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Sample records for human mutant sod1

  1. Radio-sensitivity of the cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice transfected with human mutant SOD1.

    PubMed

    Wate, Reika; Takahashi, Sentaro; Ito, Hidefumi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Suetomi, Katsutoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2005-03-01

    In order to clarify the possible involvement of oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation in the onset and/or progression of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we studied radio-sensitivity in primary cells derived from ALS model mice expressing human mutant SOD1. The primary mouse cells expressed both mouse and the mutant human SOD1. The cell survival of the transgenic mice (with mutant SOD1), determined by counting cell numbers at a scheduled time after X-irradiation, is very similar to that of cells from wild type animals. The induction and repair of DNA damage in the transgenic cells, measured by single cell gel electrophoresis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis, are also similar to those of wild type cells. These results indicate that the human mutant SOD1 gene does not seem to contribute to the alteration of radio-sensitivity, at least in the fibroblastic cells used here. Although it is necessary to consider the difference in cell types between fibroblastic and neuronal cells, the present results may suggest that ionizing radiation is not primarily responsible for the onset of familial ALS with the SOD1 mutation, and that the excess risks are probably not a concern for radiation diagnosis and therapy in familial ALS patients.

  2. A novel SOD1-ALS mutation separates central and peripheral effects of mutant SOD1 toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Peter I.; Mcgoldrick, Philip; Saccon, Rachele A.; Weber, William; Fratta, Pietro; West, Steven J.; Zhu, Ning; Carter, Sarah; Phatak, Vinaya; Stewart, Michelle; Simon, Michelle; Kumar, Saumya; Heise, Ines; Bros-Facer, Virginie; Dick, James; Corrochano, Silvia; Stanford, Macdonnell J.; Luong, Tu Vinh; Nolan, Patrick M.; Meyer, Timothy; Brandner, Sebastian; Bennett, David L.H.; Ozdinler, P. Hande; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been critical in furthering our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, such models generally overexpress the mutant protein, which may give rise to phenotypes not directly relevant to the disorder. Here, we have analysed a novel mouse model that has a point mutation in the endogenous mouse Sod1 gene; this mutation is identical to a pathological change in human familial ALS (fALS) which results in a D83G change in SOD1 protein. Homozgous Sod1D83G/D83G mice develop progressive degeneration of lower (LMN) and upper motor neurons, likely due to the same unknown toxic gain of function as occurs in human fALS cases, but intriguingly LMN cell death appears to stop in early adulthood and the mice do not become paralyzed. The D83 residue coordinates zinc binding, and the D83G mutation results in loss of dismutase activity and SOD1 protein instability. As a result, Sod1D83G/D83G mice also phenocopy the distal axonopathy and hepatocellular carcinoma found in Sod1 null mice (Sod1−/−). These unique mice allow us to further our understanding of ALS by separating the central motor neuron body degeneration and the peripheral effects from a fALS mutation expressed at endogenous levels. PMID:25468678

  3. Structures of Mouse SOD1 and Human/Mouse SOD1 Chimeras†

    PubMed Central

    Seetharaman, Sai V.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Holloway, Stephen; Hart, P. John

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Inclusions enriched in pathogenic SOD1 accumulate in the spinal cords of transgenic mice expressing these proteins, but endogenous mouse SOD1 is not found as a component of these aggregates. In the accompanying paper, Karch and colleagues analyze aggregation propensities of human/mouse SOD1 chimeras in cell culture and identify two sequence elements in the human enzyme that seem to enhance its aggregation relative to the mouse enzyme. Here, we report the first structure of mouse SOD1 along with those of SOD1 chimeras in which residues 1-80 come from human SOD1 and residues 81-153 come from mouse SOD1 and vice versa. Taken together, the structural and cell-based data suggest a model in which residues Q42 and Q123 in mouse SOD1 modulate nonnative SOD1-SOD1 intermolecular interactions at edge strands in the SOD1 Greek key β-barrel. PMID:20727846

  4. In vivo pathogenic role of mutant SOD1 localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space

    PubMed Central

    Igoudjil, Anissa; Magrané, Jordi; Fischer, Lindsey R.; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Hervias, Isabel; Dumont, Magali; Cortez, Czrina; Glass, Jonathan D.; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant SOD1 causes a complex array of pathological events, through toxic gain of function mechanisms, leading to selective motor neuron degeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the well-established toxic effects of mutant SOD1, but its mechanisms are just starting to be elucidated. A portion of mutant SOD1 is localized in mitochondria, where it accumulates mostly on the outer membrane and inside the intermembrane space (IMS). Evidence in cultured cells suggests that mutant SOD1 in the IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and compromises cell viability. Therefore, to test its pathogenic role in vivo we generated transgenic mice expressing G93A mutant or wild type (WT) human SOD1 targeted selectively to the mitochondrial IMS (mito-SOD1). We show that mito-SOD1 is correctly localized in the IMS, where it oligomerizes and acquires enzymatic activity. Mito-G93ASOD1 mice, but not mito-WTSOD1 mice, develop a progressive disease characterized by body weight loss, muscle weakness, brain atrophy, and motor impairment, which is more severe in females. These symptoms are associated with reduced spinal motor neuron counts and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, characterized by decreased cytochrome oxidase activity and defective calcium handling. However, there is no evidence of muscle denervation, a cardinal pathological feature of ALS. Taken together, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 in the mitochondrial IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, but per se it is not sufficient to cause a full-fledged ALS phenotype, which requires the participation of mutant SOD1 localized in other cellular compartments. PMID:22049426

  5. In vivo pathogenic role of mutant SOD1 localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    PubMed

    Igoudjil, Anissa; Magrané, Jordi; Fischer, Lindsey R; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Hervias, Isabel; Dumont, Magali; Cortez, Czrina; Glass, Jonathan D; Starkov, Anatoly A; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2011-11-02

    Mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant SOD1 causes a complex array of pathological events, through toxic gain of function mechanisms, leading to selective motor neuron degeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the well established toxic effects of mutant SOD1, but its mechanisms are just starting to be elucidated. A portion of mutant SOD1 is localized in mitochondria, where it accumulates mostly on the outer membrane and inside the intermembrane space (IMS). Evidence in cultured cells suggests that mutant SOD1 in the IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and compromises cell viability. Therefore, to test its pathogenic role in vivo we generated transgenic mice expressing G93A mutant or wild-type (WT) human SOD1 targeted selectively to the mitochondrial IMS (mito-SOD1). We show that mito-SOD1 is correctly localized in the IMS, where it oligomerizes and acquires enzymatic activity. Mito-G93ASOD1 mice, but not mito-WTSOD1 mice, develop a progressive disease characterized by body weight loss, muscle weakness, brain atrophy, and motor impairment, which is more severe in females. These symptoms are associated with reduced spinal motor neuron counts and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, characterized by decreased cytochrome oxidase activity and defective calcium handling. However, there is no evidence of muscle denervation, a cardinal pathological feature of ALS. Together, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 in the mitochondrial IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, but per se it is not sufficient to cause a full-fledged ALS phenotype, which requires the participation of mutant SOD1 localized in other cellular compartments.

  6. Mutant SOD1 microglia-generated nitroxidative stress promotes toxicity to human fetal neural stem cell-derived motor neurons through direct damage and noxious interactions with astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thonhoff, Jason R; Gao, Junling; Dunn, Tiffany J; Ojeda, Luis; Wu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating motor neuron disease. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) may have the potential to replace lost motor neurons. The therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy depends greatly on the survival of grafted stem cell-derived motor neurons in the microenvironment of the spinal cord in ALS. After transplantation of hNSCs into the spinal cords of transgenic ALS rats, morphological analysis reveals that grafted hNSCs differentiate into motor neurons. However, hNSCs degenerate and show signs of nitroxidative damage at the disease end-stage. Using an in vitro coculture system, we systematically assess interactions between microglia and astroglia derived from both nontransgenic rats and transgenic rats expressing human mutant SOD1G93A before and after symptomatic disease onset, and determine the effects of such microglia-astroglia interactions on the survival of hNSC-derived motor neurons. We found that ALS microglia, specifically isolated after symptomatic disease onset, are directly toxic to hNSC-derived motor neurons. Furthermore, nontransgenic astrocytes not only lose their protective role in hNSC-derived motor neuron survival in vitro, but also exhibit toxic features when cocultured with mutant SOD1G93A microglia. Using inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase, we show that microglia-generated nitric oxide and superoxide partially contribute to motor neuron loss and astrocyte dysfunction in this coculture paradigm. In summary, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species released from overactivated microglia in ALS directly eliminate human neural stem cell-derived motor neurons and reduce the neuroprotective capacities of astrocytes PMID:23671793

  7. Transgenics, toxicity and therapeutics in rodent models of mutant SOD1-mediated familial ALS.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bradley J; Talbot, Kevin

    2008-05-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene are implicated in progressive motor neuron death and paralysis in one form of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). At present, transgenic expression of 12 human SOD1 mutations driven by the endogenous promoter is disease-causative and uniformly lethal in mice and rats, despite tremendous biochemical and biophysical variation between the mutants tested. This contrasts with the subclinical motor neuron disease phenotypes of wild-type SOD1 transgenic and knockout mice. Molecular mechanisms such as glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, axonal transport blockade, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and apoptosis triggered by mutant SOD1 catalysed oxidative reactions and/or protein misfolding are proposed to drive ALS pathogenesis. Around 100 genetic cross-breeding experiments with transgenic mutant SOD1 mice have been performed to verify these mechanisms in vivo. Furthermore, mounting evidence from mice with cell restrictive, repressible or chimeric expression of mutant SOD1 transgenes and bone marrow transplants supports non-neuronal origins of neuroprotection in ALS. Transgenic mutant SOD1 rodents have also provided the benchmark preclinical tool for evaluation of over 150 potential therapeutic anti-oxidant, anti-aggregation, anti-glutamatergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic pharmacological agents. Recent promising findings from gene and antisense therapies, cell replacement and combinatorial drug approaches in transgenic mutant SOD1 rodents are also emerging, but await successful translation in patients. This review summarises the wealth of known genetic and therapeutic modifiers in rodent models with SOD1 mutations and discusses these in the wider context of ALS pathoetiology and treatment.

  8. Mutant SOD1 impairs axonal transport of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine release by sequestering KAP3

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Minako; Kato, Shinsuke; Sakurai, Takashi; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), likely due to the toxic properties of misfolded mutant SOD1 protein. Here we demonstrated that, starting from the pre-onset stage of FALS, misfolded SOD1 species associates specifically with kinesin-associated protein 3 (KAP3) in the ventral white matter of SOD1G93A-transgenic mouse spinal cord. KAP3 is a kinesin-2 subunit responsible for binding to cargos including choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Motor axons in SOD1G93A-Tg mice also showed a reduction in ChAT transport from the pre-onset stage. By employing a novel FALS modeling system using NG108-15 cells, we showed that microtubule-dependent release of acetylcholine was significantly impaired by misfolded SOD1 species. Furthermore, such impairment was able to be normalized by KAP3 overexpression. KAP3 was incorporated into SOD1 aggregates in human FALS cases as well. These results suggest that KAP3 sequestration by misfolded SOD1 species and the resultant inhibition of ChAT transport play a role in the dysfunction of ALS. PMID:19088126

  9. S-acylation of SOD1, CCS, and a stable SOD1-CCS heterodimer in human spinal cords from ALS and non-ALS subjects

    PubMed Central

    Antinone, Sarah E.; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D.; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Roos, Raymond P.; Green, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is S-acylated (palmitoylated) in vitro and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse models, and that S-acylation increased for ALS-causing SOD1 mutants relative to wild type. Here, we use the acyl resin-assisted capture (acyl-RAC) assay to demonstrate S-acylation of SOD1 in human post-mortem spinal cord homogenates from ALS and non-ALS subjects. Acyl-RAC further revealed that endogenous copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) is S-acylated in both human and mouse spinal cords, and in vitro in HEK293 cells. SOD1 and CCS formed a highly stable heterodimer in human spinal cord homogenates that was resistant to dissociation by boiling, denaturants, or reducing agents and was not observed in vitro unless both SOD1 and CCS were overexpressed. Cysteine mutations that attenuate SOD1 maturation prevented the SOD1-CCS heterodimer formation. The degree of S-acylation was highest for SOD1-CCS heterodimers, intermediate for CCS monomers, and lowest for SOD1 monomers. Given that S-acylation facilitates anchoring of soluble proteins to cell membranes, our findings suggest that S-acylation and membrane localization may play an important role in CCS-mediated SOD1 maturation. Furthermore, the highly stable S-acylated SOD1-CCS heterodimer may serve as a long-lived maturation intermediate in human spinal cord. PMID:28120938

  10. S-acylation of SOD1, CCS, and a stable SOD1-CCS heterodimer in human spinal cords from ALS and non-ALS subjects.

    PubMed

    Antinone, Sarah E; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Ostrow, Lyle W; Roos, Raymond P; Green, William N

    2017-01-25

    Previously, we found that human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is S-acylated (palmitoylated) in vitro and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse models, and that S-acylation increased for ALS-causing SOD1 mutants relative to wild type. Here, we use the acyl resin-assisted capture (acyl-RAC) assay to demonstrate S-acylation of SOD1 in human post-mortem spinal cord homogenates from ALS and non-ALS subjects. Acyl-RAC further revealed that endogenous copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) is S-acylated in both human and mouse spinal cords, and in vitro in HEK293 cells. SOD1 and CCS formed a highly stable heterodimer in human spinal cord homogenates that was resistant to dissociation by boiling, denaturants, or reducing agents and was not observed in vitro unless both SOD1 and CCS were overexpressed. Cysteine mutations that attenuate SOD1 maturation prevented the SOD1-CCS heterodimer formation. The degree of S-acylation was highest for SOD1-CCS heterodimers, intermediate for CCS monomers, and lowest for SOD1 monomers. Given that S-acylation facilitates anchoring of soluble proteins to cell membranes, our findings suggest that S-acylation and membrane localization may play an important role in CCS-mediated SOD1 maturation. Furthermore, the highly stable S-acylated SOD1-CCS heterodimer may serve as a long-lived maturation intermediate in human spinal cord.

  11. Mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetic dysfunction is associated with synaptic alterations in mutant SOD1 motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Magrané, Jordi; Sahawneh, Mary Anne; Przedborski, Serge; Estévez, Álvaro G.; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), a rapidly fatal motor neuron disease. Mutant SOD1 has pleiotropic toxic effects on motor neurons, among which mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as one of the contributing factors in motor neuron demise. Mitochondria are highly dynamic in neurons; they are constantly reshaped by fusion and move along neurites to localize at sites of high-energy utilization, such as synapses. The finding of abnormal mitochondria accumulation in neuromuscular junctions, where the SOD1-FALS degenerative process is though to initiate, suggests that impaired mitochondrial dynamics in motor neurons may be involved in pathogenesis. We addressed this hypothesis by live imaging microscopy of photo-switchable fluorescent mitoDendra in transgenic rat motor neurons expressing mutant or wild type human SOD1. We demonstrate that mutant SOD1 motor neurons have impaired mitochondrial fusion in axons and cell bodies. Mitochondria also display selective impairment of retrograde axonal transport, with reduced frequency and velocity of movements. Fusion and transport defects are associated with smaller mitochondrial size, decreased mitochondrial density, and defective mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, mislocalization of mitochondria at synapses among motor neurons, in vitro, correlates with abnormal synaptic number, structure, and function. Dynamics abnormalities are specific to mutant SOD1 motor neuron mitochondria, since they are absent in wild type SOD1 motor neurons, they do not involve other organelles, and they are not found in cortical neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that impaired mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the selective degeneration of motor neurons in SOD1-FALS. PMID:22219285

  12. Wild-type and mutant SOD1 share an aberrant conformation and a common pathogenic pathway in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Daryl A.; Morfini, Gerardo; Karabacak, N. Murat; Song, Yuyu; Gros-Louis, Francois; Pasinelli, Piera; Goolsby, Holly; Fontaine, Benjamin A.; Lemay, Nathan; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; Frosch, Matthew P.; Agar, Jeffery N.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Brady, Scott T.; Brown, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Many mutations confer upon copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) one or more toxic function(s) that impair motor neuron viability and cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Using a conformation-specific antibody that detects misfolded SOD1 (C4F6), we demonstrate that oxidized WT-SOD1 and mutant-SOD1 share a conformational epitope that is not present in normal WT-SOD1. In a subset of human sporadic ALS (SALS) cases, motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord displayed striking C4F6 immunoreactivity, denoting the presence of aberrant WT-SOD1 species. Recombinant, oxidized WT-SOD1 and WT-SOD1 immunopurified from SALS tissues inhibited kinesin-based fast axonal transport in a manner similar to FALS-linked mutant SOD1. Studies here suggest that WT-SOD1 can be pathogenic in SALS and identifies an SOD1-dependent pathogenic mechanism common to FALS and SALS. PMID:20953194

  13. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R.; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H.; Madrid, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1G93A) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PCNa), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1G93A. These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1G93A on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  14. Mutant SOD1 mediated pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simran J; McKeown, Stephanie R; Rashid, Shazia

    2016-02-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neural disorder that causes death of the motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord; this affects the voluntary muscles and gradually leads to paralysis of the whole body. Most ALS cases are sporadic, though about 5-10% are familial. ALS is caused by multiple factors including mutation in any one of a number of specific genes, one of the most frequently affected is superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1. Alterations in SOD 1 have been linked with several variants of familial ALS. SOD 1 is a powerful antioxidant enzyme that protects cells from the damaging effects of superoxide radicals. The enzyme binds both copper and zinc ions that are directly involved in the deactivation of toxic superoxide radicals. Mutated SOD1 gene can acquire both gain and loss of function mutations. The most commonly identified mutations in SOD1 that affect protein activity are D90A, A4V and G93A. Deleterious mutations have been shown to modify SOD1 activity, which leads to the accumulation of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals. Accumulation of these free radicals causes degradation of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and protein misfolding, features which can be used as pathological indicators associated with ALS. Numerous clinical trials have been carried out over last few years with limited success. In some patients advanced techniques like gene and stem cell therapy have been trialed. However no definitive treatment option can provide a cure and currently ALS is managed by drugs and other supportive therapies. Consequently there is a need to identify new approaches for treatment of this ultimately fatal disease.

  15. ALS mutant SOD1 interacts with G3BP1 and affects stress granule dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gal, Jozsef; Kuang, Lisha; Barnett, Kelly R; Zhu, Brian Z; Shissler, Susannah C; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Hayward, Lawrence J; Kasarskis, Edward J; Zhu, Haining

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for approximately 20 % of the familial ALS cases. ALS-causing SOD1 mutants display a gain-of-toxicity phenotype, but the nature of this toxicity is still not fully understood. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 plays a critical role in stress granule dynamics. Alterations in the dynamics of stress granules have been reported in several other forms of ALS unrelated to SOD1. To our surprise, the mutant G93A SOD1 transgenic mice exhibited pathological cytoplasmic inclusions that co-localized with G3BP1-positive granules in spinal cord motor neurons. The co-localization was also observed in fibroblast cells derived from familial ALS patient carrying SOD1 mutation L144F. Mutant SOD1, unlike wild-type SOD1, interacted with G3BP1 in an RNA-independent manner. Moreover, the interaction is specific for G3BP1 since mutant SOD1 showed little interaction with four other RNA-binding proteins implicated in ALS. The RNA-binding RRM domain of G3BP1 and two particular phenylalanine residues (F380 and F382) are critical for this interaction. Mutant SOD1 delayed the formation of G3BP1- and TIA1-positive stress granules in response to hyperosmolar shock and arsenite treatment in N2A cells. In summary, the aberrant mutant SOD1-G3BP1 interaction affects stress granule dynamics, suggesting a potential link between pathogenic SOD1 mutations and RNA metabolism alterations in ALS.

  16. Effect of CCS on the Accumulation of FALS SOD1 Mutant-containing Aggregates and on Mitochondrial Translocation of SOD1 Mutants: Implication of a Free Radical Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Kun; Chung, Youn Wook; Chock, P. Boon; Yim, Moon B.

    2011-01-01

    Missense mutations of SOD1 are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) through a yet-to-be identified toxic-gain-of-function. One of the proposed mechanisms involves enhanced aggregate formation. However, a recent study showed that dual transgenic mice overexpressing both G93A and CCS copper chaperone (G93A/CCS) exhibit no SOD1-positive aggregates yet show accelerated FALS symptoms with enhanced mitochondrial pathology compared to G93A mice. Using a dicistronic mRNA to simultaneously generate hSOD1 mutants, G93A, A4V and G85R, and hCCS in AAV293 cells, we revealed: (i) CCS is degraded primarily via a macroautophagy pathway. It forms a stable heterodimer with inactive G85R, and via its novel copper chaperone-independent molecular chaperone activity facilitates G85R degradation via a macroautophagy-mediated pathway. For active G93A and A4V, CCS catalyzes their maturation to form active and soluble homodimers. (ii) CCS reduces, under non-oxidative conditions, yet facilitates in the presence of H2O2, mitochondrial translocation of inactive SOD1 mutants. These results, together with previous reports showing FALS SOD1 mutants enhanced free radical-generating activity, provide a mechanistic explanation for the observations with G93A/CCS dual transgenic mice and suggest that free radical generation by FALS SOD1, enhanced by CCS, may, in part, be responsible for the FALS SOD1 mutant-linked aggregation, mitochondrial translocation, and degradation. PMID:21354101

  17. Effect of CCS on the accumulation of FALS SOD1 mutant-containing aggregates and on mitochondrial translocation of SOD1 mutants: implication of a free radical hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Kun; Chung, Youn Wook; Chock, P Boon; Yim, Moon B

    2011-05-15

    Missense mutations of SOD1 are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) through a yet-to-be identified toxic-gain-of-function. One of the proposed mechanisms involves enhanced aggregate formation. However, a recent study showed that dual transgenic mice overexpressing both G93A and CCS copper chaperone (G93A/CCS) exhibit no SOD1-positive aggregates yet show accelerated FALS symptoms with enhanced mitochondrial pathology compared to G93A mice. Using a dicistronic mRNA to simultaneously generate hSOD1 mutants, G93A, A4V and G85R, and hCCS in AAV293 cells, we revealed: (i) CCS is degraded primarily via a macroautophagy pathway. It forms a stable heterodimer with inactive G85R, and via its novel copper chaperone-independent molecular chaperone activity facilitates G85R degradation via a macroautophagy-mediated pathway. For active G93A and A4V, CCS catalyzes their maturation to form active and soluble homodimers. (ii) CCS reduces, under non-oxidative conditions, yet facilitates in the presence of H(2)O(2), mitochondrial translocation of inactive SOD1 mutants. These results, together with previous reports showing FALS SOD1 mutants enhanced free radical-generating activity, provide a mechanistic explanation for the observations with G93A/CCS dual transgenic mice and suggest that free radical generation by FALS SOD1, enhanced by CCS, may, in part, be responsible for the FALS SOD1 mutant-linked aggregation, mitochondrial translocation, and degradation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Single chain variable fragment antibodies block aggregation and toxicity induced by familial ALS-linked mutant forms of SOD1

    PubMed Central

    Ghadge, Ghanashyam D.; Pavlovic, John; Koduvayur, Sujatha P.; Kay, Brian K.; Roos, Raymond P.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are familial (known as FALS) with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and ~25% of FALS cases are caused by mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). There is convincing evidence that mutant SOD1 (mtSOD1) kills motor neurons (MNs) because of a gain-of-function toxicity, most likely related to aggregation of mtSOD1. A number of recent reports have suggested that antibodies can be used to treat mtSOD1-induced FALS. To follow up on the use of antibodies as potential therapeutics, we generated single chain fragments of variable region antibodies (scFvs) against SOD1, and then expressed them as ‘intrabodies’ within a motor neuron cell line. In the present study, we describe isolation of human scFvs that interfere with mtSOD1 in vitro aggregation and toxicity. These scFvs may have therapeutic potential in sporadic ALS, as well as FALS, given that sporadic ALS may also involve abnormalities in the SOD1 protein or activity. PMID:23607939

  19. In-cell NMR reveals potential precursor of toxic species from SOD1 fALS mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinat, Enrico; Barbieri, Letizia; Rubino, Jeffrey T.; Kozyreva, Tatiana; Cantini, Francesca; Banci, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene are related to familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Here we exploit in-cell NMR to characterize the protein folding and maturation of a series of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants in human cells and to obtain insight into their behaviour in the cellular context, at the molecular level. The effect of various mutations on SOD1 maturation are investigated by changing the availability of metal ions in the cells, and by coexpressing the copper chaperone for SOD1, hCCS. We observe for most of the mutants the occurrence of an unstructured SOD1 species, unable to bind zinc. This species may be a common precursor of potentially toxic oligomeric species, that are associated with fALS. Coexpression of hCCS in the presence of copper restores the correct maturation of the SOD1 mutants and prevents the formation of the unstructured species, confirming that hCCS also acts as a molecular chaperone.

  20. SUMO3 Modification Accelerates the Aggregation of ALS-Linked SOD1 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Niikura, Takako; Kita, Yoshiko; Abe, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are a major cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), whereby the mutant proteins misfold and aggregate to form intracellular inclusions. We report that both small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 1 and SUMO2/3 modify ALS-linked SOD1 mutant proteins at lysine 75 in a motoneuronal cell line, the cell type affected in ALS. In these cells, SUMO1 modification occurred on both lysine 75 and lysine 9 of SOD1, and modification of ALS-linked SOD1 mutant proteins by SUMO3, rather than by SUMO1, significantly increased the stability of the proteins and accelerated intracellular aggregate formation. These findings suggest the contribution of sumoylation, particularly by SUMO3, to the protein aggregation process underlying the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:24971881

  1. Glutaredoxin 2 prevents aggregation of mutant SOD1 in mitochondria and abolishes its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Alberto; Fiorenzo, Paolo; Nencini, Monica; Cozzolino, Mauro; Pesaresi, Maria Grazia; Valle, Cristiana; Sepe, Sara; Moreno, Sandra; Carrì, Maria Teresa

    2010-11-15

    Vulnerability of motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) arises from a combination of several mechanisms, including protein misfolding and aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. Protein aggregates are found in motoneurons in models for ALS linked to a mutation in the gene coding for Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and in ALS patients as well. Aggregation of mutant SOD1 in the cytoplasm and/or into mitochondria has been repeatedly proposed as a main culprit for the degeneration of motoneurons. It is, however, still debated whether SOD1 aggregates represent a cause, a correlate or a consequence of processes leading to cell death. We have exploited the ability of glutaredoxins (Grxs) to reduce mixed disulfides to protein thiols either in the cytoplasm and in the IMS (Grx1) or in the mitochondrial matrix (Grx2) as a tool for restoring a correct redox environment and preventing the aggregation of mutant SOD1. Here we show that the overexpression of Grx1 increases the solubility of mutant SOD1 in the cytosol but does not inhibit mitochondrial damage and apoptosis induced by mutant SOD1 in neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y) or in immortalized motoneurons (NSC-34). Conversely, the overexpression of Grx2 increases the solubility of mutant SOD1 in mitochondria, interferes with mitochondrial fragmentation by modifying the expression pattern of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics, preserves mitochondrial function and strongly protects neuronal cells from apoptosis. The toxicity of mutant SOD1, therefore, mostly arises from mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue of mitochondrial damage may represent a promising therapeutic strategy.

  2. An ALS-Associated Mutant SOD1 Rapidly Suppresses KCNT1 (Slack) Na(+)-Activated K(+) Channels in Aplysia Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalan; Ni, Weiming; Horwich, Arthur L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2017-02-22

    Mutations that alter levels of Slack (KCNT1) Na(+)-activated K(+) current produce devastating effects on neuronal development and neuronal function. We now find that Slack currents are rapidly suppressed by oligomers of mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which are associated with motor neuron toxicity in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We recorded from bag cell neurons of Aplysia californica, a model system to study neuronal excitability. We found that injection of fluorescent wild-type SOD1 (wt SOD1YFP) or monomeric mutant G85R SOD1YFP had no effect on net ionic currents measured under voltage clamp. In contrast, outward potassium currents were significantly reduced by microinjection of mutant G85R SOD1YFP that had been preincubated at 37°C or of cross-linked dimers of G85R SOD1YFP. Reduction of potassium current was also seen with multimeric G85R SOD1YFP of ∼300 kDa or >300 kDa that had been cross-linked. In current clamp recordings, microinjection of cross-linked 300 kDa increased excitability by depolarizing the resting membrane potential, and decreasing the latency of action potentials triggered by depolarization. The effect of cross-linked 300 kDa on potassium current was reduced by removing Na(+) from the bath solution, or by knocking down levels of Slack using siRNA. It was also prevented by pharmacological inhibition of ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1) or of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but not by an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results suggest that soluble mutant SOD1 oligomers rapidly trigger a kinase pathway that regulates the activity of Na(+)-activated K(+) channels in neurons.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Slack Na(+)-activated K(+) channels (KCNT1, KNa1.1) regulate neuronal excitability but are also linked to cytoplasmic signaling pathways that control neuronal protein translation. Mutations that alter the amplitude of these currents have devastating effects on neuronal

  3. Misfolded Mutant SOD1 Directly Inhibits VDAC1 Conductance in a Mouse Model of Inherited ALS

    PubMed Central

    Israelson, Adrian; Arbel, Nir; Cruz, Sandrine Da; Ilieva, Hristelina; Yamanaka, Koji; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda; Cleveland, Don W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. With conformation specific antibodies, we now demonstrate that misfolded mutant SOD1 binds directly to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1), an integral membrane protein imbedded in the outer mitochondrial membrane. This interaction is found on isolated spinal cord mitochondria and can be reconstituted with purified components in vitro. ADP passage through the outer membrane is diminished in spinal mitochondria from mutant SOD1-expressing ALS rats. Direct binding of mutant SOD1 to VDAC1 inhibits conductance of individual channels when reconstituted in a lipid bilayer. Reduction of VDAC1 activity with targeted gene disruption is shown to diminish survival by accelerating onset of fatal paralysis in mice expressing the ALS-causing mutation SOD1G37R. Taken together, our results establish a direct link between misfolded mutant SOD1 and mitochondrial dysfunction in this form of inherited ALS. PMID:20797535

  4. Therapeutic AAV9-mediated Suppression of Mutant SOD1 Slows Disease Progression and Extends Survival in Models of Inherited ALS

    PubMed Central

    Foust, Kevin D; Salazar, Desirée L; Likhite, Shibi; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Ditsworth, Dara; Ilieva, Hristelina; Meyer, Kathrin; Schmelzer, Leah; Braun, Lyndsey; Cleveland, Don W; Kaspar, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) resulting in progressive motor neuron death through one or more acquired toxicities. Involvement of wild-type SOD1 has been linked to sporadic ALS, as misfolded SOD1 has been reported in affected tissues of sporadic patients and toxicity of astrocytes derived from sporadic ALS patients to motor neurons has been reported to be reduced by lowering the synthesis of SOD1. We now report slowed disease onset and progression in two mouse models following therapeutic delivery using a single peripheral injection of an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) encoding an shRNA to reduce the synthesis of ALS-causing human SOD1 mutants. Delivery to young mice that develop aggressive, fatal paralysis extended survival by delaying both disease onset and slowing progression. In a later-onset model, AAV9 delivery after onset markedly slowed disease progression and significantly extended survival. Moreover, AAV9 delivered intrathecally to nonhuman primates is demonstrated to yield robust SOD1 suppression in motor neurons and glia throughout the spinal cord and therefore, setting the stage for AAV9-mediated therapy in human clinical trials. PMID:24008656

  5. Therapeutic AAV9-mediated suppression of mutant SOD1 slows disease progression and extends survival in models of inherited ALS.

    PubMed

    Foust, Kevin D; Salazar, Desirée L; Likhite, Shibi; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Ditsworth, Dara; Ilieva, Hristelina; Meyer, Kathrin; Schmelzer, Leah; Braun, Lyndsey; Cleveland, Don W; Kaspar, Brian K

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) resulting in progressive motor neuron death through one or more acquired toxicities. Involvement of wild-type SOD1 has been linked to sporadic ALS, as misfolded SOD1 has been reported in affected tissues of sporadic patients and toxicity of astrocytes derived from sporadic ALS patients to motor neurons has been reported to be reduced by lowering the synthesis of SOD1. We now report slowed disease onset and progression in two mouse models following therapeutic delivery using a single peripheral injection of an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) encoding an shRNA to reduce the synthesis of ALS-causing human SOD1 mutants. Delivery to young mice that develop aggressive, fatal paralysis extended survival by delaying both disease onset and slowing progression. In a later-onset model, AAV9 delivery after onset markedly slowed disease progression and significantly extended survival. Moreover, AAV9 delivered intrathecally to nonhuman primates is demonstrated to yield robust SOD1 suppression in motor neurons and glia throughout the spinal cord and therefore, setting the stage for AAV9-mediated therapy in human clinical trials.

  6. Mislocalization of TDP-43 in the G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaoyang; Vocadlo, David; Krieger, Charles

    2009-07-17

    Previous evidence demonstrates that TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) mislocalization is a key pathological feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 normally shows nuclear localization, but in CNS tissue from patients who died with ALS this protein mislocalizes to the cytoplasm. Disease specific TDP-43 species have also been reported to include hyperphosphorylated TDP-43, as well as a C-terminal fragment. Whether these abnormal TDP-43 features are present in patients with SOD1-related familial ALS (fALS), or in mutant SOD1 over-expressing transgenic mouse models of ALS remains controversial. Here we investigate TDP-43 pathology in transgenic mice expressing the G93A mutant form of SOD1. In contrast to previous reports we observe redistribution of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm of motor neurons in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, but this is seen only in mice having advanced disease. Furthermore, we also observe rounded TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions associated with intense ubiquitin immunoreactivity in lumbar spinal cord at end stage disease in mSOD mice. These data indicate that TDP-43 mislocalization and ubiquitination are present in end stage mSOD mice. However, we do not observe C-terminal TDP-43 fragments nor TDP-43 hyperphosphorylated species in these end stage mSOD mice. Our findings indicate that G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mice recapitulate some key pathological, but not all biochemical hallmarks, of TDP-43 pathology previously observed in human ALS. These studies suggest motor neuron degeneration in the mutant SOD1 transgenic mice is associated with TDP-43 histopathology.

  7. Unveiling the unfolding pathway of FALS associated G37R SOD1 mutant: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Milardi, Danilo; Pappalardo, Matteo; Grasso, Domenico M; La Rosa, Carmelo

    2010-06-01

    Although the molecular determinants of Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) are still largely unknown, previous studies have demonstrated that aggregation of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutants may play a causative role in FALS. It has been proposed that this pathogenic process occurs via a multi-step pathway involving metal loss, dimer dissociation and assembly of misfolded apo-monomers. The G37R, one of the many SOD1 mutations known to be associated to FALS, is difficult to be reconciled with this model because it is located far from the metal sites and the monomer-monomer interface. Consequently, an inspection of all the steps involved in G37R SOD1 misfolding is expected to provide hints in the understanding of the molecular basis of the disease. To this aim, an array of different computational strategies--i.e. Thermodynamic Integration (TI), implicit solvent Constant Temperature Molecular Dynamics (CTMD) and Steered Molecular Dynamics (SMD)--have been applied on the G37R SOD1 mutant. A comparison with parallel studies carried out for the Wild Type (WT) SOD1 pointed out that the mutation decreases the affinity of the protein for the Cu(ii) ion. Implicit solvents MD simulations performed on the two apo proteins revealed that in the mutant SOD1 a novel, stable H-bond network involving Arg37, Lys91, Lys36 and Leu38 is created thus confirming a pivotal role of this region in driving the biophysical properties of the entire protein. Finally, the presence of energetic "traps" in the force vs. elongation curves of G37R SOD1 is an indicator of the existence of intermediate states along the unfolding pathway which may lead to abnormal conformers. Our results support a general theory suggesting that the two major hypotheses regarding mutant SOD1 toxicity, i.e. aberrant copper redox chemistry and SOD1 misfolding are causally linked. In fact it is shown that the G37R mutation, although located far away the active site, may induce subtle modification in SOD1

  8. Mutant SOD1 inhibits ER-Golgi transport in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Julie D; Farg, Manal A; Soo, Kai Ying; Walker, Adam K; Halloran, Mark; Turner, Bradley J; Nagley, Phillip; Horne, Malcolm K

    2014-04-01

    Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase is misfolded in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but it is not clear how this triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or other pathogenic processes. Here, we demonstrate that mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) is predominantly found in the cytoplasm in neuronal cells. Furthermore, we show that mSOD1 inhibits secretory protein transport from the ER to Golgi apparatus. ER-Golgi transport is linked to ER stress, Golgi fragmentation and axonal transport and we also show that inhibition of ER-Golgi trafficking preceded ER stress, Golgi fragmentation, protein aggregation and apoptosis in cells expressing mSOD1. Restoration of ER-Golgi transport by over-expression of coatomer coat protein II subunit Sar1 protected against inclusion formation and apoptosis, thus linking dysfunction in ER-Golgi transport to cellular pathology. These findings thus link several cellular events in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis into a single mechanism occurring early in mSOD1 expressing cells. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. A systematic immunoprecipitation approach reinforces the concept of common conformational alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked SOD1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takao; Yamaguchi, Namiko; Kadowaki, Hisae; Tsukamoto, Yuka; Tsuburaya, Naomi; Tsubota, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Naguro, Isao; Takahashi, Yuji; Goto, Jun; Tsuji, Shoji; Nishitoh, Hideki; Homma, Kengo; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in the Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene are one of the causative agents of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although more than 100 different mutations in SOD1 have been identified, it is unclear whether all the mutations are pathogenic or just single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unrelated to the disease. Our previous systematic analysis found that all pathogenic SOD1 mutants (SOD1(mut)) have a common property, namely, an association with Derlin-1, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation machinery. For the proposed mechanism, we found that most pathogenic SOD1(mut) have a constitutively exposed Derlin-1-binding region (DBR), which is concealed in wild-type SOD1 (SOD1(WT)). Moreover, we generated MS785, a monoclonal antibody against DBR. MS785 distinguished most ALS-causative SOD1(mut) from both SOD1(WT) and non-toxic SOD1(mut). However, MS785 could not recognize SOD1(mut) that has mutations in the MS785 epitope region. Here, we developed a new diagnostic antibody, which could compensate for this shortcoming of MS785. We hypothesized that in ALS-causative SOD1(mut), the DBR-neighboring region [SOD1(30-40)] may also be exposed. We then generated MS27, a monoclonal antibody against SOD1(30-40). We found that MS27 could distinguish SOD1(WT) from the pathogenic SOD1(mut), which has mutations in the MS785 epitope region. Moreover, all pathogenic SOD1(mut), without exception, were immunoprecipitated with a combination of MS785 and MS27. The MS785-MS27 combination could be developed as a novel mechanism-based biomarker for the diagnosis of ALS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Guanabenz Treatment Accelerates Disease in a Mutant SOD1 Mouse Model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Fernando G.; Ping, Qinggong; Moreno, Andy J.; Kidd, Joshua D.; Thompson, Kenneth; Jiang, Bingbing; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; De Zutter, Gerard S.; Tassinari, Valerie R.; Levine, Beth; Hatzipetros, Theo; Gill, Alan; Perrin, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. The mechanisms leading to motor neuron degeneration in ALS are unclear. However, there is evidence for involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in ALS, notably in mutant SOD1 mediated models of ALS. Stress induced phosphorylation of the eIF2 alpha subunit by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 Perk activates the UPR. Guanabenz is a centrally acting alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonist shown to interact with a regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase, Pp1/Gadd34, and selectively disrupt the dephosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eif2alpha). Here we demonstrate that guanabenz is protective in fibroblasts expressing G93A mutant SOD1 when they are exposed to tunicamycin mediated ER stress. However, in contrast to other reports, guanabenz treatment accelerated ALS-like disease progression in a strain of mutant SOD1 transgenic ALS mice. This study highlights challenges of pharmacological interventions of cellular stress responses in whole animal models of ALS. PMID:26288094

  11. Role of mitochondria in mutant SOD1 linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenzhi; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with an adult onset characterized by loss of both upper and lower motor neurons. In ~10% of cases, patients developed ALS with an apparent genetic linkage (familial ALS or fALS). Approximately 20% of fALS displays mutations in the SOD1 gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1. There are many proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms among which, mitochondrial dysfunctions occur early, prior to symptoms occurrence. In this review, we modeled the effect of mutant SOD1 protein via the formation of a toxic complex with Bcl2 on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Furthermore, we discuss that the shutdown of ATP permeation through mitochondrial outer membrane could lead to both respiration inhibition and temporary mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Moreover, we reviewed mitochondrial calcium signaling, oxidative stress, fission and fusion, autophagy and apoptosis in mutant SOD1-linked ALS. Functional defects in mitochondria appear early before symptoms are manifested in ALS. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is a promising therapeutic target in ALS.

  12. Huntingtin Fragments and SOD1 Mutants Form Soluble Oligomers in the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Mark; Taylor, J. Paul; Eisenberg, Evan; Greene, Lois E.

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of huntingtin (Htt) fragments and SOD1 mutants expressed in cells were measured using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The diffusion mobilities of both non-pathological Htt fragments (25 polyQs) and pathological Htt fragments (103 polyQs) were much slower than expected for monomers suggesting that they oligomerize. The mobility of these fragments was unaffected by duration of expression or by over-expression of Hsp70 and Hsp40. However in cells with HttQ103 inclusions, diffusion measurements showed that the residual cytosolic HttQ103 was monomeric. These results suggest that both non-pathological and pathological Htt fragments form soluble oligomers in the cytosol with the properties of the oligomers determining whether they cause pathology. SOD1 with point mutations (A4V, G37R, and G85R) also had slower diffusional mobility than the wild-type protein whose mobility was consistent with that of a dimer. However, the decrease in mobility of the different SOD1 mutantsdid not correlate with their known pathology. Therefore, while soluble oligomers always seem to be present under conditions where cell pathology occurs, the presence of the oligomers, in itself, does not determine the extent of neuropathology. PMID:22768276

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated mutant SOD1 inhibits anterograde axonal transport of mitochondria by reducing Miro1 levels.

    PubMed

    Moller, Annekathrin; Bauer, Claudia S; Cohen, Rebecca N; Webster, Christopher P; De Vos, Kurt J

    2017-09-14

    Defective axonal transport is an early neuropathological feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously shown that ALS-associated mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) impair axonal transport of mitochondria in motor neurons isolated from SOD1 G93A transgenic mice and in ALS mutant SOD1 transfected cortical neurons, but the underlying mechanisms remained unresolved.The outer mitochondrial membrane protein mitochondrial Rho GTPase 1 (Miro1) is a master regulator of mitochondrial axonal transport in response to cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) levels ([Ca2+]c) and mitochondrial damage. Ca2+ binding to Miro1 halts mitochondrial transport by modifying its interaction with kinesin-1 whereas mitochondrial damage induces Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin-dependent degradation of Miro1 and consequently stops transport.To identify the mechanism underlying impaired axonal transport of mitochondria in SOD1-related ALS we investigated [Ca2+]c and Miro1 levels in ALS mutant SOD1 expressing neurons. We found that expression of ALS mutant SOD1 reduced the level of endogenous Miro1 but did not affect [Ca2+]c. ALS mutant SOD1 induced reductions in Miro1 levels were Parkin dependent. Moreover, both overexpression of Miro1 and ablation of PINK1 rescued the mitochondrial axonal transport deficit in ALS mutant SOD1-expressing cortical and motor neurons.Together these results provide evidence that ALS mutant SOD1 inhibits axonal transport of mitochondria by inducing PINK1/Parkin-dependent Miro1 degradation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Prion-like propagation of mutant SOD1 misfolding and motor neuron disease spread along neuroanatomical pathways.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Jacob I; Fromholt, Susan E; O'Neal, Veronica M; Diamond, Jeffrey H; Borchelt, David R

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is that symptoms appear to spread along neuroanatomical pathways to engulf the motor nervous system, suggesting a propagative toxic entity could be involved in disease pathogenesis. Evidence for such a propagative entity emerged recently in studies using mice that express G85R-SOD1 mutant protein fused to YFP (G85R-SOD1:YFP). Heterozygous G85R-SOD1:YFP transgenic mice do not develop ALS symptoms out to 20 months of age. However, when newborns are injected with spinal homogenates from paralyzed mutant SOD1 mice, the G85R-SOD1:YFP mice develop paralysis as early as 6 months of age. We now demonstrate that injecting spinal homogenates from paralyzed mutant SOD1 mice into the sciatic nerves of adult G85R-SOD1:YFP mice produces a spreading motor neuron disease within 3.0 ± 0.2 months of injection. The formation of G85R-SOD1:YFP inclusion pathology spreads slowly in this model system; first appearing in the ipsilateral DRG, then lumbar spinal cord, before spreading rostrally up to the cervical cord by the time mice develop paralysis. Reactive astrogliosis mirrors the spread of inclusion pathology and motor neuron loss is most severe in lumbar cord. G85R-SOD1:YFP inclusion pathology quickly spreads to discrete neurons in the brainstem and midbrain that are synaptically connected to spinal neurons, suggesting a trans-synaptic propagation of misfolded protein. Taken together, the data presented here describe the first animal model that recapitulates the spreading phenotype observed in patients with ALS, and implicates the propagation of misfolded protein as a potential mechanism for the spreading of motor neuron disease.

  15. Molecular chaperone Hsp110 rescues a vesicle transport defect produced by an ALS-associated mutant SOD1 protein in squid axoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuyu; Nagy, Maria; Ni, Weiming; Tyagi, Navneet K.; Fenton, Wayne A.; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Overton, John D.; Horwich, Arthur L.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is associated with motor neuron toxicity and death in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig disease). One aspect of toxicity in motor neurons involves diminished fast axonal transport, observed both in transgenic mice and, more recently, in axoplasm isolated from squid giant axons. The latter effect appears to be directly mediated by misfolded SOD1, whose addition activates phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and phosphorylation of kinesin. Here, we observe that several different oligomeric states of a fusion protein, comprising ALS-associated human G85R SOD1 joined with yellow fluorescent protein (G85R SOD1YFP), which produces ALS in transgenic mice, inhibited anterograde transport when added to squid axoplasm. Inhibition was blocked both by an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1; MAPKKK) inhibitor and by a p38 inhibitor, indicating the transport defect is mediated through the MAPK cascade. In further incubations, we observed that addition of the mammalian molecular chaperone Hsc70, abundantly associated with G85R SOD1YFP in spinal cord of transgenic mice, exerted partial correction of the transport defect, associated with diminished phosphorylation of p38. Most striking, the addition of the molecular chaperone Hsp110, in a concentration substoichiometric to the mutant SOD1 protein, completely rescued both the transport defect and the phosphorylation of p38. Hsp110 has been demonstrated to act as a nucleotide exchange factor for Hsc70 and, more recently, to be able to cooperate with it to mediate protein disaggregation. We speculate that it can cooperate with endogenous squid Hsp(c)70 to mediate binding and/or disaggregation of mutant SOD1 protein, abrogating toxicity. PMID:23509252

  16. Molecular chaperone Hsp110 rescues a vesicle transport defect produced by an ALS-associated mutant SOD1 protein in squid axoplasm.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuyu; Nagy, Maria; Ni, Weiming; Tyagi, Navneet K; Fenton, Wayne A; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Overton, John D; Horwich, Arthur L; Brady, Scott T

    2013-04-02

    Mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is associated with motor neuron toxicity and death in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig disease). One aspect of toxicity in motor neurons involves diminished fast axonal transport, observed both in transgenic mice and, more recently, in axoplasm isolated from squid giant axons. The latter effect appears to be directly mediated by misfolded SOD1, whose addition activates phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and phosphorylation of kinesin. Here, we observe that several different oligomeric states of a fusion protein, comprising ALS-associated human G85R SOD1 joined with yellow fluorescent protein (G85R SOD1YFP), which produces ALS in transgenic mice, inhibited anterograde transport when added to squid axoplasm. Inhibition was blocked both by an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1; MAPKKK) inhibitor and by a p38 inhibitor, indicating the transport defect is mediated through the MAPK cascade. In further incubations, we observed that addition of the mammalian molecular chaperone Hsc70, abundantly associated with G85R SOD1YFP in spinal cord of transgenic mice, exerted partial correction of the transport defect, associated with diminished phosphorylation of p38. Most striking, the addition of the molecular chaperone Hsp110, in a concentration substoichiometric to the mutant SOD1 protein, completely rescued both the transport defect and the phosphorylation of p38. Hsp110 has been demonstrated to act as a nucleotide exchange factor for Hsc70 and, more recently, to be able to cooperate with it to mediate protein disaggregation. We speculate that it can cooperate with endogenous squid Hsp(c)70 to mediate binding and/or disaggregation of mutant SOD1 protein, abrogating toxicity.

  17. An over-oxidized form of superoxide dismutase found in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with bulbar onset shares a toxic mechanism with mutant SOD1

    PubMed Central

    Guareschi, Stefania; Cova, Emanuela; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro; Donetti, Elena; Bosco, Daryl A.; Trotti, Davide; Pasinelli, Piera

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) could be pathogenic in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through either inheritable or nonheritable modifications. The presence of a misfolded WT SOD1 in patients with sporadic ALS, along with the recently reported evidence that reducing SOD1 levels in astrocytes derived from sporadic patients inhibits astrocyte-mediated toxicity on motor neurons, suggest that WT SOD1 may acquire toxic properties similar to familial ALS-linked mutant SOD1, perhaps through posttranslational modifications. Using patients’ lymphoblasts, we show here that indeed WT SOD1 is modified posttranslationally in sporadic ALS and is iper-oxidized (i.e., above baseline oxidation levels) in a subset of patients with bulbar onset. Derivatization analysis of oxidized carbonyl compounds performed on immunoprecipitated SOD1 identified an iper-oxidized SOD1 that recapitulates mutant SOD1-like properties and damages mitochondria by forming a toxic complex with mitochondrial Bcl-2. This study conclusively demonstrates the existence of an iper-oxidized SOD1 with toxic properties in patient-derived cells and identifies a common SOD1-dependent toxicity between mutant SOD1-linked familial ALS and a subset of sporadic ALS, providing an opportunity to develop biomarkers to subclassify ALS and devise SOD1-based therapies that go beyond the small group of patients with mutant SOD1. PMID:22416121

  18. Mitochondria-targeted catalase reverts the neurotoxicity of hSOD1G⁹³A astrocytes without extending the survival of ALS-linked mutant hSOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Pehar, Mariana; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2014-01-01

    Dominant mutations in the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. The molecular mechanism underlying the toxic gain-of-function of mutant hSOD1s remains uncertain. Several lines of evidence suggest that toxicity to motor neurons requires damage to non-neuronal cells. In line with this observation, primary astrocytes isolated from mutant hSOD1 over-expressing rodents induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Mitochondrial alterations have been documented in both neuronal and glial cells from ALS patients as well as in ALS-animal models. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress have been linked to the toxicity of mutant hSOD1 in astrocytes and neurons. In mutant SOD1-linked ALS, mitochondrial alterations may be partially due to the increased association of mutant SOD1 with the outer membrane and intermembrane space of the mitochondria, where it can affect several critical aspects of mitochondrial function. We have previously shown that decreasing glutathione levels, which is crucial for peroxide detoxification in the mitochondria, significantly accelerates motor neuron death in hSOD1G93A mice. Here we employed a catalase targeted to the mitochondria to investigate the effect of increased mitochondrial peroxide detoxification capacity in models of mutant hSOD1-mediated motor neuron death. The over-expression of mitochondria-targeted catalase improved mitochondrial antioxidant defenses and mitochondrial function in hSOD1G93A astrocyte cultures. It also reverted the toxicity of hSOD1G93A-expressing astrocytes towards co-cultured motor neurons, however ALS-animals did not develop the disease later or survive longer. Hence, while increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been extensively documented in ALS, these results suggest that preventing peroxide-mediated mitochondrial damage alone is not

  19. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Fabiola; Cortes, Nicole; Abarzua, Sebastian; Dyrda, Agnieszka; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1G93A contains toxic factor(s) that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s) that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM) that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1G93A and ACM-SOD1G86R) or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43A315T) mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30–60 min) increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress) and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol) strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Nav channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine, or riluzole) prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Nav channel activity. PMID:24570655

  20. Overexpression of survival motor neuron improves neuromuscular function and motor neuron survival in mutant SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bradley J; Alfazema, Neza; Sheean, Rebecca K; Sleigh, James N; Davies, Kay E; Horne, Malcolm K; Talbot, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy results from diminished levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein in spinal motor neurons. Low levels of SMN also occur in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and genetic reduction of SMN levels exacerbates the phenotype of transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice. Here, we demonstrate that SMN protein is significantly reduced in the spinal cords of patients with sporadic ALS. To test the potential of SMN as a modifier of ALS, we overexpressed SMN in 2 different strains of SOD1(G93A) mice. Neuronal overexpression of SMN significantly preserved locomotor function, rescued motor neurons, and attenuated astrogliosis in spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice. Despite this, survival was not prolonged, most likely resulting from SMN mislocalization and depletion of gems in motor neurons of symptomatic mice. Our results reveal that SMN upregulation slows locomotor deficit onset and motor neuron loss in this mouse model of ALS. However, disruption of SMN nuclear complexes by high levels of mutant SOD1, even in the presence of SMN overexpression, might limit its survival promoting effects in this specific mouse model. Studies in emerging mouse models of ALS are therefore warranted to further explore the potential of SMN as a modifier of ALS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ALS-linked mutant SOD1 proteins promote Aβ aggregates in ALS through direct interaction with Aβ.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Young; Cho, Hyungmin; Park, Hye-Yoon; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Kang, Seongman

    2017-11-04

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Aggregation of ALS-linked mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a hallmark of a subset of familial ALS (fALS). Recently, intracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) is detected in motor neurons of both sporadic and familial ALS. We have previously shown that intracellular Aβ specifically interacts with G93A, an ALS-linked SOD1 mutant. However, little is known about the pathological and biological effect of this interaction in neurons. In this study, we have demonstrated that the Aβ-binding region is exposed on the SOD1 surface through the conformational changes due to misfolding of SOD1. Interestingly, we found that the intracellular aggregation of Aβ is enhanced through the direct interaction of Aβ with the Aβ-binding region exposed to misfolded SOD1. Ultimately, increased Aβ aggregation by this interaction promotes neuronal cell death. Consistent with this result, Aβ aggregates was three-fold higher in the brains of G93A transgenic mice than those of non Tg. Our study provides the first direct evidence that Aβ, an AD-linked factor, is associated to the pathogenesis of ALS and provides molecular clues to understand common aggregation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, it will provide new insights into the development of therapeutic approaches for ALS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acquisition of pro-oxidant activity of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants as revealed using circular dichroism and UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimaki, Nobuhiro; Nishiya, Ken; Miura, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu

    2016-11-01

    The acquisition of pro-oxidant activity of the mutated form of human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been investigated to clarify the relationship between mutations in SOD1 and the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Ala4 → Val (A4V) and Gly93 → Ala (G93A) mutants, which are representative ALS-linked SOD1 mutants, have been found to exhibit both the denaturation and the gain of pro-oxidant activity after incubation in the apo-form at a physiological condition of 37 °C and pH 7.4 and the rebinding of Cu2+. These characteristics are similar to those previously reported for the His43 → Arg (H43R) mutant. UV-resonance Raman spectra indicated that the coordination structure of the Cu-binding site catalyzing the oxidation reaction is the same among the denatured A4V, G93A, and H43R. Since wild-type SOD1 does not exhibit the denaturation in its apo-form at 37 °C and pH 7.4, the instability of the protein structure due to mutation can be considered as a significant factor that induces the denaturation and the subsequent pro-oxidant activity.

  3. Widespread aggregation of mutant VAPB associated with ALS does not cause motor neuron degeneration or modulate mutant SOD1 aggregation and toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A proline-to-serine substitution at position-56 (P56S) of vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) causes a form of dominantly inherited motor neuron disease (MND), including typical and atypical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a mild late-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). VAPB is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein and has been implicated in various cellular processes, including ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and Ca2+ homeostasis. However, it is unclear how the P56S mutation leads to neurodegeneration and muscle atrophy in patients. The formation of abnormal VAPB-positive inclusions by mutant VAPB suggests a possible toxic gain of function as an underlying mechanism. Furthermore, the amount of VAPB protein is reported to be reduced in sporadic ALS patients and mutant SOD1G93A mice, leading to the hypothesis that wild type VAPB plays a role in the pathogenesis of ALS without VAPB mutations. Results To investigate the pathogenic mechanism in vivo, we generated human wild type (wtVAPB) and mutant VAPB (muVAPB) transgenic mice that expressed the transgenes broadly in the CNS. We observed robust VAPB-positive aggregates in the spinal cord of muVAPB transgenic mice. However, we failed to find an impairment of motor function and motor neuron degeneration. We also did not detect any change in the endogenous VAPB level or evidence for induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and coaggregation of VAPA with muVAPB. Furthermore, we crossed these VAPB transgenic mice with mice that express mutant SOD1G93A and develop motor neuron degeneration. Overexpression of neither wtVAPB nor muVAPB modulated the protein aggregation and disease progression in the SOD1G93A mice. Conclusion Overexpression of VAPBP56S mutant to approximately two-fold of the endogenous VAPB in mouse spinal cord produced abundant VAPB aggregates but was not sufficient to cause motor dysfunction or motor neuron degeneration

  4. Widespread aggregation of mutant VAPB associated with ALS does not cause motor neuron degeneration or modulate mutant SOD1 aggregation and toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Linghua; Qiao, Tao; Beers, Melissa; Tan, Weijia; Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Bin; Xu, Zuoshang

    2013-01-03

    A proline-to-serine substitution at position-56 (P56S) of vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) causes a form of dominantly inherited motor neuron disease (MND), including typical and atypical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a mild late-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). VAPB is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein and has been implicated in various cellular processes, including ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and Ca2+ homeostasis. However, it is unclear how the P56S mutation leads to neurodegeneration and muscle atrophy in patients. The formation of abnormal VAPB-positive inclusions by mutant VAPB suggests a possible toxic gain of function as an underlying mechanism. Furthermore, the amount of VAPB protein is reported to be reduced in sporadic ALS patients and mutant SOD1G93A mice, leading to the hypothesis that wild type VAPB plays a role in the pathogenesis of ALS without VAPB mutations. To investigate the pathogenic mechanism in vivo, we generated human wild type (wtVAPB) and mutant VAPB (muVAPB) transgenic mice that expressed the transgenes broadly in the CNS. We observed robust VAPB-positive aggregates in the spinal cord of muVAPB transgenic mice. However, we failed to find an impairment of motor function and motor neuron degeneration. We also did not detect any change in the endogenous VAPB level or evidence for induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and coaggregation of VAPA with muVAPB. Furthermore, we crossed these VAPB transgenic mice with mice that express mutant SOD1G93A and develop motor neuron degeneration. Overexpression of neither wtVAPB nor muVAPB modulated the protein aggregation and disease progression in the SOD1G93A mice. Overexpression of VAPBP56S mutant to approximately two-fold of the endogenous VAPB in mouse spinal cord produced abundant VAPB aggregates but was not sufficient to cause motor dysfunction or motor neuron degeneration. Furthermore, overexpression of either

  5. Human SOD1 ALS Mutations in a Drosophila Knock-In Model Cause Severe Phenotypes and Reveal Dosage-Sensitive Gain- and Loss-of-Function Components.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Aslı; Held, Aaron; Bredvik, Kirsten; Major, Paxton; Achilli, Toni-Marie; Kerson, Abigail G; Wharton, Kristi; Stilwell, Geoff; Reenan, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease and familial forms can be caused by numerous dominant mutations of the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. Substantial efforts have been invested in studying SOD1-ALS transgenic animal models; yet, the molecular mechanisms by which ALS-mutant SOD1 protein acquires toxicity are not well understood. ALS-like phenotypes in animal models are highly dependent on transgene dosage. Thus, issues of whether the ALS-like phenotypes of these models stem from overexpression of mutant alleles or from aspects of the SOD1 mutation itself are not easily deconvolved. To address concerns about levels of mutant SOD1 in disease pathogenesis, we have genetically engineered four human ALS-causing SOD1 point mutations (G37R, H48R, H71Y, and G85R) into the endogenous locus of Drosophila SOD1 (dsod) via ends-out homologous recombination and analyzed the resulting molecular, biochemical, and behavioral phenotypes. Contrary to previous transgenic models, we have recapitulated ALS-like phenotypes without overexpression of the mutant protein. Drosophila carrying homozygous mutations rendering SOD1 protein enzymatically inactive (G85R, H48R, and H71Y) exhibited neurodegeneration, locomotor deficits, and shortened life span. The mutation retaining enzymatic activity (G37R) was phenotypically indistinguishable from controls. While the observed mutant dsod phenotypes were recessive, a gain-of-function component was uncovered through dosage studies and comparisons with age-matched dsod null animals, which failed to show severe locomotor defects or nerve degeneration. We conclude that the Drosophila knock-in model captures important aspects of human SOD1-based ALS and provides a powerful and useful tool for further genetic studies. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. The anabolic/androgenic steroid nandrolone exacerbates gene expression modifications induced by mutant SOD1 in muscles of mice models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Mariarita; Onesto, Elisa; Zito, Arianna; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Mariotti, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bendotti, Caterina; Poletti, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs that enhance muscle mass, and are often illegally utilized in athletes to improve their performances. Recent data suggest that the increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in male soccer and football players could be linked to AAS abuse. ALS is a motor neuron disease mainly occurring in sporadic (sALS) forms, but some familial forms (fALS) exist and have been linked to mutations in different genes. Some of these, in their wild type (wt) form, have been proposed as risk factors for sALS, i.e. superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, whose mutations are causative of about 20% of fALS. Notably, SOD1 toxicity might occur both in motor neurons and in muscle cells. Using gastrocnemius muscles of mice overexpressing human mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) at different disease stages, we found that the expression of a selected set of genes associated to muscle atrophy, MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. Atrogin-1 gene expression was increased also in mice overexpressing human wtSOD1. Similar alterations were found in axotomized mouse muscles and in cultured ALS myoblast models. In these ALS models, we then evaluated the pharmacological effects of the synthetic AAS nandrolone on the expression of the genes modified in ALS muscle. Nandrolone administration had no effects on MyoD, myogenin, and atrogin-1 expression, but it significantly increased TGFβ1 expression at disease onset. Altogether, these data suggest that, in fALS, muscle gene expression is altered at early stages, and AAS may exacerbate some of the alterations induced by SOD1 possibly acting as a contributing factor also in sALS.

  7. Substantially elevating the levels of αB-crystallin in spinal motor neurons of mutant SOD1 mice does not significantly delay paralysis or attenuate mutant protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guilian; Fromholt, Susan; Ayers, Jacob I; Brown, Hilda; Siemienski, Zoe; Crosby, Keith W; Mayer, Christopher A; Janus, Christopher; Borchelt, David R

    2015-05-01

    There has been great interest in enhancing endogenous protein maintenance pathways such as the heat-shock chaperone response, as it is postulated that enhancing clearance of misfolded proteins could have beneficial disease modifying effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders. In cultured cell models of mutant SOD1 aggregation, co-expression of αB-crystallin (αB-crys) has been shown to inhibit the formation of detergent-insoluble forms of mutant protein. Here, we describe the generation of a new line of transgenic mice that express αB-crys at > 6-fold the normal level in spinal cord, with robust increases in immunoreactivity throughout the spinal cord grey matter and, specifically, in spinal motor neurons. Surprisingly, spinal cords of mice expressing αB-crys alone contained 20% more motor neurons per section than littermate controls. Raising αB-crys by these levels in mice transgenic for either G93A or L126Z mutant SOD1 had no effect on the age at which paralysis developed. In the G93A mice, which showed the most robust degree of motor neuron loss, the number of these cells declined by the same proportion as in mice expressing the mutant SOD1 alone. In paralyzed bigenic mice, the levels of detergent-insoluble, misfolded, mutant SOD1 were similar to those of mice expressing mutant SOD1 alone. These findings indicate that raising the levels of αB-crys in spinal motor neurons by 6-fold does not produce the therapeutic effects predicted by cell culture models of mutant SOD1 aggregation. Enhancing the protein chaperone function may present a therapeutic approach to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutations in SOD1, and other neurodegenerative disorders characterized by cytosolic protein aggregation. Previous studies in cell models suggested that the chaperone known as αB-crystallin (αB-crys) can prevent mutant SOD1 aggregation. We report that transgenic expression of αB-crys at > 6-fold the normal level in spinal

  8. Heat shock factor 1 over-expression protects against exposure of hydrophobic residues on mutant SOD1 and early mortality in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) are responsible for 20% of familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and mutant SOD1 has been shown to have increased surface hydrophobicity in vitro. Mutant SOD1 may adopt a complex array of conformations with varying toxicity in vivo. We have used a novel florescence-based proteomic assay using 4,4’-bis-1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (bisANS) to assess the surface hydrophobicity, and thereby distinguish between different conformations, of SOD1and other proteins in situ. Results Covalent bisANS labeling of spinal cord extracts revealed that alterations in surface hydrophobicity of H46R/H48Q mutations in SOD1 provoke formation of high molecular weight SOD1 species with lowered solubility, likely due to increased exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. BisANS was docked on the H46R/H48Q SOD1 structure at the disordered copper binding and electrostatic loops of mutant SOD1, but not non-mutant WT SOD1. 16 non-SOD1 proteins were also identified that exhibited altered surface hydrophobicity in the H46R/H48Q mutant mouse model of ALS, including proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, signaling, and protein quality control. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were also enriched in the detergent-insoluble fractions with SOD1. Given that chaperones recognize proteins with exposed hydrophobic surfaces as substrates and the importance of protein homeostasis in ALS, we crossed SOD1 H46R/H48Q mutant mice with mice over-expressing the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) transcription factor. Here we showed that HSF1 over-expression in H46R/H48Q ALS mice enhanced proteostasis as evidenced by increased expression of HSPs in motor neurons and astrocytes and increased solubility of mutant SOD1. HSF1 over-expression significantly reduced body weight loss, delayed ALS disease onset, decreases cases of early disease, and increased survival for the 25th percentile in an H46R/H48Q SOD1 background. HSF1

  9. Heat shock factor 1 over-expression protects against exposure of hydrophobic residues on mutant SOD1 and early mortality in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Simon, Sharotka M; Koh, Won Kyun; Folorunso, Oluwarotimi; Umbaugh, C Samuel; Pierce, Anson

    2013-11-21

    Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) are responsible for 20% of familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and mutant SOD1 has been shown to have increased surface hydrophobicity in vitro. Mutant SOD1 may adopt a complex array of conformations with varying toxicity in vivo. We have used a novel fluorescence-based proteomic assay using 4,4'-bis-1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (bisANS) to assess the surface hydrophobicity, and thereby distinguish between different conformations, of SOD1 and other proteins in situ. Covalent bisANS labeling of spinal cord extracts revealed that alterations in surface hydrophobicity of H46R/H48Q mutations in SOD1 provoke formation of high molecular weight SOD1 species with lowered solubility, likely due to increased exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. BisANS was docked on the H46R/H48Q SOD1 structure at the disordered copper binding and electrostatic loops of mutant SOD1, but not non-mutant WT SOD1. 16 non-SOD1 proteins were also identified that exhibited altered surface hydrophobicity in the H46R/H48Q mutant mouse model of ALS, including proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, signaling, and protein quality control. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were also enriched in the detergent-insoluble fractions with SOD1. Given that chaperones recognize proteins with exposed hydrophobic surfaces as substrates and the importance of protein homeostasis in ALS, we crossed SOD1 H46R/H48Q mutant mice with mice over-expressing the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) transcription factor. Here we showed that HSF1 over-expression in H46R/H48Q ALS mice enhanced proteostasis as evidenced by increased expression of HSPs in motor neurons and astrocytes and increased solubility of mutant SOD1. HSF1 over-expression significantly reduced body weight loss, delayed ALS disease onset, decreases cases of early disease, and increased survival for the 25th percentile in an H46R/H48Q SOD1 background. HSF1 overexpression did not affect

  10. Distinct partitioning of ALS associated TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 mutants into cellular inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Farrawell, Natalie E.; Lambert-Smith, Isabella A.; Warraich, Sadaf T.; Blair, Ian P.; Saunders, Darren N.; Hatters, Danny M.; Yerbury, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Most cases are characterized by TDP-43 positive inclusions, while a minority of familial ALS cases are instead FUS and SOD1 positive respectively. Cells can generate inclusions of variable type including previously characterized aggresomes, IPOD or JUNQ structures depending on the misfolded protein. SOD1 invariably forms JUNQ inclusions but it remains unclear whether other ALS protein aggregates arise as one of these previously described inclusion types or form unique structures. Here we show that FUS variably partitioned to IPOD, JUNQ or alternate structures, contain a mobile fraction, were not microtubule dependent and initially did not contain ubiquitin. TDP-43 inclusions formed in a microtubule independent manner, did not contain a mobile fraction but variably colocalized to JUNQ inclusions and another alternate structure. We conclude that the RNA binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS do not consistently fit the currently characterised inclusion models suggesting that cells have a larger repertoire for generating inclusions than currently thought, and imply that toxicity in ALS does not stem from a particular aggregation process or aggregate structure. PMID:26293199

  11. The in vivo contribution of motor neuron TrkB receptors to mutant SOD1 motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jinbin; Zhou, Weiguo; Li, Jian; Hayworth, Christopher R; Zhang, Lei; Misawa, Hidemi; Klein, Rudiger; Scherer, Steven S; Balice-Gordon, Rita J; Kalb, Robert Gordon

    2011-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) are widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and play a central role in mature neuronal function. In vitro BDNF/TrkB signaling promotes neuronal survival and can help neurons resist toxic insults. Paradoxically, BDNF/TrkB signaling has also been shown, under certain in vitro circumstances, to render neurons vulnerable to insults. We show here that in vivo conditional deletion of TrkB from mature motor neurons attenuates mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) toxicity. Mutant SOD1 mice lacking motor neuron TrkB live a month longer than controls and retain motor function for a longer period, particularly in the early phase of the disease. These effects are subserved by slowed motor neuron loss, persistence of neuromuscular junction integrity and reduced astrocytic and microglial reactivity within the spinal cord. These results suggest that manipulation of BDNF/TrkB signaling might have therapeutic efficacy in motor neuron diseases.

  12. Mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, disrupts the recruitment of SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy protein to nuclear Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Shingo; Re, Diane B; Jacquier, Arnaud; Nelson, Katelyn; Przedborski, Serge; Monani, Umrao R

    2012-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are among the most common motor neuron diseases to afflict the human population. A deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein causes SMA and is also reported to be an exacerbating factor in the development of ALS. However, pathways linking the two diseases have yet to be defined and it is not clear precisely how the pathology of ALS is aggravated by reduced SMN or whether mutant proteins underlying familial forms of ALS interfere with SMN-related biochemical pathways to exacerbate the neurodegenerative process. In this study, we show that mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), a cause of familial ALS, profoundly alters the sub-cellular localization of the SMN protein, preventing the formation of nuclear 'gems' by disrupting the recruitment of the protein to Cajal bodies. Overexpressing the SMN protein in mutant SOD1 mice, a model of familial ALS, alleviates this phenomenon, most likely in a cell-autonomous manner, and significantly mitigates the loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and in culture dishes. In the mice, the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype is delayed and motor function enhanced, suggestive of a therapeutic benefit for ALS patients treated with agents that augment the SMN protein. Nevertheless, this finding is tempered by an inability to prolong survival, a limitation most likely imposed by the inexorable denervation that characterizes ALS and eventually disrupts the neuromuscular synapses even in the presence of increased SMN.

  13. Solution oxygen-17 NMR application for observing a peroxidized cysteine residue in oxidized human SOD1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Noriko; Yoshihara, Daisaku; Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Eguchi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2016-12-01

    NMR active nuclei, 1H, 13C and 15N, are usually used for determination of protein structure. However, solution 17O-NMR application to proteins is extremely limited although oxygen is an essential element in biomolecules. Proteins are oxidized through cysteine residues by two types of oxidation. One is reversible oxidation such as disulphide bonding (Cys-S-S-Cys) and the other is irreversible oxidation to cysteine sulfinic acid (Cys-SO 2H) and cysteine sulfonic acid (Cys-SO 3H). Copper,Zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a key enzyme in the protection of cells from the superoxide anion radical. The SH group at Cys 111 residue in human SOD1 is selectively oxidized to -SO 2H and -SO 3H with atmospheric oxygen, and this oxidized human SOD1 is also suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases, probably mainly via protein aggregation. Therefore, information on the structural and the dynamics of the oxidized cysteine residue would be crucial for the understanding of protein aggregation mechanism. Although the -SO 3H group on proteins cannot be directly detected by conventional NMR techniques, we successfully performed the site-specific 17O-labeling of Cys 111 in SOD1 using ^{17}it {O}2 gas and the 17O-NMR analysis for the first time. We observed clear 17O signal derived from a protein molecule and show that 17O-NMR is a sensitive probe for studying the structure and dynamics of the 17O-labeled protein molecule. This novel and unique strategy can have great impact on many research fields in biology and chemistry.

  14. Talampanel reduces the level of motoneuronal calcium in transgenic mutant SOD1 mice only if applied presymptomatically

    PubMed Central

    Paizs, Melinda; Tortarolo, Massimo; Bendotti, Caterina; Engelhardt, Jozsef I; Siklós, László

    2011-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of treatment with talampanel in a mutant SOD1 mouse model of ALS by measuring intracellular calcium levels and loss of spinal motor neurons. We intended to mimic the clinical study; hence, treatment was started when the clinical symptoms were already present. The data were compared with the results of similar treatment started at a presymptomatic stage. Transgenic and wild-type mice were treated either with talampanel or with vehicle, starting in pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stages. The density of motor neurons was determined by the physical disector, and their intracellular calcium level was assayed electron microscopically. Results showed that motor neurons in the SOD1 mice exhibited an elevated calcium level, which could be reduced, but not restored, with talampanel only when the treatment was started presymptomatically. Treatment in either presymptomatic or symptomatic stages failed to rescue the motor neurons. We conclude that talampanel reduces motoneuronal calcium in a mouse model of ALS, but its efficacy declines as the disease progresses, suggesting that medication initiation in the earlier stages of the disease might be more effective. PMID:21623665

  15. Redox susceptibility of SOD1 mutants is associated with the differential response to CCS over-expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Son, Marjatta; Fu, Qiao; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Matthews, Christina M; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2009-04-01

    Over-expression of CCS in G93A SOD1 mice accelerates neurological disease and enhances mitochondrial pathology. We studied the effect of CCS over-expression in transgenic mice expressing G37R, G86R or L126Z SOD1 mutations in order to understand factors which influence mitochondrial dysfunction. Over-expression of CCS markedly decreased survival and produced mitochondrial vacuolation in G37R SOD1 mice but not in G86R or L126Z SOD1 mice. Moreover, CCS/G37R SOD1 spinal cord showed specific reductions in mitochondrial complex IV subunits consistent with an isolated COX deficiency, while no such reductions were detected in CCS/G86R or CCS/L126Z SOD1 mice. CCS over-expression increased the ratio of reduced to oxidized SOD1 monomers in the spinal cords of G37R SOD1 as well as G93A SOD1 mice, but did not influence the redox state of G86R or L126Z SOD1 monomers. The effects of CCS on disease are SOD1 mutation dependent and correlate with SOD1 redox susceptibility.

  16. A comprehensive assessment of the SOD1G93A low-copy transgenic mouse, which models human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Kalmar, Bernadett; Essa, Shafa; Ricketts, Thomas; Joyce, Peter; Kent, Rosie; Rowe, Claire; Parker, Andy; Gray, Anna; Hafezparast, Majid; Thorpe, Julian R; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2011-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in the death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The disorder generally strikes in mid-life, relentlessly leading to paralysis and death, typically 3-5 years after diagnosis. No effective treatments are available. Up to 10% of ALS is familial, usually autosomal dominant. Several causative genes are known and, of these, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is by far the most frequently found, accounting for up to 20% of familial ALS. A range of human mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse strains has been produced, and these largely successfully model the human disease. Of these, the most widely used is the SOD1 mouse, which expresses a human SOD1 transgene with a causative G93A mutation. This mouse model is excellent for many purposes but carries up to 25 copies of the transgene and produces a great excess of SOD1 protein, which might affect our interpretation of disease processes. A variant of this strain carries a deletion of the transgene array such that the copy number is dropped to eight to ten mutant SOD1 genes. This 'deleted' 'low-copy' mouse undergoes a slower course of disease, over many months. Here we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of phenotype, including nerve and muscle physiology and histology, to add to our knowledge of this 'deleted' strain and give baseline data for future studies. We find differences in phenotype that arise from genetic background and sex, and we quantify the loss of nerve and muscle function over time. The slowly progressive pathology observed in this mouse strain could provide us with a more appropriate model for studying early-stage pathological processes in ALS and aid the development of therapies for early-stage treatments.

  17. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Aberrant Mutant SOD1 and Dynein Complex Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaohu; Seyb, Kathleen I.; Huang, Mickey; Schuman, Eli R.; Shi, Ping; Zhu, Haining; Glicksman, Marcie A.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant protein-protein interactions are attractive drug targets in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases due to the common pathology of accumulation of protein aggregates. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mutations in SOD1 cause the formation of aggregates and inclusions that may sequester other proteins and disrupt cellular processes. It has been demonstrated that mutant SOD1, but not wild-type SOD1, interacts with the axonal transport motor dynein and that this interaction contributes to motor neuron cell death, suggesting that disrupting this interaction may be a potential therapeutic target. However, it can be challenging to configure a high-throughput screening (HTS)–compatible assay to detect inhibitors of a protein-protein interaction. Here we describe the development and challenges of an HTS for small-molecule inhibitors of the mutant SOD1-dynein interaction. We demonstrate that the interaction can be formed by coexpressing the A4V mutant SOD1 and dynein intermediate complex in cells and that this interaction can be disrupted by compounds added to the cell lysates. Finally, we show that some of the compounds identified from a pilot screen to inhibit the protein-protein interaction with this method specifically disrupt the interaction between the dynein complex and mtSOD1 but not the dynein complex itself when applied to live cells. PMID:22140121

  18. Marked synergism between mutant SOD1 and glutamate transport inhibition in the induction of motor neuronal degeneration in spinal cord slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong Z; Weiss, John H

    2012-04-11

    Loss of astrocytic glutamate transport capacity in ALS spinal cord supports an excitotoxic contribution to motor neuron (MN) damage in the disease, and dominant gain of function mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause certain familial forms of ALS. We have used organotypic slice cultures from wild type and G93A SOD1 mutant rat spinal cords to examine interactions between excitotoxicity and the presence of mutant SOD1 in the induction of MN degeneration. Slice cultures were prepared from 1 week old pups, and after an additional week in vitro, some were exposed to either a low level (30 μM) of the glutamate uptake inhibitor, trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) for 3 weeks, or a higher level (50 μM) for 48 h, followed by histochemical labeling to assess MN injury. In wild type animals these exposures caused relatively little MN degeneration. Similarly, little MN degeneration was seen in slices from SOD1 mutant animals that were not exposed to PDC. However, addition of PDC to SOD1 mutant slices resulted in substantial MN injury, which was markedly attenuated by a Ca2+ permeable AMPA-type (Ca-AMPA) glutamate channel blocker, or by a nitric oxide synthase antagonist. These observations illustrate the utility of the organotypic culture model for the investigation of intracellular interactions underlying MN degeneration in ALS, and support the hypothesis that activation of Ca-AMPA channels on MNs provides a metabolic burden that synergizes with deleterious effects of mutant SOD1 in the induction of MN injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spinal cord homogenates from SOD1 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis induce SOD1 aggregation in living cells.

    PubMed

    Pokrishevsky, Edward; Hong, Ran Ha; Mackenzie, Ian R; Cashman, Neil R

    2017-01-01

    Mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) can confer its misfolding on wild-type SOD1 in living cells; the propagation of misfolding can also be transmitted between cells in vitro. Recent studies identified fluorescently-tagged SOD1G85R as a promiscuous substrate that is highly prone to aggregate by a variety of templates, in vitro and in vivo. Here, we utilized several SOD1-GFP reporter proteins with G37R, G85R, or G93A mutations in SOD1. We observed that human spinal cord homogenates prepared from SOD1 familial ALS (FALS) can induce significantly more intracellular reporter protein aggregation than spinal cord homogenates from sporadic ALS, Alzheimer's disease, multiple system atrophy or healthy control individuals. We also determined that the induction of reporter protein aggregation by SOD1-FALS tissue homogenates can be attenuated by incubating the cells with the SOD1 misfolding-specific antibody 3H1, or the small molecule 5-fluorouridine. Our study further implicates SOD1 as the seeding particle responsible for the spread of SOD1-FALS neurodegeneration from its initial onset site(s), and demonstrates two potential therapeutic strategies for SOD1-mediated disease. This work also comprises a medium-throughput cell-based platform of screening potential therapeutics to attenuate propagated aggregation of SOD1.

  20. A Phase I, Randomised, First-in-Human Study of an Antisense Oligonucleotide Directed Against SOD1 Delivered Intrathecally in SOD1-Familial ALS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Timothy; Pestronk, Alan; David, William; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Simpson, Ericka; Appel, Stanley H.; Andres, Patricia L.; Mahoney, Katy; Allred, Peggy; Alexander, Katie; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Schoenfeld, David; Macklin, Eric A.; Norris, Daniel A.; Manousakis, Georgios; Crisp, Matthew; Smith, Richard; Bennett, C.F.; Bishop, Kathie; Cudkowicz, Merit E

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of an antisense oligonucleotide designed to inhibit SOD1 expression (ISIS 333611) following intrathecal administration in patients with SOD1-related familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Background Mutations in SOD1 cause 13% of familial ALS. In animal studies, ISIS 333611 delivered to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) distributed to the brain and spinal cord, decreased SOD1 mRNA and protein levels in spinal cord tissue, and prolonged survival in the SOD1G93A rat ALS model. Methods In a randomized, placebo controlled Phase 1 trial, ISIS 333611 was delivered by intrathecal infusion using an external pump over 11.5 hours at increasing doses to four cohorts of eight SOD1 positive ALS subjects (randomized 6 drug: 2 placebo/cohort). Subjects were allowed to re-enroll in subsequent cohorts. Safety and tolerability assessments were made during the infusion and periodically over 28 days following the infusion. CSF and plasma drug levels were measured. Findings No dose-limiting toxicities were identified at doses up to 3.0 mg. No safety or tolerability concerns related to ISIS 333611 were identified. There were no serious adverse events (AEs) in ISIS 333611-treated subjects. Re-enrollment and re-dosing of subjects with ISIS 333611 was also well tolerated. Dose-dependent CSF and plasma concentrations were observed. Interpretation In this first clinical study to report intrathecal delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide, ISIS 333611 was well tolerated when administered as an intrathecal infusion in subjects with SOD1 familial ALS. CSF and plasma drug levels were consistent with levels predicted from preclinical studies. These results suggest that antisense oligonucleotide delivery to the central nervous system may be a feasible therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders. Source of funding ALS Association, Muscular Dystrophy Association, Isis Pharmaceuticals PMID:23541756

  1. Structural and biophysical properties of metal-free pathogenic SOD1 mutants A4V and G93A

    SciTech Connect

    Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Strange, Richard W.; Whitson, Lisa J.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Narayana, Narendra; Taylor, Alexander B.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Hasnain, S.Samar; Hart, P. John

    2010-07-19

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the destruction of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. A subset of ALS cases are linked to dominant mutations in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The pathogenic SOD1 variants A4V and G93A have been the foci of multiple studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis for SOD1-linked ALS. The A4V variant is responsible for the majority of familial ALS cases in North America, causing rapidly progressing paralysis once symptoms begin and the G93A SOD1 variant is overexpressed in often studied murine models of the disease. Here we report the three-dimensional structures of metal-free A4V and of metal-bound and metal-free G93A SOD1. In the metal-free structures, the metal-binding loop elements are observed to be severely disordered, suggesting that these variants may share mechanisms of aggregation proposed previously for other pathogenic SOD1 proteins.

  2. Absence of Nrf2 or Its Selective Overexpression in Neurons and Muscle Does Not Affect Survival in ALS-Linked Mutant hSOD1 Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Marcelo R.; Burton, Neal C.; Gan, Li; Johnson, Delinda A.; Schäfer, Matthias; Werner, Sabine; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) governs the expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Nrf2 activation can prevent or reduce cellular damage associated with several types of injury in many different tissues and organs. Dominant mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons and subsequent muscular atrophy. We have previously shown that Nrf2 activation in astrocytes delays neurodegeneration in ALS mouse models. To further investigate the role of Nrf2 in ALS we determined the effect of absence of Nrf2 or its restricted overexpression in neurons or type II skeletal muscle fibers on symptoms onset and survival in mutant hSOD1 expressing mice. We did not observe any detrimental effect associated with the lack of Nrf2 in two different mutant hSOD1 animal models of ALS. However, restricted Nrf2 overexpression in neurons or type II skeletal muscle fibers delayed disease onset but failed to extend survival in hSOD1G93A mice. These results highlight the concept that not only the pharmacological target but also the cell type targeted may be relevant when considering a Nrf2-mediated therapeutic approach for ALS. PMID:23418589

  3. Mutant SOD1G93A in bone marrow-derived cells exacerbates 3-nitropropionic acid induced striatal damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Yuan; Yu, Liqun; Ferrante, Robert J; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2007-05-17

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, produces selective lesions in striatal neurons that resemble those observed in Huntington's disease neuropathology. In this study, we evaluated the role of peripheral bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in the 3-NP-induced striatal damage by transplanting bone marrow cells with human SOD1 G93A mutation (mSOD1(G93A)) which induces amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through an unknown gain of toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction. We assessed striatal damage after 3-NP treatment in the recipient C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice that received bone marrow cells from WT or mSOD1(G93A) transgenic donor mice (WT-->WT or mSOD(G93A)-->WT). After intraperitoneal injection of 3-NP, six of the eight mSOD1(G93A)-->WT mice had bilateral striatal lesions while only one out of eight WT-->WT mice had a striatal lesion. The lesion volume was significantly higher in the mSOD1(G93A)-->WT mice than in the WT-->WT mice. However, following an intrastriatal injection of 3-NP, there was no significant difference in the lesion volumes between the WT-->WT mice and mSOD1(G93A)-->WT mice. Thus, the exacerbation of 3-NP-induced striatal damage in mSOD(G93A)-->WT mice was only seen after systemic administration of 3-NP, but not after intrastriatal injection. These results demonstrate that altered SOD1 activity (mSOD(G93A)) in BMDCs affects striatal damage probably through a mechanism involving a systemic factor.

  4. TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded human wild-type SOD1 can propagate intercellularly in a prion-like fashion.

    PubMed

    Pokrishevsky, Edward; Grad, Leslie I; Cashman, Neil R

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which appears to spread through the neuroaxis in a spatiotemporally restricted manner, is linked to heritable mutations in genes encoding SOD1, TDP-43, FUS, C9ORF72, or can occur sporadically without recognized genetic mutations. Misfolded human wild-type (HuWt) SOD1 has been detected in both familial and sporadic ALS patients, despite mutations in SOD1 accounting for only 2% of total cases. We previously showed that accumulation of pathological TDP-43 or FUS coexist with misfolded HuWtSOD1 in patient motor neurons, and can trigger its misfolding in cultured cells. Here, we used immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded HuWtSOD1 can propagate from cell-to-cell via conditioned media, and seed cytotoxic misfolding of endogenous HuWtSOD1 in the recipient cells in a prion-like fashion. Knockdown of SOD1 using siRNA in recipient cells, or incubation of conditioned media with misfolded SOD1-specific antibodies, inhibits intercellular transmission, indicating that HuWtSOD1 is an obligate seed and substrate of propagated misfolding. In this system, intercellular spread of SOD1 misfolding is not accompanied by transmission of TDP-43 or FUS pathology. Our findings argue that pathological TDP-43 and FUS may exert motor neuron pathology in ALS through the initiation of propagated misfolding of SOD1.

  5. Screening for inhibitors of the SOD1 gene promoter: pyrimethamine does not reduce SOD1 levels in cell and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Paul D; Huang, Mickey; Weiss, Alexandra; Matthews, Jonathan; Wightman, Nicholas; Glicksman, Marcie; Brown, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene are detected in 20% of familial and 3% of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. Although mutant SOD1 is known to induce motor neuron death via multiple adverse acquired functions, its exact pathogenic mechanism is not well defined. SOD1 toxicity is dose dependent; levels of mutant SOD1 protein in transgenic mice determine disease susceptibility, onset and rate of progression. We therefore sought to identify small molecules that reduce SOD1 levels by inhibiting the SOD1 promoter. We tested pyrimethamine (previously reported to suppress SOD1 expression), several compounds currently in trials in human and murine ALS, and a set of 1,040 FDA-approved compounds. In a PC12 cell-based assay, no compounds reduced SOD1 promoter activity without concomitant cytotoxicity. Additionally, pyrimethamine failed to repress levels of SOD1 protein in HeLa cells or homogenates of liver, spinal cord and brain of wild-type mice. 34 compounds (including riluzole, ceftriaxone, minocyclin, PBA, lithium, acetylcysteine) in human and mouse ALS trials and an additional set of 1,040 FDA approved compounds also showed no effect on SOD1 promoter activity. This present study thus failed to identify small molecule inhibitors of SOD1 gene expression. PMID:20638444

  6. Therapeutic rAAVrh10 Mediated SOD1 Silencing in Adult SOD1G93A Mice and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Florie; Gernoux, Gwladys; Cardozo, Brynn; Metterville, Jake P.; Toro Cabreja, Gabriela C.; Song, Lina; Su, Qin; Gao, Guang Ping; Elmallah, Mai K.; Brown, Robert H.; Mueller, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease; survival in ALS is typically 3–5 years. No treatment extends patient survival by more than three months. Approximately 20% of familial ALS and 1–3% of sporadic ALS patients carry a mutation in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). In a transgenic ALS mouse model expressing the mutant SOD1G93A protein, silencing the SOD1 gene prolongs survival. One study reports a therapeutic effect of silencing the SOD1 gene in systemically treated adult ALS mice; this was achieved with a short hairpin RNA, a silencing molecule that has raised multiple safety concerns, and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) 9. We report here a silencing method based on an artificial microRNA termed miR-SOD1 systemically delivered using adeno-associated virus rAAVrh10, a serotype with a demonstrated safety profile in CNS clinical trials. Silencing of SOD1 in adult SOD1G93A transgenic mice with this construct profoundly delayed both disease onset and death in the SOD1G93A mice, and significantly preserved muscle strength and motor and respiratory functions. We also document that intrathecal delivery of the same rAAVrh10-miR-SOD1 in nonhuman primates significantly and safely silences SOD1 in lower motor neurons. This study supports the view that rAAVrh10-miR-SOD1 merits further development for the treatment of SOD1-linked ALS in humans. PMID:26710998

  7. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    PubMed

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS.

  8. Induction of parkinsonism-related proteins in the spinal motor neurons of transgenic mouse carrying a mutant SOD1 gene.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Nagai, Makiko; Miyazaki, Kazunori; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Kurata, Tomoko; Takehisa, Yasushi; Ikeda, Yoshio; Matsuura, Tohru; Asanuma, Masato; Abe, Koji

    2010-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal disease caused by selective death of motor neurons, and a number of these patients carry mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene involved in ameliorating oxidative stress. Recent studies indicate that oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis is a common mechanism for motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the loss of midbrain dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, the present study investigated the presence and alterations of familial Parkinson's disease-related proteins, PINK1 and DJ-1, in spinal motor neurons of G93ASOD1 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Following onset of disease, PINK1 and DJ-1 protein expression increased in the spinal motor neurons. The activated form of p53 also increased and translocated to the nuclei of spinal motor neurons, followed by increased expression of p53-activated gene 608 (PAG608). This is the first report demonstrating that increased expression of PAG608 correlates with activation of phosphorylated p53 in spinal motor neurons of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model. These results provide further evidence of the profound correlations between spinal motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-related proteins.

  9. Translational profiling identifies a cascade of damage initiated in motor neurons and spreading to glia in mutant SOD1-mediated ALS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuying; Sun, Ying; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Ferraiuolo, Laura; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Zou, Yiyang; Drenner, Kevin; Wang, Yin; Ditsworth, Dara; Tokunaga, Seiya; Kopelevich, Alex; Kaspar, Brian K.; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitous expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) provokes noncell autonomous paralytic disease. By combining ribosome affinity purification and high-throughput sequencing, a cascade of mutant SOD1-dependent, cell type-specific changes are now identified. Initial mutant-dependent damage is restricted to motor neurons and includes synapse and metabolic abnormalities, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and selective activation of the PRKR-like ER kinase (PERK) arm of the unfolded protein response. PERK activation correlates with what we identify as a naturally low level of ER chaperones in motor neurons. Early changes in astrocytes occur in genes that are involved in inflammation and metabolism and are targets of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and liver X receptor transcription factors. Dysregulation of myelination and lipid signaling pathways and activation of ETS transcription factors occur in oligodendrocytes only after disease initiation. Thus, pathogenesis involves a temporal cascade of cell type-selective damage initiating in motor neurons, with subsequent damage within glia driving disease propagation. PMID:26621731

  10. Mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) induces protein secretion pathway alterations and exosome release in astrocytes: implications for disease spreading and motor neuron pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Basso, Manuela; Pozzi, Silvia; Tortarolo, Massimo; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bisighini, Cinzia; Pasetto, Laura; Spaltro, Gabriella; Lidonnici, Dario; Gensano, Francesco; Battaglia, Elisa; Bendotti, Caterina; Bonetto, Valentina

    2013-05-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common motor neuron disease and is still incurable. The mechanisms leading to the selective motor neuron vulnerability are still not known. The interplay between motor neurons and astrocytes is crucial in the outcome of the disease. We show that mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) overexpression in primary astrocyte cultures is associated with decreased levels of proteins involved in secretory pathways. This is linked to a general reduction of total secreted proteins, except for specific enrichment in a number of proteins in the media, such as mutant SOD1 and valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97. Because there was also an increase in exosome release, we can deduce that astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 activate unconventional secretory pathways, possibly as a protective mechanism. This may help limit the formation of intracellular aggregates and overcome mutant SOD1 toxicity. We also found that astrocyte-derived exosomes efficiently transfer mutant SOD1 to spinal neurons and induce selective motor neuron death. We conclude that the expression of mutant SOD1 has a substantial impact on astrocyte protein secretion pathways, contributing to motor neuron pathology and disease spread.

  11. Susceptibility of Mutant SOD1 to Form a Destabilized Monomer Predicts Cellular Aggregation and Toxicity but Not In vitro Aggregation Propensity

    PubMed Central

    McAlary, Luke; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Yerbury, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the rapid and progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem and motor cortex. The first gene linked to ALS was the gene encoding the free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) that currently has over 180, mostly missense, ALS-associated mutations identified. SOD1-associated fALS patients show remarkably broad mean survival times (<1 year to ~17 years death post-diagnosis) that are mutation dependent. A hallmark of SOD1-associated ALS is the deposition of SOD1 into large insoluble aggregates in motor neurons. This is thought to be a consequence of mutation induced structural destabilization and/or oxidative damage leading to the misfolding and aggregation of SOD1 into a neurotoxic species. Here we aim to understand the relationship between SOD1 variant toxicity, structural stability, and aggregation propensity using a combination of cell culture and purified protein assays. Cell based assays indicated that aggregation of SOD1 variants correlate closely to cellular toxicity. However, the relationship between cellular toxicity and disease severity was less clear. We next utilized mass spectrometry to interrogate the structural consequences of metal loss and disulfide reduction on fALS-associated SOD1 variant structure. All variants showed evidence of unfolded, intermediate, and compact conformations, with SOD1G37R, SOD1G93A and SOD1V148G having the greatest abundance of intermediate and unfolded SOD1. SOD1G37R was an informative outlier as it had a high propensity to unfold and form oligomeric aggregates, but it did not aggregate to the same extent as SOD1G93A and SOD1V148G in in vitro aggregation assays. Furthermore, seeding the aggregation of DTT/EDTA-treated SOD1G37R with preformed SOD1G93A fibrils elicited minimal aggregation response, suggesting that the arginine substitution at position-37 blocks the templating of

  12. Adherent Monomer-Misfolded SOD1

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Morita, Eri; Fukada, Yasuyo; Doi, Koji; Yasui, Kenichi; Kitayama, Michio; Nakano, Toshiya; Nakashima, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Background Multiple cellular functions are compromised in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In familial ALS (FALS) with Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations, the mechanisms by which the mutation in SOD1 leads to such a wide range of abnormalities remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate underlying cellular conditions caused by the SOD1 mutation, we explored mutant SOD1-interacting proteins in the spinal cord of symptomatic transgenic mice expressing a mutant SOD1, SOD1Leu126delTT with a FLAG sequence (DF mice). This gene product is structurally unable to form a functional homodimer. Tissues were obtained from both DF mice and disease-free mice expressing wild-type with FLAG SOD1 (WF mice). Both FLAG-tagged SOD1 and cross-linking proteins were enriched and subjected to a shotgun proteomic analysis. We identified 34 proteins (or protein subunits) in DF preparations, while in WF preparations, interactions were detected with only 4 proteins. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that disease-causing mutant SOD1 likely leads to inadequate protein-protein interactions. This could be an early and crucial process in the pathogenesis of FALS. PMID:18946506

  13. Adherent monomer-misfolded SOD1.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Morita, Eri; Fukada, Yasuyo; Doi, Koji; Yasui, Kenichi; Kitayama, Michio; Nakano, Toshiya; Nakashima, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Multiple cellular functions are compromised in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In familial ALS (FALS) with Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations, the mechanisms by which the mutation in SOD1 leads to such a wide range of abnormalities remains elusive. To investigate underlying cellular conditions caused by the SOD1 mutation, we explored mutant SOD1-interacting proteins in the spinal cord of symptomatic transgenic mice expressing a mutant SOD1, SOD1(Leu126delTT) with a FLAG sequence (DF mice). This gene product is structurally unable to form a functional homodimer. Tissues were obtained from both DF mice and disease-free mice expressing wild-type with FLAG SOD1 (WF mice). Both FLAG-tagged SOD1 and cross-linking proteins were enriched and subjected to a shotgun proteomic analysis. We identified 34 proteins (or protein subunits) in DF preparations, while in WF preparations, interactions were detected with only 4 proteins. These results indicate that disease-causing mutant SOD1 likely leads to inadequate protein-protein interactions. This could be an early and crucial process in the pathogenesis of FALS.

  14. Species-dependent neuropathology in transgenic SOD1 pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huaqiang; Wang, Guohao; Sun, Haitao; Shu, Runzhe; Liu, Tao; Wang, Chuan-En; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Yang, Dongshan; Huang, Jiao; Zhou, Yueling; Li, Shihua; Jiang, Xiaodan; Xiao, Zhicheng; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It remains unknown whether large animal models of ALS mimic more pathological events seen in ALS patients via novel mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of transgenic pigs expressing mutant G93A hSOD1 and showing hind limb motor defects, which are germline transmissible, and motor neuron degeneration in dose- and age-dependent manners. Importantly, in the early disease stage, mutant hSOD1 did not form cytoplasmic inclusions, but showed nuclear accumulation and ubiquitinated nuclear aggregates, as seen in some ALS patient brains, but not in transgenic ALS mouse models. Our findings revealed that SOD1 binds PCBP1, a nuclear poly(rC) binding protein, in pig brain, but not in mouse brain, suggesting that the SOD1-PCBP1 interaction accounts for nuclear SOD1 accumulation and that species-specific targets are key to ALS pathology in large mammals and in humans. PMID:24577199

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1 sequesters Hu antigen R (HuR) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR): implications for impaired post-transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang; Wang, Shuying; Zheng, Lei; Li, Xuelin; Suswam, Esther A; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wheeler, Crystal G; Nabors, L B; Filippova, Natalia; King, Peter H

    2009-12-04

    Down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the mouse leads to progressive and selective degeneration of motor neurons similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In mice expressing ALS-associated mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), VEGF mRNA expression in the spinal cord declines significantly prior to the onset of clinical manifestations. In vitro models suggest that dysregulation of VEGF mRNA stability contributes to that decline. Here, we show that the major RNA stabilizer, Hu Antigen R (HuR), and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) colocalize with mutant SOD1 in mouse spinal cord extracts and cultured glioma cells. The colocalization was markedly reduced or abolished by RNase treatment. Immunoanalysis of transfected cells indicated that colocalization occurred in insoluble aggregates and inclusions. RNA immunoprecipitation showed a significant loss of VEGF mRNA binding to HuR and TIAR in mutant SOD1 cells, and there was marked depletion of HuR from polysomes. Ectopic expression of HuR in mutant SOD1 cells more than doubled the mRNA half-life of VEGF and significantly increased expression to that of wild-type SOD1 control. Cellular effects produced by mutant SOD1, including impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, were reversed by HuR in a gene dose-dependent pattern. In summary, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 impairs post-transcriptional regulation by sequestering key regulatory RNA-binding proteins. The rescue effect of HuR suggests that this impairment, whether related to VEGF or other potential mRNA targets, contributes to cytotoxicity in ALS.

  16. Axonal and neuromuscular synaptic phenotypes in Wld(S), SOD1(G93A) and ostes mutant mice identified by fiber-optic confocal microendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frances; Fan, Li; Wells, Sara; Hartley, Robert; Mackenzie, Francesca E; Oyebode, Oyinlola; Brown, Rosalind; Thomson, Derek; Coleman, Michael P; Blanco, Gonzalo; Ribchester, Richard R

    2009-12-01

    We used live imaging by fiber-optic confocal microendoscopy (CME) of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expression in motor neurons to observe and monitor axonal and neuromuscular synaptic phenotypes in mutant mice. First, we visualized slow degeneration of axons and motor nerve terminals at neuromuscular junctions following sciatic nerve injury in Wld(S) mice with slow Wallerian degeneration. Protection of axotomized motor nerve terminals was much weaker in Wld(S) heterozygotes than in homozygotes. We then induced covert modifiers of axonal and synaptic degeneration in heterozygous Wld(S) mice, by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis, and used CME to identify candidate mutants that either enhanced or suppressed axonal or synaptic degeneration. From 219 of the F1 progeny of ENU-mutagenized BALB/c mice and thy1.2-YFP16/Wld(S) mice, CME revealed six phenodeviants with suppression of synaptic degeneration. Inheritance of synaptic protection was confirmed in three of these founders, with evidence of Mendelian inheritance of a dominant mutation in one of them (designated CEMOP_S5). We next applied CME repeatedly to living Wld(S) mice and to SOD1(G93A) mice, an animal model of motor neuron disease, and observed degeneration of identified neuromuscular synapses over a 1-4day period in both of these mutant lines. Finally, we used CME to observe slow axonal regeneration in the ENU-mutant ostes mouse strain. The data show that CME can be used to monitor covert axonal and neuromuscular synaptic pathology and, when combined with mutagenesis, to identify genetic modifiers of its progression in vivo.

  17. Mouse motor neuron disease caused by truncated SOD1 with or without C-terminal modification.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Kenichi; Nakano, Toshiya; Doi, Koji; Fukada, Yasuyo; Kitayama, Michio; Ishimoto, Miho; Kurihara, Saiko; Kawashima, Mika; Fukuda, Hiroki; Adachi, Yoshiki; Inoue, Takao; Nakashima, Kenji

    2005-04-27

    Mutation of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) contributes to a portion of the cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). We previously reported on a FALS family whose members had a mutant form of SOD1 characterized by a 2-base pair (bp) deletion at codon 126 of the SOD1 gene. To investigate the cellular consequences of this mutation, we produced transgenic mice that expressed normal and mutated copies of human SOD1: wild-type SOD1 (W), wild-type SOD1 with a FLAG epitope at C-terminal (WF), mutated SOD1 with the 2-bp deletion (D), and SOD1 with the 2-bp deletion with FLAG (DF). The mice heterozygotic for the human mutated SOD1 (D and DF) showed distinct ALS-like motor symptoms, whereas the mice heterozygotic for the normal SOD1 (W and WF) mice did not. Homozygotes of D and DF lines showed the ALS symptoms at an earlier age and died earlier than the heterozygotes. By Northern blot analysis, the mRNAs for all human SOD1s were confirmed in these lines. All the human SOD1 proteins, except the D mutant, were detectable by immunoblot. The D protein was only confirmed when it was concentrated by immunoprecipitation. Neuropathologically, loss of spinal motor neurons and reactive gliosis were common features in the symptomatic lines. The remaining motor neurons in these mice also exhibited eosinophilic inclusions. The biochemical and pathological characteristics of these mice are quite similar to those of human FALS patients with same mutation. This intriguing model will provide an important source of information of the pathogenesis of FALS.

  18. Overexpression of human SOD1 in VDAC1-less yeast restores mitochondrial functionality modulating beta-barrel outer membrane protein genes.

    PubMed

    Magrì, Andrea; Di Rosa, Maria Carmela; Tomasello, Marianna Flora; Guarino, Francesca; Reina, Simona; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito

    2016-06-01

    Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1), the most important antioxidant defense against ROS in eukaryotic cells, localizes in cytosol and intermembrane space of mitochondria (IMS). Several evidences show a SOD1 intersection with both fermentative and respiratory metabolism. The Voltage Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) is the main pore-forming protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), and is considered the gatekeeper of mitochondrial metabolism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking VDAC1 (Δpor1) is a very convenient model system, since it shows an impaired growth rate on non-fermentable carbon source. Transformation of Δpor1 yeast with human SOD1 completely restores the cell growth deficit in non-fermentative conditions and re-establishes the physiological levels of ROS, as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential. No similar result was found upon yeast SOD1 overexpression. A previous report highlighted the action of SOD1 as a transcription factor. Quantitative Real-Time PCR showed that β-barrel outer-membrane encoding-genes por2, tom40, sam50 are induced by hSOD1, but the same effect was not obtained in Δpor1Δpor2 yeast, indicating a crucial function for yVDAC2. Since the lack of VDAC1 in yeast can be considered a stress factor for the cell, hSOD1 could relieve it stimulating the expression of genes bringing to the recovery of the MOM function. Our results suggest a direct influence of SOD1 on VDAC.

  19. Implications of fALS Mutations on Sod1 Function and Oligomerization in Cell Models.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Aline A; Magalhães, Rayne S S; De Carvalho, Mariana D C; Paiva, Isabel; Gerhardt, Ellen; Pereira, Marcos D; Outeiro, Tiago F; Eleutherio, Elis C A

    2017-09-07

    Among the familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), 20% are associated with the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1). fALS is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated proteins and the increase in oxidative stress markers. Here, we used the non-invasive bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in human H4 cells to investigate the kinetics of aggregation and subcellular localization of Sod1 mutants. We also studied the effect of the different Sod1 mutants to respond against oxidative stress by following the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Our results showed that only 30% of cells transfected with A4VSod1 showed no inclusions while for the other Sod1 mutants tested (L38V, G93A and G93C), this percentage was at least 70%. In addition, we found that 10% of cells transfected with A4VSod1 displayed more than five inclusions per cell and that A4V and G93A Sod1 formed inclusions more rapidly than L38V and G93C Sod1. Expression of WTSod1 significantly decreased the intracellular oxidation levels in comparison with expression of fALS Sod1 mutants, suggesting the mutations induce a functional impairment. All fALS mutations impaired nuclear localization of Sod1, which is important for maintaining genomic stability. Consistently, expression of WTSod1, but not of fALS Sod1 mutants, reduced DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay. Altogether, our study sheds light into the effects of fALS Sod1 mutations on inclusion formation, dynamics, and localization as well as on antioxidant response, opening novel avenues for investigating the role of fALS Sod1 mutations in pathogenesis.

  20. Structures of the G85R Variant of SOD1 in Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xiaohang; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Seetharaman, Sai V.; Whitson, Lisa J.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Strange, Richard W.; Doucette, Peter A.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Padua, Shelby; Cohlberg, Jeffrey A.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Hart, P. John

    2008-07-21

    Mutations in the gene encoding human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a dominant form of the progressive neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Transgenic mice expressing the human G85R SOD1 variant develop paralytic symptoms concomitant with the appearance of SOD1-enriched proteinaceous inclusions in their neural tissues. The process(es) through which misfolding or aggregation of G85R SOD1 induces motor neuron toxicity is not understood. Here we present structures of the human G85R SOD1 variant determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. Alterations in structure of the metal-binding loop elements relative to the wild type enzyme suggest a molecular basis for the metal ion deficiency of the G85R SOD1 protein observed in the central nervous system of transgenic mice and in purified recombinant G85R SOD1. These findings support the notion that metal-deficient and/or disulfide-reduced mutant SOD1 species contribute to toxicity in SOD1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  1. Intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation slows disease progression and prolongs survival in G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, an animal model mouse for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Shizuo; Ito, Hidefumi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Yasushi; Wate, Reika; Zhang, Jianhua; Nakano, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Ikehara, Susumu

    2009-11-03

    It has been reported that bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has clinical effects on not only hematopoietic diseases and autoimmune diseases but also solid malignant tumors and metabolic diseases. We have found that intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is superior to conventional intravenous BMT, since IBM-BMT enables rapid recovery of donor hematopoiesis and reduces the extent of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In this experiment, we examined the effects of IBM-BMT on symptomatic G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mice (mSOD1 Tg mice), a model mouse line for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Symptomatic mSOD1 Tg mice (12 weeks old) were irradiated with 6Gyx2 at a 4-hour interval, one day before IBM-BMT. The mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells (BMCs) from 12-wk-old eGFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice (eGFP Tg mice) or BMCs from 12-wk-old mSOD1 Tg mice. The ALS model mice transplanted with BMCs from eGFP Tg mice showed longer survival and slower disease progression than those transplanted with BMCs from mSOD1 Tg mice or untreated mSOD1 Tg mice. There was a significantly high number of eGFP(+) cells in the anterior horn of the spinal cord of the mSOD1 Tg mice transplanted with BMCs of eGFP Tg mice, some of which expressed Iba-1, a marker of microglia, although they did not differentiate into neural cells. These results suggest that the replacement with normal hematopoietic cells improved the neural cell environment, thereby slowing the progression of the disease.

  2. Pro-oxidant copper-binding mode of the Apo form of ALS-linked SOD1 mutant H43R denatured at physiological temperature.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Furi; Takeuchi, Hideo

    2013-08-06

    The mutation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a major antioxidant enzyme, is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In a previous study, we showed that the metal-depleted apo form of an ALS-linked mutant, H43R, undergoes denaturation at physiological temperature (37 °C) in 90 min and acquires pro-oxidant activity in the presence of Cu(2+) and H2O2. In this study, we have examined the Cu(2+)-binding mode of denatured apo-H43R by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescent oxidation, UV Raman spectroscopy, and photooxidation. CD spectroscopy indicates that denatured apo-H43R loses native β-barrel structure and the binding of Cu(2+) to the denatured apo form induces local refolding. Fluorescent-oxidation assays in the absence and presence of Cu(2+) chelators show that denatured apo-H43R contains two Cu(2+)-binding sites with higher and lower Cu(2+) affinities and with pro-oxidant activities in the reverse order. UV Raman spectroscopy gives evidence that His residues are bound to Cu(2+) mainly through the imidazole Nτ atom at the higher-affinity site and through the Nπ atom at the lower-affinity site, sharing one His residue with each other. The Cu(2+)-binding mode of denatured apo-H43R is analogous to but different from the Cu,Zn-binding mode of the native holo form. Photooxidation experiments confirm the involvement of His residues in the pro-oxidant activity. Taken together, it is suggested that the binding of Cu(2+) induces the local refolding of denatured apo-H43R to create toxic catalytic centers that convert the enzyme from antioxidant to pro-oxidant, leading to the pathogenesis of ALS. His residues are essential for both Cu(2+)-binding and pro-oxidant activities.

  3. Spinal cord pathology is ameliorated by P2X7 antagonism in a SOD1-mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Apolloni, Savina; Amadio, Susanna; Parisi, Chiara; Matteucci, Alessandra; Potenza, Rosa L; Armida, Monica; Popoli, Patrizia; D'Ambrosi, Nadia; Volonté, Cinzia

    2014-09-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the role of P2X7, a receptor for extracellular ATP, in modulating physiopathological mechanisms in the central nervous system. In particular, P2X7 has been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatry, chronic pain, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Remarkably, P2X7 has also been shown to be a 'gene modifier' in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): the receptor is upregulated in spinal cord microglia in human and rat at advanced stages of the disease; in vitro, activation of P2X7 exacerbates pro-inflammatory responses in microglia that have an ALS phenotype, as well as toxicity towards neuronal cells. Despite this detrimental in vitro role of P2X7, in SOD1-G93A mice lacking P2X7, the clinical onset of ALS was significantly accelerated and disease progression worsened, thus indicating that the receptor might have some beneficial effects, at least at certain stages of disease. In order to clarify this dual action of P2X7 in ALS pathogenesis, in the present work we used the antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a blood-brain barrier permeable and safe drug that has already been proven to reduce neuroinflammation in traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, neuropathic pain and experimental autoimmune encephalitis. We tested BBG in the SOD1-G93A ALS mouse model at asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic and late pre-symptomatic phases of disease. BBG at late pre-onset significantly enhanced motor neuron survival and reduced microgliosis in lumbar spinal cord, modulating inflammatory markers such as NF-κB, NADPH oxidase 2, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This was accompanied by delayed onset and improved general conditions and motor performance, in both male and female mice, although survival appeared unaffected. Our results prove the twofold role of P2X7 in the course of ALS and establish that P2X7 modulation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy by

  4. Spinal cord pathology is ameliorated by P2X7 antagonism in a SOD1-mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Apolloni, Savina; Amadio, Susanna; Parisi, Chiara; Matteucci, Alessandra; Potenza, Rosa L.; Armida, Monica; Popoli, Patrizia; D’Ambrosi, Nadia; Volonté, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the role of P2X7, a receptor for extracellular ATP, in modulating physiopathological mechanisms in the central nervous system. In particular, P2X7 has been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatry, chronic pain, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Remarkably, P2X7 has also been shown to be a ‘gene modifier’ in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): the receptor is upregulated in spinal cord microglia in human and rat at advanced stages of the disease; in vitro, activation of P2X7 exacerbates pro-inflammatory responses in microglia that have an ALS phenotype, as well as toxicity towards neuronal cells. Despite this detrimental in vitro role of P2X7, in SOD1-G93A mice lacking P2X7, the clinical onset of ALS was significantly accelerated and disease progression worsened, thus indicating that the receptor might have some beneficial effects, at least at certain stages of disease. In order to clarify this dual action of P2X7 in ALS pathogenesis, in the present work we used the antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a blood-brain barrier permeable and safe drug that has already been proven to reduce neuroinflammation in traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, neuropathic pain and experimental autoimmune encephalitis. We tested BBG in the SOD1-G93A ALS mouse model at asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic and late pre-symptomatic phases of disease. BBG at late pre-onset significantly enhanced motor neuron survival and reduced microgliosis in lumbar spinal cord, modulating inflammatory markers such as NF-κB, NADPH oxidase 2, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This was accompanied by delayed onset and improved general conditions and motor performance, in both male and female mice, although survival appeared unaffected. Our results prove the twofold role of P2X7 in the course of ALS and establish that P2X7 modulation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy by

  5. Molecular Chaperone Mediated Late-Stage Neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Anna L.; Dick, James R.; Kanuga, Naheed; Kalmar, Bernadett; Greensmith, Linda; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are associated with familial ALS and lead to SOD1 protein misfolding and aggregation. Here we show that the molecular chaperone, HSJ1 (DNAJB2), mutations in which cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy, can reduce mutant SOD1 aggregation and improve motor neuron survival in mutant SOD1 models of ALS. Overexpression of human HSJ1a (hHSJ1a) in vivo in motor neurons of SOD1G93A transgenic mice ameliorated disease. In particular, there was a significant improvement in muscle force, increased motor unit number and enhanced motor neuron survival. hHSJ1a was present in a complex with SOD1G93A and led to reduced SOD1 aggregation at late stages of disease progression. We also observed altered ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the double transgenic animals, suggesting that ubiquitin modification might be important for the observed improvements. In a cell model of SOD1G93A aggregation, HSJ1a preferentially bound to mutant SOD1, enhanced SOD1 ubiquitylation and reduced SOD1 aggregation in a J-domain and ubiquitin interaction motif (UIM) dependent manner. Collectively, the data suggest that HSJ1a acts on mutant SOD1 through a combination of chaperone, co-chaperone and pro-ubiquitylation activity. These results show that targeting SOD1 protein misfolding and aggregation in vivo can be neuroprotective and suggest that manipulation of DnaJ molecular chaperones might be useful in the treatment of ALS. PMID:24023695

  6. Molecular chaperone mediated late-stage neuroprotection in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, Sergey S; Mustill, Wendy J; Gray, Anna L; Dick, James R; Kanuga, Naheed; Kalmar, Bernadett; Greensmith, Linda; Cheetham, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are associated with familial ALS and lead to SOD1 protein misfolding and aggregation. Here we show that the molecular chaperone, HSJ1 (DNAJB2), mutations in which cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy, can reduce mutant SOD1 aggregation and improve motor neuron survival in mutant SOD1 models of ALS. Overexpression of human HSJ1a (hHSJ1a) in vivo in motor neurons of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice ameliorated disease. In particular, there was a significant improvement in muscle force, increased motor unit number and enhanced motor neuron survival. hHSJ1a was present in a complex with SOD1(G93A) and led to reduced SOD1 aggregation at late stages of disease progression. We also observed altered ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the double transgenic animals, suggesting that ubiquitin modification might be important for the observed improvements. In a cell model of SOD1(G93A) aggregation, HSJ1a preferentially bound to mutant SOD1, enhanced SOD1 ubiquitylation and reduced SOD1 aggregation in a J-domain and ubiquitin interaction motif (UIM) dependent manner. Collectively, the data suggest that HSJ1a acts on mutant SOD1 through a combination of chaperone, co-chaperone and pro-ubiquitylation activity. These results show that targeting SOD1 protein misfolding and aggregation in vivo can be neuroprotective and suggest that manipulation of DnaJ molecular chaperones might be useful in the treatment of ALS.

  7. The effects of bee venom acupuncture on the central nervous system and muscle in an animal hSOD1G93A mutant.

    PubMed

    Cai, MuDan; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-03-13

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the degeneration of lower and upper motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. However, there is no effective drug or therapy to treat ALS. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, herbal medicine, and massage is popular due to the significant limitations of conventional therapy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA), also known as one of pharmacopunctures, has been used in Oriental medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of BVA on the central nervous system (CNS) and muscle in symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice, an animal model of ALS. Our findings show that BVA at ST36 enhanced motor function and decreased motor neuron death in the spinal cord compared to that observed in hSOD1G93A transgenic mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BV. Furthermore, BV treatment at ST36 eliminated signaling downstream of inflammatory proteins such as TLR4 in the spinal cords of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. However, i.p. treatment with BV reduced the levels of TNF-α and Bcl-2 expression in the muscle hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that BV pharmacopuncture into certain acupoints may act as a chemical stimulant to activate those acupoints and subsequently engage the endogenous immune modulatory system in the CNS in an animal model of ALS.

  8. The Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on the Central Nervous System and Muscle in an Animal hSOD1G93A Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Cai, MuDan; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the degeneration of lower and upper motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. However, there is no effective drug or therapy to treat ALS. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, herbal medicine, and massage is popular due to the significant limitations of conventional therapy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA), also known as one of pharmacopunctures, has been used in Oriental medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of BVA on the central nervous system (CNS) and muscle in symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice, an animal model of ALS. Our findings show that BVA at ST36 enhanced motor function and decreased motor neuron death in the spinal cord compared to that observed in hSOD1G93A transgenic mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BV. Furthermore, BV treatment at ST36 eliminated signaling downstream of inflammatory proteins such as TLR4 in the spinal cords of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. However, i.p. treatment with BV reduced the levels of TNF-α and Bcl-2 expression in the muscle hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that BV pharmacopuncture into certain acupoints may act as a chemical stimulant to activate those acupoints and subsequently engage the endogenous immune modulatory system in the CNS in an animal model of ALS. PMID:25781653

  9. Modification of Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) Properties by a GFP Tag – Implications for Research into Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, William T.; Bros-Facer, Virginie; van Minnen, Jan; Martin, Joanne E.; Jackson, Graham S.; Greensmith, Linda; Schiavo, Giampietro; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the discovery that mutations in the enzyme SOD1 are causative in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), many strategies have been employed to elucidate the toxic properties of this ubiquitously expressed mutant protein, including the generation of GFP-SOD1 chimaeric proteins for studies in protein localization by direct visualization using fluorescence microscopy. However, little is known about the biochemical and physical properties of these chimaeric proteins, and whether they behave similarly to their untagged SOD1 counterparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we compare the physicochemical properties of SOD1 and the effects of GFP-tagging on its intracellular behaviour. Immunostaining demonstrated that SOD1 alone and GFP-SOD1 have an indistinguishable intracellular distribution in PC12 cells. Cultured primary motor neurons expressing GFP or GFP-SOD1 showed identical patterns of cytoplasmic expression and of movement within the axon. However, GFP tagging of SOD1 was found to alter some of the intrinsic properties of SOD1, including stability and specific activity. Evaluation of wildtype and mutant SOD1, tagged at either the N- or C-terminus with GFP, in PC12 cells demonstrated that some chimaeric proteins were degraded to the individual proteins, SOD1 and GFP. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that most, but not all, properties of SOD1 remain the same with a GFP tag. PMID:20221404

  10. Differential effects of mutant SOD1 on protein structure of skeletal muscle and spinal cord of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: role of chaperone network.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rochelle; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Hamilton, Ryan T; Jernigan, Amanda L; Chaudhuri, Asish R

    2013-08-16

    Protein misfolding is considered to be a potential contributing factor for motor neuron and muscle loss in diseases like Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Several independent studies have demonstrated using over-expressed mutated Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) transgenic mouse models which mimic familial ALS (f-ALS), that both muscle and motor neurons undergo degeneration during disease progression. However, it is unknown whether protein conformation of skeletal muscle and spinal cord is equally or differentially affected by mSOD1-induced toxicity. It is also unclear whether heat shock proteins (Hsp's) differentially modulate skeletal muscle and spinal cord protein structure during ALS disease progression. We report three intriguing observations utilizing the f-ALS mouse model and cell-free in vitro system; (i) muscle proteins are equally sensitive to misfolding as spinal cord proteins despite the presence of low level of soluble and absence of insoluble G93A protein aggregate, unlike in spinal cord, (ii) Hsp's levels are lower in muscle compared to spinal cord at any stage of the disease, and (iii) G93ASOD1 enzyme-induced toxicity selectively affects muscle protein conformation over spinal cord proteins. Together, these findings strongly suggest that differential chaperone levels between skeletal muscle and spinal cord may be a critical determinant for G93A-induced protein misfolding in ALS.

  11. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rotunno, Melissa S.; Bosco, Daryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s) of sporadic ALS, which accounts for ~90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a “toxic conformation” that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS. PMID:24379756

  12. ALS-linked SOD1 in glial cells enhances ß-N-Methylamino L-Alanine (BMAA)-induced toxicity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Rafique; Zhang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors have been implicated in the etiology of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of environmental agents in ALS remains poorly understood. To this end, we used transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to explore the interaction between mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and chemicals such as ß-N-methylamino L-alanine (BMAA), the herbicide agent paraquat, and superoxide species. We expressed ALS-linked human SOD1 (hSOD1A4V, and hSOD1G85R), hSOD1wt as well as the Drosophila native SOD1 (dSOD1) in motoneurons (MNs) or in glial cells alone and simultaneously in both types of cells. We then examined the effect of BMAA (3 mM), paraquat (20 mM), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1%) on the lifespan of SOD1-expressing flies. Our data show that glial expression of mutant and wild type hSOD1s reduces the ability of flies to climb. Further, we show that while all three chemicals significantly shorten the lifespan of flies, mutant SOD1 does not have a significant additional effect on the lifespan of flies fed on paraquat, but further shortens the lifespan of flies fed on H2O2. Finally, we show that BMAA shows a dramatic cell-type specific effect with mutant SOD1. Flies with expression of mutant hSOD1 in MNs survived longer on BMAA compared to control flies. In contrast, BMAA significantly shortened the lifespan of flies expressing mutant hSOD1 in glia. Consistent with a neuronal protection role, flies expressing these mutant hSOD1s in both MNs and glia also lived longer. Hence, our studies reveal a synergistic effect of mutant SOD1 with H2O2 and novel roles for mutant hSOD1s in neurons to reduce BMAA toxicity and in glia to enhance the toxicity of BMAA in flies. PMID:24627764

  13. ALS-linked SOD1 in glial cells enhances ß-N-Methylamino L-Alanine (BMAA)-induced toxicity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rafique; Kumimoto, Emily L; Bao, Hong; Zhang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors have been implicated in the etiology of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of environmental agents in ALS remains poorly understood. To this end, we used transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to explore the interaction between mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and chemicals such as ß-N-methylamino L-alanine (BMAA), the herbicide agent paraquat, and superoxide species. We expressed ALS-linked human SOD1 (hSOD1A4V, and hSOD1G85R), hSOD1wt as well as the Drosophila native SOD1 (dSOD1) in motoneurons (MNs) or in glial cells alone and simultaneously in both types of cells. We then examined the effect of BMAA (3 mM), paraquat (20 mM), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1%) on the lifespan of SOD1-expressing flies. Our data show that glial expression of mutant and wild type hSOD1s reduces the ability of flies to climb. Further, we show that while all three chemicals significantly shorten the lifespan of flies, mutant SOD1 does not have a significant additional effect on the lifespan of flies fed on paraquat, but further shortens the lifespan of flies fed on H2O2. Finally, we show that BMAA shows a dramatic cell-type specific effect with mutant SOD1. Flies with expression of mutant hSOD1 in MNs survived longer on BMAA compared to control flies. In contrast, BMAA significantly shortened the lifespan of flies expressing mutant hSOD1 in glia. Consistent with a neuronal protection role, flies expressing these mutant hSOD1s in both MNs and glia also lived longer. Hence, our studies reveal a synergistic effect of mutant SOD1 with H2O2 and novel roles for mutant hSOD1s in neurons to reduce BMAA toxicity and in glia to enhance the toxicity of BMAA in flies.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling Following Neuronal and Glial Expression of ALS-Linked SOD1 in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kumimoto, Emily L.; Fore, Taylor R.; Zhang, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) generally is a late-onset neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene account for approximately 20% of familial ALS and 2% of all ALS cases. Although a number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain mutant SOD1 toxicity, the molecular mechanisms of the disease remain unclear. SOD1-linked ALS is thought to function in a non–cell-autonomous manner such that motoneurons are critical for the onset, and glia contribute to progression of the disease. Recently, it has been shown in Drosophila melanogaster that expression of human SOD1 in a subset of neuronal cells causes synaptic transmission defects, modified motor function, and altered sensitivity to compounds that induce oxidative stress. Here we used the Gal4-UAS (Upstream Activation Sequence) system to further characterize flies expressing wild-type Drosophila SOD1 (dSOD1) and the mutant human SOD1G85R (G85R) allele in motoneurons and glia. Cell-specific expression of both dSOD1 and G85R was found to influence lifespan, affect sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, and alter lipid peroxidation levels. To better understand the genetic consequences of G85R expression in motoneurons and glia, we conducted microarray analysis of both young flies (5 days old) and old flies (45 days old) expressing G85R selectively in motoneurons or glia and concurrently in motoneurons and glia. Results from this microarray experiment identified candidate genes for further investigation and may help elucidate the individual and combined contributions of motoneurons and glia in ALS. PMID:23550139

  15. Phenotypic heterogeneity in a SOD1 G93D Italian ALS family: an example of human model to study a complex disease.

    PubMed

    Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian; Mosca, Lorena; Maestri, Eleonora; Avemaria, Francesca; Tarlarini, Claudia; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Marocchi, Alessandro; Corbo, Massimo

    2011-05-01

    We report different clinical expression in seven members of a large family with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the G93D mutation in exon 4 of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. The ALS clinical course in the proband showed an unusually fast progression of the disease compared to the paucisymptomatic presentation associated to this mutation in the two previously Italian families described. The remaining mutation carriers did not show the aggressive clinical course displayed by the proband. We selected few genes known to be ALS modifiers searching for genetic variants that could explain the wide phenotypic diversity within the family. Exclusion of causative genes such as TDP43, FUS, PGRN and VAPB was performed too. We believe that this kind of family with contrasting phenotypes of ALS may be considered an excellent human model to study the relationship between a wider genetic profile, including modifier genes, and the clinical expression of the disease. Therefore, the novelty of our approach is also represented by the study of a single family to reproduce a composite structure in which search for possible modifier genes/genetic variants linked to SOD1 mutated.

  16. Mia40 and MINOS act in parallel with Ccs1 in the biogenesis of mitochondrial Sod1.

    PubMed

    Varabyova, Aksana; Topf, Ulrike; Kwiatkowska, Paulina; Wrobel, Lidia; Kaus-Drobek, Magdalena; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) is a major superoxide-scavenging enzyme in the eukaryotic cell, and is localized in the cytosol and intermembrane space of mitochondria. Sod1 requires its specific chaperone Ccs1 and disulfide bond formation in order to be retained in the intermembrane space. Our study identified a pool of Sod1 that is present in the reduced state in mitochondria that lack Ccs1. We created yeast mutants with mutations in highly conserved amino acid residues corresponding to human mutations that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and found that some of the mutant proteins were present in the reduced state. These mutant variants of Sod1 were efficiently localized in mitochondria. Localization of the reduced, Ccs1-independent forms of Sod1 relied on Mia40, an essential component of the mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly pathway that is responsible for the biogenesis of intermembrane space proteins. Furthermore, the mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS), which is responsible for mitochondrial membrane architecture, differentially modulated the presence of reduced Sod1 in mitochondria. Thus, we identified novel mitochondrial players that are possibly involved in pathological conditions caused by changes in the biogenesis of Sod1. © 2013 FEBS.

  17. An In Vitro Model for Lewy Body-Like Hyaline Inclusion/Astrocytic Hyaline Inclusion: Induction by ER Stress with an ALS-Linked SOD1 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Manabu; Hitomi, Junichi; Kato, Masaaki; Aoki, Masashi; Itoyama, Yasuto; Kato, Shinsuke; Tohyama, Masaya

    2007-01-01

    Neuronal Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions (LBHI) and astrocytic hyaline inclusions (Ast-HI) containing mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are morphological hallmarks of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with mutant SOD1. However, the mechanisms by which mutant SOD1 contributes to formation of LBHI/Ast-HI in FALS remain poorly defined. Here, we report induction of LBHI/Ast-HI-like hyaline inclusions (LHIs) in vitro by ER stress in neuroblastoma cells. These LHI closely resemble LBHI/Ast-HI in patients with SOD1-linked FALS. LHI and LBHI/Ast-HI share the following features: 1) eosinophilic staining with a pale core, 2) SOD1, ubiquitin and ER resident protein (KDEL) positivity and 3) the presence of approximately 15–25 nm granule-coated fibrils, which are morphological hallmark of mutant SOD1-linked FALS. Moreover, in spinal cord neurons of L84V SOD1 transgenic mice at presymptomatic stage, we observed aberrant aggregation of ER and numerous free ribosomes associated with abnormal inclusion-like structures, presumably early stage neuronal LBHI. We conclude that the LBHI/Ast-HI seen in human patients with mutant SOD1-linked FALS may arise from ER dysfunction. PMID:17925878

  18. MicroNeurotrophins Improve Survival in Motor Neuron-Astrocyte Co-Cultures but Do Not Improve Disease Phenotypes in a Mutant SOD1 Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Glajch, Kelly E.; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Mueller, Kaly A.; Stopford, Matthew J.; Prabhkar, Varsha; Gravanis, Achille; Shaw, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of motor neurons. ALS patients experience rapid deterioration in muscle function with an average lifespan of 3–5 years after diagnosis. Currently, the most effective therapeutic only extends lifespan by a few months, thus highlighting the need for new and improved therapies. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are important for neuronal development, maintenance, and survival. NTF treatment has previously shown efficacy in pre-clinical ALS models. However, clinical trials using NTFs produced no major improvements in ALS patients, due in part to the limited blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration. In this study we assessed the potential neuroprotective effects of a novel class of compounds known as MicroNeurotrophins (MNTs). MNTs are derivatives of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an endogenous neurosteroid that can cross the BBB and bind to tyrosine kinase receptors mimicking the pro-survival effects of NTFs. Here we sought to determine whether MNTs were neuroprotective in two different models of ALS. Our results demonstrate that BNN27 (10 μM) attenuated loss of motor neurons co-cultured with astrocytes derived from human ALS patients with SOD1 mutations via the reduction of oxidative stress. Additionally, in the G93A SOD1 mouse, BNN27 (10 mg/kg) treatment attenuated motor behavioral impairment in the paw grip endurance and rotarod tasks at postnatal day 95 in female but not male mice. In contrast, BNN27 (10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) treatment did not alter any other behavioral outcome or neuropathological marker in male or female mice. Lastly, BNN27 was not detected in post-mortem brain or spinal cord tissue of treated mice due to the rapid metabolism of BNN27 by mouse hepatocytes relative to human hepatocytes. Together, these findings demonstrate that BNN27 treatment failed to yield significant neuroprotective effects in the G93A SOD1 model likely due to its rapid rate of metabolism in mice. PMID

  19. Reduced protein O-glycosylation in the nervous system of the mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaoyang; Vocadlo, David J; Krieger, Charles

    2012-05-16

    In the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a number of proteins have been found to be hyperphosphorylated, including neurofilament proteins (NFs). In addition to protein phosphorylation, another important post-translational modification is O-glycosylation with β-N-acetylglucosamine residues (O-GlcNAc) and it has been found that O-GlcNAc can modify proteins competitively with protein phosphorylation, so that increased O-GlcNAc can reduce phosphorylation at specific sites. We evaluated a transgenic mouse model of ALS that overexpresses mutant superoxide dismutase (mSOD) and found that O-GlcNAc immunoreactivity levels are decreased in spinal cord tissue from mSOD mice, compared to controls. This reduction in O-GlcNAc levels is prominent in the motor neurons of spinal cord. We find that inhibition of O-GlcNAcase (OGA), the enzyme catalyzing removal of O-GlcNAc, using the inhibitor NButGT for 3 days, resulted in increased O-GlcNAc levels in spinal cord, both in mSOD and control mice. Furthermore, NButGT increased levels of O-GlcNAc modified NF-medium in spinal cords of control mice, but not in mSOD mice. These observations suggest that the neurodegeneration found in mSOD mice is associated with a reduction of O-GlcNAc levels in neurons, including motor neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CIIA prevents SOD1(G93A)-induced cytotoxicity by blocking ASK1-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Keun; Hwang, Sang Gil; Shin, Jin Hee; Shim, Jaekyung; Choi, Eui-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease with higher selectivity in degeneration of motor neurons. However, the molecular mechanism by which the ALS-linked mutants of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene induce neurotoxicity remains obscure yet. Here, we show that depletion of CIIA expression by RNA interference (RNAi) promoted cytotoxicity caused by ALS-linked G93A mutant of the SOD1 gene. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of CIIA also enhanced the SOD1(G93A)-induced interaction between ASK1 and TRAF2 as well as ASK1 activity. Furthermore, endogenous silencing of CIIA by RNAi augmented the effects of SOD1(G93A) on reduction of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm), release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, and caspase activation. Together, our results suggest that CIIA negatively modulates ASK1-mediated cytotoxic signaling processes in a SOD1(G93A)-expressing cellular model of ALS. PMID:25018698

  1. CuII(atsm) improves the neurological phenotype and survival of SOD1G93A mice and selectively increases enzymatically active SOD1 in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, James B.; Mercer, Stephen W.; Lim, Nastasia K. H.; Faux, Noel G.; Buncic, Gojko; Beckman, Joseph S.; Roberts, Blaine R.; Donnelly, Paul S.; White, Anthony R.; Crouch, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous expression of mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) selectively affects motor neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), causing the adult-onset degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The CNS-specific impact of ubiquitous mutant SOD1 expression is recapitulated in transgenic mouse models of the disease. Here we present outcomes for the metallo-complex CuII(atsm) tested for therapeutic efficacy in mice expressing SOD1G93A on a mixed genetic background. Oral administration of CuII(atsm) delayed the onset of neurological symptoms, improved locomotive capacity and extended overall survival. Although the ALS-like phenotype of SOD1G93A mice is instigated by expression of the mutant SOD1, we show the improved phenotype of the CuII(atsm)-treated animals involves an increase in mature mutant SOD1 protein in the disease-affected spinal cord, where concomitant increases in copper and SOD1 activity are also evident. In contrast to these effects in the spinal cord, treating with CuII(atsm) had no effect in liver on either mutant SOD1 protein levels or its activity, indicating a CNS-selective SOD1 response to the drug. These data provide support for CuII(atsm) as a treatment option for ALS as well as insight to the CNS-selective effects of mutant SOD1. PMID:28205575

  2. Disease Mechanisms in ALS: Misfolded SOD1 Transferred Through Exosome-Dependent and Exosome-Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Judith M; Fernando, Sarah M; Grad, Leslie I; Hill, Andrew F; Turner, Bradley J; Yerbury, Justin J; Cashman, Neil R

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neuromuscular degenerative disorder with a poorly defined etiology. ALS patients experience motor weakness, which starts focally and spreads throughout the nervous system, culminating in paralysis and death within a few years of diagnosis. While the vast majority of clinical ALS is sporadic with no known cause, mutations in human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause about 20 % of inherited cases of ALS. ALS with SOD1 mutations is caused by a toxic gain of function associated with the propensity of mutant SOD1 to misfold, presenting a non-native structure. The mechanisms responsible for the progressive spreading of ALS pathology have been the focus of intense study. We have shown that misfolded SOD1 protein can seed misfolding and aggregation of endogenous wild-type SOD1 similar to amyloid-β and prion protein seeding. Our recent observations demonstrate a transfer of the misfolded SOD1 species from cell to cell, modeling the intercellular transmission of disease through the neuroaxis. We have shown that both mutant and misfolded wild-type SOD1 can traverse cell-to-cell, either as protein aggregates that are released from dying cells and taken up by neighboring cells via macropinocytosis, or in association with vesicles which are released into the extracellular environment. Furthermore, once misfolding of wild-type SOD1 has been initiated in a human cell culture, it can induce misfolding in naïve cell cultures over multiple passages of media transfer long after the initial misfolding template is degraded. Herein we review the data on mechanisms of intercellular transmission of misfolded SOD1.

  3. Overexpression of human mutated G93A SOD1 changes dynamics of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle specifically in mouse embryonic motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Lautenschläger, Janin; Prell, Tino; Ruhmer, Julia; Weidemann, Lisa; Witte, Otto W; Grosskreutz, Julian

    2013-09-01

    Motor neurons vulnerable to the rapidly progressive deadly neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) inherently express low amounts of calcium binding proteins (CaBP), likely to allow physiological motor neuron firing frequency modulation. At the same time motor neurons are susceptible to AMPA receptor mediated excitotoxicity and internal calcium deregulation which is not fully understood. We analysed ER mitochondria calcium cycle (ERMCC) dynamics with subsecond resolution in G93A hSOD1 overexpressing motor neurons as a model of ALS using fluorescent calcium imaging. When comparing vulnerable motor neurons and non-motor neurons from G93A hSOD1 mice and their non-transgenic littermates, we found a decelerated cytosolic calcium clearance in the presence of G93A hSOD1. While both non-transgenic as well as G93A hSOD1 motor neurons displayed large mitochondrial calcium uptake by the mitochondrial uniporter (mUP), the mitochondrial calcium extrusion system was altered in the presence of G93A hSOD1. In addition, ER calcium uptake by the sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA) was increased in G93A hSOD1 motor neurons. In survival assays, blocking the mitochondrial sodium calcium exchanger (mNCE) by CGP37157 as well as inhibiting SERCA by cyclopiazonic acid showed protective effects against kainate induced excitotoxicity. Thus, our study shows for the first time that the functional consequence of G93A hSOD1 overexpression in intact motor neurons is indeed a disturbance of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle, and identified two promising targets for therapeutic intervention in the pathology of ALS.

  4. Liver specific expression of Cu/ZnSOD extends the lifespan of Sod1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Liu, Yuhong; Walsh, Michael; Bokov, Alex; Ikeno, Yuji; Jang, Young C; Perez, Viviana I; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan

    2016-03-01

    Genetic ablation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) in mice (Sod1(-/-) mice) leads to shortened lifespan with a dramatic increase in hepatocellular carcinoma and accelerated aging phenotypes, including early onset sarcopenia. To study the tissue specific effects of oxidative stress in the Sod1(-/-) mice, we generated mice that only express the human SOD1 gene specifically in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice (Sod1(-/-)/hSOD1(alb) mice). Expression of hSOD1 in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice improved liver function, reduced oxidative damage in liver, and partially restored the expression of several genes involved in tumorigenesis, which are abnormally expressed in the livers of the Sod1(-/-) mice. However, liver specific expression of hSOD1 did not prevent the loss of body weight and muscle mass and alterations in the structure of neuromuscular junctions. The expression of hSOD1 in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice significantly improved the lifespan of Sod1(-/-) mice; however, the lifespan of the Sod1(-/-)/hSOD1(alb) mice was still significantly shorter than wild type mice.

  5. Isolated cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in G93A SOD1 mice overexpressing CCS protein.

    PubMed

    Son, Marjatta; Leary, Scot C; Romain, Nadine; Pierrel, Fabien; Winge, Dennis R; Haller, Ronald G; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2008-05-02

    G93A SOD1 transgenic mice overexpressing CCS protein develop an accelerated disease course that is associated with enhanced mitochondrial pathology and increased mitochondrial localization of mutant SOD1. Because these results suggest an effect of mutant SOD1 on mitochondrial function, we assessed the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 and control mice. CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord demonstrates a 55% loss of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity compared with spinal cord from age-matched non-transgenic or G93A SOD1 mice. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 spinal cord shows no reduction in the activities of complex I, II, or III. Blue native gel analysis further demonstrates a marked reduction in the levels of complex IV but not of complex I, II, III, or V in spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 mice compared with non-transgenic, G93A SOD1, or CCS/WT SOD1 controls. With SDS-PAGE analysis, spinal cords from CCS/G93A SOD1 mice showed significant decreases in the levels of two structural subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, COX1 and COX5b, relative to controls. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord showed no reduction in levels of selected subunits from complexes I, II, III, or V. Heme A analyses of spinal cord further support the existence of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in CCS/G93A SOD1 mice. Collectively, these results establish that CCS/G93A SOD1 mice manifest an isolated complex IV deficiency which may underlie a substantial part of mutant SOD1-induced mitochondrial cytopathy.

  6. Aberrant association of misfolded SOD1 with Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 impairs its activity and contributes to motor neuron vulnerability in ALS.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Céline; Maharjan, Niran; Goswami, Anand; Filézac de L'Etang, Audrey; Weis, Joachim; Troost, Dirk; Heller, Manfred; Gut, Heinz; Saxena, Smita

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset progressive motor neuron disease with no cure. Transgenic mice overexpressing familial ALS associated human mutant SOD1 are a commonly used model for examining disease mechanisms. Presently, it is well accepted that alterations in motor neuron excitability and spinal circuits are pathological hallmarks of ALS, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we sought to understand whether the expression of mutant SOD1 protein could contribute to altering processes governing motor neuron excitability. We used the conformation specific antibody B8H10 which recognizes a misfolded state of SOD1 (misfSOD1) to longitudinally identify its interactome during early disease stage in SOD1G93A mice. This strategy identified a direct isozyme-specific association of misfSOD1 with Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 leading to the premature impairment of its ATPase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 altered glutamate receptor 2 expression, modified cholinergic inputs and accelerated disease pathology. After mapping the site of direct association of misfSOD1 with Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 onto a 10 amino acid stretch that is unique to Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 but not found in the closely related Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α1 isozyme, we generated a misfSOD1 binding deficient, but fully functional Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 pump. Adeno associated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of this chimeric Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 restored Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 activity in the spinal cord, delayed pathological alterations and prolonged survival of SOD1G93A mice. Additionally, altered Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 expression was observed in the spinal cord of individuals with sporadic and familial ALS. A fraction of sporadic ALS cases also presented B8H10 positive misfSOD1 immunoreactivity, suggesting that similar mechanism might contribute to the pathology.

  7. SOD1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    SOD1, superoxide dismutase, is one of two isozymes that destroy free superoxide radicals that are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems. The SOD1 isozyme is a soluble homodimer found in the cytoplasm. It converts naturally-occuring but harmful superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The other isozyme is a mitochondrial protein. Defects in SOD1 are the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1, a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  8. Intracellular amyloid beta interacts with SOD1 and impairs the enzymatic activity of SOD1: implications for the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Goo Young; Cho, Hyung Min; Choi, Jung Ha; Park, Hye Yoon; Jang, Ja Young; Rhim, Hyang Shuk; Kang, Seong Man

    2009-09-30

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), including G93A, were reportedly linked to familial ALS. SOD1 is a key antioxidant enzyme, and is also one of the major targets for oxidative damage in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimers disease (AD). Several lines of evidence suggest that intracellular amyloid beta (Abeta) is associated with the pathogenesis of AD. In this report we demonstrate that intracellular Abeta directly interacts with SOD1, and that this interaction decreases the enzymatic activity of the enzyme. We observed Abeta-SOD1 aggregates in the perinuclear region of H4 cells, and mapped the SOD1 binding region to Abeta amino acids 26-42. Interestingly, intracellular Ab binds to the SOD1 G93A mutant with greater affinity than to wild-type SOD1. This resulted in considerably less mutant enzymatic activity. Our study implicates a potential role for Abeta in the development of ALS by interacting with the SOD1 G93A mutant.

  9. Copper Homeostasis as a Therapeutic Target in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with SOD1 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Eiichi; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-28

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons, and currently, there is no cure or effective treatment. Mutations in a gene encoding a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), have been first identified as a cause of familial forms of ALS. It is widely accepted that mutant SOD1 proteins cause the disease through a gain in toxicity but not through a loss of its physiological function. SOD1 is a major copper-binding protein and regulates copper homeostasis in the cell; therefore, a toxicity of mutant SOD1 could arise from the disruption of copper homeostasis. In this review, we will briefly review recent studies implying roles of copper homeostasis in the pathogenesis of SOD1-ALS and highlight the therapeutic interventions focusing on pharmacological as well as genetic regulations of copper homeostasis to modify the pathological process in SOD1-ALS.

  10. Copper Homeostasis as a Therapeutic Target in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with SOD1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Eiichi; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons, and currently, there is no cure or effective treatment. Mutations in a gene encoding a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), have been first identified as a cause of familial forms of ALS. It is widely accepted that mutant SOD1 proteins cause the disease through a gain in toxicity but not through a loss of its physiological function. SOD1 is a major copper-binding protein and regulates copper homeostasis in the cell; therefore, a toxicity of mutant SOD1 could arise from the disruption of copper homeostasis. In this review, we will briefly review recent studies implying roles of copper homeostasis in the pathogenesis of SOD1-ALS and highlight the therapeutic interventions focusing on pharmacological as well as genetic regulations of copper homeostasis to modify the pathological process in SOD1-ALS. PMID:27136532

  11. A faulty interaction between SOD1 and hCCS in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gareth S. A.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Hasnain, S. Samar

    2016-01-01

    A proportion of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases result from impaired mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) maturation. The copper chaperone for SOD1 (hCCS) forms a transient complex with SOD1 and catalyses the final stages of its maturation. We find that a neurodegenerative disease-associated hCCS mutation abrogates the interaction with SOD1 by inhibiting hCCS zinc binding. Analogously, SOD1 zinc loss has a detrimental effect on the formation, structure and disassociation of the hCCS-SOD1 heterodimer. This suggests that hCCS functionality is impaired by ALS mutations that reduce SOD1 zinc affinity. Furthermore, stabilization of wild-type SOD1 by chemical modification including cisplatination, inhibits complex formation. We hypothesize that drug molecules designed to stabilize ALS SOD1 mutants that also target the wild-type form will lead to characteristics common in SOD1 knock-outs. Our work demonstrates the applicability of chromatographic SAXS when studying biomolecules predisposed to aggregation or dissociation; attributes frequently reported for complexes involved in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27282955

  12. Lack of TNF-alpha receptor type 2 protects motor neurons in a cellular model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in mutant SOD1 mice but does not affect disease progression.

    PubMed

    Tortarolo, Massimo; Vallarola, Antonio; Lidonnici, Dario; Battaglia, Elisa; Gensano, Francesco; Spaltro, Gabriella; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Garetto, Stefano; Martini, Elisa; Pasetto, Laura; Kallikourdis, Marinos; Bonetto, Valentina; Bendotti, Caterina

    2015-10-01

    Changes in the homeostasis of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been demonstrated in patients and experimental models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the contribution of TNFα to the development of ALS is still debated. TNFα is expressed by glia and neurons and acts through the membrane receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2, which may have opposite effects in neurodegeneration. We investigated the role of TNFα and its receptors in the selective motor neuron death in ALS in vitro and in vivo. TNFR2 expressed by astrocytes and neurons, but not TNFR1, was implicated in motor neuron loss in primary SOD1-G93A co-cultures. Deleting TNFR2 from SOD1-G93A mice, there was partial but significant protection of spinal motor neurons, sciatic nerves, and tibialis muscles. However, no improvement of motor impairment or survival was observed. Since the sciatic nerves of SOD1-G93A/TNFR2-/- mice showed high phospho-TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) accumulation and low levels of acetyl-tubulin, two indices of axonal dysfunction, the lack of symptom improvement in these mice might be due to impaired function of rescued motor neurons. These results indicate the interaction between TNFR2 and membrane-bound TNFα as an innovative pathway involved in motor neuron death. Nevertheless, its inhibition is not sufficient to stop disease progression in ALS mice, underlining the complexity of this pathology. We show evidence of the involvement of neuronal and astroglial TNFR2 in the motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Both concur to cause motor neuron death in primary astrocyte/spinal neuron co-cultures. TNFR2 deletion partially protects motor neurons and sciatic nerves in SOD1-G93A mice but does not improve their symptoms and survival. However, TNFR2 could be a new target for multi-intervention therapies.

  13. Combined Isothermal Titration and Differential Scanning Calorimetry Define Three-State Thermodynamics of fALS-Associated Mutant Apo SOD1 Dimers and an Increased Population of Folded Monomer.

    PubMed

    Broom, Helen R; Vassall, Kenrick A; Rumfeldt, Jessica A O; Doyle, Colleen M; Tong, Ming Sze; Bonner, Julia M; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-26

    Many proteins are naturally homooligomers, homodimers most frequently. The overall stability of oligomeric proteins may be described in terms of the stability of the constituent monomers and the stability of their association; together, these stabilities determine the populations of different monomer and associated species, which generally have different roles in the function or dysfunction of the protein. Here we show how a new combined calorimetry approach, using isothermal titration calorimetry to define monomer association energetics together with differential scanning calorimetry to measure total energetics of oligomer unfolding, can be used to analyze homodimeric unmetalated (apo) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and determine the effects on the stability of structurally diverse mutations associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite being located throughout the protein, all mutations studied weaken the dimer interface, while concomitantly either decreasing or increasing the marginal stability of the monomer. Analysis of the populations of dimer, monomer, and unfolded monomer under physiological conditions of temperature, pH, and protein concentration shows that all mutations promote the formation of folded monomers. These findings may help rationalize the key roles proposed for monomer forms of SOD1 in neurotoxic aggregation in ALS, as well as roles for other forms of SOD1. Thus, the results obtained here provide a valuable approach for the quantitative analysis of homooligomeric protein stabilities, which can be used to elucidate the natural and aberrant roles of different forms of these proteins and to improve methods for predicting protein stabilities.

  14. Differential effects of phytotherapic preparations in the hSOD1 Drosophila melanogaster model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Talani, Giuseppe; Catelani, Tiziano; Solari, Paolo; Poddighe, Simone; Borghero, Giuseppe; Marrosu, Francesco; Sanna, Enrico; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the effects of Withania somnifera (Wse) and Mucuna pruriens (Mpe) on a Drosophila melanogaster model for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In particular, the effects of Wse and Mpe were assessed following feeding the flies selectively overexpressing the wild human copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (hSOD1-gain-of-function) in Drosophila motoneurons. Although ALS-hSOD1 mutants showed no impairment in life span, with respect to GAL4 controls, the results revealed impairment of climbing behaviour, muscle electrophysiological parameters (latency and amplitude of ePSPs) as well as thoracic ganglia mitochondrial functions. Interestingly, Wse treatment significantly increased lifespan of hSDO1 while Mpe had not effect. Conversely, both Wse and Mpe significantly rescued climbing impairment, and also latency and amplitude of ePSPs as well as failure responses to high frequency DLM stimulation. Finally, mitochondrial alterations were any more present in Wse- but not in Mpe-treated hSOD1 mutants. Hence, given the role of inflammation in the development of ALS, the high translational impact of the model, the known anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts, and the viability of their clinical use, these results suggest that the application of Wse and Mpe might represent a valuable pharmacological strategy to counteract the progression of ALS and related symptoms. PMID:28102336

  15. Overexpression of CCS in G93A-SOD1 mice leads to accelerated neurological deficits with severe mitochondrial pathology.

    PubMed

    Son, Marjatta; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Kawamata, Hibiki; Rajendran, Bhagya; Boyer, Philip J; Manfredi, Giovanni; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2007-04-03

    Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been detected within spinal cord mitochondria of mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, a model of familial ALS. The copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) provides SOD1 with copper, facilitates the conversion of immature apo-SOD1 to a mature holoform, and influences in yeast the cytosolic/mitochondrial partitioning of SOD1. To determine how CCS affects G93A-SOD1-induced disease, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing CCS and crossed them to G93A-SOD1 or wild-type SOD1 transgenic mice. Both CCS transgenic mice and CCS/wild-type-SOD1 dual transgenic mice are neurologically normal. In contrast, CCS/G93A-SOD1 dual transgenic mice develop accelerated neurological deficits, with a mean survival of 36 days, compared with 242 days for G93A-SOD1 mice. Immuno-EM and subcellular fractionation studies on the spinal cord show that G93A-SOD1 is enriched within mitochondria in the presence of CCS overexpression. Our results indicate that CCS overexpression in G93A-SOD1 mice produces severe mitochondrial pathology and accelerates disease course.

  16. SOD1 Lysine 123 Acetylation in the Adult Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszewski, Michael; Kennedy, Austin K.; Blaes, Shelby L.; Shaffer, Robert S.; Knott, Andrew B.; Song, Wenjun; Hauser, Henry A.; Bossy, Blaise; Huang, Ting-Ting; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) knockout (Sod1−/−) mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype. In humans, SOD1 mutations are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and post-translational modification (PTM) of wild-type SOD1 has been associated with sporadic ALS. Reversible acetylation regulates many enzymes and proteomic studies have identified SOD1 acetylation at lysine 123 (K123). The function and distribution of K123-acetylated SOD1 (Ac-K123 SOD1) in the nervous system is unknown. Here, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Ac-K123 SOD1. Sod1 deletion in Sod1−/− mice, K123 mutation or preabsorption with Ac-K123 peptide all abolished antibody binding. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution in the normal adult mouse nervous system. In the cerebellum, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in cell bodies of the granular cell layer (GCL) and Purkinje cell dendrites and interneurons of the molecular cell layer. In the hippocampus, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was strong in the fimbria, subiculum, pyramidal cells and Schaffer collateral fibers of the cornus ammonis field 1 (CA1) region and granule and neuronal progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition, labeling was observed in the choroid plexus (CP) and the ependyma of the brain ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. In the olfactory bulb, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in axons of sensory neurons, in cell bodies of interneurons and neurites of the mitral and tufted cells. In the retina, labeling was strong in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) and axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the inner nuclear layer (INL) and cone photoreceptors of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In summary, our findings describe Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution to distinct regions and cell types of the normal nervous system. PMID:28066183

  17. SOD1 Lysine 123 Acetylation in the Adult Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Kaliszewski, Michael; Kennedy, Austin K; Blaes, Shelby L; Shaffer, Robert S; Knott, Andrew B; Song, Wenjun; Hauser, Henry A; Bossy, Blaise; Huang, Ting-Ting; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) knockout (Sod1(-/-)) mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype. In humans, SOD1 mutations are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and post-translational modification (PTM) of wild-type SOD1 has been associated with sporadic ALS. Reversible acetylation regulates many enzymes and proteomic studies have identified SOD1 acetylation at lysine 123 (K123). The function and distribution of K123-acetylated SOD1 (Ac-K123 SOD1) in the nervous system is unknown. Here, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Ac-K123 SOD1. Sod1 deletion in Sod1(-/-) mice, K123 mutation or preabsorption with Ac-K123 peptide all abolished antibody binding. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution in the normal adult mouse nervous system. In the cerebellum, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in cell bodies of the granular cell layer (GCL) and Purkinje cell dendrites and interneurons of the molecular cell layer. In the hippocampus, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was strong in the fimbria, subiculum, pyramidal cells and Schaffer collateral fibers of the cornus ammonis field 1 (CA1) region and granule and neuronal progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition, labeling was observed in the choroid plexus (CP) and the ependyma of the brain ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. In the olfactory bulb, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in axons of sensory neurons, in cell bodies of interneurons and neurites of the mitral and tufted cells. In the retina, labeling was strong in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) and axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the inner nuclear layer (INL) and cone photoreceptors of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In summary, our findings describe Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution to distinct regions and cell types of the normal nervous system.

  18. Nonnative SOD1 trimer is toxic to motor neurons in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Lanette; Tao, Yazhong; Redler, Rachel L.; Fay, James M.; Zhang, Yuliang; Lv, Zhengjian; Mercer, Ian P.; Deshmukh, Mohanish; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2016-01-01

    Since the linking of mutations in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase gene (sod1) to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in 1993, researchers have sought the connection between SOD1 and motor neuron death. Disease-linked mutations tend to destabilize the native dimeric structure of SOD1, and plaques containing misfolded and aggregated SOD1 have been found in the motor neurons of patients with ALS. Despite advances in understanding of ALS disease progression and SOD1 folding and stability, cytotoxic species and mechanisms remain unknown, greatly impeding the search for and design of therapeutic interventions. Here, we definitively link cytotoxicity associated with SOD1 aggregation in ALS to a nonnative trimeric SOD1 species. We develop methodology for the incorporation of low-resolution experimental data into simulations toward the structural modeling of metastable, multidomain aggregation intermediates. We apply this methodology to derive the structure of a SOD1 trimer, which we validate in vitro and in hybridized motor neurons. We show that SOD1 mutants designed to promote trimerization increase cell death. Further, we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of the designed mutants correlates with trimer stability, providing a direct link between the presence of misfolded oligomers and neuron death. Identification of cytotoxic species is the first and critical step in elucidating the molecular etiology of ALS, and the ability to manipulate formation of these species will provide an avenue for the development of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:26719414

  19. Endogenous macrophage migration inhibitory factor reduces the accumulation and toxicity of misfolded SOD1 in a mouse model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Leyton-Jaimes, Marcel F.; Benaim, Clara; Abu-Hamad, Salah; Kahn, Joy; Guetta, Amos; Bucala, Richard; Israelson, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It has been suggested that the toxicity of mutant SOD1 results from its misfolding and accumulation on the cytoplasmic faces of intracellular organelles, including the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of ALS-affected tissues. Recently, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was shown to directly inhibit the accumulation of misfolded SOD1 and its binding to intracellular membranes, but the role of endogenous MIF in modulating SOD1 misfolding in vivo remains unknown. To elucidate this role, we bred MIF-deficient mice with SOD1G85R mice, which express a dismutase-inactive mutant of SOD1 and are considered a model of familial ALS. We found that the accumulation of misfolded SOD1, its association with mitochondrial and ER membranes, and the levels of sedimentable insoluble SOD1 aggregates were significantly higher in the spinal cords of SOD1G85R-MIF−/− mice than in their SOD1G85R-MIF+/+ littermates. Moreover, increasing MIF expression in neuronal cultures inhibited the accumulation of misfolded SOD1 and rescued from mutant SOD1-induced cell death. In contrast, the complete elimination of endogenous MIF accelerated disease onset and late disease progression and shortened the lifespan of the SOD1G85R mutant mice. These findings indicate that MIF plays a significant role in the folding and misfolding of SOD1 in vivo, and they have implications for the potential therapeutic role of up-regulating MIF within the nervous system to modulate the selective accumulation of misfolded SOD1. PMID:27551074

  20. Cystatin B and SOD1: protein–protein interaction and possible relation to neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Lisa; Cozzolino, Mauro; Marini, Elettra Sara; Amori, Ilaria; De Jaco, Antonella; Carrì, Maria Teresa; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella

    2014-03-01

    Cystatin B (CSTB), an inhibitor of the cysteine proteases, belongs to the cathepsin family and it is known to interact with a number of proteins involved in cytoskeletal organization. CSTB has an intrinsic tendency to form aggregates depending on the redox environment. The gene encoding for CSTB is frequently mutated in association with the rare neurodegenerative condition progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Increased levels of CSTB have been observed in the spinal cord of transgenic mice modeling SOD1-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motoneurons. In the present study, we have investigated the relationship occurring between the expression of SOD1 and CSTB either wild-type or double-cysteine substitution mutant (Cys 3 and Cys 64). Whether or not there is a physical interaction between the two proteins was also investigated in overexpression experiments using a human neuroblastoma cell line and mouse-immortalized motoneurons. Here we report evidences for a reciprocal influence of CSTB and SOD1 at the gene expression level and for a direct interaction of the two proteins.

  1. Knocking down metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 improves survival and disease progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Milanese, Marco; Giribaldi, Francesco; Melone, Marcello; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Musante, Ilaria; Carminati, Enrico; Rossi, Pia I A; Vergani, Laura; Voci, Adriana; Conti, Fiorenzo; Puliti, Aldamaria; Bonanno, Giambattista

    2014-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease reflecting degeneration of upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). The cause of ALS and the mechanisms of neuronal death are still largely obscure, thus impairing the establishment of efficacious therapies. Glutamate (Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity plays a major role in MN degeneration in ALS. We recently demonstrated that the activation of Group I metabotropic Glu autoreceptors, belonging to both type 1 and type 5 receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5), at glutamatergic spinal cord nerve terminals, produces excessive Glu release in mice over-expressing human superoxide-dismutase carrying the G93A point mutation (SOD1(G93A)), a widely used animal model of human ALS. To establish whether these receptors are implicated in ALS, we generated mice expressing half dosage of mGluR1 in the SOD1(G93A) background (SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+)), by crossing the SOD1(G93A) mutant mouse with the Grm1(crv4/+) mouse, lacking mGluR1 because of a spontaneous recessive mutation. SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+) mice showed prolonged survival probability, delayed pathology onset, slower disease progression and improved motor performances compared to SOD1(G93A) mice. These effects were associated to reduction of mGluR5 expression, enhanced number of MNs, decreased astrocyte and microglia activation, normalization of metallothionein and catalase mRNA expression, reduced mitochondrial damage, and decrease of abnormal Glu release in spinal cord of SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+)compared to SOD1(G93A) mice. These results demonstrate that a lower constitutive level of mGluR1 has a significant positive impact on mice with experimental ALS, thus providing the rationale for future pharmacological approaches to ALS by selectively blocking Group I metabotropic Glu receptors.

  2. Oligomerization of Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Its Hydroperoxides In Vitro: Aggregation Dependence on Fatty Acid Unsaturation and Thiols

    PubMed Central

    Appolinário, Patricia Postilione; Medinas, Danilo Bilches; Chaves-Filho, Adriano B.; Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C.; Cussiol, José Renato Rosa; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares; Augusto, Ohara; Miyamoto, Sayuri

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3, DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid highly enriched in the brain. This fatty acid can be easily oxidized yielding hydroperoxides as primary products. Cu, Zn-Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) aggregation is a common hallmark of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the molecular mechanisms behind their formation are not completely understood. Here we investigated the effect of DHA and its hydroperoxides (DHAOOH) on human SOD1 oligomerization in vitro. DHA induced the formation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) SOD1 species (>700 kDa). Aggregation was dependent on free thiols and occurred primarily with the protein in its apo-form. SOD1 incubation with DHA was accompanied by changes in protein structure leading to exposure of protein hydrophobic patches and formation of non-amyloid aggregates. Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that Cys 6 and Cys 111 in wild-type and Cys 6 in ALS-linked G93A mutant are required for aggregation. In contrast, DHAOOH did not induce HMW species formation but promoted abnormal covalent dimerization of apo-SOD1 that was resistant to SDS and thiol reductants. Overall, our data demonstrate that DHA and DHAOOH induce distinct types of apo-SOD1 oligomerization leading to the formation of HMW and low-molecular-weight species, respectively. PMID:25928076

  3. SOD1 in cerebral spinal fluid as a pharmacodynamic marker for antisense oligonucleotide therapy.

    PubMed

    Winer, Leah; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Chun, Seung; Lacomis, David; Jaffa, Matthew; Fagan, Anne; Holtzman, David M; Wancewicz, Ed; Bennett, C Frank; Bowser, Robert; Cudkowicz, Merit; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-02-01

    Therapies designed to decrease the level of SOD1 are currently in a clinical trial for patients with superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether the SOD1 protein in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) may be a pharmacodynamic marker for antisense oligonucleotide therapy and a disease marker for ALS. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting human SOD1 were administered to rats expressing SOD1G93A. The human SOD1 protein levels were measured in the rats' brain and CSF samples. In human CSF samples, the following proteins were measured: SOD1, tau, phosphorylated tau, VILIP-1, and YKL-40. Ninety-three participants with ALS, 88 healthy controls, and 89 controls with a neurological disease (55 with dementia of the Alzheimer type, 19 with multiple sclerosis, and 15 with peripheral neuropathy). Antisense oligonucleotide-treated SOD1G93A rats had decreased human SOD1 messenger RNA levels (mean [SD] decrease of 69% [4%]) and decreased protein levels (mean [SD] decrease of 48% [14%]) in the brain. The rats' CSF samples showed a similar decrease in hSOD1 levels (mean [SD] decrease of 42% [14%]). In human CSF samples, the SOD1 levels varied a mean (SD) 7.1% (5.7%) after additional measurements, separated by months, were performed. The CSF SOD1 levels were higher in the participants with ALS (mean [SE] level, 172 [8] ng/mL; P<.05) and the controls with a neurological disease (mean [SE] level, 172 [6] ng/mL; P<.05) than in the healthy controls (mean [SE] level, 134 [4] ng/mL). Elevated CSF SOD1 levels did not correlate with disease characteristics in participants with ALS or controls with dementia of the Alzheimer type, but they did correlate with tau, phosphorylated tau, VILIP-1 and YKL-40 levels in controls with dementia of the Alzheimer type. SOD1 in CSF may be an excellent pharmacodynamic marker for SOD1-lowering therapies because antisense oligonucleotide therapy lowers protein levels in the rat brain and rat CSF samples and

  4. Pathological TDP-43 distinguishes sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with SOD1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R A; Bigio, Eileen H; Ince, Paul G; Geser, Felix; Neumann, Manuela; Cairns, Nigel J; Kwong, Linda K; Forman, Mark S; Ravits, John; Stewart, Heather; Eisen, Andrew; McClusky, Leo; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Monoranu, Camelia M; Highley, J Robin; Kirby, Janine; Siddique, Teepu; Shaw, Pamela J; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2007-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common, fatal motor neuron disorder with no effective treatment. Approximately 10% of cases are familial ALS (FALS), and the most common genetic abnormality is superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutations. Most ALS research in the past decade has focused on the neurotoxicity of mutant SOD1, and this knowledge has directed therapeutic strategies. We recently identified TDP-43 as the major pathological protein in sporadic ALS. In this study, we investigated TDP-43 in a larger series of ALS cases (n = 111), including familial cases with and without SOD1 mutations. Ubiquitin and TDP-43 immunohistochemistry was performed on postmortem tissue from sporadic ALS (n = 59), ALS with SOD1 mutations (n = 15), SOD-1-negative FALS (n = 11), and ALS with dementia (n = 26). Biochemical analysis was performed on representative cases from each group. All cases of sporadic ALS, ALS with dementia, and SOD1-negative FALS had neuronal and glial inclusions that were immunoreactive for both ubiquitin and TDP-43. Cases with SOD1 mutations had ubiquitin-positive neuronal inclusions; however, no cases were immunoreactive for TDP-43. Biochemical analysis of postmortem tissue from sporadic ALS and SOD1-negative FALS demonstrated pathological forms of TDP-43 that were absent in cases with SOD1 mutations. These findings implicate pathological TDP-43 in the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS. In contrast, the absence of pathological TDP-43 in cases with SOD1 mutations implies that motor neuron degeneration in these cases may result from a different mechanism, and that cases with SOD1 mutations may not be the familial counterpart of sporadic ALS.

  5. Nutrient-Dependent Requirement for SOD1 in Lifespan Extension by Protein Restriction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoping; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Lim, Jinhwan; Laslo, Mara; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Poirier, Luc; Alberico, Thomas; Zou, Sige

    2012-01-01

    Summary Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate aging and aging-related diseases. Dietary composition is critical in modulating lifespan. However, how ROS modulate dietary effects on lifespan remains poorly understood. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a major cytosolic enzyme responsible for scavenging superoxides. Here we investigated the role of SOD1 in lifespan modulation by diet in Drosophila. We found that a high sugar-low protein (HS-LP) diet or low-calorie diet with low-sugar content, representing protein restriction, increased lifespan but not resistance to acute oxidative stress in wild-type flies, relative to a standard base diet. A low sugar-high protein diet had an opposite effect. Our genetic analysis indicated that SOD1 overexpression or dfoxo deletion did not alter lifespan patterns of flies responding to diets. However, sod1 reduction blunted lifespan extension by the HS-LP diet but not the low-calorie diet. HS-LP and low-calorie diets both reduced target-of-rapamycin (TOR) signaling and only the HS-LP diet increased oxidative damage. sod1 knockdown did not affect phosphorylation of S6 kinase, suggesting that SOD1 acts in parallel with or downstream of TOR signaling. Surprisingly rapamycin decreased lifespan in sod1 mutant but not wild-type males fed the standard, HS-LP and low calorie diets, whereas antioxidant N-acetylcysteine only increased lifespan in sod1 mutant males fed the HS-LP diet, when compared to diet-matched controls. Our findings suggest that SOD1 is required for lifespan extension by protein restriction only when dietary sugar is high, and support the context-dependent role of ROS in aging and caution the use of rapamycin and antioxidants in aging interventions. PMID:22672579

  6. Biological effects of CCS in the absence of SOD1 enzyme activation: implications for disease in a mouse model for ALS.

    PubMed

    Proescher, Jody B; Son, Marjatta; Elliott, Jeffrey L; Culotta, Valeria C

    2008-06-15

    The CCS copper chaperone is critical for maturation of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) through insertion of the copper co-factor and oxidization of an intra-subunit disulfide. The disulfide helps stabilize the SOD1 polypeptide, which can be particularly important in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) linked to misfolding of mutant SOD1. Surprisingly, however, over-expressed CCS was recently shown to greatly accelerate disease in a G93A SOD1 mouse model for ALS. Herein we show that disease in these G93A/CCS mice correlates with incomplete oxidation of the SOD1 disulfide. In the brain and spinal cord, CCS over-expression failed to enhance oxidation of the G93A SOD1 disulfide and if anything, effected some accumulation of disulfide-reduced SOD1. This effect was mirrored in culture with a C244,246S mutant of CCS that has the capacity to interact with SOD1 but can neither insert copper nor oxidize the disulfide. In spite of disulfide effects, there was no evidence for increased SOD1 aggregation. If anything, CCS over-expression prevented SOD1 misfolding in culture as monitored by detergent insolubility. This protection against SOD1 misfolding does not require SOD1 enzyme activation as the same effect was obtained with the C244,246S allele of CCS. In the G93A SOD1 mouse, CCS over-expression was likewise associated with a lack of obvious SOD1 misfolding marked by detergent insolubility. CCS over-expression accelerates SOD1-linked disease without the hallmarks of misfolding and aggregation seen in other mutant SOD1 models. These studies are the first to indicate biological effects of CCS in the absence of SOD1 enzymatic activation.

  7. SOD1 Mutations Causing Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Induce Toxicity in Astrocytes: Evidence for Bystander Effects in a Continuum of Astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Nicole; Lau, Chew L; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D; Beart, Philip M; O'Shea, Ross D

    2017-08-31

    Astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons via non-cell autonomous mechanisms of injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) underlie the neuropathology of some forms of familial ALS, we explored how expression of mutant SOD1 protein A4V SOD1-EGFP affected the biology of secondary murine astrocytes. A4V SOD1-EGFP expressing astrocytes (72 h after transfection) displayed decreased mitochondrial activity (~45%) and L-glutamate transport (~25%), relative to cells expressing wild-type SOD1-EGFP. A4V SOD1-EGFP altered F-actin and Hoechst staining, indicative of cytoskeletal and nuclear changes, and altered GM130 labelling suggesting fragmentation of Golgi apparatus. SOD1 inclusion formation shifted from discrete to "punctate" over 72 h with A4V SOD1-EGFP more rapidly producing inclusions than G85R SOD1-EGFP, and forming more punctate aggregates. A4V, not wild-type SOD1-EGFP, exerted a substantial, time-dependent effect on GFAP expression, and ~60% of astrocytes became stellate and hypertrophic at 72 h. Spreading toxicity was inferred since at 72 h ~80% of bystander cells exhibited hypertrophy and stellation. This evidence favours mutant SOD1-containing astrocytes releasing destructive species that alter the biology of adjacent astrocytes. This panoply of mutant SOD1-induced destructive events favours recruitment of astrocytes to non-cell autonomous injury in ALS.

  8. Import, maturation, and function of SOD1 and its copper chaperone CCS in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Cu, Zn, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a ubiquitous enzyme localized in multiple cellular compartments, including mitochondria, where it concentrates in the intermembrane space (IMS). Similar to other small IMS proteins, the import and retention of SOD1 in the IMS is linked to its folding and maturation, involving the formation of critical intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds. Therefore, the cysteine residues of SOD1 play a fundamental role in its IMS localization. IMS import of SOD1 involves its copper chaperone, CCS, whose mitochondrial distribution is regulated by the Mia40/Erv1 disulfide relay system in a redox-dependent manner: CCS promotes SOD1 maturation and retention in the IMS. The function of SOD1 in the IMS is still unknown, but it is plausible that it serves to remove superoxide released from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mutations in SOD1 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), whose pathologic features include mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction. Mutant SOD1 localization in the IMS is not dictated by oxygen concentration and the Mia40/Erv1 system, but is primarily dependent on aberrant protein folding and aggregation. Mutant SOD1 localization and aggregation in the IMS might cause the mitochondrial abnormalities observed in familial ALS and could play a significant role in disease pathogenesis.

  9. Is SOD1 loss of function involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Saccon, Rachele A; Bunton-Stasyshyn, Rosie K A; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Fratta, Pietro

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in the gene superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are causative for familial forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. When the first SOD1 mutations were identified they were postulated to give rise to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through a loss of function mechanism, but experimental data soon showed that the disease arises from a--still unknown--toxic gain of function, and the possibility that loss of function plays a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis was abandoned. Although loss of function is not causative for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, here we re-examine two decades of evidence regarding whether loss of function may play a modifying role in SOD1-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. From analysing published data from patients with SOD1-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we find a marked loss of SOD1 enzyme activity arising from almost all mutations. We continue to examine functional data from all Sod1 knockout mice and we find obvious detrimental effects within the nervous system with, interestingly, some specificity for the motor system. Here, we bring together historical and recent experimental findings to conclude that there is a possibility that SOD1 loss of function may play a modifying role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This likelihood has implications for some current therapies aimed at knocking down the level of mutant protein in patients with SOD1-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Finally, the wide-ranging phenotypes that result from loss of function indicate that SOD1 gene sequences should be screened in diseases other than amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  10. Is SOD1 loss of function involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Saccon, Rachele A.; Bunton-Stasyshyn, Rosie K. A.; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Fratta, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the gene superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are causative for familial forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. When the first SOD1 mutations were identified they were postulated to give rise to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through a loss of function mechanism, but experimental data soon showed that the disease arises from a—still unknown—toxic gain of function, and the possibility that loss of function plays a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis was abandoned. Although loss of function is not causative for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, here we re-examine two decades of evidence regarding whether loss of function may play a modifying role in SOD1–amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. From analysing published data from patients with SOD1–amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we find a marked loss of SOD1 enzyme activity arising from almost all mutations. We continue to examine functional data from all Sod1 knockout mice and we find obvious detrimental effects within the nervous system with, interestingly, some specificity for the motor system. Here, we bring together historical and recent experimental findings to conclude that there is a possibility that SOD1 loss of function may play a modifying role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This likelihood has implications for some current therapies aimed at knocking down the level of mutant protein in patients with SOD1–amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Finally, the wide-ranging phenotypes that result from loss of function indicate that SOD1 gene sequences should be screened in diseases other than amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23687121

  11. The Influenza Virus H5N1 Infection Can Induce ROS Production for Viral Replication and Host Cell Death in A549 Cells Modulated by Human Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian; Wang, Ruifang; Zou, Wei; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Wang, Shengyu; Jin, Meilin

    2016-01-08

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 infections are often accompanied by excessive pro-inflammatory response, high viral titer, and apoptosis; as such, the efficient control of these infections poses a great challenge. The pathogenesis of influenza virus infection is also related to oxidative stress. However, the role of endogenic genes with antioxidant effect in the control of influenza viruses, especially H5N1 viruses, should be further investigated. In this study, the H5N1 infection in lung epithelial cells decreased Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) expression at mRNA and protein levels. Forced SOD1 expression significantly inhibited the H5N1-induced increase in reactive oxygen species, decreased pro-inflammatory response, prevented p65 and p38 phosphorylation, and impeded viral ribonucleoprotein nuclear export and viral replication. The SOD1 overexpression also rescued H5N1-induced cellular apoptosis and alleviated H5N1-caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, this study described the role of SOD1 in the replication of H5N1 influenza virus and emphasized the relevance of this enzyme in the control of H5N1 replication in epithelial cells. Pharmacological modulation or targeting SOD1 may open a new way to fight H5N1 influenza virus.

  12. New links between SOD1 and metabolic dysfunction from a yeast model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bastow, Emma L.; Peswani, Amber R.; Tarrant, Daniel S. J.; Pentland, Daniel R.; Chen, Xi; Staniforth, Gemma L.; Rowe, Michelle L.; Howard, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of genes have been linked to familial forms of the fatal motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Over 150 mutations within the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been implicated in ALS, but why such mutations lead to ALS-associated cellular dysfunction is unclear. In this study, we identify how ALS-linked SOD1 mutations lead to changes in the cellular health of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that it is not the accumulation of aggregates but the loss of Sod1 protein stability that drives cellular dysfunction. The toxic effect of Sod1 instability does not correlate with a loss of mitochondrial function or increased production of reactive oxygen species, but instead prevents acidification of the vacuole, perturbs metabolic regulation and promotes senescence. Central to the toxic gain-of-function seen with the SOD1 mutants examined was an inability to regulate amino acid biosynthesis. We also report that leucine supplementation results in an improvement in motor function in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of ALS. Our data suggest that metabolic dysfunction plays an important role in Sod1-mediated toxicity in both the yeast and worm models of ALS. PMID:27656112

  13. New links between SOD1 and metabolic dysfunction from a yeast model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bastow, Emma L; Peswani, Amber R; Tarrant, Daniel S J; Pentland, Daniel R; Chen, Xi; Morgan, Alan; Staniforth, Gemma L; Tullet, Jennifer M; Rowe, Michelle L; Howard, Mark J; Tuite, Mick F; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2016-11-01

    A number of genes have been linked to familial forms of the fatal motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Over 150 mutations within the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been implicated in ALS, but why such mutations lead to ALS-associated cellular dysfunction is unclear. In this study, we identify how ALS-linked SOD1 mutations lead to changes in the cellular health of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We find that it is not the accumulation of aggregates but the loss of Sod1 protein stability that drives cellular dysfunction. The toxic effect of Sod1 instability does not correlate with a loss of mitochondrial function or increased production of reactive oxygen species, but instead prevents acidification of the vacuole, perturbs metabolic regulation and promotes senescence. Central to the toxic gain-of-function seen with the SOD1 mutants examined was an inability to regulate amino acid biosynthesis. We also report that leucine supplementation results in an improvement in motor function in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of ALS. Our data suggest that metabolic dysfunction plays an important role in Sod1-mediated toxicity in both the yeast and worm models of ALS. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Androgens affect muscle, motor neuron, and survival in a mouse model of SOD1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Tanya; Polanco, Maria J; Scaramuzzino, Chiara; Rocchi, Anna; Milioto, Carmelo; Emionite, Laura; Ognio, Emanuela; Sambataro, Fabio; Galbiati, Mariarita; Poletti, Angelo; Pennuto, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest the involvement of androgens in ALS pathogenesis, but the mechanism through which androgens modify the ALS phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that androgen ablation by surgical castration extends survival and disease duration of a transgenic mouse model of ALS expressing mutant human SOD1 (hSOD1-G93A). Furthermore, long-term treatment of orchiectomized hSOD1-G93A mice with nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic androgenic steroid, worsened disease manifestations. ND treatment induced muscle fiber hypertrophy but caused motor neuron death. ND negatively affected survival, thereby dissociating skeletal muscle pathology from life span in this ALS mouse model. Interestingly, orchiectomy decreased androgen receptor levels in the spinal cord and muscle, whereas ND treatment had the opposite effect. Notably, stimulation with ND promoted the recruitment of endogenous androgen receptor into biochemical complexes that were insoluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate, a finding consistent with protein aggregation. Overall, our results shed light on the role of androgens as modifiers of ALS pathogenesis via dysregulation of androgen receptor homeostasis.

  15. Conversion to the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype is associated with intermolecular linked insoluble aggregates of SOD1 in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Han-Xiang; Shi, Yong; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Zhai, Hong; Fu, Ronggen; Liu, Erdong; Gorrie, George H.; Khan, Mohammad S.; Hung, Wu-Yen; Bigio, Eileen H.; Lukas, Thomas; Dal Canto, Mauro C.; O'Halloran, Thomas V.; Siddique, Teepu

    2006-01-01

    Twenty percent of the familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by mutations in the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) through the gain of a toxic function. The nature of this toxic function of mutant SOD1 has remained largely unknown. Here we show that WT SOD1 not only hastens onset of the ALS phenotype but can also convert an unaffected phenotype to an ALS phenotype in mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse models. Further analyses of the single- and double-transgenic mice revealed that conversion of mutant SOD1 from a soluble form to an aggregated and detergent-insoluble form was associated with development of the ALS phenotype in transgenic mice. Conversion of WT SOD1 from a soluble form to an aggregated and insoluble form also correlates with exacerbation of the disease or conversion to a disease phenotype in double-transgenic mice. This conversion, observed in the mitochondrial fraction of the spinal cord, involved formation of insoluble SOD1 dimers and multimers that are crosslinked through intermolecular disulfide bonds via oxidation of cysteine residues in SOD1. Our data thus show a molecular mechanism by which SOD1, an important protein in cellular defense against free radicals, is converted to aggregated and apparently ALS-associated toxic dimers and multimers by redox processes. These findings provide evidence of direct links among oxidation, protein aggregation, mitochondrial damage, and SOD1-mediated ALS, with possible applications to the aging process and other late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. Importantly, rational therapy based on these observations can now be developed and tested. PMID:16636275

  16. Inhibition of Fast Axonal Transport by Pathogenic SOD1 Involves Activation of p38 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morfini, Gerardo A.; Bosco, Daryl A.; Brown, Hannah; Gatto, Rodolfo; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Song, Yuyu; Molla, Linda; Baker, Lisa; Marangoni, M. Natalia; Berth, Sarah; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Bagnato, Carolina; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Pigino, Gustavo F.; Watterson, D. Martin; Huang, Chun-Fang; Banker, Gary; Brown, Robert H.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Dying-back degeneration of motor neuron axons represents an established feature of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, but axon-autonomous effects of pathogenic SOD1 remained undefined. Characteristics of motor neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear. Experiments in isolated squid axoplasm reveal that FALS-related SOD1 mutant polypeptides inhibit FAT through a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Mutant SOD1 activated neuronal p38 in mouse spinal cord, neuroblastoma cells and squid axoplasm. Active p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated kinesin-1, and this phosphorylation event inhibited kinesin-1. Finally, vesicle motility assays revealed previously unrecognized, isoform-specific effects of p38 on FAT. Axon-autonomous activation of the p38 pathway represents a novel gain of toxic function for FALS-linked SOD1 proteins consistent with the dying-back pattern of neurodegeneration characteristic of ALS. PMID:23776455

  17. SOD1 targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space prevents motor neuropathy in the Sod1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Lindsey R; Igoudjil, Anissa; Magrané, Jordi; Li, Yingjie; Hansen, Jason M; Manfredi, Giovanni; Glass, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Motor axon degeneration is a critical but poorly understood event leading to weakness and muscle atrophy in motor neuron diseases. Here, we investigated oxidative stress-mediated axonal degeneration in mice lacking the antioxidant enzyme, Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). We demonstrate a progressive motor axonopathy in these mice and show that Sod1(-/-) primary motor neurons extend short axons in vitro with reduced mitochondrial density. Sod1(-/-) neurons also show oxidation of mitochondrial--but not cytosolic--thioredoxin, suggesting that loss of SOD1 causes preferential oxidative stress in mitochondria, a primary source of superoxide in cells. SOD1 is widely regarded as the cytosolic isoform of superoxide dismutase, but is also found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The functional significance of SOD1 in the intermembrane space is unknown. We used a transgenic approach to express SOD1 exclusively in the intermembrane space and found that mitochondrial SOD1 is sufficient to prevent biochemical and morphological defects in the Sod1(-/-) model, and to rescue the motor phenotype of these mice when followed to 12 months of age. These results suggest that SOD1 in the mitochondrial intermembrane space is fundamental for motor axon maintenance, and implicate oxidative damage initiated at mitochondrial sites in the pathogenesis of motor axon degeneration.

  18. Chronic infusion of SOD1(G93A) astrocyte-secreted factors induces spinal motoneuron degeneration and neuromuscular dysfunction in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Jarquín, Uri N; Rojas, Fabiola; van Zundert, Brigitte; Tapia, Ricardo

    2017-01-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease and studies in vitro show that motoneuron degeneration is triggered by non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. However, whether soluble toxic factor(s) released by mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) expressing astrocytes induces death of motoneurons and leads to motor dysfunction in vivo is not known. To directly test this, healthy adult rats were treated with conditioned media derived from primary mouse astrocytes (ACM) that express human (h) SOD1(G93A) (ACM-hG93A) via chronic osmotic pump infusion in the lumbar spinal cord. Controls included ACM derived from transgenic mice expressing hSOD1(WT) (ACM-hWT) or non-transgenic mouse SOD1(WT) (ACM-WT) astrocytes. Rats chronically infused with ACM-hG93A started to develop motor dysfunction at 8 days, as measured by rotarod performance. Additionally, immunohistochemical analyses at day 16 revealed reactive astrogliosis and significant loss of motoneurons in the ventral horn of the infused region. Controls did not show significant motor behavior alterations or neuronal damage. Thus, we demonstrate that factors released in vitro from astrocytes derived from ALS mice cause spinal motoneuron death and consequent neuromuscular dysfunction in vivo.

  19. Oxidation of the Tryptophan 32 Residue of Human Superoxide Dismutase 1 Caused by Its Bicarbonate-dependent Peroxidase Activity Triggers the Non-amyloid Aggregation of the Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Fernando R.; Iqbal, Asif; Linares, Edlaine; Silva, Daniel F.; Lima, Filipe S.; Cuccovia, Iolanda M.; Augusto, Ohara

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative post-translational modifications of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology is an attractive hypothesis to explore based on several lines of evidence. Among them, the remarkable stability of hSOD1WT and several of its ALS-associated mutants suggests that hSOD1 oxidation may precede its conversion to the unfolded and aggregated forms found in ALS patients. The bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of hSOD1 causes oxidation of its own solvent-exposed Trp32 residue. The resulting products are apparently different from those produced in the absence of bicarbonate and are most likely specific for simian SOD1s, which contain the Trp32 residue. The aims of this work were to examine whether the bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of hSOD1 (hSOD1WT and hSOD1G93A mutant) triggers aggregation of the enzyme and to comprehend the role of the Trp32 residue in the process. The results showed that Trp32 residues of both enzymes are oxidized to a similar extent to hSOD1-derived tryptophanyl radicals. These radicals decayed to hSOD1-N-formylkynurenine and hSOD1-kynurenine or to a hSOD1 covalent dimer cross-linked by a ditryptophan bond, causing hSOD1 unfolding, oligomerization, and non-amyloid aggregation. The latter process was inhibited by tempol, which recombines with the hSOD1-derived tryptophanyl radical, and did not occur in the absence of bicarbonate or with enzymes that lack the Trp32 residue (bovine SOD1 and hSOD1W32F mutant). The results support a role for the oxidation products of the hSOD1-Trp32 residue, particularly the covalent dimer, in triggering the non-amyloid aggregation of hSOD1. PMID:25237191

  20. Adeno Associated Viral Vector Delivered RNAi for Gene Therapy of SOD1 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stoica, Lorelei; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are a leading cause of ALS, responsible for up to 20% of familial cases. Although the exact mechanism by which mutant SOD1 causes disease remains unknown, multiple studies have shown that reduction of the mutant species leads to delayed disease onset and extension of lifespan of animal models. This makes SOD1 an ideal target for gene therapy coupling adeno associated virus vector (AAV) gene delivery with RNAi molecules. In this review we summarize the studies done thus far attempting to decrease SOD1 gene expression, using AAV vectors as delivery tools, and RNAi as therapeutic molecules. Current hurdles to be overcome, such as the need for widespread gene delivery through the entire central nervous system (CNS), are discussed. Continued efforts to improve current AAV delivery methods and capsids will accelerate the application of these therapeutics to the clinic. PMID:27531973

  1. Interaction between dimer interface residues of native and mutated SOD1 protein: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Keerthana, S P; Kolandaivel, P

    2015-04-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a highly conserved bimetallic protein enzyme, used for the scavenging the superoxide radicals (O2 (-)) produced due to aerobic metabolism in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Over 100 mutations have been identified and found to be in the homodimeric structure of SOD1. The enzyme has to be maintained in its dimeric state for the structural stability and enzymatic activity. From our investigation, we found that the mutations apart from the dimer interface residues are found to affect the dimer stability of protein and hence enhancing the aggregation and misfolding tendency of mutated protein. The homodimeric state of SOD1 is found to be held together by the non-covalent interactions. The molecular dynamics simulation has been used to study the hydrogen bond interactions between the dimer interface residues of the monomers in native and mutated forms of SOD1 in apo- and holo-states. The results obtained by this analysis reveal the fact that the loss of hydrogen bond interactions between the monomers of the dimer is responsible for the reduced stability of the apo- and holo-mutant forms of SOD1. The conformers with dimer interface residues in native and mutated protein obtained by the molecular dynamics simulation is subjected to quantum mechanical study using M052X/6-31G(d) level of theory. The charge transfer between N-H···O interactions in the dimer interface residues were studied. The weak interaction between the monomers of the dimer accounts for the reduced dimerization and enhanced deformation energy in the mutated SOD1 protein.

  2. Characterization of the caspase cascade in a cell culture model of SOD1-related familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: expression, activation and therapeutic effects of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, S; Grierson, A J; Shaw, P J

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that apoptosis or a similar programmed cell death pathway is the mechanism of cell death responsible for motor neurone degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Knowledge of the relative importance of different caspases in the cell death process is at present incomplete. In addition, there is little information on the critical point of the death pathway when the process of dying becomes irreversible. In this study, using the well-established NSC34 motor neurone-like cell line stably transfected with empty vector, normal or mutant human Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), we have characterized the activation of the caspase cascade in detail, revealing that the activation of caspases-9, -3 and -8 are important in motor neurone death and that the presence of mutant SOD1 causes increased activation of components of the apoptotic cascade under both basal culture conditions and following oxidative stress induced by serum withdrawal. Activation of the caspases identified in the cellular model has been confirmed in the G93A SOD1 transgenic mice. Furthermore, investigation of the effects of anti-apoptotic neuroprotective agents including specific caspase inhibitors, minocycline and nifedipine, have supported the importance of the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway in the death process and revealed that the upstream caspase cascade needs to be inhibited if useful neuro-protection is to be achieved.

  3. Addition of exogenous SOD1 aggregates causes TDP-43 mislocalisation and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Zeineddine, Rafaa; Farrawell, Natalie E; Lambert-Smith, Isabella A; Yerbury, Justin J

    2017-05-30

    ALS is characterised by a focal onset of motor neuron loss, followed by contiguous outward spreading of pathology throughout the nervous system, resulting in paralysis and death generally within a few years after diagnosis. The aberrant release and uptake of toxic proteins including SOD1 and TDP-43 and their subsequent propagation, accumulation and deposition in motor neurons may explain such a pattern of pathology. Previous work has suggested that the internalization of aggregates triggers stress granule formation. Given the close association of stress granules and TDP-43, we wondered whether internalisation of SOD1 aggregates stimulated TDP-43 cytosolic aggregate structures. Addition of recombinant mutant G93A SOD1 aggregates to NSC-34 cells was found to trigger a rapid shift of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm where it was still accumulated after 48 h. In addition, SOD1 aggregates also triggered cleavage of TDP-43 into fragments including a 25 kDa fragment. Collectively, this study suggests a role for protein aggregate uptake in TDP-43 pathology.

  4. Mitochondrial alterations in livers of Sod1-/- mice fed alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kessova, Irina G; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2007-05-15

    Chronic alcohol consumption induced liver injury in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-deficient mice (Sod1-/-), with extensive centrilobular necrosis and inflammation and a reduction in hepatic ATP content. Mechanisms by which ethanol decreased ATP in these mice remain unclear. We investigated alterations in mitochondria of Sod1-/- mice produced by chronic ethanol treatment. These mitochondria had an increase in State 4 oxygen consumption with succinate and especially with glutamate plus malate compared to mitochondria from pair-fed Sod1-/- mice or mitochondria from wild-type mice fed dextrose or ethanol. This uncoupling was associated with a decrease in ADP/O and respiratory control ratios, a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial permeability transition, and decreased aconitase activity. Total thiols and uncoupling protein 2 levels were elevated in the pair-fed Sod1-/- mitochondria, perhaps an adaptive response to oxidant stress. However, no such increases were found with the ethanol-fed Sod1-/- mitochondria, suggesting a failure to develop these adaptations. The mitochondria from the ethanol-fed Sod1-/- mice had elevated levels of cleaved Bax, Bak, Bcl-xl, and adenine nucleotide translocator. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed increased association of Bax and Bak with the adenine nucleotide translocator. ADP-ATP exchange was very low in the ethanol-fed Sod1-/- mitochondria. These results suggest that ethanol treatment of Sod1-/- mice produces uncoupling and a decline in Deltapsi, swelling, increased association of proapoptotic proteins involved in the permeability transition, and decreased adenine nucleotide translocator activity, which may be responsible for the decline in ATP levels and development of necrosis in this model of alcohol-induced liver injury.

  5. Strategies for stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), the protein destabilized in the most common form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Auclair, Jared R.; Boggio, Kristin J.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar; Agar, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder characterized by the death of both upper and lower motor neurons and by 3- to 5-yr median survival postdiagnosis. The only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of ALS, Riluzole, has at best, moderate effect on patient survival and quality of life; therefore innovative approaches are needed to combat neurodegenerative disease. Some familial forms of ALS (fALS) have been linked to mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The dominant inheritance of mutant SOD1 and lack of symptoms in knockout mice suggest a “gain of toxic function” as opposed to a loss of function. A prevailing hypothesis for the mechanism of the toxicity of fALS-SOD1 variants, or the gain of toxic function, involves dimer destabilization and dissociation as an early step in SOD1 aggregation. Therefore, stabilizing the SOD1 dimer, thus preventing aggregation, is a potential therapeutic strategy. Here, we report a strategy in which we chemically cross-link the SOD1 dimer using two adjacent cysteine residues on each respective monomer (Cys111). Stabilization, measured as an increase in melting temperature, of ∼20 °C and ∼45 °C was observed for two mutants, G93A and G85R, respectively. This stabilization is the largest for SOD1, and to the best of our knowledge, for any disease-related protein. In addition, chemical cross-linking conferred activity upon G85R, an otherwise inactive mutant. These results demonstrate that targeting these cysteine residues is an important new strategy for development of ALS therapies. PMID:21098299

  6. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology are common pathological denominators in SOD1 and TDP43 ALS mouse models.

    PubMed

    Magrané, Jordi; Cortez, Czrina; Gan, Wen-Biao; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-03-15

    Neuronal mitochondrial morphology abnormalities occur in models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with SOD1 and TDP43 mutations. These abnormalities have been linked to mitochondrial axonal transport defects, but the temporal and spatial relationship between mitochondrial morphology and transport alterations in these two distinct genetic forms of ALS has not been investigated in vivo. To address this question, we crossed SOD1 (wild-type SOD1(WT) and mutant SOD1(G93A)) or TDP43 (mutant TDP43(A315T)) transgenic mice with mice expressing the fluorescent protein Dendra targeted to mitochondria in neurons (mitoDendra). At different time points during the disease course, we studied mitochondrial transport in the intact sciatic nerve of living mice and analyzed axonal mitochondrial morphology at multiple sites, spanning from the spinal cord to the motor terminals. Defects of retrograde mitochondrial transport were detected at 45 days of age, before the onset of symptoms, in SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T) mice, but not in SOD1(WT). At later disease stages, also anterograde mitochondrial transport was affected in both mutant mouse lines. In SOD1(G93A) mice, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities were apparent at 15 days of age, thus preceding transport abnormalities. Conversely, in TDP43(A315T) mice, morphological abnormalities appeared after the onset of transport defects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that neuronal mitochondrial transport and morphology abnormalities occur in vivo and that they are common denominators of different genetic forms of the ALS. At the same time, differences in the temporal and spatial manifestation of mitochondrial abnormalities between the two mouse models of familial ALS imply that different molecular mechanisms may be involved.

  7. A fraction of yeast Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and its metallochaperone, CCS, localize to the intermembrane space of mitochondria. A physiological role for SOD1 in guarding against mitochondrial oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sturtz, L A; Diekert, K; Jensen, L T; Lill, R; Culotta, V C

    2001-10-12

    Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant, largely cytosolic enzyme that scavenges superoxide anions. The biological role of SOD1 is somewhat controversial because superoxide is thought to arise largely from the mitochondria where a second SOD (manganese SOD) already resides. Using bakers' yeast as a model, we demonstrate that Cu,Zn-SOD1 helps protect mitochondria from oxidative damage, as sod1Delta mutants show elevated protein carbonyls in this organelle. In accordance with this connection to mitochondria, a fraction of active SOD1 localizes within the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria together with its copper chaperone, CCS. Neither CCS nor SOD1 contains typical N-terminal presequences for mitochondrial uptake; however, the mitochondrial accumulation of SOD1 is strongly influenced by CCS. When CCS synthesis is repressed, mitochondrial SOD1 is of low abundance, and conversely IMS SOD1 is very high when CCS is largely mitochondrial. The mitochondrial form of SOD1 is indeed protective against oxidative damage because yeast cells enriched for IMS SOD1 exhibit prolonged survival in the stationary phase, an established marker of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cu,Zn-SOD1 in the mitochondria appears important for reactive oxygen physiology and may have critical implications for SOD1 mutations linked to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  8. Apparent segregation distortion for the SOD1 mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, J.B.; Pericak-Vance, M.A.; Hentati, A.

    1994-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a short duration form onset to death. Approximately 15% of all ALS cases are familial. Of this a subset of families ({approximately}20%) are caused by mutations in the SOD1 gene on chromosome 21. The recent identification of SOD1 as the causative factor in a subset of families has enabled us to classify at-risk as well as symptomatic SOD1 mutation carriers in completed sibships. Our investigations suggest that the transmission of the SOD1 mutation from parent to child occurs substantially more often than 50% of the time. At the present time we have examined this phenomena in 17 SOD1/ALS families with mutations in exons 1 (N=6 families), 2 (N=2), 4 (N=8) and 5 (N=1). In fully ascertained sibships from a mutation-carrying parent, there were 318 offspring available for mutation evaluation. Of these, 195 were found to have the SOD1 mutation, while 123 were without the mutation. These data result in a segregation ratio of 0.61 [chi-square = 16.3, P<0.0001]. Analysis of the individual exon mutation types indicated that the majority of the distortion was occurring in the exon 4 mutation families [chi-square=13.4, p<0.001 vs. non-4, chi-square=4.97, p<0.05]. These findings are of interest in light of the recent report of meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy locus, a CTG repeat expansion, variable onset, neurological disorder on chromosome 19. Additional SOD1/ALS mutation families are presently under study and these data will be similarily evaluated. Future studies include the genotyping of human sperm specimens for SOD1 mutation-bearing males. The possibility that over 66% of children of a mutation carrier could inherit the mutation preferentially would dramatically alter the counseling risk in such families. These studies provide further evidence of the occurrence of segregation distortion in humans.

  9. Degeneration of axons in spinal white matter in G93A mSOD1 mouse characterized by NFL and α-internexin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    King, Anna E; Blizzard, Catherine A; Southam, Katherine A; Vickers, James C; Dickson, Tracey C

    2012-07-17

    Axonal degeneration is a prominent feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) both in lower motor nerves as well as descending white matter axons in the spinal cord of human patients. Although the pathology of lower motor axonal degeneration has been described in both human ALS and related transgenic animal models, few studies have examined the pathological features of descending axon degeneration, particularly in mouse models of ALS. We have examined the degeneration of white matter tracts in the G93A mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (mSOD1+) mouse spinal cord white matter from 12 weeks of age to end-stage disease. In a G93A mSOD1 mouse model where green fluorescent protein was expressed in neurons (mSOD1+/GFP+), degeneration of white matter tracts was present from the ventral to dorsolateral funiculi. This pattern of axonal pathology occurred from 16 weeks of age. However, the dorsal funiculus, the site of the major corticospinal tract in mice, showed relatively less degeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the neurofilament light chain (NFL) and neuronal intermediate filament protein alpha-internexin accumulated in axon swellings in the spinal white matter. Increased levels of alpha-internexin protein, in mSOD1+ mouse spinal cord tissue, were demonstrated by Western blotting. In contrast, degenerating axons did not show obvious accumulations of neurofilament medium and heavy chain proteins (NFM and NFH). These data suggest that white matter degeneration in this mouse model of ALS is widespread and involves a specific molecular signature, particularly the accumulation of NFL and alpha-internexin proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. G93A SOD1 alters cell cycle in a cellular model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cova, Emanuela; Ghiroldi, Andrea; Guareschi, Stefania; Mazzini, Giuliano; Gagliardi, Stella; Davin, Annalisa; Bianchi, Marika; Ceroni, Mauro; Cereda, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative multifactorial disease characterized, like other diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD), by the degeneration of specific neuronal cell populations. Motor neuron loss is distinctive of ALS. However, the causes of onset and progression of motor neuron death are still largely unknown. In about 2% of all cases, mutations in the gene encoding for the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are implicated in the disease. Several alterations in the expression or activation of cell cycle proteins have been described in the neurodegenerative diseases and related to cell death. In this work we show that mutant SOD1 can alter cell cycle in a cellular model of ALS. Our findings suggest that modifications in the cell cycle progression could be due to an increased interaction between mutant G93A SOD1 and Bcl-2 through the cyclins regulator p27. As previously described in post mitotic neurons, cell cycle alterations could fatally lead to cell death. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Atomic structure of a toxic, oligomeric segment of SOD1 linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Smriti; Zhao, Anni; Adams, Katrina L; Jayson, Christina K; Sawaya, Michael R; Guenther, Elizabeth L; Pan, Albert C; Ngo, Jennifer; Moore, Destaye M; Soriaga, Angela B; Do, Thanh D; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Nelson, Rebecca; Bowers, Michael T; Koehler, Carla M; Shaw, David E; Novitch, Bennett G; Eisenberg, David S

    2017-08-15

    Fibrils and oligomers are the aggregated protein agents of neuronal dysfunction in ALS diseases. Whereas we now know much about fibril architecture, atomic structures of disease-related oligomers have eluded determination. Here, we determine the corkscrew-like structure of a cytotoxic segment of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in its oligomeric state. Mutations that prevent formation of this structure eliminate cytotoxicity of the segment in isolation as well as cytotoxicity of the ALS-linked mutants of SOD1 in primary motor neurons and in a Danio rerio (zebrafish) model of ALS. Cytotoxicity assays suggest that toxicity is a property of soluble oligomers, and not large insoluble aggregates. Our work adds to evidence that the toxic oligomeric entities in protein aggregation diseases contain antiparallel, out-of-register β-sheet structures and identifies a target for structure-based therapeutics in ALS.

  12. Production of Human Cu,Zn SOD with Higher Activity and Lower Toxicity in E. coli via Mutation of Free Cysteine Residues

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Although, as an antioxidant enzyme, human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) can mitigate damage to cell components caused by free radicals generated by aerobic metabolism, large-scale manufacturing and clinical use of hSOD1 are still limited by the challenge of rapid and inexpensive production of high-quality eukaryotic hSOD1 in recombinant forms. We have demonstrated previously that it is a promising strategy to increase the expression levels of soluble hSOD1 so as to increase hSOD1 yields in E. coli. In this study, a wild-type hSOD1 (wtSOD1) and three mutant SOD1s (mhSOD1s), in which free cysteines were substituted with serine, were constructed and their expression in soluble form was measured. Results show that the substitution of Cys111 (mhSOD1/C111S) increased the expression of soluble hSOD1 in E. coli whereas substitution of the internal Cys6 (mhSOD1/C6S) decreased it. Besides, raised levels of soluble expression led to an increase in hSOD1 yields. In addition, mhSOD1/C111S expressed at a higher soluble level showed lower toxicity and stronger whitening and antiradiation activities than those of wtSOD1. Taken together, our data demonstrate that C111S mutation in hSOD1 is an effective strategy to develop new SOD1-associated reagents and that mhSOD1/C111S is a satisfactory candidate for large-scale production. PMID:28299326

  13. Resveratrol Derivative-Rich Melinjo Seed Extract Attenuates Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenji; Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Izuo, Naotaka; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative damages induced by a redox imbalance cause age-related changes in cells and tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes play a pivotal role in the antioxidant system and they also catalyze superoxide radicals. Since the loss of cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1) resulted in aging-like phenotypes in several types of murine tissue, SOD1 is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon Linn) seed extract (MSE) contains trans-resveratrol (RSV) and resveratrol derivatives, including gnetin C, gnemonoside A, and gnemonoside D. MSE intake also exerts no adverse events in human study. In the present studies, we investigated protective effects of MSE on age-related skin pathologies in mice. Orally MSE and RSV treatment reversed the skin thinning associated with increased oxidative damage in the Sod1 (-/-) mice. Furthermore, MSE and RSV normalized gene expression of Col1a1 and p53 and upregulated gene expression of Sirt1 in skin tissues. In vitro experiments revealed that RSV significantly promoted the viability of Sod1 (-/-) fibroblasts. These finding demonstrated that RSV in MSE stably suppressed an intrinsic superoxide generation in vivo and in vitro leading to protecting skin damages. RSV derivative-rich MSE may be a powerful food of treatment for age-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damages.

  14. Superoxide dismutase SOD-1 modulates C. elegans pathogen avoidance behavior

    PubMed Central

    Horspool, Alexander M.; Chang, Howard C.

    2017-01-01

    The C. elegans nervous system mediates protective physiological and behavioral responses amid infection. However, it remains largely unknown how the nervous system responds to reactive oxygen species (ROS) activated by pathogenic microbes during infection. Here, we show superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), an enzyme that converts superoxide into less toxic hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, functions in the gustatory neuron ASER to mediate C. elegans pathogen avoidance response. When C. elegans first encounters pathogenic bacteria P. aeruginosa, SOD-1 is induced in the ASER neuron. After prolonged P. aeruginosa exposure, ASER-specific SOD-1 expression is diminished. In turn, C. elegans starts to vacate the pathogenic bacteria lawn. Genetic knockdown experiments reveal that pathogen-induced ROS activate sod-1 dependent behavioral response non cell-autonomously. We postulate that the delayed aversive response to detrimental microbes may provide survival benefits by allowing C. elegans to temporarily utilize food that is tainted with pathogens as an additional energy source. Our data offer a mechanistic insight into how the nervous system mediates food-seeking behavior amid oxidative stress and suggest that the internal state of redox homeostasis could underlie the behavioral response to harmful microbial species. PMID:28322326

  15. Optimised and Rapid Pre-clinical Screening in the SOD1G93A Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Richard J.; Bennett, Ellen J.; Kennerley, Aneurin J.; Sharp, Paul; Sunyach, Claire; Kasher, Paul; Berwick, Jason; Pettmann, Brigitte; Battaglia, Guiseppe; Azzouz, Mimoun; Grierson, Andrew; Shaw, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    The human SOD1G93A transgenic mouse has been used extensively since its development in 1994 as a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In that time, a great many insights into the toxicity of mutant SOD1 have been gained using this and other mutant SOD transgenic mouse models. They all demonstrate a selective toxicity towards motor neurons and in some cases features of the pathology seen in the human disease. These models have two major drawbacks. Firstly the generation of robust preclinical data in these models has been highlighted as an area for concern. Secondly, the amount of time required for a single preclinical experiment in these models (3–4 months) is a hurdle to the development of new therapies. We have developed an inbred C57BL/6 mouse line from the original mixed background (SJLxC57BL/6) SOD1G93A transgenic line and show here that the disease course is remarkably consistent and much less prone to background noise, enabling reduced numbers of mice for testing of therapeutics. Secondly we have identified very early readouts showing a large decline in motor function compared to normal mice. This loss of motor function has allowed us to develop an early, sensitive and rapid screening protocol for the initial phases of denervation of muscle fibers, observed in this model. We describe multiple, quantitative readouts of motor function that can be used to interrogate this early mechanism. Such an approach will increase throughput for reduced costs, whilst reducing the severity of the experimental procedures involved. PMID:21876739

  16. Optimised and rapid pre-clinical screening in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Mead, Richard J; Bennett, Ellen J; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Sharp, Paul; Sunyach, Claire; Kasher, Paul; Berwick, Jason; Pettmann, Brigitte; Battaglia, Guiseppe; Azzouz, Mimoun; Grierson, Andrew; Shaw, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    The human SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse has been used extensively since its development in 1994 as a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In that time, a great many insights into the toxicity of mutant SOD1 have been gained using this and other mutant SOD transgenic mouse models. They all demonstrate a selective toxicity towards motor neurons and in some cases features of the pathology seen in the human disease. These models have two major drawbacks. Firstly the generation of robust preclinical data in these models has been highlighted as an area for concern. Secondly, the amount of time required for a single preclinical experiment in these models (3-4 months) is a hurdle to the development of new therapies. We have developed an inbred C57BL/6 mouse line from the original mixed background (SJLxC57BL/6) SOD1(G93A) transgenic line and show here that the disease course is remarkably consistent and much less prone to background noise, enabling reduced numbers of mice for testing of therapeutics. Secondly we have identified very early readouts showing a large decline in motor function compared to normal mice. This loss of motor function has allowed us to develop an early, sensitive and rapid screening protocol for the initial phases of denervation of muscle fibers, observed in this model. We describe multiple, quantitative readouts of motor function that can be used to interrogate this early mechanism. Such an approach will increase throughput for reduced costs, whilst reducing the severity of the experimental procedures involved.

  17. SOD1, a New Kluyveromyces lactis Helper Gene for Heterologous Protein Secretion▿

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, S.; Zanni, E.; Talora, C.; Rossi, M.; Palleschi, C.; Uccelletti, D.

    2008-01-01

    Bottlenecks in protein expression and secretion often limit the development of industrial processes. By manipulating chaperone and foldase levels, improvements in yeast secretion were found for a number of proteins. Recently, sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress, occurring due to recombinant protein production, was reported to cause oxidative stress in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are able to trigger an adaptive response to oxidative-stress conditions, resulting in the upregulation of both primary and secondary antioxidant defenses. SOD1 encodes for a superoxide dismutase that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anions (O2−) into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. It is a Cu2+/Zn2+ metalloenzyme and represents an important antioxidant defense in nearly all aerobic and aerotolerant organisms. We found that overexpression of the Kluyveromyces lactis SOD1 (KlSOD1) gene was able to increase the production of two different heterologous proteins, human serum albumin (HSA) and glucoamylase from Arxula adeninivorans. In addition, KlSOD1 overexpression led to a significant decrease in the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that originated during protein production. The yield of HSA also increased when K. lactis cells were grown in the presence of the antioxidant agent ascorbic acid and decreased when cells were challenged with menadione, a ROS generator compound. Moreover, we observed that, in high-osmolarity medium, cells overexpressing KlSOD1 showed higher growth rates than control cells. Our results thus further support the notion that the production of some heterologous proteins may be improved by manipulating genes involved in general stress responses. PMID:18836000

  18. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Ameliorates Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Mice and Improves Proliferation of SOD1-G93A Myoblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rando, Amaya; Gasco, Samanta; de la Torre, Miriam; García-Redondo, Alberto; Zaragoza, Pilar; Toivonen, Janne M; Osta, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes loss of upper and lower motor neurons as well as skeletal muscle (SKM) dysfunction and atrophy. SKM is one of the tissues involved in the development of ALS pathology, and studies in a SOD1-G93A mouse model of ALS have demonstrated alterations in SKM degeneration/regeneration marker expression in vivo and defective mutant myoblast proliferation in vitro. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to alleviate SOD1-G93A pathology. However, it is unknown whether G-CSF may have a direct effect on SKM or derived myoblasts. To investigate effects of G-CSF and its analog pegfilgrastim (PEGF) on SOD1-G93A- associated SKM markers in vivo and those of G-CSF on myoblast proliferation in vitro. The effect of PEGF treatment on hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, survival, and motor function was determined. RNA expression of SKM markers associated with mutant SOD1 expression was quantified in response to PEGF treatment in vivo, and the effect of G-CSF on the proliferation of myoblasts derived from mutant and control muscles was determined in vitro. Positive effects of PEGF on hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, survival, and functional assays in SOD1-G93A animals were confirmed. In vivo PEGF treatment augmented the expression of its receptor Csf3r and alleviated typical markers for mutant SOD1 muscle. Additionally, G-CSF was found to directly increase the proliferation of SOD1-G93A, but not wild-type primary myoblasts in vitro. Our results support the beneficial role of the G-CSF analog PEGF in a SOD1-G93A model of ALS. Thus, G-CSF and its analogs may be directly beneficial in diseases where the SKM function is compromised. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Native Mutant Huntingtin in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B.; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575–850 kDa in control brain and at 650–885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1–17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 m urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ≈htt 670–880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43–50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 m urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD140Q/140Q mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer. PMID:22375012

  20. Length-dependent axo-terminal degeneration at the neuromuscular synapses of type II muscle in SOD1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Tallon, Carolyn; Russell, Katelyn A.; Sakhalkar, Shilpa; Andrapallayal, Nirmal; Farah, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    In motor neuron diseases, there is a prolonged period of time before any clinical symptoms begin to appear. During this time, distal axonal degeneration, or “dying back” axonopathy, begins to occur before the onset of clinical symptoms and motor neuron death. This preclinical degeneration is a hallmark of motor neuron diseases in both animal models and human patients. Generally, in muscles with mixed fiber types, distal degeneration occurs in fast-fatigable α–motor axons innervating type IIb muscle fibers before axons innervating slow, type I muscle fibers. We investigated whether the “dying back” axonopathy in a pure fast-fatigable α–motor axon nerve is a length dependent process. The lateral thoracic nerve (LTN) exclusively consists of motor nerves that innervate the very thin cutaneous maximus muscle (CMM) that solely contains type II neuromuscular synapses. We characterized the LTN and CMM synapses both morphologically and physiologically in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). By 60 days of age, there was a significant “dying back” phenomenon at the caudal region while the rostral region remained intact. The longer axons innervating the caudal region appear to be more susceptible to degeneration in the SOD1 mouse indicating that the axonal degeneration of motor neurons innervating type II fibers is a length dependent process. Additionally, we identified how the simplicity of the LTN-CMM system offers a better method to investigate axon degeneration in an ALS mouse model and may be used to investigate possible therapeutic compounds for axon protection and regeneration. PMID:26592719

  1. Length-dependent axo-terminal degeneration at the neuromuscular synapses of type II muscle in SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Tallon, C; Russell, K A; Sakhalkar, S; Andrapallayal, N; Farah, M H

    2016-01-15

    In motor neuron diseases, there is a prolonged period of time before any clinical symptoms begin to appear. During this time, distal axonal degeneration, or "dying back" axonopathy, begins to occur before the onset of clinical symptoms and motor neuron death. This preclinical degeneration is a hallmark of motor neuron diseases in both animal models and human patients. Generally, in muscles with mixed fiber types, distal degeneration occurs in fast-fatigable α-motor axons innervating type IIb muscle fibers before axons innervating slow, type I muscle fibers. We investigated whether the "dying back" axonopathy in a pure fast-fatigable α-motor axon nerve is a length-dependent process. The lateral thoracic nerve (LTN) exclusively consists of motor nerves that innervate the very thin cutaneous maximus muscle (CMM) that solely contains type II neuromuscular synapses. We characterized the LTN and CMM synapses both morphologically and physiologically in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). By 60days of age, there was a significant "dying back" phenomenon at the caudal region while the rostral region remained intact. The longer axons innervating the caudal region appear to be more susceptible to degeneration in the SOD1 mouse indicating that the axonal degeneration of motor neurons innervating type II fibers is a length-dependent process. Additionally, we identified how the simplicity of the LTN-CMM system offers a better method to investigate axon degeneration in an ALS mouse model and may be used to investigate possible therapeutic compounds for axon protection and regeneration. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment with edaravone, initiated at symptom onset, slows motor decline and decreases SOD1 deposition in ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidefumi; Wate, Reika; Zhang, Jianhua; Ohnishi, Shizuo; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ito, Hisashi; Nakano, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    Edaravone is a free-radical scavenger, an agent being widely used for cerebral ischemia in Japan. To evaluate its efficacy for possible treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we performed a randomized blind trial in ALS model mice. After identification of the clinical onset in each female G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse, we intraperitoneally administered multiple doses of edaravone to the mice and observed their motor symptoms. We also counted the number of lumbar motoneurons, determined the 3-nitrotyrosine/tyrosine ratio, and evaluated the abnormal SOD1 aggregation in the spinal cord at the 10th day after the edaravone injection. Edaravone significantly slowed the motor decline of the transgenic mice. The remaining motoneurons were significantly preserved in the higher-dose edaravone-administered group, and the 3-nitrotyrosine/tyrosine ratios were reduced dose-dependently. Intriguingly, the area of abnormal SOD1 deposition in the spinal cord was significantly decreased in the higher-dose edaravone-administered group. Our results indicate that edaravone was effective to slow symptom progression and motor neuron degeneration in the ALS model mice. These favorable actions might be attributable to the yet unidentified mechanism responsible for reducing the deposition of mutant SOD1.

  3. SIRT1 overexpression ameliorates a mouse model of SOD1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via HSF1/HSP70i chaperone system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause degeneration of motor neurons in a subset of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The pathogenetic process mediated by misfolded and/or aggregated mutant SOD1 polypeptides is hypothesized to be suppressed by protein refolding. This genetic study is aimed to test whether mutant SOD1-mediated ALS pathology recapitulated in mice could be alleviated by overexpressing a longevity-related deacetylase SIRT1 whose substrates include a transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master regulator of the chaperone system. Results We established a line of transgenic mice that chronically overexpress SIRT1 in the brain and spinal cord. While inducible HSP70 (HSP70i) was upregulated in the spinal cord of SIRT1 transgenic mice (PrP-Sirt1), no neurological and behavioral alterations were detected. To test hypothetical benefits of SIRT1 overexpression, we crossbred PrP-Sirt1 mice with two lines of ALS model mice: A high expression line that exhibits a severe phenotype (SOD1G93A-H) or a low expression line with a milder phenotype (SOD1G93A-L). The Sirt1 transgene conferred longer lifespan without altering the time of symptomatic onset in SOD1G93A-L. Biochemical analysis of the spinal cord revealed that SIRT1 induced HSP70i expression through deacetylation of HSF1 and that SOD1G93A-L/PrP-Sirt1 double transgenic mice contained less insoluble SOD1 than SOD1G93A-L mice. Parallel experiments showed that Sirt1 transgene could not rescue a more severe phenotype of SOD1G93A-H transgenic mice partly because their HSP70i level had peaked out. Conclusions The genetic supplementation of SIRT1 can ameliorate a mutant SOD1-linked ALS mouse model partly through the activation of the HSF1/HSP70i chaperone system. Future studies shall include testing potential benefits of pharmacological enhancement of the deacetylation activity of SIRT1 after the onset of the symptom. PMID:25167838

  4. Improving the Delivery of SOD1 Antisense Oligonucleotides to Motor Neurons Using Calcium Phosphate-Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyu; Watson, Clare; Morsch, Marco; Cole, Nicholas J.; Chung, Roger S.; Saunders, Darren N.; Yerbury, Justin J.; Vine, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. Abnormal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase I (SOD1) in motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of some forms of the disease. We have shown that the orderly progression of the disease may be explained by misfolded SOD1 cell-to-cell propagation, which is reliant upon its active endogenous synthesis. Reducing the levels of SOD1 is therefore a promising therapeutic approach. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) can efficiently silence proteins with gain-of-function mutations. However, naked ASOs have a short circulation half-life and are unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) warranting the use of a drug carrier for effective delivery. In this study, calcium phosphate lipid coated nanoparticles (CaP-lipid NPs) were developed for delivery of SOD1 ASO to motor neurons. The most promising nanoparticle formulation (Ca/P ratio of 100:1), had a uniform spherical core–shell morphology with an average size of 30 nm, and surface charge (ζ-potential) of −4.86 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of ASO was 48% and stability studies found the particle to be stable over a period of 20 days. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the negatively charged ASO-loaded CaP-lipid NPs could effectively deliver SOD1-targeted ASO into a mouse motor neuron-like cell line (NSC-34) through endocytosis and significantly down-regulated SOD1 expression in HEK293 cells. The CaP-lipid NPs exhibited a pH-dependant dissociation, suggesting that that the acidification of lysosomes is the likely mechanism responsible for facilitating intracellular ASO release. To demonstrate tissue specific delivery and localization of these NPs we performed in vivo microinjections into zebrafish. Successful delivery of these NPs was confirmed for the zebrafish brain, the blood stream, and the spinal cord. These results suggest that CaP-lipid NPs could

  5. Increased anxiety-like behavior and selective learning impairments are concomitant to loss of hippocampal interneurons in the presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Eros; Bravi, Riccardo; Scambi, Ilaria; Mariotti, Raffaella; Minciacchi, Diego

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by motor neuron death, causes damages beyond motor-related areas. In particular, cognitive impairments and hippocampal damage have been reported in ALS patients. We investigated spatial navigation learning and hippocampal interneurons in a mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse (mSOD1) model of ALS. Behavioral tests were performed by using presymptomatic mSOD1 mice. General motor activity was comparable to that of wild-type mice in the open-field test, in which, however mSOD1 exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior. In the Barnes maze test, mSOD1 mice displayed a delay in learning, outperformed wild-type mice during the first probe trial, and exhibited impaired long-term memory. Stereological counts of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which are crucial for hippocampal physiology and known to be altered in other central nervous system regions of mSOD1 mice, were also performed. At postnatal day (P) 56, the population of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in mSOD1 mice was already reduced in CA1 and in CA3, and at P90 the reduction extended to the dentate gyrus. Loss of parvalbumin-positive hippocampal interneurons occurred mostly during the presymptomatic stage. Western blot analysis showed that hippocampal parvalbumin expression levels were already reduced in mSOD1 mice at P56. The hippocampal alterations in mSOD1 mice could at least partly account for the increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in spatial navigation learning. Our study provides evidence for cognitive alterations and damage to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system in the hippocampus of murine ALS, thereby revealing selective deficits antecedent to the onset of motor symptoms.

  6. Dimerization, oligomerization, and aggregation of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 protein mutant forms in live cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiho; Lee, Honggun; Lee, Joo Hyun; Kwon, Do-yoon; Genovesio, Auguste; Fenistein, Denis; Ogier, Arnaud; Brondani, Vincent; Grailhe, Regis

    2014-05-23

    More than 100 copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) genetic mutations have been characterized. These mutations lead to the death of motor neurons in ALS. In its native form, the SOD1 protein is expressed as a homodimer in the cytosol. In vitro studies have shown that SOD1 mutations impair the dimerization kinetics of the protein, and in vivo studies have shown that SOD1 forms aggregates in patients with familial forms of ALS. In this study, we analyzed WT SOD1 and 9 mutant (mt) forms of the protein by non-invasive fluorescence techniques. Using microscopic techniques such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer, fluorescence complementation, image-based quantification, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we studied SOD1 dimerization, oligomerization, and aggregation. Our results indicate that SOD1 mutations lead to an impairment in SOD1 dimerization and, subsequently, affect protein aggregation. We also show that SOD1 WT and mt proteins can dimerize. However, aggregates are predominantly composed of SOD1 mt proteins.

  7. Rab1-dependent ER-Golgi transport dysfunction is a common pathogenic mechanism in SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS-associated ALS.

    PubMed

    Soo, Kai Y; Halloran, Mark; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Parakh, Sonam; Toth, Reka P; Southam, Katherine A; McLean, Catriona A; Lock, Peter; King, Anna; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D

    2015-11-01

    Several diverse proteins are linked genetically/pathologically to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS. Using a variety of cellular and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ALS-associated mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 inhibit protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus in neuronal cells. ER-Golgi transport was also inhibited in embryonic cortical and motor neurons obtained from a widely used animal model (SOD1(G93A) mice), validating this mechanism as an early event in disease. Each protein inhibited transport by distinct mechanisms, but each process was dependent on Rab1. Mutant TDP-43 and mutant FUS both inhibited the incorporation of secretory protein cargo into COPII vesicles as they bud from the ER, and inhibited transport from ER to the ER-Golgi intermediate (ERGIC) compartment. TDP-43 was detected on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane, whereas FUS was present within the ER, suggesting that transport is inhibited from the cytoplasm by mutant TDP-43, and from the ER by mutant FUS. In contrast, mutant SOD1 destabilised microtubules and inhibited transport from the ERGIC compartment to Golgi, but not from ER to ERGIC. Rab1 performs multiple roles in ER-Golgi transport, and over-expression of Rab1 restored ER-Golgi transport, and prevented ER stress, mSOD1 inclusion formation and induction of apoptosis, in cells expressing mutant TDP-43, FUS or SOD1. Rab1 also co-localised extensively with mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 in neuronal cells, and Rab1 formed inclusions in motor neurons of spinal cords from sporadic ALS patients, which were positive for ubiquitinated TDP-43, implying that Rab1 is misfolded and dysfunctional in sporadic disease. These results demonstrate that ALS-mutant forms of TDP-43, FUS, and SOD1 all perturb protein transport in the early secretory pathway, between ER and Golgi compartments. These data also imply that restoring Rab1-mediated ER

  8. The structural analysis of the pro-oxidant copper-binding site of denatured apo-H43R SOD1 and the elucidation of the origin of the acquisition of the pro-oxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Nobuhiro; Miura, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu

    2016-02-14

    The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with mutations of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), which is a representative antioxidant enzyme. A previous study showed that the denatured apo-form of an ALS-linked mutant of human SOD1, His43 → Arg (H43R), obtains pro-oxidant activity as the reverse behavior of the native antioxidant activity by rebinding Cu(2+), which is considered to be closely related to the development of ALS. The Cu(2+)-binding site in denatured apo-H43R can be regarded as the center of the pro-oxidant activity, causing cellular oxidative stress. In the present study, the structure of the Cu(2+)-binding site of denatured apo-H43R was investigated to clarify the mechanism of the acquisition of the pro-oxidant activity. His residues constructing the Cu(2+)-binding site in denatured apo-H43R were experimentally assigned by absorption and fluorescence-based assays of SOD1 mutants, in which each of the seven His residues in H43R SOD1 is replaced with Ala. It was found that His120 is not involved with the Cu(2+)-binding site after denaturation, although the other His residues constructing the metal-binding site remain constant after denaturation. The disappearance of His120 from the Cu(2+)-binding site is therefore considered to be one of the important factors in obtaining the pro-oxidant activity. The mechanism of the acquisition of the pro-oxidant activity is discussed based on the results obtained.

  9. The cellular mRNA expression of GABA and glutamate receptors in spinal motor neurons of SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Petri, S; Schmalbach, S; Grosskreutz, J; Krampfl, K; Grothe, C; Dengler, R; Van Den Bosch, L; Robberecht, W; Bufler, J

    2005-11-15

    ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of upper motor neurons in the motor cortex and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. About 10% of ALS cases are familial, in 10-20% of these, mutations in the gene coding for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) can be detected. Overexpression of mutated SOD1 in mice created animal models which clinically resemble ALS. Abnormalities in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission presumably contribute to the selective motor neuron damage in ALS. By in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISH), we investigated the spinal mRNA expression of the GABAA and AMPA type glutamate receptor subunits at different disease stages on spinal cord sections of mutant SOD1 mice and control animals overexpressing wild-type SOD1 aged 40, 80, 120 days and at disease end-stage, i.e. around 140 days) (n=5, respectively). We detected a slight but statistically significant decrease of the AMPA receptor subunits GluR3 and GluR4 only in end stage disease animals.

  10. SOD1-targeted gene disruption in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius reduces conidiation and the capacity for mycorrhization.

    PubMed

    Abbà, S; Khouja, H R; Martino, E; Archer, D B; Perotto, S

    2009-11-01

    The genome sequences of mycorrhizal fungi will provide new opportunities for studying the biology and the evolution underlying this symbiotic lifestyle. The generation of null mutants at the wild-type loci is one of the best methods for gene-function assignment in the post-genomic era. To our knowledge, the generation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-null mutants in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius is the first example of a gene-targeted disruption via homologous recombination in a mycorrhizal fungus. The disruption of OmSOD1 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation resulted in the presence of oxidative stress markers, even in the absence of external superimposed stresses, and an increased sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating substances, especially to menadione. A reduction in conidiation and in the percentage of mycorrhization of Vaccinium myrtillus roots was also observed. The latter findings establish the pivotal role of SOD1 as an important factor in the relationship between O. maius and its symbiotic partner. The lack of this ROS-scavenger may cause an imbalance in the redox homeostasis during host colonization and an alteration in the delicate dialogue between the fungus and its host plant.

  11. Genetic biomarkers for ALS disease in transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ana C; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies.

  12. Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies. PMID:22412900

  13. Altered Thiol Chemistry in Human Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutants of Superoxide Dismutase 1*

    PubMed Central

    Solsona, Carles; Kahn, Thomas B.; Badilla, Carmen L.; Álvarez-Zaldiernas, Cristina; Blasi, Juan; Fernandez, Julio M.; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases share a common characteristic, the presence of intracellular or extracellular deposits of protein aggregates in nervous tissues. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disorder, which affects preferentially motoneurons. Changes in the redox state of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are associated with the onset and development of familial forms of ALS. In human SOD1 (hSOD1), a conserved disulfide bond and two free cysteine residues can engage in anomalous thiol/disulfide exchange resulting in non-native disulfides, a hallmark of ALS that is related to protein misfolding and aggregation. Because of the many competing reaction pathways, traditional bulk techniques fall short at quantifying individual thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. Here, we adapt recently developed single-bond chemistry techniques to study individual disulfide isomerization reactions in hSOD1. Mechanical unfolding of hSOD1 leads to the formation of a polypeptide loop held by the disulfide. This loop behaves as a molecular jump rope that brings reactive Cys-111 close to the disulfide. Using force-clamp spectroscopy, we monitor nucleophilic attack of Cys-111 at either sulfur of the disulfide and determine the selectivity of the reaction. Disease-causing mutations G93A and A4V show greatly altered reactivity patterns, which may contribute to the progression of familial ALS. PMID:25096579

  14. Altered intracellular localization of SOD1 in leukocytes from patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Cristina; Leoni, Emanuela; Milani, Pamela; Pansarasa, Orietta; Mazzini, Giuliano; Guareschi, Stefania; Alvisi, Elena; Ghiroldi, Andrea; Diamanti, Luca; Bernuzzi, Stefano; Ceroni, Mauro; Cova, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis of a toxic role played by wild type SOD1 (WT-SOD1) in the pathogenesis of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). In this study we investigated both distribution and expression profile of WT-SOD1 in leukocytes from 19 SALS patients and 17 healthy individuals. Immunofluorescence experiments by confocal microscopy showed that SOD1 accumulates in the nuclear compartment in a group of SALS subjects. These results were also confirmed by western blot carried out on soluble nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, with increased nuclear SOD1 level (p<0.05). In addition, we observed the presence of cytoplasmic SOD1 aggregates in agreement with an increased amount of the protein recovered by the insoluble fraction. A further confirmation of the overall increased level of SOD1 has been obtained from single cells analysis using flow cytometry as cells from SALS patients showed an higher SOD1 protein content (p<0.05). These findings add further evidence to the hypothesis of an altered WT-SOD1 expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with ALS suggesting that WT-SOD1 species with different degrees of solubility could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  15. Altered Intracellular Localization of SOD1 in Leukocytes from Patients with Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Pamela; Pansarasa, Orietta; Mazzini, Giuliano; Guareschi, Stefania; Alvisi, Elena; Ghiroldi, Andrea; Diamanti, Luca; Bernuzzi, Stefano; Ceroni, Mauro; Cova, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis of a toxic role played by wild type SOD1 (WT-SOD1) in the pathogenesis of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). In this study we investigated both distribution and expression profile of WT-SOD1 in leukocytes from 19 SALS patients and 17 healthy individuals. Immunofluorescence experiments by confocal microscopy showed that SOD1 accumulates in the nuclear compartment in a group of SALS subjects. These results were also confirmed by western blot carried out on soluble nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, with increased nuclear SOD1 level (p<0.05). In addition, we observed the presence of cytoplasmic SOD1 aggregates in agreement with an increased amount of the protein recovered by the insoluble fraction. A further confirmation of the overall increased level of SOD1 has been obtained from single cells analysis using flow cytometry as cells from SALS patients showed an higher SOD1 protein content (p<0.05). These findings add further evidence to the hypothesis of an altered WT-SOD1 expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with ALS suggesting that WT-SOD1 species with different degrees of solubility could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24155874

  16. ApoSOD1 lacking dismutase activity neuroprotects motor neurons exposed to beta-methylamino-L-alanine through the Ca2+/Akt/ERK1/2 prosurvival pathway

    PubMed Central

    Petrozziello, Tiziana; Secondo, Agnese; Tedeschi, Valentina; Esposito, Alba; Sisalli, MariaJosè; Scorziello, Antonella; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe human adult-onset neurodegenerative disease affecting lower and upper motor neurons. In >20% of cases, the familial form of ALS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Interestingly, administration of wild-type SOD1 to SOD1G93A transgenic rats ameliorates motor symptoms through an unknown mechanism. Here we investigated whether the neuroprotective effects of SOD1 are due to the Ca2+-dependent activation of such prosurvival signaling pathway and not to its catalytic activity. To this aim, we also examined the mechanism of neuroprotective action of ApoSOD1, the metal-depleted state of SOD1 that lacks dismutase activity, in differentiated motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells and in primary motor neurons exposed to the cycad neurotoxin beta-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA). Preincubation of ApoSOD1 and SOD1, but not of human recombinant SOD1G93A, prevented cell death in motor neurons exposed to L-BMAA. Moreover, ApoSOD1 elicited ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in motor neurons through an early increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Accordingly, inhibition of ERK1/2 by siMEK1 and PD98059 counteracted ApoSOD1- and SOD1-induced neuroprotection. Similarly, transfection of the dominant-negative form of Akt in NSC-34 motor neurons and treatment with the selective PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented ApoSOD1- and SOD1-mediated neuroprotective effects in L-BMAA-treated motor neurons. Furthermore, ApoSOD1 and SOD1 prevented the expression of the two markers of L-BMAA-induced ER stress GRP78 and caspase-12. Collectively, our data indicate that ApoSOD1, which is devoid of any catalytic dismutase activity, exerts a neuroprotective effect through an early activation of Ca2+/Akt/ERK1/2 pro-survival pathway that, in turn, prevents ER stress in a neurotoxic model of ALS. PMID:28085149

  17. Oxidation of the tryptophan 32 residue of human superoxide dismutase 1 caused by its bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity triggers the non-amyloid aggregation of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernando R; Iqbal, Asif; Linares, Edlaine; Silva, Daniel F; Lima, Filipe S; Cuccovia, Iolanda M; Augusto, Ohara

    2014-10-31

    The role of oxidative post-translational modifications of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology is an attractive hypothesis to explore based on several lines of evidence. Among them, the remarkable stability of hSOD1(WT) and several of its ALS-associated mutants suggests that hSOD1 oxidation may precede its conversion to the unfolded and aggregated forms found in ALS patients. The bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of hSOD1 causes oxidation of its own solvent-exposed Trp(32) residue. The resulting products are apparently different from those produced in the absence of bicarbonate and are most likely specific for simian SOD1s, which contain the Trp(32) residue. The aims of this work were to examine whether the bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of hSOD1 (hSOD1(WT) and hSOD1(G93A) mutant) triggers aggregation of the enzyme and to comprehend the role of the Trp(32) residue in the process. The results showed that Trp(32) residues of both enzymes are oxidized to a similar extent to hSOD1-derived tryptophanyl radicals. These radicals decayed to hSOD1-N-formylkynurenine and hSOD1-kynurenine or to a hSOD1 covalent dimer cross-linked by a ditryptophan bond, causing hSOD1 unfolding, oligomerization, and non-amyloid aggregation. The latter process was inhibited by tempol, which recombines with the hSOD1-derived tryptophanyl radical, and did not occur in the absence of bicarbonate or with enzymes that lack the Trp(32) residue (bovine SOD1 and hSOD1(W32F) mutant). The results support a role for the oxidation products of the hSOD1-Trp(32) residue, particularly the covalent dimer, in triggering the non-amyloid aggregation of hSOD1. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. [Expression, purification, stability and transduction efficiency of GST-SOD1-R9 fusion protein].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianru; Wu, Lunqiao; He, Huocong; Chen, Lijuan; Su, Ying; Li, Lingling; Liu, Shutao

    2017-05-25

    The fusion of cell permeable peptide TAT and bifunctional antioxidant enzymes, GST (Glutathione sulfur transferase)-TAT-SOD1 (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase), is an intracellular superoxide scavenger. Compared with SOD1-TAT, GST-TAT-SOD1 has better protective effect on oxidative damage but less transduction efficiency. A novel cell permeable bifunctional antioxidant enzymes with the fusion of GST, SOD1 and polyarginine R9 was constructed for higher transduction efficiency. The full nucleotide sequence of SOD1-R9 was synthesized and inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1 with the GST tag. After the successful construction of the prokaryotic expression vectors of GST-SOD1-R9, the recombinant vector was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the GST-SOD1-R9 fusion protein was produced with the induction of IPTG. The soluble expression of GST-SOD1-R9 fusion protein was combining with the induction temperature and time. The best soluble expression was obtained with the induction temperature of 25 ℃ and the induction time of 11 h. The fusion protein was purified through the combination of 80% ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography using glutathione agarose, and verified by SDS-PAGE and special enzymatic activity. The thermal and pH stability of GST-SOD1-R9 fusion protein were analyzed and the SOD and GST activity of fusion protein were proved to be well maintained under physiological conditions. Finally, the transduction efficiency of GST-SOD1-R9 fusion protein was proved to be better than GST-TAT-SOD1 fusion protein (P<0.05). These works establish a foundation for further study of the protective effect of GST-SOD1-R9 fusion protein against oxidative damage.

  19. Redox proteomics analysis of oxidatively modified proteins in G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice--a model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Poon, H Fai; Hensley, Kenneth; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Merchant, Michael L; Lynn, Bert C; Pierce, William M; Klein, Jon B; Calabrese, Vittorio; Butterfield, D Allan

    2005-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron degenerative disease characterized by the loss of neuronal function in the motor cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord. Familial ALS cases, accounting for 10-15% of all ALS disease, are caused by a gain-of-function mutation in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the toxic gain of function of mutant SOD (mSOD). One is that mSOD can directly promote reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species generation, whereas the other hypothesis suggests that mSODs are prone to aggregation due to instability or association with other proteins. However, the hypotheses of oxidative stress and protein aggregation are not mutually exclusive. G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice show significantly increased protein carbonyl levels in their spinal cord from 2 to 4 months and eventually develop ALS-like motor neuron disease and die within 5-6 months. Here, we used a parallel proteomics approach to investigate the effect of the G93A-SOD1 mutation on protein oxidation in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice. Four proteins in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice have higher specific carbonyl levels compared to those of non-transgenic mice. These proteins are SOD1, translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), and, possibly, alphaB-crystallin. Because oxidative modification can lead to structural alteration and activity decline, our current study suggests that oxidative modification of UCH-L1, TCTP, SOD1, and possibly alphaB-crystallin may play an important role in the neurodegeneration of ALS.

  20. Characterization of early pathogenesis in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS: part I, background and methods

    PubMed Central

    Vinsant, Sharon; Mansfield, Carol; Jimenez-Moreno, Ramon; Del Gaizo Moore, Victoria; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Hampton, Thomas G; Prevette, David; Caress, James; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Milligan, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Charcot first described amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in 1869; however, its causes remain largely unknown and effective, long-term treatment strategies are not available. The first mouse model of ALS was developed after the identification of mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene in 1993, and accordingly most of our knowledge of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease comes from studies carried out using this animal model. Although numerous preclinical trials have been conducted in the mutant SOD1 mouse models, the results have been disappointing because they did not positively translate to clinical trials. One explanation may be that current understanding of when and where pathogenesis begins is insufficient to accurately guide preclinical trials. Further characterization of these early events may provide insight into disease onset, help in the discovery of presymptomatic diagnostic disease markers, and identify novel therapeutic targets. Here, we describe the rationale, approach, and methods for our extensive analysis of early changes that included an ultrastructural examination of central and peripheral components of the neuromuscular system in the SOD1G93A mouse and correlated these alterations with early muscle denervation, motor dysfunction, and motoneuron death. We also provide a discussion of published work to review what is known regarding early pathology in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS. The significance of this work is that we have examined early pathology simultaneously in both the spinal cord and peripheral neuromuscular system, and the results are presented in the companion paper (Part II, Results and Discussion). Our results provide evidence as to why a thorough characterization of animal models throughout the life span is critical for a strong foundation to design preclinical trials that may produce meaningful results. PMID:24381807

  1. Hexokinase I N-terminal based peptide prevents the VDAC1-SOD1 G93A interaction and re-establishes ALS cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Magrì, Andrea; Belfiore, Ramona; Reina, Simona; Tomasello, Marianna Flora; Di Rosa, Maria Carmela; Guarino, Francesca; Leggio, Loredana; De Pinto, Vito; Messina, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide Dismutase 1 mutants associate with 20–25% of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) cases, producing toxic aggregates on mitochondria, notably in spinal cord. The Voltage Dependent Anion Channel isoform 1 (VDAC1) in the outer mitochondrial membrane is a docking site for SOD1 G93A mutant in ALS mice and the physiological receptor of Hexokinase I (HK1), which is poorly expressed in mouse spinal cord. Our results demonstrate that HK1 competes with SOD1 G93A for binding VDAC1, suggesting that in ALS spinal cord the available HK1-binding sites could be used by SOD1 mutants for docking mitochondria, producing thus organelle dysfunction. We tested this model by studying the action of a HK1-N-terminal based peptide (NHK1). This NHK1 peptide specifically interacts with VDAC1, inhibits the SOD1 G93A binding to mitochondria and restores the viability of ALS model NSC34 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NHK1 peptide could be developed as a therapeutic tool in ALS, predicting an effective role also in other proteinopathies. PMID:27721436

  2. Soma size and Cav1.3 channel expression in vulnerable and resistant motoneuron populations of the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Shoenfeld, Liza; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Fisher, Erika; Quinlan, Katharina A.; Tysseling, Vicki M.; Powers, Randall K.; Heckman, Charles J.; Binder, Marc D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although the loss of motoneurons is an undisputed feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in man and in its animal models (SOD1 mutant mice), how the disease affects the size and excitability of motoneurons prior to their degeneration is not well understood. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that motoneurons in mutant SOD1G93A mice exhibit an enlargement of soma size (i.e., cross‐sectional area) and an increase in Cav1.3 channel expression at postnatal day 30, well before the manifestation of physiological symptoms that typically occur at p90 (Chiu et al. 1995). We made measurements of spinal and hypoglossal motoneurons vulnerable to degeneration, as well as motoneurons in the oculomotor nucleus that are resistant to degeneration. Overall, we found that the somata of motoneurons in male SOD1G93A mutants were larger than those in wild‐type transgenic males. When females were included in the two groups, significance was lost. Expression levels of the Cav1.3 channels were not differentiated by genotype, sex, or any interaction of the two. These results raise the intriguing possibility of an interaction between male sex steroid hormones and the SOD1 mutation in the etiopathogenesis of ALS. PMID:25107988

  3. SOD1 and TDP-43 animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: recent advances in understanding disease toward the development of clinical treatments.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Peter I; Fratta, Pietro; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham

    2011-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease with no cure. Breakthroughs in understanding ALS pathogenesis came with the discovery of dominant mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) and other genes, including the gene encoding transactivating response element DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43). This has led to the creation of animal models to further our understanding of the disease and identify a number of ALS-causing mechanisms, including mitochondrial dysfunction, protein misfolding and aggregation, oxidative damage, neuronal excitotoxicity, non-cell autonomous effects and neuroinflammation, axonal transport defects, neurotrophin depletion, effects from extracellular mutant SOD1, and aberrant RNA processing. Here we summarise the SOD1 and TDP-43 animal models created to date, report on recent findings supporting the potential mechanisms of ALS pathogenesis, and correlate this understanding with current developments in the clinic.

  4. Cysteine 111 Affects Aggregation and Cytotoxicity of Mutant Cu,Zn-superoxide Dismutase Associated with Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis*

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Mauro; Amori, Ilaria; Grazia Pesaresi, Maria; Ferri, Alberto; Nencini, Monica; Teresa Carrì, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Converging evidence indicates that aberrant aggregation of mutant Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (mutSOD1) is strongly implicated in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). MutSOD1 forms high molecular weight oligomers, which disappear under reducing conditions, both in neural tissues of FALS transgenic mice and in transfected cultured cells, indicating a role for aberrant intermolecular disulfide cross-linking in the oligomerization and aggregation process. To study the contribution of specific cysteines in the mechanism of aggregation, we mutated human SOD1 in each of its four cysteine residues and, using a cell transfection assay, analyzed the solubility and aggregation of those SOD1s. Our results suggest that the formation of mutSOD1 aggregates are the consequence of covalent disulfide cross-linking and non-covalent interactions. In particular, we found that the removal of Cys-111 strongly reduces the ability of a range of different FALS-associated mutSOD1s to form aggregates and impair cell viability in cultured NSC-34 cells. Moreover, the removal of Cys-111 impairs the ability of mutSOD1s to form disulfide cross-linking. Treatments that deplete the cellular pool of GSH exacerbate mutSOD1s insolubility, whereas an overload of intracellular GSH or overexpression of glutaredoxin-1, which specifically catalyzes the reduction of protein-SSG-mixed disulfides, significantly rescues mutSOD1s solubility. These data are consistent with the view that the redox environment influences the oligomerization/aggregation pathway of mutSOD1 and point to Cys-111 as a key mediator of this process. PMID:18006498

  5. Early detection of motor dysfunction in the SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) using home cage running wheels.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ellen J; Mead, Richard J; Azzouz, Mimoun; Shaw, Pamela J; Grierson, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The SOD1G93A mouse has been used since 1994 for preclinical testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite recent genetic advances in our understanding of ALS, transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1 remain the best available, and most widely used, vertebrate model of the disease. We previously described an optimised and rapid approach for preclinical studies in the SOD1G93A mouse. Here we describe improvements to this approach using home cage running wheels to obtain daily measurements of motor function, with minimal intervention. We show that home cage running wheels detect reductions in motor function at a similar time to the rotarod test, and that the data obtained are less variable allowing the use of smaller groups of animals to obtain satisfactory results. This approach refines use of the SOD1G93A model, and reduces the number of animals undergoing procedures of substantial severity, two central principles of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use in research). The small group sizes and rapid timescales enable affordable large-scale therapeutic pre-screening in the SOD1G93A mouse, as well as rapid validation of published positive effects in a second laboratory, one of the major stumbling blocks in ALS preclinical therapy development.

  6. Oxidative stress induced by loss of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or superoxide-generating herbicides causes axonal degeneration in mouse DRG cultures

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Lindsey R.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a common pathologic feature in peripheral neuropathy, neurodegenerative disease, and normal aging. Oxidative stress may be an important mechanism of axonal degeneration, but is underrepresented among current experimental models. To test the effects of loss of the antioxidant enzyme Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) on axon survival, we cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from SOD1 knockout mice. Beginning as early as 48–72 h, we observed striking degeneration of Sod1−/− axons that was prevented by introduction of human SOD1 and was attenuated by antioxidant treatment. To test susceptibility to increased superoxide production, we exposed wild-type DRGs to the redox-cycling herbicides paraquat and diquat (DQ). Dose-dependent axon degeneration was observed, and toxicity of DQ was exacerbated by SOD1 deficiency. MTT staining suggested that DRG axons are more susceptible to injury than their parent cell bodies in both paradigms. Taken together, these data demonstrate susceptibility of DRG axons to oxidative stress-mediated injury due to loss of SOD1 or excess superoxide production. These in vitro models provide a novel means of investigating oxidative stress-mediated injury to axons, to improve our understanding of axonal redox control and dysfunction in peripheral neuropathy. PMID:20039174

  7. Questions regarding the predictive value of one evolved complex adaptive system for a second: exemplified by the SOD1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Greek, Ray; Hansen, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    We surveyed the scientific literature regarding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the SOD1 mouse model, complex adaptive systems, evolution, drug development, animal models, and philosophy of science in an attempt to analyze the SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the context of evolved complex adaptive systems. Humans and animals are examples of evolved complex adaptive systems. It is difficult to predict the outcome from perturbations to such systems because of the characteristics of complex systems. Modeling even one complex adaptive system in order to predict outcomes from perturbations is difficult. Predicting outcomes to one evolved complex adaptive system based on outcomes from a second, especially when the perturbation occurs at higher levels of organization, is even more problematic. Using animal models to predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease and drugs should have a very low predictive value. We present empirical evidence confirming this and suggest a theory to explain this phenomenon. We analyze the SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in order to illustrate this position.

  8. Preservation of neuromuscular function in symptomatic SOD1-G93A mice by peripheral infusion of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Janet D; Barrett, John N; Nonner, Doris; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Wicomb, Kyle; Barrett, Ellen F

    2016-11-01

    In mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) some of the earliest signs of morphological and functional damage occur in the motor nerve terminals that innervate fast limb muscles. This study tested whether localized peripheral application of a protective drug could effectively preserve neuromuscular junctions in late-stage disease. Methylene blue (MB), which has mitochondria-protective properties, was infused via an osmotic pump into the anterior muscle compartment of one hind limb of late pre- symptomatic SOD1-G93A mice for ≥3weeks. When mice reached end-stage disease, peak twitch and tetanic contractions evoked by stimulation of the muscle nerve were measured in two anterior compartment muscles (tibialis anterior [TA] and extensor digitorum longus [EDL], both predominantly fast muscles). With 400μM MB in the infusion reservoir, muscles on the MB-infused side exhibited on average a ~100% increase in nerve-evoked contractile force compared to muscles on the contralateral non-infused side (p<0.01 for both twitch and tetanus in EDL and TA). Pairwise comparisons of endplate innervation also revealed a beneficial effect of MB infusion, with an average of 65% of endplates innervated in infused EDL, compared to only 35% on the non-infused side (p<0.01). Results suggested that MB's protective effects required an extracellular [MB] of ~1μM, were initiated peripherally (no evidence of retrograde transport into the spinal cord), and involved MB's reduced form. Thus peripherally-initiated actions of MB can help preserve neuromuscular structure and function in SOD1-G93A mice, even at late stages of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. P2X7 antagonism using Brilliant Blue G reduces body weight loss and prolongs survival in female SOD1G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Rachael; Sluyter, Vanessa; Watson, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by the accumulation of aggregated proteins, microglia activation and motor neuron loss. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and disease progression in ALS are unknown, but the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor channel is implicated in this disease. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine P2X7 in the context of neurodegeneration, and investigate whether the P2X7 antagonist, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), could alter disease progression in a murine model of ALS. Methods Human SOD1G93A transgenic mice, which normally develop ALS, were injected with BBG or saline, three times per week, from pre-onset of clinical disease (62–64 days of age) until end-stage. During the course of treatment mice were assessed for weight, clinical score and survival, and motor coordination, which was assessed by rotarod performance. Various parameters from end-stage mice were assessed as follows. Motor neuron loss and microgliosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relative amounts of lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were quantified by immunoblotting. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was measured by ELISA. Splenic leukocyte populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of splenic and hepatic P2X7 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Lumbar spinal cord SOD1 and P2X7 were also quantified by immunoblotting in untreated female SOD1G93A mice during the course of disease. Results BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in SOD1G93A mice of combined sex, but had no effect on clinical score, survival or motor coordination. BBG treatment reduced body weight loss in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice. BBG treatment also prolonged survival in female, but not male, SOD1G93A mice, extending the mean survival time by 4.3% in female mice compared to female mice treated with saline. BBG treatment had no effect on clinical score or motor coordination in

  10. Calcium Ions Promote Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) Aggregation into Non-fibrillar Amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Sónia S.; Cardoso, Isabel; Valentine, Joan S.; Gomes, Cláudio M.

    2013-01-01

    Imbalance in metal ion homeostasis is a hallmark in neurodegenerative conditions involving protein deposition, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is no exception. In particular, Ca2+ dysregulation has been shown to correlate with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) aggregation in a cellular model of ALS. Here we present evidence that SOD1 aggregation is enhanced and modulated by Ca2+. We show that at physiological pH, Ca2+ induces conformational changes that increase SOD1 β-sheet content, as probed by far UV CD and attenuated total reflectance-FTIR, and enhances SOD1 hydrophobicity, as probed by ANS fluorescence emission. Moreover, dynamic light scattering analysis showed that Ca2+ boosts the onset of SOD1 aggregation. In agreement, Ca2+ decreases SOD1 critical concentration and nucleation time during aggregation kinetics, as evidenced by thioflavin T fluorescence emission. Attenuated total reflectance FTIR analysis showed that Ca2+ induced aggregates consisting preferentially of antiparallel β-sheets, thus suggesting a modulation effect on the aggregation pathway. Transmission electron microscopy and analysis with conformational anti-fibril and anti-oligomer antibodies showed that oligomers and amyloidogenic aggregates constitute the prevalent morphology of Ca2+-induced aggregates, thus indicating that Ca2+ diverts SOD1 aggregation from fibrils toward amorphous aggregates. Interestingly, the same heterogeneity of conformations is found in ALS-derived protein inclusions. We thus hypothesize that transient variations and dysregulation of cellular Ca2+ levels contribute to the formation of SOD1 aggregates in ALS patients. In this scenario, Ca2+ may be considered as a pathogenic effector in the formation of ALS proteinaceous inclusions. PMID:23861388

  11. A Novel F45S SOD1 Mutation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Coexisting with Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seong-il; Hong, Jeong Ho; Choi, Byung Woo; Oh, Ki-Wook; Park, Chan Kum; Kwon, Min-Jung; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background The coexistence of an autoimmune disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has led to the hypothesis that immune-mediated pathological mechanisms are overlapping in the two diseases. We report herein a rare coexistence of bullous pemphigoid (BP) in a novel mutation (F45S) of the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in an ALS patient, and discuss a role for the SOD1 mutation in this unusual overlap. Case Report A 57-year-old male with familial ALS, including vesicles and tense bullae on erythematous bases, was diagnosed with BP. Direct immunofluorescence revealed deposits of C3 and immunoglobulin G in the basement membrane zone. Direct sequencing of SOD1 in the patient revealed a novel mutation (c.137T>C; F45S). Conclusions We report a novel SOD1 mutation in ALS, which was combined with BP. This novel SOD1 mutation could affect the phenotype of a combined autoimmune disease and matrix metalloproteinase-9. There may therefore be common factors linking BP and ALS with the SOD1 mutation. PMID:25749822

  12. Pluronic-Modified Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Increase in Intracellular Superoxide in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xiang; Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Yang, Ruifang; Tong, Jing; Vinogradov, Serguei; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Overexpressing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; also called Cu/ZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2•−) scavenging enzyme, in central neurons inhibits angiotensin II (AngII) intra-neuronal signaling and normalizes cardiovascular dysfunction in diseases associated with enhanced AngII signaling in the brain including hypertension and heart failure. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neuronal cell membranes impose tremendous impediment for the delivery of SOD1 to central neurons, which hinders the potential therapeutic impact of SOD1 treatment on these diseases. To address this, we developed conjugates of SOD1 with poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer (Pluronic) (SOD1-P85 and SOD1-L81), which retained significant SOD1 enzymatic activity. The modified SOD1 effectively scavenged xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine-derived O2•−, as determined in HPLC and the measurement of 2-hydroxyethidium. Using catecholaminergic (CATH.a) neurons, we observed an increase in neuronal uptake of SOD1-Pluronic after 1, 6, or 24 hrs, compared to neurons treated with pure SOD1 or PEG-SOD1. Importantly, without inducing neuronal toxicity, SOD1-Pluronic conjugates significantly inhibited AngII-induced increases in intra-neuronal O2•−-levels. These data indicate that SOD1-Pluronic conjugates penetrate neuronal cell membranes, which results in elevated intracellular levels of functional SOD1. Pluronic conjugation may be a new delivery system for SOD1 into central neurons and therapeutically beneficial for AngII-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20493251

  13. Acute intermittent hypoxia induced phrenic long-term facilitation despite increased SOD1 expression in a rat model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Harrigan, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron death. Since most ALS patients succumb to ventilatory failure from loss of respiratory motor neurons, any effective ALS treatment must preserve and/or restore breathing capacity. In rats over-expressing mutated superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1G93A), the capacity to increase phrenic motor output is decreased at disease end-stage, suggesting imminent ventilatory failure. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity with potential to restore phrenic motor output in clinical disorders that compromise breathing. Since pLTF requires NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, it is blocked by NADPH oxidase inhibition and SOD mimetics in normal rats. Thus, we hypothesized that SOD1G93A (mutant; MT) rats do not express AIH-induced pLTF due to over-expression of active mutant superoxide dismutase-1. AIH-induced pLTF and hypoglossal (XII) LTF were assessed in young, pre-symptomatic and end-stage anesthetized MT rats and age-matched wild-type littermates. Contrary to predictions, pLTF and XII LTF were observed in MT rats at all ages; at end-stage, pLTF was actually enhanced. SOD1 levels were elevated in young and pre-symptomatic MT rats, yet superoxide accumulation in putative phrenic motor neurons (assessed with dihydroethidium) was unchanged; however, superoxide accumulation significantly decreased at end-stage. Thus, compensatory mechanisms appear to maintain ROS homoeostasis until late in disease progression, preserving AIH-induced respiratory plasticity. Following intrathecal injections of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin; 600µM; 12µL), pLTF was abolished in pre-symptomatic, but not end-stage MT rats, demonstrating that pLTF is NADPH oxidase dependent in pre-symptomatic, but NADPH oxidase independent in end-stage MT rats. Mechanisms preserving

  14. VSX1 and SOD1 Mutation Screening in Patients with Keratoconus in the South of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejabat, Mahmood; Naghash, Payam; Dastsooz, Hassan; Mohammadi, Sanaz; Alipour, Mohsen; Fardaei, Majid

    2017-01-01

    To investigate mutations of visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in 20 patients with keratoconus in the south of Iran. Twenty patients with keratoconus who had a positive familial history were enrolled in this study and gave informed consent for DNA analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify exon 2 of SOD1 and its exon-intron boundary for the detection of a seven-base deletion in intron 2 of SOD1, and also all five exons of VSX1 and their exon-intron boundaries. Amplified samples were then subjected to direct DNA sequencing. Sequencing data were compared against reference sequences using NCBI basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), which revealed that our patients had no mutations in SOD1 and VSX1. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely in VSX1(rs58752432 and rs59089167) were found in six patients. Mutations in VSX1 and SOD1 genes associated with keratoconus were not identified in our patients. Therefore, it will be necessary to investigate other chromosomal loci for potential causal mutations of keratoconus using next generation sequencing (NGS) methods in our population.

  15. DJ-1 Is a Copper Chaperone Acting on SOD1 Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Girotto, Stefania; Cendron, Laura; Bisaglia, Marco; Tessari, Isabella; Mammi, Stefano; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Bubacco, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Lack of oxidative stress control is a common and often prime feature observed in many neurodegenerative diseases. Both DJ-1 and SOD1, proteins involved in familial Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respectively, play a protective role against oxidative stress. Impaired activity and modified expression of both proteins have been observed in different neurodegenerative diseases. A potential cooperative action of DJ-1 and SOD1 in the same oxidative stress response pathway may be suggested based on a copper-mediated interaction between the two proteins reported here. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the antioxidative function of DJ-1 in relation to SOD1 activity, we investigated the ability of DJ-1 to bind copper ions. We structurally characterized a novel copper binding site involving Cys-106, and we investigated, using different techniques, the kinetics of DJ-1 binding to copper ions. The copper transfer between the two proteins was also examined using both fluorescence spectroscopy and specific biochemical assays for SOD1 activity. The structural and functional analysis of the novel DJ-1 copper binding site led us to identify a putative role for DJ-1 as a copper chaperone. Alteration of the coordination geometry of the copper ion in DJ-1 may be correlated to the physiological role of the protein, to a potential failure in metal transfer to SOD1, and to successive implications in neurodegenerative etiopathogenesis. PMID:24567322

  16. Polymorphism Analysis of VSX1 and SOD1 Genes in Greek Patients with Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Moschos, Marilita M; Kokolakis, Nikolaos; Gazouli, Maria; Chatziralli, Irini P; Droutsas, Dimitrios; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Ladas, Ioannis D

    2015-01-01

    A number of mutations in the VSX1 and SOD1 genes have been reported to be associated with keratoconus (KC), however the results from different studies are controversial. In this study, we conducted the genotyping of common polymorphisms [VSX1: D144E, H244R, R166W, G160D; SOD1: intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50 delTAAACAG)], in a case-control sample panel of the Greek population. A case-control panel, with 33 KC patients and 78 healthy controls, were surveyed. DNA from each individual was tested for the VSX1: D144E, H244R, R166W, G160D and SOD1: intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50 delTAAACAG) polymorphisms by direct sequencing. We observed no polymorphisms of the VSX1 gene in the case-control panel. Concerning the SOD1 intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50 delTAAACAG), our findings suggest that heterozygous carriers are over-represented among KC cases compared to healthy controls (p = 0.002). We cannot confirm the previously reported association of the polymorphism in the VSX1 gene with KC. Our results suggest a possible causative role of SOD1 in the pathogenesis of KC. Further studies are required to identify other important genetic factors involved in the pathogenesis and progression of KC.

  17. FUS, TARDBP, and SOD1 mutations in a Taiwanese cohort with familial ALS.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Paio; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lin, Kon-Ping; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Lin, Jer-Li; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2011-03-01

    The cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) has been attributed to mutations in several genes. The authors analyzed these genes, including SOD1, FUS, VAPB, ANG, TDP-43, FIG4, and CHMP2B, in a cohort of 15 index patients of Han Chinese descent with adult-onset FALS. Seven different mutations in eight patients, including three in SOD1 (G85R, T137R, and G138E), two in exon 15 of FUS (H517D and R521H), and two in exon 6 of TARDBP (M337V and N378D) were identified. Among them, T137R SOD1, G138E SOD1, H517D FUS, and N378D TARDBP were novel. No mutation was found in VAPB, ANG, FIG4, or CHMP2B genes. Mutations in SOD1, FUS, and TARDBP account for 20%, 13.3%, and 20% of FALS, respectively. This study defined the distribution and frequency of mutations of FALS in a Taiwanese Han Chinese population, which not only broadens the spectrum of the mutations causing FALS, but also further highlights the importance of FUS and TARDBP in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antidepressants upregulate messenger RNA levels of the neuroprotective enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD1).

    PubMed Central

    Li, X M; Chlan-Fourney, J; Juorio, A V; Bennett, V L; Shrikhande, S; Bowen, R C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of amitriptyline, bupropion, doxepin or venlafaxine on the gene expression of the neuroprotective enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in a catecholamine cell in vitro model. DESIGN: Molecular study of a cultured cell line. INTERVENTIONS: Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were incubated in 1 and 10 mumol/L of various antidepressant medications for 24 or 48 hours. OUTCOME MEASURES: Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Amitriptyline up-regulated SOD1 messenger RNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The greatest up-regulation was following incubation with 10 mumol/L amitriptyline for 48 hours. The addition of bupropion, doxepin or venlafaxine to PC12 cell cultures also up-regulated SOD1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that some antidepressants have the ability to positively regulate neuroprotective genes. Images Fig. 2 PMID:10721683

  19. Pyrimethamine significantly lowers cerebrospinal fluid Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with SOD1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mona; Silani, Vincenzo; Ludolph, Albert C.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Ajroud‐Driss, Senda; Fields, Kara G.; Remanan, Rahul; Appel, Stanley H.; Morelli, Claudia; Doretti, Alberto; Maderna, Luca; Messina, Stefano; Weiland, Ulrike; Marklund, Stefan L.; Andersen, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduction prolongs survival in SOD1‐transgenic animal models. Pyrimethamine produces dose‐dependent SOD1 reduction in cell culture systems. A previous phase 1 trial showed pyrimethamine lowers SOD1 levels in leukocytes in patients with SOD1 mutations. This study investigated whether pyrimethamine lowered SOD1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients carrying SOD1 mutations linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS/SOD1). Methods A multicenter (5 sites), open‐label, 9‐month‐duration, dose‐ranging study was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of pyrimethamine to lower SOD1 levels in the CSF in fALS/SOD1. All participants underwent 3 lumbar punctures, blood draw, clinical assessment of strength, motor function, quality of life, and adverse effect assessments. SOD1 levels were measured in erythrocytes and CSF. Pyrimethamine was measured in plasma and CSF. Appel ALS score, ALS Functional Rating Scale–Revised, and McGill Quality of Life Single‐Item Scale were measured at screening, visit 6, and visit 9. Results We enrolled 32 patients; 24 completed 6 visits (18 weeks), and 21 completed all study visits. A linear mixed effects model showed a significant reduction in CSF SOD1 at visit 6 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.4–18.5) and at visit 9 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 10.5% (95% CI = 5.2–15.8). Interpretation Pyrimethamine is safe and well tolerated in ALS. Pyrimethamine is capable of producing a significant reduction in total CSF SOD1 protein content in patients with ALS caused by different SOD1 mutations. Further long‐term studies are warranted to assess clinical efficacy. Ann Neurol 2017;81:837–848 PMID:28480639

  20. Axonal degeneration, distal collateral branching and neuromuscular junction architecture alterations occur prior to symptom onset in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jayden A; Southam, Katherine A; Blizzard, Catherine A; King, Anna E; Dickson, Tracey C

    2016-10-01

    Degeneration of the distal axon and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is considered a key and early feature of the pathology that accompanies motor neuron loss in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse replicates many features of the disease, however the sequence of events resulting in degeneration of the neuromuscular circuitry remains unknown. Furthermore, despite widespread degenerative neuronal pathology throughout the spinal cord in this model, hindlimb motor function is lost before forelimb function. We investigated axons and NMJs in the hindlimb (gastrocnemius) and forelimb (extensor) muscles in the high copy number mutant SOD1(G93A)xYFP (yellow fluorescent protein) mouse. We found that distal axonal and NMJ alterations were present prior to previously reported functional symptom onset in this strain. Indeed, increased branch complexity as well as colocalisation between pre- and post-synaptic markers indicated widespread early axonal and NMJ alterations in the hindlimb. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the colocalisation of the scaffolding proteins nestin, LRP-4, dystrophin and rapsyn were diminished before post-synaptic receptors in the gastrocnemius, and the degree of loss differed between proteins. Analysis of the forelimb muscle revealed axonal and NMJ degeneration at a late, post symptomatic stage, as well as novel differences in NMJ morphology, with reduced complexity. Furthermore, post-synaptic scaffolding proteins were preserved in the forelimb compared with the hindlimb. Analysis of protein levels indicated an increase in LRP-4, dystrophin and rapsyn in post symptomatic skeletal muscle that may suggest ongoing attempts at repair. This study indicates that axonal and NMJ degeneration in the SOD1 model of ALS is a complex and evolving sequence of events. We provide evidence that YFP can detect morphological and plastic alterations in the SOD1(G93A) mouse, and that the pre- and post-synaptic integrity of

  1. Differential gene expression in the axotomized facial motor nucleus of presymptomatic SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Mesnard, Nichole A; Sanders, Virginia M; Jones, Kathryn J

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we compared molecular profiles of one population of wild-type (WT) mouse facial motoneurons (FMNs) surviving with FMNs undergoing significant cell death after axotomy. Regardless of their ultimate fate, injured FMNs respond with a vigorous pro-survival/regenerative molecular response. In contrast, the neuropil surrounding the two different injured FMN populations contained distinct molecular differences that support a causative role for glial and/or immune-derived molecules in directing contrasting responses of the same cell types to the same injury. In the current investigation, we utilized the facial nerve axotomy model and a presymptomatic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse (SOD1) model to experimentally mimic the axonal die-back process observed in ALS pathogenesis without the confounding variable of disease onset. Presymptomatic SOD1 mice had a significant decrease in FMN survival compared with WT, which suggests an increased susceptibility to axotomy. Laser microdissection was used to accurately collect uninjured and axotomized facial motor nuclei of WT and presymptomatic SOD1 mice for mRNA expression pattern analyses of pro-survival/pro-regeneration genes, neuropil-specific genes, and genes involved in or responsive to the interaction of FMNs and non-neuronal cells. Axotomized presymptomatic SOD1 FMNs displayed a dynamic pro-survival/regenerative response to axotomy, similar to WT, despite increased cell death. However, significant differences were revealed when the axotomy-induced gene expression response of presymptomatic SOD1 neuropil was compared with WT. We propose that the increased susceptibility of presymptomatic SOD1 FMNs to axotomy-induced cell death and, by extrapolation, disease progression, is not intrinsic to the motoneuron, but rather involves a dysregulated response by non-neuronal cells in the surrounding neuropil.

  2. Oxidant production and SOD1 protein expression in single skeletal myofibers from Down syndrome mice.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Patrick M; Nair, Divya R; DeRuisseau, Lara R; Keslacy, Stefan; Atalay, Mustafa; DeRuisseau, Keith C

    2017-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic condition caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. Persons with DS exhibit pronounced muscle weakness, which also occurs in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Oxidative stress is thought to be an underlying factor in the development of DS-related pathologies including muscle dysfunction. High-levels of oxidative stress have been attributed to triplication and elevated expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); a gene located on chromosome 21. The elevated expression of SOD1 is postulated to increase production of hydrogen peroxide and cause oxidative injury and cell death. However, it is unknown whether SOD1 protein expression is associated with greater oxidant production in skeletal muscle from Ts65Dn mice. Thus, our objective was to assess levels of SOD1 expression and oxidant production in skeletal myofibers from the flexor digitorum brevis obtained from Ts65Dn and control mice. Measurements of oxidant production were obtained from myofibers loaded with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH2-DA) in the basal state and following 15min of stimulated unloaded contraction. Ts65Dn myofibers exhibited a significant decrease in basal DCF emissions (p < 0.05) that was associated with an approximate 3-fold increase in SOD1 (p < 0.05). DCF emissions were not affected by stimulating contraction of Ts65Dn or wild-type myofibers (p > 0.05). Myofibers from Ts65Dn mice tended to be smaller and myonuclear domain was lower (p < 0.05). In summary, myofibers from Ts65Dn mice exhibited decreased basal DCF emissions that were coupled with elevated protein expression of SOD1. Stimulated contraction in isolated myofibers did not affect DCF emissions in either group. These findings suggest the skeletal muscle dysfunction in the adult Ts65Dn mouse is not associated with skeletal muscle oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Soluble RAGE Treatment Delays Progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in SOD1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Juranek, Judyta K.; Daffu, Gurdip K.; Geddis, Matthew S.; Li, Huilin; Rosario, Rosa; Kaplan, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Lauren; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal motor neuron disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and spasticity, remains largely unknown. Approximately 5–10% of cases are familial, and of those, 15–20% are associated with mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Mutations of the SOD1 gene interrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to cellular toxicity evoked by the presence of altered SOD1, along with other toxic species, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs trigger activation of their chief cell surface receptor, RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), and induce RAGE-dependent cellular stress and inflammation in neurons, thereby affecting their function and leading to apoptosis. Here, we show for the first time that the expression of RAGE is higher in the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS vs. wild-type mouse spinal cord. We tested whether pharmacological blockade of RAGE may delay the onset and progression of disease in this mouse model. Our findings reveal that treatment of SOD1 transgenic mice with soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a natural competitor of RAGE that sequesters RAGE ligands and blocks their interaction with cell surface RAGE, significantly delays the progression of ALS and prolongs life span compared to vehicle treatment. We demonstrate that in sRAGE-treated SOD1 transgenic animals at the final stage of the disease, a significantly higher number of neurons and lower number of astrocytes is detectable in the spinal cord. We conclude that RAGE antagonism may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for ALS intervention. PMID:27242430

  4. Soluble RAGE Treatment Delays Progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in SOD1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Juranek, Judyta K; Daffu, Gurdip K; Geddis, Matthew S; Li, Huilin; Rosario, Rosa; Kaplan, Benjamin J; Kelly, Lauren; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal motor neuron disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and spasticity, remains largely unknown. Approximately 5-10% of cases are familial, and of those, 15-20% are associated with mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Mutations of the SOD1 gene interrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to cellular toxicity evoked by the presence of altered SOD1, along with other toxic species, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs trigger activation of their chief cell surface receptor, RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), and induce RAGE-dependent cellular stress and inflammation in neurons, thereby affecting their function and leading to apoptosis. Here, we show for the first time that the expression of RAGE is higher in the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS vs. wild-type mouse spinal cord. We tested whether pharmacological blockade of RAGE may delay the onset and progression of disease in this mouse model. Our findings reveal that treatment of SOD1 transgenic mice with soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a natural competitor of RAGE that sequesters RAGE ligands and blocks their interaction with cell surface RAGE, significantly delays the progression of ALS and prolongs life span compared to vehicle treatment. We demonstrate that in sRAGE-treated SOD1 transgenic animals at the final stage of the disease, a significantly higher number of neurons and lower number of astrocytes is detectable in the spinal cord. We conclude that RAGE antagonism may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for ALS intervention.

  5. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders.

  6. Tempol moderately extends survival in a hSOD1(G93A) ALS rat model by inhibiting neuronal cell loss, oxidative damage and levels of non-native hSOD1(G93A) forms.

    PubMed

    Linares, Edlaine; Seixas, Luciana V; dos Prazeres, Janaina N; Ladd, Fernando V L; Ladd, Aliny A B L; Coppi, Antonio A; Augusto, Ohara

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive dysfunction and death of motor neurons by mechanisms that remain unclear. Evidence indicates that oxidative mechanisms contribute to ALS pathology, but classical antioxidants have not performed well in clinical trials. Cyclic nitroxides are an alternative worth exploring because they are multifunctional antioxidants that display low toxicity in vivo. Here, we examine the effects of the cyclic nitroxide tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-1-oxyl) on ALS onset and progression in transgenic female rats over-expressing the mutant hSOD1(G93A) . Starting at 7 weeks of age, a high dose of tempol (155 mg/day/rat) in the rat´s drinking water had marginal effects on the disease onset but decelerated disease progression and extended survival by 9 days. In addition, tempol protected spinal cord tissues as monitored by the number of neuronal cells, and the reducing capability and levels of carbonylated proteins and non-native hSOD1 forms in spinal cord homogenates. Intraperitoneal tempol (26 mg/rat, 3 times/week) extended survival by 17 days. This group of rats, however, diverted to a decelerated disease progression. Therefore, it was inconclusive whether the higher protective effect of the lower i.p. dose was due to higher tempol bioavailability, decelerated disease development or both. Collectively, the results show that tempol moderately extends the survival of ALS rats while protecting their cellular and molecular structures against damage. Thus, the results provide proof that cyclic nitroxides are alternatives worth to be further tested in animal models of ALS.

  7. CTT1 overexpression increases life span of calorie-restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in Sod1.

    PubMed

    Rona, Germana; Herdeiro, Ricardo; Mathias, Cristiane Juliano; Torres, Fernando Araripe; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Eleutherio, Elis

    2015-06-01

    Studies using different organisms revealed that reducing calorie intake, without malnutrition, known as calorie restriction (CR), increases life span, but its mechanism is still unkown. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as eukaryotic model, we observed that Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1p) is required to increase longevity, as well as to confer protection against lipid and protein oxidation under CR. Old cells of sod1 strain also presented a premature induction of apoptosis. However, when CTT1 (which codes for cytosolic catalase) was overexpressed, sod1 and WT strains showed similar survival rates. Furthermore, CTT1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and delayed the induction of apoptotic process. Superoxide is rapidly converted to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase, but it also undergoes spontaneous dismutation albeit at a slower rate. However, the quantity of peroxide produced from superoxide in this way is two-fold higher. Peroxide degradation, catalyzed by catalase, is of vital importance, because in the presence of a reducer transition metal peroxide is reduced to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical, which reacts indiscriminately with most cellular constituents. These findings might explain why overexpression of catalase was able to overcome the deficiency of Sod1p, increasing life span in response to CR.

  8. Targeting SOD1 induces synthetic lethal killing in BLM- and CHEK2-deficient colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sajesh, Babu V; McManus, Kirk J

    2015-09-29

    Cancer is a major cause of death throughout the world, and there is a large need for better and more personalized approaches to combat the disease. Over the past decade, synthetic lethal approaches have been developed that are designed to exploit the aberrant molecular origins (i.e. defective genes) that underlie tumorigenesis. BLM and CHEK2 are two evolutionarily conserved genes that are somatically altered in a number of tumor types. Both proteins normally function in preserving genome stability through facilitating the accurate repair of DNA double strand breaks. Thus, uncovering synthetic lethal interactors of BLM and CHEK2 will identify novel candidate drug targets and lead chemical compounds. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interaction between SOD1 and both BLM and CHEK2 in two distinct cell models. Using quantitative imaging microscopy, real-time cellular analyses, colony formation and tumor spheroid models we show that SOD1 silencing and inhibition (ATTM and LCS-1 treatments), or the induction of reactive oxygen species (2ME2 treatment) induces selective killing within BLM- and CHEK2-deficient cells relative to controls. We further show that increases in reactive oxygen species follow SOD1 silencing and inhibition that are associated with the persistence of DNA double strand breaks, and increases in apoptosis. Collectively, these data identify SOD1 as a novel candidate drug target in BLM and CHEK2 cancer contexts, and further suggest that 2ME2, ATTM and LCS-1 are lead therapeutic compounds warranting further pre-clinical study.

  9. An inactivating mutation in the SOD 1 gene causes familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pramatarova, A.; Rouleau, G.A.; Goto, J.

    1994-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by highly selective death of large motor neurons in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The familial form of ALS (FALS) accounts for approximately 10% of the cases and is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. Recently the defective gene causing chromosome 21-linked FALS was shown to be the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD 1). However, the precise mechanism of neurotoxicity seen in FALS with SOD 1 mutations is still unknown. Until now all SOD 1 mutations reported were single base pair substitutions (missense). We have identified a nonsense mutation in exon 5 of the SOD 1 gene in a FALS kindred. This two base pair deletion provokes a frameshift and a predicted premature truncation of the protein. The region affected has a very important structural and functional role: it contains part of the active loop and is involved in dimer contact. We would predict that the loss of these structures would impair the functioning of the enzyme.

  10. Genetic ablation of IP3 receptor 2 increases cytokines and decreases survival of SOD1G93A mice

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Kim A.; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Bento-Abreu, Andre; Scheveneels, Wendy; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Deckers, Kato; Lemmens, Robin; Goris, An; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.; Van Damme, Philip; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Liston, Adrian; Robberecht, Wim; Van Den Bosch, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of motor neurons. Disease pathophysiology is complex and not yet fully understood. Higher gene expression of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 2 gene (ITPR2), encoding the IP3 receptor 2 (IP3R2), was detected in sporadic ALS patients. Here, we demonstrate that IP3R2 gene expression was also increased in spinal cords of ALS mice. Moreover, an increase of IP3R2 expression was observed in other models of chronic and acute neurodegeneration. Upregulation of IP3R2 gene expression could be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine astrocytes, murine macrophages and human fibroblasts indicating that it may be a compensatory response to inflammation. Preventing this response by genetic deletion of ITPR2 from SOD1G93A mice had a dose-dependent effect on disease duration, resulting in a significantly shorter lifespan of these mice. In addition, the absence of IP3R2 led to increased innate immunity, which may contribute to the decreased survival of the SOD1G93A mice. Besides systemic inflammation, IP3R2 knockout mice also had increased IFNγ, IL-6 and IL1α expression. Altogether, our data indicate that IP3R2 protects against the negative effects of inflammation, suggesting that the increase in IP3R2 expression in ALS patients is a protective response. PMID:27378687

  11. Immune response in peripheral axons delays disease progression in SOD1(G93A) mice.

    PubMed

    Nardo, Giovanni; Trolese, Maria Chiara; de Vito, Giuseppe; Cecchi, Roberta; Riva, Nilo; Dina, Giorgia; Heath, Paul R; Quattrini, Angelo; Shaw, Pamela J; Piazza, Vincenzo; Bendotti, Caterina

    2016-10-07

    Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system has a beneficial role in the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) although the mechanism remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that motor neurons (MNs) of C57SOD1(G93A) mice with slow disease progression activate molecules classically involved in the cross-talk with the immune system. This happens a lot less in 129SvSOD1(G93A) mice which, while expressing the same amount of transgene, had faster disease progression and earlier axonal damage. The present study investigated whether and how the immune response is involved in the preservation of motor axons in the mouse model of familial ALS with a more benign disease course. First, the extent of axonal damage, Schwann cell proliferation, and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) denervation were compared between the two ALS mouse models at the disease onset. Then, we compared the expression levels of different immune molecules, the morphology of myelin sheaths, and the presence of blood-derived immune cell infiltrates in the sciatic nerve of the two SOD1G93A mouse strains using immunohistochemical, immunoblot, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and rotating-polarization Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering techniques. Muscle denervation, axonal dysregulation, and myelin disruption together with reduced Schwann cell proliferation are prominent in 129SvSOD1(G93A) compared to C57SOD1(G93A) mice at the disease onset, and this correlates with a faster disease progression in the first strain. On the contrary, a striking increase of immune molecules such as CCL2, MHCI, and C3 was seen in sciatic nerves of slow progressor C57SOD1(G93A) mice and this was accompanied by heavy infiltration of CD8(+) T lymphocytes and macrophages. These phenomena were not detectable in the peripheral nervous system of fast-progressing mice. These data show for the first time that damaged MNs in SOD1-related ALS actively recruit immune cells in the peripheral nervous system to

  12. Loss of RAD-23 Protects Against Models of Motor Neuron Disease by Enhancing Mutant Protein Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Angela M.; Lamitina, Todd; Liachko, Nicole F.; Sabatella, Mariangela; Lu, Jiayin; Zhang, Lei; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Gupta, Preetika; Wu, Chia-Yen; Doshi, Shachee; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Lans, Hannes; Wang, Jiou; Kraemer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Misfolded proteins accumulate and aggregate in neurodegenerative disease. The existence of these deposits reflects a derangement in the protein homeostasis machinery. Using a candidate gene screen, we report that loss of RAD-23 protects against the toxicity of proteins known to aggregate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Loss of RAD-23 suppresses the locomotor deficit of Caenorhabditis elegans engineered to express mutTDP-43 or mutSOD1 and also protects against aging and proteotoxic insults. Knockdown of RAD-23 is further neuroprotective against the toxicity of SOD1 and TDP-43 expression in mammalian neurons. Biochemical investigation indicates that RAD-23 modifies mutTDP-43 and mutSOD1 abundance, solubility, and turnover in association with altering the ubiquitination status of these substrates. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord, we find that RAD-23 abundance is increased and RAD-23 is mislocalized within motor neurons. We propose a novel pathophysiological function for RAD-23 in the stabilization of mutated proteins that cause neurodegeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we identify RAD-23, a component of the protein homeostasis network and nucleotide excision repair pathway, as a modifier of the toxicity of two disease-causing, misfolding-prone proteins, SOD1 and TDP-43. Reducing the abundance of RAD-23 accelerates the degradation of mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 and reduces the cellular content of the toxic species. The existence of endogenous proteins that act as “anti-chaperones” uncovers new and general targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26490867

  13. Accumulation of labile zinc in neurons and astrocytes in the spinal cords of G93A SOD-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Kim, Tae-Youn; Hwang, Jung Jin; Lee, Joo-Yong; Shin, Jin-Hee; Gwag, Byung Joo; Koh, Jae-Young

    2009-05-01

    Zinc dyshomeostasis may trigger oxidative stress, which is likely the key mechanism of neuronal death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including familial forms such as G93A SOD-1 ALS. Since zinc binding by G93A SOD-1 is weaker than by normal SOD-1, we assessed whether labile zinc levels are altered in the spinal cords of G93A SOD-1 transgenic (Tg) mice. Whereas no zinc-containing cells were found in wild-type (WT) mice, neurons and astrocytes with high levels of labile zinc appeared in G93A SOD-1 Tg mice, in correlation with motoneuron degeneration. The level of HNE, an endogenous neurotoxic molecule, was increased around zinc-accumulating cells and mSOD-1 positive cells, suggesting a link between HNE, SOD-1 mutation and zinc accumulation. Moreover, exposure of cultured spinal neurons and astrocytes from G93A SOD-1 Tg mice to HNE increased labile zinc levels, and exposure to zinc increased 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) levels, to a greater degree than in WT neurons and astrocytes. Administration of the zinc chelator TPEN extended survival in G93A SOD-1 Tg mice. These results indicate that zinc dyshomeostasis occurs in the spinal cords of Tg mice, and that this dyshomeostasis may contribute to motoneuron degeneration.

  14. Human ARF4 expression rescues sec7 mutant yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, S B; Wu, C; Silve, S; Howell, K E; Melançon, P; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated traffic between compartments of the yeast secretory pathway involves recruitment of multiple cytosolic proteins for budding, targeting, and membrane fusion events. The SEC7 gene product (Sec7p) is a constituent of coat structures on transport vesicles en route to the Golgi complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify mammalian homologs of Sec7p and its interacting proteins, we used a genetic selection strategy in which a human HepG2 cDNA library was transformed into conditional-lethal yeast sec7 mutants. We isolated several clones capable of rescuing sec7 mutant growth at the restrictive temperature. The cDNA encoding the most effective suppressor was identified as human ADP ribosylation factor 4 (hARF4), a member of the GTPase family proposed to regulate recruitment of vesicle coat proteins in mammalian cells. Having identified a Sec7p-interacting protein rather than the mammalian Sec7p homolog, we provide evidence that hARF4 suppressed the sec7 mutation by restoring secretory pathway function. Shifting sec7 strains to the restrictive temperature results in the disappearance of the mutant Sec7p cytosolic pool without apparent changes in the membrane-associated fraction. The introduction of hARF4 to the cells maintained the balance between cytosolic and membrane-associated Sec7p pools. These results suggest a requirement for Sec7p cycling on and off of the membranes for cell growth and vesicular traffic. In addition, overexpression of the yeast GTPase-encoding genes ARF1 and ARF2, but not that of YPT1, suppressed the sec7 mutant growth phenotype in an allele-specific manner. This allele specificity indicates that individual ARFs are recruited to perform two different Sec7p-related functions in vesicle coat dynamics. PMID:8668142

  15. Human homologue for the mouse mutant disorganisation: does it exist?

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, K K; Hamoud, M S; Khalil, E S; el-Khalifa, M Y

    1991-01-01

    We describe a newborn Arab male with defects similar to those seen in mice heterozygous for the mutant disorganisation (DS) gene. He had complete absence of the left lower limb including the left pelvic bone, hamartomas arising from the abdominal wall, a small penis, absent left half of the scrotal sac, absent left testicle, anterior displacement of the anus, and multiple vertebral defects. The similarity between the proband's anomalies and those found in affected heterozygotes for DS support the possibility of a human homologue of the DS gene. PMID:2002487

  16. Mutational screening of VSX1, SPARC, SOD1, LOX, and TIMP3 in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    De Bonis, Patrizia; Laborante, Antonio; Pizzicoli, Costantina; Stallone, Raffaella; Barbano, Raffaela; Longo, Costanza; Mazzilli, Emilio; Zelante, Leopoldo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the involvement of Visual System Homeobox 1 (VSX1), Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC), Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1), Lysyl Oxidase (LOX), and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in sporadic and familial keratoconus. Methods Mutational analysis of the five genes was performed by sequencing and fragment analysis in a large cohort of 302 Italian patients, with a diagnosis of keratoconus based on clinical examination and corneal topography. The variants identified in VSX1 and SPARC were also assessed in the available relatives of the probands. Results A novel mutation p.G239R and previously reported mutations were found in VSX1. Novel and already reported variants were identified in SPARC and SOD1, whose pathogenic significance has not been established. No pathogenic variants have been identified in LOX and TIMP3. Conclusions Molecular analysis of the five genes in a cohort of 225 sporadic and 77 familial keratoconus cases confirms the possible pathogenic role of VSX1 though in a small number of patients; a possible involvement of LOX and TIMP3 could be excluded; and the role played by SOD1 and SPARC in determining the disease as not been definitively clarified. Further studies are required to identify other important genetic factors involved in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease that in the authors’ opinion, and according with several authors, should be considered as a complex disease. PMID:21976959

  17. Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, clues from the SOD1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Spalloni, Alida; Longone, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is now recognized as a multisystem disorder, in which the primary pathology is the degeneration of motor neurons, with cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunctions that constitutes the non-motor manifestations of ALS. The combination of clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathological data, and detailed genetic studies suggest that ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) might form part of a disease continuum, with pure ALS and pure FTD at the two extremes. Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene were the first genetic mutations linked to the insurgence of ALS. Since that discovery numerous animal models carrying SOD1 mutations have been created. Despite their limitations these animal models, particularly the mice, have broaden our knowledge on the system alterations occurring in the ALS spectrum of disorders. The present review aims at providing an overview of the data obtained with the SOD1 animal models first and foremost on the cortical and subcortical regions, the cortico-striatal and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, dendritic branching and glutamate receptors function.

  18. Thermal fluctuations of immature SOD1 lead to separate folding and misfolding pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Ashok; Rumfeldt, Jessica AO; Broom, Helen R; Doyle, Colleen M; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Meiering, Elizabeth M; Kay, Lewis E

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving cytotoxic conformations of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). A major challenge in understanding ALS disease pathology has been the identification and atomic-level characterization of these conformers. Here, we use a combination of NMR methods to detect four distinct sparsely populated and transiently formed thermally accessible conformers in equilibrium with the native state of immature SOD1 (apoSOD12SH). Structural models of two of these establish that they possess features present in the mature dimeric protein. In contrast, the other two are non-native oligomers in which the native dimer interface and the electrostatic loop mediate the formation of aberrant intermolecular interactions. Our results show that apoSOD12SH has a rugged free energy landscape that codes for distinct kinetic pathways leading to either maturation or non-native association and provide a starting point for a detailed atomic-level understanding of the mechanisms of SOD1 oligomerization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07296.001 PMID:26099300

  19. {{SO(d,1)}} -Invariant Yang-Baxter Operators and the dS/CFT Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, Stefan; Lechner, Gandalf

    2017-07-01

    We propose a model for the dS/CFT correspondence. The model is constructed in terms of a "Yang-Baxter operator" R for unitary representations of the de Sitter group {SO(d,1)} . This R-operator is shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation, unitarity, as well as certain analyticity relations, including in particular a crossing symmetry. With the aid of this operator we construct: (a) a chiral (light-ray) conformal quantum field theory whose internal degrees of freedom transform under the given unitary representation of {SO(d,1)} . By analogy with the O(N) non-linear sigma model, this chiral CFT can be viewed as propagating in a de Sitter spacetime. (b) A (non-unitary) Euclidean conformal quantum field theory on R}^{d-1 , where SO(d, 1) now acts by conformal transformations in (Euclidean) spacetime. These two theories can be viewed as dual to each other if we interpret R}^{d-1 as conformal infinity of de Sitter spacetime. Our constructions use semi-local generator fields defined in terms of R and abstract methods from operator algebras.

  20. Pyrimethamine significantly lowers cerebrospinal fluid Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with SOD1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Lange, Dale J; Shahbazi, Mona; Silani, Vincenzo; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fields, Kara G; Remanan, Rahul; Appel, Stanley H; Morelli, Claudia; Doretti, Alberto; Maderna, Luca; Messina, Stefano; Weiland, Ulrike; Marklund, Stefan L; Andersen, Peter M

    2017-06-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduction prolongs survival in SOD1-transgenic animal models. Pyrimethamine produces dose-dependent SOD1 reduction in cell culture systems. A previous phase 1 trial showed pyrimethamine lowers SOD1 levels in leukocytes in patients with SOD1 mutations. This study investigated whether pyrimethamine lowered SOD1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients carrying SOD1 mutations linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS/SOD1). A multicenter (5 sites), open-label, 9-month-duration, dose-ranging study was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of pyrimethamine to lower SOD1 levels in the CSF in fALS/SOD1. All participants underwent 3 lumbar punctures, blood draw, clinical assessment of strength, motor function, quality of life, and adverse effect assessments. SOD1 levels were measured in erythrocytes and CSF. Pyrimethamine was measured in plasma and CSF. Appel ALS score, ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, and McGill Quality of Life Single-Item Scale were measured at screening, visit 6, and visit 9. We enrolled 32 patients; 24 completed 6 visits (18 weeks), and 21 completed all study visits. A linear mixed effects model showed a significant reduction in CSF SOD1 at visit 6 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.4-18.5) and at visit 9 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 10.5% (95% CI = 5.2-15.8). Pyrimethamine is safe and well tolerated in ALS. Pyrimethamine is capable of producing a significant reduction in total CSF SOD1 protein content in patients with ALS caused by different SOD1 mutations. Further long-term studies are warranted to assess clinical efficacy. Ann Neurol 2017;81:837-848. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  1. The lack of effect of specific overexpression of IGF-1 in the central nervous system or skeletal muscle on pathophysiology in the G93A SOD-1 mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Messi, Maria Laura; Clark, Heather M; Prevette, David M; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2007-09-01

    The ability of insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) to prevent the pathophysiology associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is currently being explored with animal models and in clinical trials with patients. Several studies have reported positive effects of IGF-1 in reducing motor neuron death, delaying the onset of motor performance decline, and increasing life span, in SOD-1 mouse models of ALS and in one clinical trial. However, a second clinical trial produced no positive results raising questions about the therapeutic efficacy of IGF-1. To investigate the effect of specific and sustained IGF-1 expression in skeletal muscle or central nervous system on motor performance, life span, and motor neuron survival, human-IGF-1 transgenic mice were crossed with the G93A SOD-1 mutant model of ALS. No significant differences were found in onset of motor performance decline, life span, or motor neuron survival in the spinal cord, between SOD+/IGF-1+ and SOD+/IGF-1- hybrid mice. IGF-1 concentration levels, measured by radioimmunoassay, were found to be highly increased throughout life in the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscle of IGF-1 transgenic hybrid mice. Additionally, increased CNS weight in SOD+ mice crossbred with CNS IGF-1 transgenic mice demonstrates that IGF-1 overexpression is biologically active even after the disease is fully developed. Taken together, these results raise questions concerning the therapeutic value of IGF-1 and indicate that further studies are needed to examine the relationship between methods of IGF-1 administration and its potential therapeutic value.

  2. The disulfide relay system of mitochondria is required for the biogenesis of mitochondrial Ccs1 and Sod1.

    PubMed

    Reddehase, Silvia; Grumbt, Barbara; Neupert, Walter; Hell, Kai

    2009-01-16

    Cells protect themselves against oxygen stress and reactive oxygen species. An important enzyme in this process is superoxide dismutase, Sod1, which converts superoxide radicals into water and hydrogen peroxide. The biogenesis of functional Sod1 is dependent on its copper chaperone, Ccs1, which introduces a disulfide bond and a copper ion into Sod1. Ccs1 and Sod1 are present in the cytosol but are also found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS), the compartment between the outer and the inner membrane of mitochondria. Ccs1 mediates mitochondrial localization of Sod1. Here, we report on the biogenesis of the fractions of Ccs1 and Sod1 present in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The IMS of mitochondria harbors a disulfide relay system consisting of the import receptor Mia40 and the thiol oxidase Erv1, which drives the import of substrates with conserved cysteine residues arranged in typical twin Cx(3)C and twin Cx(9)C motifs. We show that depletion of Mia40 results in decreased levels of Ccs1 and Sod1. On the other hand, overexpression of Mia40 increased the mitochondrial fraction of both proteins. In addition, the import rates of Ccs1 were enhanced by increased levels of Mia40 and reduced upon depletion of Mia40. Mia40 forms mixed disulfides with Ccs1, suggesting a role of Mia40 for the generation of disulfide bonds in Ccs1. We suggest that the disulfide relay system transfers disulfide bonds via Mia40 to Ccs1, which then shuttles disulfide bonds to Sod1. In conclusion, the disulfide relay system is crucial for the import of Ccs1, thereby affecting the transport of Sod1, and it can control the distribution of Ccs1 and Sod1 between the IMS of mitochondria and the cytosol.

  3. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-03-23

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Ligand and proton exchange dynamics in recombinant human myoglobin mutants.

    PubMed

    Lambright, D G; Balasubramanian, S; Boxer, S G

    1989-05-05

    Site-specific mutants of human myoglobin have been prepared in which lysine 45 is replaced by arginine (K45R) and aspartate 60 by glutamate (D60E), in order to examine the influence of these residues and their interaction on the dynamics of the protein. These proteins were studied by a variety of methods, including one and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, exchange kinetics for the distal and proximal histidine NH protons as a function of pH in the met cyano forms, flash photolysis of the CO forms, and ligand replacement kinetics. The electronic absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the CO forms of these proteins are virtually identical, indicating that the structure of the heme pocket is unaltered by these mutations. There are, however, substantial changes in the dynamics of both CO binding and proton exchange for the mutant K45R, whereas the mutant D60E exhibits behavior indistinguishable from the reference human myoglobin. K45R has a faster CO bimolecular recombination rate and slower CO off-rate relative to the reference. The kinetics for CO binding are independent of pH (6.5 to 10) as well as ionic strength (0 to 1 M-NaCl). The exchange rate for the distal histidine NH is substantially lower for K45R than the reference, whereas the proximal histidine NH exchange rate is unaltered. The exchange behavior of the human proteins is similar to that reported for a comparison of the exchange rates for myoglobins having lysine at position 45 with sperm whale myoglobin, which has arginine at this position. This indicates that the differences in exchange rates reflects largely the Lys----Arg substitution. The lack of a simple correlation for the CO kinetics with this substitution means that these are sensitive to other factors as well. Specific kinetic models, whereby substitution of arginine for lysine at position 45 can affect ligand binding dynamics, are outlined. These experiments demonstrate that a relatively

  5. In vivo protein transduction: delivery of PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein into myocardium efficiently protects against ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-En; Wang, Jia-Ning; Tang, Jun-Ming; Guo, Ling-Yun; Yang, Jian-Ye; Huang, Yong-Zhang; Tan, Yan; Fu, Shou-Zhi; Kong, Xia; Zheng, Fei

    2009-02-28

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is a medical problem occurring as damage to the myocardium following blood flow restoration after a critical period of coronary occlusion. Oxygen free radicals (OFR) are implicated in reperfusion injury after myocardial ischemia. The antioxidant enzyme, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, also called SOD1) is one of the major means by which cells counteract the deleterious effects of OFR after ischemia. Recently, we reported that a PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein was efficiently delivered into cultured cells and isolated rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of the PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein after ischemic insult. Immunofluorescecnce analysis revealed that the expressed and purified PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein injected into rat tail veins was efficiently transduced into the myocardium with its native protein structure intact. When injected into Sprague-Dawley rat tail veins, the PEP-1- SOD1 fusion protein significantly attenuated myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage; characterized by improving cardiac function of the left ventricle, decreasing infarct size, reducing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), decreasing the release of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and relieving cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These results suggest that the biologically active intact forms of PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein will provide an efficient strategy for therapeutic delivery in various diseases related to SOD1 or to OFR.

  6. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  7. Death receptor 6 (DR6) antagonist antibody is neuroprotective in the mouse SOD1G93A model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, G; Lee, X; Bian, Y; Shao, Z; Sheng, G; Pepinsky, R B; Mi, S

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the death of motor neurons, axon degeneration, and denervation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). Here we show that death receptor 6 (DR6) levels are elevated in spinal cords from post-mortem samples of human ALS and from SOD1G93A transgenic mice, and DR6 promotes motor neuron death through activation of the caspase 3 signaling pathway. Blocking DR6 with antagonist antibody 5D10 promotes motor neuron survival in vitro via activation of Akt phosphorylation and inhibition of the caspase 3 signaling pathway, after growth factor withdrawal, sodium arsenite treatment or co-culture with SOD1G93A astrocytes. Treatment of SOD1G93A mice at an asymptomatic stage starting on the age of 42 days with 5D10 protects NMJ from denervation, decreases gliosis, increases survival of motor neurons and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in spinal cord, decreases phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) levels in serum, and promotes motor functional improvement assessed by increased grip strength. The combined data provide clear evidence for neuroprotective effects of 5D10. Blocking DR6 function represents a new approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders involving motor neuron death and axon degeneration, such as ALS. PMID:24113175

  8. Resveratrol improves motoneuron function and extends survival in SOD1(G93A) ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Renzo; del Valle, Jaume; Modol, Laura; Martinez, Anna; Granado-Serrano, Ana B; Ramirez-Núñez, Omar; Pallás, Mercé; Portero-Otin, Manel; Osta, Rosario; Navarro, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive paralysis and death due to degeneration of motoneurons in spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Nowadays, there is no effective therapy and patients die 2-5 years after diagnosis. Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenol found in grapes, with promising neuroprotective effects since it induces expression and activation of several neuroprotective pathways involving Sirtuin1 and AMPK. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of resveratrol administration on SOD1(G93A) ALS mice. We determined the onset of symptoms by rotarod test and evaluated upper and lower motoneuron function using electrophysiological tests. We assessed the survival of the animals and determined the number of spinal motoneurons. Finally, we further investigated resveratrol mechanism of action by means of western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Resveratrol treatment from 8 weeks of age significantly delayed disease onset and preserved lower and upper motoneuron function in female and male animals. Moreover, resveratrol significantly extended SOD1(G93A) mice lifespan and promoted survival of spinal motoneurons. Delayed resveratrol administration from 12 weeks of age also improved spinal motoneuron function preservation and survival. Further experiments revealed that resveratrol protective effects were associated with increased expression and activation of Sirtuin 1 and AMPK in the ventral spinal cord. Both mediators promoted normalization of the autophagic flux and, more importantly, increased mitochondrial biogenesis in the SOD1(G93A) spinal cord. Taken together, our findings suggest that resveratrol may represent a promising therapy for ALS.

  9. Oxidative Stress Induced Age Dependent Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 (Sod1) Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Osama M. A.; Dogru, Murat; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Ayako; Kojima, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Inaba, Takaaki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate alterations in the meibomian gland (MG) in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1−/−) mouse. Methods Tear function tests [Break up time (BUT) and cotton thread] and ocular vital staining test were performed on Sod1−/− male mice (n = 24) aged 10 and 50 weeks, and age and sex matched wild–type (+/+) mice (n = 25). Tear and serum samples were collected at sacrifice for inflammatory cytokine assays. MG specimens underwent Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Mallory staining for fibrosis, Oil Red O lipid staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry stainings for 4HNE, 8-OHdG and CD45. Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was also performed. Results Corneal vital staining scores in the Sod1−/− mice were significantly higher compared with the wild type mice throughout the follow-up. Tear and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels also showed significant elevations in the 10 to 50 week Sod1−/− mice. Oil Red O staining showed an accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sod1−/− mice at 50 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed both increased TUNEL and oxidative stress marker stainings of the MG acinar epithelium in the Sod1−/− mice compared to the wild type mice. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD45 showed increasing inflammatory cell infiltrates from 10 to 50 weeks in the Sod1−/− mice compared to the wild type mice. TEM revealed prominent mitochondrial changes in 50 week Sod1−/− mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a vital role in the pathogensis of meibomian gland dysfunction. The Sod1−/− mouse appears to be a promising model for the study of reactive oxygen species associated MG alterations. PMID:25036096

  10. Reduced superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with early psychosis in association with clinical features.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jennifer M; Hayes, Lindsay N; Tanaka, Teppei; Xiao, Meifang; Yolken, Robert H; Worley, Paul; Leweke, F Markus; Sawa, Akira

    2017-05-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of psychosis from studies of animal models and of tissues obtained from patients. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an antioxidant responsible for reducing free radicals. SOD1 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reportedly correlate with those in brain. We hypothesized that patients in early-stages of psychotic disease may have altered SOD1 in CSF compared to healthy controls. We previously reported in a pilot study that SOD1 levels in CSF of patients with recent onset schizophrenia (SZ) were lower compared to healthy controls. Building on that work, in the present study we examined SOD1 levels in CSF acquired from two additional cohorts. Specifically, we studied SOD1 levels in CSF from a cohort of 15 patients with recent-onset psychosis and 18 healthy controls, as well as the second cohort of 18 antipsychotic-naïve patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. In the first cohort, recent onset of illness was defined as within five years of onset of psychotic symptoms, and performance on neuropsychological testing as well as symptom severity were assessed. We observed 26.5% lower SOD1 in CSF from patients across both cohorts compared to controls (P=0.045) that was consistent with our previous report (30%). Among the cohort of patients with recent onset of SZ, SOD1 in CSF was positively correlated with composite performance on neuropsychological testing. Our results support further study of the relationship between cognitive deficits and oxidative stress in the central nervous system of patients with psychosis, including through study of SOD1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Smietana, Michael J; Arruda, Ellen M; Faulkner, John A; Brooks, Susan V; Larkin, Lisa M

    2010-12-03

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1(-/-) mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1(-/-) mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm(2)) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1(-/-) compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1(-/-) mice at 8months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1(-/-) mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1(-/-) mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1(-/-) mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

  12. Spinal cord endoplasmic reticulum stress associated with a microsomal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase-1 in an ALS model

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Hitoshi; Almer, Gabriele; Yamashita, Satoshi; Guégan, Christelle; Nagai, Makiko; Xu, Zuoshang; Sosunov, Alexander A.; McKhann, Guy M.; Przedborski, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Mutation in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), which is a cause of ALS, alters the folding patterns of this protein. Accumulation of misfolded mutant SOD1 might activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing ALS-linked SOD1 mutants exhibit molecular alterations indicative of a recruitment of ER's signaling machinery. We demonstrate by biochemical and morphological methods that mutant SOD1 accumulates inside the ER, where it forms insoluble high molecular weight species and interacts with the ER chaperone immunoglobulin-binding protein. These alterations are age- and region-specific, because they develop over the course of the disease and occur in the affected spinal cord but not in the nonaffected cerebellum in transgenic mutant SOD1 mice. Our results suggest a toxic mechanism for mutant SOD1 by which this ubiquitously expressed pathogenic protein could affect motor neuron survival and contribute to the selective motor neuronal degeneration in ALS. PMID:16595634

  13. SOD1 Limits Renal Microvascular Remodeling and Attenuates Arteriole and Blood Pressure Responses to Angiotensin II via Modulation of Nitric Oxide Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Mattias; Lai, En Yin; Ma, Zufu; Steege, Andreas; Patzak, Andreas; Eriksson, Ulf J.; Lundberg, Jon O.; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Persson, A. Erik G.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with vascular remodeling and increased preglomerular resistance that are both implicated in the pathogenesis of renal and cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin II induces superoxide production which is metabolized by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or scavenged by nitric oxide. We investigated the hypothesis that SOD1 regulates renal microvascular remodeling, blood pressure and arteriolar responsiveness and sensitivity to angiotensin II, using SOD1-transgenic (SOD1-tg) and SOD1-knockout (SOD1-ko) mice. Blood pressure, measured telemetrically, rose more abruptly during prolonged angiotensin II infusion in SOD1-ko mice. The afferent arteriole media-to-lumen ratios were reduced in SOD1-tg and increased in SOD1-ko mice. Afferent arterioles from non-treated wild-types had graded contraction to angiotensin II (sensitivity: 10-9 mol/l, responsiveness: 40%). Angiotensin II contraction were less sensitive (10-8 mol/l) and responsive (14%) in SOD1-tg, but more sensitive (10-13 mol/l) and responsive (89%) in SOD1-ko mice. Arterioles from SOD1-ko had 4-fold increased superoxide formation with angiotensin II at 10-9 mol/l. L-NAME reduced arteriole diameter of SOD1-tg, and enhanced angiotensin II sensitivity and responsiveness of wild-type and SOD1-tg to the level of SOD1-ko mice. Tempol increased arteriole diameter and normalized the enhanced sensitivity and responsiveness to angiotensin II of SOD1-ko, but did not affect wild-type or SOD1-tg mice. Neither SOD1-deficiency nor overexpression was associated with changes in nitrate/nitrite excretion, or renal mRNA expression of NOS-, NADPH oxidase-, SOD2/SOD3-isoforms, and angiotensin II receptors. In conclusion, SOD1 limits afferent arteriole remodeling and reduces sensitivity and responsiveness to angiotensin II by reducing superoxide and maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability. This may prevent an early and exaggerated blood pressure response to angiotensin II. PMID:20876452

  14. Evolution of gait abnormalities in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Renzo; Oliván, Sara; Osta, Rosario; Navarro, Xavier

    2011-08-11

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motoneurons. Clinically, it is manifested by weakness, muscle atrophy and progressive paralysis and ends up with patients' death 2-5 years after diagnosis. Although these symptoms lead in many cases to gait deficits in patients, an exhaustive locomotor profile of animal models mimicking the disease has not been assessed yet. In this work we evaluated the locomotor performance of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS using computerized treadmill gait analysis. SOD1(G93A) mice presented early (8 weeks of age) gait abnormalities, evidenced by an increase in the time of the propulsion phase of hindlimb stance. The alterations progressed during the disease until a complete disturbance of normal gait. This finding is meaningful to the field because the identification of a significant difference in a functional endpoint as early as 8 weeks might be a step forward resolving the debate about treatment of mice prior to the symptomatic phase in efficacy studies. These results also point out that digitizing analysis of treadmill locomotion may be useful to evaluate whether new therapeutic approaches are improving functional outcome of the animals.

  15. Time-course and characterization of orolingual motor deficits in SOD1-G93A mice

    PubMed Central

    Smittkamp, Susan E.; Brown, Jordan W.; Stanford, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Symptom onset may occur in the muscles of the limbs (spinal onset) or those of the head and neck (bulbar onset). Bulbar involvement is particularly important in ALS as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize bulbar motor deficits in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of familial ALS. We measured orolingual motor function by placing thirsty mice in a customized operant chamber that allows for measurement of tongue force and lick rhythm as animals lick water from an isometric disc. Testing spanned the pre-symptomatic, symptomatic, and end-stage segments of the disease. Rotarod performance, fore- and hindlimb grip strength, and locomotor activity were also monitored regularly during this period. We found that spinal involvement was apparent first, with both fore- and hindlimb grip strength being affected in SOD1-G93A mice from the onset of testing (64 days of age). Rotarod performance was affected by 71 days of age. Locomotor activity was not affected, even near end-stage. Bulbar involvement appeared much later, with tongue motility being affected by 100 days of age. Tongue force was affected by 115 days of age. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to describe the onset of bulbar v. spinal motor signs and characterize orolingual motor deficits in this preclinical model of ALS. PMID:18061359

  16. Cytosolic localization of Fox proteins in motor neurons of G93A SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxing; Turnbull, Patrick C; Crapper, Eli Prentice; Wang, Henan; Drannik, Anna; Jiang, Fan; Xia, Sean; Turnbull, John

    2016-05-01

    NeuN is a nuclear protein expressed exclusively in mature neurons and has served for many years as a reliable neuronal marker in immunohistochemical labeling studies. In 2009, NeuN was identified as Fox3, one of three closely related RNA binding proteins important in pre-mRNA splicing. During the course of a previous study using G93A SOD1 mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we observed that NeuN was significantly redistributed to the cytosol. Since altered splicing may be important in the pathogenesis of ALS, we compared the localization (predominantly nuclear or cytosolic) of all three Fox proteins in the lumbar spinal cord of wild-type and G93A SOD1 mice before and after the development of clinical signs of disease. The Fox proteins regulate their own splicing, and we also examined the major Fox protein isoforms in nuclear and cytosolic fractions of lumbar spinal cord by Western blotting. We report here that Fox3 and Fox2 undergo a major cytosolic relocalization in this ALS model that increases with age and that is associated with progressive alterations in the splicing profiles of all three Fox proteins.

  17. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Smietana, Michael J.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V.; Larkin, Lisa M.

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These

  18. Glycine receptor mouse mutants: model systems for human hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Natascha; Langlhofer, Georg; Kluck, Christoph J; Villmann, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Human hyperekplexia is a neuromotor disorder caused by disturbances in inhibitory glycine-mediated neurotransmission. Mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptor subunits or associated proteins, such as GLRA1, GLRB, GPHN and ARHGEF9, have been detected in patients suffering from hyperekplexia. Classical symptoms are exaggerated startle attacks upon unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli, massive tremor, loss of postural control during startle and apnoea. Usually patients are treated with clonazepam, this helps to dampen the severe symptoms most probably by up-regulating GABAergic responses. However, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similar neuromotor phenotypes have been observed in mouse models that carry glycine receptor mutations. These mouse models serve as excellent tools for analysing the underlying pathomechanisms. Yet, studies in mutant mice looking for postsynaptic compensation of glycinergic dysfunction via an up-regulation in GABAA receptor numbers have failed, as expression levels were similar to those in wild-type mice. However, presynaptic adaptation mechanisms with an unusual switch from mixed GABA/glycinergic to GABAergic presynaptic terminals have been observed. Whether this presynaptic adaptation explains the improvement in symptoms or other compensation mechanisms exist is still under investigation. With the help of spontaneous glycine receptor mouse mutants, knock-in and knock-out studies, it is possible to associate behavioural changes with pharmacological differences in glycinergic inhibition. This review focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of the various mouse models used to elucidate the underlying signal transduction pathways and adaptation processes and describes a novel route that uses gene-therapeutic modulation of mutated receptors to overcome loss of function mutations. PMID:23941355

  19. Lack of synergistic effect of resveratrol and sigma-1 receptor agonist (PRE-084) in SOD1G93A ALS mice: overlapping effects or limited therapeutic opportunity?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motoneurons (MNs) in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, causing progressive paralysis and death. Nowadays, there is no effective therapy and most patients die 2–5 years after diagnosis. Sigma-1R is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in the CNS and specially enriched in MNs. Mutations on the Sigma-1R leading to frontotemporal lobar degeneration-ALS were recently described in human patients. We previously reported the therapeutic role of the selective sigma-1R agonist 2-(4-morpholi-nethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate (PRE-084) in SOD1G93A ALS mice, that promoted spinal MN preservation and extended animal survival by controlling NMDA receptor calcium influx. Resveratrol (RSV, trans-3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenol with promising neuroprotective effects. We recently found that RSV administration to SOD1G93A mice preserves spinal MN function and increases mice survival. These beneficial effects were associated to activation of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways, leading to the modulation of autophagy and an increase of mitochondrial biogenesis. The main goal of this work was to assess the effect of combined RSV and PRE-084 administration in SOD1G93A ALS mice. Methods We determined the locomotor performance of the animals by rotarod test and evaluated spinal motoneuron function using electrophysiological tests. Results RSV plus PRE-084 treatment from 8 weeks of age significantly improved locomotor performance and spinal MN function, accompanied by a significant reduction of MN degeneration and an extension of mice lifespan. In agreement with our previous findings, there was an induction of PKC-specific phosphorylation of the NMDA-NR1 subunit and an increased expression and activation of Sirt1 and AMPK in the ventral spinal cord of treated SOD1G93A animals. Conclusions Although

  20. SOD1 Overexpression Preserves Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate with an Increase of Aortic Depressor Nerve Function

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Jeffrey; Gu, He; Cheng, Zixi (Jack)

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical (O2 ∙−), is associated with diseases which compromise cardiac autonomic function. Overexpression of SOD1 may offer protection against ROS damage to the cardiac autonomic nervous system, but reductions of O2 ∙− may interfere with normal cellular functions. We have selected the C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse as a model to determine whether SOD1 overexpression alters cardiac autonomic function, as measured by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and aortic depressor nerve (ADN) recordings, as well as evaluation of baseline heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Under isoflurane anesthesia, C57 wild-type and SOD1 mice were catheterized with an arterial pressure transducer and measurements of HR and MAP were taken. After establishing a baseline, hypotension and hypertension were induced by injection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively, and ΔHR versus ΔMAP were recorded as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). SNP and PE treatment were administered sequentially after a recovery period to measure arterial baroreceptor activation by recording aortic depressor nerve activity. Our findings show that overexpression of SOD1 in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse preserved the normal HR, MAP, and BRS but enhanced aortic depressor nerve function. PMID:26823951

  1. Phenotypes of Myopathy-Related Beta-Tropomyosin Mutants in Human and Mouse Tissue Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hussein, Saba; Rahl, Karin; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Tajsharghi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in TPM2 result in a variety of myopathies characterised by variable clinical and morphological features. We used human and mouse cultured cells to study the effects of β-TM mutants. The mutants induced a range of phenotypes in human myoblasts, which generally changed upon differentiation to myotubes. Human myotubes transfected with the E41K-β-TMEGFP mutant showed perinuclear aggregates. The G53ins-β-TMEGFP mutant tended to accumulate in myoblasts but was incorporated into filamentous structures of myotubes. The K49del-β-TMEGFP and E122K-β-TMEGFP mutants induced the formation of rod-like structures in human cells. The N202K-β-TMEGFP mutant failed to integrate into thin filaments and formed accumulations in myotubes. The accumulation of mutant β-TMEGFP in the perinuclear and peripheral areas of the cells was the striking feature in C2C12. We demonstrated that human tissue culture is a suitable system for studying the early stages of altered myofibrilogenesis and morphological changes linked to myopathy-related β-TM mutants. In addition, the histopathological phenotype associated with expression of the various mutant proteins depends on the cell type and varies with the maturation of the muscle cell. Further, the phenotype is a combinatorial effect of the specific amino acid change and the temporal expression of the mutant protein. PMID:24039757

  2. Reactivation of mutant p53 and induction of apoptosis in human tumor cells by maleimide analogs.

    PubMed

    Bykov, Vladimir J N; Issaeva, Natalia; Zache, Nicole; Shilov, Alexandre; Hultcrantz, Monica; Bergman, Jan; Selivanova, Galina; Wiman, Klas G

    2005-08-26

    Reactivation of mutant p53 is likely to provide important benefits for treatment of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-resistant tumors. We demonstrate here that the maleimide-derived molecule MIRA-1 can reactivate DNA binding and preserve the active conformation of mutant p53 protein in vitro and restore transcriptional transactivation to mutant p53 in living cells. MIRA-1 induced mutant p53-dependent cell death in different human tumor cells carrying tetracycline-regulated mutant p53. The structural analog MIRA-3 showed antitumor activity in vivo against human mutant p53-carrying tumor xenografts in SCID mice. The MIRA scaffold is a novel lead for the development of anticancer drugs specifically targeting mutant p53.

  3. Human liver cell trafficking mutants: characterization and whole exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fei; Snapp, Erik L; Novikoff, Phyllis M; Suadicani, Sylvia O; Spray, David C; Potvin, Barry; Wolkoff, Allan W; Stanley, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α''. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype.

  4. Human Liver Cell Trafficking Mutants: Characterization and Whole Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fei; Snapp, Erik L.; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Suadicani, Sylvia O.; Spray, David C.; Potvin, Barry; Wolkoff, Allan W.; Stanley, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α’’. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype. PMID:24466322

  5. Overexpression of SOD1 in transgenic rats protects vulnerable neurons against ischemic damage after global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Chan, P H; Kawase, M; Murakami, K; Chen, S F; Li, Y; Calagui, B; Reola, L; Carlson, E; Epstein, C J

    1998-10-15

    Transient global cerebral ischemia resulting from cardiac arrest is known to cause selective death in vulnerable neurons, including hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. It is postulated that oxygen radicals, superoxide in particular, are involved in cell death processes. To test this hypothesis, we first used in situ imaging of superoxide radical distribution by hydroethidine oxidation in vulnerable neurons. We then generated SOD1 transgenic (Tg) rats with a five-fold increase in copper zinc superoxide dismutase activity. The Tg rats and their non-Tg wild-type littermates were subjected to 10 min of global ischemia followed by 1 and 3 d of reperfusion. Neuronal damage, as assessed by cresyl violet staining and DNA fragmentation analysis, was significantly reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region, cortex, striatum, and thalamus in SOD1 Tg rats at 3 d, as compared with the non-Tg littermates. There were no changes in the hippocampal CA3 subregion and dentate gyrus, resistant areas in both SOD1 Tg and non-Tg rats. Quantitative analysis of the damaged CA1 subregion showed marked neuroprotection against transient global cerebral ischemia in SOD1 Tg rats. These results suggest that superoxide radicals play a role in the delayed ischemic death of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Our data also indicate that SOD1 Tg rats are useful tools for studying the role of oxygen radicals in the pathogenesis of neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia.

  6. C-kit is important for SOD1(G93A) mouse survival independent of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Staats, K A; Schönefeldt, S; Van Helleputte, L; Van Rillaer, M; Lampi, Y; Dooley, J; Van Den Bosch, L; Liston, A

    2015-08-20

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive and lethal paralysis. The disease process is multi-factorial and is characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration. Previous work demonstrated that the local concentration of various growth factors can influence motor neuron survival and disease progression. A potential role for c-kit, a growth factor receptor present in the spinal cord, in ALS is unknown. To dissect the role of c-kit in ALS we interbred SOD1(G93A) mice with kit(w-sh/w-sh) mice, which have a 70% decrease in c-kit expression in the spinal cord. kit(w-sh/w-sh) SOD1(G93A) mice have a reduced survival compared to SOD1(G93A) mice, while the amount of motor neurons at end stage is similar. By means of grip strength and nerve conductance analysis we show that kit(w-sh/w-sh) mice have diminished strength and slightly impaired compound muscle action potential latency, although the number of neurons is similar across genotypes. Decreasing kit gene expression in SOD1(G93A) mice is detrimental and our results imply that this effect is independent of mast cells, as tested by ketotifen administration. To conclude, our data expand on the protective role of growth factors in ALS, as decreasing c-kit by approximately 70% is detrimental in SOD1(G93A) mice.

  7. Oxygen-induced maturation of SOD1: a key role for disulfide formation by the copper chaperone CCS.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Torres, Andrew S; O'Halloran, Thomas V

    2004-07-21

    The antioxidant enzyme Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has the distinction of being one of the most abundant disulfide-containing protein known in the eukaryotic cytosol; however, neither catalytic nor physiological roles for the conserved disulfide are known. Here we show that the disulfide status of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SOD1 significantly affects the monomer-dimer equilibrium, the interaction with the copper chaperone CCS, and the activity of the enzyme itself. Disulfide formation in SOD1 by O2 is slow but is greatly accelerated by the Cu-bound form of CCS (Cu-CCS) in vivo and in vitro even in the presence of excess reductants; once formed, this disulfide is kinetically stable. Biochemical assays reveal that Cu-CCS facilitates Cys oxidation and disulfide isomerization in the stepwise conversion of the immature form of the enzyme to the active state. The immature form of SOD1 is most susceptible to oxidative insult and to aggregation reminiscent of that observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Thus Cu-CCS mediation of correct disulfide formation in SOD1 is important for regulation of enzyme activity and for prevention of misfolding or aggregation.

  8. Differential survival among sSOD-1* genotypes in Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Marshall , Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    Differential survival and growth were tested in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha expressing two common alleles, *–100 and *–260, at the superoxide dismutase locus (sSOD-1*). These tests were necessary to support separate studies in which the two alleles were used as genetic marks under the assumption of mark neutrality. Heterozygous adults were used to produce progeny with –100/–100, –100/–260, and –260/–260 genotypes that were reared in two natural streams and two hatcheries in the states of Washington and Oregon. The latter also were evaluated as returning adults. In general, the genotype ratios of juveniles reared at hatcheries were consistent with high survival and little or no differential survival in the hatchery. Adult returns at one hatchery were significantly different from the expected proportions, and the survival of the –260/–260 genotype was 0.56–0.89 times that of the –100/–100 genotype over four year-classes. Adult returns at a second hatchery (one year-class) were similar but not statistically significant: survival of the –260/–260genotype relative to the –100/–100 genotype was 0.76. The performance of the heterozygote group was intermediate at both hatcheries. Significant differences in growth were rarely observed among hatchery fish (one year-class of juveniles and one age-class of adult males) but were consistent with greater performance for the –100/–100 genotype. Results from two groups of juveniles reared in streams (one year-class from each stream) suggested few differences in growth, but the observed genotype ratios were significantly different from the expected ratios in one stream. Those differences were consistent with the adult data; survival for the –260/–260 genotype was 76% of that of the –100/–100 genotype. These results, which indicate nonneutrality among sSOD-1* genotypes, caused us to modify our related studies and suggest caution in the interpretation of results and analyses in

  9. Arresting Amyloid with Coulomb’s Law: Acetylation of ALS-Linked SOD1 by Aspirin Impedes Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Abdolvahabi, Alireza; Shi, Yunhua; Rhodes, Nicholas R.; Cook, Nathan P.; Martí, Angel A.; Shaw, Bryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the magnitude of a protein’s net charge (Z) can control its rate of self-assembly into amyloid, and its interactions with cellular membranes, the net charge of a protein is not viewed as a druggable parameter. This article demonstrates that aspirin (the quintessential acylating pharmacon) can inhibit the amyloidogenesis of superoxide dismutase (SOD1) by increasing the intrinsic net negative charge of the polypeptide, i.e., by acetylation (neutralization) of multiple lysines. The protective effects of acetylation were diminished (but not abolished) in 100 mM NaCl and were statistically significant: a total of 432 thioflavin-T amyloid assays were performed for all studied proteins. The acetylation of as few as three lysines by aspirin in A4V apo-SOD1—a variant that causes familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)—delayed amyloid nucleation by 38% and slowed amyloid propagation by twofold. Lysines in wild-type- and ALS-variant apo-SOD1 could also be peracetylated with aspirin after fibrillization, resulting in supercharged fibrils, with increases in formal net charge of ∼2 million units. Peracetylated SOD1 amyloid defibrillized at temperatures below unacetylated fibrils, and below the melting temperature of native Cu2,Zn2-SOD1 (e.g., fibril Tm = 84.49°C for acetylated D90A apo-SOD1 fibrils). Targeting the net charge of native or misfolded proteins with small molecules—analogous to how an enzyme’s Km or Vmax are medicinally targeted—holds promise as a strategy in the design of therapies for diseases linked to protein self-assembly. PMID:25762331

  10. CCS and SOD1 mRNA are reduced after copper supplementation in peripheral mononuclear cells of individuals with high serum ceruloplasmin concentration.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Miriam; Olivares, Felipe; Mendez, Marco A; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Prohaska, Joseph R; Arredondo, Miguel; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Araya, Magdalena; González, Mauricio

    2008-04-01

    The limits of copper homeostatic regulation in humans are not known, making it difficult to define the milder effects of early copper excess. Furthermore, a robust assay to facilitate the detection of early stages of copper excess is needed. To address these issues, we assessed changes in relative mRNA abundance of methallothionein 2A (MT2A), prion (PrP), amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and its copper chaperone (CCS) in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNCs) from healthy adults representing the 5% highest and lowest extremes in the distribution curve of serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) concentrations of 800 individuals. The intracellular Cu content was also determined. PMNCs were isolated from individuals before and after exposure to a single daily dose of 10 mg Cu (as CuSO(4)) for 2 months. Results showed that although there were fluctuations in serum Cp values of the samples assessed before copper exposure, no significant differences were observed in cell copper content or in the relative abundance of MT2A, PrP and APLP2 transcripts in PMNCs. Also, these values were not modified after copper supplementation. However, CCS and SOD1 mRNA levels were reduced in PMNCs after copper supplementation in the individuals with the high Cp values, suggesting that they should be further explored as biomarkers of moderate copper overload in humans.

  11. Absence of pathogenic mutations in VSX1 and SOD1 genes in patients with keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Stabuc-Silih, Mirna; Strazisar, Mojca; Hawlina, Marko; Glavac, Damjan

    2010-02-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a bilateral, noninflammatory, and progressive corneal ectasia that occurs mostly as a sporadic disorder, but it has long been recognized that a significant minority of patients also exhibit a family history. In recent years, several candidate genes, including VSX1 and SOD1, have been proposed and some disease-causing mutations have been identified. To investigate the role of the 2 genes in 113 Slovenian patients with sporadic and familial KC, the complete coding region with corresponding intronic sequences was analyzed. The same regions of both genes were also checked in 100 healthy blood donors. We also checked the relation of 627+23G>A polymorphism in the VSX1 gene with the hereditary form of the disease. No disease-causing mutations were identified in either gene. We did discover a significant association of 627+23G>A polymorphism distribution (VSX1) with unrelated patients diagnosed with the hereditary form of KC. The absence of pathogenic mutations in our large number of unrelated patients with KC indicates that other genetic factors are involved in the development of this disorder.

  12. Accelerated Human Mutant Tau Aggregation by Knocking Out Murine Tau in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Kunie; Leroy, Karelle; Héraud, Céline; Yilmaz, Zehra; Authelet, Michèle; Suain, Valèrie; De Decker, Robert; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Many models of human tauopathies have been generated in mice by expression of a human mutant tau with maintained expression of mouse endogenous tau. Because murine tau might interfere with the toxic effects of human mutant tau, we generated a model in which a pathogenic human tau protein is expressed in the absence of wild-type tau protein, with the aim of facilitating the study of the pathogenic role of the mutant tau and to reproduce more faithfully a human tauopathy. The Tg30 line is a tau transgenic mouse model overexpressing human 1N4R double-mutant tau (P301S and G272V) that develops Alzheimer's disease-like neurofibrillary tangles in an age-dependent manner. By crossing Tg30 mice with mice invalidated for their endogenous tau gene, we obtained Tg30xtau−/− mice that express only exogenous human double-mutant 1N4R tau. Although Tg30xtau−/− mice express less tau protein compared with Tg30, they exhibit signs of decreased survival, increased proportion of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in the brain and in the spinal cord, increased number of Gallyas-positive neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus, increased number of inclusions in the spinal cord, and a more severe motor phenotype. Deletion of murine tau accelerated tau aggregation during aging of this mutant tau transgenic model, suggesting that murine tau could interfere with the development of tau pathology in transgenic models of human tauopathies. PMID:21281813

  13. Cupric Ions Induce the Oxidation and Trigger the Aggregation of Human Superoxide Dismutase 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Xu, Wen-Chang; Xie, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Kai; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Jie; Pang, Dai-Wen; Yang, Fu-Quan; Liang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), partly caused by the mutations and aggregation of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), is a fatal degenerative disease of motor neurons. Because SOD1 is a major copper-binding protein present at relatively high concentration in motor neurons and copper can be a harmful pro-oxidant, we want to know whether aberrant copper biochemistry could underlie ALS pathogenesis. In this study, we have investigated and compared the effects of cupric ions on the aggregation of ALS-associated SOD1 mutant A4V and oxidized wild-type SOD1. Methodology/Principal Findings As revealed by 90° light scattering, dynamic light scattering, SDS-PAGE, and atomic force microscopy, free cupric ions in solution not only induce the oxidation of either apo A4V or Zn2-A4V and trigger the oligomerization and aggregation of oxidized A4V under copper-mediated oxidative conditions, but also trigger the aggregation of non-oxidized form of such a pathogenic mutant. As evidenced by mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE, Cys-111 is a primary target for oxidative modification of pathological human SOD1 mutant A4V by either excess Cu2+ or hydrogen peroxide. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that A4V possesses two sets of independent binding sites for Cu2+: a moderate-affinity site (106 M-1) and a high-affinity site (108 M-1). Furthermore, Cu2+ binds to wild-type SOD1 oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in a way similar to A4V, triggering the aggregation of such an oxidized form. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that excess cupric ions induce the oxidation and trigger the aggregation of A4V SOD1, and suggest that Cu2+ plays a key role in the mechanism of aggregation of both A4V and oxidized wild-type SOD1. A plausible model for how pathological SOD1 mutants aggregate in ALS-affected motor neurons with the disruption of copper homeostasis has been provided. PMID:23755211

  14. Transgenic mouse with human mutant p53 expression in the prostate epithelium.

    PubMed

    Elgavish, Ada; Wood, Philip A; Pinkert, Carl A; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Cartee, Todd; Wilbanks, John; Mentor-Marcel, Roycelynn; Tian, Liqun; Scroggins, Samuel E

    2004-09-15

    Apoptosis is disrupted in prostate tumor cells, conferring a survival advantage. p53 is a nuclear protein believed to regulate cancer progression, in part by inducing apoptosis. To test this possibility in future studies, the objective of the present study was to generate a transgenic mouse model expressing mutant p53 in the prostate (PR). Transgene incorporation was tested using Southern analysis. Expression of mutant p53 protein was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis in the PR was evaluated using the Tunnel method. A construct, consisting of the rat probasin promoter and a mutant human p53 fragment, was prepared and used to generate transgenic mice. rPB-mutant p53 transgene incorporation, as well as nuclear accumulation of mutant human p53 protein, was demonstrated. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) III and IV were found in PR of 52-week old transgenic mice, whereas no pathological changes were found in the other organs examined. PR ability to undergo apoptosis following castration was reduced in rPB-mutant p53 mice as compared to non transgenic littermates. Transgenic rPB-mutant p53 mice accumulate mutant p53 protein in PR, resulting in neoplastic lesions and reduced apoptotic potential in the PR. Breeding rPB-mutant p53 mice with mice expressing an oncogene in their PR will be useful in examining interactions of multiple genes that result in progression of slow growing prostate tumors expressing oncogenes alone to metastatic cancer. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Characterization of avirulent mutant Legionella pneumophila that survive but do not multiply within human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a Gram-negative bacterium and a facultative intracellular parasite that multiplies in human monocytes and alveolar macrophages. In this paper, mutants of L. pneumophila avirulent for human monocytes were obtained and extensively characterized. The mutants were obtained by serial passage of wild-type L. pneumophila on suboptimal artificial medium. None of 44 such mutant clones were capable of multiplying in monocytes or exerting a cytopathic effect on monocyte monolayers. Under the same conditions, wild-type L. pneumophila multiplied 2.5-4.5 logs, and destroyed the monocyte monolayers. The basis for the avirulent phenotype was an inability of the mutants to multiply intracellularly. Both mutant and wild-type bacteria bound to and were ingested by monocytes, and both entered by coiling phagocytosis. Thereafter, their intracellular destinies diverged. The wild-type formed a distinctive ribosome-lined replicative phagosome, inhibited phagosome-lysosome fusion, and multiplied intracellularly. The mutant did not form the distinctive phagosome nor inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion. The mutant survived intracellularly but did not replicate in the phagolysosome. In all other respects studied, the mutant and wild-type bacteria were similar. They had similar ultrastructure and colony morphology; both formed colonies of compact and diffuse type. They had similar structural and secretory protein profiles and LPS profile by PAGE. Both the mutant and wild-type bacteria were completely resistant to human complement in the presence or absence of high titer anti-L. pneumophila antibody. The mutant L. pneumophila have tremendous potential for enhancing our understanding of the intracellular biology of L. pneumophila and other parasites that follow a similar pathway through the mononuclear phagocyte. Such mutants also show promise for enhancing our understanding of immunity to L. pneumophila, and they may serve

  16. Loss of RAD-23 Protects Against Models of Motor Neuron Disease by Enhancing Mutant Protein Clearance.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Angela M; Lamitina, Todd; Liachko, Nicole F; Sabatella, Mariangela; Lu, Jiayin; Zhang, Lei; Ostrow, Lyle W; Gupta, Preetika; Wu, Chia-Yen; Doshi, Shachee; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Lans, Hannes; Wang, Jiou; Kraemer, Brian; Kalb, Robert G

    2015-10-21

    Misfolded proteins accumulate and aggregate in neurodegenerative disease. The existence of these deposits reflects a derangement in the protein homeostasis machinery. Using a candidate gene screen, we report that loss of RAD-23 protects against the toxicity of proteins known to aggregate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Loss of RAD-23 suppresses the locomotor deficit of Caenorhabditis elegans engineered to express mutTDP-43 or mutSOD1 and also protects against aging and proteotoxic insults. Knockdown of RAD-23 is further neuroprotective against the toxicity of SOD1 and TDP-43 expression in mammalian neurons. Biochemical investigation indicates that RAD-23 modifies mutTDP-43 and mutSOD1 abundance, solubility, and turnover in association with altering the ubiquitination status of these substrates. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord, we find that RAD-23 abundance is increased and RAD-23 is mislocalized within motor neurons. We propose a novel pathophysiological function for RAD-23 in the stabilization of mutated proteins that cause neurodegeneration. In this work, we identify RAD-23, a component of the protein homeostasis network and nucleotide excision repair pathway, as a modifier of the toxicity of two disease-causing, misfolding-prone proteins, SOD1 and TDP-43. Reducing the abundance of RAD-23 accelerates the degradation of mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 and reduces the cellular content of the toxic species. The existence of endogenous proteins that act as "anti-chaperones" uncovers new and general targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514286-21$15.00/0.

  17. Rapid Progression of Sporadic ALS in a Patient Carrying SOD1 p.Gly13Arg Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Jin; Bae, Jae-Han; Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Hye Ryoun; Yoon, Byung-Nam; Sung, Jung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult onset motor neuron disease, is pathologically characterized by progressive loss of the upper and lower motor neurons. Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) account for about 20% of familial ALS cases and a small percentage of sporadic ALS (SALS) cases, and have revealed a validated genotype-phenotype correlation. Herein, we report a p.Gly13Arg mutation in SOD1 exon 1 in a patient with SALS who presented with a rapidly progressive course, predominantly affecting the lower motor neurons. A 48-year-old man presented with progressive weakness and muscle atrophy of the left upper and lower limbs, followed by muscle fasciculation and cramping. The clinical features of the patient were clearly suggestive of ALS, and implied a sporadic form with rapid progression, predominantly affecting the lower motor neurons. Sequencing of the SOD1 gene by PCR revealed a missense mutation of G to C (c.37G>C) in exon 1, and amino acid substitution of glycine by arginine (p.Gly13Arg). This is the first case identifying the p.Gly13Arg mutation of SOD1 in the Korean population, and clinical assessments of this patient revealed a different phenotype compared with other cases. PMID:28035186

  18. Stimulation-induced mitochondrial [Ca2+] elevations in mouse motor terminals: comparison of wild-type with SOD1-G93A.

    PubMed

    Vila, Lizette; Barrett, Ellen F; Barrett, John N

    2003-06-15

    Changes in mitochondrial matrix [Ca2+] evoked by trains of action potentials were studied in levator auris longus motor terminals using Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator dyes (rhod-2, rhod-5F). During a 2500 impulse 50 Hz train, mitochondrial [Ca2+] in most wild-type terminals increased within 5-10 s to a plateau level that was sustained until stimulation ended. This plateau was not due to dye saturation, but rather reflects a powerful buffering system within the mitochondrial matrix. The amplitude of this plateau was similar for stimulation frequencies in the range 15-100 Hz. Plateau amplitude was sensitive to temperature, with no detectable stimulation-induced increase in fluorescence at temperatures below 17 degrees C, and increasing magnitudes as temperature was increased to near-physiological levels (38 degrees C). When stimulation ended, mitochondrial [Ca2+] decayed slowly back to prestimulation levels over a time course of hundreds of seconds. Similar measurements were also made in motor terminals of mice expressing the G93A mutation of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-G93A). In mice > 100 days old, all of whom exhibited hindlimb paralysis, some terminals continued to show wild-type mitochondrial [Ca2+] responses, but in other terminals mitochondrial [Ca2+] did not plateau, but rather continued to increase throughout most of the stimulus train. Thus mechanism(s) that limit stimulation-induced increases in mitochondrial [Ca2+] may be compromised in some SOD1-G93A terminals.

  19. Rho Kinase Inhibition with Fasudil in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis—Symptomatic Treatment Potential after Disease Onset

    PubMed Central

    Günther, René; Balck, Alexander; Koch, Jan C.; Nientiedt, Tobias; Sereda, Michael; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul; Tönges, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Despite an improved understanding of the genetic background and the pathomechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) no novel disease-modifying therapies have been successfully implemented in clinical routine. Riluzole still remains the only clinically approved substance in human ALS treatment with limited efficacy. We have previously identified pharmacological rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors as orally applicable substances in SOD1.G93A transgenic ALS mice (SOD1G93A), which are able to extend survival time and improve motor function after presymptomatic treatment. Here, we have evaluated the therapeutic effect of the orally administered ROCK inhibitor Fasudil starting at a symptomatic disease stage, more realistically reflecting the clinical situation. Oral Fasudil treatment was initiated at a symptomatic stage at 80 days of life (d80) with 30 or 100 mg/kg body weight in both female and male mice. While baseline neurological scoring and survival were not influenced, Fasudil significantly improved motor behavior in male mice. Spinal cord pathology of motoneurons (MN) and infiltrating microglial cells (MG) at disease end-stage were not significantly modified. Although treatment after symptom onset was less potent than treatment in asymptomatic animals, our study shows the therapeutic benefits of this well-tolerated substance, which is already in clinical use for other indications. PMID:28197100

  20. Calpastatin inhibits motor neuron death and increases survival of hSOD1(G93A) mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mala V; Campbell, Jabbar; Palaniappan, Arti; Kumar, Asok; Nixon, Ralph A

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease with a poorly understood cause and no effective treatment. Given that calpains mediate neurodegeneration in other pathological states and are abnormally activated in ALS, we investigated the possible ameliorative effects of inhibiting calpain over-activation in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic (Tg) mice in vivo by neuron-specific over-expression of calpastatin (CAST), the highly selective endogenous inhibitor of calpains. Our data indicate that over-expression of CAST in hSOD1(G93A) mice, which lowered calpain activation to levels comparable to wild-type mice, inhibited the abnormal breakdown of cytoskeletal proteins (spectrin, MAP2 and neurofilaments), and ameliorated motor axon loss. Disease onset in hSOD1(G93A) /CAST mice compared to littermate hSOD1(G93A) mice is delayed, which accounts for their longer time of survival. We also find that neuronal over-expression of CAST in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice inhibited production of putative neurotoxic caspase-cleaved tau and activation of Cdk5, which have been implicated in neurodegeneration in ALS models, and also reduced the formation of SOD1 oligomers. Our data indicate that inhibition of calpain with CAST is neuroprotective in an ALS mouse model. CAST (encoding calpastatin) inhibits hyperactivated calpain to prevent motor neuron disease operating through a cascade of events as indicated in the schematic, with relevance to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We propose that over-expression of CAST in motor neurons of hSOD1(G93A) mice inhibits activation of CDK5, breakdown of cytoskeletal proteins (NFs, MAP2 and Tau) and regulatory molecules (Cam Kinase IV, Calcineurin A), and disease-causing proteins (TDP-43, α-Synuclein and Huntingtin) to prevent neuronal loss and delay neurological deficits. In our experiments, CAST could also inhibit cleavage of Bid, Bax, AIF to prevent mitochondrial, ER and lysosome-mediated cell death mechanisms. Similarly, CAST

  1. Muscle Expression of SOD1G93A Modulates microRNA and mRNA Transcription Pattern Associated with the Myelination Process in the Spinal Cord of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Bernardini, Camilla; Martini, Martina; Baranzini, Mirko; Barba, Marta; Musarò, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A crucial system severely affected in several neuromuscular diseases is the loss of effective connection between muscle and nerve, leading to a pathological non-communication between the two tissues. One of the best examples of impaired interplay between muscle and nerve is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons and muscle atrophy. Increasing evidences suggest that damage to motor neurons is enhanced by alterations in the neighboring non-neuronal cells and indicate that altered skeletal muscle might be the source of signals that impinge motor neuron activity and survival. Here we investigated whether muscle selective expression of SOD1G93A mutant gene modulates mRNAs and miRNAs expression at the level of spinal cord of MLC/SOD1G93A mice. Using a Taqman array, the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST approach and the MiRwalk 2.0 database, which provides information on miRNA and their predicted target genes, we revealed that muscle specific expression of SOD1G93A modulates relevant molecules of the genetic and epigenetic circuitry of myelin homeostasis in spinal cord of transgenic mice. Our study provides insights into the pathophysiological interplay between muscle and nerve and supports the hypothesis that muscle is a source of signals that can either positively or negatively affect the nervous system. PMID:26648847

  2. Ligand dependent restoration of human TLR3 signaling and death in p53 mutant cells

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Daniel; Lowe, Julie M.; Snipe, Joyce; Resnick, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Diversity within the p53 transcriptional network can arise from a matrix of changes that include target response element sequences and p53 expression level variations. We previously found that wild type p53 (WT p53) can regulate expression of most innate immune-related Toll-like-receptor genes (TLRs) in human cells, thereby affecting immune responses. Since many tumor-associated p53 mutants exhibit change-of-spectrum transactivation from various p53 targets, we examined the ability of twenty-five p53 mutants to activate endogenous expression of the TLR gene family in p53 null human cancer cell lines following transfection with p53 mutant expression vectors. While many mutants retained the ability to drive TLR expression at WT levels, others exhibited null, limited, or change-of-spectrum transactivation of TLR genes. Using TLR3 signaling as a model, we show that some cancer-associated p53 mutants amplify cytokine, chemokine and apoptotic responses after stimulation by the cognate ligand poly(I:C). Furthermore, restoration of WT p53 activity for loss-of-function p53 mutants by the p53 reactivating drug RITA restored p53 regulation of TLR3 gene expression and enhanced DNA damage-induced apoptosis via TLR3 signaling. Overall, our findings have many implications for understanding the impact of WT and mutant p53 in immunological responses and cancer therapy. PMID:27533082

  3. Nuclear inheritance of erythromycin resistance in human cells: New class of mitochondrial protein synthesis mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Doersen, C.J.; Stanbridge, E.J.

    1982-06-01

    The characterization of two new erythromycin-resistant mutants of HeLa cells is described. The strains ERY2305 and ERY2309 both exhibited resistance to erythromycin in growth assays and cell-free mitochondrial protein synthesis assays. The erythromycin resistance phenotype could not be transferred by cybridization. The mutation appeared to be encoded in the nucleus and inherited as a recessive trait. These two mutants, therefore, represent a new class of erythromycin-resistant mutants in human cells that is distinct from the cytoplasmically inherited mutation in strain ERY2301 described previously.

  4. Folic acid protects motor neurons against the increased homocysteine, inflammation and apoptosis in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Sheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Le, Weidong

    2008-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by selective degeneration of motor neurons. Mutations in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) account for 20% cases of familial ALS (fALS), but the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are largely unknown. Using SOD1(G93A) mice model of ALS, we demonstrated that mutation in SOD1 caused a significant increase in the level of plasma homocysteine (Hcy). To investigate whether Hcy-lowering therapy is beneficial to this disease, we applied folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 which are important factors involved in the Hcy metabolism to assess the neuroprotective effect of FA and B12 in the SOD1(G93A) mice. Our results showed FA or FA+B12 treatment significantly delayed the disease onset and prolonged the lifespan, accompanied by the significant reduction of motor neuron loss. Furthermore, we found that FA or FA+B12 treatment significantly attenuated the plasma Hcy level, suppressed the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in spinal cord. Moreover, FA or FA+B12 treatment decreased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) but up-regulated the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, B12 treatment alone did not show any significant benefit to this disease. These results provide evidence to demonstrate that elevated Hcy is involved in the pathogenesis of fALS and FA therapy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of the disease.

  5. Screening of SOD1, FUS and TARDBP genes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in central-southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lihua; Jiao, Bin; Xiao, Tingting; Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Zhifan; Du, Juan; Yan, Xinxiang; Wang, Junling; Tang, Beisha; Shen, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain, brainstem and spinal cord. To date, mutations in more than 30 genes have been linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Among them, SOD1, FUS and TARDBP are ranked as the three most common genes associated with ALS. However, no mutation analysis has been reported in central-southern China. In this study, we sequenced SOD1, FUS and TARDBP in a central-southern Chinese cohort of 173 patients with ALS (15 familial ALS and 158 sporadic ALS) to detect mutations. As a result, five missense mutations in SOD1, namely, p.D101N, p.D101G, p.C111Y, p.N86S and p.V87A, were identified in three unrelated familial probands and three sporadic cases; two mutations in FUS were found in two unrelated familial probands, including an insertion mutation (p.P525_Y526insY) and a missense mutation (p.R521H); no variants of TARDBP were observed in patients. Therefore, SOD1 mutations were present in 20.0% of familial ALS patients and 1.9% of sporadic ALS patients, while FUS mutations were responsible for 13.3% of familial ALS cases, and TARDBP mutations were rare in either familial or sporadic ALS cases. This study broadens the known mutational spectrum in patients with ALS and further demonstrates the necessity for genetic screening in ALS patients from central-southern China. PMID:27604643

  6. Rosmarinic Acid Alleviates Neurological Symptoms in the G93A-SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Seon; Choi, Juli; Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in paralysis of voluntary skeletal muscles and eventually death, usually within 2~3 years of symptom onset. The pathophysiology mechanism underlying ALS is not yet clearly understood. Moreover the available medication for treating ALS, riluzole, only modestly improves neurological symptoms and increases survival by a few months. Therefore, improved therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated whether rosmarinic acid has a therapeutic potential to alleviate neurological deterioration in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS. Treatment of G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice with rosmarinic acid from 7 weeks of age at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day significantly extended survival, and relieved motor function deficits. Specifically, disease onset and symptom progression were delayed by more than one month. These symptomatic improvements were correlated with decreased oxidative stress and reduced neuronal loss in the ventral horns of G93A-SOD1 mice. These results support that rosmarinic acid is a potentially useful supplement for relieving ALS symptoms. PMID:26713081

  7. Association of CAT C-262T and SOD1 A251G single nucleotide polymorphisms susceptible to gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour, Shiva; Saadat, Iraj

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be one of the major factors involved in the development and progression of cancer. Oxidative stress can occur due to an imbalance between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacities. Catalase (CAT; OMIM 115500) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; OMIM 147450) play important roles in the primary defense against oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated possible associations between polymorphisms of CAT C-262T (rs1001179) and SOD1 A251G (rs2070424) with susceptibility to gastric cancer. This case-control study included 160 gastric cancer patients and 241 age and gender frequency-matched healthy controls. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP based method. There were no significant differences in T allele frequencies in patients as compared to the controls in the CAT C-262T polymorphism (OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.52- 1.23, P=0.304). Subjects with AG (OR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.91, P=0.026) or AG+GG (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.88, P=0.021) genotypes of the rs2070424 polymorphism were at lower risks of developing gastric cancer in comparison with the AA genotype. Our findings showed that there was no significant association between CAT C-262T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. However, we found that the G allele of the SOD1 A251G polymorphism has protective effects against the risk of gastric cancer.

  8. Collagen peptide and vitamin C additively attenuate age-related skin atrophy in Sod1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Toda, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Kenji; Tometsuka, Chisa; Ogura, Takayuki; Koyama, Yoh-ichi; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Age-related skin thinning is correlated with a decrease in the content of collagen in the skin. Accumulating evidence suggests that collagen peptide (CP) and vitamin C (VC) transcriptionally upregulate type I collagen in vivo. However, the additive effects of CP and VC on age-related skin changes remain unclear. We herein demonstrate that CP and a VC derivative additively corrected age-related skin thinning via reduced oxidative damage in superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1)-deficient mice. Co-treatment with these compounds significantly normalized the altered gene expression of Col1a1, Has2, and Ci1, a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter, in Sod1(-/-) skin. The in vitro analyses further revealed that collagen oligopeptide, a digestive product of ingested CP, significantly promoted the bioactivity of the VC derivative with respect to the migration and proliferation of Sod1(-/-) fibroblasts. These findings suggest that combined treatment with CP and VC is effective in cases of age-related skin pathology.

  9. Analysis of Serum Cytokines and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of SOD1, SOD2, and CAT in Erysipelas Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Irina E.; Aibatova, Gulnaz I.

    2017-01-01

    Increased free radical production had been documented in group A (β-hemolytic) streptococcus infection cases. Comparing 71 erysipelas patients to 55 age-matched healthy individuals, we sought for CAT, SOD1, and SOD2 single polymorphism mutation (SNPs) interactions with erysipelas' predisposition and serum cytokine levels in the acute and recovery phases of erysipelas infection. Whereas female patients had a higher predisposition to erysipelas, male patients were prone to having a facial localization of the infection. The presence of SOD1 G7958, SOD2 T2734, and CAT C262 alleles was linked to erysipelas' predisposition. T and C alleles of SOD2 T2734C individually were linked to patients with bullous and erythematous erysipelas, respectively. G and A alleles of SOD1 G7958A individually were associated with lower limbs and higher body part localizations of the infection, respectively. Serum levels of IL-1β, CCL11, IL-2Rα, CXCL9, TRAIL, PDGF-BB, and CCL4 were associated with symptoms accompanying the infection, while IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, G-CSF, and VEGF were associated with predisposition and recurrence of erysipelas. While variations of IL-1β, IL-7, IL-8, IL-17, CCL5, and HGF were associated with the SOD2 T2734C SNP, variations of PDFG-BB and CCL2 were associated with the CAT C262T SNP. PMID:28512644

  10. Measuring Neuromuscular Junction Functionality in the SOD1(G93A) Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rizzuto, Emanuele; Pisu, Simona; Musarò, Antonio; Del Prete, Zaccaria

    2015-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to motor neuron degeneration, alteration in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), muscle atrophy, and paralysis. To investigate the NMJ functionality in ALS we tested, in vitro, two innervated muscle types excised from SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice at the end-stage of the disease: the Soleus, a postural muscle almost completely paralyzed at that stage, and the diaphragm, which, on the contrary, is functional until death. To this aim we employed an experimental protocol that combined two types of electrical stimulation: the direct stimulation and the stimulation through the nerve. The technique we applied allowed us to determine the relevance of NMJ functionality separately from muscle contractile properties in SOD1(G93A) animal model. Functional measurements revealed that the muscle contractility of transgenic diaphragms is almost unaltered in comparison to control muscles, while transgenic Soleus muscles were severely compromised. In contrast, when stimulated via the nerve, both transgenic muscle types showed a strong decrease of the contraction force, a slowing down of the kinetic parameters, as well as alterations in the neurotransmission failure parameter. All together, these results confirm a severely impaired functionality in the SOD1(G93A) neuromuscular junctions.

  11. Golgi fragmentation precedes neuromuscular denervation and is associated with endosome abnormalities in SOD1-ALS mouse motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fragmentation of stacked cisterns of the Golgi apparatus into dispersed smaller elements is a feature associated with degeneration of neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and some other neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of Golgi fragmentation in motor neuron degeneration is not well understood. Results Here we use a SOD1-ALS mouse model (low-copy Gurney G93A-SOD1 mouse) to show that motor neurons with Golgi fragmentation are retrogradely labeled by intramuscularly injected CTB (beta subunit of cholera toxin), indicating that Golgi fragmentation precedes neuromuscular denervation and axon retraction. We further show that Golgi fragmentation may occur in the absence of and precede two other pathological markers, i.e. somatodendritic SOD1 inclusions, and the induction of ATF3 expression. In addition, we show that Golgi fragmentation is associated with an altered dendritic organization of the Golgi apparatus, does not depend on intact apoptotic machinery, and is facilitated in transgenic mice with impaired retrograde dynein-dependent transport (BICD2-N mice). A connection to altered dynein-dependent transport also is suggested by reduced expression of endosomal markers in neurons with Golgi fragmentation, which also occurs in neurons with impaired dynein function. Conclusions Together the data indicate that Golgi fragmentation is a very early event in the pathological cascade in ALS that is associated with altered organization of intracellular trafficking. PMID:24708899

  12. Vacuolization correlates with spin-spin relaxation time in motor brainstem nuclei and behavioural tests in the transgenic G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Selina; Braunstein, Kerstin E; Niessen, Heiko G; Kaulisch, Thomas; Neumaier, Michael; Boeckers, Tobias M; Stiller, Detlef; Ludolph, Albert C

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a preferred tool for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans. A widely used animal model for human ALS is the G93A-superoxide dismutase 1 (G93A-SOD1) transgenic mouse model. However, the mechanisms for the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord are still uncertain. In our study, we applied MRI at 4.7 Tesla to non-invasively evaluate pathological alterations in the brainstem of this animal model and to follow the progression of the disease. Extending previous investigation, we used the relaxation parameter T(2) as a suitable measure for the progression of ALS, and evaluated the potential agreement with histological evaluation and behavioural data of open-field tests. In the brainstem of G93A-SOD1 mice, T(2) values were significantly increased in the motor nuclei Nc. V, Nc. VII and Nc. XII, as early as Day 80, i.e. before the average disease onset at about Day 90. Moreover, this increase is associated with a progressive development of vacuoles in the brainstem motor nuclei and a significantly decreased performance in behavioural tests. Overall, MRI is a very sensitive tool to obtain correlates for neuronal degeneration in vivo. Furthermore, MRI enables us to investigate a follow up at different time points of the disease. These advantages are especially useful for therapeutic studies with respect to survival rates of motor neurons using mouse models. Finally, our data suggest that MRI does not only resemble the findings of behavioural tests, but is potentially superior to behavioural studies.

  13. Assembly, processing, and infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag mutants.

    PubMed

    Wang, C T; Barklis, E

    1993-07-01

    We studied the effects of gag mutations on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly, processing, and infectivity by using a replication-defective HIV expression system. HIV mutants were screened for infectivity by transduction of a selectable marker and were examined for assembly by monitoring particle release from transfected cells. Gag protein processing and reverse transcriptase activities of mutant particles were also assayed. Surprisingly, most Gag protein mutants were assembled and processed. The two exceptions to this rule were a myristylation-minus mutant, and one gag matrix domain mutant which expressed proteins that were trapped intracellularly. Interestingly, a mutant with a 56-amino-acid deletion within the HIV gag capsid domain still could assemble and process virus particles, exhibited a wild-type retrovirus particle density, and had wild-type reverse transcriptase activity. Indeed, although most HIV-1 gag mutants were noninfectious or poorly infectious, they produced apparently normal particles which possessed significant reverse transcriptase activities. These results strongly support the notion that the HIV-1 Gag proteins are functionally involved in post-assembly, postprocessing stages of virus infectivity.

  14. The effects of Brazilian green propolis that contains flavonols against mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase-mediated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tomoyuki; Inden, Masatoshi; Shirai, Katsuhiro; Sekine, Shin-Ichiro; Masaki, Yuji; Kurita, Hisaka; Ichihara, Kenji; Inuzuka, Takashi; Hozumi, Isao

    2017-06-06

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and progressive loss of motor neurons. The purpose of this study was to clarify effects of brazilian green propolis and the active ingredient against ALS-associated mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-mediated toxicity. Ethanol extract of brazilian green propolis (EBGP) protected N2a cells against mutant SOD1-induced neurotoxicity and reduced aggregated mutant SOD1 by induction of autophagy. Kaempferide and kaempferol, the active ingredients of EBGP, also inhibited mutant SOD1-induced cell death and reduced the intracellular mutant SOD1 aggregates. Both kaempferide and kaempferol significantly suppressed mutant SOD1-induced superoxide in mitochondria. Western blot analysis showed that kaempferol potentially induced autophagy via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) - the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. These results suggest that EBGP containing the active ingredient against mutant SOD1-mediated toxicity is a promising medicine or health food for prevention and treatment of ALS.

  15. Nitric oxide inhibits neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury via differential, cell-specific modulation of SOD-1 in the arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Bahnson, Edward S M; Koo, Nathaniel; Cantu-Medellin, Nadiezhda; Tsui, Aaron Y; Havelka, George E; Vercammen, Janet M; Jiang, Qun; Kelley, Eric E; Kibbe, Melina R

    2015-01-30

    Superoxide (O2(•-)) promotes neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Conversely, nitric oxide ((•)NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia through various cell-specific mechanisms, including redox regulation. What remains unclear is whether (•)NO exerts cell-specific regulation of the vascular redox environment following arterial injury to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether (•)NO exerts cell-specific, differential modulation of O2(•-) levels throughout the arterial wall, establish the mechanism of such modulation, and determine if it regulates (•)NO-dependent inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. In vivo, (•)NO increased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) levels following carotid artery balloon injury in a rat model. In vitro, (•)NO increased SOD-1 levels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), but had no effect on SOD-1 in endothelial cells or adventitial fibroblasts. This SOD-1 increase was associated with an increase in sod1 gene expression, increase in SOD-1 activity, and decrease in O2(•-) levels. Lastly, to determine the role of SOD-1 in (•)NO-mediated inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, we performed the femoral artery wire injury model in wild type and SOD-1 knockout (KO) mice, with and without (•)NO. Interestingly, (•)NO inhibited neointimal hyperplasia only in wild type mice, with no effect in SOD-1 KO mice. In conclusion, these data show the cell-specific modulation of O2(•-) by (•)NO through regulation of SOD-1 in the vasculature, highlighting its importance on the inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. These results also shed light into the mechanism of (•)NO-dependent redox balance, and suggest a novel VSMC redox target to prevent neointimal hyperplasia. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Nitric oxide inhibits neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury via differential, cell-specific modulation of SOD-1 in the arterial wall

    PubMed Central

    Bahnson, Edward S.M.; Koo, Nathaniel; Cantu-Medellin, Nadiezhda; Tsui, Aaron Y.; Havelka, George E.; Vercammen, Janet M.; Jiang, Qun; Kelley, Eric E.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide (O2•−) promotes neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Conversely, nitric oxide (•NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia through various cell-specific mechanisms, including redox regulation. What remains unclear is whether •NO exerts cell-specific regulation of the vascular redox environment following arterial injury to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether •NO exerts cell-specific, differential modulation of O2•− levels throughout the arterial wall, establish the mechanism of such modulation, and determine if it regulates •NO-dependent inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. In vivo, •NO increased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) levels following carotid artery balloon injury in a rat model. In vitro, •NO increased SOD-1 levels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), but had no effect on SOD-1 in endothelial cells or adventitial fibroblasts. This SOD-1 increase was associated with an increase in sod1 gene expression, increase in SOD-1 activity, and decrease in O2•− levels. Lastly, to determine the role of SOD-1 in •NO-mediated inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, we performed the femoral artery wire injury model in wild type and SOD-1 knockout (KO) mice, with and without •NO. Interestingly, •NO inhibited neointimal hyperplasia only in wild type mice, with no effect in SOD-1 KO mice. In conclusion, these data show the cell-specific modulation of O2•− by •NO through regulation of SOD-1 in the vasculature, highlighting its importance on the inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. These results also shed light into the mechanism of •NO-dependent redox balance, and suggest a novel VSMC redox target to prevent neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:25460325

  17. Curcumin binds to the pre-fibrillar aggregates of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and alters its amyloidogenic pathway resulting in reduced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nidhi K; Srivastava, Ankit; Katyal, Nidhi; Jain, Nidhi; Khan, M Ashhar I; Kundu, Bishwajit; Deep, Shashank

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons. Unfortunately, effective therapeutics against this disease is still not available. Almost 20% of familial ALS (fALS) is suggested to be associated with pathological deposition of superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Evidences suggest that SOD1-containing pathological inclusions in ALS exhibit amyloid like properties. An effective strategy to combat ALS may be to inhibit amyloid formation of SOD1 using small molecules. In the present study, we observed the fibrillation of one of the premature forms of SOD1 (SOD1 with reduced disulfide) in the presence of curcumin. Using ThT binding assay, AFM, TEM images and FTIR, we demonstrate that curcumin inhibits the DTT-induced fibrillation of SOD1 and favors the formation of smaller and disordered aggregates of SOD1. The enhancement in curcumin fluorescence on the addition of oligomers and pre-fibrillar aggregates of SOD1 suggests binding of these species to curcumin. Docking studies indicate that putative binding site of curcumin may be the amyloidogenic regions of SOD1. Further, there is a significant increase in SOD1 mediated toxicity in the regime of pre-fibrillar and fibrillar aggregates which is not evident in curcumin containing samples. All these data suggest that curcumin reduces toxicity by binding to the amyloidogenic regions of the species on the aggregation pathway and blocking the formation of the toxic species. Nanoparticles of curcumin with higher aqueous solubility show similar aggregation control as that of curcumin bulk. This suggests a potential role for curcumin in the treatment of ALS.

  18. Estrogen Receptor Mutants/Variants in Human Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Recherche Louis- Charles Simard, Montreal, Canada. Four nor- mal human breast tissues from reduction mammoplasties of pre- menopausal women were obtained...to hormone resistance. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 6208-17. 22. Karnik PS, Kulkarni S, Lui XP, Budd GT, Bukowski RM. Estrogen receptor mutations in

  19. Rapid Conversion of Mutant IDH1 from Driver to Passenger in a Model of Human Gliomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Tor-Christian Aase; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Viswanath, Pavithra; Ohba, Shigeo; Ronen, Sabrina M; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Pieper, Russell O

    2016-10-01

    Missense mutations in the active site of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) biologically and diagnostically distinguish low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas from primary glioblastomas. IDH1 mutations lead to the formation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) from the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), which in turn facilitates tumorigenesis by modifying DNA and histone methylation as well blocking differentiation processes. Although mutant IDH1 expression is thought to drive the gliomagenesis process, the extent to which it remains a viable therapeutic target remains unknown. To address this question, we exposed immortalized (p53/pRb deficient), untransformed human astrocytes to the mutant IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 prior to, concomitant with, or at intervals after, introduction of transforming mutant IDH1, then measured effects on 2-HG levels, histone methylation (H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, or H3K27me3), and growth in soft agar. Addition of AGI-5198 prior to, or concomitant with, introduction of mutant IDH1 blocked all mutant IDH1-driven changes, including cellular transformation. Addition at time intervals as short as 4 days following introduction of mutant IDH1 also suppressed 2-HG levels, but had minimal effects on histone methylation, and lost the ability to suppress clonogenicity in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, in two different models of mutant IDH1-driven gliomagenesis, AGI-5198 exposures that abolished production of 2-HG also failed to decrease histone methylation, adherent cell growth, or anchorage-independent growth in soft agar over a prolonged period. These studies show although mutant IDH1 expression drives gliomagenesis, mutant IDH1 itself rapidly converts from driver to passenger.

  20. Extra virgin olive oil intake delays the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with reduced reticulum stress and autophagy in muscle of SOD1G93A mice.

    PubMed

    Oliván, Sara; Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Calvo, Ana C; Surra, Joaquín C; Manzano, Raquel; Arnal, Carmen; Osta, Rosario; Osada, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase 1. Albeit there is no treatment for this disease, new insights related to an exacerbated lipid metabolism have been reported. In connection with the hypermetabolic lipid status, the hypothesis whether nature of dietary fat might delay the progression of the disease was tested by using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses the human SOD1G93A variant. For this purpose, SOD1G93A mice were assigned randomly to one of the following three experimental groups: (1) a standard chow diet (control, n=21), (2) a chow diet enriched with 20% (w/w) extra virgin olive oil (EVOO, n=22) and (3) a chow diet containing 20% palm oil (palm, n=20). They received the diets for 8 weeks and the progression of the disease was assessed. On the standard chow diet, average plasma cholesterol levels were lower than those mice receiving the high-fat diets. Mice fed an EVOO diet showed a significant higher survival and better motor performance than control mice. EVOO group mice survived longer and showed better motor performance and larger muscle fiber area than animals receiving palm. Moreover, the EVOO-enriched diet improved the muscle status as shown by expression of myogenic factors (Myod1 and Myog) and autophagy markers (LC3 and Beclin1), as well as diminished endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through decreasing Atf6 and Grp78. Our results demonstrate that EVOO may be effective in increasing survival rate, improving motor coordination together with a potential amelioration of ER stress, autophagy and muscle damage.

  1. Temperature sensitivity of human wild-type and mutant p53 proteins expressed in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ponchel, F.; Milner, J.

    1998-01-01

    p53 is activated in response to DNA damage and functions in the maintenance of genetic integrity. Loss of p53 function because of mutation of the p53 gene is associated with over half all human cancers. Certain human p53 mutants are conformationally flexible in vitro and are temperature sensitive, with partial or complete recovery of wild-type (wt) properties at 32 degrees C. We have now tested the functional capacities of selected p53 mutants in vivo, by transfection into established human cell lines. Unexpectedly, we found that wt p53 can be temperature sensitive for transactivation of a co-transfected target gene in vivo. Flexible mutants retained varying degrees of functional capacity in transfected cells, and the recipient cell line appeared to be a significant determinant of both wt and mutant p53 function; importantly, two p53 null cell lines commonly used to study p53 function (Saos-2 and Hep3B) differed markedly in this latter respect. We also show that the p53 mutant V272M, which exhibits sequence-specific DNA binding in vitro, is nonetheless defective for transactivation and is unable to induce apoptosis in vivo. The valine 272 residue may thus be crucial for properties (other than sequence-specific DNA binding) that are important for p53 function(s) in vivo. Images Figure 4 PMID:9635828

  2. Oncogenic nature of a novel mutant AATF and its interactome existing within human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shaveta; Kaul, Deepak; Arora, Mansi; Malik, Deepti

    2015-03-01

    Since apoptosis presents a natural defense in cancer development, the anti-apoptotic factor AATF/Che-1 has emerged as a crucial 'Epigenomic-Switch'. We have tried to understand the double-edged nature of AATF, showing for the first time the conspicuous existence of an aberrant AATF/Che-1 transcriptome encoding for 23 kDa mutant AATF protein, which evolves its unique interactome within human cancer cells derived from different tissue origins. This mutant AATF along with its interactome consisting of SP1, DNMT3B and Par-4 ensures cancer cell DNA methylation required for down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes. Hence, the proposed mutant AATF interactome-based pathway can have the inherent ability to ensure human cells become and remain cancerous.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of the Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) agonist PRE-084, in a mouse model of motor neuron disease not linked to SOD1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Peviani, Marco; Salvaneschi, Eleonora; Bontempi, Leonardo; Petese, Alessandro; Manzo, Antonio; Rossi, Daniela; Salmona, Mario; Collina, Simona; Bigini, Paolo; Curti, Daniela

    2014-02-01

    The identification of novel molecular targets crucially involved in motor neuron degeneration/survival is a necessary step for the development of hopefully more effective therapeutic strategies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. In this view, S1R, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident receptor with chaperone-like activity, has recently attracted great interest. S1R is involved in several processes leading to acute and chronic neurodegeneration, including ALS pathology. Treatment with the S1R agonist PRE-084 improves locomotor function and motor neuron survival in presymptomatic and early symptomatic mutant SOD1-G93A ALS mice. Here, we tested the efficacy of PRE-084 in a model of spontaneous motor neuron degeneration, the wobbler mouse (wr) as a proof of concept that S1R may be regarded as a key therapeutic target also for ALS cases not linked to SOD1 mutation. Increased staining for S1R was detectable in morphologically spared cervical spinal cord motor neurons of wr mice both at early (6th week) and late (12th week) phases of clinical progression. S1R signal was also detectable in hypertrophic astrocytes and reactive microglia of wr mice. Chronic treatment with PRE-084 (three times a week, for 8weeks), starting at symptom onset, significantly increased the levels of BDNF in the gray matter, improved motor neuron survival and ameliorated paw abnormality and grip strength performance. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced the number of reactive astrocytes whereas, that of CD11b+ microglial cells was increased. A deeper evaluation of microglial markers revealed significant increased number of cells positive for the pan-macrophage marker CD68 and of CD206+ cells, involved in tissue restoration, in the white matter of PRE-084-treated mice. The mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were not affected by PRE-084 treatment. Thus, our results support pharmacological manipulation of S1R as a promising strategy to cure ALS and point to increased

  4. Analysis of SOD1 mutations in a Chinese population with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case-control study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, QianQian; Zhou, QingQing; Chen, YongPing; Ou, RuWei; Cao, Bei; Xu, YaQian; Yang, Jing; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Although the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene has been identified in both familial ALS (FALS) and sporadic ALS (SALS), it has rarely been studied in Chinese patients with ALS, and there are few studies with large samples. This study sought to assess the prevalence of SOD1 mutations in Chinese ALS patients. We screened a cohort of 499 ALS patients (487 SALS and 12 FALS) from the Department of Neurology at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University and analyzed all coding exons of SOD1 by Sanger sequencing. In addition, we reviewed the mutation frequencies of common ALS causative genes in Chinese populations. Eight missense mutations in SOD1 were found in 8 ALS individuals: two novel mutations (p.G73D and p.V120F) and six previously reported mutations. The frequencies of SOD1 mutations were 1.03% (5/487) in SALS and 25% (3/12) in FALS from Southwest China. A literature review indicated that the mutation rates of major ALS causative genes were 53.55% in FALS and 6.29% in SALS. In Chinese SALS and FALS, the highest mutation frequency was in the SOD1 gene. Our results suggest that SOD1 mutation is the most common cause of ALS in Chinese populations and that the mutation spectrum of ALS varies among different ethnic populations. PMID:28291249

  5. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B ameliorates skeletal muscle lesions in a SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Ono, Yoko; Noda, Yasuhiro; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen; Hara, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons and subsequent muscular atrophy. The quality of life of patients with ALS is significantly improved by ameliorating muscular symptoms. We previously reported that glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB; osteoactivin) might serve as a target for ALS therapy. In the present study, superoxide dismutase 1/glycine residue 93 changed to alanine (SOD1(G93A) ) transgenic mice were used as a model of ALS. Expression of the C-terminal fragment of GPNMB was increased in the skeletal muscles of SOD1(G93A) mice and patients with sporadic ALS. SOD1(G93A) /GPNMB transgenic mice were generated to determine whether GPNMB expression ameliorates muscular symptoms. The weight and cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle, number and cross-sectional area of myofibers, and denervation of neuromuscular junctions were ameliorated in SOD1(G93A) /GPNMB vs. SOD1(G93A) mice. Furthermore, direct injection of a GPNMB expression plasmid into the gastrocnemius muscle of SOD1(G93A) mice increased the numbers of myofibers and prevented myofiber atrophy. These findings suggest that GPNMB directly affects skeletal muscle and prevents muscular pathology in SOD1(G93A) mice and may therefore serve as a target for therapy of ALS.

  6. Pericytes Extend Survival of ALS SOD1 Mice and Induce the Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Murine Model and in IPSCs Derived Neuronal Cells from an ALS Patient.

    PubMed

    Coatti, Giuliana Castello; Frangini, Miriam; Valadares, Marcos C; Gomes, Juliana Plat; Lima, Natalia O; Cavaçana, Natale; Assoni, Amanda F; Pelatti, Mayra V; Birbrair, Alexander; de Lima, Antonio Carlos Pedroso; Singer, Julio M; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo M; Da Silva, Giovani Loiola; Mantovani, Mario Sergio; Macedo-Souza, Lucia Inês; Ferrari, Merari F R; Zatz, Mayana

    2017-07-14

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease causing a progressive, rapid and irreversible degeneration of motor neurons in the cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. No effective treatment is available and cell therapy clinical trials are currently being tested in ALS affected patients. It is well known that in ALS patients, approximately 50% of pericytes from the spinal cord barrier are lost. In the central nervous system, pericytes act in the formation and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, a natural defense that slows the progression of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we evaluated, for the first time, the therapeutic effect of human pericytes in vivo in SOD1 mice and in vitro in motor neurons and other neuronal cells derived from one ALS patient. Pericytes and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were derived from the same adipose tissue sample and were administered to SOD1 mice intraperitoneally. The effect of the two treatments was compared. Treatment with pericytes extended significantly animals survival in SOD1 males, but not in females that usually have a milder phenotype with higher survival rates. No significant differences were observed in the survival of mice treated with MSCs. Gene expression analysis in brain and spinal cord of end-stage animals showed that treatment with pericytes can stimulate the host antioxidant system. Additionally, pericytes induced the expression of SOD1 and CAT in motor neurons and other neuronal cells derived from one ALS patient carrying a mutation in FUS. Overall, treatment with pericytes was more effective than treatment with MSCs. Our results encourage further investigations and suggest that pericytes may be a good option for ALS treatment in the future. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Susceptibility to Ulcerative Colitis and Genetic Polymorphisms of A251G SOD1 and C-262T CAT

    PubMed Central

    El-Kheshen, Gadier; Moeini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Reactive oxygen species can attack and damage almost every molecule found in living cells, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and DNA. For this reason, their production is normally tightly controlled. Among the most important defenses against these radicals are the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and catalase (CAT). Increasing attention has been given to the role of reactive oxygen metabolites in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), which is defined as an idiopathic and chronic intestinal inflammation. Accordingly, we hypothesized a relation between genetic polymorphisms in the two antioxidant enzymes SOD1 A251G (rs2070424) and CAT C-262T (rs1001179) and the risk of UC. Methods The present case-control study included 109 UC patients (46 males and 50 females) and 186 (67 males and 119 females) gender-matched healthy controls. Genotyping was done by the PCR-RFLP method. Results After adjusting for age and gender, a significant association was observed between the AG+GG genotypes of SOD1 A251G polymorphism (vs. AA genotype) and risk of UC (OR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.10–0.86, P= 0.025) after adjusting for age and gender. Our statistical analysis revealed that the CAT C-262T polymorphism did not associate with the risk of UC before and/or after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusions Based on the present statistical analysis, the G allele of the SOD1 A251G polymorphism decreases the risk of UC, thus it might be assumed that the G allele has a protective role.

  8. An autopsy case of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with the I113T SOD1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seika; Wate, Reika; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ito, Hidefumi; Oki, Mitsuaki; Tsuge, Ayako; Nagashima, Masato; Asayama, Shinya; Fujita, Kengo; Nakamura, Masataka; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2014-02-01

    A 64-year-old man noticed weakness in his arms and dyspnea upon exertion. Four months later he was admitted to our hospital, where muscle atrophy and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes in the arms were observed upon examination. A needle electromyograph study revealed acute and chronic denervation in the extremities, and he was diagnosed as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Seven months after onset of the disease, he died of respiratory failure. Neuropathologically, neuronal cell loss was observed in the motor cortex, hypoglossal nuclei, cervical and lumbar anterior horns and Clarke's nuclei. Some of the remaining neurons contained neurofilamentous conglomerate inclusions (CIs). A small number of Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions (LBHIs) were also observed. No the Bunina bodies, skein-like inclusions or basophilic inclusions were detectable. Tract degeneration was moderate in the dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts, mild in the pyramidal tract, but not discerned in the posterior column. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the CIs were strongly positive for phosphorylated neurofilament and moderately positive for ubiquitin and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Moreover, a number of phosphorylated tau protein-positive globose neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and threads were observed in the periaqueductal gray matter, oculomotor nuclei and trochlear nuclei. Although the family history was negative for neuromuscular diseases, the neuropathological findings indicated features of familial ALS with a SOD1 mutation. In fact, DNA analysis of frozen-brain tissue revealed the presence of the I113T SOD1 mutation. This case represents the first one of this mutation in a patient who showed CIs as well as LBHIs in the motor neurons at the same time, in addition to the NFTs in the mesencephalic tegmentum. © 2013 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  9. Association of CAT C-262T and SOD1 A251G single nucleotide polymorphisms susceptible to gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimpour, Shiva; Saadat, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be one of the major factors involved in the development and progression of cancer. Oxidative stress can occur due to an imbalance between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacities. Catalase (CAT; OMIM 115500) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; OMIM 147450) play important roles in the primary defense against oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated possible associations between polymorphisms of CAT C-262T (rs1001179) and SOD1 A251G (rs2070424) with susceptibility to gastric cancer. This case-control study included 160 gastric cancer patients and 241 age and gender frequency-matched healthy controls. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP based method. There were no significant differences in T allele frequencies in patients as compared to the controls in the CAT C-262T polymorphism (OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.52- 1.23, P=0.304). Subjects with AG (OR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.91, P=0.026) or AG+GG (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.88, P=0.021) genotypes of the rs2070424 polymorphism were at lower risks of developing gastric cancer in comparison with the AA genotype. Our findings showed that there was no significant association between CAT C-262T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. However, we found that the G allele of the SOD1 A251G polymorphism has protective effects against the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:27843986

  10. Seeking homeostasis: temporal trends in respiration, oxidation, and calcium in SOD1 G93A Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis mice

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Cameron W.; Kim, Renaid B.; Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in mitochondria, oxidative regulation, and calcium homeostasis have been well documented in numerous Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) experimental models, especially in the superoxide dismutase 1 glycine 93 to alanine (SOD1 G93A) transgenic mouse. However, the timing of these deficiencies has been debatable. In a systematic review of 45 articles, we examine experimental measurements of cellular respiration, mitochondrial mechanisms, oxidative markers, and calcium regulation. We evaluate the quantitative magnitude and statistical temporal trend of these aggregated assessments in high transgene copy SOD1 G93A mice compared to wild type mice. Analysis of overall trends reveals cellular respiration, intracellular adenosine triphosphate, and corresponding mitochondrial elements (Cox, cytochrome c, complex I, enzyme activity) are depressed for the entire lifespan of the SOD1 G93A mouse. Oxidant markers (H2O2, 8OH2′dG, MDA) are initially similar to wild type but are double that of wild type by the time of symptom onset despite early post-natal elevation of protective heat shock proteins. All aspects of calcium regulation show early disturbances, although a notable and likely compensatory convergence to near wild type levels appears to occur between 40 and 80 days (pre-onset), followed by a post-onset elevation in intracellular calcium. The identified temporal trends and compensatory fluctuations provide evidence that the “cause” of ALS may lay within failed homeostatic regulation, itself, rather than any one particular perturbing event or cellular mechanism. We discuss the vulnerabilities of motoneurons to regulatory instability and possible hypotheses regarding failed regulation and its potential treatment in ALS. PMID:26190973

  11. Aggregation of mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase proteins in a culture model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Durham, H D; Roy, J; Dong, L; Figlewicz, D A

    1997-05-01

    Mutations in the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) gene underlie some familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of mutant enzyme, SOD-1 cDNAs bearing mutations found in FALS patients (mSOD) were expressed in cultured spinal motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampal neurons. Many features of motor neuron disease seen in humans with FALS and in transgenic mouse models were reproduced, including preferential susceptibility of motor neurons to toxicity of mSOD. Abnormal cytoplasmic aggregation of mSOD protein was observed in mSOD-expressing motor neurons, but never in neurons expressing SODwt enzyme, and was followed by evidence of apoptotic cell death. Such aggregates were not observed in nonvulnerable neuronal populations expressing mSOD (DRG or hippocampal neurons). Aggregation of SOD-1 may contribute significantly to the death of motor neurons expressing mutations associated with FALS-1 and the mechanisms leading to aggregation may pertain to the specific vulnerability of motor neurons in this disease.

  12. Identification of the isomer of methionine sulfoximine that extends the lifespan of the SOD1 G93A mouse.

    PubMed

    Brusilow, William S A

    2017-04-24

    In previous studies methionine sulfoximine (MSO) significantly extended the lifespan of the SOD1 G93A mouse model for ALS. Those studies used commercially available MSO, which is a racemic mixture of the LS and LR diastereomers, leaving unanswered the question of which isomer was responsible for the therapeutic effects. In this study we tested both purified isomers and showed that the LS isomer, a well-characterized inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, extends the lifespan of these mice, but the LR isomer, which has no known activity, does not.

  13. PACAP signaling exerts opposing effects on neuroprotection and neuroinflammation during disease progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Ringer, Cornelia; Büning, Luisa-Sybille; Schäfer, Martin K.H.; Eiden, Lee E.; Weihe, Eberhard; Schütz, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic peptide with autocrine neuroprotective and paracrine anti-inflammatory properties in various models of acute neuronal damage and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we examined a possible beneficial role of endogenous PACAP in the superoxide dismutase 1, SOD1(G93A), mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a lethal neurodegenerative disease particularly affecting somatomotor neurons. In wild-type mice, somatomotor and visceromotor neurons in brain stem and spinal cord were found to express the PACAP specific receptor PAC1, but only visceromotor neurons expressed PACAP as a potential autocrine source of regulation of these receptors. In SOD1(G93A) mice, only a small subset of the surviving somatomotor neurons showed induction of PACAP mRNA, and somatomotor neuron degeneration was unchanged in PACAP-deficient SOD1(G93A) mice. Pre-ganglionic sympathetic visceromotor neurons were found to be resistant in SOD1(G93A) mice, while pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons degenerated during ALS disease progression in this mouse model. PACAP-deficient SOD1(G93A) mice showed even greater pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neuron loss compared to SOD1(G93A) mice, and additional degeneration of pre-ganglionic sympathetic neurons. Thus, constitutive expression of PACAP and PAC1 may confer neuroprotection to central visceromotor neurons in SOD1(G93A) mice via autocrine pathways. Regarding the progression of neuroinflammation, the switch from amoeboid to hypertrophic microglial phenotype observed in SOD1(G93A) mice was absent in PACAP-deficient SOD1(G93A) mice. Thus, endogenous PACAP may promote microglial cytodestructive functions thought to drive ALS disease progression. This hypothesis was consistent with prolongation of life expectancy and preserved tongue motor function in PACAP-deficient SOD1(G93A) mice, compared to SOD1(G93A) mice. Given the protective role of PACAP expression in

  14. Consequences of zygote injection and germline transfer of mutant human mitochondrial DNA in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D; Chou, Tsung-Han; Porciatti, Vittorio; Mehta, Arpit; Hentall, Ian D; Chiodo, Vince A; Boye, Sanford L; Hauswirth, William W; Lewin, Alfred S; Guy, John

    2015-10-20

    Considerable evidence supports mutations in mitochondrial genes as the cause of maternally inherited diseases affecting tissues that rely primarily on oxidative energy metabolism, usually the nervous system, the heart, and skeletal muscles. Mitochondrial diseases are diverse, and animal models currently are limited. Here we introduced a mutant human mitochondrial gene responsible for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) into the mouse germ line using fluorescence imaging for tissue-specific enrichment in the target retinal ganglion cells. A mitochondria-targeted adeno-associated virus (MTS-AAV) containing the mutant human NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene followed by mitochondrial-encoded mCherry was microinjected into zygotes. Female founders with mCherry fluorescence on ophthalmoscopy were backcrossed with normal males for eight generations. Mutant human ND4 DNA was 20% of mouse ND4 and did not integrate into the host genome. Translated human ND4 protein assembled into host respiratory complexes, decreasing respiratory chain function and increasing oxidative stress. Swelling of the optic nerve head was followed by progressive demise of ganglion cells and their axons, the hallmarks of human LHON. Early visual loss that began at 3 mo and progressed to blindness 8 mo after birth was reversed by intraocular injection of MTS-AAV expressing wild-type human ND4. The technology of introducing human mitochondrial genes into the mouse germ line has never been described, to our knowledge, and has implications not only for creating animal models recapitulating the counterpart human disorder but more importantly for reversing the adverse effects of the mutant gene using gene therapy to deliver the wild-type allele.

  15. Consequences of zygote injection and germline transfer of mutant human mitochondrial DNA in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D.; Chou, Tsung-Han; Porciatti, Vittorio; Mehta, Arpit; Hentall, Ian D.; Chiodo, Vince A.; Boye, Sanford L.; Hauswirth, William W.; Lewin, Alfred S.; Guy, John

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports mutations in mitochondrial genes as the cause of maternally inherited diseases affecting tissues that rely primarily on oxidative energy metabolism, usually the nervous system, the heart, and skeletal muscles. Mitochondrial diseases are diverse, and animal models currently are limited. Here we introduced a mutant human mitochondrial gene responsible for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) into the mouse germ line using fluorescence imaging for tissue-specific enrichment in the target retinal ganglion cells. A mitochondria-targeted adeno-associated virus (MTS-AAV) containing the mutant human NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene followed by mitochondrial-encoded mCherry was microinjected into zygotes. Female founders with mCherry fluorescence on ophthalmoscopy were backcrossed with normal males for eight generations. Mutant human ND4 DNA was 20% of mouse ND4 and did not integrate into the host genome. Translated human ND4 protein assembled into host respiratory complexes, decreasing respiratory chain function and increasing oxidative stress. Swelling of the optic nerve head was followed by progressive demise of ganglion cells and their axons, the hallmarks of human LHON. Early visual loss that began at 3 mo and progressed to blindness 8 mo after birth was reversed by intraocular injection of MTS-AAV expressing wild-type human ND4. The technology of introducing human mitochondrial genes into the mouse germ line has never been described, to our knowledge, and has implications not only for creating animal models recapitulating the counterpart human disorder but more importantly for reversing the adverse effects of the mutant gene using gene therapy to deliver the wild-type allele. PMID:26438859

  16. Characterization of a mutant Bacillus subtilis adenylosuccinate lyase equivalent to a mutant enzyme found in human adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency: asparagine 276 plays an important structural role.

    PubMed

    Palenchar, Jennifer Brosius; Colman, Roberta F

    2003-02-25

    Adenylosuccinate lyase, an enzyme catalyzing two reactions in purine biosynthesis (the cleavage of either adenylosuccinate or succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide), has been implicated in a human disease arising from point mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme. Asn(276) of Bacillus subtilis adenylosuccinate lyase, a residue corresponding to the location of a human enzyme mutation, was replaced by Cys, Ser, Ala, Arg, and Glu. The mutant enzymes exhibit decreased V(max) values (2-400-fold lower) for both substrates compared to the wild-type enzyme and some changes in the pH dependence of V(max) but no loss in affinity for adenylosuccinate. Circular dichroism reveals no difference in secondary structure between the wild-type and mutant enzymes. We show here for the first time that wild-type adenylosuccinate lyase exhibits a protein concentration dependence of molecular weight, secondary structure, and specific activity. An equilibrium constant between the dimer and tetramer was measured by light scattering for the wild-type and mutant enzymes. The equilibrium is somewhat shifted toward the tetramer in the mutant enzymes. The major difference between the wild-type and mutant enzymes appears to be in quaternary structure, with many mutant enzymes exhibiting marked thermal instability relative to the wild-type enzyme. We propose that mutations at position 276 result in structurally impaired adenylosuccinate lyases which are assembled into defective tetramers.

  17. Mutant TDP-43 does not impair mitochondrial bioenergetics in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Peixoto, Pablo; Konrad, Csaba; Palomo, Gloria; Bredvik, Kirsten; Gerges, Meri; Valsecchi, Federica; Petrucelli, Leonard; Ravits, John M; Starkov, Anatoly; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2017-05-08

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Functional studies of mitochondrial bioenergetics have focused mostly on superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutants, and showed that mutant human SOD1 impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, calcium homeostasis, and dynamics. However, recent reports have indicated that alterations in transactivation response element DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) can also lead to defects of mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. Furthermore, it was proposed that TDP-43 mutations cause oxidative phosphorylation impairment associated with respiratory chain defects and that these effects were caused by mitochondrial localization of the mutant protein. Here, we investigated the presence of bioenergetic defects in the brain of transgenic mice expressing human mutant TDP-43 (TDP-43(A315T) mice), patient derived fibroblasts, and human cells expressing mutant forms of TDP-43. In the brain of TDP-43(A315T) mice, TDP-43 mutant fibroblasts, and cells expressing mutant TDP-43, we tested several bioenergetics parameters, including mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, and calcium handling. Differences between mutant and control samples were evaluated by student t-test or by ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni correction, when more than two groups were compared. Mitochondrial localization of TDP-43 was investigated by immunocytochemistry in fibroblasts and by subcellular fractionation and western blot of mitochondrial fractions in mouse brain. We did not observe defects in any of the mitochondrial bioenergetic functions that were tested in TDP-43 mutants. We detected a small amount of TDP-43(A315T) peripherally associated with brain mitochondria. However, there was no correlation between TDP-43 associated with mitochondria and respiratory chain dysfunction. In addition, we observed increased calcium uptake in mitochondria from TDP-43(A315T) mouse

  18. orco mutant mosquitoes lose strong preference for humans and are not repelled by volatile DEET

    PubMed Central

    DeGennaro, Matthew; McBride, Carolyn S.; Seeholzer, Laura; Nakagawa, Takao; Dennis, Emily J.; Goldman, Chloe; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Female mosquitoes of some species are generalists and will blood-feed on a variety of vertebrate hosts, whereas others display marked host preference. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti have evolved a strong preference for humans, making them dangerously efficient vectors of malaria and Dengue haemorrhagic fever1. Specific host odours likely drive this strong preference since other attractive cues, including body heat and exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) are common to all warm-blooded hosts2, 3. Insects sense odours via several chemosensory receptor families, including the odorant receptors (ORs). ORs are membrane proteins that form heteromeric odour-gated ion channels4, 5 comprised of a variable ligand-selective subunit and an obligate co-receptor called Orco6. Here we use zinc-finger nucleases to generate targeted mutations in the Ae. aegypti orco gene to examine the contribution of Orco and the OR pathway to mosquito host selection and sensitivity to the insect repellent DEET. orco mutant olfactory sensory neurons have greatly reduced spontaneous activity and lack odour-evoked responses. Behaviourally, orco mutant mosquitoes have severely reduced attraction to honey, an odour cue related to floral nectar, and do not respond to human scent in the absence of CO2. However, in the presence of CO2, female orco mutant mosquitoes retain strong attraction to both human and animal hosts, but no longer strongly prefer humans. orco mutant females are attracted to human hosts even in the presence of DEET, but are repelled upon contact, indicating that olfactory- and contact-mediated effects of DEET are mechanistically distinct. We conclude that the OR pathway is crucial for an anthropophilic vector mosquito to discriminate human from non-human hosts and to be effectively repelled by volatile DEET. PMID:23719379

  19. A human brain tumor-derived PDGFR-alpha deletion mutant is transforming.

    PubMed

    Clarke, I D; Dirks, P B

    2003-02-06

    Aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase signaling plays an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of brain tumors. We have been studying a previously identified human glioblastoma-derived PDGFR-alpha mutant that has an in-frame deletion in the extracellular domain, causing loss of exons 8 and 9 (PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9)). In the primary tumor, this deletion mutant receptor was shown to be amplified and overexpressed. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression, activity, localization, and transformation properties of this deletion mutant. In the absence of serum, or PDGF-AA, PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9) was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, indicating ligand-independent autoactivation. Localization by staining and cell surface biotinylation studies revealed expression of the deletion mutant predominantly in the cytoplasm, with very little present on the cell surface. To determine if PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9) was oncogenic, we transfected wild-type and mutant receptors into Rat1 cells and performed analyses of cell growth, in vitro transformation, and subcutaneous growth in the nude mouse. PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9)-expressing cells displayed enhanced cell growth and survival in low serum, and formed foci in monolayer cultures. PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9)-expressing Rat1 cells were also tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Expression of PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9) was also associated with increased c-Jun phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF ligand, demonstrating also that the mutant receptor is associated with altered intracellular signaling. These data demonstrate that PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9) is transforming, and it is the first demonstration of a naturally occurring tumor-derived mutant PDGFR-alpha with oncogenic properties.

  20. Mice Expressing Mutant Trpv4 Recapitulate the Human TRPV4 Disorders††

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuqing; Lee, Brendan; Cohn, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations in TRPV4 are known to cause a spectrum of skeletal dysplasias ranging from autosomal dominant brachyolmia to lethal metatropic dysplasia. To develop an animal model of these disorders, we created transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or mutant TRPV4. Mice transgenic for wild-type Trpv4 showed no morphological changes at embryonic day 16.5, but did have a delay in bone mineralization. Overexpression of a mutant TRPV4 caused a lethal skeletal dysplasia that phenocopied many abnormalities associated with metatropic dysplasia in humans, including dumbbell-shaped long bones, a small ribcage, abnormalities in the autopod, and abnormal ossification in the vertebrae. The difference in phenotype between embryos transgenic for wild-type or mutant Trpv4 demonstrates that an increased amount of wild-type protein can be tolerated and that an activating mutation of this protein is required to produce a skeletal dysplasia phenotype. PMID:24644033

  1. Time-Point Dependent Activation of Autophagy and the UPS in SOD1G93A Mice Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Gasco, Samanta; Muñoz, María Jesús; Zaragoza, Pilar; Osta, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons together with a progressive muscle weakness. Albeit the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease remain unknown, growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle can be a target of ALS toxicity. In particular, the two main intracellular degradation mechanisms, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome degradative system (UPS) have been poorly studied in this tissue. In this study we investigated the activation of autophagy and the UPS as well as apoptosis in the skeletal muscle from SOD1G93A mice along disease progression. Our results showed a significant upregulation of proteasome activity at early symptomatic stage, while the autophagy activation was found at presymptomatic and terminal stages. The mRNA upregulated levels of LC3, p62, Beclin1, Atg5 and E2f1 were only observed at symptomatic and terminal stages, which reinforced the time-point activation of autophagy. Furthermore, no apoptosis activation was observed along disease progression. The combined data provided clear evidence for the first time that there is a time-point dependent activation of autophagy and UPS in the skeletal muscle from SOD1G93A mice.

  2. Time-Point Dependent Activation of Autophagy and the UPS in SOD1G93A Mice Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Gasco, Samanta; Muñoz, María Jesús; Zaragoza, Pilar; Osta, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons together with a progressive muscle weakness. Albeit the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease remain unknown, growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle can be a target of ALS toxicity. In particular, the two main intracellular degradation mechanisms, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome degradative system (UPS) have been poorly studied in this tissue. In this study we investigated the activation of autophagy and the UPS as well as apoptosis in the skeletal muscle from SOD1G93A mice along disease progression. Our results showed a significant upregulation of proteasome activity at early symptomatic stage, while the autophagy activation was found at presymptomatic and terminal stages. The mRNA upregulated levels of LC3, p62, Beclin1, Atg5 and E2f1 were only observed at symptomatic and terminal stages, which reinforced the time-point activation of autophagy. Furthermore, no apoptosis activation was observed along disease progression. The combined data provided clear evidence for the first time that there is a time-point dependent activation of autophagy and UPS in the skeletal muscle from SOD1G93A mice. PMID:26244336

  3. Reticulon-4A (Nogo-A) redistributes protein disulfide isomerase to protect mice from SOD1-dependent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yvonne S.; Harel, Noam Y.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease inherited in a small subset of patients. The SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse models this subset of patients, and studies of this strain have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and deficits in ER chaperone function are contributors to ALS pathophysiology. Here, we demonstrate that the reticulon family of proteins is a novel regulator of the ER chaperone protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and that through PDI, reticulon-4A (Nogo-A) can protect mice against the neurodegeneration that characterizes ALS. We show that overexpressing reticulon protein induces a punctate redistribution of PDI intracellularly, both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, reduction of endogenous NogoA expression causes a more homogeneous expression pattern in vivo. These effects occur without induction of the unfolded protein response. To examine the effect of PDI redistribution on ALS disease progression, we conducted survival and behavior studies of SOD1(G93A) mice. Deletion of a single copy of the NogoA,B gene accelerates disease onset and progression, while deletion of both copies further worsens disease. We conclude that NogoA contributes to the proper function of the ER resident chaperone PDI, and is protective against ALS-like neurodegeneration. Our results provide a novel intracellular role for reticulon proteins and support the hypothesis that modulation of PDI function is a potential therapeutic approach to ALS. PMID:19889996

  4. Activation of AMPK attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury by upregulation of PGC1α and SOD1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guizuo; Song, Yang; Feng, Wei; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Yanting; Xie, Xinming; Pan, Yilin; Ke, Rui; Li, Shaojun; Li, Fangwei; Yang, Lan; Li, Manxiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that an imbalance between oxidation and antioxidation is involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to inhibit the occurrence of ALI/ARDS. However, it is unknown whether activation of AMPK benefits ALI/ARDS by restoration of the oxidant and antioxidant balance, and which mechanisms are responsible for this process. The present study aimed to address these issues. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pronounced pathological changes of ALI in mice; these were accompanied by elevated production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with control mice. Prior treatment of mice with the AMPK agonist metformin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced development of ALI, reduced the elevation of MDA and increased the activity of SOD. Further analysis indicated that activation of AMPK also stimulated the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This study suggests that activation of AMPK by metformin inhibits oxidative stress by upregulation of PGC1α and SOD1, thereby suppressing the development of ALI/ARDS, and has potential value in the clinical treatment of such conditions. PMID:27602077

  5. Expression and In Vivo Rescue of Human ABCC6 Disease-Causing Mutants in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, Olivier; Fülöp, Krisztina; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Iliás, Attila; Szabó, Zalán; Brampton, Christopher N.; Pomozi, Viola; Huszár, Krisztina; Arányi, Tamás; Váradi, András

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in ABCC6 can cause chronic or acute forms of dystrophic mineralization described in disease models such as pseudoxanthoma elasticum (OMIM 26480) in human and dystrophic cardiac calcification in mice. The ABCC6 protein is a large membrane-embedded organic anion transporter primarily found in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. We have established a complex experimental strategy to determine the structural and functional consequences of disease-causing mutations in the human ABCC6. The major aim of our study was to identify mutants with preserved transport activity but failure in intracellular targeting. Five missense mutations were investigated: R1138Q, V1298F, R1314W, G1321S and R1339C. Using in vitro assays, we have identified two variants; R1138Q and R1314W that retained significant transport activity. All mutants were transiently expressed in vivo, in mouse liver via hydrodynamic tail vein injections. The inactive V1298F was the only mutant that showed normal cellular localization in liver hepatocytes while the other mutants showed mostly intracellular accumulation indicating abnormal trafficking. As both R1138Q and R1314W displayed endoplasmic reticulum localization, we tested whether 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a drug approved for clinical use, could restore their intracellular trafficking to the plasma membrane in MDCKII and mouse liver. The cellular localization of R1314W was significantly improved by 4-PBA treatment, thus potentially rescuing its physiological function. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of the in vivo rescue of cellular maturation of some ABCC6 mutants in physiological conditions very similar to the biology of the fully differentiated human liver and could have future human therapeutic application. PMID:21935449

  6. Comparative simulation studies of native and single-site mutant human beta-defensin-1 peptides.

    PubMed

    Toubar, Rabab A; Zhmurov, Artem; Barsegov, Valeri; Marx, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    Human defensins play important roles in a broad range of biological functions, such as microbial defense and immunity. Yet, little is known about their molecular properties, i.e. secondary structure stability, structural variability, important side chain interactions, surface charge distribution, and resistance to thermal fluctuations, and how these properties are related to their functions. To assess these factors, we studied the native human β-defensin-1 monomer and dimer as well as several single-site mutants using molecular dynamics simulations. The results showed that disulfide bonds are important determinants in maintaining the defensins' structural integrity, as no structural transitions were observed at 300 K and only minor structural unfolding was detected upon heating to 500 K. The α-helix was less thermally stable than the core β-sheet structure held together by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The monomer α-helix stability was directly correlated, whereas the end-to-end distance was inversely correlated to the experimentally measured β-defensin-1 chemotactic activity, in the order: mutant 2 (Gln24Glu) > mutant 3 (Lys31Ala) = wild type > mutant 1 (Asn4Ala). The structural stability of the β-defensin-1 dimer species exhibited an inverse correlation to their chemotactic activity. In dimers formed by mutants 2 and 3, we observed sliding of one monomer upon the surface of the other in the absence of unbinding. This dynamic sliding feature may enhance the molecular oligomerization of β-defensin-1 peptides contributing to their antibacterial activity. It could also help these peptides orient correctly in the CC chemokine receptor 6 binding site, thereby initiating their chemotactic activity. In agreement with this notion, the remarkable sliding behavior was observed only for the mutants with the highest chemotactic activity.

  7. Native mutant huntingtin in human brain: evidence for prevalence of full-length monomer.

    PubMed

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-04-13

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575-850 kDa in control brain and at 650-885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1-17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 M urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ≈htt 670-880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43-50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 M urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD(140Q/140Q) mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of human smooth muscle cells infected with gingipain and fimbriae mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Boxi; Sirsjö, Allan; Khalaf, Hazem; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is considered to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of different virulence factors produced by P. gingivalis in this process is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional profiling of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) infected with wild type, gingipain mutants or fimbriae mutants of P. gingivalis. AoSMCs were exposed to wild type (W50 and 381), gingipain mutants (E8 and K1A), or fimbriae mutants (DPG-3 and KRX-178) of P. gingivalis. We observed that wild type P. gingivalis changes the expression of a considerable larger number of genes in AoSMCs compare to gingipain and fimbriae mutants, respectively. The results from pathway analysis revealed that the common differentially expressed genes for AoSMCs infected by 3 different wild type P. gingivalis strains were enriched in pathways of cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and MAPK signaling pathway. Disease ontology analysis showed that various strains of P. gingivalis were associated with different disease profilings. Our results suggest that gingipains and fimbriae, especially arginine-specific gingipain, produced by P. gingivalis play important roles in the association between periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. PMID:26907358

  9. Altered miRNA expression is associated with neuronal fate in G93A-SOD1 ependymal stem progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzo, Stefania; Kapetis, Dimos; Mantegazza, Renato; Baggi, Fulvio; Bonanno, Silvia; Barzago, Claudia; Cavalcante, Paola; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Bernasconi, Pia

    2014-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motoneuron loss in the CNS. In G93A-SOD1 mice, motoneuron degeneration is associated with proliferative restorative attempts of ependymal stem progenitor cells (epSPCs), usually quiescent in the spinal cord. The aims of the study were to demonstrate that epSPCs isolated from the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 mice express neurogenic potential in vitro, and thus gain a better understanding of epSPC neural differentiation properties. For this purpose, we compared the ability of epSPCs from asymptomatic and symptomatic G93A-SOD1 and WT SOD1 transgenic mice to proliferate and differentiate into neural cells. Compared to control cells, G93A-SOD1 epSPCs differentiated more into neurons than into astrocytes, whereas oligodendrocyte proportions were similar in the two populations. G93A-SOD1 neurons were small and astrocytes had an activated phenotype. Evaluation of microRNAs, specific for neural cell fate and cell-cycle regulation, in G93A-SOD1 epSPCs showed that miR-9, miR-124a, miR-19a and miR-19b were differentially expressed. Expression analysis of the predicted miRNA targets allowed identification of a functional network in which Hes1, Pten, Socs1, and Stat3 genes were important for controlling epSPC fate. Our findings demonstrate that G93A-SOD1 epSPCs are a source of multipotent cells that have neurogenic potential in vitro, and might be a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms of neural differentiation in relation to miRNA expression whose modulation might constitute new targeted therapeutic approaches to ALS.

  10. Synergistic Effects of GhSOD1 and GhCAT1 Overexpression in Cotton Chloroplasts on Enhancing Tolerance to Methyl Viologen and Salt Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoli; Wu, Jiahe; Li, Yuanbao; Nan, Zhirun; Guo, Xing; Wang, Yixue; Zhang, Anhong; Wang, Zhian; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan

    2013-01-01

    In plants, CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, EC l.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and catalase (CAT, EC l.11.1.6) are important scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to protect the cell from damage. In the present study, we isolated three homologous genes (GhSOD1, GhAPX1, and GhCAT1) from Gossypium hirsutum. Overexpressing cassettes containing chimeric GhSOD1, GhAPX1, or GhCAT1 were introduced into cotton plants by Agrobacterium transformation, and overexpressed products of these genes were transported into the chloroplasts by transit peptide, as expected. The five types of transgenic cotton plants that overexpressed GhSOD1, GhAPX1, GhCAT1, GhSOD1 and GhAPX1 stack (SAT), and GhSOD1 and GhCAT1 stack (SCT) were developed. Analyses in the greenhouse showed that the transgenic plants had higher tolerance to methyl viologen (MV) and salinity than WT plants. Interestingly, SCT plants suffered no damage under stress conditions. Based on analyses of enzyme activities, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll content, photochemical yield (Fv/Fm), and biomass accumulation under stresses, the SCT plants that simultaneously overexpressed GhSOD1 and GhCAT1 appeared to benefit from synergistic effects of two genes and exhibited the highest tolerance to MV and salt stress among the transgenic lines, while the SAT plants simultaneously overexpressing GhSOD1 and GhAPX1 did not. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing antioxidant enzymes in their chloroplasts had higher tolerance to salt stress than those expressing the genes in their cytoplasms, although overall enzyme activities were almost the same. Therefore, the synergistic effects of GhSOD1 and GhCAT1 in chloroplasts provide a new strategy for enhancing stress tolerance to avoid yield loss. PMID:23335985

  11. Downregulation of Homer1b/c in SOD1 G93A Models of ALS: A Novel Mechanism of Neuroprotective Effect of Lithium and Valproic Acid.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Zhi; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Xiang; Jiang, Hong-Quan; Wang, Xu-Dong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Tian-Hang; Qi, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qing; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Feng, Hong-Lin

    2016-12-17

    Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. Homer family protein Homer1b/c is expressed widely in the central nervous system and plays important roles in neurological diseases. In this study, we explored whether Homer1b/c was involved in SOD1 mutation-linked ALS. In vitro studies showed that the SOD1 G93A mutation induced an increase of Homer1b/c expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in NSC34 cells. Knockdown of Homer1b/c expression using its short interfering RNA (siRNA) (si-Homer1) protected SOD1 G93A NSC34 cells from apoptosis. The expressions of Homer1b/c and apoptosis-related protein Bax were also suppressed, while Bcl-2 was increased by lithium and valproic acid (VPA) in SOD1 G93A NSC34 cells. In vivo, both the mRNA and protein levels of Homer1b/c were increased significantly in the lumbar spinal cord in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice compared with wild type (WT) mice. Moreover, lithium and VPA treatment suppressed the expression of Homer1b/c in SOD1 G93A mice. The suppression of SOD1 G93A mutation-induced Homer1b/c upregulation protected ALS against neuronal apoptosis, which is a novel mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of lithium and VPA. This study provides new insights into pathogenesis and treatment of ALS.

  12. Downregulation of Homer1b/c in SOD1 G93A Models of ALS: A Novel Mechanism of Neuroprotective Effect of Lithium and Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Zhi; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Xiang; Jiang, Hong-Quan; Wang, Xu-Dong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Tian-Hang; Qi, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qing; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Feng, Hong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. Homer family protein Homer1b/c is expressed widely in the central nervous system and plays important roles in neurological diseases. In this study, we explored whether Homer1b/c was involved in SOD1 mutation-linked ALS. Results: In vitro studies showed that the SOD1 G93A mutation induced an increase of Homer1b/c expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in NSC34 cells. Knockdown of Homer1b/c expression using its short interfering RNA (siRNA) (si-Homer1) protected SOD1 G93A NSC34 cells from apoptosis. The expressions of Homer1b/c and apoptosis-related protein Bax were also suppressed, while Bcl-2 was increased by lithium and valproic acid (VPA) in SOD1 G93A NSC34 cells. In vivo, both the mRNA and protein levels of Homer1b/c were increased significantly in the lumbar spinal cord in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice compared with wild type (WT) mice. Moreover, lithium and VPA treatment suppressed the expression of Homer1b/c in SOD1 G93A mice. Conclusion: The suppression of SOD1 G93A mutation-induced Homer1b/c upregulation protected ALS against neuronal apoptosis, which is a novel mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of lithium and VPA. This study provides new insights into pathogenesis and treatment of ALS. PMID:27999308

  13. Experimental therapy of human glioma by means of a genetically engineered virus mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Martuza, R.L.; Malick, A.; Markert, J.M.; Ruffner, K.L.; Coen, D.M. )

    1991-05-10

    Malignant gliomas are the most common malignant brain tumors and are almost always fatal. A thymidine kinase-negative mutant of herpes simplex virus-1 (dlsptk) that is attenuated for neurovirulence was tested as a possible treatment for gliomas. In cell culture, dlsptk killed two long-term human glioma lines and three short-term human glioma cell populations. In nude mice with implanted subcutaneous and subrenal U87 human gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk caused growth inhibition. In nude mice with intracranial U87 gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk prolonged survival. Genetically engineered viruses such as dlsptk merit further evaluation as novel antineoplastic agents.

  14. Degenerative myelopathy in the Collie breed: a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of superoxide dismutase 1 in an affected Rough Collie, and a molecular epidemiological survey of the SOD1: c.118G>A mutation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KOHYAMA, Moeko; KITAGAWA, Masato; KAMISHINA, Hiroaki; KOBATAKE, Yui; YABUKI, Akira; SAWA, Mariko; KAKITA, Shusaku; YAMATO, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in multiple dog breeds. A DM-associated mutation of the canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, designated as c.118G>A (p.E40K), has been implicated as one of pathogenetic determinants of the disease in many breeds, but it remains to be determined whether the c.118G>A mutation is responsible for development or progression of DM in Collies. Previously, a Rough Collie was diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as having DM in Japan, suggesting the possibility that the Collie breed may be predisposed to DM due to the high frequency of c.118G>A in Japan. In this study, accumulation and aggregate formation of SOD1 protein were retrospectively demonstrated in the spinal cord of the DM-affected dog by immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, a molecular epidemiological survey revealed a high carrier rate (27.6%) and mutant allele frequency (0.138) of c.118G>A in a population of Collies in Japan, suggesting that the Collie breed may be predisposed to DM associated with c.118G>A, and the prevention of DM in Collies in Japan should be addressed through epidemiological and genetic testing strategies. PMID:27941298

  15. Developmentally-faithful and effective human erythropoiesis in immunodeficient and Kit mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Claudia; Abdulhay, Nour J; McFarland, Sean K; Munschauer, Mathias; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Chiarle, Roberto; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2017-09-01

    Immunodeficient mouse models have been valuable for studies of human hematopoiesis, but high-fidelity recapitulation of erythropoiesis in most xenograft recipients remains elusive. Recently developed immunodeficient and Kit mutant mice, however, have provided a suitable background to achieve higher-level human erythropoiesis after long-term hematopoietic engraftment. While there has been some characterization of human erythropoiesis in these models, a comprehensive analysis from various human developmental stages has not yet been reported. Here, we have utilized cell surface phenotypes, morphologic analyses, and molecular studies to fully characterize human erythropoiesis from multiple developmental stages in immunodeficient and Kit mutant mouse models following long-term hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell engraftment. We show that human erythropoiesis in such models demonstrates complete maturation and enucleation, as well as developmentally appropriate globin gene expression. These results provide a framework for future studies to utilize this model system for interrogating disorders affecting human erythropoiesis and for developing improved therapeutic approaches. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pharmacological NAD-Boosting Strategies Improve Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Complex I-Mutant Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Felici, Roberta; Lapucci, Andrea; Cavone, Leonardo; Pratesi, Sara; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are devastating genetic diseases for which efficacious therapies are still an unmet need. Recent studies report that increased availability of intracellular NAD obtained by inhibition of the NAD-consuming enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 or supplementation with the NAD-precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) ameliorates energetic derangement and symptoms in mouse models of mitochondrial disorders. Whether these pharmacological approaches also improve bioenergetics of human cells harboring mitochondrial defects is unknown. It is also unclear whether the same signaling cascade is prompted by PARP-1 inhibitors and NR supplementation to improve mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we show that human fibroblasts mutant for the NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 (NDUFS1) subunit of respiratory complex I have similar ATP, NAD, and mitochondrial content compared with control cells, but show reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, mutant cells also show increased transcript levels of mitochondrial DNA but not nuclear DNA respiratory complex subunits, suggesting activation of a compensatory response. At variance with prior work in mice, however, NR supplementation, but not PARP-1 inhibition, increased intracellular NAD content in NDUFS1 mutant human fibroblasts. Conversely, PARP-1 inhibitors, but not NR supplementation, increased transcription of mitochondrial transcription factor A and mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes constitutively induced in mutant cells. Still, both NR and PARP-1 inhibitors restored mitochondrial membrane potential and increased organelle content as well as oxidative activity of NDUFS1-deficient fibroblasts. Overall, data provide the first evidence that in human cells harboring a mitochondrial respiratory defect exposure to NR or PARP-1, inhibitors activate different signaling pathways that are not invariantly prompted by NAD increases, but equally able to improve energetic

  17. A new role for oxidative stress in aging: The accelerated aging phenotype in Sod1(-/)(-) mice is correlated to increased cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Unnikrishnan, Archana; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Liu, Yuhong; Li, Yan; Ikeno, Yuji; Sosnowska, Danuta; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to other mouse models that are deficient in antioxidant enzymes, mice null for Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1(-/)(-) mice) show a major decrease in lifespan and several accelerated aging phenotypes. The goal of this study was to determine if cell senescence might be a contributing factor in the accelerated aging phenotype observed in the Sod1(-/)(-) mice. We focused on kidney because it is a tissue that has been shown to a significant increase in senescent cells with age. The Sod1(-/)(-) mice are characterized by high levels of DNA oxidation in the kidney, which is attenuated by DR. The kidney of the Sod1(-/)(-) mice also have higher levels of double strand DNA breaks than wild type (WT) mice. Expression (mRNA and protein) of p16 and p21, two of the markers of cellular senescence, which increased with age, are increased significantly in the kidney of Sod1(-/)(-) mice as is β-gal staining cells. In addition, the senescence associated secretory phenotype was also increased significantly in the kidney of Sod1(-/)(-) mice compared to WT mice as measured by the expression of transcripts for IL-6 and IL-1β. Dietary restriction of the Sod1(-/)(-) mice attenuated the increase in DNA damage, cellular senescence, and expression of IL-6 and IL-1β. Interestingly, the Sod1(-/)(-) mice showed higher levels of circulating cytokines than WT mice, suggesting that the accelerated aging phenotype shown by the Sod1(-/)(-) mice could result from increased inflammation arising from an accelerated accumulation of senescent cells. Based on our data with Sod1(-/)(-) mice, we propose that various bouts of increased oxidative stress over the lifespan of an animal leads to the accumulation of senescent cells. The accumulation of senescent cells in turn leads to increased inflammation, which plays a major role in the loss of function and increased pathology that are hallmark features of aging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fc-receptor-mediated intracellular delivery of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protects against redox-induced apoptosis through a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Vouldoukis, I.; Sivan, V.; Vozenin, M. C.; Kamaté, C.; Calenda, A.; Mazier, D.; Dugas, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using specific antibodies against bovine Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) we demonstrated that anti-SOD antibodies (IgG1) are able to promote the intracellular translocation of the antioxidant enzyme. The transduction signalling mediated by IgG1 immune complexes are known to promote a concomitant production of superoxide and nitric oxide leading to the production of peroxynitrites and cell death by apoptosis. The Fc-mediated intracellular delivery of SOD1 thus limited the endogenous production of superoxide. It was thus of interest to confirm that in the absence of superoxide anion, the production of nitric oxide protected cells against apoptosis. Study in greater detail clearly stated that under superoxide anion-free conditions, nitric oxide promoted the cell antioxidant armature and thus protected cells against redox-induced apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The murine macrophage cell-lines J774 A1 were preactivated or not with interferon-gamma and were then stimulated by IgG1 immune complexes (IC), free SOD1 or SOD1 IC and superoxide anion, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production was evaluated. The redox consequences of these activation processes were also evaluated on mitochondrial respiration and apoptosis as well as on the controlled expression of the cellular antioxidant armature. RESULTS: We demonstrated that SOD1 IC induced a Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)-dependent intracellular delivery of the antioxidant enzyme in IFN-gamma activated murine macrophages (the J774 AI cell line). The concomitant stimulation of the FcyR and the translocation of the SOD1 in the cytoplasm of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages not only reduced the production of superoxide anion but also induced the expression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the related NO production. This inducing effect in the absence of superoxide anion production reduced mitochondrial damages and cell death by

  19. Postactivation depression of the Ia EPSP in motoneurons is reduced in both the G127X SOD1 model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, A; Lehnhoff, J; Moldovan, M; Grøndahl, L; Petersen, N C; Meehan, C F

    2015-08-01

    Postactivation depression (PActD) of Ia afferent excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in spinal motoneurons results in a long-lasting depression of the stretch reflex. This phenomenon (PActD) is of clinical interest as it has been shown to be reduced in a number of spastic disorders. Using in vivo intracellular recordings of Ia EPSPs in adult mice, we demonstrate that PActD in adult (100-220 days old) C57BL/6J mice is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that which has been observed in larger animals with respect to both the magnitude (with ∼20% depression of EPSPs at 0.5 ms after a train of stimuli) and the time course (returning to almost normal amplitudes by 5 ms after the train). This validates the use of mouse models to study PActD. Changes in such excitatory inputs to spinal motoneurons may have important implications for hyperreflexia and/or glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). With the use of the G127X SOD1 mutant mouse, an ALS model with a prolonged asymptomatic phase and fulminant symptom onset, we observed that PActD is significantly reduced at both presymptomatic (16% depression) and symptomatic (17.3% depression) time points compared with aged-matched controls (22.4% depression). The PActD reduction was not markedly altered by symptom onset. Comparing these PActD changes at the EPSP with the known effect of the depression on the monosynaptic reflex, we conclude that this is likely to have a much larger effect on the reflex itself (a 20-40% difference). Nevertheless, it should also be accounted that in aged (580 day old) C57BL/6J mice there was also a reduction in PActD although, aging is not usually associated with spasticity.

  20. Postactivation depression of the Ia EPSP in motoneurons is reduced in both the G127X SOD1 model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, A.; Lehnhoff, J.; Moldovan, M.; Grøndahl, L.; Petersen, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    Postactivation depression (PActD) of Ia afferent excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in spinal motoneurons results in a long-lasting depression of the stretch reflex. This phenomenon (PActD) is of clinical interest as it has been shown to be reduced in a number of spastic disorders. Using in vivo intracellular recordings of Ia EPSPs in adult mice, we demonstrate that PActD in adult (100–220 days old) C57BL/6J mice is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that which has been observed in larger animals with respect to both the magnitude (with ∼20% depression of EPSPs at 0.5 ms after a train of stimuli) and the time course (returning to almost normal amplitudes by 5 ms after the train). This validates the use of mouse models to study PActD. Changes in such excitatory inputs to spinal motoneurons may have important implications for hyperreflexia and/or glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). With the use of the G127X SOD1 mutant mouse, an ALS model with a prolonged asymptomatic phase and fulminant symptom onset, we observed that PActD is significantly reduced at both presymptomatic (16% depression) and symptomatic (17.3% depression) time points compared with aged-matched controls (22.4% depression). The PActD reduction was not markedly altered by symptom onset. Comparing these PActD changes at the EPSP with the known effect of the depression on the monosynaptic reflex, we conclude that this is likely to have a much larger effect on the reflex itself (a 20–40% difference). Nevertheless, it should also be accounted that in aged (580 day old) C57BL/6J mice there was also a reduction in PActD although, aging is not usually associated with spasticity. PMID:26084911

  1. Increased Activation of Hereditary Pancreatitis-associated Human Cationic Trypsinogen Mutants in Presence of Chymotrypsin C*

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) cause autosomal dominant hereditary pancreatitis. Increased intrapancreatic autoactivation of trypsinogen mutants has been hypothesized to initiate the disease. Autoactivation of cationic trypsinogen is proteolytically regulated by chymotrypsin C (CTRC), which mitigates the development of trypsin activity by promoting degradation of both trypsinogen and trypsin. Paradoxically, CTRC also increases the rate of autoactivation by processing the trypsinogen activation peptide to a shorter form. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRC on the autoactivation of clinically relevant trypsinogen mutants. We found that in the presence of CTRC, trypsinogen mutants associated with classic hereditary pancreatitis (N29I, N29T, V39A, R122C, and R122H) autoactivated at increased rates and reached markedly higher active trypsin levels compared with wild-type cationic trypsinogen. The A16V mutant, known for its variable disease penetrance, exhibited a smaller increase in autoactivation. The mechanistic basis of increased activation was mutation-specific and involved resistance to degradation (N29I, N29T, V39A, R122C, and R122H) and/or increased N-terminal processing by CTRC (A16V and N29I). These observations indicate that hereditary pancreatitis is caused by CTRC-dependent dysregulation of cationic trypsinogen autoactivation, which results in elevated trypsin levels in the pancreas. PMID:22539344

  2. A Haemophilus ducreyi CpxR deletion mutant is virulent in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Dodd, Dana; Fortney, Kate R; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Janowicz, Diane M; Spinola, Stanley M; Hansen, Eric J

    2011-06-15

    Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP contains a homolog of the CpxRA 2-component signal transduction system, which controls the cell envelope stress response system in other gram-negative bacteria and regulates some important H. ducreyi virulence factors. A H. ducreyi cpxR mutant was compared with its parent for virulence in the human challenge model of experimental chancroid. The pustule formation rate in 5 volunteers was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-65.3%) at 15 parent sites and 40% (95% CI, 18.1%-61.9%) at 15 mutant sites (P = .35). Thus, the cpxR mutant was not attenuated for virulence. Inactivation of the H. ducreyi cpxR gene did not reduce the ability of this mutant to express certain proven virulence factors, including the DsrA serum resistance protein and the LspA2 protein, which inhibits phagocytosis. These results expand our understanding of the involvement of the CpxRA system in regulating virulence expression in H. ducreyi.

  3. Deletion of galectin-3 exacerbates microglial activation and accelerates disease progression and demise in a SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Bruce J; Hoffman, Eric P; Sutherland, Margaret L; Bouri, Khaled; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Knoblach, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Galectins are pleiotropic carbohydrate-binding lectins involved in inflammation, growth/differentiation, and tissue remodeling. The functional role of galectins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown. Expression studies revealed increases in galectin-1 mRNA and protein in spinal cords from SOD1G93A mice, and in galectin-3 and -9 mRNAs and proteins in spinal cords of both SOD1G93A mice and sporadic ALS patients. As the increase in galectin-3 appeared in early presymptomatic stages and increased progressively through to end stage of disease in the mouse, it was selected for additional study, where it was found to be mainly expressed by microglia. Galectin-3 antagonists are not selective and do not readily cross the blood–brain barrier; therefore, we generated SOD1G93A/Gal-3−/− transgenic mice to evaluate galectin-3 deletion in a widely used mouse model of ALS. Disease progression, neurological symptoms, survival, and inflammation were assessed to determine the effect of galectin-3 deletion on the SOD1G93A disease phenotype. Galectin-3 deletion did not change disease onset, but resulted in more rapid progression through functionally defined disease stages, more severely impaired neurological symptoms at all stages of disease, and expiration, on average, 25 days earlier than SOD1G93A/Gal-3+/+ cohorts. In addition, microglial staining, as well as TNF-α, and oxidative injury were increased in SOD1G93A/Gal-3−/− mice compared with SOD1G93A/Gal-3+/+ cohorts. These data support an important functional role for microglial galectin-3 in neuroinflammation during chronic neurodegenerative disease. We suggest that elevations in galectin-3 by microglia as disease progresses may represent a protective, anti-inflammatory innate immune response to chronic motor neuron degeneration. PMID:23139902

  4. Effects of Tongue Force Training on Bulbar Motor Function in the Female SOD1-G93A Rat Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Delin; Shuler, Jeffrey M; Kumar, Aishwarya; Stanford, Quincy R; Tungtur, Sudheer; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Stanford, John A

    2017-02-01

    The use of exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is controversial. Although moderate exercise appears to be beneficial for limb muscles in ALS, the effects of exercise on bulbar muscles such as the tongue have not been studied. To determine the effects of tongue force training on bulbar motor function in the SOD1-G93A rat model of ALS. We compared the effects of tongue force training on bulbar motor function and neuromuscular junction innervation in female SOD1-G93A rats and age-matched female wild-type controls. Half of each group underwent afternoon tongue force training sessions, and all rats were tested under minimal force conditions in the mornings. Tongue force did not differ between the SOD1-G93A rats and healthy controls during the morning testing sessions, nor was it affected by training. Surprisingly, decreases in tongue motility, the number of licks per session, and body weight were greater in the tongue force-trained SOD1-G93A rats. Forelimb grip force, survival, and denervation of the genioglossus (GG) muscle did not differ between the trained and untrained SOD1-G93A rats. GG innervation was correlated with changes in tongue force but not tongue motility in SOD1-G93A rats at end stage. The results indicate a potential deleterious effect of tongue force training on tongue motility in female SOD1-G93A rats. The lack of a relationship between GG innervation and tongue motility suggests that factors other than lower-motor neuron integrity likely accounted for this effect.

  5. Age-Related Changes in Pre- and Postsynaptic Partners of the Cholinergic C-Boutons in Wild-Type and SOD1G93A Lumbar Motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Milan, Léa; Courtand, Gilles; Cardoit, Laura; Masmejean, Frédérique; Barrière, Grégory; Cazalets, Jean-René; Garret, Maurice; Bertrand, Sandrine S

    2015-01-01

    Large cholinergic synaptic terminals known as C-boutons densely innervate the soma and proximal dendrites of motoneurons that are prone to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Studies using the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mouse model of ALS have generated conflicting data regarding C-bouton alterations exhibited during ALS pathogenesis. In the present work, a longitudinal study combining immunohistochemistry, biochemical approaches and extra- and intra-cellular electrophysiological recordings revealed that the whole spinal cholinergic system is modified in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS compared to wild type (WT) mice as early as the second postnatal week. In WT motoneurons, both C-bouton terminals and associated M2 postsynaptic receptors presented a complex age-related dynamic that appeared completely disrupted in SOD1 motoneurons. Indeed, parallel to C-bouton morphological alterations, analysis of confocal images revealed a clustering process of M2 receptors during WT motoneuron development and maturation that was absent in SOD1 motoneurons. Our data demonstrated for the first time that the lamina X cholinergic interneurons, the neuronal source of C-boutons, are over-abundant in high lumbar segments in SOD1 mice and are subject to neurodegeneration in the SOD1 animal model. Finally, we showed that early C-bouton system alterations have no physiological impact on the cholinergic neuromodulation of newborn motoneurons. Altogether, these data suggest a complete reconfiguration of the spinal cholinergic system in SOD1 spinal networks that could be part of the compensatory mechanisms established during spinal development.

  6. Age-Related Changes in Pre- and Postsynaptic Partners of the Cholinergic C-Boutons in Wild-Type and SOD1G93A Lumbar Motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Léa; Courtand, Gilles; Cardoit, Laura; Masmejean, Frédérique; Barrière, Grégory; Cazalets, Jean-René; Garret, Maurice; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2015-01-01

    Large cholinergic synaptic terminals known as C-boutons densely innervate the soma and proximal dendrites of motoneurons that are prone to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Studies using the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mouse model of ALS have generated conflicting data regarding C-bouton alterations exhibited during ALS pathogenesis. In the present work, a longitudinal study combining immunohistochemistry, biochemical approaches and extra- and intra-cellular electrophysiological recordings revealed that the whole spinal cholinergic system is modified in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS compared to wild type (WT) mice as early as the second postnatal week. In WT motoneurons, both C-bouton terminals and associated M2 postsynaptic receptors presented a complex age-related dynamic that appeared completely disrupted in SOD1 motoneurons. Indeed, parallel to C-bouton morphological alterations, analysis of confocal images revealed a clustering process of M2 receptors during WT motoneuron development and maturation that was absent in SOD1 motoneurons. Our data demonstrated for the first time that the lamina X cholinergic interneurons, the neuronal source of C-boutons, are over-abundant in high lumbar segments in SOD1 mice and are subject to neurodegeneration in the SOD1 animal model. Finally, we showed that early C-bouton system alterations have no physiological impact on the cholinergic neuromodulation of newborn motoneurons. Altogether, these data suggest a complete reconfiguration of the spinal cholinergic system in SOD1 spinal networks that could be part of the compensatory mechanisms established during spinal development. PMID:26305672

  7. Depressed excitability and ion currents linked to slow exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gallardo, Enrique; de Pascual, Ricardo; Fernández-Morales, José-Carlos; Arranz-Tagarro, Juan-Alberto; Maroto, Marcos; Nanclares, Carmen; Gandía, Luis; de Diego, Antonio M G; Padín, Juan-Fernando; García, Antonio G

    2015-01-01

    Altered synaptic transmission with excess glutamate release has been implicated in the loss of motoneurons occurring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Hyperexcitability or hypoexcitability of motoneurons from mice carrying the ALS mutation SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) has also been reported. Here we have investigated the excitability, the ion currents, and the kinetics of the exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells from postnatal day 90 to postnatal day 130 mSOD1 mice, when motor deficits are already established. With respect to wild-type (WT), mSOD1 chromaffin cells had a decrease in the following parameters: 95% in spontaneous action potentials, 70% in nicotinic current for acetylcholine (ACh), 35% in Na(+) current, 40% in Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current, and 53% in voltage-dependent K(+) current. Ca(2+) current was increased by 37%, but the ACh-evoked elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) was unchanged. Single exocytotic spike events triggered by ACh had the following differences (mSOD1 vs. WT): 36% lower rise rate, 60% higher decay time, 51% higher half-width, 13% lower amplitude, and 61% higher quantal size. The expression of the α3-subtype of nicotinic receptors and proteins of the exocytotic machinery was unchanged in the brain and adrenal medulla of mSOD1, with respect to WT mice. A slower fusion pore opening, expansion, and closure are likely linked to the pronounced reduction in cell excitability and in the ion currents driving action potentials in mSOD1, compared with WT chromaffin cells.

  8. 17Beta-estradiol reduces nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity and increases SOD1 and SOD2 immunoreactivity in nigral neurons in male mice following MPTP insult.

    PubMed

    Tripanichkul, Wanida; Sripanichkulchai, Kittisak; Duce, James A; Finkelstein, David I

    2007-08-20

    Emerging evidence suggests the beneficial effects of estrogen on Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the mechanisms of action implicated remain elusive. While experimental evidence suggests that estrogen possesses potent antioxidative properties, it is still unknown whether the hormone exhibits a neuroprotection in a PD animal model through its antioxidant activities. This study therefore investigated the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on the immunoreactivity of nigral neurons and glia for nitrotyrosine (NT, a stable marker for oxidative stress), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model. Adult male mice were treated with E2 or vehicle for 11 days during which they were injected with MPTP or saline on the sixth day. The brains were collected on day 11 and quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess the number of NT-, SOD1- and SOD2-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). In saline-treated group, E2 decreased NT-IR neuronal number and raised SOD1 and SOD2 expression in neurons and glia in the SNpc. MPTP induced a significant increase in the number of NT- and SOD2-IR neurons, but decreased the number of SOD1-IR neurons. MPTP also triggered a significant increase of SOD2- and SOD1-IR glial number. E2 pretreatment in MPTP mice reduced the number of NT-IR neurons, increased the number of SOD1- and SOD2-IR neurons, but did not alter the MPTP effect on glia immunoreactive to either SOD. Stimulation of SOD1 and SOD2 expression in nigral neurons suggests that E2 provides neuroprotection against MPTP-induced oxidative stress, partly through its ability to act as an antioxidant.

  9. Claudin-binder C-CPE mutants enhance permeability of insulin across human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takashi; Kondoh, Masuo; Keira, Takashi; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Obata, Kazufumi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-10-01

    Intranasal insulin administration has therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease and in intranasal administration across the nasal mucosa, the paracellular pathway regulated by tight junctions is important. The C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) binds the tight junction protein claudin and disrupts the tight junctional barrier without a cytotoxic effect. The C-CPE mutant called C-CPE 194 binds only to claudin-4, whereas the C-CPE 194 mutant called C-CPE m19 binds not only to claudin-4 but also to claudin-1. In the present study, to investigate the effects of C-CPE mutants on the tight junctional functions of human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) and on the permeability of human recombinant insulin across the cells, HNECs were treated with C-CPE 194 and C-CPE m19. C-CPE 194 and C-CPE m19 disrupted the barrier and fence functions without changes in expression of claudin-1, -4, -7, and occludin or cytotoxicity, whereas they transiently increased the activity of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The disruption of the barrier function caused by C-CPE 194 and C-CPE m19 was prevented by pretreatment with the MAPKK inhibitor U0126. Furthermore, C-CPE 194 and C-CPE m19 significantly enhanced the permeability of human recombinant insulin across HNECs and the permeability was also inhibited by U0126. These findings suggest that C-CPE mutants 194 and m19 can regulate the permeability of insulin across HNECs via the MAPK pathway and may play a crucial role in therapy for the diseases such as Alzheimer's disease via the direct intranasal insulin administration.

  10. A longitudinal DTI and histological study of the spinal cord reveals early pathological alterations in G93A-SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzo, Stefania; Bonanno, Silvia; Figini, Matteo; Scotti, Alessandro; Zucca, Ileana; Minati, Ludovico; Riva, Nilo; Domi, Teuta; Fossaghi, Andrea; Quattrini, Angelo; Galbardi, Barbara; D'Alessandro, Sara; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Mantegazza, Renato; Bernasconi, Pia

    2017-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. It is generally accepted that ALS is caused by death of motor neurons, however the exact temporal cascade of degenerative processes is not yet completely known. To identify the early pathological changes in spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 ALS mice we performed a comprehensive longitudinal analysis employing diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging alongside histology and electron microscopy, in parallel with peripheral nerve histology. We showed the gradient of degeneration appearance in spinal cord white and gray matter, starting earliest in the ventral white matter, due to a cascade of pathological events including axon dysfunction and mitochondrial changes. Notably, we found that even the main sensory regions are affected by the neurodegenerative process at symptomatic disease phase. Overall our results attest the applicability of DTI in determining disease progression in ALS mice. These findings suggest that DTI could be potentially adapted in humans to aid the assessment of ALS progression and eventually the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential screening of mutated SOD1 transgenic mice reveals early up-regulation of a fast axonal transport component in spinal cord motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, L; de Tapia, M; René, F; Lutz-Bucher, B; Gordon, J W; Mercken, L; Pradier, L; Loeffler, J P

    2000-08-01

    In the present study we analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). For this, we used a transgenic mouse model expressing the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene with a Gly(86) to Arg (G86R) mutation equivalent to that found in a subset of human FALS. Using an optimized suppression subtractive hybridization method, a cDNA specifically up-regulated during the asymptomatic phase in the lumbar spinal cord of G86R mice was identified by sequence analysis as the KIF3-associated protein (KAP3), a regulator of fast axonal transport. RT-PCR analysis revealed that KAP3 induction was an early event arising long before axonal degeneration. Immunohistochemical studies further revealed that KAP3 protein predominantly accumulates in large motor neurons of the ventral spinal cord. We further demonstrated that KAP3 up-regulation occurs independent of any change in the other components of the kinesin II complex. However, since the ubiquitous KIF1A motor is up-regulated, our results show an early and complex rearrangement of the fast axonal transport machinery in the course of FALS pathology.

  12. Structures of thermolabile mutants of human glutathione transferase P1-1.

    PubMed

    Rossjohn, J; McKinstry, W J; Oakley, A J; Parker, M W; Stenberg, G; Mannervik, B; Dragani, B; Cocco, R; Aceto, A

    2000-09-15

    An N-capping box motif (Ser/Thr-Xaa-Xaa-Asp) is strictly conserved at the beginning of helix alpha6 in the core of virtually all glutathione transferases (GST) and GST-related proteins. It has been demonstrated that this local motif is important in determining the alpha-helical propensity of the isolated alpha6-peptide and plays a crucial role in the folding and stability of GSTs. Its removal by site-directed mutagenesis generated temperature-sensitive folding mutants unable to refold at physiological temperature (37 degrees C). In the present work, variants of human GSTP1-1 (S150A and D153A), in which the capping residues have been substituted by alanine, have been generated and purified for structural analysis. Thus, for the first time, temperature-sensitive folding mutants of an enzyme, expressed at a permissive temperature, have been crystallized and their three-dimensional structures determined by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures of human pi class GST temperature-sensitive mutants provide a basis for understanding the structural origin of the dramatic effects observed on the overall stability of the enzyme at higher temperatures upon single substitution of a capping residue. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. TK{sup {minus}} mutants attributable to localized gene conversion in a human cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Giver, C.R.; Grosovsky, A.J.

    1995-11-01

    The human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 is heterozygous at the tk gene, carrying an inactivating frameshift near the end of the coding sequence, within exon 7 of the functional allele. Here, we describe our use of sequence analyses at these polymorphic sites to identify 8 x-ray induced mutations, out of 184 examined, which exhibit partial conversion of the tk functional allele to the non-functional sequence. These mutants are characterized by loss of heterozygosity at the exon 4 frameshift polymorphism, and remain heterozgousity at exon 7. No restriction fragment length alterations were observed by Southern blotting, and sequencing of the tk cDNA in these mutants revealed the presence of two full length tk transcripts, both having the sequence of the non-functional allele in exon 4, but representing the two different sequences in exon 7. Therefore, the results cannot be explained by a partial deletion of the functional tk allele. Polymorphic microsatellite markers located both proximally and distally to tk on the q arm of chromosome 17 were found to remain heterozygous, ruling out the possibility of a single homologous exchange event. These mutants may be explained by single strand invasion coupled with mismatch repair of the resultant heteroduplex, or by recombinationally mediated repair of a double strand break or gap. We also present microsatellite mapping data which localizes the human tk gene to a 1cM region between markers D17S802 and D17S937.

  14. DMP1 C-Terminal Mutant Mice Recapture the Human ARHR Tooth Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Baichun; Cao, Zhengguo; Lu, Yongbo; Janik, Carol; Lauziere, Stephanie; Xie, Yixia; Poliard, Anne; Qin, Chunlin; Ward, Leanne M; Feng, Jian Q

    2010-01-01

    DMP1 mutations in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR) patients and mice lacking Dmp1 display an overlapping pathophysiology, such as hypophosphatemia. However, subtle differences exist between the mouse model and human ARHR patients. These differences could be due to a species specificity of human versus mouse, or it may be that the mutant DMP1 in humans maintains partial function of DMP1. In this study we report a deformed tooth phenotype in a human DMP1 deletion mutation case. Unexpectedly, the deletion of nucleotides 1484 to 1490 (c.1484_1490delCTATCAC, delMut, resulting in replacement of the last 18 residues with 33 random amino acids) showed a severe dentin and enamel defect similar to a dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) III–like phenotype. To address the molecular mechanism behind this phenotype, we generated delMut transgenic mice with the endogenous Dmp1 gene removed. These mutant mice did not recapture the abnormal phenotype observed in the human patient but displayed a mild rachitic tooth phenotype in comparison with that in the Dmp1-null mice, suggesting that the DI III–like phenotype may be due to an as-yet-undetermined acquired gene modifier. The mechanism studies showed that the mutant fragment maintains partial function of DMP1 such as stimulating MAP kinase signaling in vitro. Last, the in vitro and in vivo data support a role of odontoblasts in the control of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) regulation during early postnatal development, although this regulation on Pi homeostasis is likely limited. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20499360

  15. Non-native Soluble Oligomers of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Contain a Conformational Epitope Linked to Cytotoxicity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Soluble misfolded Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is implicated in motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, the relative toxicities of the various non-native species formed by SOD1 as it misfolds and aggregates are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that early stages of SOD1 aggregation involve the formation of soluble oligomers that contain an epitope specific to disease-relevant misfolded SOD1; this epitope, recognized by the C4F6 antibody, has been proposed as a marker of toxic species. Formation of potentially toxic oligomers is likely to be exacerbated by an oxidizing cellular environment, as evidenced by increased oligomerization propensity and C4F6 reactivity when oxidative modification by glutathione is present at Cys-111. These findings suggest that soluble non-native SOD1 oligomers, rather than native-like dimers or monomers, share structural similarity to pathogenic misfolded species found in ALS patients and therefore represent potential cytotoxic agents and therapeutic targets in ALS. PMID:24660965

  16. Effects of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (sod1) Genotype and Genetic Background on Growth, Reproduction and Defense in Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kaitlin M.; Bayne, Christopher J.; Larson, Maureen K.; Blouin, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to the trematode Schistosoma mansoni is correlated with allelic variation at copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod1). We tested whether there is a fitness cost associated with carrying the most resistant allele in three outbred laboratory populations of snails. These three populations were derived from the same base population, but differed in average resistance. Under controlled laboratory conditions we found no cost of carrying the most resistant allele in terms of fecundity, and a possible advantage in terms of growth and mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to drive resistant alleles of sod1 into natural populations of the snail vector for the purpose of controlling transmission of S. mansoni. However, we did observe a strong effect of genetic background on the association between sod1 genotype and resistance. sod1 genotype explained substantial variance in resistance among individuals in the most resistant genetic background, but had little effect in the least resistant genetic background. Thus, epistatic interactions with other loci may be as important a consideration as costs of resistance in the use of sod1 for vector manipulation. PMID:22724037

  17. Trophic and proliferative effects of Shh on motor neurons in embryonic spinal cord culture from wildtype and G93A SOD1 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The developmental morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) may continue to play a trophic role in the support of terminally-differentiated motor neurons, of potential relevance to motor neuron disease. In addition, it may support the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous stem cells along motor neuronal lineages. As such, we have examined the trophic and proliferative effects of Shh supplementation or Shh antagonism in embryonic spinal cord cell cultures derived from wildtype or G93A SOD1 mice, a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Results Shh supported survival, and stimulated growth of motor neurons, neurite outgrowth, and neurosphere formation in primary culture derived from both G93A SOD1 and WT mice. Shh increased the percentage of ciliated motor neurons, especially in G93A SOD1 culture. Shh-treated cultures showed increased neuronal proliferation compared to controls and especially cyclopamine treated cultures, from G93A SOD1 and WT mice. Moreover, Shh enhanced cell survival and differentiation of motor neuron precursors in WT culture. Conclusions Shh is neurotrophic to motor neurons and has mitogenic effects in WT and mSOD1 G93A culture in vitro. PMID:24119209

  18. An amphotropic retroviral vector expressing a mutant gsp oncogene: effects on human thyroid cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ivan, M; Ludgate, M; Gire, V; Bond, J A; Wynford-Thomas, D

    1997-08-01

    Point mutations of the gsp protooncogene (encoding the alpha-subunit of the Gs protein) that constitutively activate the cAMP signaling pathway are a common feature of and a plausible causative mechanism for thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas (hot nodules). To investigate the extent to which mutant gsp acting alone can induce proliferation of thyroid follicular cells, we generated an amphotropic retroviral vector (based on the pBABE-neo plasmid and psi-CRIP packaging line) to permit stable introduction of a hemagglutinin-tagged Gln227-->Leu mutant gsp gene into normal human thyrocytes in vitro. The biological activity of the vector was confirmed by detection of HA-tagged Gsp protein expression and induction of cAMP synthesis in selected target cells. Normal human thyroid follicular cells in primary monolayer culture were infected with the gsp retroviral vector or with corresponding vectors expressing mutant H-ras or neo only as positive and negative controls, respectively. Although, as before, mutant ras generated 10-20 well differentiated epithelial colonies/dish of 10(5) infected cells, with an average lifespan of 15-20 population doublings, only small groups of no more than 15-50 differentiated thyrocytes were observed with the gsp vector. In addition to standard conditions (10% FCS), infections were performed in reduced serum (1% FCS, TSH, and insulin), in the presence of isobutylylmethylxanthine, or in the presence of agents capable of closing gap junctions, with no significant difference in outcome. Although little or no proliferative response was observed regardless of the conditions, there was clear evidence of morphological response (rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and increased cell size). The results suggest that gsp mutation may not be a sufficient proliferogenic stimulus by itself to account for hot nodule formation.

  19. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid.

  20. Mutant p53 stimulates cell invasion through an interaction with Rad21 in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Hye; Kim, Tae Jin; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2017-08-22

    Missense mutations of TP53 are extremely common, and mutant p53 accumulation and gain-of-function play crucial roles in human ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the role of mutant p53 in cell migration and invasion as well as its underlying molecular mechanisms in human ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of mutant p53 significantly increased migration and invasion in p53-null SKOV3 cells. In contrast, knockdown of mutant p53 significantly compromised mutant p53-induced cell migration and invasion. Microarray analysis revealed that several migration/invasion-related genes, including S1PR1 (Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1) and THBS1 (Thrombospodin 1), were significantly upregulated in SKOV3 cells that overexpressed mutant p53-R248 (SKOV3(R248)). We found that Rad21 is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the migration/invasion-related genes induced by mutant p53-R248. Knockdown of Rad21 significantly attenuated the mutant p53-R248-induced invasion and the expressions of S1PR1 and THBS1. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that mutant p53 interacts with Rad21 and binds to the Rad21-binding elements in the S1PR1 and THBS1 genes. Finally, downregulation of S1PR1 significantly attenuated the invasion driven by mutant p53-R248. These novel findings reveal that mutant p53-R248 maintains gain-of-function activity to stimulate cell invasion and induces the related gene expressions through an interaction with Rad21 in human ovarian cancer cells.

  1. Femtosecond Fluorescence Spectra of Tryptophan in Human γ-Crystallin Mutants: Site-Dependent Ultrafast Quenching

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Jiejin; Toptygin, Dmitri; Tcherkasskaya, Olga; Callis, Patrik; King, Jonathan; Brand, Ludwig; Knutson, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    The eye lens crystallin proteins are subject to UV irradiation throughout life, and the photochemistry of damage proceeds through the excited state; thus, their tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence lifetimes are physiologically important properties. The time resolved fluorescence spectra of single Trps in human γD- and γS-crystallins have been measured with both an upconversion spectrophotofluorometer on the 300fs to 100ps time scale, and a time correlated single photon counting apparatus on the 100ps to 10ns time scale, respectively. Three Trps in each wild type protein were replaced by phenylalanine, leading to single-Trp mutants: W68-only and W156-only of HγD- and W72-only and W162-only of HγS-crystallin. These proteins exhibit similar ultrafast signatures: positive definite decay associated spectra (DAS) for 50 – 65ps decay constants that indicate dominance of fast, heterogeneous quenching. The quenched population (judged by amplitude) of this DAS differs among mutants. Trps 68, 156 in human γD- and Trp72 in human γS-crystallin are buried, but water can reach amide oxygen and ring HE1 atoms through narrow channels. QM-MM simulations of quenching by electron transfer predict heterogeneous decay times from 50–500 ps that agree with our experimental results. Further analysis of apparent radiative lifetimes allow us to deduce that substantial subpopulations of Trp are fully quenched in even faster (sub-300 fs) processes for several of the mutants. The quenching of Trp fluorescence of human γD- and γS-crystallin may protect them from ambient light induced photo damage. PMID:19919143

  2. Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wenshu; Lee Yijang; Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of {gamma}-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

  3. Interactions of attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant with human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Nadia L; Gomez, Ana B; Neyrolles, Olivier; Gicquel, Brigitte; Martin, Carlos

    2010-09-24

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant SO2 derived from a clinical isolate was shown to be attenuated in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo mouse infection model and has demonstrated a high potential as attenuated vaccine candidate against tuberculosis. In this study, we analyze the adhesion and the intracellular growth and trafficking of SO2 in human macrophages. Our results indicate an enhanced adhesion to phagocitic cells and impaired intracellular replication of SO2 in both monocyte-derived macrophages and human cell line THP-1 in comparison with the wild type strain, consistent with murine model. Intracellular trafficking analysis in human THP-1 cells suggest that attenuation of SO2 within macrophages could be due to an impaired ability to block phagosome-lysosome fusion compared with the parental M. tuberculosis strain. No differences were found between SO2 and the wild-type strains in the release and mycobacterial susceptibility to nitric oxide (NO) produced by infected macrophages. SO2 has enhanced ability to bind human macrophages and differs in intracellular trafficking as to wild-type M. tuberculosis. The altered lipid profile expression of the phoP mutant SO2 and its inability to secrete ESAT-6 is discussed.

  4. Interactions of Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP Mutant with Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Nadia L.; Gomez, Ana B.; Neyrolles, Olivier; Gicquel, Brigitte; Martin, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant SO2 derived from a clinical isolate was shown to be attenuated in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo mouse infection model and has demonstrated a high potential as attenuated vaccine candidate against tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyze the adhesion and the intracellular growth and trafficking of SO2 in human macrophages. Our results indicate an enhanced adhesion to phagocitic cells and impaired intracellular replication of SO2 in both monocyte-derived macrophages and human cell line THP-1 in comparison with the wild type strain, consistent with murine model. Intracellular trafficking analysis in human THP-1 cells suggest that attenuation of SO2 within macrophages could be due to an impaired ability to block phagosome-lysosome fusion compared with the parental M. tuberculosis strain. No differences were found between SO2 and the wild-type strains in the release and mycobacterial susceptibility to nitric oxide (NO) produced by infected macrophages. Conclusions/Significance SO2 has enhanced ability to bind human macrophages and differs in intracellular trafficking as to wild-type M. tuberculosis. The altered lipid profile expression of the phoP mutant SO2 and its inability to secrete ESAT-6 is discussed. PMID:20885976

  5. Isolation and characterization of auxotrophic mutants of Legionella pneumophila that fail to multiply in human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, C S; Chen, J X; Shuman, H A

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to isolate auxotrophic mutants of Legionella pneumophila have been hampered by the complex nutritional composition of the media used to cultivate this organism. We developed a semidefined medium, designated CAA, to facilitate the isolation and characterization of Legionella auxotrophs. Unlike previously described chemically defined media for this organism, L. pneumophila formed colonies on CAA agar. Using this medium, we isolated several independent tryptophan auxotrophs of strain Philadelphia-1 after ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and penicillin enrichment. Trimethoprim selection was used to isolate several independent thymidine-requiring mutants of the same strain. The thymidine auxotrophs exhibited a marked decrease in viability when they were deprived of thymidine. The results of monocyte infection experiments with both the tryptophan and thymidine auxotrophs indicated that the thymidine auxotrophs were incapable of intracellular survival or multiplication. In contrast, the tryptophan auxotrophs grew well in monocyte cultures. The isolation of additional auxotrophic mutants will facilitate the study of the nutritional requirements of L. pneumophila for growth in human mononuclear phagocytes. PMID:3372016

  6. Labeling of human clots in vitro with an active-site mutant of t-PA

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, E.T.; Mack, D.L.; Monge, J.C.; Billadello, J.J.; Sobel, B.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Prompt detection of acute thrombosis and its response to treatment with thrombolytic agents generally require angiography. Scintigraphic approaches with labeled antibodies to or components of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems have been disappointing because of prolonged circulating half-lives of tracers and relatively slow or limited binding to thrombi. Accordingly, we developed and characterized a thrombolytically inactive, active-site mutant (Ser-478----Thr) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) designed to detect thrombi in vivo. Binding of iodine-125-({sup 125}I) labeled Ser----Thr t-PA to thrombi in vitro was time- and concentration-dependent, and specific judging from inhibition by pre-incubation with anti-t-PA IgG. Clearance of 125I-labeled mutant t-PA in rabbits was rapid and biexponential (alpha t1/2 = 1.9 +/- 0.4 min, beta t1/2 = 39.8 +/- 11.2 min). Thus, the amidolytically inactive mutant of t-PA designed binds rapidly and specifically to human thrombi in vitro and is cleared rapidly from the circulation in vivo--properties rendering it attractive as a potentially useful clot imaging agent.

  7. Gene expression changes in spinal motoneurons of the SOD1G93A transgenic model for ALS after treatment with G-CSF

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Alexandre; Kastner, Stefan; Chatzikonstantinou, Eva; Pitzer, Claudia; Plaas, Christian; Kirsch, Friederike; Wafzig, Oliver; Krüger, Carola; Spoelgen, Robert; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Gretz, Norbert; Schneider, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable fatal motoneuron disease with a lifetime risk of approximately 1:400. It is characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting, and death ensuing 3–5 years after diagnosis. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a drug candidate for ALS, with evidence for efficacy from animal studies and interesting data from pilot clinical trials. To gain insight into the disease mechanisms and mode of action of G-CSF, we performed gene expression profiling on isolated lumbar motoneurons from SOD1G93A mice, the most frequently studied animal model for ALS, with and without G-CSF treatment. Results: Motoneurons from SOD1G93A mice present a distinct gene expression profile in comparison to controls already at an early disease stage (11 weeks of age), when treatment was initiated. The degree of deregulation increases at a time where motor symptoms are obvious (15 weeks of age). Upon G-CSF treatment, transcriptomic deregulations of SOD1G93A motoneurons were notably restored. Discriminant analysis revealed that SOD1 mice treated with G-CSF has a transcriptom close to presymptomatic SOD1 mice or wild type mice. Some interesting genes modulated by G-CSF treatment relate to neuromuscular function such as CCR4-NOT or Prss12. Conclusions: Our data suggest that G-CSF is able to re-adjust gene expression in symptomatic SOD1G93A motoneurons. This provides further arguments for G-CSF as a promising drug candidate for ALS. PMID:25653590

  8. Influence of Methylene Blue on Microglia-Induced Inflammation and Motor Neuron Degeneration in the SOD1G93A Model for ALS

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Heinz; Scheffel, Jörg; Göricke, Bettina; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Le Meur, Karim; Kirchhoff, Frank; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Schomburg, Eike D.; Neusch, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in SOD1 cause hereditary variants of the fatal motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Pathophysiology of the disease is non-cell-autonomous, with toxicity deriving also from glia. In particular, microglia contribute to disease progression. Methylene blue (MB) inhibits the effect of nitric oxide, which mediates microglial responses to injury. In vivo 2P-LSM imaging was performed in ALS-linked transgenic SOD1G93A mice to investigate the effect of MB on microglia-mediated inflammation in the spinal cord. Local superfusion of the lateral spinal cord with MB inhibited the microglial reaction directed at a laser-induced axon transection in control and SOD1G93A mice. In vitro, MB at high concentrations inhibited cytokine and chemokine release from microglia of control and advanced clinical SOD1G93A mice. Systemic MB-treatment of SOD1G93A mice at early preclinical stages significantly delayed disease onset and motor dysfunction. However, an increase of MB dose had no additional effect on disease progression; this was unexpected in view of the local anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, in vivo imaging of systemically MB-treated mice also showed no alterations of microglia activity in response to local lesions. Thus although systemic MB treatment had no effect on microgliosis, instead, its use revealed an important influence on motor neuron survival as indicated by an increased number of lumbar anterior horn neurons present at the time of disease onset. Thus, potentially beneficial effects of locally applied MB on inflammatory events contributing to disease progression could not be reproduced in SOD1G93A mice via systemic administration, whereas systemic MB application delayed disease onset via neuroprotection. PMID:22952827

  9. SOD1-G93A mice exhibit muscle-fiber-type-specific decreases in glucose uptake in the absence of whole-body changes in metabolism.

    PubMed

    Smittkamp, Susan E; Morris, Jill K; Bomhoff, Gregory L; Chertoff, Mark E; Geiger, Paige C; Stanford, John A

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscles play an important role in systemic glucose homeostasis and are purported to be the origin of the altered metabolic state observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole-body and muscle-specific glucose metabolism in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of ALS. We assessed glucose tolerance in early-, middle-, and late-stage SOD1-G93A and control mice using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. We then measured the respiratory exchange ratio (CO2 production/O2 consumption) as a function of fasting and feeding using indirect calorimetry in a subset of male mice at these time points. Finally, muscles from all mice were harvested to evaluate basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. No changes in systemic glucose clearance were observed in SOD1-G93A mice at any stage, nor were there changes in fasting insulin levels. Indirect calorimetry revealed an increase in the respiratory exchange ratio during the fed state at middle, but not at early or late stages of disease. Middle-stage SOD1-G93A mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in fast-twitch, but not slow-twitch, skeletal muscle. Late-stage SOD1-G93A mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both fast- and slow-twitch muscle, as well as increased basal (non-insulin-stimulated) glucose uptake. These results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism occur in a fiber-type-specific manner in ALS, but do not necessarily lead to whole-body metabolic changes in SOD1-G93A mice. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. ATM mediates cytotoxicity of a mutant telomerase RNA in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Stohr, Bradley A.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres are elongated by the enzyme telomerase, which contains a template-bearing RNA (TER or TERC) and a protein reverse transcriptase. Overexpression of a particular mutant human TER with a mutated template sequence (MT-hTer-47A) in telomerase-positive cancer cells causes incorporation of mutant telomeric sequences, telomere uncapping, and initiation of a DNA damage response, ultimately resulting in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. The DNA damage pathways underlying these cellular effects are not well understood. Here, we show that the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein is activated and forms telomeric foci in response to MT-hTer-47A expression. Depletion of ATM from two cancer cell lines, including the p53-mutant UM-UC-3 bladder cancer line, rendered the cells largely unresponsive to MT-hTer-47A. Relative to ATM-competent controls, ATM-depleted cells showed increased proliferation and clonogenic survival and reduced cell death following MT-hTer-47A treatment. In contrast, ATM depletion sensitized the cancer cells to treatment with camptothecin, a topoisomerase inhibitor which induces DNA double-strand breaks. We show that the effects of ATM depletion on the MT-hTer-47A response were not due to decreased expression of MT-hTer-47A or reduced activity of telomerase at the telomere. Instead, ATM depletion allowed robust cancer cell growth despite the continued presence of dysfunctional telomeres containing mutant sequence. Notably, the number of end-to-end telomere fusions induced by MT-hTer-47A treatment was markedly reduced in ATM-depleted cells. Our results identify ATM as a key mediator of the MT-hTer-47A dysfunctional telomere response, even in cells lacking wild-type p53, and provide evidence that telomere fusions contribute to MT-hTer-47A cytotoxicity. PMID:18593932

  11. Defining peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the SOD-1G93A transgenic rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riva, Nilo; Chaabane, Linda; Peviani, Marco; Ungaro, Daniela; Domi, Teuta; Dina, Giorgia; Bianchi, Francesca; Spano, Giorgia; Cerri, Federica; Podini, Paola; Corbo, Massimo; Carro, Ubaldo Del; Comi, Giancarlo; Bendotti, Caterina; Quattrini, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that alterations within the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are involved at an early stage in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenetic cascade. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurophysiologic analyses, and histologic analyses were used to monitor the extent of PNS damage in the hSOD-1 ALS rat model. The imaging signature of the disease was defined using in vivo MRI of the sciatic nerve. Initial abnormalities were detected in the nerves by an increase in T2 relaxation time before the onset of clinical disease; diffusion MRI showed a progressive increase in mean and radial diffusivity and reduction of fractional anisotropy at advanced stages of disease. Histologic analysis demonstrated early impairment of the blood-nerve barrier followed by acute axonal degeneration associated with endoneurial edema and macrophage response in motor nerve compartments. Progressive axonal degeneration and motor nerve fiber loss correlated with MRI and neurophysiologic changes. These functional and morphologic investigations of the PNS might be applied in following disease progression in preclinical therapeutic studies. This study establishes the PNS signature in this rat ALS model (shedding new light into pathogenesis) and provides a rationale for translating into future systematic MRI studies of PNS involvement in patients with ALS.

  12. Intrathecal Delivery of ssAAV9-DAO Extends Survival in SOD1(G93A) ALS Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan; Duan, Weisong; Wang, Ying; Wen, Di; Liu, Yakun; Li, Zhongyao; Hu, Haojie; Cui, Hongying; Cui, Can; Lin, Huiqian; Li, Chunyan

    2016-12-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive paralysis and inevitable death 3-5 years after diagnosis. The mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, but new evidence indicates that accumulating levels of D-serine result from the downregulation of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and that this is a novel mechanism that leads to motoneuronal death in ALS via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated cell toxicity. Here, we explored a new therapeutic approach to ALS by overexpressing DAO in the lumbar region of the mouse spinal cord using a single stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (ssAAV9) vector. A single intrathecal injection of ssAAV9-DAO was made in SOD1(G93A) mice, a well-established mouse model of ALS. Treatment resulted in moderate expression of exogenous DAO in motorneurons in the lumbar spinal cord, reduced immunoreactivity of D-serine, alleviated motoneuronal loss and glial activation, and extended survival. The potential mechanisms underlying these effects were associated with the down-regulation of NF-κB and the restoration of the phosphorylation of Akt. In conclusion, administering ssAAV9-DAO may be an effective complementary approach to gene therapy to extend lifespans in symptomatic ALS.

  13. Introduction of yeast artificial chromosomes containing mutant human amyloid precursor protein genes into transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Call, L.M.; Lamb, B.T.; Boese, K.F.

    1994-09-01

    Several hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed for the generation and deposition of the amyloid beta (A{beta}) peptide in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). These include overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene, as suggested by Down Syndrome (DS, trisomy 21), and mutation of APP, as suggested by mutations associated with the presence of disease/amyloid deposition in some cases of familial AD (FAD). Although numerous in vitro studies have lead to certain insights into the molecular basis for amyloid deposition, the mechanisms(s) of amyloidogenesis in vivo remains poorly defined. To examine the effect of FAD mutations on amyloidogenesis in an animal model, we have focused on producing APP YAC transgenic mice containing the human APP gene with FAD mutations. These APP YAC transgenics are being produced by introduction of a 650 kb APP YAC through lipid-mediated transfection of ES cells. This strategy has two principal advantages: the APP genomic sequences contain transcriptional regulatory elements required for proper spatial and temporal expression and contain appropriate splice donor and acceptor sites needed to generate the entire spectrum of alternatively spliced APP transcripts. As a first step, we cloned the genomic regions surrounding APP exons 16 and 17 from an APP YAC sublibrary. Both the Swedish and the 717 mutations were then introduced into exons 16 and 17, respectively, by PCR mutagenesis, and subsequently transferred into the 650 kb APP YAC by a two step gene replacement in yeast. The mutant YACs have been introduced into ES cells, and we have determined that these cells are expressing human mutant APP mRNA and protein. These cells are being used to generate transgenic mice. This paradigm should provide the appropriate test of whether a mutant APP gene is capable of producing AD-like pathology in a mouse model.

  14. Divergent Regulation of Ryr2 Calcium Release Channels by Arrhythmogenic Human Calmodulin Missense Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun-Seok; Nitu, Florentin R; Yang, Yi; Walweel, Kafa; Pereira, Laetitia; Johnson, Christopher N; Faggioni, Michela; Chazin, Walter J; Laver, Derek; George, Alfred L; Cornea, Razvan L; Bers, Donald M; Knollmann, Björn C

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Calmodulin (CaM) mutations are associated with an autosomal-dominant syndrome of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death that can present with divergent clinical features of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)or long QT syndrome (LQTS).CaM binds to and inhibits RyR2 Ca release channels in the heart, but whether arrhythmogenic CaM mutants alter RyR2 function is not known. Objective To gain mechanistic insight into how human CaM mutations affect RyR2 Ca channels. Methods and Results We studied recombinant CaM mutants associated with CPVT (N54I, N98S) or LQTS (D96V, D130G, F142L). As a group, all LQTS-associated CaM mutants(LQTS-CaMs) exhibited reduced Ca affinity, whereas CPVT-associated CaM mutants(CPVT-CaMs) had either normal or modestly lower Ca affinity. In permeabilized ventricular myocytes, CPVT-CaMs at a physiological intracellular concentration (100nM) promoted significantly higher spontaneous Ca wave and spark activity, a typical cellular phenotype of CPVT. Compared to wild-type (WT) CaM, CPVT-CaMs caused greater RyR2 single channel open probability and showed enhanced binding affinity to RyR2. Even a 1:8 mixture of CPVT-CaM:WT-CaM activated Ca waves, demonstrating functional dominance. By contrast, LQTS-CaMs did not promote Ca waves and exhibited either normal regulation of RyR2 single channels (D96V) or lower RyR2 binding affinity (D130G, F142L). None of the CaM mutants altered Ca/CaM binding to CaM-kinase II. Conclusions A small proportion of CPVT-CaM is sufficient to evoke arrhythmogenic Ca disturbances, whereas LQTS-CaMs do not. Our findings explain the clinical presentation and autosomal dominant inheritance of CPVT-CaM mutations and suggest that RyR2-interactions are unlikely to explain arrhythmogenicity of LQTS-CaM mutations. PMID:24563457

  15. Isolation and characterization of a new mutant human cell line unresponsive to alpha and beta interferons.

    PubMed

    John, J; McKendry, R; Pellegrini, S; Flavell, D; Kerr, I M; Stark, G R

    1991-08-01

    Previously we described human cell line 2fTGH, in which expression of guanine phosphoribosyltransferase is tightly controlled by the upstream region of interferon (IFN)-stimulated human gene 6-16. After mutagenesis of 2fTGH and selection with 6-thioguanine and IFN-alpha, we isolated 11.1, a recessive mutant that does not respond to IFN-alpha. We now describe U2, a second recessive mutant, selected similarly, that complements 11.1. U2 had no response to IFN-alpha or IFN-beta, and its response to IFN-gamma was partially defective. Although many genes did respond to IFN-gamma in U2, the 9-27 gene did not and the antiviral response of U2 cells to IFN-gamma was greatly reduced. Band shift assays showed that none of the transcription factors normally induced in 2fTGH cells by IFN-alpha (E and M) or IFN-gamma (G) were induced in U2. However, extracts of untreated U2 cells gave rise to a novel band that was increased by treatment with IFN-gamma but not IFN-alpha. Band shift complementation assays revealed that untreated and IFN-gamma-treated U2 cells lack the functional E gamma subunit of transcription factor E and that IFN-alpha-treated U2 cells do contain the functional E alpha subunit.

  16. Susceptibility to hepatotoxicity in transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative human keratin 18 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, N O; Michie, S A; Soetikno, R M; Resurreccion, E Z; Broome, R L; Oshima, R G; Omary, M B

    1996-01-01

    Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/18) are intermediate filament phosphoglycoproteins that are expressed preferentially in simple-type epithelia. We recently described transgenic mice that express point-mutant human K18 (Ku, N.-O., S. Michie, R.G. Oshima, and M.B. Omary. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 131:1303-1314) and develop chronic hepatitis and hepatocyte fragility in association with hepatocyte keratin filament disruption. Here we show that mutant K18 expressing transgenic mice are highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity after acute administration of acetaminophen (400 mg/Kg) or chronic ingestion of griseofulvin (1.25% wt/wt of diet). The predisposition to hepatotoxicity results directly from the keratin mutation since nontransgenic or transgenic mice that express normal human K18 are more resistant. Hepatotoxicity was manifested by a significant difference in lethality, liver histopathology, and biochemical serum testing. Keratin glycosylation decreased in all griseofulvin-fed mice, whereas keratin phosphorylation increased dramatically preferentially in mice expressing normal K18. The phosphorylation increase in normal K18 after griseofulvin feeding appears to involve sites that are different to those that increase after partial hepatectomy. Our results indicate that hepatocyte intermediate filament disruption renders mice highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity, and raises the possibility that K18 mutations may predispose to drug hepatotoxicity. The dramatic phosphorylation increase in nonmutant keratins could provide survival advantage to hepatocytes. PMID:8770877

  17. Mouse and hamster mutants as models for Waardenburg syndromes in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, J H; Friedman, T B

    1990-01-01

    Four different Waardenburg syndromes have been defined based upon observed phenotypes. These syndromes are responsible for approximately 2% of subjects with profound congenital hearing loss. At present, Waardenburg syndromes have not been mapped to particular human chromosomes. One or more of the mouse mutant alleles, Ph (patch), s (piebald), Sp (splotch), and Mior (microphthalmia-Oak Ridge) and the hamster mutation Wh (anophthalmic white) may be homologous to mutations causing Waardenburg syndromes. In heterozygotes, phenotypic effects of these four mouse mutations and the hamster mutation are similar to the phenotypes produced by different Waardenburg syndrome mutations. The chromosomal locations and syntenic relationships associated with three of the four mouse mutant genes have been used to predict human chromosomal locations for Waardenburg syndromes: (1) on chromosome 2q near FN1 (fibronectin 1), (2) on chromosome 3p near the proto-oncogene RAF1 or 3q near RHO (rhodopsin), and (3) on chromosome 4p near the proto-oncogene KIT. Waardenburg syndromes show extensive intrafamilial phenotypic variability. Results of our studies with the hamster mutation Wh suggest that this variability may be explained in part by modifier genes segregating within families. Images PMID:2246770

  18. A (p)ppGpp-Null Mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi Is Partially Attenuated in Humans Due to Multiple Conflicting Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Concerta; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Li, Wei; Fortney, Kate R.; Janowicz, Diane M.; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    (p)ppGpp responds to nutrient limitation through a global change in gene regulation patterns to increase survival. The stringent response has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacterial species. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, has homologs of both relA and spoT, which primarily synthesize and hydrolyze (p)ppGpp in Escherichia coli. We constructed relA and relA spoT deletion mutants to assess the contribution of (p)ppGpp to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. Both the relA single mutant and the relA spoT double mutant failed to synthesize (p)ppGpp, suggesting that relA is the primary synthetase of (p)ppGpp in H. ducreyi. Compared to the parent strain, the double mutant was partially attenuated for pustule formation in human volunteers. The double mutant had several phenotypes that favored attenuation, including increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The increased sensitivity to oxidative stress could be complemented in trans. However, the double mutant also exhibited phenotypes that favored virulence. When grown to the mid-log phase, the double mutant was significantly more resistant than its parent to being taken up by human macrophages and exhibited increased transcription of lspB, which is involved in resistance to phagocytosis. Additionally, compared to the parent, the double mutant also exhibited prolonged survival in the stationary phase. In E. coli, overexpression of DksA compensates for the loss of (p)ppGpp; the H. ducreyi double mutant expressed higher transcript levels of dksA than the parent strain. These data suggest that the partial attenuation of the double mutant is likely the net result of multiple conflicting phenotypes. PMID:24914217

  19. A (p)ppGpp-null mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi is partially attenuated in humans due to multiple conflicting phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Holley, Concerta; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Li, Wei; Fortney, Kate R; Janowicz, Diane M; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2014-08-01

    (p)ppGpp responds to nutrient limitation through a global change in gene regulation patterns to increase survival. The stringent response has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacterial species. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, has homologs of both relA and spoT, which primarily synthesize and hydrolyze (p)ppGpp in Escherichia coli. We constructed relA and relA spoT deletion mutants to assess the contribution of (p)ppGpp to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. Both the relA single mutant and the relA spoT double mutant failed to synthesize (p)ppGpp, suggesting that relA is the primary synthetase of (p)ppGpp in H. ducreyi. Compared to the parent strain, the double mutant was partially attenuated for pustule formation in human volunteers. The double mutant had several phenotypes that favored attenuation, including increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The increased sensitivity to oxidative stress could be complemented in trans. However, the double mutant also exhibited phenotypes that favored virulence. When grown to the mid-log phase, the double mutant was significantly more resistant than its parent to being taken up by human macrophages and exhibited increased transcription of lspB, which is involved in resistance to phagocytosis. Additionally, compared to the parent, the double mutant also exhibited prolonged survival in the stationary phase. In E. coli, overexpression of DksA compensates for the loss of (p)ppGpp; the H. ducreyi double mutant expressed higher transcript levels of dksA than the parent strain. These data suggest that the partial attenuation of the double mutant is likely the net result of multiple conflicting phenotypes.

  20. Restoration of Mitochondrial Gene Expression Using a Cloned Human Gene in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Zaki A; Broome, Carolyn W

    2015-01-01

    Background Gal−32 is a Chinese hamster lung cell nuclear mutant that is unable to grow in galactose due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Since the product of the Gal−32 gene was unknown, it was imperative to use phenotypic complementation to clone a human gene that corrected the Gal−32 mutation. Results Recessive Gal−32 cells were co-transformed with pSV2-neo plasmid DNA and recombinant DNA from a human genomic library containing the dominant human Gal+ gene and a chloramphenicol-resistance (camr) gene present in the pSV13 vector. Primary transformants were selected by growth in galactose and the neomycin analog G418. In order to rescue the human Gal+ gene, a genomic library was constructed with primary transformant DNA and the pCV108 cosmid vector. The camr gene was used to identify clones with the nearby human sequences. DNA from two camr, Alu-hybridizing clones was able to transform the recessive Gal−32 cells to the Gal+ phenotype and to restore mitochondrial protein synthesis. Conclusion These data demonstrate the isolation of two pCV108-transformant recombinant clones containing a human gene that complements the Chinese hamster Gal−32 mutation and restores galactose metabolism. PMID:26052559

  1. Mechanics of actin networks crosslinked with mutant human α-actinin-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, Sabine; Blair, Daniel; Kasza, Karen; Weitz, David

    2007-03-01

    Globular actin can be polymerized in vitro to form F-actin in the presence of various binding proteins. These networks often exhibit dramatic nonlinear rheological response to imposed strains. We study the rheological properties of F-actin networks crosslinked with human α-actinin-4. A single genetic mutation of the α-actinin-4 protein is associated with focal and segmented glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a genetic disorder which leads to renal failure. Mechanically, the mutant crosslinker has an increased binding strength compared to the wild type. We will show that human α-actinin-4, displays a unique stiffening response. Moreover, we also demonstrate that a single point mutation dramatically effects the inherent relaxation time of the crosslinked network.

  2. Intracellular transport of human lysosomal α-mannosidase and α-mannosidosis-related mutants

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Human LAMAN (lysosomal α-mannosidase) was synthesized as a 120 kDa precursor in transfected COS cells [African-green-monkey kidney cells], which was partly secreted as a single-chain form and partly sorted to the lysosomes being subsequently cleaved into three peptides of 70, 40 and 15 kDa respectively. Both the secreted and the lysosomal forms contained endo H (endoglucosidase H)-resistant glycans, suggesting a common pathway through the trans-Golgi network. A fraction of LAMAN was retained intracellularly as a single-chain endo H-sensitive form, probably in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The inherited lack of LAMAN causes the autosomal recessive storage disease α-mannosidosis. To understand the biochemical consequences of the disease-causing mutations, 11 missense mutations and two in-frame deletions were introduced into human LAMAN cDNA by in vitro mutagenesis and the resulting proteins were expressed in COS cells. Some selected mutants were also expressed in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. T355P (Thr355→Pro), P356R, W714R, R750W and L809P LAMANs as well as both deletion mutants were misfolded and arrested in the ER as inactive single-chain forms. Six of the mutants were transported to the lysosomes, either with less than 5% of normal specific activity (H72L, D196E/N and R220H LAMANs) or with more than 30% of normal specific activity (E402K LAMAN). F320L LAMAN resulted in much lower activity in Chinese-hamster ovary cells when compared with COS cells. Modelling into the three-dimensional structure revealed that the mutants with highly reduced specific activities contained substitutions of amino acids involved in the catalysis, either co-ordinating Zn2+ (His72 and Asp196), stabilizing the active-site nucleophile (Arg220) or positioning the active-site residue Asp319 (Phe320). PMID:15035660

  3. A mutant human proinsulin is secreted from islets of Langerhans in increased amounts via an unregulated pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, R J; Hammer, R E; Chan, S J; Swift, H H; Rubenstein, A H; Steiner, D F

    1988-01-01

    A coding mutation in the human insulin gene (His-B10----Asp) is associated with familial hyperproinsulinemia. To model this syndrome, we have produced transgenic mice that express high levels of the mutant prohormone in their islets of Langerhans. Strain 24-6 mice, containing about 100 copies of the mutant gene, were normoglycemic but had marked increases of serum human proinsulin immunoreactive components. Biosynthetic studies on isolated islets revealed that approximately 65% of the proinsulin synthesized in these mice was the human mutant form. Unlike the normal endogenous mouse proinsulin, which was almost exclusively handled via a regulated secretory pathway, up to 15% of the human [Asp10]proinsulin was rapidly secreted after synthesis via an unregulated or constitutive pathway, and approximately 20% was degraded within the islet cells. The secreted human [Asp10]proinsulin was not processed proteolytically. However, the processing of the normal mouse and human mutant proinsulins within the islets from transgenic mice was not significantly impaired. These findings suggest that the hyperproinsulinemia of the patients is the result of the continuous secretion of unprocessed mutant prohormone from the islets via this alternative unregulated pathway. Images PMID:3057496

  4. The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) inhibits ERK phosphorylation by muscarinic receptor modulation in rat pituitary GH3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Secondo, Agnese; De Mizio, Mariarosaria; Zirpoli, Laura; Santillo, Mariarosaria; Mondola, Paolo

    2008-11-07

    The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) belongs to a family of isoenzymes that are able to dismutate the oxygen superoxide in hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. This enzyme is secreted by many cellular lines and it is also released trough a calcium-dependent depolarization mechanism involving SNARE protein SNAP 25. Using rat pituitary GH3 cells that express muscarinic receptors we found that SOD1 inhibits P-ERK1/2 pathway trough an interaction with muscarinic M1 receptor. This effect is strengthened by oxotremorine, a muscarinic M agonist and partially reverted by pyrenzepine, an antagonist of M1 receptor; moreover this effect is independent from increased intracellular calcium concentration induced by SOD1. Finally, P-ERK1/2 inhibition was accompanied by the reduction of GH3 cell proliferation. These data indicate that SOD1 beside the well studied antioxidant properties can be considered as a neuromodulator able to affect mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat pituitary cells trough a M1 muscarinic receptor.

  5. Bird to Human Transmission Biases and Vaccine Escape Mutants in H5N1 Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhatia, Aatish; Greenbaum, Benjamin D.; Bhanot, Gyan

    2014-01-01

    Background The avian influenza A H5N1 virus occasionally infects humans, with high mortality rates. Although all current human infections are from avian-to-human transmission, it has been shown that H5N1 can be evolved to transmit between mammals, and is therefore a pandemic threat. For H5N1 surveillance, it is of interest to identify the avian isolates most likely to infect humans. In this study, we develop a method to identify mutations significantly associated with avian to human transmission. Method Using protein sequences for the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin from avian and human H5N1 isolates in China, Egypt, and Indonesia from the years 1996–2011, we used Principle Component Analysis and a Maximum Likelihood Multinomial method to identify mutations associated with avian to human transmission. In each geographic region, transmission bias residues were identified using two signatures: a) significantly different amino-acid frequencies in human isolates compared to avian isolates from the same year, and b) significantly low probability of neutral evolution of the human isolates from the avian viral pool of the previous year. Results In each geographic region, we find specific transmission bias mutations associated with human infections. These mutations are located in antigenic regions and receptor binding, glycosylation and polybasic cleavage sites of HA. We show that human isolates derive from a limited, subset of the avian pool characterized by geography specific mutations. In Egypt, two of three PCA clusters have very few human isolates but are highly enriched in mutations associated with a vaccine escape mutant H5N1 avian sub-clade that is known to be resistant to the Mexican H5N2 vaccine Furthermore, at these transmission bias associated residues, the mutations characteristic of these two clusters are distinct from those associated with the cluster enriched in human isolates, suggesting that vaccine resistant avian strains are unable to infect humans

  6. Alterations in the motor neuron-Renshaw cell circuit in the Sod1G93A mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Wootz, Hanna; FitzSimons-Kantamneni, Eileen; Larhammar, Martin; Rotterman, Travis M.; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Andre, Elodie; van Zundert, Brigitte; Kullander, Klas; Alvarez, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Motor neurons become hyperexcitable during progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This abnormal firing behavior has been explained by changes in their membrane properties, but more recently it has been suggested that changes in premotor circuits may also contribute to this abnormal activity. The specific circuits that may be altered during development of ALS have not been investigated. Here we examined the Renshaw cell recurrent circuit that exerts inhibitory feedback control on motor neuron firing. Using two markers for Renshaw cells (calbindin and Chrna2 , cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit alpha2), two general markers for motor neurons (NeuN and VAChT, vesicular acethylcholine transporter ) and two markers for fast motor neurons (Chondrolectin and Calca, calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha), we analyzed the survival and connectivity of these cells during disease progression in the Sod1G93A mouse model. Most calbindin-immunoreactive (IR) Renshaw cells survive to end-stage but downregulate postsynaptic Chrna2 in presymptomatic animals. In motor neurons, some markers are downregulated early (NeuN, VAChT, Chondrolectin) and others at end-stage(Calca). Early downregulation of presynaptic VAChT and Chrna2 was correlated with disconnection from Renshaw cells as well as major structural abnormalities of motor axon synapses inside the spinal cord. Renshaw cell synapses on motor neurons underwent more complex changes, including transitional sprouting preferentially over remaining NeuN-IR motor neurons. We conclude that the loss of presynaptic motor axon input on Renshaw cells occurs at early stages of ALS and disconnects the recurrent inhibitory circuit, presumably resulting in a diminished control of motor neuron firing. PMID:23172249

  7. Expression of a mutant IRS inhibits metabolic and mitogenic signalling of insulin in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Stenkula, Karin G; Said, Lilian; Karlsson, Margareta; Thorn, Hans; Kjølhede, Preben; Gustavsson, Johanna; Söderström, Mats; Strålfors, Peter; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2004-06-30

    Adipose tissue is a primary target of insulin, but knowledge about insulin signalling in human adipocytes is limited. We developed an electroporation technique for transfection of primary human adipocytes with a transfection efficiency of 15% +/- 5 (mean +/- S.D.). Human adipocytes were co-transfected with a mutant of IRS-3 (all four potential PI3-kinase binding motifs mutated: IRS-3F4) and HA-tagged protein kinase B (HA-PKB/Akt). HA-PKB/Akt was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with anti-HA antibodies, resolved with SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotted with phospho-specific antibodies. We found that IRS-3F4 blocked insulin stimulation of HA-PKB/Akt phosphorylation and in further analyses also translocation of recombinant HA-tagged glucose transporter to the plasma membrane. IRS-3F4 also blocked insulin-induced activation of the transcription factor Elk-1. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of IRS for metabolic as well as mitogenic signalling by insulin. This method for transfection of primary human adipocytes will be useful for studying insulin signalling in human adipocytes with molecular biological techniques.

  8. Differential growth kinetics are exhibited by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Harrich, D; Hsu, C; Race, E; Gaynor, R B

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) TAR element is critical for the activation of gene expression by the transactivator protein, Tat. Mutagenesis has demonstrated that a stable stem-loop RNA structure containing both loop and bulge structures transcribed from TAR is the major target for tat activation. Though transient assays have defined elements critical for TAR function, no studies have yet determined the role of TAR in viral replication because of the inability to generate viral stocks containing mutations in TAR. In the current study, we developed a strategy which enabled us to generate stable 293 cell lines which were capable of producing high titers of different viruses containing TAR mutations. Viruses generated from these cell lines were used to infect both T-lymphocyte cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viruses containing TAR mutations in either the upper stem, the bulge, or the loop exhibited dramatically decreased HIV-1 gene expression and replication in all cell lines tested. However, we were able to isolate lymphoid cell lines which stably expressed gene products from each of these TAR mutant viruses. Though the amounts of virus in these cell lines were roughly equivalent, cells containing TAR mutant viruses were extremely defective for gene expression compared with cell lines containing wild-type virus. The magnitude of this decrease in viral gene expression was much greater than previously seen in transient expression assays using HIV-1 long terminal repeat chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene constructs. In contrast to the defects in viral growth found in T-lymphocyte cell lines, several of the viruses containing TAR mutations were much less defective for gene expression and replication in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results indicate that maintenance of the TAR element is critical for viral gene expression and replication in all cell lines tested, though the cell type which is infected is also a

  9. Secretion expression of SOD1 and its overlapping function with GSH in brewing yeast strain for better flavor and anti-aging ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyue; Bai, Xuejing; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

    2014-09-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a significant antioxidant, but unlike glutathione (GSH), SOD cannot be secreted into beer by yeast cells during fermentation, this directly leads to the limited application of SOD in beer anti-aging. In this investigation, we constructed the SOD1 secretion cassette in which strong promoter PGK1p and the sequence of secreting signal factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were both harbored to the upstream of coding sequence of SOD1 gene, as a result, the obtained strains carrying this cassette successfully realized the secretion of SOD1. In order to overcome the limitation of previous genetic modification on yeast strains, one new comprehensive strategy was adopted targeting the suitable homologous sites by gene deletion and SOD1 + GSH1 co-overexpression, and the new strain ST31 (Δadh2::SOD1 + Δilv2::GSH1) was constructed. The results of the pilot-scale fermentation showed that the diacetyl content of ST31 was lower by 42 % than that of the host, and the acetaldehyde content decreased by 29 %, the GSH content in the fermenting liquor of ST31 increased by 29 % compared with the host. Both SOD activity test and the positive and negative staining assay after native PAGE indicated that the secreted active SOD in the fermenting liquor of ST31 was mainly a dimer with the size of 32,500 Da. The anti-aging indexes such as the thiobarbituric acid and the resistance staling value further proved that the flavor stability of the beer brewed with strain ST31 was not only better than that of the original strain, but also better than that of the previous engineering strains. The multi-modification and comprehensive improvement of the beer yeast strain would greatly enhance beer quality than ever, and the self-cloning strain would be attractive to the public due to its bio-safety.

  10. The effects of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the tear functions and ocular surface of the superoxide dismutase-1 (sod1) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ohguchi, Takeshi; Kojima, Takashi; Ibrahim, Osama M; Nagata, Taeko; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shirasawa, Takuji; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun; Ishida, Susumu

    2013-11-21

    To investigate the efficacy of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the tear functions and ocular surface status of the superoxide dismutase-1(Sod1(-/-)) mice. Two percent Rebamipide ophthalmic solution was applied to 40-week-old male Sod1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice four times a day for 2 weeks. We examined the cytokine concentrations in the tear fluid (by CytoBead assay), tear film break-up time, amount of tear production, and expressions of mucins 1, 4, and 5AC, by RT-PCR. We also performed vital staining of the ocular surface, PAS staining for muc5AC, and immunohistochemical stainings for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in the conjunctiva to compare the results before and after rebamipide instillations. The tear functions and ocular surface epithelial damage scores were significantly worse in the Sod1(-/-) than in the WT mice. Application of 2% rebamipide for 2 weeks significantly improved the tear film break-up time, the amount of tear production, and the corneal epithelial damage scores, which also significantly increased the conjunctival goblet cell density and muc5 mRNA expression, in the Sod1(-/-) mice. The mean IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels in the tear fluid were reduced significantly along with a significant decrease in the density of cells positive for 4-HNE and 8-OHdG in the conjunctiva. Two percent Rebamipide ophthalmic solution significantly improved the tear stability and corneal epithelial damage, and enhanced the expression of muc5 mRNA on the ocular surface. We also observed anti-inflammatory effects in the tear film together with antioxidative effects in the conjunctiva, suggesting the efficacy of rebamipide in age-related dry eye disease attributable to SOD1 knockout.

  11. Dysregulation of the complement cascade in the hSOD1G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Components of the innate immune complement system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, a comprehensive examination of complement expression in this disease has not been performed. This study therefore aimed to determine the expression of complement components (C1qB, C4, factor B, C3/C3b, C5 and CD88) and regulators (CD55 and CD59a) in the lumbar spinal cord of hSOD1G93A mice during defined disease stages. Methods hSOD1G93A and wild-type mice were examined at four different ages of disease progression. mRNA and protein expression of complement components and regulators were examined using quantitative PCR, western blotting and ELISA. Localisation of complement components within lumbar spinal cord was investigated using immunohistochemistry. Statistical differences between hSOD1G93A and wild-type mice were analysed using a two-tailed t-test at each stage of disease progression. Results We found several early complement factors increased as disease progressed, whilst complement regulators decreased; suggesting overall increased complement activation through the classical or alternative pathways in hSOD1G93A mice. CD88 was also increased during disease progression, with immunolocalisation demonstrating expression on motor neurons and increasing expression on microglia surrounding the regions of motor neuron death. Conclusions These results indicate that local complement activation and increased expression of CD88 may contribute to motor neuron death and ALS pathology in the hSOD1G93A mouse. Hence, reducing complement-induced inflammation could be an important therapeutic strategy to treat ALS. PMID:24067070

  12. A truncating SOD1 mutation, p.Gly141X, is associated with clinical and pathologic heterogeneity, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masataka; Bieniek, Kevin F.; Lin, Wen-Lang; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Murray, Melissa E.; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Desaro, Pamela; Baker, Matthew C.; Rutherford, Nicola J.; Robertson, Janice; Rademakers, Rosa; Dickson, Dennis W.; Boylan, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons, but it is increasingly recognized to affect other systems, with cognitive impairment resembling frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in some patients. We report clinical and pathologic findings of a family with ALS due to a truncating mutation, p.Gly141X, in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The proband presented clinically with FTD and later showed progressive motor neuron disease, while all other family members had early-onset and rapidly progressive ALS without significant cognitive deficits. Pathologic examination of both the proband and her daughter revealed degeneration of corticospinal tracts and motor neurons in brain and spinal cord compatible with ALS. On the other hand, the proband also had neocortical and limbic system degeneration with pleomorphic neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions. Extramotor pathology in her daughter was relatively restricted to the hypothalamus and extrapyramidal system, but not the neocortex. The inclusions in the proband and her daughter were immunoreactive for SOD1, but negative for TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43). In the proband, a number of the neocortical inclusions were immunopositive for α-internexin, initially suggesting a diagnosis of atypical FTLD, but there was no evidence of fused in sarcoma (FUS) immunoreactivity, which is often detected in atypical FTLD. Analogous to atypical FTLD, neuronal inclusions had variable co-localization of SOD1 and α-internexin. The current classification of FTLD is based on the major constituent protein: FTLD-tau, FTLD-TDP-43, and FTLD-FUS. The proband in this family indicates that SOD1, while rare, can also be the substrate of FTLD, in addition to the more common presentation of ALS. The explanation for clinical and pathologic heterogeneity of SOD1 mutations, including the p.Gly141X mutation, remains unresolved. PMID:25917047

  13. Lysosomal and phagocytic activity is increased in astrocytes during disease progression in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David J.; Blackburn, Daniel J.; Keatinge, Marcus; Sokhi, Dilraj; Viskaitis, Paulius; Heath, Paul R.; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Kirby, Janine; Shaw, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are key players in the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previously, gene expression profiling of astrocytes from the pre-symptomatic stage of the SOD1G93A model of ALS has revealed reduced lactate metabolism and altered trophic support. Here, we have performed microarray analysis of symptomatic and late-stage disease astrocytes isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from the lumbar spinal cord of the SOD1G93A mouse to complete the picture of astrocyte behavior throughout the disease course. Astrocytes at symptomatic and late-stage disease show a distinct up-regulation of transcripts defining a reactive phenotype, such as those involved in the lysosome and phagocytic pathways. Functional analysis of hexosaminidase B enzyme activity in the spinal cord and of astrocyte phagocytic ability has demonstrated a significant increase in lysosomal enzyme activity and phagocytic activity in SOD1G93A vs. littermate controls, validating the findings of the microarray study. In addition to the increased reactivity seen at both stages, astrocytes from late-stage disease showed decreased expression of many transcripts involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Staining for the master regulator of cholesterol synthesis, SREBP2, has revealed an increased localization to the cytoplasm of astrocytes and motor neurons in late-stage SOD1G93A spinal cord, indicating that down-regulation of transcripts may be due to an excess of cholesterol in the CNS during late-stage disease possibly due to phagocytosis of neuronal debris. Our data reveal that SOD1G93A astrocytes are characterized more by a loss of supportive function than a toxic phenotype during ALS disease progression and future studies should focus upon restorative therapies. PMID:26528138

  14. Comparative morphometric analysis of microglia in the spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ohgomori, Tomohiro; Yamada, Jun; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Jinno, Shozo

    2016-05-01

    It has long been recognized that reactive microglia undergo a series of phenotypic changes accompanying morphological transformation. However, the morphological classification of microglia has not yet been achieved. To address this issue, here we morphometrically analysed three-dimensionally reconstructed ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1-immunoreactive (Iba1(+) ) microglia in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that microglia were objectively divided into four groups: type S (named after surveillant microglia) and types R1, R2 and R3 (named after reactive microglia). For the purpose of comparative morphometry, we also analysed two pharmacological disease models using wild-type mice: 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced axonopathy and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Type S microglia showed a typical ramified morphology of surveillant microglia, and were mostly observed in wild-type controls. Type R1 microglia were seen at the early stage of disease in SOD1(G93A) mice, and also frequently occurred in IDPN-treated mice. They exhibited small cell bodies with shorter and simple processes. Type R2 microglia were morphologically similar to type R1 microglia, but only transiently occurred in the middle stage of disease in SOD1(G93A) mice and in IDPN-treated mice. Type R3 microglia exhibited a bushy shape, and were observed in the end stage of disease in SOD1(G93A) mice and in LPS-treated mice. These findings indicate that microglia of SOD1(G93A) mice can be classified into four types, and also suggest that the phenotypic changes may be induced by the events related to axonopathy and neuroinflammation. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Functional over-load saves motor units in the SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, T; Tyreman, N; Li, S; Putman, C T; Hegedus, J

    2010-02-01

    The fastest, most forceful motor units are lost progressively during asymptomatic disease in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. As the disease progresses the surviving motor units must increase their levels of activity to sustain posture and movement. If activity-dependent conversion of motor units to more fatigue resistant types increased their resilience and hence survival, we hypothesized that an experimental increase in motor unit activity in the hindlimb muscles of the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse should "save" those motor units that are normally lost in the first 90 days of age. To test this hypothesis, we partially denervated hindlimb muscles in SOD1(G93A) and their corresponding control SOD1(WT) transgenic mice by avulsion of either L4 or L5 spinal roots at 40 days of age. Whole muscle and single motor unit isometric twitch forces were recorded and the numbers intact motor units in fast-twitch tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus muscles and the slow-twitch soleus muscle were calculated at 90 days of age. We found that the rapid age-dependent decline in numbers of functional motor units in fast-twitch muscles of the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice was dramatically reduced by the functional hyperactivity in the partially denervated muscles and, that these muscles comprised a significantly higher component of type IIA and type IID/X fibers than those muscles that were innervated by nerves in intact spinal roots. We conclude that the vulnerable motor units are saved by increasing their neuromuscular activity and consequently, converting them to slower, less forceful, fatigue resistant motor units.

  16. RNAi prevents and reverses phenotypes induced by mutant human ataxin‐1

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Megan S.; Monteys, Alejandro Mas; Corbau, Romuald; Gonzalez‐Alegre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 is an autosomal dominant fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the coding region of ATXN1. We showed previously that partial suppression of mutant ataxin‐1 (ATXN1) expression, using virally expressed RNAi triggers, could prevent disease symptoms in a transgenic mouse model and a knockin mouse model of the disease, using a single dose of virus. Here, we set out to test whether RNAi triggers targeting ATXN1 could not only prevent, but also reverse disease readouts when delivered after symptom onset. Methods We administered recombinant adeno‐associated virus (rAAV) expressing miS1, an artificial miRNA targeting human ATXN1 mRNA (rAAV.miS1), to a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1; B05 mice). Viruses were delivered prior to or after symptom onset at multiple doses. Control B05 mice were treated with rAAVs expressing a control artificial miRNA, or with saline. Animal behavior, molecular phenotypes, neuropathology, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were done on all groups, and data were compared to wild‐type littermates. Results We found that SCA1 phenotypes could be reversed by partial suppression of human mutant ATXN1 mRNA by rAAV.miS1 when delivered after symptom onset. We also identified the therapeutic range of rAAV.miS1 that could prevent or reverse disease readouts. Interpretation SCA1 disease may be reversible by RNAi therapy, and the doses required for advancing this therapy to humans are delineated. Ann Neurol 2016;80:754–765 PMID:27686464

  17. Knockin mouse with mutant Gα11 mimics human inherited hypocalcemia and is rescued by pharmacologic inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Roszko, Kelly L.; Bi, Ruiye; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Xiong, Xiao-Feng; Inoue, Asuka; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Strømgaard, Kristian; Gardella, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in transducing extracellular signals generated by 7-transmembrane domain receptors. Somatic gain-of-function mutations in G protein α subunits are associated with a variety of diseases. Recently, we identified gain-of-function mutations in Gα11 in patients with autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), an inherited disorder of hypocalcemia, low parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hyperphosphatemia. We have generated knockin mice harboring the point mutation GNA11 c.C178T (p.Arg60Cys) identified in ADH2 patients. The mutant mice faithfully replicated human ADH2. They also exhibited low bone mineral density and increased skin pigmentation. Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11R6OC is partly dependent on coupling to the CASR. Treatment with the Gα11/q-specific inhibitor YM-254890 increased blood calcium in heterozygous but not in homozygous GNA11R60C mice, consistent with published crystal structure data showing that Arg60 forms a critical contact with YM-254890. This animal model of ADH2 provides insights into molecular mechanism of this G protein–related disease and potential paths toward new lines of therapy. PMID:28194446

  18. Knockin mouse with mutant Gα11 mimics human inherited hypocalcemia and is rescued by pharmacologic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Kelly L; Bi, Ruiye; Gorvin, Caroline M; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Xiong, Xiao-Feng; Inoue, Asuka; Thakker, Rajesh V; Strømgaard, Kristian; Gardella, Thomas; Mannstadt, Michael

    2017-02-09

    Heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in transducing extracellular signals generated by 7-transmembrane domain receptors. Somatic gain-of-function mutations in G protein α subunits are associated with a variety of diseases. Recently, we identified gain-of-function mutations in Gα11 in patients with autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), an inherited disorder of hypocalcemia, low parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hyperphosphatemia. We have generated knockin mice harboring the point mutation GNA11 c.C178T (p.Arg60Cys) identified in ADH2 patients. The mutant mice faithfully replicated human ADH2. They also exhibited low bone mineral density and increased skin pigmentation. Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11(R6OC) is partly dependent on coupling to the CASR. Treatment with the Gα11/q-specific inhibitor YM-254890 increased blood calcium in heterozygous but not in homozygous GNA11(R60C) mice, consistent with published crystal structure data showing that Arg60 forms a critical contact with YM-254890. This animal model of ADH2 provides insights into molecular mechanism of this G protein-related disease and potential paths toward new lines of therapy.

  19. Tracking the assembly pathway of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag deletion mutants by immunogold labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, J J; Sandefur, S; Spearman, P; Chiou, C T; Chiang, P H; Ratner, L

    2001-12-01

    The Pr55gag gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is sufficient to direct the formation of retrovirus-like particles (RVLPs). Recent biochemical evidence has indicated the presence of Gag intermediates in the cytoplasm; however, the Gag assembly process into RVLPs remains incompletely defined. The authors present here the subcellular localization of Gag mutant proteins in BSC40 and Jurkat cells by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). The full Gag/Pol and Gag precursors, a C-terminal deletion mutant lacking a portion of nucleocapsid (NC), and all p6Gag gave rise to similar levels of RVLPs at the cell surface. A C-terminal deletion of all NC and p6Gag abrogated particle formation, whereas p24 was found in patches at the cell surface. Deletion of matrix (MA) sequences from Gag resulted in intracellular particles, and myristylation was not required for particle formation in the context of the MA deletion. Matrix expression was enhanced with Gag/Pol or Env coexpression as determined by semiquantitative IEM. p24 protein was targeted at vacuolar and mitochondrial membranes, but not at Golgi cisternae. In addition, aggregations of Gag intermediates and RVLPs in the cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, cisternae, and mitochondria were noted. These results provide defined in situ evidence that HIV-1 particle assembly occurs in the cytosol in addition to budding at most intracellular membranes.

  20. Mutant Huntingtin Does Not Affect the Intrinsic Phenotype of Human Huntington's Disease T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Miller, James R C; Träger, Ulrike; Andre, Ralph; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The peripheral innate immune system is dysregulated in Huntington's disease and may contribute to its pathogenesis. However, it is not clear whether or to what extent the adaptive immune system is also involved. Here, we carry out the first comprehensive investigation of human ex vivo T lymphocytes in Huntington's disease, focusing on the frequency of a range of T lymphocyte subsets, as well as analysis of proliferation, cytokine production and gene transcription. In contrast to the innate immune system, the intrinsic phenotype of T lymphocytes does not appear to be affected by the presence of mutant huntingtin, with Huntington's disease T lymphocytes exhibiting no significant functional differences compared to control cells. The transcriptional profile of T lymphocytes also does not appear to be significantly affected, suggesting that peripheral immune dysfunction in Huntington's disease is likely to be mediated primarily by the innate rather than the adaptive immune system. This study increases our understanding of the effects of Huntington's disease on peripheral tissues, while further demonstrating the differential effects of the mutant protein on different but related cell types. Finally, this study suggests that the potential use of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating the Huntington's disease innate immune system should not be extended to include the adaptive immune system.

  1. Accelerated Telomere Shortening and Replicative Senescence in Human Fibroblasts Overexpressing Mutant and Wild Type Lamin A

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shurong; Risques, Rosa Ana; Martin, George M.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Oshima, Junko

    2008-01-01

    LMNA mutations are responsible for a variety of genetic disorders, including muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy, and certain progeroid syndromes, notably Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria. Although a number of clinical features of these disorders are suggestive of accelerated aging, it is not known whether cells derived from these patients exhibit cellular phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. We examined a series of isogenic skin fibroblast lines transfected with LMNA constructs bearing known pathogenic point mutations or deletion mutations found in progeroid syndromes. Fibroblasts overexpressing mutant lamin A exhibited accelerated rates of loss of telomeres and shortened replicative lifespans, in addition to abnormal nuclear morphology. To our surprise, these abnormalities were also observed in lines overexpressing wild-type lamin A. Copy number variants are common in human populations; those involving LMNA, whether arising meiotically or mitotically, might lead to progeroid phenotypes. In an initial pilot study of 23 progeroid cases without detectible WRN or LMNA mutations, however, no cases of altered LMNA copy number were detected. Nevertheless, our findings raise a hypothesis that changes in lamina organization may cause accelerated telomere attrition, with different kinetics for overexpession of wild-type and mutant lamin A, which leads to rapid replicative senescence and progroid phenotypes. PMID:17870066

  2. Structural Insight into the Altered Substrate Specificity of Human Cytochrome P450 2A6 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sansen, Stefaan; Hsu, Mei-Hui; Stout, C. David; Johnson, Eric F.

    2009-01-01

    Human P450 2A6 displays a small active site that is well adapted for the oxidation of small planar substrates. Mutagenesis of CYP2A6 resulted in an increased catalytic efficiency for indole biotransformation to pigments and conferred a capacity to oxidize substituted indoles (Wu, Z.-L., Podust, L.M. and Guengerich, F.P. (2005) J.Biol.Chem. 49, 41090-41100). Here, we describe the structural basis that underlies the altered metabolic profile of three mutant enzymes, P450 2A6 N297Q, L240C/N297Q and N297Q/I300V. The Asn297 substitution abolishes a potential hydrogen bonding interaction with substrates in the active site, and replaces a structural water molecule between the helix B′-C region and helix I while maintaining structural hydrogen bonding interactions. The structures of the P450 2A6 N297Q/L240C and N297Q/I300V mutants provide clues as to how the protein can adapt to fit the larger substituted indoles in the active site, and enable a comparison with other P450 family 2 enzymes for which the residue at the equivalent position was seen to function in isozyme specificity, structural integrity and protein flexibility. PMID:17540336

  3. Struct