a linear accelerator commonly used for cancer treatment. Cells were harvested immediately after irradiation, and at 1 and 5 days after irradiation. Cell cycle analysis, colony forming ability (CFU-F), differentiation ability, and expression of osteogenic-specific runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), oxidative stress-specific dismutase-1 (SOD1) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) were analyzed. Irradiation arrested cell cycle progression in BMMSCs and hESMSCs. Colony formation ability of irradiated MSCs decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Irradiated hESMSCs showed higher adipogenic differentiation compared with BMMSCs, together with an increase in the adipogenic PPARγ expression. PPARγ expression was upregulated as early as 4 h after irradiation, along with the expression of SOD1. More than 70% downregulation was found in Wnt3A, Wnt4, Wnt 7A, Wnt10A and Wnt11 in BMMSCs, but not in hESMSCs. hESMSCs are highly proliferative but radiosensitive compared with BMMSCs. Increased PPARγ expression relative to RUNX2 and downregulation of Wnt ligands in irradiated MSCs suggest Wnt mediated the fate determination of irradiated MSCs.

  14. Guided migration of neural stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells by an electric field.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-Feng; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Ji-Yao; Nolta, Jan; Zhao, Min

    2012-02-01

    Small direct current (DC) electric fields (EFs) guide neurite growth and migration of rodent neural stem cells (NSCs). However, this could be species dependent. Therefore, it is critical to investigate how human NSCs (hNSCs) respond to EF before any possible clinical attempt. Aiming to characterize the EF-stimulated and guided migration of hNSCs, we derived hNSCs from a well-established human embryonic stem cell line H9. Small applied DC EFs, as low as 16 mV/mm, induced significant directional migration toward the cathode. Reversal of the field polarity reversed migration of hNSCs. The galvanotactic/electrotactic response was both time and voltage dependent. The migration directedness and distance to the cathode increased with the increase of field strength. (Rho-kinase) inhibitor Y27632 is used to enhance viability of stem cells and has previously been reported to inhibit EF-guided directional migration in induced pluripotent stem cells and neurons. However, its presence did not significantly affect the directionality of hNSC migration in an EF. Cytokine receptor [C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)] is important for chemotaxis of NSCs in the brain. The blockage of CXCR4 did not affect the electrotaxis of hNSCs. We conclude that hNSCs respond to a small EF by directional migration. Applied EFs could potentially be further exploited to guide hNSCs to injured sites in the central nervous system to improve the outcome of various diseases.

  15. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  16. Histological organization is similar in human vocal muscle and tongue--a study of muscles and nerves.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Deivis; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Ellwanger, Joel Henrique; Gehlen, Gunther; Rodrigues, Mariana Freitas; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2012-11-01

    One of the most exciting questions about the human voice is how the vocal fold produces and modulates different sounds. One hypothesis to explain the wide range of movements found in the vocal fold is based on the variety of muscle fiber orientations in the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. The tongue (TO) muscle is considered the mo