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Sample records for human myogenic precursor

  1. Derivation of Skeletal Myogenic Precursors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Conditional Expression of PAX7.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Radbod; Perlingeiro, Rita C R

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies are considered as one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of degenerating pathologies including muscle disorders and dystrophies. Advances in the approach of reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allow for the possibility of using the patient's own pluripotent cells to generate specific tissues for autologous transplantation. In addition, patient-specific tissue derivatives have been shown to represent valuable material for disease modeling and drug discovery. Nevertheless, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into a specific lineage is not a trivial task especially in the case of skeletal myogenesis, which is generally poorly recapitulated during the in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.Here, we describe a practical and efficient method for the derivation of skeletal myogenic precursors from differentiating human pluripotent stem cells using controlled expression of PAX7. Flow cytometry (FACS) purified myogenic precursors can be expanded exponentially and differentiated in vitro into myotubes, enabling researchers to use these cells for disease modeling as well as therapeutic purposes.

  2. Interleukin-4 improves the migration of human myogenic precursor cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, J.F.; Mills, P.; Bouchentouf, M.; Tremblay, J.P. . E-mail: Jacques-P.Tremblay@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2006-04-15

    Different molecules are available to recruit new neighboring myogenic cells to the site of regeneration. Formerly called B cell stimulatory factor-1, IL-4 can now be included in the list of motogenic factors. The present report demonstrates that human IL-4 is not required for fusion between mononucleated myoblasts but is required for myotube maturation. In identifying IL-4 as a pro-migratory agent for myogenic cells, these results provide a mechanism which partly explains IL-4 demonstrated activity during differentiation. Among the different mechanisms by which IL-4 might enhance myoblast migration processes, our results indicate that there are implications of some integrins and of three major components of the fibrinolytic system. Indeed, increases in the amount of active urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor were observed following an IL-4 treatment, while the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 decreased. Finally, IL-4 did not modify the amount of cell surface {alpha}5 integrin but increased the presence of {beta}3 and {beta}1 integrins. This integrin modulation might favor myogenic cell migration and its interaction with newly formed myotubes. Therefore, IL-4 co-injection with transplanted myoblasts might be an approach to enhance the migration of transplanted cells for the treatment of a damaged myocardium or of a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patient.

  3. A new pro-migratory activity on human myogenic precursor cells for a synthetic peptide within the E domain of the mechano growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Philippe; Lafreniere, Jean-Francois; Benabdallah, Basma Fattouma; El Fahime, El Mostafa; Tremblay, Jacques-P. . E-mail: Jacques-P.Tremblay@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2007-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited disease that leads to progressive muscle wasting. Myogenic precursor cell transplantation is an approach that can introduce the normal dystrophin gene in the muscle fibers of the patients. Unfortunately, these myogenic precursor cells do not migrate well in the muscle and thus many injections have to be done to enable a good graft success. Recent reports have shown that there is extensive splicing of the IGF-1 gene in muscles. The MGF isoform contains a C-terminal 24 amino acids peptide in the E domain (MGF-Ct24E) that has intrinsic properties. It can promote the proliferation while delaying the differentiation of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells. Here, we demonstrated that this synthetic peptide is a motogenic factor for human precursor myogenic cells in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, MGF-Ct24E peptide can modulate members of the fibrinolytic and metalloproteinase systems, which are implicated in the migration of myogenic cells. MGF-Ct24E peptide enhances the expression of u-PA, u-PAR and MMP-7 while reducing PAI-1 activity. Moreover, it has no effect on the gelatinases MMP-2 and -9. Those combined effects can favour cell migration. Finally, we present some results suggesting that the MGF-Ct24E peptide induces these cell responses through a mechanism that does not involve the IGF-1 receptor. Thus, this MGF-Ct24E peptide has a new pro-migratory activity on human myogenic precursor cells that may be helpful in the treatment of DMD. Those results reinforce the possibility that the IGF-1Ec isoform may produce an E domain peptide that can act as a cytokine.

  4. Immortalization of human myogenic progenitor cell clone retaining multipotentiality

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naohiro . E-mail: nao@nils.go.jp; Kiyono, Tohru; Wada, Michiko R.; Shimizu, Shirabe; Yasumoto, Shigeru; Inagawa, Masayo

    2006-10-06

    Human myogenic cells have limited ability to proliferate in culture. Although forced expression of telomerase can immortalize some cell types, telomerase alone delays senescence of human primary cultured myogenic cells, but fails to immortalize them. In contrast, constitutive expression of both telomerase and the E7 gene from human papillomavirus type 16 immortalizes primary human myogenic cells. We have established an immortalized primary human myogenic cell line preserving multipotentiality by ectopic expression of telomerase and E7. The immortalized human myogenic cells exhibit the phenotypic characteristics of their primary parent, including an ability to undergo myogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic terminal differentiation under appropriate culture conditions. The immortalized cells will be useful for both basic and applied studies aimed at human muscle disorders. Furthermore, immortalization by transduction of telomerase and E7 represents a useful method by which to expand human myogenic cells in vitro without compromising their ability to differentiate.

  5. Smad1/5/8 are myogenic regulators of murine and human mesoangioblasts

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Quattrocelli, Mattia; van Tienen, Florence; Umans, Lieve; de Coo, Irineus F. M.; Zwijsen, An; Huylebroeck, Danny; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2016-01-01

    Mesoangioblasts (MABs) are vessel-associated stem cells that express pericyte marker genes and participate in skeletal muscle regeneration. Molecular circuits that regulate the myogenic commitment of MABs are still poorly characterized. The critical role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling during proliferation and differentiation of adult myogenic precursors, such as satellite cells, has recently been established. We evaluated whether BMP signalling impacts on the myogenic potential of embryonic and adult MABs both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of BMP inhibited MAB myogenic differentiation, whereas interference with the interactions between BMPs and receptor complexes induced differentiation. Similarly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad8 in Smad1/5-null MABs or inhibition of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation with Dorsomorphin (DM) also improved myogenic differentiation, demonstrating a novel role of SMAD8. Moreover, using a transgenic mouse model of Smad8 deletion, we demonstrated that the absence of SMAD8 protein improved MAB myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, once injected into α-Sarcoglycan (Sgca)-null muscles, DM-treated MABs were more efficacious to restore α-sarcoglycan (αSG) protein levels and re-establish functional muscle properties. Similarly, in acute muscle damage, DM-treated MABs displayed a better myogenic potential compared with BMP-treated and untreated cells. Finally, SMADs also control the myogenic commitment of human MABs (hMABs). BMP signalling antagonists are therefore novel candidates to improve the therapeutic effects of hMABs. PMID:26450990

  6. Smad1/5/8 are myogenic regulators of murine and human mesoangioblasts.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Quattrocelli, Mattia; van Tienen, Florence; Umans, Lieve; de Coo, Irineus F M; Zwijsen, An; Huylebroeck, Danny; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2016-02-01

    Mesoangioblasts (MABs) are vessel-associated stem cells that express pericyte marker genes and participate in skeletal muscle regeneration. Molecular circuits that regulate the myogenic commitment of MABs are still poorly characterized. The critical role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling during proliferation and differentiation of adult myogenic precursors, such as satellite cells, has recently been established. We evaluated whether BMP signalling impacts on the myogenic potential of embryonic and adult MABs both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of BMP inhibited MAB myogenic differentiation, whereas interference with the interactions between BMPs and receptor complexes induced differentiation. Similarly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad8 in Smad1/5-null MABs or inhibition of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation with Dorsomorphin (DM) also improved myogenic differentiation, demonstrating a novel role of SMAD8. Moreover, using a transgenic mouse model of Smad8 deletion, we demonstrated that the absence of SMAD8 protein improved MAB myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, once injected into α-Sarcoglycan (Sgca)-null muscles, DM-treated MABs were more efficacious to restore α-sarcoglycan (αSG) protein levels and re-establish functional muscle properties. Similarly, in acute muscle damage, DM-treated MABs displayed a better myogenic potential compared with BMP-treated and untreated cells. Finally, SMADs also control the myogenic commitment of human MABs (hMABs). BMP signalling antagonists are therefore novel candidates to improve the therapeutic effects of hMABs. PMID:26450990

  7. Directed Myogenic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Emi; Woltjen, Knut; Sakurai, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have opened the door to recreating pathological conditions in vitro using differentiation into diseased cells corresponding to each target tissue. Yet for muscular diseases, a method for reproducible and efficient myogenic differentiation from human iPSCs is required for in vitro modeling. Here, we introduce a myogenic differentiation protocol mediated by inducible transcription factor expression that reproducibly and efficiently drives human iPSCs into myocytes. Delivering a tetracycline-inducible, myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) piggyBac (PB) vector to human iPSCs enables the derivation of iPSCs that undergo uniform myogenic differentiation in a short period of time. This differentiation protocol yields a homogenous skeletal muscle cell population, reproducibly reaching efficiencies as high as 70-90 %. MYOD1-induced myocytes demonstrate characteristics of mature myocytes such as cell fusion and cell twitching in response to electric stimulation within 14 days of differentiation. This differentiation protocol can be applied widely in various types of patient-derived human iPSCs and has great prospects in disease modeling particularly with inherited diseases that require studies of early pathogenesis and drug screening. PMID:25971915

  8. Directed Myogenic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Emi; Woltjen, Knut; Sakurai, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have opened the door to recreating pathological conditions in vitro using differentiation into diseased cells corresponding to each target tissue. Yet for muscular diseases, a method for reproducible and efficient myogenic differentiation from human iPSCs is required for in vitro modeling. Here, we introduce a myogenic differentiation protocol mediated by inducible transcription factor expression that reproducibly and efficiently drives human iPSCs into myocytes. Delivering a tetracycline-inducible, myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) piggyBac (PB) vector to human iPSCs enables the derivation of iPSCs that undergo uniform myogenic differentiation in a short period of time. This differentiation protocol yields a homogenous skeletal muscle cell population, reproducibly reaching efficiencies as high as 70-90 %. MYOD1-induced myocytes demonstrate characteristics of mature myocytes such as cell fusion and cell twitching in response to electric stimulation within 14 days of differentiation. This differentiation protocol can be applied widely in various types of patient-derived human iPSCs and has great prospects in disease modeling particularly with inherited diseases that require studies of early pathogenesis and drug screening.

  9. Preparation of primary myogenic precursor cell/myoblast cultures from basal vertebrate lineages.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Seiliez, Iban; Gabillard, Jean-Charles; Biga, Peggy R

    2014-01-01

    Due to the inherent difficulty and time involved with studying the myogenic program in vivo, primary culture systems derived from the resident adult stem cells of skeletal muscle, the myogenic precursor cells (MPCs), have proven indispensible to our understanding of mammalian skeletal muscle development and growth. Particularly among the basal taxa of Vertebrata, however, data are limited describing the molecular mechanisms controlling the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of MPCs. Of particular interest are potential mechanisms that underlie the ability of basal vertebrates to undergo considerable postlarval skeletal myofiber hyperplasia (i.e. teleost fish) and full regeneration following appendage loss (i.e. urodele amphibians). Additionally, the use of cultured myoblasts could aid in the understanding of regeneration and the recapitulation of the myogenic program and the differences between them. To this end, we describe in detail a robust and efficient protocol (and variations therein) for isolating and maintaining MPCs and their progeny, myoblasts and immature myotubes, in cell culture as a platform for understanding the evolution of the myogenic program, beginning with the more basal vertebrates. Capitalizing on the model organism status of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), we report on the application of this protocol to small fishes of the cyprinid clade Danioninae. In tandem, this protocol can be utilized to realize a broader comparative approach by isolating MPCs from the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and even laboratory rodents. This protocol is now widely used in studying myogenesis in several fish species, including rainbow trout, salmon, and sea bream(1-4). PMID:24835774

  10. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: A myogenic precursor cell hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kallestad, Kristen M.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McDonald, Abby A.; Daniel, Mark L.; Cu, Sharon R.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2011-04-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin{sup -/-} (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a

  11. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases.

  12. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling Regulates Myogenic Responsiveness in Human Resistance Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Daniel L.; Burnstein, Marcus J.; Errett, Lee; Bonneau, Daniel; Latter, David; Rotstein, Ori D.; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Lidington, Darcy; Voigtlaender-Bolz, Julia

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as prominent regulators of myogenic responsiveness in rodent resistance arteries. However, since rodent models frequently exhibit limitations with respect to human applicability, translation is necessary to validate the relevance of this signaling network for clinical application. We therefore investigated the significance of these regulatory elements in human mesenteric and skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Mesenteric and skeletal muscle resistance arteries were isolated from patient tissue specimens collected during colonic or cardiac bypass surgery. Pressure myography assessments confirmed endothelial integrity, as well as stable phenylephrine and myogenic responses. Both human mesenteric and skeletal muscle resistance arteries (i) express critical S1P signaling elements, (ii) constrict in response to S1P and (iii) lose myogenic responsiveness following S1P receptor antagonism (JTE013). However, while human mesenteric arteries express CFTR, human skeletal muscle resistance arteries do not express detectable levels of CFTR protein. Consequently, modulating CFTR activity enhances myogenic responsiveness only in human mesenteric resistance arteries. We conclude that human mesenteric and skeletal muscle resistance arteries are a reliable and consistent model for translational studies. We demonstrate that the core elements of an S1P-dependent signaling network translate to human mesenteric resistance arteries. Clear species and vascular bed variations are evident, reinforcing the critical need for further translational study. PMID:26367262

  13. Dystrophin Is a Tumor Suppressor in Human Cancers with Myogenic Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiang; Marino-Enriquez, Adrian; Bennett, Richard R.; Zhu, Meijun; Shen, Yiping; Eilers, Grant; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Henze, Joern; Fletcher, Benjamin S.; Gu, Zhizhan; Fox, Edward A.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Fletcher, Christopher D.M.; Guo, Xiangqian; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Demetri, George D.; van de Rijn, Matt; Ordog, Tamas; Kunkel, Louis M.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Many common human mesenchymal tumors, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and leiomyosarcoma (LMS), feature myogenic differentiation1–3. Here we report that intragenic deletion of the dystrophin-encoding and muscular dystrophy-associated DMD gene is a frequent mechanism by which myogenic tumors progress to high-grade, lethal sarcomas. Dystrophin is expressed in nonneoplastic and benign counterparts for GIST, RMS and LMS, and the DMD deletions inactivate larger dystrophin isoforms, including 427kDa dystrophin, while preserving expression of an essential 71kDa isoform. Dystrophin inhibits myogenic sarcoma cell migration, invasion, anchorage independence, and invadopodia formation, and dystrophin inactivation was found in 96%, 100%, and 62% of metastatic GIST, embryonal RMS, and LMS, respectively. These findings validate dystrophin as a tumor suppressor and likely anti-metastatic factor, suggesting that therapies in development for muscular dystrophies may also have relevance in treatment of cancer. PMID:24793134

  14. Vessel-associated myogenic precursors control macrophage activation and clearance of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Bosurgi, L; Brunelli, S; Rigamonti, E; Monno, A; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2015-01-01

    Swift and regulated clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the accumulation of cell remnants in injured tissues and contributes to the shift of macrophages towards alternatively activated reparatory cells that sustain wound healing. Environmental signals, most of which are unknown, in turn control the efficiency of the clearance of apoptotic cells and as such determine whether tissues eventually heal. In this study we show that vessel-associated stem cells (mesoangioblasts) specifically modulate the expression of genes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and in macrophage alternative activation, including those of scavenger receptors and of molecules that bridge dying cells and phagocytes. Mesoangioblasts, but not immortalized myoblasts or neural precursor cells, enhance CD163 membrane expression in vitro as assessed by flow cytometry, indicating that the effect is specific. Mesoangioblasts transplanted in acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscles determine the expansion of the population of CD163(+) infiltrating macrophages and increase the extent of CD163 expression. Conversely, macrophages challenged with mesoangioblasts engulf significantly better apoptotic cells in vitro. Collectively, the data reveal a feed-forward loop between macrophages and vessel-associated stem cells, which has implications for the skeletal muscle homeostatic response to sterile injury and for diseases in which homeostasis is jeopardized, including muscle dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24749786

  15. Myogenic responses occur on a beat-to-beat basis in the resting human limb.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Seth T; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C; Holwerda, Seth W; Davis, Michael J; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of human myogenic responses typically use maneuvers that evoke robust changes in transmural pressure. Although this strategy has demonstrated peripheral myogenic responsiveness in the limbs, particularly in glabrous skin of the hand or foot, it has not considered the potential influence of the myogenic mechanism in beat-to-beat blood flow (BF) control during unprovoked rest. In the present study, we examined the interactions of spontaneous beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finapres) with BF (Doppler ultrasound) supplying the forearm (brachial artery), lower leg (popliteal artery), and hand (ulnar artery) during 10 min of supine rest in healthy young men. Cross-correlation analyses revealed a negative association between MAP and BF, which was more prominent in the forearm than lower leg. The strongest correlation resulted when a -2-heart beat offset of MAP was applied (R=-0.53±0.04 in the forearm and -0.23±0.05 in the leg, P<0.05), suggesting an ∼2-s delay from instances of high/low MAP to low/high BF. Negatively associated episodes (high MAP/low BF and low MAP/high BF) outnumbered positively associated data (P<0.05). BF during low MAP values was greater than the steady-state average BF and vice versa. Wrist and ankle occlusion blunted the strength of correlations, homogenized the incidence of MAP and BF pairings, and reduced the magnitude of deviation from steady-state values. In contrast, these relationships were matched or accentuated for hand BF. Overall, these results suggest that myogenic responses are present and occur rapidly in human limbs during rest, overwhelm perfusion pressure gradient influences, and are primarily mediated by the distal limb circulation.

  16. Myogenic responses occur on a beat-to-beat basis in the resting human limb

    PubMed Central

    Fairfax, Seth T.; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Davis, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of human myogenic responses typically use maneuvers that evoke robust changes in transmural pressure. Although this strategy has demonstrated peripheral myogenic responsiveness in the limbs, particularly in glabrous skin of the hand or foot, it has not considered the potential influence of the myogenic mechanism in beat-to-beat blood flow (BF) control during unprovoked rest. In the present study, we examined the interactions of spontaneous beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finapres) with BF (Doppler ultrasound) supplying the forearm (brachial artery), lower leg (popliteal artery), and hand (ulnar artery) during 10 min of supine rest in healthy young men. Cross-correlation analyses revealed a negative association between MAP and BF, which was more prominent in the forearm than lower leg. The strongest correlation resulted when a −2-heart beat offset of MAP was applied (R = −0.53 ± 0.04 in the forearm and −0.23 ± 0.05 in the leg, P < 0.05), suggesting an ∼2-s delay from instances of high/low MAP to low/high BF. Negatively associated episodes (high MAP/low BF and low MAP/high BF) outnumbered positively associated data (P < 0.05). BF during low MAP values was greater than the steady-state average BF and vice versa. Wrist and ankle occlusion blunted the strength of correlations, homogenized the incidence of MAP and BF pairings, and reduced the magnitude of deviation from steady-state values. In contrast, these relationships were matched or accentuated for hand BF. Overall, these results suggest that myogenic responses are present and occur rapidly in human limbs during rest, overwhelm perfusion pressure gradient influences, and are primarily mediated by the distal limb circulation. PMID:25362138

  17. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Population of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells With High Myogenic Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Vauchez, Karine; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Schmid, Michel; Khattar, Patricia; Chapel, Alain; Catelain, Cyril; Lecourt, Séverine; Larghéro, Jérôme; Fiszman, Marc; Vilquin, Jean-Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH) activity is one hallmark of human bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood (UCB), and peripheral blood (PB) primitive progenitors presenting high reconstitution capacities in vivo. In this study, we have identified ALDH+ cells within human skeletal muscles, and have analyzed their phenotypical and functional characteristics. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of human muscle tissue sections revealed rare endomysial cells. Flow cytometry analysis using the fluorescent substrate of ALDH, Aldefluor, identified brightly stained (ALDHbr) cells with low side scatter (SSClo), in enzymatically dissociated muscle biopsies, thereafter abbreviated as SMALD+ (for skeletal muscle ALDH+) cells. Phenotypical analysis discriminated two sub-populations according to CD34 expression: SMALD+/CD34− and SMALD+/CD34+ cells. These sub-populations did not initially express endothelial (CD31), hematopoietic (CD45), and myogenic (CD56) markers. Upon sorting, however, whereas SMALD+/CD34+ cells developed in vitro as a heterogeneous population of CD56− cells able to differentiate in adipoblasts, the SMALD+/CD34− fraction developed in vitro as a highly enriched population of CD56+ myoblasts able to form myotubes. Moreover, only the SMALD+/CD34− population maintained a strong myogenic potential in vivo upon intramuscular transplantation. Our results suggest that ALDH activity is a novel marker for a population of new human skeletal muscle progenitors presenting a potential for cell biology and cell therapy. PMID:19738599

  18. Dose-dependent Effect of Boric Acid on Myogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells (hADSCs).

    PubMed

    Apdik, Hüseyin; Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Aydın, Safa; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-06-01

    Boron, a vital micronutrient for plant metabolism, is not fully elucidated for embryonic and adult body development, and tissue regeneration. Although optimized amount of boron supplement has been shown to be essential for normal gestational development in zebrafish and frog and beneficial for bone regeneration in higher animals, effects of boron on myogenesis and myo-regeneration remains to be solved. In the current study, we investigated dose-dependent activity of boric acid on myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) using immunocytochemical, gene, and protein expression analysis. The results revealed that while low- (81.9 μM) and high-dose (819.6 μM) boron treatment increased myogenic gene expression levels such as myosin heavy chain (MYH), MyoD, myogenin, and desmin at day 4 of differentiation, high-dose treatment decreased myogenic-related gene and protein levels at day 21 of differentiation, confirmed by immunocytochemical analysis. The findings of the study present not only an understanding of boron's effect on myogenic differentiation but also an opportunity for the development of scaffolds to be used in skeletal tissue engineering and supplements for embryonic muscle growth. However, fine dose tuning and treatment period arranging are highly warranted as boron treatment over required concentrations and time might result in detrimental outcomes to myogenesis and myo-regeneration.

  19. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Min Sun; Mun, Ji-Young; Kwon, Ohsuk; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method.

  20. Schisandrae fructus enhances myogenic differentiation and inhibits atrophy through protein synthesis in human myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cy Hyun; Shin, Jin-Hong; Hwang, Sung Jun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Kim, Cheol Min

    2016-01-01

    Schisandrae fructus (SF) has recently been reported to increase skeletal muscle mass and inhibit atrophy in mice. We investigated the effect of SF extract on human myotube differentiation and its acting pathway. Various concentrations (0.1–10 μg/mL) of SF extract were applied on human skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Myotube area and fusion index were measured to quantify myotube differentiation. The maximum effect was observed at 0.5 μg/mL of SF extract, enhancing differentiation up to 1.4-fold in fusion index and 1.6-fold in myotube area at 8 days after induction of differentiation compared to control. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, which initiate translation as downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, was upregulated in early phases of differentiation after SF treatment. SF also attenuated dexamethasone-induced atrophy. In conclusion, we show that SF augments myogenic differentiation and attenuates atrophy by increasing protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin/70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 signaling pathway in human myotubes. SF can be a useful natural dietary supplement in increasing skeletal muscle mass, especially in the aged with sarcopenia and the patients with disuse atrophy. PMID:27330287

  1. Cancer-targeted IL-12 controls human rhabdomyosarcoma by senescence induction and myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Schilbach, Karin; Alkhaled, Mohammed; Welker, Christian; Eckert, Franziska; Blank, Gregor; Ziegler, Hendrik; Sterk, Marco; Müller, Friederike; Sonntag, Katja; Wieder, Thomas; Braumüller, Heidi; Schmitt, Julia; Eyrich, Matthias; Schleicher, Sabine; Seitz, Christian; Erbacher, Annika; Pichler, Bernd J; Müller, Hartmut; Tighe, Robert; Lim, Annick; Gillies, Stephen D; Strittmatter, Wolfgang; Röcken, Martin; Handgretinger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Stimulating the immune system to attack cancer is a promising approach, even for the control of advanced cancers. Several cytokines that promote interferon-γ-dominated immune responses show antitumor activity, with interleukin 12 (IL-12) being of major importance. Here, we used an antibody-IL-12 fusion protein (NHS-IL12) that binds histones of necrotic cells to treat human sarcoma in humanized mice. Following sarcoma engraftment, NHS-IL12 therapy was combined with either engineered IL-7 (FcIL-7) or IL-2 (IL-2MAB602) for continuous cytokine bioavailability. NHS-IL12 strongly induced innate and adaptive antitumor immunity when combined with IL-7 or IL-2. NHS-IL12 therapy significantly improved survival of sarcoma-bearing mice and caused long-term remissions when combined with IL-2. NHS-IL12 induced pronounced cancer cell senescence, as documented by strong expression of senescence-associated p16INK4a and nuclear translocation of p-HP1γ, and permanent arrest of cancer cell proliferation. In addition, this cancer immunotherapy initiated the induction of myogenic differentiation, further promoting the hypothesis that efficient antitumor immunity includes mechanisms different from cytotoxicity for efficient cancer control in vivo. PMID:26140238

  2. Human Myocardial Pericytes: Multipotent Mesodermal Precursors Exhibiting Cardiac Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C.W.; Baily, James E.; Corselli, Mirko; Diaz, Mary; Sun, Bin; Xiang, Guosheng; Gray, Gillian A.; Huard, Johnny; Péault, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular mesenchymal precursor cells (i.e. pericytes) reside in skeletal muscle where they contribute to myofiber regeneration; however, the existence of similar microvessel-associated regenerative precursor cells in cardiac muscle has not yet been documented. We tested whether microvascular pericytes within human myocardium exhibit phenotypes and multipotency similar to their anatomically and developmentally distinct counterparts. Fetal and adult human heart pericytes (hHPs) express canonical pericyte markers in situ, including CD146, NG2, PDGFRβ, PDGFRα, αSMA, and SM-MHC, but not CD117, CD133 and desmin, nor endothelial cell (EC) markers. hHPs were prospectively purified to homogeneity from ventricular myocardium by flow cytometry, based on a combination of positive- (CD146) and negative-selection (CD34, CD45, CD56, and CD117) cell lineage markers. Purified hHPs expanded in vitro were phenotypically similar to human skeletal muscle-derived pericytes (hSkMPs). hHPs express MSC markers in situ and exhibited osteo- chondro-, and adipogenic potentials but, importantly, no ability for skeletal myogenesis, diverging from pericytes of all other origins. hHPs supported network formation with/without ECs in Matrigel cultures; hHPs further stimulated angiogenic responses under hypoxia, markedly different from hSkMPs. The cardiomyogenic potential of hHPs was examined following 5-azacytidine treatment and neonatal cardiomyocyte co-culture in vitro, and intramyocardial transplantation in vivo. Results indicated cardiomyocytic differentiation in a small fraction of hHPs. In conclusion, human myocardial pericytes share certain phenotypic and developmental similarities with their skeletal muscle homologs, yet exhibit different antigenic, myogenic, and angiogenic properties. This is the first example of an anatomical restriction in the developmental potential of pericytes as native mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25336400

  3. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Sun; Mun, Ji-Young; Kwon, Ohsuk; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2013-07-19

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method.

  4. Direct laser machining-induced topographic pattern promotes up-regulation of myogenic markers in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiong; Wen, Feng; Wong, Yee Shan; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Subbu, Venkatraman S; Leong, David Tai; Ng, Kee Woei; Ng, Gary Ka Lai; Tan, Lay Poh

    2012-02-01

    The engineering of tissue is preferably done with stem cells, which can be differentiated into the tissue of interest using biochemical or physical cues. While much effort has been focused on using biological factors to regulate stem cell differentiation, recently interest in the contribution of physical factors has increased. In this work, three-dimensional (3-D) microchannels with topographic micropatterns were fabricated by femtosecond laser machining on a biodegradable polymer (poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)) substrate. Two substrates with narrow and wide channels respectively were created. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds for cell proliferation and cellular organization. Gene expression and the immunostaining of myogenic and neurogenic markers were studied. Both scaffolds improved the cell alignment along the channels as compared to the control group. Microfilaments within hMSCs were more significantly aligned and elongated on the narrower microchannels. The gene expression study revealed significant up-regulation of several hallmark markers associated with myogenesis for hMSCs cultured on the scaffold with narrow microchannels, while osteogenic and neurogenic markers were down-regulated or remained similar to the control at day 14. Immunostaining of myogen- and neurogen-specific differentiation markers were used to further confirm the specific differentiation towards a myogenic lineage. This study demonstrates that femtosecond laser machining is a versatile tool for generating controllable 3-D microchannels with topographic features that can be used to induce specific myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro, even in the absence of biological factors.

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity promotes survival of human muscle precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Elise; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Notarnicola, Cécile; Rouger, Karl; Serratrice, Nicolas; Bonnieu, Anne; Gay, Stéphanie; Bacou, Francis; Duret, Cédric; Carnac, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes that efficiently detoxify aldehydic products generated by reactive oxygen species and might therefore participate in cell survival. Because ALDH activity has been used to identify normal and malignant cells with stem cell properties, we asked whether human myogenic precursor cells (myoblasts) could be identified and isolated based on their levels of ALDH activity. Human muscle explant-derived cells were incubated with ALDEFLUOR, a fluorescent substrate for ALDH, and we determined by flow cytometry the level of enzyme activity. We found that ALDH activity positively correlated with the myoblast-CD56+ fraction in those cells, but, we also observed heterogeneity of ALDH activity levels within CD56-purified myoblasts. Using lentiviral mediated expression of shRNA we demonstrated that ALDH activity was associated with expression of Aldh1a1 protein. Surprisingly, ALDH activity and Aldh1a1 expression levels were very low in mouse, rat, rabbit and non-human primate myoblasts. Using different approaches, from pharmacological inhibition of ALDH activity by diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of class I ALDH, to cell fractionation by flow cytometry using the ALDEFLUOR assay, we characterized human myoblasts expressing low or high levels of ALDH. We correlated high ALDH activity ex vivo to resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxic effect and in vivo to improved cell viability when human myoblasts were transplanted into host muscle of immune deficient scid mice. Therefore detection of ALDH activity, as a purification strategy, could allow non-toxic and efficient isolation of a fraction of human myoblasts resistant to cytotoxic damage. PMID:19840193

  6. Time-lapse microscopy and classification of 2D human mesenchymal stem cells based on cell shape picks up myogenic from osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christof; Gazdhar, Amiq; Reyes, Mauricio; Benneker, Lorin M; Geiser, Thomas; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Gantenbein-Ritter, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Current methods to characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are limited to CD marker expression, plastic adherence and their ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors. It seems evident that stem cells undergoing differentiation should differ in many aspects, such as morphology and possibly also behaviour; however, such a correlation has not yet been exploited for fate prediction of MSCs. Primary human MSCs from bone marrow were expanded and pelleted to form high-density cultures and were then randomly divided into four groups to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic chondrogenic and myogenic progenitor cells. The cells were expanded as heterogeneous and tracked with time-lapse microscopy to record cell shape, using phase-contrast microscopy. The cells were segmented using a custom-made image-processing pipeline. Seven morphological features were extracted for each of the segmented cells. Statistical analysis was performed on the seven-dimensional feature vectors, using a tree-like classification method. Differentiation of cells was monitored with key marker genes and histology. Cells in differentiation media were expressing the key genes for each of the three pathways after 21 days, i.e. adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic, which was also confirmed by histological staining. Time-lapse microscopy data were obtained and contained new evidence that two cell shape features, eccentricity and filopodia (= 'fingers') are highly informative to classify myogenic differentiation from all others. However, no robust classifiers could be identified for the other cell differentiation paths. The results suggest that non-invasive automated time-lapse microscopy could potentially be used to predict the stem cell fate of hMSCs for clinical application, based on morphology for earlier time-points. The classification is challenged by cell density, proliferation and possible unknown donor-specific factors, which affect the performance of

  7. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-11-21

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair. PMID:26486984

  8. Neurally mediated propagating discrete clustered contractions superimposed on myogenic ripples in ex vivo segments of human ileum.

    PubMed

    Kuizenga, Merel H; Sia, Tiong C; Dodds, Kelsi N; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Arkwright, John W; Thomas, A; Brookes, Simon J; Spencer, Nick J; Wattchow, David A; Dinning, Phil G; Costa, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Narrow muscle strips have been extensively used to study intestinal contractility. Larger specimens from laboratory animals have provided detailed understanding of mechanisms that underlie patterned intestinal motility. Despite progress in animal tissue, investigations of motor patterns in large, intact specimens of human gut ex vivo have been sparse. In this study, we tested whether neurally dependent motor patterns could be detected in isolated specimens of intact human ileum. Specimens (n = 14; 7-30 cm long) of terminal ileum were obtained with prior informed consent from patients undergoing colonic surgery for removal of carcinomas. Preparations were set up in an organ bath with an array of force transducers, a fiberoptic manometry catheter, and a video camera. Spontaneous and distension-evoked motor activity was recorded, and the effects of lidocaine, which inhibits neural activity, were studied. Myogenic contractions (ripples) occurred in all preparations (6.17 ± 0.36/min). They were of low amplitude and formed complex patterns by colliding and propagating in both directions along the specimen at anterograde velocities of 4.1 ± 0.3 mm/s and retrogradely at 4.9 ± 0.6 mm/s. In five specimens, larger amplitude clusters of contractions were seen (discrete clustered contractions), which propagated aborally at 1.05 ± 0.13 mm/s and orally at 1.07 ± 0.09 mm/s. These consisted of two to eight phasic contractions that aligned with ripples. These motor patterns were abolished by addition of lidocaine (0.3 mM). The ripples continued unchanged in the presence of this neural blocking agent. These results demonstrate that both myogenic and neurogenic motor patterns can be studied in isolated specimens of human small intestine.

  9. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed

  10. Magnetofection Mediated Transient NANOG Overexpression Enhances Proliferation and Myogenic Differentiation of Human Hair Follicle Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Seoyoung; Liang, Mao-Shih; Lei, Pedro; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2015-07-15

    We used magnetofection (MF) to achieve high transfection efficiency into human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A custom-made magnet array, matching well-to-well to a 24-well plate, was generated and characterized. Theoretical predictions of magnetic force distribution within each well demonstrated that there was no magnetic field interference among magnets in adjacent wells. An optimized protocol for efficient gene delivery to human hair follicle derived MSCs (hHF-MSCs) was established using an egfp-encoding plasmid, reaching approximately ∼50% transfection efficiency without significant cytotoxicity. Then we applied the optimized MF protocol to express the pluripotency-associated transcription factor NANOG, which was previously shown to reverse the effects of organismal aging on MSC proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity. Indeed, MF-mediated NANOG delivery increased proliferation and enhanced the differentiation of hHF-MSCs into smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Collectively, our results show that MF can achieve high levels of gene delivery to MSCs and, therefore, may be employed to moderate or reverse the effects of cellular senescence or reprogram cells to the pluripotent state without permanent genetic modification.

  11. Myogenic and neurogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) are regulated by pluronic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Taşlı, P Neslihan; Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2016-03-01

    Stem cells with high proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation capacities are promising for tissue engineering approaches. Among stem cells, human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) having mesenchymal stem cell characteristics are highly proliferative and able to differentiate into several cell lineages. Researchers have recently focused on transplanting stem cells with bioconductive and/or bioinductive materials that can provide cell commitment to the desired cell lineages. In the present study, effects of pluronic block copolymers (F68, F127 and P85) on in vitro myo- and neurogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) were investigated. As P85 was found to exert considerable toxicity to hTGSCs even at low concentrations, it was not evaluated for further differentiation experiments. Immunocytochemical analysis, gene and protein expression studies revealed that while F68 treatment increased lineage-specific gene expression in both myo- and neuro-genically differentiated cells, F127 did not result in any remarkable difference compared to cells treated with differentiation medium. Subsequent studies are required to explore the exact mechanisms of how F68 increases the myogenic and neurogenic differentiation of hTGSCs. The present work indicates that pluronic F68 might be used in functional skeletal and neural tissue engineering applications.

  12. Myogenic differentiation potential of human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells and their potential for use to promote skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    PARK, SAEYOUNG; CHOI, YOONYOUNG; JUNG, NAMHEE; YU, YEONSIL; RYU, KYUNG-HA; KIM, HAN SU; JO, INHO; CHOI, BYUNG-OK; JUNG, SUNG-CHUL

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are regarded as an important source of cells which may be used to promote the regeneration of skeletal muscle (SKM) which has been damaged due to defects in the organization of muscle tissue caused by congenital diseases, trauma or tumor removal. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which require less invasive harvesting techniques, represent a valuable source of cells for stem cell therapy. In the present study, we demonstrated that human tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) may differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and that the transplantation of myoblasts and myocytes generated from human T-MSCs mediates the recovery of muscle function in vivo. In order to induce myogenic differentiation, the T-MSC-derived spheres were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F-12 (DMEM/F-12) supplemented with 1 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β, non-essential amino acids and insulin-transferrin-selenium for 4 days followed by culture in myogenic induction medium [low-glucose DMEM containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 10 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)] for 14 days. The T-MSCs sequentially differentiated into myoblasts and skeletal myocytes, as evidenced by the increased expression of skeletal myogenesis-related markers [including α-actinin, troponin I type 1 (TNNI1) and myogenin] and the formation of myotubes in vitro. The in situ transplantation of T-MSCs into mice with a partial myectomy of the right gastrocnemius muscle enhanced muscle function, as demonstrated by gait assessment (footprint analysis), and restored the shape of SKM without forming teratomas. Thus, T-MSCs may differentiate into myogenic cells and effectively regenerate SKM following injury. These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of T-MSCs to promote SKM regeneration following injury. PMID:27035161

  13. Low Oxygen Tension Enhances Expression of Myogenic Genes When Human Myoblasts Are Activated from G0 Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Sellathurai, Jeeva; Nielsen, Joachim; Hejbøl, Eva Kildall; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Most cell culture studies have been performed at atmospheric oxygen tension of 21%, however the physiological oxygen tension is much lower and is a factor that may affect skeletal muscle myoblasts. In this study we have compared activation of G0 arrested myoblasts in 21% O2 and in 1% O2 in order to see how oxygen tension affects activation and proliferation of human myoblasts. Materials and Methods Human myoblasts were isolated from skeletal muscle tissue and G0 arrested in vitro followed by reactivation at 21% O2 and 1% O2. The effect was assesses by Real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and western blot. Results and Conclusions We found an increase in proliferation rate of myoblasts when activated at a low oxygen tension (1% O2) compared to 21% O2. In addition, the gene expression studies showed up regulation of the myogenesis related genes PAX3, PAX7, MYOD, MYOG (myogenin), MET, NCAM, DES (desmin), MEF2A, MEF2C and CDH15 (M-cadherin), however, the fraction of DES and MYOD positive cells was not increased by low oxygen tension, indicating that 1% O2 may not have a functional effect on the myogenic response. Furthermore, the expression of genes involved in the TGFβ, Notch and Wnt signaling pathways were also up regulated in low oxygen tension. The differences in gene expression were most pronounced at day one after activation from G0-arrest, thus the initial activation of myoblasts seemed most sensitive to changes in oxygen tension. Protein expression of HES1 and β-catenin indicated that notch signaling may be induced in 21% O2, while the canonical Wnt signaling may be induced in 1% O2 during activation and proliferation of myoblasts. PMID:27442119

  14. Isolation of blood-vessel-derived multipotent precursors from human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, William C W; Saparov, Arman; Corselli, Mirko; Crisan, Mihaela; Zheng, Bo; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), the native identity and localization of MSCs have been obscured by their retrospective isolation in culture. Recently, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we and other researchers prospectively identified and purified three subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the vasculature of human skeletal muscle. These three cell populations: myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are localized respectively to the three structural layers of blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. All of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cell (hBVSC) populations not only express classic MSC markers but also possess mesodermal developmental potentials similar to typical MSCs. Previously, MECs, PCs, and ACs have been isolated through distinct protocols and subsequently characterized in separate studies. The current isolation protocol, through modifications to the isolation process and adjustments in the selective cell surface markers, allows us to simultaneously purify all three hBVSC subpopulations by FACS from a single human muscle biopsy. This new method will not only streamline the isolation of multiple BVSC subpopulations but also facilitate future clinical applications of hBVSCs for distinct therapeutic purposes. PMID:25177794

  15. Human embryonic epidermis contains a diverse Langerhans cell precursor pool.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher; Mildner, Michael; Mairhofer, Mario; Bauer, Wolfgang; Fiala, Christian; Prior, Marion; Eppel, Wolfgang; Kolbus, Andrea; Tschachler, Erwin; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2014-02-01

    Despite intense efforts, the exact phenotype of the epidermal Langerhans cell (LC) precursors during human ontogeny has not been determined yet. These elusive precursors are believed to migrate into the embryonic skin and to express primitive surface markers, including CD36, but not typical LC markers such as CD1a, CD1c and CD207. The aim of this study was to further characterize the phenotype of LC precursors in human embryonic epidermis and to compare it with that of LCs in healthy adult skin. We found that epidermal leukocytes in first trimester human skin are negative for CD34 and heterogeneous with regard to the expression of CD1c, CD14 and CD36, thus contrasting the phenotypic uniformity of epidermal LCs in adult skin. These data indicate that LC precursors colonize the developing epidermis in an undifferentiated state, where they acquire the definitive LC marker profile with time. Using a human three-dimensional full-thickness skin model to mimic in vivo LC development, we found that FACS-sorted, CD207(-) cord blood-derived haematopoietic precursor cells resembling foetal LC precursors but not CD14(+)CD16(-) blood monocytes integrate into skin equivalents, and without additional exogenous cytokines give rise to cells that morphologically and phenotypically resemble LCs. Overall, it appears that CD14(-) haematopoietic precursors possess a much higher differentiation potential than CD14(+) precursor cells.

  16. MyoD expression restores defective myogenic differentiation of human mesoangioblasts from inclusion-body myositis muscle

    PubMed Central

    Morosetti, Roberta; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Gliubizzi, Carla; Broccolini, Aldobrando; De Angelis, Luciana; Tagliafico, Enrico; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Gidaro, Teresa; Papacci, Manuela; Roncaglia, Enrica; Rutella, Sergio; Ferrari, Stefano; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Ricci, Enzo; Cossu, Giulio

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory myopathies (IM) are acquired diseases of skeletal muscle comprising dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and inclusion-body myositis (IBM). Immunosuppressive therapies, usually beneficial for DM and PM, are poorly effective in IBM. We report the isolation and characterization of mesoangioblasts, vessel-associated stem cells, from diagnostic muscle biopsies of IM. The number of cells isolated, proliferation rate and lifespan, markers expression, and ability to differentiate into smooth muscle do not differ among normal and IM mesoangioblasts. At variance with normal, DM and PM mesoangioblasts, cells isolated from IBM, fail to differentiate into skeletal myotubes. These data correlate with lack in connective tissue of IBM muscle of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive cells, conversely dramatically increased in PM and DM. A myogenic inhibitory basic helix–loop–helix factor B3 is highly expressed in IBM mesoangioblasts. Indeed, silencing this gene or overexpressing MyoD rescues the myogenic defect of IBM mesoangioblasts, opening novel cell-based therapeutic strategies for this crippling disorder. PMID:17077152

  17. DNA methylation analysis of human myoblasts during in vitro myogenic differentiation: de novo methylation of promoters of muscle-related genes and its involvement in transcriptional down-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Kohei; Miyata, Tomoko; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Kohji; Naito, Masashi; Kawai, Tomoko; Takada, Shuji; Kato, Kiyoko; Miyamoto, Shingo; Hata, Kenichiro; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Although DNA methylation is considered to play an important role during myogenic differentiation, chronological alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in this process have been poorly understood. Using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, we obtained a chronological profile of the genome-wide DNA methylation status in a human myoblast differentiation model, where myoblasts were cultured in low-serum medium to stimulate myogenic differentiation. As the differentiation of the myoblasts proceeded, their global DNA methylation level increased and their methylation patterns became more distinct from those of mesenchymal stem cells. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes whose promoter region was hypermethylated upon myoblast differentiation were highly significantly enriched with muscle-related terms such as ‘muscle contraction’ and ‘muscle system process’. Sequence motif analysis identified 8-bp motifs somewhat similar to the binding motifs of ID4 and ZNF238 to be most significantly enriched in hypermethylated promoter regions. ID4 and ZNF238 have been shown to be critical transcriptional regulators of muscle-related genes during myogenic differentiation. An integrated analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression profiles revealed that de novo DNA methylation of non-CpG island (CGI) promoters was more often associated with transcriptional down-regulation than that of CGI promoters. These results strongly suggest the existence of an epigenetic mechanism in which DNA methylation modulates the functions of key transcriptional factors to coordinately regulate muscle-related genes during myogenic differentiation. PMID:25190712

  18. Ion Current-Based Proteomic Profiling for Understanding the Inhibitory Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha on Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengjian; Bu, Yahao; Vujcic, Marija; Shen, Shichen; Li, Jun; Qu, Miao; Hangauer, David; Clements, James L; Qu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Despite a demonstrated role for TNF-α in promoting muscle wasting and cachexia, the associated molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of myoblast differentiation dysregulated by TNF-α remain poorly understood. This study presents well-controlled proteomic profiling as a means to investigate the mechanisms of TNF-α-regulated myogenic differentiation. Primary human muscle precursor cells (MPCs) cultured in growth medium (GM), differentiation medium (DM) to induce myogenic differentiation, and DM with 20 ng/mL of TNF-α (n = 5/group) were comparatively analyzed by an ion current-based quantitative platform consisting of reproducible sample preparation/on-pellet digestion, a long-column nano-LC separation, and ion current-based differential analysis. The inhibition of myogenic differentiation by TNF-α was confirmed by reduced formation of multinucleated myotubes and the recovered expression of altered myogenic proteins such as MYOD and myogenin during myogenic differentiation. Functional analysis and validation by immunoassay analysis suggested that the cooperation of NF-κB and STAT proteins is responsible for dysregulated differentiation in MPCs by TNF-α treatment. Increased MHC class I components such as HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and beta-2-microglobulin were also observed in cultures in DM treated with TNF-α. Interestingly, inhibition of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway during myogenic differentiation induced by serum starvation was not recovered by TNF-α treatment, which combined with previous reports, implies that this process may be an early event of myogenesis. This finding could lay the foundation for the potential use of statins in modulating myogenesis through cholesterol, for example, in stem cell-based myocardial infarction treatment, where differentiation of myoblasts and stem cells into force-generating mature muscle cells is a key step to the therapeutic capacity. In conclusion, the landscapes of altered transcription regulators, metabolic

  19. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression decreases the survival and myogenic differentiation of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Croci, Stefania; Landuzzi, Lorena; Astolfi, Annalisa; Nicoletti, Giordano; Rosolen, Angelo; Sartori, Francesca; Follo, Matilde Y; Oliver, Noelynn; De Giovanni, Carla; Nanni, Patrizia; Lollini, Pier-Luigi

    2004-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a cysteine-rich protein of the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of genes, emerged from a microarray screen of genes expressed by human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma of childhood deriving from skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CTGF in rhabdomyosarcoma. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells of the embryonal (RD/12, RD/18, CCA) and the alveolar histotype (RMZ-RC2, SJ-RH4, SJ-RH30), rhabdomyosarcoma tumor specimens, and normal skeletal muscle cells expressed CTGF. To determine the function of CTGF, we treated rhabdomyosarcoma cells with a CTGF antisense oligonucleotide or with a CTGF small interfering RNA (siRNA). Both treatments inhibited rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth, suggesting the existence of a new autocrine loop based on CTGF. CTGF antisense oligonucleotide-mediated growth inhibition was specifically due to a significant increase in apoptosis, whereas cell proliferation was unchanged. CTGF antisense oligonucleotide induced a strong decrease in the level of myogenic differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells, whereas the addition of recombinant CTGF significantly increased the proportion of myosin-positive cells. CTGF emerges as a survival and differentiation factor and could be a new therapeutic target in human rhabdomyosarcoma.

  20. Intraspinal transplantation of mouse and human neural precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Jason G.; Chen, Lu; Coleman, Ronald; Leang, Ronika; Plaisted, Warren C.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Lane, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the preparation and transplantation of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and mouse neural precursor cells (mNPCs) into the thoracic region of the mouse spinal cord. The techniques in this unit also describe how to prepare the mouse for surgery by performing a laminectomy to expose the spinal cord for transplantation. Here we show NPCs genetically labeled with eGFP transplanted into the spinal cord of a mouse following viralmediated demyelination can efficiently be detected via eGFP expression. Transplantation of these cells into the spinal cord is an efficacious way to determine their effects in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and spinal cord injury. PMID:24510791

  1. The synergistic effect of surface topography and sustained release of TGF-β1 on myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moghadasi Boroujeni, Samaneh; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Vakilian, Saeid; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza; Soleimani, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    A combination of topographical cues and controlled release of biochemical factors is a potential platform in controlling stem cells differentiation. In this study the synergistic effect of nanotopography and sustained release of biofunctional transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) on differentiation of human Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hWJ-derived UC-MSCs) toward myogenic lineage was investigated. In order to achieve a sustained release of TGF-β1, this factor was encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles. Afterwards the aligned composite mats were fabricated using poly-ɛ-caprolacton (PCL) containing TGF-β1-loaded chitosan nanoparticles and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). The nanofiber topography notably up-regulated the expressions of calponin1 and SM22α compared with tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). Moreover, the combination of nanofiber topography and sustained TGF-β1release resulted in more significant enhancement of SMC marker, in particular smooth muscle α-actin (ASMA) expression, compared with bolus delivery despite lower amounts of TGF-β1 (>10 times lower). Additionally, immunofluorescence staining showed that ASMA and desmin were expressed at higher intensity in cells exposed to controlled TGF-β1 delivery rather than bolus delivery. These results demonstrated the importance of combined effect of topography and drug delivery in directing stem cell fate and the potential of such biofunctional scaffolds for cell transplantation applications in bladder tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1610-1621, 2016.

  2. In vitro osteogenesis from human skin-derived precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Buranasinsup, Shutipen; Sila-Asna, Monnipha; Bunyaratvej, Narong; Bunyaratvej, Ahnond

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic tissue and organ development are initiated from three embryonic germ layers: ectoderm (skin and neuron), mesoderm (blood, bone, muscle, cartilage and fat) and endoderm (respiratory and digestive tract). In former times, it was believed that cell types in each germ layer are specific and do not cross from one to another throughout life. A new finding is that one tissue lineage can differentiate across to another tissue lineage, and this is termed transdifferentiation. We were interested in studying the transdifferentiation of skin-derived precursor cells (ectoderm layer) to osteoblastic cells (mesoderm layer). Human skin-derived precursor cells (hSKP) were isolated and induced into an osteoblastic lineage using osteogenic induction medium (alpha-MEM plus 10% fetal bovine serum supplemented with ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone). The specific characteristics of osteoblastic cells, including the expression of enzyme alkaline phosphatase, the deposition of mineral and the expression of osterix, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, were detected only from the inductive group. The results in our study show that SKP from human skin are a practically available source for osteogenesis. The samples are easily obtainable for autologous use with a high expansion capacity.

  3. The synergistic effect of surface topography and sustained release of TGF-β1 on myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moghadasi Boroujeni, Samaneh; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Vakilian, Saeid; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza; Soleimani, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    A combination of topographical cues and controlled release of biochemical factors is a potential platform in controlling stem cells differentiation. In this study the synergistic effect of nanotopography and sustained release of biofunctional transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) on differentiation of human Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hWJ-derived UC-MSCs) toward myogenic lineage was investigated. In order to achieve a sustained release of TGF-β1, this factor was encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles. Afterwards the aligned composite mats were fabricated using poly-ɛ-caprolacton (PCL) containing TGF-β1-loaded chitosan nanoparticles and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). The nanofiber topography notably up-regulated the expressions of calponin1 and SM22α compared with tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). Moreover, the combination of nanofiber topography and sustained TGF-β1release resulted in more significant enhancement of SMC marker, in particular smooth muscle α-actin (ASMA) expression, compared with bolus delivery despite lower amounts of TGF-β1 (>10 times lower). Additionally, immunofluorescence staining showed that ASMA and desmin were expressed at higher intensity in cells exposed to controlled TGF-β1 delivery rather than bolus delivery. These results demonstrated the importance of combined effect of topography and drug delivery in directing stem cell fate and the potential of such biofunctional scaffolds for cell transplantation applications in bladder tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1610-1621, 2016. PMID:26879731

  4. Future Human Precursor Mission Missions and Architectures to Achieve Humans to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Kinnett, R.; Klien, E.

    2012-06-01

    We have studied a series of payload options that are in response to measurements identified by MEPAG as vital to human precursor activity. These payloads have the ability to make a significant dent in the needed measurements to send humans to Mars.

  5. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamin; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological

  6. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamine; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological

  7. MicroRNA-199a is induced in dystrophic muscle and affects WNT signaling, cell proliferation, and myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M S; Kawahara, G; Motohashi, N; Casar, J C; Eisenberg, I; Myers, J A; Gasperini, M J; Estrella, E A; Kho, A T; Mitsuhashi, S; Shapiro, F; Kang, P B; Kunkel, L M

    2013-09-01

    In patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the absence of a functional dystrophin protein results in sarcolemmal instability, abnormal calcium signaling, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal muscle degeneration. Using the dystrophin-deficient sapje zebrafish model, we have identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that, in comparison to our previous findings in human DMD muscle biopsies, are uniquely dysregulated in dystrophic muscle across vertebrate species. MiR-199a-5p is dysregulated in dystrophin-deficient zebrafish, mdx(5cv) mice, and human muscle biopsies. MiR-199a-5p mature miRNA sequences are transcribed from stem loop precursor miRNAs that are found within the introns of the dynamin-2 and dynamin-3 loci. The miR-199a-2 stem loop precursor transcript that gives rise to the miR-199a-5p mature transcript was found to be elevated in human dystrophic muscle. The levels of expression of miR-199a-5p are regulated in a serum response factor (SRF)-dependent manner along with myocardin-related transcription factors. Inhibition of SRF-signaling reduces miR-199a-5p transcript levels during myogenic differentiation. Manipulation of miR-199a-5p expression in human primary myoblasts and myotubes resulted in dramatic changes in cellular size, proliferation, and differentiation. MiR-199a-5p targets several myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation regulatory factors within the WNT signaling pathway, including FZD4, JAG1, and WNT2. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p in the muscles of transgenic zebrafish resulted in abnormal myofiber disruption and sarcolemmal membrane detachment, pericardial edema, and lethality. Together, these studies identify miR-199a-5p as a potential regulator of myogenesis through suppression of WNT-signaling factors that act to balance myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation.

  8. Opposing effects of shear-mediated dilation and myogenic constriction on artery diameter in response to handgrip exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Carter, Howard H; Naylor, Louise H; Dawson, Ellen A; Marusic, Petra; Hering, Dagmara; Schlaich, Markus P; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2015-10-15

    While the impact of changes in blood flow and shear stress on artery function are well documented, the acute effects of increases in arterial pressure are less well described in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 30 min of elevated blood pressure, in the absence of changes in shear stress or sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, on conduit artery diameter. Ten healthy male subjects undertook three sessions of 30 min unilateral handgrip exercise at 5, 10, and 15% of maximal voluntary contractile (MVC) strength. Brachial artery shear rate and blood flow profiles were measured simultaneously during exercise in the active and contralateral resting arms. Bilateral brachial artery diameter was simultaneously assessed before and immediately postexercise. In a second experiment, six subjects repeated the 15% MVC condition while continuous vascular measurements were collected during muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) assessment using peroneal microneurography. We found that unilateral handgrip exercise at 5, 10, and 15% MVC strength induced stepwise elevations in blood pressure (P < 0.01, Δmean arterial pressure: 7.06 ± 2.44, 8.50 ± 2.80, and 18.35 ± 3.52 mmHg, P < 0.01). Whereas stepwise increases were evident in shear rate in the exercising arm (P < 0.001), no changes were apparent in the nonexercising limb (P = 0.42). Brachial artery diameter increased in the exercising arm (P = 0.02), but significantly decreased in the nonexercising arm (P = 0.03). At 15% MVC, changes in diameter were significantly different between arms (interaction effect: P = 0.01), whereas this level of exertion produced no significant changes in MSNA. We conclude that acute increases in transmural pressure, independent of shear rate and changes in SNS activation, reduce arterial caliber in normotensive humans in vivo. These changes in diameter were mitigated by exercise-induced elevations in shear rate in the active limb.

  9. Opposing effects of shear-mediated dilation and myogenic constriction on artery diameter in response to handgrip exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Carter, Howard H; Naylor, Louise H; Dawson, Ellen A; Marusic, Petra; Hering, Dagmara; Schlaich, Markus P; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2015-10-15

    While the impact of changes in blood flow and shear stress on artery function are well documented, the acute effects of increases in arterial pressure are less well described in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 30 min of elevated blood pressure, in the absence of changes in shear stress or sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, on conduit artery diameter. Ten healthy male subjects undertook three sessions of 30 min unilateral handgrip exercise at 5, 10, and 15% of maximal voluntary contractile (MVC) strength. Brachial artery shear rate and blood flow profiles were measured simultaneously during exercise in the active and contralateral resting arms. Bilateral brachial artery diameter was simultaneously assessed before and immediately postexercise. In a second experiment, six subjects repeated the 15% MVC condition while continuous vascular measurements were collected during muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) assessment using peroneal microneurography. We found that unilateral handgrip exercise at 5, 10, and 15% MVC strength induced stepwise elevations in blood pressure (P < 0.01, Δmean arterial pressure: 7.06 ± 2.44, 8.50 ± 2.80, and 18.35 ± 3.52 mmHg, P < 0.01). Whereas stepwise increases were evident in shear rate in the exercising arm (P < 0.001), no changes were apparent in the nonexercising limb (P = 0.42). Brachial artery diameter increased in the exercising arm (P = 0.02), but significantly decreased in the nonexercising arm (P = 0.03). At 15% MVC, changes in diameter were significantly different between arms (interaction effect: P = 0.01), whereas this level of exertion produced no significant changes in MSNA. We conclude that acute increases in transmural pressure, independent of shear rate and changes in SNS activation, reduce arterial caliber in normotensive humans in vivo. These changes in diameter were mitigated by exercise-induced elevations in shear rate in the active limb. PMID:26294751

  10. Regulation of myogenic differentiation in the developing limb bud

    PubMed Central

    Francis-West, Philippa H; Antoni, Laurent; Anakwe, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    The limb myogenic precursors arise by delamination from the lateral dermomyotome in response to signals from the lateral plate mesoderm. They subsequently migrate into the developing limb bud where they switch on the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD and Myf5, and coalese to form the dorsal and ventral muscle masses. The myogenic cells subsequently undergo terminal differentiation into slow or fast fibres which have distinct contractile properties determining how a muscle will function. In general, fast fibres contract rapidly with high force and are characterized by the expression of fast myosin heavy chains (MyHC). These fibres are needed for movement. In contrast, slow fibres express slow MyHC, contract slowly and are required for maintenance of posture. This review focuses on the molecular signals that control limb myogenic development from the initial delamination and migration of the premyogenic cells to the ultimate formation of the complex muscle pattern and differentiation of slow and fast fibres. PMID:12587922

  11. Recombinant human epidermal growth factor precursor is a glycosylated membrane protein with biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Mroczkowski, B; Reich, M; Chen, K; Bell, G I; Cohen, S

    1989-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with cDNA corresponding to human kidney prepro-epidermal growth factor (preproEGF) under control of the inducible mouse metallothionein promoter. The synthesis of recombinant human EGF precursor by these cells has provided us with a model system for analysis of the structure and activity of this precursor. In transfected cells, the precursor was present as an intrinsic 170-kilodalton membrane protein as well as a soluble protein in the extracellular medium; both forms were N glycosylated. Glycosylation of the EGF precursor was determined by (i) the direct incorporation of [3H]mannose and [3H]glucosamine, (ii) metabolic labeling in the presence or absence of glycosylation inhibitors, (iii) enzymatic cleavage of the precursor by N-glycanase or endoglycosidase II, and (iv) lectin chromatography. Recombinant human preproEGF was purified by affinity chromatography, using wheat germ lectin and antibodies to human EGF. The intact precursor was biologically active. Purified preparations of preproEGF (i) competed with 125I-labeled EGF for binding to the EGF receptor in intact fibroblast cells, (ii) activated the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor in membrane preparations, and (iii) sustained the growth of a mouse keratinocyte cell line that is dependent on EGF for growth. These results suggest that proteolytic processing of the precursor may not be essential for its biological function. Images PMID:2789334

  12. Establishment of clonal myogenic cell lines from severely affected dystrophic muscles - CDK4 maintains the myogenic population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A hallmark of muscular dystrophies is the replacement of muscle by connective tissue. Muscle biopsies from patients severely affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) may contain few myogenic cells. Because the chromosomal contraction at 4q35 linked to FSHD is thought to cause a defect within myogenic cells, it is important to study this particular cell type, rather than the fibroblasts and adipocytes of the endomysial fibrosis, to understand the mechanism leading to myopathy. Results We present a protocol to establish clonal myogenic cell lines from even severely dystrophic muscle that has been replaced mostly by fat, using overexpression of CDK4 and the catalytic component of telomerase (human telomerase reverse transcriptase; hTERT), and a subsequent cloning step. hTERT is necessary to compensate for telomere loss during in vitro cultivation, while CDK4 prevents a telomere-independent growth arrest affecting CD56+ myogenic cells, but not their CD56- counterpart, in vitro. Conclusions These immortal cell lines are valuable tools to reproducibly study the effect of the FSHD mutation within myoblasts isolated from muscles that have been severely affected by the disease, without the confounding influence of variable amounts of contaminating connective-tissue cells. PMID:21798090

  13. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Colebatch, J G; Rosengren, S M; Welgampola, M S

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is a short-latency potential evoked through activation of vestibular receptors using sound or vibration. It is generated by modulated electromyographic signals either from the sternocleidomastoid muscle for the cervical VEMP (cVEMP) or the inferior oblique muscle for the ocular VEMP (oVEMP). These reflexes appear to originate from the otolith organs and thus complement existing methods of vestibular assessment, which are mainly based upon canal function. This review considers the basis, methodology, and current applications of the cVEMP and oVEMP in the assessment and diagnosis of vestibular disorders, both peripheral and central. PMID:27638068

  14. Functional Study of miR-27a in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells by Proteomic Analysis: Comprehensive View and a Role in Myogenic Tans-Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yuhua; Zhang, Jinsheng; Wang, Wenwen; Ji, Juling

    2014-01-01

    We previous reported that miR-27a regulates lipid metabolism and cell proliferation during hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. To further explore the biological function and underlying mechanisms of miR-27a in HSCs, global protein expression affected by overexpression of miR-27a in HSCs was analyzed by a cleavable isotope-coded affinity tags (cICAT) based comparative proteomic approach. In the present study, 1267 non-redundant proteins were identified with unique accession numbers (score ≥1.3, i.e. confidence ≥95%), among which 1171 were quantified and 149 proteins (12.72%) were differentially expressed with a differential expression ratio of 1.5. We found that up-regulated proteins by miR-27a mainly participate in cell proliferation and myogenesis, while down-regulated proteins were the key enzymes involved in de novo lipid synthesis. The expression of a group of six miR-27a regulated proteins was validated and the function of one miR-27a regulated protein was further validated. The results not only delineated the underlying mechanism of miR-27a in modulating fat metabolism and cell proliferation, but also revealed a novel role of miR-27a in promoting myogenic tans-differentiation during HSCs activation. This study also exemplified proteomics strategy as a powerful tool for the functional study of miRNA. PMID:25265485

  15. Mars scientific investigations as a precursor for human exploration.

    PubMed

    Ahlf, P; Cantwell, E; Ostrach, L; Pline, A

    2000-01-01

    In the past two years, NASA has begun to develop and implement plans for investigations on robotic Mars missions which are focused toward returning data critical for planning human missions to Mars. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions will mark the first time that experiments dedicated to preparation for human exploration will be carried out. Investigations on these missions and future missions range from characterization of the physical and chemical environment of Mars, to predicting the response of biology to the Mars environment. Planning for such missions must take into account existing data from previous Mars missions which were not necessarily focused on human exploration preparation. At the same time, plans for near term missions by the international community must be considered to avoid duplication of effort. This paper reviews data requirements for human exploration and applicability of existing data. It will also describe current plans for investigations and place them within the context of related international activities.

  16. Crystal Structure of the Human Laminin Receptor Precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson,K.; Wu, J.; Hubbard, S.; Meruelo, D.

    2008-01-01

    The human laminin receptor (LamR) interacts with many ligands, including laminin, prions, Sindbis virus, and the polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and has been implicated in a number of diseases. LamR is overexpressed on tumor cells, and targeting LamR elicits anti-cancer effects. Here, we report the crystal structure of human LamR, which provides insights into its function and should facilitate the design of novel therapeutics targeting LamR.

  17. Spontaneous myogenic differentiation of Flk-1-positive cells from adult pancreas and other nonmuscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Tritarelli, Alessandra; Toietta, Gabriele; Gatto, Ilaria; Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Pagani, Francesca; Mangoni, Antonella; Straino, Stefania; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2008-02-01

    At the embryonic or fetal stages, autonomously myogenic cells (AMCs), i.e., cells able to spontaneously differentiate into skeletal myotubes, have been identified from several different sites other than skeletal muscle, including the vascular compartment. However, in the adult animal, AMCs from skeletal muscle-devoid tissues have been described in only two cases. One is represented by thymic myoid cells, a restricted population of committed myogenic progenitors of unknown derivation present in the thymic medulla; the other is represented by a small subset of adipose tissue-associated cells, which we recently identified. In the present study we report, for the first time, the presence of spontaneously differentiating myogenic precursors in the pancreas and in other skeletal muscle-devoid organs such as spleen and stomach, as well as in the periaortic tissue of adult mice. Immunomagnetic selection procedures indicate that AMCs derive from Flk-1(+) progenitors. Individual clones of myogenic cells from nonmuscle organs are morphologically and functionally indistinguishable from skeletal muscle-derived primary myoblasts. Moreover, they can be induced to proliferate in vitro and are able to participate in muscle regeneration in vivo. Thus, we provide evidence that fully competent myogenic progenitors can be derived from the Flk-1(+) compartment of several adult tissues that are embryologically unrelated to skeletal muscle. PMID:18094147

  18. Primary structure of the human follistatin precursor and its genomic organization

    SciTech Connect

    Shimasaki, Shunichi; Koga, Makoto; Esch, F.; Cooksey, K.; Mercado, M.; Koba, A.; Ueno, Naoto; Ying, Shaoyao; Ling, N.; Guillemin, R. )

    1988-06-01

    Follistatin is a single-chain gonadal protein that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone release. By use of the recently characterized porcine follistatin cDNA as a probe to screen a human testis cDNA library and a genomic library, the structure of the complete human follistatin precursor as well as its genomic organization have been determined. Three of eight cDNA clones that were sequenced predicted a precursor with 344 amino acids, whereas the remaining five cDNA clones encoded a 317 amino acid precursor, resulting from alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA. Mature follistatins contain four contiguous domains that are encoded by precisely separated exons; three of the domains are highly similar to each other, as well as to human epidermal growth factor and human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor. The genomic organization of the human follistatin is similar to that of the human epidermal growth factor gene and thus supports the notion of exon shuffling during evolution.

  19. Formation and Human Risk of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines Formed from Natural Precursors in Meat

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M G; Felton, J S

    2004-11-22

    A group of heterocyclic amines that are mutagens and rodent carcinogens form when meat is cooked to medium and well-done states. The precursors of these compounds are natural meat components: creatinine, amino acids and sugars. Defined model systems of dry-heated precursors mimic the amounts and proportions of heterocyclic amines found in meat. Results from model systems and cooking experiments suggest ways to reduce their formation and, thus, to reduce human intake. Human cancer epidemiology studies related to consumption of well-done meat products are listed and compared.

  20. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  1. Mars scientific investigations as a precursor for human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, P.; Cantwell, E.; Ostrach, L.; Pline, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the past two years, NASA has begun to develop and implement plans for investigations on robotic Mars missions which are focused toward returning data critical for planning human missions to Mars. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions will mark the first time that experiments dedicated to preparation for human exploration will be carried out. Investigations on these missions and future missions range from characterization of the physical and chemical environment of Mars, to predicting the response of biology to the Mars environment. Planning for such missions must take into account existing data from previous Mars missions which were not necessarily focused on human exploration preparation. At the same time, plans for near term missions by the international community must be considered to avoid duplication of effort. This paper reviews data requirements for human exploration and applicability of existing data. It will also describe current plans for investigations and place them within the context of related international activities. c 2000 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Influences of Ozone Precursor Emissions on Human Health & Ecosystems"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act supports the establishment of a national standard for ambient concentrations of atmospheric pollutants to protect human health and public welfare (CAA, 1990). The primary standard has been viewed as sucient for also protecting public welfare. We seek to explore ...

  3. Precursors of hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human mammary gland is capable of de novo synthesis of glucose and galactose (hexoneogenesis); however, the carbon source is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of acetate, glutamine, lactate and glycerol as potential carbon sources for hexoneogenesis. Healthy breast...

  4. Export of Precursor tRNAIle from the Nucleus to the Cytoplasm in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Mi; Niu, Meijuan; Seif, Elias; Kleiman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In the current concept, tRNA maturation in vertebrate cells, including splicing of introns, trimming of 5' leader and 3' trailer, and adding of CCA, is thought to occur exclusively in the nucleus. Here we provide evidence to challenge this concept. Unspliced intron-containing precursor tRNAIle was identified in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions, which are synthesized in the cytoplasm. Northern blot, confocal microscopy and quantitative RT-PCR further verified enrichment of this unspliced tRNAIle within the cytoplasm in human cells. In addition to containing an intron, the cytoplasmic precursor tRNAIle also contains a short incompletely processed 5´ leader and a 3´ trailer, which abundance is around 1000 fold higher than the nuclear precursor tRNAIle with long 5' leader and long 3' trailer. In vitro data also suggest that the cytoplasmic unspliced end-immature precursor tRNAIle could be processed by short isoform of RNase Z, but not long isoform of RNase Z. These data suggest that precursor tRNAs could export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in human cells, instead of be processed only in the nucleus.

  5. SLS-Derived Lab: Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2014-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in work and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Robotic missions have successfully demonstrated transportation, entry, landing and surface operations but for human missions there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) are the unanswered questions concerning long-duration exploration beyond low-earth-orbit. The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside earth's protective geo-magnetic field they cannot be resolved on the earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at the relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 meter and 4.3 meter diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit Habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems, solutions are not obvious, and require integrated, iterative, and multi-disciplinary development. A lunar

  6. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability.

  7. SLS-Derived Lab- Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand M.; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in the works and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Transportation, entry, landing, and surface operations have been successfully demonstrated for robotic missions. However, for human missions, there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), are the unanswered questions concerning long duration exploration Beyond low Earth Orbit (BEO). The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside of earth's protective geo-magnetic field, they cannot be resolved on Earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at a relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 m and 4.3 m diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems. The solutions to these problems are not obvious; they require integrated, iterative

  8. The Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMPs) Recorded Along the Sternocleidomastoid Muscles During Head Rotation and Flexion in Normal Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Alexander; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Chunming; Wei, Wei; Mustain, William; Eby, Thomas; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Wu

    2016-08-01

    Tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials recorded from tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) (cervical VEMP or cVEMP) are widely used to assess the vestibular function. Since the cVEMP response is mediated by the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) pathways, it is important to understand how the cVEMPs are determined by factors related to either the sensory components (vestibular end organs) or the motor components (SCM) of the VCR pathways. Compared to the numerous studies that have investigated effects of sound parameters on the cVEMPs, there are few studies that have examined effects of SCM-related factors on the cVEMPs. The goal of the present study is to fill this knowledge gap by testing three SCM-related hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that contrary to the current view, the cVEMP response is only present in the SCM ipsilateral to the stimulated ear. The second hypothesis is that the cVEMP response is not only dependent on tonic level of the SCM, but also on how the tonic level is achieved, i.e., by head rotation or head flexion. The third hypothesis is that the SCM is compartmented and the polarity of the cVEMP response is dependent on the recording site. Seven surface electrodes were positioned along the left SCMs in 12 healthy adult subjects, and tone bursts were delivered to the ipsilateral or contralateral ear (8 ms plateau, 1 ms rise/fall, 130 dB SPL, 50-4000 Hz) while subjects activated their SCMs by head rotation (HR condition) or chin downward head flexion (CD condition). The first hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the contralateral cVEMPs were minimal at all recording sites for all the tested tones during both HR and CD conditions. The second hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the ipsilateral cVEMPs were larger in HR condition than in CD condition at recording sites above and below the SCM midpoint. Finally, the third hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the cVEMPs exhibit reversed polarities at the sites

  9. Communication and Empathy as Precursors to Burnout among Human Service Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katherine I.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines the role of communicative responsiveness, empathic concern, and emotional contagion as precursors to burnout among human service workers. Concludes that empathic concern leads to communicative responsiveness, emotional contagion decreases responsiveness, and responsiveness predicts three dimensions of burnout and occupational commitment.…

  10. Non-Viral Generation of Neural Precursor-like Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Maucksch, C; Firmin, E; Butler-Munro, C; Montgomery, JM; Dottori, M; Connor, B

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reported direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to mature neurons by the introduction of defined neural genes. This technology has potential use in the areas of neurological disease modeling and drug development. However, use of induced neurons for large-scale drug screening and cell-based replacement strategies is limited due to their inability to expand once reprogrammed. We propose it would be more desirable to induce expandable neural precursor cells directly from human fibroblasts. To date several pluripotent and neural transcription factors have been shown to be capable of converting mouse fibroblasts to neural stem/precursor-like cells when delivered by viral vectors. Here we extend these findings and demonstrate that transient ectopic insertion of the transcription factors SOX2 and PAX6 to adult human fibroblasts through use of non-viral plasmid transfection or protein transduction allows the generation of induced neural precursor (iNP) colonies expressing a range of neural stem and pro-neural genes. Upon differentiation, iNP cells give rise to neurons exhibiting typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and GAD65/67. Importantly, iNP-derived neurons demonstrate electrophysiological properties of functionally mature neurons with the capacity to generate action potentials. In addition, iNP cells are capable of differentiating into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes. This study represents a novel virusfree approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to a neural precursor fate. PMID:24693194

  11. Precursors of hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mahmoud A; Maningat, Patricia; Sunehag, Agneta L; Haymond, Morey W

    2015-04-15

    The human mammary gland is capable of de novo synthesis of glucose and galactose (hexoneogenesis); however, the carbon source is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of acetate, glutamine, lactate and glycerol as potential carbon sources for hexoneogenesis. Healthy breastfeeding women were studied following a 24-h fast on two occasions separated by 1-3 wk. Five women were infused with [U-¹³C]lactate or [1,2-¹³C₂]glutamine and five women with [U-¹³C]glycerol or [1,2-¹³C₂]acetate. Enrichments of ¹³C in plasma and milk substrates were analyzed using GC-MS. Infusion of labeled lactate, glycerol, glutamine, and acetate resulted in plasma glucose being 22.0±3.7, 11.2±1.0, 2.5±0.5, and 1.3±0.2% labeled, respectively. Lactate, glutamine, or acetate did not contribute to milk glucose or galactose (0-2%). In milk, ¹³C-free glycerol enrichment was one-fourth that in plasma but free glycerol concentration in milk was fourfold higher than in plasma. Using [U-¹³C]glycerol and by accounting for tracer dilution, glycerol alone contributed to 10±2 and 69±11% of the hexoneogenesis of milk glucose and galactose, respectively. During [U-¹³C]glycerol infusion, the ratio of M₃ enrichment on 4-6 carbons/M₃ on 1-3 carbons of galactose was higher (P<0.05, 1.22±0.05) than those of glucose in plasma (1.05±0.03) and milk (1.07±0.02). Reanalysis of samples from a previous study involving [U-¹³C]glucose infusion alone suggested labeling a portion of galactose consistent with pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity. We conclude that, although lactate contributed significantly to gluconeogenesis, glycerol alone provides the vast majority of substrate for hexoneogenesis. The relative contribution of the PPP vs. the reversal Embden-Meyerhof pathway to hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland remains to be determined.

  12. Geometric control of myogenic cell fate

    PubMed Central

    de Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Hoang, Mike Bao-Trong; Conboy, Irina M

    2006-01-01

    This work combines expertise in stem cell biology and bioengineering to define the system for geometric control of proliferation and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells. We have created an artificial niche of myogenic progenitor cells, namely, modified extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates with spatially embedded growth or differentiation factors (GF, DF) that predictably direct muscle cell fate in a geometric pattern. Embedded GF and DF signal progenitor cells from specifically defined areas on the ECM successfully competed against culture media for myogenic cell fate determination at a clearly defined boundary. Differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes is induced in growth-promoting medium, myotube formation is delayed in differentiation-promoting medium, and myogenic cells, at different stages of proliferation and differentiation, can be induced to coexist adjacently in identical culture media. This method can be used to identify molecular interactions between cells in different stages of myogenic differentiation, which are likely to be important determinants of tissue repair. The designed ECM niches can be further developed into a vehicle for transplantation of myogenic progenitor cells maintaining their regenerative potential. Additionally, this work may also serve as a general model to engineer synthetic cellular niches to harness the regenerative potential of organ stem cells. PMID:17722537

  13. Generation, Release, and Uptake of the NAD Precursor Nicotinic Acid Riboside by Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Kulikova, Veronika; Shabalin, Konstantin; Nerinovski, Kirill; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Yakimov, Alexander; Redpath, Philip; Khodorkovskiy, Mikhail; Migaud, Marie E; Ziegler, Mathias; Nikiforov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    NAD is essential for cellular metabolism and has a key role in various signaling pathways in human cells. To ensure proper control of vital reactions, NAD must be permanently resynthesized. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid as well as nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR) are the major precursors for NAD biosynthesis in humans. In this study, we explored whether the ribosides NR and NAR can be generated in human cells. We demonstrate that purified, recombinant human cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases (5'-NTs) CN-II and CN-III, but not CN-IA, can dephosphorylate the mononucleotides nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NAMN) and thus catalyze NR and NAR formation in vitro. Similar to their counterpart from yeast, Sdt1, the human 5'-NTs require high (millimolar) concentrations of nicotinamide mononucleotide or NAMN for efficient catalysis. Overexpression of FLAG-tagged CN-II and CN-III in HEK293 and HepG2 cells resulted in the formation and release of NAR. However, NAR accumulation in the culture medium of these cells was only detectable under conditions that led to increased NAMN production from nicotinic acid. The amount of NAR released from cells engineered for increased NAMN production was sufficient to maintain viability of surrounding cells unable to use any other NAD precursor. Moreover, we found that untransfected HeLa cells produce and release sufficient amounts of NAR and NR under normal culture conditions. Collectively, our results indicate that cytosolic 5'-NTs participate in the conversion of NAD precursors and establish NR and NAR as integral constituents of human NAD metabolism. In addition, they point to the possibility that different cell types might facilitate each other's NAD supply by providing alternative precursors. PMID:26385918

  14. Tissue-specific epigenetics in gene neighborhoods: myogenic transcription factor genes

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sruti; Terragni, Jolyon; Zhang, Guoqiang; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Haushka, Stephen; Johnston, Douglas; Baribault, Carl; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) genes, MYOD1, MYOG, MYF6 and MYF5, are critical for the skeletal muscle lineage. Here, we used various epigenome profiles from human myoblasts (Mb), myotubes (Mt), muscle and diverse non-muscle samples to elucidate the involvement of multigene neighborhoods in the regulation of MRF genes. We found more far-distal enhancer chromatin associated with MRF genes in Mb and Mt than previously reported from studies in mice. For the MYF5/MYF6 gene-pair, regions of Mb-associated enhancer chromatin were located throughout the adjacent 236-kb PTPRQ gene even though Mb expressed negligible amounts of PTPRQ mRNA. Some enhancer chromatin regions inside PTPRQ in Mb were also seen in PTPRQ mRNA-expressing non-myogenic cells. This suggests dual-purpose PTPRQ enhancers that upregulate expression of PTPRQ in non-myogenic cells and MYF5/MYF6 in myogenic cells. In contrast, the myogenic enhancer chromatin regions distal to MYOD1 were intergenic and up to 19 kb long. Two of them contain small, known MYOD1 enhancers, and one displayed an unusually high level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in a quantitative DNA hydroxymethylation assay. Unexpectedly, three regions of MYOD1-distal enhancer chromatin in Mb and Mt overlapped enhancer chromatin in umbilical vein endothelial cells, which might upregulate a distant gene (PIK3C2A). Lastly, genes surrounding MYOG were preferentially transcribed in Mt, like MYOG itself, and exhibited nearby myogenic enhancer chromatin. These neighboring chromatin regions may be enhancers acting in concert to regulate myogenic expression of multiple adjacent genes. Our findings reveal the very different and complex organization of gene neighborhoods containing closely related transcription factor genes. PMID:26041816

  15. Deficiency of the myogenic factor MyoD causes a perinatally lethal fetal akinesia

    PubMed Central

    Crinnion, Laura A; Murphy, Helen; Newbould, Melanie; Harrison, Sally M; Lascelles, Carolina; Antanaviciute, Agne; Carr, Ian M; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bonthron, David T; Smith, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Lethal fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) describes a clinically and genetically heterogeneous phenotype that includes fetal akinesia, intrauterine growth retardation, arthrogryposis and developmental anomalies. Affected babies die as a result of pulmonary hypoplasia. We aimed to identify the underlying genetic cause of this disorder in a family in which there were three affected individuals from two sibships. Methods Autosomal-recessive inheritance was suggested by a family history of consanguinity and by recurrence of the phenotype between the two sibships. We performed exome sequencing of the affected individuals and their unaffected mother, followed by autozygosity mapping and variant filtering to identify the causative gene. Results Five autozygous regions were identified, spanning 31.7 Mb of genomic sequence and including 211 genes. Using standard variant filtering criteria, we excluded all variants as being the likely pathogenic cause, apart from a single novel nonsense mutation, c.188C>A p.(Ser63*) (NM_002478.4), in MYOD1. This gene encodes an extensively studied transcription factor involved in muscle development, which has nonetheless not hitherto been associated with a hereditary human disease phenotype. Conclusions We provide the first description of a human phenotype that appears to result from MYOD1 mutation. The presentation with FADS is consistent with a large body of data demonstrating that in the mouse, MyoD is a major controller of precursor cell commitment to the myogenic differentiation programme. PMID:26733463

  16. Expression of human epidermal growth factor precursor cDNA in transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mroczkowski, B; Reich, M; Whittaker, J; Bell, G I; Cohen, S

    1988-01-01

    Stable cell lines expressing the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) precursor have been prepared by transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with a bovine papillomavirus-based vector in which the human kidney EGF precursor cDNA has been placed under the control of the inducible mouse metallothionein I promoter. Synthesis of the EGF precursor can be induced by culturing the cells in 5 mM butyric acid or 100 microM ZnCl2. The EGF precursor synthesized by these cells appears to be membrane associated; none is detectable in the cytoplasm. The size of the EGF precursor expressed by these cells is approximately 150-180 kDa, which is larger than expected from its amino acid sequence, suggesting that it is posttranslationally modified, presumably by glycosylation. The EGF precursor was also detected in the conditioned medium from these cells, indicating that some fraction of the EGF precursor synthesized by these transfected cells may be secreted. Preliminary data suggest that this soluble form of the EGF precursor may compete with 125I-labeled EGF for binding to the EGF receptor. These cell lines should be useful for studying the processing of the EGF precursor to EGF as well as determining the properties and possible functions of the EGF precursor itself. Images PMID:3257563

  17. Anatomical Location of LPA1 Activation and LPA Phospholipid Precursors in Rodent and Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    González de San Román, E; Manuel, I; Giralt, MT; Chun, J; Estivill-Torrús, G; Rodriguez de Fonseca, F; Santín, LJ; Ferrer, I; Rodriguez-Puertas, R

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling molecule that binds to six known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): LPA1–LPA6. LPA evokes several responses in the CNS including cortical development and folding, growth of the axonal cone and its retraction process. Those cell processes involve survival, migration, adhesion proliferation, differentiation and myelination. The anatomical localization of LPA1 is incompletely understood, particularly with regard to LPA binding. Therefore, we have used functional [35S]GTPγS autoradiography to verify the anatomical distribution of LPA1 binding sites in adult rodent and human brain. The greatest activity was observed in myelinated areas of the white matter such as corpus callosum, internal capsule and cerebellum. MaLPA1-null mice (a variant of LPA1-null) lack [35S]GTPγS basal binding in white matter areas, where the LPA1 receptor is expressed at high levels, suggesting a relevant role of the activity of this receptor in the most myelinated brain areas. In addition, phospholipid precursors of LPA were localized by MALDI-IMS in both rodent and human brain slices identifying numerous species of phosphatides (PA) and phosphatidylcholines (PC). Both PA and PC species represent potential LPA precursors. The anatomical distribution of these precursors in rodent and human brain may indicate a metabolic relationship between LPA and LPA1 receptors. PMID:25857358

  18. Human Haemato-Endothelial Precursors: Cord Blood CD34+ Cells Produce Haemogenic Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Elvira; Castelli, Germana; Martin-Padura, Ines; Bordoni, Veronica; Santoro, Simona; Conigliaro, Alice; Cerio, Anna Maria; De Santis Puzzonia, Marco; Marighetti, Paola; Biffoni, Mauro; Alonzi, Tonino; Amicone, Laura; Alcalay, Myriam; Bertolini, Francesco; Testa, Ugo; Tripodi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Embryologic and genetic evidence suggest a common origin of haematopoietic and endothelial lineages. In the murine embryo, recent studies indicate the presence of haemogenic endothelium and of a common haemato-endothelial precursor, the haemangioblast. Conversely, so far, little evidence supports the presence of haemogenic endothelium and haemangioblasts in later stages of development. Our studies indicate that human cord blood haematopoietic progenitors (CD34+45+144−), triggered by murine hepatocyte conditioned medium, differentiate into adherent proliferating endothelial precursors (CD144+CD105+CD146+CD31+CD45−) capable of functioning as haemogenic endothelium. These cells, proven to give rise to functional vasculature in vivo, if further instructed by haematopoietic growth factors, first switch to transitional CD144+45+ cells and then to haematopoietic cells. These results highlight the plasticity of haemato-endhothelial precursors in human post-natal life. Furthermore, these studies may provide highly enriched populations of human post-fetal haemogenic endothelium, paving the way for innovative projects at a basic and possibly clinical level. PMID:23226561

  19. Neuronal precursor-specific activity of a human doublecortin regulatory sequence.

    PubMed

    Karl, Claudia; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Prang, Peter; Munding, Matthias; Kilb, Werner; Brigadski, Tanja; Plötz, Sonja; Mages, Wolfgang; Luhmann, Heiko; Winkler, Jürgen; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Aigner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    The doublecortin (DCX) gene encodes a 40-kDa microtubule-associated protein specifically expressed in neuronal precursors of the developing and adult CNS. Due to its specific expression pattern, attention was drawn to DCX as a marker for neuronal precursors and neurogenesis, thereby underscoring the importance of its promoter identification and promoter analysis. Here, we analysed the human DCX regulatory sequence and confined it to a 3.5-kb fragment upstream of the ATG start codon. We demonstrate by transient transfection experiments that this fragment is sufficient and specific to drive expression of reporter genes in embryonic and adult neuronal precursors. The activity of this regulatory fragment overlapped with the expression of endogenous DCX and with the young neuronal markers class III beta-tubulin isotype and microtubule-associated protein Map2ab but not with glial or oligodendroglial markers. Electrophysiological data further confirmed the immature neuronal nature of these cells. Deletions within the 3.5-kb region demonstrated the relevance of specific regions containing transcription factor-binding sites. Moreover, application of neurogenesis-related growth factors in the neuronal precursor cultures suggested the lack of direct signalling of these factors on the DCX promoter construct. PMID:15663475

  20. Anatomical location of LPA1 activation and LPA phospholipid precursors in rodent and human brain.

    PubMed

    González de San Román, Estibaliz; Manuel, Iván; Giralt, María Teresa; Chun, Jerold; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis Javier; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling molecule that binds to six known G protein-coupled receptors: LPA1 -LPA6 . LPA evokes several responses in the CNS, including cortical development and folding, growth of the axonal cone and its retraction process. Those cell processes involve survival, migration, adhesion proliferation, differentiation, and myelination. The anatomical localization of LPA1 is incompletely understood, particularly with regard to LPA binding. Therefore, we have used functional [(35) S]GTPγS autoradiography to verify the anatomical distribution of LPA1 binding sites in adult rodent and human brain. The greatest activity was observed in myelinated areas of the white matter such as corpus callosum, internal capsule and cerebellum. MaLPA1 -null mice (a variant of LPA1 -null) lack [(35) S]GTPγS basal binding in white matter areas, where the LPA1 receptor is expressed at high levels, suggesting a relevant role of the activity of this receptor in the most myelinated brain areas. In addition, phospholipid precursors of LPA were localized by MALDI-IMS in both rodent and human brain slices identifying numerous species of phosphatides and phosphatidylcholines. Both phosphatides and phosphatidylcholines species represent potential LPA precursors. The anatomical distribution of these precursors in rodent and human brain may indicate a metabolic relationship between LPA and LPA1 receptors. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling molecule that binds to six known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), LPA1 to LPA6 . LPA evokes several responses in the central nervous system (CNS), including cortical development and folding, growth of the axonal cone and its retraction process. We used functional [(35) S]GTPγS autoradiography to verify the anatomical distribution of LPA1 -binding sites in adult rodent and human brain. The distribution of LPA1 receptors in rat, mouse and human brains show the highest activity in white matter myelinated areas. The basal and

  1. Anatomical location of LPA1 activation and LPA phospholipid precursors in rodent and human brain.

    PubMed

    González de San Román, Estibaliz; Manuel, Iván; Giralt, María Teresa; Chun, Jerold; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis Javier; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling molecule that binds to six known G protein-coupled receptors: LPA1 -LPA6 . LPA evokes several responses in the CNS, including cortical development and folding, growth of the axonal cone and its retraction process. Those cell processes involve survival, migration, adhesion proliferation, differentiation, and myelination. The anatomical localization of LPA1 is incompletely understood, particularly with regard to LPA binding. Therefore, we have used functional [(35) S]GTPγS autoradiography to verify the anatomical distribution of LPA1 binding sites in adult rodent and human brain. The greatest activity was observed in myelinated areas of the white matter such as corpus callosum, internal capsule and cerebellum. MaLPA1 -null mice (a variant of LPA1 -null) lack [(35) S]GTPγS basal binding in white matter areas, where the LPA1 receptor is expressed at high levels, suggesting a relevant role of the activity of this receptor in the most myelinated brain areas. In addition, phospholipid precursors of LPA were localized by MALDI-IMS in both rodent and human brain slices identifying numerous species of phosphatides and phosphatidylcholines. Both phosphatides and phosphatidylcholines species represent potential LPA precursors. The anatomical distribution of these precursors in rodent and human brain may indicate a metabolic relationship between LPA and LPA1 receptors. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signaling molecule that binds to six known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), LPA1 to LPA6 . LPA evokes several responses in the central nervous system (CNS), including cortical development and folding, growth of the axonal cone and its retraction process. We used functional [(35) S]GTPγS autoradiography to verify the anatomical distribution of LPA1 -binding sites in adult rodent and human brain. The distribution of LPA1 receptors in rat, mouse and human brains show the highest activity in white matter myelinated areas. The basal and

  2. Identification and molecular characterization of acyl-CoA synthetase in human erythrocytes and erythroid precursors.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, K T; Malhotra, K; Lubin, B H; Kuypers, F A

    1999-11-15

    Full-length cDNA species encoding two forms of acyl-CoA synthetase from a K-562 human erythroleukaemic cell line were cloned, sequenced and expressed. The first form, named long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (LACS5), was found to be a novel, unreported, human acyl-CoA synthetase with high similarity to rat brain ACS2 (91% identical). The second form (66% identical with LACS5) was 97% identical with human liver LACS1. The LACS5 gene encodes a highly expressed 2.9 kb mRNA transcript in human haemopoietic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow, reticulocytes and fetal blood cells derived from fetal liver. An additional 6.3 kb transcript is also found in these erythrocyte precursors; 2.9 and 9.6 kb transcripts of LACS5 are found in human brain, but transcripts are virtually absent from human heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, spleen and skeletal muscle. The 78 kDa expressed LACS5 protein used the long-chain fatty acids palmitic acid, oleic acid and arachidonic acid as substrates. Antibodies directed against LACS5 cross-reacted with erythrocyte membranes. We conclude that early erythrocyte precursors express at least two different forms of acyl-CoA synthetase and that LACS5 is present in mature erythrocyte plasma membranes.

  3. Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial p53- and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S.; Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Morgan, Thomas J., Jr.; Bishop, Brian; Levenson, Cathy W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent…

  4. Human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors: Levels and profiles in paired maternal and cord serum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Yu; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) precursors, the indirect source of PFAA exposure, have been observed in environmental and human samples. However, the maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals has not been well examined. In this study, 50 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Jiangsu province of China were analyzed for fifteen PFAA precursors. Among the detected PFAAs, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), N-methyl- and N-ethyl-perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetates had comparable detection rate in both maternal and cord sera, while the mean concentrations and detection rates of 8:2 FTS and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were higher in maternal sera compared to cord sera (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance and least significant difference tests showed that the youngest maternal age group (21-24 years old) had the highest concentration of 6:2 FTS in cord sera. Maternal serum PFOSA was found significantly correlated with the cord serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (Spearman test, r = 0.361, P = 0.010), indicating that maternal serum PFOSA might be an indirect source of PFOS in fetuses. The obtained results suggested the potential prenatal exposure and human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors.

  5. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability. PMID:25977005

  6. Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Katrina L; Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Although baseline requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide, there is growing evidence that substantially greater rates of NAD+ synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological degeneration, Candida glabrata infection, and possibly to enhance reverse cholesterol transport. The distinct and tissue-specific biosynthetic and/or ligand activities of tryptophan, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and the newly identified NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside, reviewed herein, are responsible for vitamin-specific effects and side effects. Because current data suggest that nicotinamide riboside may be the only vitamin precursor that supports neuronal NAD+ synthesis, we present prospects for human nicotinamide riboside supplementation and propose areas for future research. PMID:18429699

  7. Direct measurement of the precursors of adrenocorticotropin in human plasma by two-site immunoradiometric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, S.R.; Stewart, M.F.; Ratcliffe, J.G.; White, A.

    1988-12-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the direct measurement of the precursors of ACTH in unextracted human plasma has been developed and evaluated clinically in normal subjects and patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The IRMA is based on an iodinated monoclonal antibody to ACTH and a monoclonal antibody to gamma MSH coupled to Sephacryl S300. The assay detects only peptides containing both epitopes, i.e. POMC (31K) and pro-ACTH (22K). The reference standard was partially purified POMC from culture medium of human corticotroph adenoma cells. The detection limit (greater than +2.5SD of the 0 standard) was 2.0 pmol/L and the within-assay coefficient of variation was less than 10% between 29 and 2600 pmol/L. Plasma concentrations of ACTH precursor peptides in 11 normal subjects sampled at 0930 h ranged from 5-34 pmol/L. The concentrations in the patient groups studied were: 260-2300 pmol/L in 5 patients with the ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with small cell lung cancer, less than 2.0-104 pmol/L in 10 patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease, 23 pmol/L in a patient with Nelson's syndrome, and 3.0-230 pmol/L in 5 patients with Addison's disease. We conclude that this IRMA offers a simple and reliable method for measuring ACTH precursors in unextracted plasma. The proportionately greater elevation of ACTH precursors compared to ACTH in patients with the ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with small cell lung cancer but not in pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome, suggests that this assay may be clinically useful.

  8. Antiadipogenic properties of retinol in primary cultured differentiating human adipocyte precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Lacasa, D; Agli, B; Giudicelli, Y; Castelli, D

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of retinol on the human adipose conversion process using primary cultured human adipocyte precursor cells. When these cells were seeded in a medium containing retinol (concentrations ranging from 3.5 nM to 3.5 muM), cell proliferation was slightly inhibited by high concentrations of retinol, as demonstrated by cell counting and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Moreover, the differentiation capacities of these cells were markedly and dose-dependently inhibited by retinol, as shown by the reduced expression of the lipogenic enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and by microscopic morphological analysis. These results strongly suggest that retinol, by inhibiting the ability of human preadipocytes to convert into mature adipocytes, could be of potential interest in the prevention of human adipose tissue development in general and of cellulitis in particular. PMID:18503465

  9. Adenovirus-mediated expression of myogenic differentiation factor 1 (MyoD) in equine and human dermal fibroblasts enables their conversion to caffeine-sensitive myotubes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fuente, Marta; Martin-Duque, Pilar; Vassaux, Georges; Brown, Susan C; Muntoni, Francesco; Terracciano, Cesare M; Piercy, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    Several human and animal myopathies, such as malignant hyperthermia (MH), central core disease and equine recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) are confirmed or thought to be associated with dysfunction of skeletal muscle calcium regulation. For some patients in whom the genetic cause is unknown, or when mutational analysis reveals genetic variants with unclear pathogenicity, defects are further studied through use of muscle histopathology and in vitro contraction tests, the latter in particular, when assessing responses to ryanodine receptor agonists, such as caffeine. However, since muscle biopsy is not always suitable, researchers have used cultured cells to model these diseases, by examining calcium regulation in myotubes derived from skin, following forced expression of muscle-specific transcription factors. Here we describe a novel adenoviral vector that we used to express equine MyoD in dermal fibroblasts. In permissive conditions, transduced equine and human fibroblasts differentiated into multinucleated myotubes. We demonstrate that these cells have a functional excitation-calcium release mechanism and, similarly to primary muscle-derived myotubes, respond in a dose-dependent manner to increasing concentrations of caffeine. MyoD-induced conversion of equine skin-derived fibroblasts offers an attractive method for evaluating calcium homeostasis defects in vitro without the need for invasive muscle biopsy.

  10. In vitro transdifferentiation of human cultured CD34+ stem cells into oligodendrocyte precursors using thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Katari; Srikanth, Lokanathan; Vengamma, Bhuma; Chandrasekhar, Chodimella; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mouleshwara; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2015-02-19

    The extent of myelination on the axon promotes transmission of impulses in the neural network, any disturbances in this process results in the neurodegenerative condition. Transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursors that supports in the regeneration of axons through myelination is an important step in the restoration of damaged neurons. Therefore, in the present study, the differentiation of human CD34+ stem cells into oligodendrocytes was carried out. The pure human CD34+ culture developed from the stem cells obtained from a peripheral blood of a donor were subjected to oligodendrocyte differentiation medium (ODM). The ODM at a concentration of 40ng/ml thyroxine, 40ng/ml 3,3',5-tri-iodo-thyronine showed distinct morphological changes from day 6 to 9 with cells exhibiting conspicuous stellate morphology and extensive foot processes. The real-time PCR analysis showed prominent expression of Olig2, CNPase, PDGFRα and PLP1/DM20 in the differentiated cells confirming the formed cells are oligodendrocyte precursors. The expression of these genes increased from days 6 to 9 corresponding to the morphological changes observed with almost no expression of GFAP+ cells. The distinct CNPase activity was observed in these differentiated cells compared to normal CD34+ stem cells correlating with results of real-time PCR conclusively explains the development of oligodendrocytes from human CD34+ stem cells.

  11. Cryogenic propellant liquefaction and storage for a precursor to a human Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, P.; Durrant, T.

    An analysis of cryogenic liquefaction and storage methods for in-situ produced propellants (oxygen and methane) on Mars is presented. The application is to a subscale precursor sample return mission, intended to demonstrate critical cryogenic technologies prior to a human mission. A heat transfer analysis is included, resulting in predicted cryogenic tank surface temperatures and heat leak values for different conditions. Insulation thickness is traded off against cryocooler capacity to find optimum combinations for various insulation configurations, including multilayer insulation and microspheres. Microsphere insulation is shown to have promise, and further development is recommended.

  12. Transforming growth factor-alpha precursors in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Asbert, M; Montaner, B; Pérez-Tomás, R

    2001-06-01

    Among the proteins of the epidermal growth factor family, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may be an especially reliable indicator of metastasis or prognosis in human colorectal carcinomas. Moreover, anomalous forms of TGF-alpha have been detected in several tissues of cancer origin, suggesting a role of these forms in the development of the disease. This study was designed to identify the presence of TGF-alpha precursors in different colon cancer cell lines by mean of immunocytochemistry and western blotting techniques. Pro-TGF-alpha was detected in all cell lines tested. Staining for pro-TGF-alpha was observed in cytoplasm. Monoclonal antibody to TGF-alpha detected two bands of 20 and 21 kDa. Polyclonal antibody to pro-TGF-alpha revealed five bands ranging from 15 to 24 kDa. All these proteins were also detected in nonmalignant cells expressing a transfected rat pro-TGF-alpha gene. In conclusions, transformation in these human colon carcinoma cells is not due to the presence of anomalous forms of TGF-alpha precursors.

  13. Human blood-group MN and precursor specificities: structural and biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Springer, G F; Desai, P R

    1975-03-01

    The human blood-group MM and NN antigens carry 2 to 4 immunodominant groupings per repeating subunit and differ only by one sialic acid residue per immunodominant group. This residue covers in the MM antigen the beta-D-galactopyranosyl group that is terminal in the N immunodominant structure and that, together with a terminal alpha-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid residue, is responsible for N specificity. M specificity was readily converted into N specificity by mild acid treatment. N structure is the immediate biochemical precursor of M structure, and M and N antigenic specificities are not determined by two allelic genes as believed hitherto. The NN antigen was inactivated by beta-D-galactosidase as well as by removal of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Some of the reactivities of the NN antigen, lost upon beta-D-galactosidase treatment, reappeared on subsequent partial N-acetylneuraminic acid removal. The structure uncovered by complete sialic acid depletion of MN antigens is the Thomsen-Friedenreich T antigen, the specificity of which is determined by beta-D-galactopyranosyl groups. Beta-D-Galactosidase treatment transformed the T antigen into one possessing Tnactivity. The significance of blood-group MN active substances extends to human breast cancer, where MN antigens were found in benign and malignant glands, but some of their precursors in cancerous tissue only.

  14. Evidence for a Direct Effect of the NAD+ Precursor Acipimox on Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Humans

    PubMed Central

    van de Weijer, Tineke; Phielix, Esther; Bilet, Lena; Williams, Evan G.; Ropelle, Eduardo R.; Bierwagen, Alessandra; Livingstone, Roshan; Nowotny, Peter; Sparks, Lauren M.; Paglialunga, Sabina; Szendroedi, Julia; Havekes, Bas; Moullan, Norman; Pirinen, Eija; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C.; Auwerx, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Recent preclinical studies showed the potential of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors to increase oxidative phosphorylation and improve metabolic health, but human data are lacking. We hypothesize that the nicotinic acid derivative acipimox, an NAD+ precursor, would directly affect mitochondrial function independent of reductions in nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. In a multicenter randomized crossover trial, 21 patients with type 2 diabetes (age 57.7 ± 1.1 years, BMI 33.4 ± 0.8 kg/m2) received either placebo or acipimox 250 mg three times daily dosage for 2 weeks. Acipimox treatment increased plasma NEFA levels (759 ± 44 vs. 1,135 ± 97 μmol/L for placebo vs. acipimox, P < 0.01) owing to a previously described rebound effect. As a result, skeletal muscle lipid content increased and insulin sensitivity decreased. Despite the elevated plasma NEFA levels, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle increased. Subsequently, we showed that acipimox treatment resulted in a robust elevation in expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene sets and a mitonuclear protein imbalance, which may indicate activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Further studies in C2C12 myotubes confirmed a direct effect of acipimox on NAD+ levels, mitonuclear protein imbalance, and mitochondrial oxidative capacity. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that NAD+ boosters can also directly affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in humans. PMID:25352640

  15. Long-term culture and differentiation of CNS precursors derived from anterior human neural rosettes following exposure to ventralizing factors

    SciTech Connect

    Colleoni, Silvia; Giannelli, Serena G.; Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio; Broccoli, Vania; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2010-04-15

    In this study we demonstrated that neural rosettes derived from human ES cells can give rise either to neural crest precursors, following expansion in presence of bFGF and EGF, or to dopaminergic precursors after exposure to ventralizing factors Shh and FGF8. Both regionalised precursors are capable of extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the corresponding terminally differentiated cell types. In particular, peripheral neurons, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle cells and also pigmented cells were obtained from neural crest precursors while tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1 positive dopaminergic neurons were derived from FGF8 and Shh primed rosette cells. Gene expression and immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the expression of dorsal and neural crest genes such as Sox10, Slug, p75, FoxD3, Pax7 in neural precursors from bFGF-EGF exposed rosettes. By contrast, priming of rosettes with FGF8 and Shh induced the expression of dopaminergic markers Engrailed1, Pax2, Pitx3, floor plate marker FoxA2 and radial glia markers Blbp and Glast, the latter in agreement with the origin of dopaminergic precursors from floor plate radial glia. Moreover, in vivo transplant of proliferating Shh/FGF8 primed precursors in parkinsonian rats demonstrated engraftment and terminal dopaminergic differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the derivation of long-term self-renewing precursors of selected regional identity as potential cell reservoirs for cell therapy applications, such as CNS degenerative diseases, or for the development of toxicological tests.

  16. Precursor Asteroid Missions and Synergies to Human Exploration of Phobos and Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025 and then on to the Martian system in the 2030s. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and its moons, as well as other Solar System destinations. Robotic precursor missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, which may play a vital role in leveraging potential resources from the Martian moons that in turn could enable robotic and human exploration of Mars.

  17. Kilowatt-Class Fission Power Systems for Science and Human Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Gibson, Marc Andrew; Poston, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power provides an enabling capability for NASA missions that might otherwise be constrained by power availability, mission duration, or operational robustness. NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing fission power technology to serve a wide range of future space uses. Advantages include lower mass, longer life, and greater mission flexibility than competing power system options. Kilowatt-class fission systems, designated "Kilopower," were conceived to address the need for systems to fill the gap above the current 100-W-class radioisotope power systems being developed for science missions and below the typical 100-k We-class reactor power systems being developed for human exploration missions. This paper reviews the current fission technology project and examines some Kilopower concepts that could be used to support future science missions or human precursors.

  18. Kilowatt-Class Fission Power Systems for Science and Human Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Gibson, Marc; Poston, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power provides an enabling capability for NASA missions that might otherwise be constrained by power availability, mission duration, or operational robustness. NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing fission power technology to serve a wide range of future space uses. Advantages include lower mass, longer life, and greater mission flexibility than competing power system options. Kilowatt-class fission systems, designated "Kilopower," were conceived to address the need for systems to fill the gap above the current 100-Wclass radioisotope power systems being developed for science missions and below the typical 100-kWe-class reactor power systems being developed for human exploration missions. This paper reviews the current fission technology project and examines some Kilopower concepts that could be used to support future science missions or human precursors.

  19. Characterisation of mRNAs encoding the precursor for human apolipoprotein CI.

    PubMed Central

    Knott, T J; Robertson, M E; Priestley, L M; Urdea, M; Wallis, S; Scott, J

    1984-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding human apolipoprotein CI have been isolated from an adult liver cDNA library. Apo CI mRNA was shown to have two species of approximately 580 and 560 bases by RNA blot hybridisation. The intracellular precursor of apo CI was inferred from the cDNA sequence to be an 83 amino acid polypeptide consisting of the 57 residue mature protein and an additional 26 residue amino terminal signal peptide. The 5' untranslated regions of the messages are 63 and 40 bases as determined by primer extension and the 3' untranslated region 111 bases. A polyadenylation signal is situated 10 bases 3' of the poly(A) tall. The mRNA level of apo CI in human liver was significantly greater than that of apo All and apo E. Images PMID:6328444

  20. Localization of the human B-type natriuretic peptide precursor (NPPB) gene to chromosome 1p36

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, K.C.; Viars, C.S.; Weiss, S.

    1995-03-20

    Cardiac myocytes synthesize and secrete a family of peptide hormones with potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilatory properties. These peptides are derived from precursor molecules that are encoded by two different genes, the atrial natriuretic peptide precursor A (NPPA) and the B-type natriuretic peptide or natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB). A human genomic clone for the NPPB gene was used to determine the chromosomal location of the NPPB gene. Analysis of Southern blot hybridization to DNAs from various somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization allowed assignment of the NPPB locus to human chromosome 1p36. This location coincided with that of the NPPA locus; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis placed NPPA and NPPB within 50 kb of each other. This close chromosomal linkage, together with the conserved primary sequences and structural organization of the two natriuretic peptide precursor genes, suggests that the natriuretic peptide loci may have evolved from a common ancestor gene. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. CD22 EXON 12 deletion as a pathogenic mechanism of human B-precursor leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Goodman, Patricia; Ma, Hong; Dibirdik, Ilker; Qazi, Sanjive

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report that primary leukemic cells from infants with newly diagnosed B-precursor leukemia express a truncated and functionally defective CD22 coreceptor protein that is unable to transmit apoptotic signals because it lacks most of the intracellular domain, including the key regulatory signal transduction elements and all of the cytoplasmic tyrosine residues. Expression of this structurally and functionally abnormal CD22 protein is associated with a very aggressive in vivo growth of patients’ primary leukemia cells causing disseminated overt leukemia in SCID mice. The abnormal CD22 coreceptor is encoded by a profoundly aberrant mRNA arising from a splicing defect that causes the deletion of exon 12 (c.2208-c.2327) (CD22ΔE12) and results in a truncating frameshift mutation. The splicing defect is associated with multiple homozygous mutations within a 132-bp segment of the intronic sequence between exons 12 and 13. These mutations cause marked changes in the predicted secondary structures of the mutant CD22 pre-mRNA sequences that affect the target motifs for the splicing factors hnRNP-L, PTB, and PCBP that are up-regulated in infant leukemia cells. Forced expression of the mutant CD22ΔE12 protein in transgenic mice perturbs B-cell development, as evidenced by B-precursor/B-cell hyperplasia, and corrupts the regulation of gene expression, causing reduced expression levels of several genes with a tumor suppressor function. We further show that CD22ΔE12-associated unique gene expression signature is a discriminating feature of newly diagnosed infant leukemia patients. These striking findings implicate CD22ΔE12 as a previously undescribed pathogenic mechanism in human B-precursor leukemia. PMID:20841423

  2. Langerhans cell precursors acquire RANK/CD265 in prenatal human skin.

    PubMed

    Schöppl, Alice; Botta, Albert; Prior, Marion; Akgün, Johnnie; Schuster, Christopher; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the first barrier against foreign pathogens and the prenatal formation of a strong network of various innate and adaptive cells is required to protect the newborn from perinatal infections. While many studies about the immune system in healthy and diseased adult human skin exist, our knowledge about the cutaneous prenatal/developing immune system and especially about the phenotype and function of antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) in human skin is still scarce. It has been shown previously that LCs in healthy adult human skin express receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), an important molecule prolonging their survival. In this study, we investigated at which developmental stage LCs acquire this important molecule. Immunofluorescence double-labeling of cryostat sections revealed that LC precursors in prenatal human skin either do not yet [10-11 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA)] or only faintly (13-15 weeks EGA) express RANK. LCs express RANK at levels comparable to adult LCs by the end of the second trimester. Comparable with adult skin, dermal antigen-presenting cells at no gestational age express this marker. These findings indicate that epidermal leukocytes gradually acquire RANK during gestation - a phenomenon previously observed also for other markers on LCs in prenatal human skin.

  3. Langerhans cell precursors acquire RANK/CD265 in prenatal human skin

    PubMed Central

    Schöppl, Alice; Botta, Albert; Prior, Marion; Akgün, Johnnie; Schuster, Christopher; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the first barrier against foreign pathogens and the prenatal formation of a strong network of various innate and adaptive cells is required to protect the newborn from perinatal infections. While many studies about the immune system in healthy and diseased adult human skin exist, our knowledge about the cutaneous prenatal/developing immune system and especially about the phenotype and function of antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) in human skin is still scarce. It has been shown previously that LCs in healthy adult human skin express receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), an important molecule prolonging their survival. In this study, we investigated at which developmental stage LCs acquire this important molecule. Immunofluorescence double-labeling of cryostat sections revealed that LC precursors in prenatal human skin either do not yet [10–11 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA)] or only faintly (13–15 weeks EGA) express RANK. LCs express RANK at levels comparable to adult LCs by the end of the second trimester. Comparable with adult skin, dermal antigen-presenting cells at no gestational age express this marker. These findings indicate that epidermal leukocytes gradually acquire RANK during gestation – a phenomenon previously observed also for other markers on LCs in prenatal human skin. PMID:25722033

  4. Different Blood-Borne Human Osteoclast Precursors Respond in Distinct Ways to IL-17A.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Sara; Schoenmaker, Ton; Cao, Yixuan; Everts, Vincent; de Vries, Teun J

    2016-06-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-degrading cells that are formed through fusion of their monocytic precursors. Three distinct subsets of monocytes have been identified in human peripheral blood: classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes. They are known to play different roles in physiology and pathology, but their capacity to differentiate into osteoclasts and whether inflammatory cytokines influence this differentiation is unknown. We hypothesized that classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes generate functionally different osteoclasts and that they respond in different ways to the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A). To investigate this, the different monocyte subsets were isolated from human peripheral blood and osteoclastogenesis was induced with the cytokines M-CSF and RANKL, with or without IL-17A. We found that all subsets are able to differentiate into osteoclasts in vitro, and that both osteoclastogenesis and subsequent bone resorption was distinctly affected by IL-17A. Osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by osteoclasts derived from classical monocytes remained unaffected by IL-17A, while osteoclast formation from intermediate monocytes was inhibited by the cytokine. Surprisingly, bone resorption by osteoclasts derived from intermediate monocytes remained at similar levels as control cultures, indicating an increased bone resorbing activity by these osteoclasts. Limited numbers of osteoclasts were formed from non-classical monocytes on bone and no bone resorption was detected, which suggest that these cells belong to a cell lineage different from the osteoclast. By providing more insight into osteoclast formation from human blood monocytes, this study contributes to the possible targeting of specific osteoclast precursors as a therapeutic approach for diseases associated with inflammatory bone loss.

  5. Alternative Splicing in the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Cardiac Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Salomonis, Nathan; Nelson, Brandon; Vranizan, Karen; Pico, Alexander R.; Hanspers, Kristina; Kuchinsky, Allan; Ta, Linda; Mercola, Mark; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    The role of alternative splicing in self-renewal, pluripotency and tissue lineage specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is largely unknown. To better define these regulatory cues, we modified the H9 hESC line to allow selection of pluripotent hESCs by neomycin resistance and cardiac progenitors by puromycin resistance. Exon-level microarray expression data from undifferentiated hESCs and cardiac and neural precursors were used to identify splice isoforms with cardiac-restricted or common cardiac/neural differentiation expression patterns. Splice events for these groups corresponded to the pathways of cytoskeletal remodeling, RNA splicing, muscle specification, and cell cycle checkpoint control as well as genes with serine/threonine kinase and helicase activity. Using a new program named AltAnalyze (http://www.AltAnalyze.org), we identified novel changes in protein domain and microRNA binding site architecture that were predicted to affect protein function and expression. These included an enrichment of splice isoforms that oppose cell-cycle arrest in hESCs and that promote calcium signaling and cardiac development in cardiac precursors. By combining genome-wide predictions of alternative splicing with new functional annotations, our data suggest potential mechanisms that may influence lineage commitment and hESC maintenance at the level of specific splice isoforms and microRNA regulation. PMID:19893621

  6. Characterization of cDNA for precursor of human luteinizing hormone releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Seeburg, P H; Adelman, J P

    Human reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis laid down early in fetal development. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), also termed gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), is a decapeptide and is a key molecule in this control circuit. It is produced by hypothalamic neurones, secreted in a pulsatile manner into the capillary plexus of the median eminence and effects the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary. The peptide may have further functions, including behavioural ones, as LHRH or LHRH-like immunoreactivity has been found in gonadal tissue, placenta and the central nervous system, and exogenously administered LHRH is shown to affect behaviour. To investigate the biosynthesis of LHRH, we have now isolated cloned genomic and cDNA sequences encoding the precursor form of LHRH, the existence of which had been suggested from chromatographic studies of hypothalamic and placental extracts. These DNA sequences code for a protein of 92 amino acids in which the LHRH decapeptide is preceded by a signal peptide of 23 amino acids and followed by a Gly-Lys-Arg sequence, as expected for enzymatic cleavage of the decapeptide from its precursor and amidation of the carboxy-terminal of LHRH.

  7. Relative Contributions of Sympathetic, Cholinergic, and Myogenic Mechanisms to Cerebral Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Hamner, J.W.; Tan, Can Ozan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prior work aimed at improving our understanding of human cerebral autoregulation has explored individual physiologic mechanisms of autoregulation in isolation, but none has attempted to consolidate the individual roles of these mechanisms into a comprehensive model of the overall cerebral pressure–flow relation. Methods We retrospectively analyzed this relation before and after pharmacologic blockade of alpha-adrenergic, muscarinic, and calcium channel-mediated mechanisms in 43 healthy volunteers to determine the relative contributions of the sympathetic, cholinergic, and myogenic controllers to cerebral autoregulation. Projection pursuit regression was used to assess the effect of pharmacologic blockade on the cerebral pressure–flow relation. Subsequently, analysis of covariance decomposition was used to determine the cumulative effect of these three mechanisms on cerebral autoregulation and whether they can fully explain it. Results Sympathetic, cholinergic, and myogenic mechanisms together accounted for 62% of the cerebral pressure–flow relation (p < 0.05), with significant and distinct contributions from each of the three effectors. ANCOVA decomposition demonstrated that myogenic effectors were the largest determinant of the cerebral pressure–flow relation but their effect was outside of the autoregulatory region where neurogenic control appeared prepotent. Conclusions Our results suggest that myogenic effects occur outside the active region of autoregulation, whereas neurogenic influences are largely responsible for cerebral blood flow control within it. However, our model of cerebral autoregulation left 38% of the cerebral pressure–flow relation unexplained, suggesting that there are other physiologic mechanisms that contribute to cerebral autoregulation. PMID:24723314

  8. Trypsin and thrombin accelerate aggregation of human endocrine pancreas precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chiju; Geras-Raaka, Elizabeth; Marcus-Samuels, Bernice; Oron, Yoram; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2006-02-01

    Human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs) and human pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PANC-1) cells can be induced to form aggregates that subsequently differentiate into hormone-expressing islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs). We show that challenge of hIPCs or PANC-1 cells with thrombin or trypsin resulted in stimulation of signaling via the inositol-tris-phosphate second messenger pathway leading to rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium ion concentration in the majority of the cells. Because we found that hIPCs, PANC-1 cells, human fetal pancreas, and human adult islets express two protease-activated receptors (PARs), PAR-1 and PAR-2, we tested whether the effects of thrombin and trypsin were mediated, at least in part, by these receptors. Peptide agonists that are relatively specific for PAR-1 (SFLLRN-amide) or PAR-2 (SLIGRL-amide) stimulated increases in inositol phosphates and cytosolic calcium ion concentration, and increased the phosphorylation of Rho, a small G-protein associated with cytoskeletal changes affecting cellular morphology and migration. Most importantly, we show that these agonists increased the rate of hIPC aggregation leading to the formation of more viable, smaller ICAs. Our data show that thrombin and trypsin accelerate aggregation, an early stage of hIPC differentiation in vitro, and imply that pancreatic trypsin and thrombin may be involved in islet development in vivo. PMID:16021635

  9. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Manceur, Aziza P.; Tseng, Michael; Holowacz, Tamara; Witterick, Ian; Weksberg, Rosanna; McCurdy, Richard D.; Warsh, Jerry J.; Audet, Julie

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activation and myogenic differentiation are induced by cholesterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Cláudia S; Portilho, Débora M; Mendes, Fábio A; Costa, Manoel L; Abreu, José Garcia

    2007-03-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a multistep process that begins with the commitment of mononucleated precursors that withdraw from cell cycle. These myoblasts elongate while aligning to each other, guided by the recognition between their membranes. This step is followed by cell fusion and the formation of long and striated multinucleated myotubes. We have recently shown that cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) induces myogenic differentiation by enhancing myoblast recognition and fusion. Here, we further studied the signaling pathways responsible for early steps of myogenesis. As it is known that Wnt plays a role in muscle differentiation, we used the chemical MbetaCD to deplete membrane cholesterol and investigate the involvement of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway during myogenesis. We show that cholesterol depletion promoted a significant increase in expression of beta-catenin, its nuclear translocation and activation of the Wnt pathway. Moreover, we show that the activation of the Wnt pathway after cholesterol depletion can be inhibited by the soluble protein Frzb-1. Our data suggest that membrane cholesterol is involved in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the early steps of myogenic differentiation.

  11. Rejuvenation of MPTP-induced human neural precursor cell senescence by activating autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liang; Dong, Chuanming; Sun, Chenxi; Ma, Rongjie; Yang, Danjing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jun

    2015-08-21

    Aging of neural stem cell, which can affect brain homeostasis, may be caused by many cellular mechanisms. Autophagy dysfunction was found in aged and neurodegenerative brains. However, little is known about the relationship between autophagy and human neural stem cell (hNSC) aging. The present study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to treat neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line H9 and investigate related molecular mechanisms involved in this process. MPTP-treated NPCs were found to undergo premature senescence [determined by increased senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species level, and decreased proliferation] and were associated with impaired autophagy. Additionally, the cellular senescence phenotypes were manifested at the molecular level by a significant increase in p21 and p53 expression, a decrease in SOD2 expression, and a decrease in expression of some key autophagy-related genes such as Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, and Beclin 1. Furthermore, we found that the senescence-like phenotype of MPTP-treated hNPCs was rejuvenated through treatment with a well-known autophagy enhancer rapamycin, which was blocked by suppression of essential autophagy gene Beclin 1. Taken together, these findings reveal the critical role of autophagy in the process of hNSC aging, and this process can be reversed by activating autophagy. - Highlights: • We successfully establish hESC-derived neural precursor cells. • MPTP treatment induced senescence-like state in hESC-derived NPCs. • MPTP treatment induced impaired autophagy of hESC-derived NPCs. • MPTP-induced hESC-derived NPC senescence was rejuvenated by activating autophagy.

  12. Lunar Precursor Missions for Human Exploration of Mars - II. Studies of Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendell, W. W.; Griffith, A. D.

    necessary precursor to human missions to Mars. He observed that mission parameters for Mars expeditions far exceed current and projected near-term space operations experience in categories such as duration, scale, logistics, required system reliability, time delay for communications, crew exposure to the space environment (particularly reduced gravity), lack of abort-to-Earth options, degree of crew isolation, and long-term political commitment. He demonstrated how a program of lunar exploration could be structured to expand the experience base, test operations approaches, and validate proposed technologies. In this paper, we plan to expand the discussion on the topic of mission operations, including flight and trajectory design, crew activity planning, procedure development and validation, and initialization load development. contemplating the nature of the challenges posed by a mission with a single crew lasting 3 years with no possibility of abort to Earth and at a distance where the light-time precludes conversation between with the astronauts. The brief durations of Apollo or Space Shuttle missions mandates strict scheduling of in-space tasks to maximize the productivity. On a mission to Mars, the opposite obtains. Transit times are long (~160 days), and crew time may be principally devoted to physical conditioning and repeated simulations of the landing sequence. While the physical exercise parallels the experience on the International Space Station (ISS), the remote refresher training is new. The extensive surface stay time (~500 days) implies that later phases of the surface missions will have to be planned in consultation with the crew to a large extent than is currently the case. resolve concerns over the form of new methodologies and philosophies needed. Recent proposed reductions in scope and crew size for ISS exacerbate this problem. One unknown aspect is whether any sociological pathologies will develop in the relationship of the crew to Mission

  13. Next Gen NEAR: Near Earth Asteroid Human Robotic Precursor Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Kirby, Karen; Cheng, Andrew F.; Gold, Robert; Kelly, Daniel; Reed, Cheryl; Abell, Paul; Garvin, James; Landis, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Asteroids have long held the attention of the planetary science community. In particular, asteroids that evolve into orbits near that of Earth, called near-Earth objects (NEO), are of high interest as potential targets for exploration due to the relative ease (in terms of delta V) to reach them. NASA's Flexible Path calls for missions and experiments to be conducted as intermediate steps towards the eventual goal of human exploration of Mars; piloted missions to NEOs are such example. A human NEO mission is a valuable exploratory step beyond the Earth-Moon system enhancing capabilities that surpass our current experience, while also developing infrastructure for future mars exploration capabilities. To prepare for a human rendezvous with an NEO, NASA is interested in pursuing a responsible program of robotic NEO precursor missions. Next Gen NEAR is such a mission, building on the NEAR Shoemaker mission experience at the JHU/APL Space Department, to provide an affordable, low risk solution with quick data return. Next Gen NEAR proposes to make measurements needed for human exploration to asteroids: to demonstrate proximity operations, to quantify hazards for human exploration and to characterize an environment at a near-Earth asteroid representative of those that may be future human destinations. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has demonstrated exploration-driven mission feasibility by developing a versatile spacecraft design concept using conventional technologies that satisfies a set of science, exploration and mission objectives defined by a concept development team in the summer of 2010. We will describe the mission concept and spacecraft architecture in detail. Configuration options were compared with the mission goals and objectives in order to select the spacecraft design concept that provides the lowest cost, lowest implementation risk, simplest operation and the most benefit for the mission implementation. The Next Gen NEAR

  14. Putative prethymic T cell precursors within the early human embryonic liver: a molecular and functional analysis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells present in the liver in early human fetal life were characterized by phenotypic analysis using a broad panel of monoclonal antibodies. Expression of very late antigen 4 and leukocyte function- associated antigen 3 cell adhesion receptors and 4F2 cell activation molecules was found in all fetal liver hematopoietic cells before acquisition of T cell-, B cell-, or myeloid-specific surface markers, and before the time of intrathymic colonization. Molecular studies showed that expression of the interleukin 2 receptor beta (IL-2R beta) also occurred in the embryonic liver at this early ontogenic stage. In contrast, no expression of IL-2R alpha or IL-2 transcripts was found in fetal liver cells, whereas transcription of the IL-4 gene was detected in a small fetal liver cell subset. Putative T cell precursors were identified among the hematopoietic fetal liver cells by the expression of genes encoding the gamma, delta, epsilon, and zeta invariant chains of the CD3-T cell receptor (TCR) complex. However, no transcription of the polymorphic alpha and beta TCR genes was detected. Functional in vitro assays further demonstrated that fetal liver hematopoietic cells from those early embryos were capable of proliferating in response to T cell growth factors, including IL-4 and IL-2. However, whereas IL-4- induced proliferation paralleled the appearance in vitro of CD45+CD7- CD4dull cells expressing the CD14 myeloid antigen, as well as of CD34+ primitive hematopoietic progenitors, differentiation into CD45+CD7+CD8+CD3- immature T cells was observed when using IL-2. Moreover, coculture with thymic epithelial cell monolayers provided additional evidence that early fetal liver hematopoietic cells may include very primitive T cell precursors, which were able to differentiate in vitro into TCR alpha/beta+ mature T cells. Therefore, our results indicate that, after triggering of the T cell-specific maturation program in primitive fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors

  15. Alcohol-Induced Molecular Dysregulation in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi Young; Roubal, Ivan; Lee, Youn Soo; Kim, Jin Seok; Hoang, Michael; Mathiyakom, Nathan; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Adverse effect of alcohol on neural function has been well documented. Especially, the teratogenic effect of alcohol on neurodevelopment during embryogenesis has been demonstrated in various models, which could be a pathologic basis for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). While the developmental defects from alcohol abuse during gestation have been described, the specific mechanisms by which alcohol mediates these injuries have yet to be determined. Recent studies have shown that alcohol has significant effect on molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation including genes involved in neural development. To test our hypothesis that alcohol induces molecular alterations during neural differentiation we have derived neural precursor cells from pluripotent human ESCs in the presence or absence of ethanol treatment. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified molecular alterations induced by ethanol exposure during neural differentiation of hESCs into neural rosettes and neural precursor cell populations. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) functional analysis on significantly altered genes showed potential ethanol’s effect on JAK-STAT signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and regulation of autophagy. We have further quantitatively verified ethanol-induced alterations of selected candidate genes. Among verified genes we further examined the expression of P2RX3, which is associated with nociception, a peripheral pain response. We found ethanol significantly reduced the level of P2RX3 in undifferentiated hESCs, but induced the level of P2RX3 mRNA and protein in hESC-derived NPCs. Our result suggests ethanol-induced dysregulation of P2RX3 along with alterations in molecules involved in neural activity such as neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction may be a molecular event

  16. Induction of maturation of human blood dendritic cell precursors by measles virus is associated with immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Schnorr, J J; Xanthakos, S; Keikavoussi, P; Kämpgen, E; ter Meulen, V; Schneider-Schaulies, S

    1997-05-13

    As well as inducing a protective immune response against reinfection, acute measles is associated with a marked suppression of immune functions against superinfecting agents and recall antigens, and this association is the major cause of the current high morbidity and mortality rate associated with measles virus (MV) infections. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells crucially involved in the initiation of primary and secondary immune responses, so we set out to define the interaction of MV with these cells. We found that both mature and precursor human DCs generated from peripheral blood monocytic cells express the major MV protein receptor CD46 and are highly susceptible to infection with both MV vaccine (ED) and wild-type (WTF) strains, albeit with different kinetics. Except for the down-regulation of CD46, the expression pattern of functionally important surface antigens on mature DCs was not markedly altered after MV infection. However, precursor DCs up-regulated HLA-DR, CD83, and CD86 within 24 h of WTF infection and 72 h after ED infection, indicating their functional maturation. In addition, interleukin 12 synthesis was markedly enhanced after both ED and WTF infection in DCs. On the other hand, MV-infected DCs strongly interfered with mitogen-dependent proliferation of freshly isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. These data indicate that the differentiation of effector functions of DCs is not impaired but rather is stimulated by MV infection. Yet, mature, activated DCs expressing MV surface antigens do give a negative signal to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and thus contribute to MV-induced immunosuppression. PMID:9144236

  17. Myogenous temporomandibular disorders: diagnostic and management considerations.

    PubMed

    Fricton, James

    2007-01-01

    Myogenous temporomandibular disorders (or masticatory myalgia) are characterized by pain and dysfunction that arise from pathologic and functional processes in the masticatory muscles. There are several distinct muscle disorder subtypes in the masticatory system, including myofascial pain, myositis, muscle spasm, and muscle contracture. The major characteristics of masticatory myalgia include pain, muscle tenderness, limited range of motion, and other symptoms (eg, fatigability, stiffness, subjective weakness). Comorbid conditions and complicating factors also are common and are discussed. Management follows with stretching, posture, and relaxation exercises, physical therapy, reduction of contributing factors, and as necessary, muscle injections.

  18. Proteinaceous precursors of human axillary odor: isolation of two novel odor-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A I; Zeng, X N; Leyden, J J; Preti, G

    1995-01-15

    The characteristic odor which arises in the human axillary region consists of volatile C6-C11 acids with the most abundant being (E)-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid (E-3M2H). This acid, as well as several other components of the characteristic axillary odor, can be liberated from the odorless, aqueous soluble components of apocrine secretion by either saponification or bacteriolysis. It is therefore likely that a major characteristic odor is being carried to the skin surface bound to a water soluble precursor where it is liberated by axillary bacteria. The individual proteins found in apocrine secretions were separated, isolated and hydrolyzed with the resultant hydrolyzates analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These studies demonstrated that 3M2H was liberated from 2 proteins with apparent molecular mass of 26 and 45 kilodaltons: Apocrine Secretion Odor-Binding Protein 1 and 2, respectively (ASOB1 and ASOB2). Antisera to these proteins were prepared and used to examine a variety of other body fluids. Several fluids contained an immunoreactive protein with the same electropheretic migration pattern as the 45 KDa protein. Three of these body fluids (tears, nasal secretions and saliva) were separated into aqueous and organic soluble fractions and hydrolyzed to demonstrate that 3M2H could be liberated from the aqueous soluble materials. These results suggest interesting parallels between non-human mammalian odors used as chemical signals and human axillary odor. Previous studies have suggested the axillae as a source of human primer-type pheromones; consequently, if the odors which characterize the underarm are responsible for the pheromonal activity, then the chemistry involved may be similar to that in other mammalian chemical communication systems where proteins act as carriers of one or more chemical signals.

  19. Smooth Muscle Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Yan Hui; Wei, Yi; Green, Morgaine; Wani, Prachi; Zhang, Pengbo; Pera, Renee Reijo; Chen, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in using stem cells (SC) to regenerate a deficient urethral sphincter in patients with urinary incontinence. The smooth muscle component of the sphincter is a significant contributor to sphincter function. However, current translational efforts for sphincter muscle restoration focus only on skeletal muscle regeneration because they rely on adult mesenchymal SC as cell source. These adult SC do not yield sufficient smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for transplantation. We may be able to overcome this limitation by using pluripotent stem cell (PSC) to derive SMCs. Hence, we sought to investigate whether smooth muscle precursor cells (pSMCs) derived from human PSCs can restore urethral function in an animal model generated by surgical urethrolysis and ovariectomy. Rats were divided into four groups: control (no intervention), sham saline (surgery + saline injection), bladder SMC (surgery + human bladder SMC injection), and treatment (surgery + pSMC injection, which includes human embryonic stem cell (hESC) H9-derived pSMC, episomal reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived pSMC, or viral reprogrammed iPSC-derived pSMC). pSMCs (2 × 106 cells/rat) were injected periurethrally 3 weeks postsurgery. Leak point pressure (LPP) and baseline external urethral sphincter electromyography were measured 5 weeks postinjection. Both iPSC-derived pSMC treatment groups showed significantly higher LPP compared to the sham saline group, consistent with restoration of urethral sphincter function. While the difference between the H9-derived pSMC treatment and sham saline group was not significant, it did show a trend toward restoration of the LPP to the level of intact controls. Our data indicate that pSMCs derived from human PSCs (hESC and iPSC) can restore sphincter function. PMID:26785911

  20. Posttranslational processing of endogenous and of baculovirus-expressed human gastrin-releasing peptide precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Lebacq-Verheyden, A M; Kasprzyk, P G; Raum, M G; Van Wyke Coelingh, K; Lebacq, J A; Battey, J F

    1988-01-01

    The 27-amino-acid gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP1-27) is a neuropeptide and growth factor that is synthesized by various neural and neuroendocrine cells. The major pro-GRP hormone (isoform I) contains both GRP1-27 and a novel C-terminal extension peptide termed pro-GRP31-125. In order to define potentially active neuropeptides that could be generated from this novel protein domain, we analyzed the posttranslational processing of endogenous human pro-GRP1-125 in a small-cell lung cancer cell line. Because such studies are much easier in an overexpression system, we investigated at the same time the posttranslational processing of baculovirus-expressed human pro-GRP1-125 in an insect ovary cell line. In the small-cell lung cancer cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved as expected from the endogenous prohormone at a pair of basic amino acids (29 and 30) and alpha-amidated at its C-terminal methionine; however, a number of novel peptides were generated by additional cleavages in the pro-GRP31-125 domain. In the insect ovary cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved from the expressed prohormone by a different mechanism, as were a number of other peptides that appeared to be similar in size to those produced by the human neuroendocrine tumor cell line. These data show for the first time that an insect ovary cell line that is widely used to overexpress proteins can process a human neuropeptide precursor. They also reveal the existence of novel pro-GRP-derived peptides that are candidates for biologically active ligands. Images PMID:3211139

  1. Reduced Osteogenesis of Human Osteogenic Precursors' Cells Cultured in the Random Positioning Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershovich, J. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that simulated microgravity (SMG) results in altered proliferation and differentiation not only osteoblasts but also affects on osteogenic capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various sources. For present study we used system that simulates effects of microgravity produced by the Random Positioning Machine (RPM). Cultured MCSs from human bone marrow and human osteoblasts (OBs) were exposed to SMG at RPM for 10-40 days. Induced osteogenesis of these progenitor cells was compared with the appropriate static (1g) and dynamic (horizontal shaker) controls. Clinorotated OBs and MSCs showed proliferation rate lower than static and dynamic control groups of cells in the early terms of SMG. Significant reduction of ALP activity was detected after 10 days of clinorotation of MSCs. There was no such dramatic difference in ALP activity of MSCs derived cells between SMG and control groups after 20 days of clinorotation but the expression of ALP was still reduced. However, virtually no matrix mineralization was found in OBs cultured under SMG conditions in the presence of differentiation stimuli. The similar effect was observed when we assayed matrix calcification of MSCs derived cultures. Thus, our results confirm low gravity mediated reduction of osteogenesis of different osteogenic precursors' cells and can clarify the mechanisms of bone loss during spaceflight.

  2. Rejuvenation of MPTP-induced human neural precursor cell senescence by activating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Dong, Chuanming; Sun, Chenxi; Ma, Rongjie; Yang, Danjing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jun

    2015-08-21

    Aging of neural stem cell, which can affect brain homeostasis, may be caused by many cellular mechanisms. Autophagy dysfunction was found in aged and neurodegenerative brains. However, little is known about the relationship between autophagy and human neural stem cell (hNSC) aging. The present study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to treat neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line H9 and investigate related molecular mechanisms involved in this process. MPTP-treated NPCs were found to undergo premature senescence [determined by increased senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species level, and decreased proliferation] and were associated with impaired autophagy. Additionally, the cellular senescence phenotypes were manifested at the molecular level by a significant increase in p21 and p53 expression, a decrease in SOD2 expression, and a decrease in expression of some key autophagy-related genes such as Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, and Beclin 1. Furthermore, we found that the senescence-like phenotype of MPTP-treated hNPCs was rejuvenated through treatment with a well-known autophagy enhancer rapamycin, which was blocked by suppression of essential autophagy gene Beclin 1. Taken together, these findings reveal the critical role of autophagy in the process of hNSC aging, and this process can be reversed by activating autophagy. PMID:26159917

  3. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells - Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei H.; Lopez G.-Coviella, Ignacio; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for three days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine or L-DOPA markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 ceils.

  4. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells: Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei Hua; Coviella, Ignacio Lopez G.; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, S-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells were studied. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for 3 days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine (10 micro-M) or L-DOPA (100 micro-M) markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation (e.g. treatment with sodium butyrate) can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 cells. The inhibition of melatonin release by dopamine supports the hypothesis that in these cells, melatonin and dopamine are components of a retinal feedback loop.

  5. Derivation of Neural Precursor Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for DNA Methylomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roubal, Ivan; Park, Sun Joo; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are self-renewing pluripotent cells with competency to differentiate into all three-germ lineages. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of genetic and epigenetic molecular mechanisms in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency. Stem cells are under unique molecular and cellular regulations different from somatic cells. Proper regulation should be ensured to maintain their unique self-renewal and undifferentiated characteristics. Understanding key mechanisms in stem cell biology will be important for the successful application of stem cells for regenerative therapeutic medicine. More importantly practical use of stem cells will require our knowledge on how to properly direct and differentiate stem cells into the necessary type of cells. Embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells have been used as study models to unveil molecular and cellular mechanisms in various signaling pathways. They are especially beneficial to developmental studies where in vivo molecular/cellular study models are not available. We have derived neural stem cells from human embryonic stem cells as a model to study the effect of teratogen in neural development. We have tested commercial neural differentiation system and successfully derived neural precursor cells exhibiting key molecular features of neural stem cells, which will be useful for experimental application.

  6. CEACAM1 in Cervical Cancer and Precursor Lesions: Association With Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Albarran-Somoza, Benibelks; Franco-Topete, Ramon; Delgado-Rizo, Vidal; Cerda-Camacho, Felipe; Acosta-Jimenez, Lourdes; Lopez-Botet, Miguel; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is an adhesion molecule expressed in a wide variety of tissues including epithelial cells, leukocytes, and tumors that may establish both homotypic and heterotypic interactions. The aim of this work was to study the protein expression pattern of CEACAM1 in cervical cancer and precursor lesions in the context of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze CEACAM1 expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical tissues from 15 healthy women, 15 patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), 15 patients with high-grade SIL, and 15 patients with squamous carcinomas. HPV types were identified by PCR. CEACAM1 was either undetectable (13/15) or low (2/15) in normal cervical tissues. By contrast, CEACAM1 expression was increased in high-grade SIL (10 samples staining intermediate/high and 4 samples staining low) as compared with low-grade SIL with undetectable (n=3) or low (n= 12) expression. CEACAM1 expression was undetectable or low in cervical carcinoma. Our results suggest that CEACAM1 may be an interesting progression marker in SIL and cervical cancer, in particular due to reported immunoregulatory properties. PMID:16924126

  7. CEACAM1 in cervical cancer and precursor lesions: association with human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Albarran-Somoza, Benibelks; Franco-Topete, Ramon; Delgado-Rizo, Vidal; Cerda-Camacho, Felipe; Acosta-Jimenez, Lourdes; Lopez-Botet, Miguel; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian

    2006-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is an adhesion molecule expressed in a wide variety of tissues including epithelial cells, leukocytes, and tumors that may establish both homotypic and heterotypic interactions. The aim of this work was to study the protein expression pattern of CEACAM1 in cervical cancer and precursor lesions in the context of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze CEACAM1 expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical tissues from 15 healthy women, 15 patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), 15 patients with high-grade SIL, and 15 patients with squamous carcinomas. HPV types were identified by PCR. CEACAM1 was either undetectable (13/15) or low (2/15) in normal cervical tissues. By contrast, CEACAM1 expression was increased in high-grade SIL (10 samples staining intermediate/high and 4 samples staining low) as compared with low-grade SIL with undetectable (n=3) or low (n=12) expression. CEACAM1 expression was undetectable or low in cervical carcinoma. Our results suggest that CEACAM1 may be an interesting progression marker in SIL and cervical cancer, in particular due to reported immunoregulatory properties.

  8. Evidence of an evolutionary precursor to human language affixation in a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Cahill, Donal; Block, Stefanie; Watumull, Jeffrey; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-12-23

    Human language, and grammatical competence in particular, relies on a set of computational operations that, in its entirety, is not observed in other animals. Such uniqueness leaves open the possibility that components of our linguistic competence are shared with other animals, having evolved for non-linguistic functions. Here, we explore this problem from a comparative perspective, asking whether cotton-top tamarin monkeys (Saguinus oedipus) can spontaneously (no training) acquire an affixation rule that shares important properties with our inflectional morphology (e.g. the rule that adds -ed to create the past tense, as in the transformation of walk into walk-ed). Using playback experiments, we show that tamarins discriminate between bisyllabic items that start with a specific 'prefix' syllable and those that end with the same syllable as a 'suffix'. These results suggest that some of the computational mechanisms subserving affixation in a diversity of languages are shared with other animals, relying on basic perceptual or memory primitives that evolved for non-linguistic functions. PMID:19586963

  9. Neuronal localization of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA in normal human brain and in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, M

    1987-01-01

    Clones for the amyloid beta protein precursor gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the frontal cortex of a patient who had died with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; they were used to investigate the tissue and cellular distribution of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA in brain tissues from control patients and from Alzheimer's disease patients. Amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA was expressed in similar amounts in all control human brain regions examined, but a reduction of the mRNA level was observed in the frontal cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease. By in situ hybridization amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA was present in granule and pyramidal cell bodies in the hippocampal formation and in pyramidal cell bodies in the cerebral cortex. No specific labelling of glial cells or endothelial cells was found. The same qualitative distribution was observed in tissues from control patients and from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Senile plaque amyloid thus probably derives from neurones. The tissue distribution of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA and its cellular localization demonstrate that its expression is not confined to the brain regions and cells that exhibit the selective neuronal death characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3322812

  10. Introduction of yeast artificial chromosomes containing mutant human amyloid precursor protein genes into transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Call, L.M.; Lamb, B.T.; Boese, K.F.

    1994-09-01

    Several hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed for the generation and deposition of the amyloid beta (A{beta}) peptide in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). These include overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene, as suggested by Down Syndrome (DS, trisomy 21), and mutation of APP, as suggested by mutations associated with the presence of disease/amyloid deposition in some cases of familial AD (FAD). Although numerous in vitro studies have lead to certain insights into the molecular basis for amyloid deposition, the mechanisms(s) of amyloidogenesis in vivo remains poorly defined. To examine the effect of FAD mutations on amyloidogenesis in an animal model, we have focused on producing APP YAC transgenic mice containing the human APP gene with FAD mutations. These APP YAC transgenics are being produced by introduction of a 650 kb APP YAC through lipid-mediated transfection of ES cells. This strategy has two principal advantages: the APP genomic sequences contain transcriptional regulatory elements required for proper spatial and temporal expression and contain appropriate splice donor and acceptor sites needed to generate the entire spectrum of alternatively spliced APP transcripts. As a first step, we cloned the genomic regions surrounding APP exons 16 and 17 from an APP YAC sublibrary. Both the Swedish and the 717 mutations were then introduced into exons 16 and 17, respectively, by PCR mutagenesis, and subsequently transferred into the 650 kb APP YAC by a two step gene replacement in yeast. The mutant YACs have been introduced into ES cells, and we have determined that these cells are expressing human mutant APP mRNA and protein. These cells are being used to generate transgenic mice. This paradigm should provide the appropriate test of whether a mutant APP gene is capable of producing AD-like pathology in a mouse model.

  11. Expression and precursor processing of neuropeptide Y in human and murine neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, M M; Schwartz, T W

    1989-12-15

    The synthesis and processing of the precursor for neuropeptide Y (NPY) were studied in 16 human and murine neuroendocrine cell lines. Eight of the cell lines, NS-20Y, PC12, LA-N-5, CHP-234, SMS-KCNR, SH-SY5Y, SMS-KCN, and BE(2)-M17, produced sufficient quantities to permit chromatographic characterization of the NPY immunoreactivity. Although the cell lines varied in the amount of NPY they produced, both within and between cell lines, they displayed a relatively constant pattern of posttranslational modifications. In contrast to observations in tumor extracts (M. M. T. O'Hare and T. W. Schwartz, Cancer Res., 49: 7010-7014, 1989), all cell lines studied contained a substantial amount of the intracellular NPY in the form of the unprocessed propeptide, 57% (range, 33-72%) as characterized by both gel filtrations (32 experiments in 8 cell lines) and "in vitro conversion" with endoproteinase Lys-C. In the majority, 4 of 6 cell lines studied, almost all of the NPY, which by size corresponded to the mature 36-amino acid form, was amidated as assessed by isoelectric focusing and by a radioimmunoassay specific for the COOH-terminal amide group of the peptide. Both the propeptide and smaller molecular forms of NPY were secreted from the cell cultures; however, proteolytic degradation in the tissue culture medium prevented a detailed, meaningful characterization of these peptides. It is concluded that many neuroendocrine cell lines, especially those derived from human neuroblastomas, express the NPY gene; the cells display a partly impaired dibasic processing capacity but they generally amidate the products efficiently.

  12. Intravenous Administration of Human ES-derived Neural Precursor Cells Attenuates Cuprizone-induced CNS Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Stephen J.; Bajpai, Ruchi; Moore, Craig S.; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Brown, Graham D.; Pagarigan, Roberto R.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Terskikh, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Previous studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential for human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (hES-NPCs) in autoimmune and genetic animal models of demyelinating diseases. Herein, we tested whether intravenous (i.v) administration of hES-NPCs would impact central nervous system (CNS) demyelination in a cuprizone model of demyelination. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed cuprizone (0.2%) for two weeks and then separated into two groups that either received an i.v. injection of hES-NPCs or i.v. administration of media without these cells. After an additional two weeks of dietary cuprizone treatment, CNS tissues were analyzed for detection of transplanted cells and differences in myelination in the region of the corpus callosum (CC). Results Cuprizone-induced demyelination in the CC was significantly reduced in mice treated with hES-NPCs compared with cuprizone-treated controls that did not receive stem cells. hES-NPCs were identified within the brain tissues of treated mice and revealed migration of transplanted cells into the CNS. A limited number of human cells were found to express the mature oligodendrocyte marker, O1, or the astrocyte marker, GFAP. Reduced apoptosis and attenuated microglial and astrocytic responses were also observed in the CC of hES-NPC-treated mice. Conclusions These findings indicated that systemically-administered hES-NPCs migrated from circulation into a demyelinated lesion within the CNS and effectively reduced demyelination. Observed reductions in astrocyte and microglial responses, and (c) the benefit of hES-NPC treatment in this model of myelin injury was not obviously accountable to tissue replacement by exogenously administered cells. PMID:21276029

  13. Control of the arteriolar myogenic response by transvascular fluid filtration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-ho; Harris, Norman R; Korzick, Donna H; Tarbell, John M

    2004-07-01

    Mechanisms of the myogenic response have not been completely established. We hypothesized that transvascular fluid filtration from plasma across smooth muscle cells (SMC) and into the surrounding interstitium helps regulate arteriolar myogenic tone. Arteriolar diameters in the rat mesentery were monitored before and following vascular occlusion with a glass micropipette. Arteriolar occlusion not only gave an increase in hydrostatic pressure that initiated myogenic constriction upstream of the pipette, but also allowed measurement of fluid filtration rate by monitoring the movement of vascular red blood cells. A statistically significant correlation (P < 0.001) existed between basal myogenic tone and fluid filtration. Additionally, the myogenic response was attenuated by 47% +/- 7% (N = 10) when an osmotic solution of albumin or albumin plus Ficoll was infused into the bloodstream to decrease fluid filtration by 53% +/- 3%. Moreover, the same inhibition of myogenic tone was found in isolated, cannulated rat soleus muscle arterioles when filtration was osmotically attenuated by intravascular dextran. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that shear stress on arteriolar smooth muscle, induced by transvascular fluid filtration, is a contributing factor that helps control myogenic tone. PMID:15219418

  14. In-Situ Cryogenic Propellant Liquefaction and Storage for a Precursor to a Human Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Paul; Durrant, Tom

    The current mission plan for the first human mission to Mars is based on an in-situ propellant production (ISPP) approach to reduce the amount of propellants needed to be taken to Mars and ultimately to reduce mission cost. Recent restructuring of the Mars Robotic Exploration Program has removed ISPP from the early sample return missions. A need still exists to demonstrate ISPP technologies on one or more robotic missions prior to the first human mission. This paper outlines a concept for an ISPP-based precursor mission as a technology demonstration prior to the first human mission. It will also return Martian soil samples to Earth for scientific analysis. The mission will primarily demonstrate cryogenic oxygen and fuel production, liquefaction, and storage for use as propellants for the return trip. Hydrogen will be brought from Earth as a feedstock to produce the hydrocarbon fuel (most likely methane). The analysis used to develop the mission concept includes several different thermal control and liquefaction options for the cryogens. Active cooling and liquefaction devices include Stirling, pulse tube, and Brayton-cycle cryocoolers. Insulation options include multilayer insulation, evacuated microspheres, aerogel blankets, and foam insulation. The cooling capacity and amount of insulation are traded off against each other for a minimum-mass system. In the case of hydrogen feedstock, the amount of hydrogen boiloff allowed during the trip to Mars is also included in the tradeoff. The spacecraft concept includes a Lander (including the propellant production plant) with a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) mounted atop it. An option is explored where the engines on the MAV are also used for descent and landing on the Martian surface at the beginning of the mission. So the MAV propellant tanks would contain oxygen and methane during the trip from Earth. This propellant would be consumed in descent to the Martian surface, resulting in nearly-empty MAV tanks to be filled by the

  15. Tripartite containing motif 32 modulates proliferation of human neural precursor cells in HIV-1 neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, M; Kumari, R; Schwamborn, J C; Mahadevan, A; Shankar, S K; Raja, R; Seth, P

    2016-01-01

    In addition to glial cells, HIV-1 infection occurs in multipotent human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and induces quiescence in NPCs. HIV-1 infection of the brain alters hNPC stemness, leading to perturbed endogenous neurorestoration of the CNS following brain damage by HIV-1, compounding the severity of dementia in adult neuroAIDS cases. In pediatric neuroAIDS cases, HIV-1 infection of neural stem cell can lead to delayed developmental milestones and impaired cognition. Using primary cultures of human fetal brain-derived hNPCs, we gained novel insights into the role of a neural stem cell determinant, tripartite containing motif 32 (TRIM32), in HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence of NPCs. Acute HIV-1 Tat treatment of hNPCs resulted in proliferation arrest but did not induce differentiation. Cellular localization and levels of TRIM32 are critical regulators of stemness of NPCs. HIV-1 Tat exposure increased nuclear localization and levels of TRIM32 in hNPCs. The in vitro findings were validated by studying TRIM32 localization and levels in frontal cortex of HIV-1-seropositive adult patients collected at post mortem as well as by infection of hNPCs by HIV-1. We observed increased percentage of cells with nuclear localization of TRIM32 in the subventricular zone (SVZ) as compared with age-matched controls. Our quest for probing into the mechanisms revealed that TRIM32 is targeted by miR-155 as downregulation of miR-155 by HIV-1 Tat resulted in upregulation of TRIM32 levels. Furthermore, miR-155 or siRNA against TRIM32 rescued HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence in NPCs. Our findings suggest a novel molecular cascade involving miR-155 and TRIM32 leading to HIV-1 Tat-induced attenuated proliferation of hNPCs. The study also uncovered an unidentified role for miR-155 in modulating human neural stem cell proliferation, helping in better understanding of hNPCs and diseased brain. PMID:26586575

  16. Identification of human miRNA precursors that resemble box C/D snoRNAs.

    PubMed

    Ono, Motoharu; Scott, Michelle S; Yamada, Kayo; Avolio, Fabio; Barton, Geoffrey J; Lamond, Angus I

    2011-05-01

    There are two main classes of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs): the box C/D snoRNAs and the box H/ACA snoRNAs that function as guide RNAs to direct sequence-specific modification of rRNA precursors and other nucleolar RNA targets. A previous computational and biochemical analysis revealed a possible evolutionary relationship between miRNA precursors and some box H/ACA snoRNAs. Here, we investigate a similar evolutionary relationship between a subset of miRNA precursors and box C/D snoRNAs. Computational analyses identified 84 intronic miRNAs that are encoded within either box C/D snoRNAs, or in precursors showing similarity to box C/D snoRNAs. Predictions of the folded structures of these box C/D snoRNA-like miRNA precursors resemble the structures of known box C/D snoRNAs, with the boxes C and D often in close proximity in the folded molecule. All five box C/D snoRNA-like miRNA precursors tested (miR-27b, miR-16-1, mir-28, miR-31 and let-7g) bind to fibrillarin, a specific protein component of functional box C/D snoRNP complexes. The data suggest that a subset of small regulatory RNAs may have evolved from box C/D snoRNAs.

  17. Fed-batch production of recombinant human calcitonin precursor fusion protein using Staphylococcus carnosus as an expression-secretion system.

    PubMed

    Dilsen, S; Paul, W; Sandgathe, A; Tippe, D; Freudl, R; Thömmes, J; Kula, M R; Takors, R; Wandrey, C; Weuster-Botz, D

    2000-09-01

    A pH-auxostatic fed-batch process was developed for the secretory production of a fusion protein consisting of the pro-part of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase and two synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) precursor repeats under the control of a xylose-inducible promotor from Staphylococcus xylosus. Using glycerol as the energy source and pH-controlled addition of yeast extract resulted in the production of 2000 mg 1(-1) of the fusion protein (420 mg 1(-1) of the recombinant hCT precursor) within 14 h, reaching 45 g 1(-1) cell dry mass with Staphylococcus carnosus in a stirred-tank reactor. Product titer and space-time yield (30 mg calcitonin precursor 1(-1) h(-1)) were thus improved by a factor of 2, and 4.5, respectively, compared to Escherichia coli expression-secretion systems for the production of calcitonin precursors. Two hundred grams of the fusion protein was secreted by the recombinant S. carnosus on a 150-1 scale (scale-up factor of 50) with a minimum use of technical-grade yeast extract (40 mg fusion protein g(-1) yeast extract).

  18. Myogenic tone as a therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Sara M; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke causes vascular paralysis and impaired autoregulation in the brain, the degree of which is dependent on the depth and duration of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Ischemic stroke also impairs the myogenic response of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) that may be an underlying mechanism by which autoregulation is impaired. Myogenic responses are affected by I/R through several mechanisms, including production of peroxynitrite, depolymerization of F-actin in vascular smooth muscle, and circulating vasoactive factors. The vascular endothelium is also significantly affected during focal ischemia that has a particularly large influence on vascular tone in the cerebral circulation. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) are important endothelium-dependent vasoactive substances that can influence the level of myogenic tone in cerebral arteries and arterioles that are significantly affected during ischemic stroke. Unlike MCA, brain penetrating arterioles have considerable myogenic tone that appears less affected by focal ischemia. The persistent tone of brain parenchymal arterioles during focal ischemia could contribute to perfusion deficit and infarct expansion. These arterioles within the cerebral cortex are also unique from MCA in that they constrict to small- and intermediate- conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SKCa and IKCa, respectively) inhibition, suggesting basal endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is preserved during focal ischemia. This review will highlight our current understanding of the effects of I/R on myogenic response in both MCA and parenchymal arterioles and discuss underlying mechanisms by which focal ischemia affects myogenic tone in these different vascular segments.

  19. Kinetic mechanism and characterization of human beta-galactosidase precursor secreted by permanently transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; McCarter, J D; Okamura-Oho, Y; Yaghi, F; Hinek, A; Withers, S G; Callahan, J W

    1994-11-15

    Chinese hamster ovary cell clones permanently transfected with the cDNA for human lysosomal beta-galactosidase secrete the enzyme precursor into the cell medium, from which it is purified to apparent homogeneity in a single step by affinity chromatography. The purified precursor is fully active, displays the same pH optimum and Km values as the mature placental enzyme, and has an intact C-terminus. The intact enzyme when chromatographed on a Sephacryl S-200 molecular-sieve column elutes as a 105,500 Da monomer, whereas on SDS/PAGE gels the polypeptide migrates as an 88 kDa polypeptide. A time course of digestion with glycopeptide-N-glycanase shows the gradual conversion of the precursor from an 88 to a 72 kDa protein, suggesting the presence of five N-linked oligosaccharides in the protein. The precursor is readily taken up in a mannose-6-phosphate-dependent manner into beta-galactosidase-deficient, GM1-gangliosidosis fibroblasts, and the enzyme activity is returned to normal levels. We show that the stereochemical course of enzymic hydrolysis involves the retention of the beta-configuration at the anomeric centre, suggesting a double-displacement mechanism. Furthermore, the enzyme is rapidly and irreversibly inactivated in the presence of the mechanism-based inactivator 2,4-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-galactopyranoside, which implicates a covalent intermediate. The enzyme is also inactivated by 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylamino-propyl)carbodi-imide and by phenylglyoxal, which implicates carboxylate and arginine residues respectively in the active site. We conclude that the beta-galactosidase precursor is functionally identical to the mature lysosomal form of the enzyme and serves as an excellent enzyme source for investigation of structure-function relationships in the protein.

  20. Narrow Band Ultraviolet B Treatment for Human Vitiligo Is Associated with Proliferation, Migration, and Differentiation of Melanocyte Precursors.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Nathaniel B; Koster, Maranke I; Hoaglin, Laura G; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Kechris, Katerina J; Robinson, Steven E; Robinson, William A; Roop, Dennis R; Norris, David A; Birlea, Stanca A

    2015-08-01

    In vitiligo, the autoimmune destruction of epidermal melanocytes produces white spots that can be repigmented by melanocyte precursors from the hair follicles, following stimulation with UV light. We examined by immunofluorescence the distribution of melanocyte markers (C-KIT, DCT, PAX3, and TYR) coupled with markers of proliferation (KI-67) and migration (MCAM) in precursors and mature melanocytes from the hair follicle and the epidermis of untreated and narrow band UVB (NBUVB)-treated human vitiligo skin. NBUVB was associated with a significant increase in the number of melanocytes in the infundibulum and with restoration of the normal melanocyte population in the epidermis, which was lacking in the untreated vitiligo. We identified several precursor populations (melanocyte stem cells, melanoblasts, and other immature phenotypes), and progressively differentiating melanocytes, some with putative migratory and/or proliferative abilities. The primary melanocyte germ was present in the untreated and treated hair follicle bulge, whereas a possible secondary melanocyte germ composed of C-KIT+ melanocytes was found in the infundibulum and interfollicular epidermis of UV-treated vitiligo. This is an exceptional model for studying the mobilization of melanocyte stem cells in human skin. Improved understanding of this process is essential for designing better treatments for vitiligo, ultimately based on melanocyte stem cell activation and mobilization. PMID:25822579

  1. Narrow Band Ultraviolet B Treatment for Human Vitiligo Is Associated with Proliferation, Migration, and Differentiation of Melanocyte Precursors.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Nathaniel B; Koster, Maranke I; Hoaglin, Laura G; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Kechris, Katerina J; Robinson, Steven E; Robinson, William A; Roop, Dennis R; Norris, David A; Birlea, Stanca A

    2015-08-01

    In vitiligo, the autoimmune destruction of epidermal melanocytes produces white spots that can be repigmented by melanocyte precursors from the hair follicles, following stimulation with UV light. We examined by immunofluorescence the distribution of melanocyte markers (C-KIT, DCT, PAX3, and TYR) coupled with markers of proliferation (KI-67) and migration (MCAM) in precursors and mature melanocytes from the hair follicle and the epidermis of untreated and narrow band UVB (NBUVB)-treated human vitiligo skin. NBUVB was associated with a significant increase in the number of melanocytes in the infundibulum and with restoration of the normal melanocyte population in the epidermis, which was lacking in the untreated vitiligo. We identified several precursor populations (melanocyte stem cells, melanoblasts, and other immature phenotypes), and progressively differentiating melanocytes, some with putative migratory and/or proliferative abilities. The primary melanocyte germ was present in the untreated and treated hair follicle bulge, whereas a possible secondary melanocyte germ composed of C-KIT+ melanocytes was found in the infundibulum and interfollicular epidermis of UV-treated vitiligo. This is an exceptional model for studying the mobilization of melanocyte stem cells in human skin. Improved understanding of this process is essential for designing better treatments for vitiligo, ultimately based on melanocyte stem cell activation and mobilization.

  2. Loquat leaf extract enhances myogenic differentiation, improves muscle function and attenuates muscle loss in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bokyung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jo; Kim, Minjung; Jeong, Ji Won; Kim, Cheol Min; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-09-01

    A main characteristic of aging is the debilitating, progressive and generalized impairment of biological functions, resulting in an increased vulnerability to disease and death. Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the human body; thus, it is the most abundant tissue. At the age of 30 onwards, 0.5‑1% of human muscle mass is lost each year, with a marked acceleration in the rate of decline after the age of 65. Thus, novel strategies that effectively attenuate skeletal muscle loss and enhance muscle function are required to improve the quality of life of older subjects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract (LE) can prevent the loss of skeletal muscle function in aged rats. Young (5-month-old) and aged (18‑19-month-old) rats were fed LE (50 mg/kg/day) for 35 days and the changes in muscle mass and strength were evaluated. The age‑associated loss of grip strength was attenuated, and muscle mass and muscle creatine kinase (CK) activity were enhanced following the administration of LE. Histochemical analysis also revealed that LE abrogated the age‑associated decrease in cross‑sectional area (CSA) and decreased the amount of connective tissue in the muscle of aged rats. To investigate the mode of action of LE, C2C12 murine myoblasts were used to evaluate the myogenic potential of LE. The expression levels of myogenic proteins (MyoD and myogenin) and functional myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were measured by western blot analysis. LE enhanced MyoD, myogenin and MyHC expression. The changes in the expression of myogenic genes corresponded with an increase in the activity of CK, a myogenic differentiation marker. Finally, LE activated the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is involved in muscle protein synthesis during myogenesis. These findings suggest that LE attenuates sarcopenia by promoting myogenic differentiation and subsequently promoting muscle protein synthesis

  3. Loquat leaf extract enhances myogenic differentiation, improves muscle function and attenuates muscle loss in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bokyung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jo; Kim, Minjung; Jeong, Ji Won; Kim, Cheol Min; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-09-01

    A main characteristic of aging is the debilitating, progressive and generalized impairment of biological functions, resulting in an increased vulnerability to disease and death. Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the human body; thus, it is the most abundant tissue. At the age of 30 onwards, 0.5‑1% of human muscle mass is lost each year, with a marked acceleration in the rate of decline after the age of 65. Thus, novel strategies that effectively attenuate skeletal muscle loss and enhance muscle function are required to improve the quality of life of older subjects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract (LE) can prevent the loss of skeletal muscle function in aged rats. Young (5-month-old) and aged (18‑19-month-old) rats were fed LE (50 mg/kg/day) for 35 days and the changes in muscle mass and strength were evaluated. The age‑associated loss of grip strength was attenuated, and muscle mass and muscle creatine kinase (CK) activity were enhanced following the administration of LE. Histochemical analysis also revealed that LE abrogated the age‑associated decrease in cross‑sectional area (CSA) and decreased the amount of connective tissue in the muscle of aged rats. To investigate the mode of action of LE, C2C12 murine myoblasts were used to evaluate the myogenic potential of LE. The expression levels of myogenic proteins (MyoD and myogenin) and functional myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were measured by western blot analysis. LE enhanced MyoD, myogenin and MyHC expression. The changes in the expression of myogenic genes corresponded with an increase in the activity of CK, a myogenic differentiation marker. Finally, LE activated the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is involved in muscle protein synthesis during myogenesis. These findings suggest that LE attenuates sarcopenia by promoting myogenic differentiation and subsequently promoting muscle protein synthesis.

  4. Enhanced functional integration of human photoreceptor precursors into human and rodent retina in an ex vivo retinal explant model system.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Anat; Laver, Christopher R J; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y; Liu, Ran R; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Retinal disease is the major cause of irreversible blindness in developed countries. Transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a promising and widely applicable approach for the treatment of these blinding conditions. Previously, it has been shown that after transplantation into the degenerating retina, the percentage of PPCs that undergo functional integration is low. The factors that inhibit PPC engraftment remain largely unknown, in part, because so many adverse factors could be at play during in vivo experiments. To advance our knowledge in overcoming potential adverse effects and optimize PPC transplantation, we have developed a novel ex vivo system. Harvested neural retina was placed directly on top of cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from a number of different sources. To mimic PPC transplantation into the subretinal space, hESC-derived PPCs were inserted between the retinal explant and underlying RPE. Explants cocultured with hESC-derived RPE maintained normal gross morphology and viability for up to 2 weeks, whereas the explants cultured on ARPE19 and RPE-J failed by 7 days. Furthermore, the proportion of PPCs expressing ribbon synapse-specific proteins BASSOON and RIBEYE was significantly higher when cocultured with hESC-derived RPE (20% and 10%, respectively), than when cocultured with ARPE19 (only 6% and 2%, respectively). In the presence of the synaptogenic factor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), the proportion of BASSOON-positive and RIBEYE-positive PPCs cocultured with hESC-derived RPE increased to ∼30% and 15%, respectively. These data demonstrate the utility of an ex vivo model system to define factors, such as TSP-1, which could influence integration efficiency in future in vivo experiments in models of retinal degeneration.

  5. Decorin expression in quiescent myogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takanori Nozu, Kenjiro; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Akihito

    2008-06-06

    Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. When satellite cells are activated by myotrauma, they proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and ultimately fuse to existing myofibers. The remainder of these cells do not differentiate, but instead return to quiescence and remain in a quiescent state until activation begins the process again. This ability to maintain their own population is important for skeletal muscle to maintain the capability to repair during postnatal life. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells return to quiescence and maintain the quiescent state are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that decorin mRNA expression was high in cell cultures containing a higher ratio of quiescent satellite cells when satellite cells were stimulated with various concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor. This result suggests that quiescent satellite cells express decorin at a high level compared to activated satellite cells. Furthermore, we examined the expression of decorin in reserve cells, which were undifferentiated myoblasts remaining after induction of differentiation by serum-deprivation. Decorin mRNA levels in reserve cells were higher than those in differentiated myotubes and growing myoblasts. These results suggest that decorin participates in the quiescence of myogenic cells.

  6. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zirong; Jin, Guorong; Lin, Shuibin; Lin, Xiumei; Gu, Yumei; Zhu, Yujuan; Hu, Chengbin; Zhang, Qingjiong; Wu, Lizi; Shen, Huangxuan

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors and structural proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibited proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts. -- Abstract: CDA-II (cell differentiation agent II), isolated from healthy human urine, is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Previous studies indicated that CDA-II played important roles in the regulation of cell growth and certain differentiation processes. However, it has not been determined whether CDA-II affects skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we investigated effects of CDA-II treatment on skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation, migration and proliferation. We found that CDA-II blocked differentiation of murine myoblasts C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors, such as Myogenin and Mef2c, and structural proteins, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh3), light chain (Mylpf) and MCK. Moreover, CDA-II inhibited C1C12 cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that CDA-II inhibits growth and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, suggesting that the use of CDA-II might affect skeletal muscle functions.

  7. Characterization of the Methylation Status of Pax7 and Myogenic Regulator Factors in Cell Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chao, Zhe; Zheng, Xin-Li; Sun, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Long; Huang, Li-Li; Cao, Zong-Xi; Deng, Chang-Yan; Wang, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic processes in the development of skeletal muscle have been appreciated for over a decade. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification important for regulating gene expression and suppressing spurious transcription. Up to now, the importance of epigenetic marks in the regulation of Pax7 and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression is far less explored. In the present study, semi-quantitative the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses showed MyoD and Myf5 were expressed in activated and quiescent C2C12 cells. MyoG was expressed in a later stage of myogenesis. Pax7 was weakly expressed in differentiated C2C12 cells. To further understand the regulation of expression of these genes, the DNA methylation status of Pax7, MyoD, and Myf5 was determined by bisulfite sequencing PCR. During the C2C12 myoblasts fusion process, the changes of promoter and exon 1 methylation of Pax7, MyoD, and Myf5 genes were observed. In addition, an inverse relationship of low methylation and high expression was found. These results suggest that DNA methylation may be an important mechanism regulating Pax7 and MRFs transcription in cell myogenic differentiation. PMID:26954143

  8. CID-miRNA: A web server for prediction of novel miRNA precursors in human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Sonika; Vaz, Candida; Gupta, Vipin; Bhatia, Rohit; Maheshwari, Sachin; Srinivasan, Ashwin; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2008-08-08

    microRNAs (miRNA) are a class of non-protein coding functional RNAs that are thought to regulate expression of target genes by direct interaction with mRNAs. miRNAs have been identified through both experimental and computational methods in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. Though these approaches have been partially successful, there is a need to develop more tools for detection of these RNAs as they are also thought to be present in abundance in many genomes. In this report we describe a tool and a web server, named CID-miRNA, for identification of miRNA precursors in a given DNA sequence, utilising secondary structure-based filtering systems and an algorithm based on stochastic context free grammar trained on human miRNAs. CID-miRNA analyses a given sequence using a web interface, for presence of putative miRNA precursors and the generated output lists all the potential regions that can form miRNA-like structures. It can also scan large genomic sequences for the presence of potential miRNA precursors in its stand-alone form. The web server can be accessed at (http://mirna.jnu.ac.in/cidmirna/)

  9. Distribution of precursor amyloid-. beta. -protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid ..beta.. protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid ..beta.. proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid ..beta.. protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein.

  10. Differentiation of IL-17-producing effector and regulatory human T cells from lineage-committed naive precursors.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Frances; Khaitan, Alka; Kozhaya, Lina; Aberg, Judith A; Unutmaz, Derya

    2014-08-01

    A subset of human regulatory T cells (Tregs) secretes IL-17 and thus resembles Th17 effector cells. How IL-17(+) Tregs differentiate from naive precursors remains unclear. In this study, we show that IL-17-producing T cells can differentiate from CCR6(+) naive T cell precursors in the presence of IL-2, IL-1β, TGF-β, and IL-23. CCR6(+) naive T cells are present in adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood and in both conventional T naive and FOXP3(+) naive Treg subsets. IL-17(+) cells derived from CCR6(+) naive Tregs (referred to as IL-17(+) Tregs) express FOXP3 but not HELIOS, another Treg-associated transcription factor, and these cells display suppressor capacity and a surface phenotype resembling memory Tregs. Remarkably, the IL-17(+) Treg compartment was preferentially reduced relative to the canonical Th17 and Treg compartments in a subset of HIV(+) subjects, suggesting a specific perturbation of this subset during the course of disease. Our findings that CCR6(+) naive precursors contain a predetermined reservoir to replenish IL-17-secreting cells may have implications in balancing the Th17 and IL-17(+) Treg compartments that are perturbed during HIV infection and potentially in other inflammatory diseases.

  11. Signals and myogenic regulatory factors restrict pax3 and pax7 expression to dermomyotome-like tissue in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Christina L.; Hinits, Yaniv; Osborn, Daniel P.S.; Minchin, James E.N.; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Hughes, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Pax3/7 paired homeodomain transcription factors are important markers of muscle stem cells. Pax3 is required upstream of myod for lateral dermomyotomal cells in the amniote somite to form particular muscle cells. Later Pax3/7-dependent cells generate satellite cells and most body muscle. Here we analyse early myogenesis from, and regulation of, a population of Pax3-expressing dermomyotome-like cells in the zebrafish. Zebrafish pax3 is widely expressed in the lateral somite and, along with pax7, becomes restricted anteriorly and then to the external cells on the lateral somite surface. Midline-derived Hedgehog signals appear to act directly on lateral somite cells to repress Pax3/7. Both Hedgehog and Fgf8, signals that induce muscle formation within the somite, suppress Pax3/7 and promote expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) myf5 and myod in specific muscle precursor cell populations. Loss of MRF function leads to loss of myogenesis by specific populations of muscle fibres, with parallel up-regulation of Pax3/7. Myod is required for lateral fast muscle differentiation from pax3-expressing cells. In contrast, either Myf5 or Myod is sufficient to promote slow muscle formation from adaxial cells. Thus, myogenic signals act to drive somite cells to a myogenic fate through up-regulation of distinct combinations of MRFs. Our data show that the relationship between Pax3/7 genes and myogenesis is evolutionarily ancient, but that changes in the MRF targets for particular signals contribute to myogenic differences between species. PMID:17094960

  12. Myomir dysregulation and reactive oxygen species in aged human satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Mancinelli, Rosa; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2016-04-29

    Satellite cells that reside on the myofibre surface are crucial for the muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Aging goes along with a less effective regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue mainly due to the decreased myogenic capability of satellite cells. This phenomenon impedes proper maintenance and contributes to the age-associated decline in muscle mass, known as sarcopenia. The myogenic potential impairment does not depend on a reduced myogenic cell number, but mainly on their difficulty to complete a differentiation program. The unbalanced production of reactive oxygen species in elderly people could be responsible for skeletal muscle impairments. microRNAs are conserved post-transcriptional regulators implicated in numerous biological processes including adult myogenesis. Here, we measure the ROS level and analyze myomiR (miR-1, miR-133b and miR-206) expression in human myogenic precursors obtained from Vastus lateralis of elderly and young subjects to provide the molecular signature responsible for the differentiation impairment of elderly activated satellite cells.

  13. Induction of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells via re-specification of lineage-restricted precursors

    PubMed Central

    Doulatov, Sergei; Vo, Linda T.; Chou, Stephanie S.; Kim, Peter G.; Arora, Natasha; Li, Hu; Hadland, Brandon K.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Collins, James J.; Zon, Leonard I.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a promising source of patient-specific cells for disease modeling, drug screens, and cellular therapies. However, the inability to derive engraftable human hematopoietic stem and progenitor (HSPCs) has limited their characterization to in vitro assays. We report a strategy to re-specify lineage-restricted CD34+CD45+ myeloid precursors derived from hPSCs into multilineage progenitors that can be expanded in vitro and engraft in vivo. HOXA9, ERG, and RORA conferred self-renewal and multilineage potential in vitro and maintained primitive CD34+CD38− cells. Screening cells via transplantation revealed that two additional factors, SOX4 and MYB, were required for engraftment. Progenitors specified with all five factors gave rise to reproducible short-term engraftment with myeloid and erythroid lineages. Erythroid precursors underwent hemoglobin switching in vivo, silencing embryonic and activating adult globin expression. Our combinatorial screening approach establishes a strategy for obtaining transcription factor-mediated engraftment of blood progenitors from human pluripotent cells. PMID:24094326

  14. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Wada, Eiji; Zammit, Peter S.; Shiozuka, Masataka; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  15. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel; Lagaudriere-Gesbert, Cecile

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  16. The Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Is Superior to Tocopherol in Promoting Myogenic Differentiation in the Prevention of Replicative Senescence of Myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Khor, Shy Cian; Razak, Azraul Mumtazah; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Abdul Karim, Norwahidah; Makpol, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Aging results in a loss of muscle mass and strength. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle mass through regenerative processes, which are impaired during aging. Vitamin E potentially ameliorates age-related phenotypes. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and α-tocopherol (ATF) in protecting myoblasts from replicative senescence and promoting myogenic differentiation. Primary human myoblasts were cultured into young and senescent stages and were then treated with TRF or ATF for 24 h, followed by an analysis of cell proliferation, senescence biomarkers, cellular morphology and differentiation. Our data showed that replicative senescence impaired the normal regenerative processes of myoblasts, resulting in changes in cellular morphology, cell proliferation, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) expression, myogenic differentiation and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression. Treatment with both TRF and ATF was beneficial to senescent myoblasts in reclaiming the morphology of young cells, improved cell viability and decreased SA-β-gal expression. However, only TRF treatment increased BrdU incorporation in senescent myoblasts, as well as promoted myogenic differentiation through the modulation of MRFs at the mRNA and protein levels. MYOD1 and MYOG gene expression and myogenin protein expression were modulated in the early phases of myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, the tocotrienol-rich fraction is superior to α-tocopherol in ameliorating replicative senescence-related aberration and promoting differentiation via modulation of MRFs expression, indicating vitamin E potential in modulating replicative senescence of myoblasts.

  17. The amyloid precursor-like protein (APLP) gene maps to the long arm of human chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Wasco, W.; Tanzi, R.E. ); Brook, J.D. )

    1993-01-01

    We have recently isolated a cDNA from a mouse brain library that encodes a protein whose predicted amino acid sequence is 42% identical and 64% similar to that of the amyloid [beta] protein precursor (APP; 16). This 653-amino-acid amyloid precursor-like protein (APLP) is similar to APP in overall structure as well as amino acid sequence. The amino acid homologies are particularly strong in three distinct regions of the proteins where the identities are 47, 54, and 56% (16). All three of these regions are also conserved in the Drosophila APP-like gene, APPL (11). Notably, 12 cysteine residues and a N -glyco-sylation site are conserved in the extracellular portion of APLP and APP, and a clathrin-binding domain is conserved in the cytoplasmic domain. The cytoplasmic domain is also conserved in a partial CDNA reported to encode an APP-like gene in rat testes (17), These data suggest that APLP and APP are members of a highly conserved gene family. A panel of DNAs from 31 human-rodent somatic cell lines of known karyotype was digested with EcoR1. These DNAs were then probed with the human APLP cDNA clone and the hybridization pattern was consistent with the assignment of the APLP locus to chromosome 19. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Human miRNA Precursors with Box H/ACA snoRNA Features

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Michelle S.; Avolio, Fabio; Ono, Motoharu; Lamond, Angus I.; Barton, Geoffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are two classes of small non-coding regulatory RNAs, which have been much investigated in recent years. While their respective functions in the cell are distinct, they share interesting genomic similarities, and recent sequencing projects have identified processed forms of snoRNAs that resemble miRNAs. Here, we investigate a possible evolutionary relationship between miRNAs and box H/ACA snoRNAs. A comparison of the genomic locations of reported miRNAs and snoRNAs reveals an overlap of specific members of these classes. To test the hypothesis that some miRNAs might have evolved from snoRNA encoding genomic regions, reported miRNA-encoding regions were scanned for the presence of box H/ACA snoRNA features. Twenty miRNA precursors show significant similarity to H/ACA snoRNAs as predicted by snoGPS. These include molecules predicted to target known ribosomal RNA pseudouridylation sites in vivo for which no guide snoRNA has yet been reported. The predicted folded structures of these twenty H/ACA snoRNA-like miRNA precursors reveal molecules which resemble the structures of known box H/ACA snoRNAs. The genomic regions surrounding these predicted snoRNA-like miRNAs are often similar to regions around snoRNA retroposons, including the presence of transposable elements, target site duplications and poly (A) tails. We further show that the precursors of five H/ACA snoRNA-like miRNAs (miR-151, miR-605, mir-664, miR-215 and miR-140) bind to dyskerin, a specific protein component of functional box H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein complexes suggesting that these molecules have retained some H/ACA snoRNA functionality. The detection of small RNA molecules that share features of miRNAs and snoRNAs suggest that these classes of RNA may have an evolutionary relationship. PMID:19763159

  19. Isolating RNA from precursor and mature melanocytes from human vitiligo and normal skin using laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Nathaniel B; Koster, Maranke I; Hoaglin, Laura G; Wright, Michael J; Robinson, Steven E; Robinson, William A; Roop, Dennis R; Norris, David A; Birlea, Stanca A

    2016-10-01

    To characterize the gene expression profile of regenerated melanocytes in the narrow band UVB (NBUVB)-treated vitiligo epidermis and their precursors in the hair follicle, we present here a strategy of RNA isolation from in situ melanocytes using human frozen skin. We developed a rapid immunostaining protocol using the NKI-beteb antibody, which labels differentiated and precursor melanocytes, followed by fluorescent laser capture microdissection. This technique enabled the direct isolation, from melanocyte and adjacent keratinocyte populations, of satisfactory quality RNA that was successfully amplified and analysed by qRT-PCR. The melanocyte-specific gene transcripts TYR, DCT, TYRP1 and PMEL were significantly upregulated in our NBUVB-treated melanocyte samples as compared with the keratinocyte samples, while keratinocyte-specific genes (KRT5 and KRT14) were expressed significantly higher in the keratinocyte samples as compared with the melanocyte samples. Furthermore, in both NBUVB-treated vitiligo skin and normal skin, when bulge melanocytes were compared with epidermal melanocytes, we found significantly lower expression of melanocyte-specific genes and significantly higher expression of three melanocytic stem cell genes (SOX9, WIF1 and SFRP1), while ALCAM and ALDH1A1 transcripts did not show significant variation. We found significantly higher expression of melanocyte-specific genes in the epidermis of NBUVB-treated vitiligo, as compared to the normal skin. When comparing bulge melanocyte samples from untreated vitiligo, NBUVB-treated vitiligo and normal skin, we did not find significant differences in the expression of melanocyte-specific genes or melanocytic stem cell genes. These techniques offer valuable opportunities to study melanocytes and their precursors in vitiligo and other pigmentation disorders.

  20. Protein-DNA interactions in the promoter region of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene in human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Lukiw, W J; Rogaev, E I; Wong, L; Vaula, G; McLachlan, D R; St George Hyslop, P

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated protein-DNA interactions in the proximal promoter of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene in temporal lobe neocortical nuclei isolated from control and Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brains. We report that the human APP 5' promoter sequence from -203 to +55 bp, which has been previously reported to contain essential regulatory elements for APP gene transcription, lies in a deoxyribonuclease I, micrococcal nuclease- and restriction endonuclease-sensitive, G+C-rich nucleosome-free gap flanked both 5' and 3' by typical nucleosome structures. As analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, this extended internucleosomal linker DNA is heavily occupied by nuclear protein factors, and interacts differentially with nuclear protein extracts obtained from HeLa and human brain neocortical nuclei. This suggests that the chromatin conformation of the APP gene promoter may vary in different cell types, and may correlate with differences in APP gene expression. Human recombinant transcription factors AP1, SP1 and TFIID (but not AP2 or brain histones H1, H2B and H4) interact with the -203 to +55 bp of the human APP promoter sequence. Only minor differences were observed in the chromatin structure of the immediate APP promoter between non-AD and AD affected neocortical nuclei, suggesting either that post-transcriptional processes, or that regulatory elements lying elsewhere in the APP gene may be important in the aberrant accumulation of the APP gene product.

  1. Association of a novel human FE65-like protein with the cytoplasmic domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Guénette, S Y; Chen, J; Jondro, P D; Tanzi, R E

    1996-01-01

    We identified a novel human homologue of the rat FE65 gene, hFE65L, by screening the cytoplasmic domain of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta PP) with the "interaction trap." The cytoplasmic domains of the beta PP homologues, APLP1 and APLP2 (amyloid precursor-like proteins), were also tested for interaction with hFE65L. APLP2, but not APLP1, was found to interact with hFE65L. We confirmed these interactions in vivo by successfully coimmunoprecipatating endogenous beta PP and APLP2 from mammalian cells overexpressing a hemagglutinin-tagged fusion of the C-terminal region of hFE65L. We report the existence of a human FE65 gene family and evidence supporting specific interactions between members of the beta PP and FE65 protein families. Sequence analysis of the FE65 human gene family reveals the presence of two phosphotyrosine interaction (PI) domains. Our data show that a single PI domain is sufficient for binding of hFE65L to the cytoplasmic domain of beta PP and APLP2. The PI domain of the protein, Shc, is known to interact with the NPXYp motif found in the cytoplasmic domain of a number of different growth factor receptors. Thus, it is likely that the PI domains present in the C-terminal moiety of the hFE65L protein bind the NPXY motif located in the cytoplasmic domain of beta PP and APLP2. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8855266

  2. Bovine gallbladder muscularis: Source of a myogenic receptor for cholecystokinin

    SciTech Connect

    Schjoldager, B.; Shaw, M.J.; Powers, S.P.; Schmalz, P.E.; Szurszewski, J.; Miller, L.J. )

    1988-03-01

    Despite being a classic target for the gastrointestinal peptide hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), the gallbladder CCK receptor is not well characterized. Pharmacological studies of small species suggest that CCK action can be mediated by direct myogenic or by both myogenic and neurogenic receptors. To prepare for the biochemical characterization of a gallbladder CCK receptor and to define the subtype of the receptor being studied. The authors have performed autoradiographic localization and pharmacological characterization of CCK receptors on bovine gallbladder. Autoradiography demonstrated high-affinity specific CCK-binding sites only on the muscularis. CCK-8 stimulated tonic contraction of longitudinal strips of gallbladder muscularis in a concentration-dependent manner. Antagonism at the cholinergic receptor with 1{mu}M atropine or axonal transmission with 1{mu}M tetrodotoxin did not modify CCK-induced contraction, supporting a direct myogenic effect of this hormone. Optimal electrical field stimulation to elicit a neuronal response resulted in muscle strip relaxation, which was abolished with adrenergic blockade. Although acetylcholine administration stimulated contraction, electrical field stimulation did not, even in the presence of phentolamine, propranolol, and/or CCK. Thus, in bovine gallbladder muscularis, there is evidence for a functional CCK receptor only on smooth muscle cells. Demonstration of a single, high-affinity specific CCK-binding site on an enriched plasma membrane preparation of bovine gallbladder muscularis is consistent with this representing a myogenic CCK receptor.

  3. CD36 is required for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seung-Yoon; Yun, Youngeun; Kim, In-San

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD36 expression was induced during myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD36 expression was localized in multinucleated myotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of myogenic markers is attenuated in CD36 knockdown C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of CD36 significantly inhibited myotube formation during differentiation. -- Abstract: Recently, CD36 has been found to be involved in the cytokine-induced fusion of macrophage. Myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes is required for myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Because a search of gene expression database revealed the attenuation of CD36 expression in the muscles of muscular dystrophy patients, the possibility that CD36 could be required for myoblast fusion was investigated. CD36 expression was markedly up-regulated during myoblast differentiation and localized in multinucleated myotubes. Knockdown of endogenous CD36 significantly decreased the expression of myogenic markers as well as myotube formation. These results support the notion that CD36 plays an important role in cell fusion during myogenic differentiation. Our finding will aid the elucidation of the common mechanism governing cell-to-cell fusion in various fusion models.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Arctic mutation.

    PubMed

    Rönnbäck, Annica; Pavlov, Pavel F; Mansory, Mansorah; Gonze, Prisca; Marlière, Nicolas; Winblad, Bengt; Graff, Caroline; Behbahani, Homira

    2016-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is an important event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have used a transgenic mouse model expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Arctic mutation to investigate whether Aβ deposition is correlated with mitochondrial functions in these animals. We found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e., decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage) at 6 months of age, when the mice showed very mild Aβ deposition. More pronounced mitochondrial abnormalities were present in 24-month-old TgAPParc mice with more extensive Aβ pathology. This study demonstrates for the first time mitochondrial dysfunction in transgenic mice with a mutation within the Aβ peptide (the Arctic APP mutation), and confirms previous studies suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. This study demonstrates mitochondrial dysfunction in transgenic mice with a mutation within the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide (the Arctic amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation). We found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e. decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative DNA damage) at 6 months of age, when very mild Aβ deposition is present in the mice. Also, the cytochrome c (COX) activity was significantly decreased in mitochondria from transgenic mice at 24 months of age.

  5. Interleukin 1 regulates synthesis of amyloid beta-protein precursor mRNA in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goldgaber, D; Harris, H W; Hla, T; Maciag, T; Donnelly, R J; Jacobsen, J S; Vitek, M P; Gajdusek, D C

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the modulation of amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The level of the APP mRNA transcripts increased as HUVEC reached confluency. In confluent culture the half-life of the APP mRNA was 4 hr. Treatment of the cells with human-recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or heparin-binding growth factor 1 enhanced the expression of APP gene in these cells, but calcium ionophore A23187 and dexamethasone did not. The protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(isoquinolinsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7) inhibited IL-1-mediated increase of the level of APP transcripts. To map IL-1-responsive elements of the APP promoter, truncated portions of the APP promoter were fused to the human growth hormone reporter gene. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into mouse neuroblastoma cells, and the cell medium was assayed for the human growth hormone. A 180-base-pair region of the APP promoter located between position -485 and -305 upstream from the transcription start site was necessary for IL-1-mediated induction of the reporter gene. This region contains the upstream transcription factor AP-1 binding site. These results suggest that IL-1 upregulates APP gene expression in HUVEC through a pathway mediated by protein kinase C, utilizing the upstream AP-1 binding site of the APP promoter. Images PMID:2508093

  6. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    SciTech Connect

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Detection of the single-chain precursor in the production and purification process of recombinant human insulin.

    PubMed

    Leng, Chunsheng; Li, Qingwei; Wu, Fenfang; Chen, Liyong; Su, Peng

    2013-08-01

    High quality recombinant insulin requires being free of single-chain precursor (proinsulin), a task that depends on the selectivity and sensitivity of the monitoring process for detecting proinsulin. In this study we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system that was specifically tailored to detect recombinant proinsulin. The proinsulin consists of six components: an initiating methionine, 48 amino acids from human growth hormones (HGH, used as the protection peptide), first connecting Arg-residue, B-chain of insulin, and second connecting Arg-peptide and A-chain of insulin. This form of proinsulin is more stable and can be efficiently expressed by E. coli than insulin. Herein, we evaluated the specificity, precision, recovery, sensitivity, and detection range of the proinsulin ELISA kit. The results showed that the ELISA kit is a very useful tool for monitoring the proinsulin yield in early stages of insulin production as well as the residual proinsulin in the final product, insulin.

  8. Regulation of proteolytic cleavage of brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor by antidepressants in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pao-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has supported the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in antidepressant effect. The precursor of BDNF (proBDNF) often exerts opposing biological effects on mature BDNF (mBDNF). Hence, the balance between proBDNF and mBDNF might be critical in total neurotrophic effects, leading to susceptibility to or recovery from depression. In the current study, we measured the protein expression levels of proBDNF, and its proteolytic products, truncated BDNF, and mBDNF, in human SH-SY5Y cells treated with different antidepressants. We found that the treatment significantly increased the production of mBDNF, but decreased the production of truncated BDNF and proBDNF. These results support that antidepressants can promote proBDNF cleavage. Further studies are needed to clarify whether proBDNF cleavage plays a role in antidepressant mechanisms. PMID:26491331

  9. Sphingosine phosphate lyase regulates myogenic differentiation via S1P receptor-mediated effects on myogenic microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S; Baldwin, Dianna M; Oskouian, Babak; Place, Robert F; Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Kumar, Ashok; Saba, Julie D

    2014-01-01

    S1P lyase (SPL) catalyzes the irreversible degradation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid whose signaling activities regulate muscle differentiation, homeostasis, and satellite cell (SC) activation. By regulating S1P levels, SPL also controls SC recruitment and muscle regeneration, representing a potential therapeutic target for muscular dystrophy. We found that SPL is induced during myoblast differentiation. To investigate SPL's role in myogenesis at the cellular level, we generated and characterized a murine myoblast SPL-knockdown (SPL-KD) cell line lacking SPL. SPL-KD cells accumulated intracellular and extracellular S1P and failed to form myotubes under conditions that normally stimulate myogenic differentiation. Under differentiation conditions, SPL-KD cells also demonstrated delayed induction of 3 myogenic microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-1, miR-206, and miR-486. SPL-KD cells successfully differentiated when treated with an S1P1 agonist, S1P2 antagonist, and combination treatments, which also increased myogenic miRNA levels. SPL-KD cells transfected with mimics for miR-1 or miR-206 also overcame the differentiation block. Thus, we show for the first time that the S1P/SPL/S1P-receptor axis regulates the expression of a number of miRNAs, thereby contributing to myogenic differentiation.

  10. Myogenic progenitors and imaging single-cell flow analysis: a model to study commitment of adult muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trapecar, Martin; Kelc, Robi; Gradisnik, Lidija; Vogrin, Matjaz; Rupnik, Marjan Slak

    2014-12-01

    Research on skeletal muscles suffers from a lack of appropriate human models to study muscle formation and regeneration on the regulatory level of single cells. This hampers both basic understanding and the development of new therapeutic approaches. The use of imaging multicolour flow cytometry and myogenic stem cells can help fill this void by allowing researchers to visualize and quantify the reaction of individual cultured cells to bioactives or other physiological impulses. As proof of concept, we subjected human CD56+ satellite cells to reference bioactives follistatin and Malva sylvestris extracts and then used imaging multicolor flow cytometry to visualize the stepwise activation of myogenic factors MyoD and myogenin in individual cells. This approach enabled us to evaluate the potency of these bioactives to stimulate muscle commitment. To validate this method, we used multi-photon confocal microscopy to confirm the potential of bioactives to stimulate muscle differentiation and expression of desmin. Imaging multicolor flow cytometry revealed statistically significant differences between treated and untreated groups of myogenic progenitors and we propose the utilization of this concept as an integral part of future muscle research strategies.

  11. Differential transgene expression patterns in Alzheimer mouse models revealed by novel human amyloid precursor protein-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Höfling, Corinna; Morawski, Markus; Zeitschel, Ulrike; Zanier, Elisa R; Moschke, Katrin; Serdaroglu, Alperen; Canneva, Fabio; von Hörsten, Stephan; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia; Forloni, Gianluigi; Jäger, Carsten; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Roßner, Steffen; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is histopathologically characterized by neurodegeneration, the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular Aβ deposits that derive from proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). As rodents do not normally develop Aβ pathology, various transgenic animal models of AD were designed to overexpress human APP with mutations favouring its amyloidogenic processing. However, these mouse models display tremendous differences in the spatial and temporal appearance of Aβ deposits, synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and the manifestation of learning deficits which may be caused by age-related and brain region-specific differences in APP transgene levels. Consequentially, a comparative temporal and regional analysis of the pathological effects of Aβ in mouse brains is difficult complicating the validation of therapeutic AD treatment strategies in different mouse models. To date, no antibodies are available that properly discriminate endogenous rodent and transgenic human APP in brains of APP-transgenic animals. Here, we developed and characterized rat monoclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry and Western blot that detect human but not murine APP in brains of three APP-transgenic mouse and one APP-transgenic rat model. We observed remarkable differences in expression levels and brain region-specific expression of human APP among the investigated transgenic mouse lines. This may explain the differences between APP-transgenic models mentioned above. Furthermore, we provide compelling evidence that our new antibodies specifically detect endogenous human APP in immunocytochemistry, FACS and immunoprecipitation. Hence, we propose these antibodies as standard tool for monitoring expression of endogenous or transfected APP in human cells and APP expression in transgenic animals. PMID:27470171

  12. Kinesin Light Chain 1 Suppression Impairs Human Embryonic Stem Cell Neural Differentiation and Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Rhiannon L.; Flippin, Jessica D.; Herrera, Cheryl M.; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is largely unknown, although evidence implicates the pathological hallmark molecules amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated Tau. Work in animal models suggests that altered axonal transport caused by Kinesin-1 dysfunction perturbs levels of both Aβ and phosphorylated Tau in neural tissues, but the relevance of Kinesin-1 dependent functions to the human disease is unknown. To begin to address this issue, we generated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) expressing reduced levels of the kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1) Kinesin-1 subunit to use as a source of human neural cultures. Despite reduction of KLC1, undifferentiated hESC exhibited apparently normal colony morphology and pluripotency marker expression. Differentiated neural cultures derived from KLC1-suppressed hESC contained neural rosettes but further differentiation revealed obvious morphological changes along with reduced levels of microtubule-associated neural proteins, including Tau and less secreted Aβ, supporting the previously established connection between KLC1, Tau and Aβ. Intriguingly, KLC1-suppressed neural precursors (NPs), isolated using a cell surface marker signature known to identify cells that give rise to neurons and glia, unlike control cells, failed to proliferate. We suggest that KLC1 is required for normal human neural differentiation, ensuring proper metabolism of AD-associated molecules APP and Tau and for proliferation of NPs. Because impaired APP metabolism is linked to AD, this human cell culture model system will not only be a useful tool for understanding the role of KLC1 in regulating the production, transport and turnover of APP and Tau in neurons, but also in defining the essential function(s) of KLC1 in NPs and their progeny. This knowledge should have important implications for human neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22272245

  13. Culturing and expansion of "clinical grade" precursors cells from the fetal human central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gelati, Maurizio; Profico, Daniela; Projetti-Pensi, Massimo; Muzi, Gianmarco; Sgaravizzi, Giada; Vescovi, Angelo Luigi

    2013-01-01

    NSCs have been demonstrated to be very useful in grafts into the mammalian central nervous system to investigate the exploitation of NSC for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. To push cell therapy in CNS on stage of clinical application, it is necessary to establish a continuous and standardized, clinical grade (i.e., produced following the good manufacturing practice guidelines) human neural stem cell lines. In this chapter, we illustrate some of the protocols routinely used into our GMP cell bank for the production of "clinical grade" human neural stem cell lines.

  14. Robosphere: Self Sustaining Robotic Ecologies as Precursors to Human Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.

    2003-01-01

    The present sequential mission oriented approach to robotic planetary exploration, could be changed to an infrastructure building approach where a robotic presence is permanent, self sustaining and growing with each mission. We call this self-sustaining robotic ecology approach robosphere and discuss the technological issues that need to be addressed before this concept can be realized. One of the major advantages of this approach is that a robosphere would include much of the infrastructure required by human explorers and would thus lower the preparation and risk threshold inherent in the transition from robotic to human exploration. In this context we discuss some implications for space architecture.

  15. Restricted maternal nutrition alters myogenic regulatory factor expression in satellite cells of ovine offspring.

    PubMed

    Raja, J S; Hoffman, M L; Govoni, K E; Zinn, S A; Reed, S A

    2016-07-01

    Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development and postnatal muscle growth. Satellite cells are myogenic precursor cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth, and their activity can be evaluated by the expression of several transcription factors. Paired-box (Pax)7 is expressed in quiescent and active satellite cells. MyoD is expressed in activated and proliferating satellite cells and myogenin is expressed in terminally differentiating cells. Disruption in the expression pattern or timing of expression of myogenic regulatory factors negatively affects muscle development and growth. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition during gestation would alter the in vitro temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin in satellite cells from offspring at birth and 3 months of age. Ewes were fed 100% or 60% of NRC requirements from day 31±1.3 of gestation. Lambs from control-fed (CON) or restricted-fed (RES) ewes were euthanized within 24 h of birth (birth; n=5) or were fed a control diet until 3 months of age (n=5). Satellite cells isolated from the semitendinosus muscle were used for gene expression analysis or cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h and immunostained for Pax7, MyoD or myogenin. Fusion index was calculated from a subset of cells allowed to differentiate. Compared with CON, temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin was altered in cultured satellite cells isolated from RES lambs at birth. The percent of cells expressing MyoD was greater in RES than CON (P=0.03) after 24 h in culture. After 48 h of culture, there was a greater percent of cells expressing myogenin in RES compared with CON (P0.05). In satellite cells from RES lambs at 3 months of age, the percent of cells expressing MyoD and myogenin were greater than CON after 72 h in culture (P<0.05). Fusion index was reduced in RES lambs at 3 months of age compared with CON (P<0.001). Restricted nutrition during gestation alters the temporal expression of myogenic regulatory factors in satellite cells of the

  16. Bone Anabolic Effects of Soluble Si: In Vitro Studies with Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and CD14+ Osteoclast Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Rodrigues, J.; Reis, S.; Castro, A.; Fernandes, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is indispensable for many cellular processes including bone tissue metabolism. In this work, the effects of Si on human osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis were characterized. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and CD14+ stem cells, as osteoblast and osteoclast precursors, were treated with a wide range of Si concentrations, covering the physiological plasma levels. Si promoted a dose-dependent increase in hMSC proliferation, differentiation, and function, at levels similar to the normal basal plasma levels. Additionally, a decrease in the expression of the osteoclastogenic activators M-CSF and RANKL was observed. Also, Si elicited a decrease in osteoclastogenesis, which became significant at higher concentrations, as those observed after meals. Among the intracellular mechanisms studied, an upregulation of MEK and PKC signalling pathways was observed in both cell types. In conclusion, Si appears to have a direct positive effect on human osteogenesis, at basal plasma levels. On the other hand, it also seemed to be an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, but at higher concentrations, though yet in the physiological range. Further, an indirect effect of Si on osteoclastogenesis may also occur, through a downregulation of M-CSF and RANKL expression by osteoblasts. Thus, Si may be an important player in bone anabolic regenerative approaches. PMID:26798359

  17. Bone Anabolic Effects of Soluble Si: In Vitro Studies with Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and CD14+ Osteoclast Precursors.

    PubMed

    Costa-Rodrigues, J; Reis, S; Castro, A; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is indispensable for many cellular processes including bone tissue metabolism. In this work, the effects of Si on human osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis were characterized. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and CD14+ stem cells, as osteoblast and osteoclast precursors, were treated with a wide range of Si concentrations, covering the physiological plasma levels. Si promoted a dose-dependent increase in hMSC proliferation, differentiation, and function, at levels similar to the normal basal plasma levels. Additionally, a decrease in the expression of the osteoclastogenic activators M-CSF and RANKL was observed. Also, Si elicited a decrease in osteoclastogenesis, which became significant at higher concentrations, as those observed after meals. Among the intracellular mechanisms studied, an upregulation of MEK and PKC signalling pathways was observed in both cell types. In conclusion, Si appears to have a direct positive effect on human osteogenesis, at basal plasma levels. On the other hand, it also seemed to be an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, but at higher concentrations, though yet in the physiological range. Further, an indirect effect of Si on osteoclastogenesis may also occur, through a downregulation of M-CSF and RANKL expression by osteoblasts. Thus, Si may be an important player in bone anabolic regenerative approaches.

  18. Identification of potential biomarkers of hepatitis B-induced acute liver failure using hepatic cells derived from human skin precursors.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Robim M; Sachinidis, Agapios; De Boe, Veerle; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; De Kock, Joery

    2015-09-01

    Besides their role in the elucidation of pathogenic processes of medical and pharmacological nature, biomarkers can also be used to document specific toxicological events. Hepatic cells generated from human skin-derived precursors (hSKP-HPC) were previously shown to be a promising in vitro tool for the evaluation of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, their capacity to identify potential liver-specific biomarkers at the gene expression level was investigated with particular emphasis on acute liver failure (ALF). To this end, a set of potential ALF-specific biomarkers was established using clinically relevant liver samples obtained from patients suffering from hepatitis B-associated ALF. Subsequently, this data was compared to data obtained from primary human hepatocyte cultures and hSKP-HPC, both exposed to the ALF-inducing reference compound acetaminophen. It was found that both in vitro systems revealed a set of molecules that was previously identified in the ALF liver samples. Yet, only a limited number of molecules was common between both in vitro systems and the ALF liver samples. Each of the in vitro systems could be used independently to identify potential toxicity biomarkers related to ALF. It seems therefore more appropriate to combine primary human hepatocyte cultures with complementary in vitro models to efficiently screen out potential hepatotoxic compounds.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of human spinal cord-derived neural precursor cells after transplantation to the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Emgård, Mia; Piao, Jinghua; Aineskog, Helena; Liu, Jia; Calzarossa, Cinzia; Odeberg, Jenny; Holmberg, Lena; Samuelsson, Eva-Britt; Bezubik, Bartosz; Vincent, Per Henrik; Falci, Scott P; Seiger, Åke; Åkesson, Elisabet; Sundström, Erik

    2014-03-01

    To validate human neural precursor cells (NPCs) as potential donor cells for transplantation therapy after spinal cord injury (SCI), we investigated the effect of NPCs, transplanted as neurospheres, in two different rat SCI models. Human spinal cord-derived NPCs (SC-NPCs) transplanted 9 days after spinal contusion injury enhanced hindlimb recovery, assessed by the BBB locomotor test. In spinal compression injuries, SC-NPCs transplanted immediately or after 1 week, but not 7 weeks after injury, significantly improved hindlimb recovery compared to controls. We could not detect signs of mechanical allodynia in transplanted rats. Four months after transplantation, we found more human cells in the host spinal cord than were transplanted, irrespective of the time of transplantation. There was no focal tumor growth. In all groups the vast majority of NPCs differentiated into astrocytes. Importantly, the number of surviving rat spinal cord neurons was highest in groups transplanted acutely and subacutely, which also showed the best hindlimb function. This suggests that transplanted SC-NPCs improve the functional outcome by a neuroprotective effect. We conclude that SC-NPCs reliably enhance the functional outcome after SCI if transplanted acutely or subacutely, without causing allodynia. This therapeutic effect is mainly the consequence of a neuroprotective effect of the SC-NPCs.

  20. Response of human hematopoietic precursor cells (CFUc) to hyperthermia and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bromer, R.H.; Mitchell, J.B.; Soares, N.

    1982-04-01

    Currently, whole-body and local hyperthermia is being evaluated in clinical studies as a potential method of cancer treatment. Since the hyperthermic sensitivity of normal human bone marrow cells is not known, we have studied the in vitro response of these cells to two anticancer modalities when administered alone or in combination. Cell survival following various treatment schedules was determined by colony formation of bone marrow cells (CFUc) in soft agar suspensions. Within the survival range studied, a thermal tolerant plateau on the cell survival was not observed for temperatures of 42 degrees or less. However, thermotolerance induction could not be ruled out. In addition, when hyperthermia (42.5 degrees for 1 hr) and radiation (100 rads) were sequenced, the human CFUc survival remained the same regardless of whether the radiation was administered before, during, or after the hyperthermic exposure. Under our experimental conditions, we found the human CFUc to be more radiosensitive (D0 . 84 rads) than what has been reported previously. The radiation survival response of human CFUc was similar for cells irradiated either in vitro or in vivo. The possible clinical implications for these data are discussed.

  1. Nanofiber Matrices Promote the Neuronal Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shawn H.; Christopherson, Gregory T.; Xu, Leyan; Nasonkin, Igor; Yu, Christopher; Mao, Hai-Quan; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (ES) cells as experimental therapies for neuronal replacement has recently received considerable attention. In view of the organization of the mature nervous system into distinct neural circuits, key challenges of such therapies are the directed differentiation of human ES cell-derived neural precursors (NPs) into specific neuronal types and the directional growth of axons along specified trajectories. In the present study, we cultured human NPs derived from the NIH-approved ES line BGO1 on polycaprolactone fiber matrices of different diameter (i.e., nanofibers and microfibers) and orientation (i.e., aligned and random); fibers were coated with poly-L-ornithine/laminin to mimic the extracellular matrix and support the adhesion, viability, and differentiation of NPs. On aligned fibrous meshes, human NPs adopt polarized cell morphology with processes extending along the axis of the fiber, whereas NPs on plain tissue culture surfaces or random fiber substrates form nonpolarized neurite networks. Under differentiation conditions, human NPs cultured on aligned fibrous substrates show a higher rate of neuronal differentiation than other matrices; 62% and 86% of NPs become TUJ1 (+) early neurons on aligned micro- and nanofibers, respectively, whereas only 32% and 27% of NPs acquire the same fate on random micro- and nanofibers. Metabolic cell activity/viability studies reveal that fiber alignment and diameter also have an effect on NP viability, but only in the presence of mitogens. Our findings demonstrate that fibrous substrates serve as an artificial extracellular matrix and provide a microenviroment that influences key aspects of the neuronal differentiation of ES-derived NPs. PMID:20973749

  2. Beneficial Effect of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors in Spinal Cord Injury Repair.

    PubMed

    Romanyuk, Nataliya; Amemori, Takashi; Turnovcova, Karolina; Prochazka, Pavel; Onteniente, Brigitte; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in our understanding and research of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), their use in clinical practice is still limited due to lack of preclinical experiments. Neural precursors (NPs) derived from a clone of human iPSCs (IMR90) were used to treat a rat spinal cord lesion 1 week after induction. Functional recovery was evaluated using the BBB, beam walking, rotarod, and plantar tests. Lesion morphology, endogenous axonal sprouting, graft survival, and iPSC-NP differentiation were analyzed immunohistochemically. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to evaluate the effect of transplanted iPSC-NPs on endogenous regenerative processes and also to monitor their behavior after transplantation. Human iPSC-NPs robustly survived in the lesion, migrated, and partially filled the lesion cavity during the entire period of observation. Transplanted animals displayed significant motor improvement already from the second week after the transplantation of iPSC-NPs. qPCR revealed the increased expression of human neurotrophins 8 weeks after transplantation. Simultaneously, the white and gray matter were spared in the host tissue. The grafted cells were immunohistochemically positive for doublecortin, MAP2, βIII-tubulin, GFAP, and CNPase 8 weeks after transplantation. Human iPSC-NPs further matured, and 17 weeks after transplantation differentiated toward interneurons, dopaminergic neurons, serotoninergic neurons, and ChAT-positive motoneurons. Human iPSC-NPs possess neurotrophic properties that are associated with significant early functional improvement and the sparing of spinal cord tissue. Their ability to differentiate into tissue-specific neurons leads to the long-term restoration of the lesioned tissue, making the cells a promising candidate for future cell-based therapy of SCI. PMID:25259685

  3. Problems in the estimation of human exposure to components of acid precipitation precursors.

    PubMed

    Ferris, B G; Spengler, J D

    1985-11-01

    Problems associated with estimation of human exposure to ambient air pollutants are discussed. Ideally, we would prefer to have some indication of actual dose. For most pollutants this is not presently feasible. Specific problems discussed are adequacy of outdoor monitors; the need to correct for exposures and time spent indoors; the need to have particle size distributions described and the chemistry of the particles presented. These indicate the need to develop lightweight accurate and reliable personal monitors.

  4. Exercise training reverses aging-induced impairment of myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Payal; Mora Solis, Fredy R; Dominguez, James M; Spier, Scott A; Donato, Anthony J; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether exercise training can reverse age-related impairment of myogenic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle arterioles, young (4 mo) and old (22 mo) male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to either sedentary or exercise-trained groups. The roles of the endothelium and Kv1 channels in age- and exercise training-induced adaptations of myogenic responses were assessed through evaluation of pressure-induced constriction in endothelium-intact and denuded soleus muscle arterioles in the presence and absence of the Kv1 channel blocker, correolide. Exercise training enhanced myogenic constriction in arterioles from both old and young rats. In arterioles from old rats, exercise training restored myogenic constriction to a level similar to that of arterioles from young sedentary rats. Removal of the endothelium did not alter myogenic constriction of arterioles from young sedentary rats, but reduced myogenic constriction in arterioles from young exercise-trained rats. In contrast, endothelial removal had no effect on myogenic constriction of arterioles from old exercise-trained rats, but increased myogenic vasoconstriction in old sedentary rats. The effect of Kv1 channel blockade was also dependent on age and training status. In arterioles from young sedentary rats, Kv1 blockade had little effect on myogenic constriction, whereas in old sedentary rats Kv1 blockade increased myogenic constriction. After exercise training, Kv1 channel blockade increased myogenic constriction in arterioles from both young and old rats. Thus exercise training restores myogenic constriction of arterioles from old rats and enhances myogenic constriction from young rats through adaptations of the endothelium and smooth muscle Kv1 channels. PMID:25634999

  5. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W; Heydorn, R P

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars.

  6. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W; Heydorn, R P

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. PMID:15806749

  8. Restricted myogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Iwona; Brzoska, Edyta; Gawrysiak, Agnieszka; Streminska, Wladyslawa; Moraczewski, Jerzy; Polanski, Zbigniew; Hoser, Grazyna; Kawiak, Jerzy; Machaj, Eugeniusz K; Pojda, Zygmunt; Ciemerych, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    Nonhematopoietic cord blood cells and mesenchymal cells of umbilical cord Wharton's jelly have been shown to be able to differentiate into various cell types. Thus, as they are readily available and do not raise any ethical issues, these cells are considered to be a potential source of material that can be used in regenerative medicine. In our previous study, we tested the potential of whole mononucleated fraction of human umbilical cord blood cells and showed that they are able to participate in the regeneration of injured mouse skeletal muscle. In the current study, we focused at the umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from Wharton's jelly. We documented that limited fraction of these cells express markers of pluripotent and myogenic cells. Moreover, they are able to undergo myogenic differentiation in vitro, as proved by coculture with C2C12 myoblasts. They also colonize injured skeletal muscle and, with low frequency, participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. Pretreatment of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells with SDF-1 has no impact on their incorporation into regenerating muscle fibers but significantly increased muscle mass. As a result, transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells enhances the skeletal muscle regeneration.

  9. Wnt7a stimulates myogenic stem cell motility and engraftment resulting in improved muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Bentzinger, C Florian; von Maltzahn, Julia; Dumont, Nicolas A; Stark, Danny A; Wang, Yu Xin; Nhan, Kevin; Frenette, Jérôme; Cornelison, D D W; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2014-04-14

    Wnt7a/Fzd7 signaling stimulates skeletal muscle growth and repair by inducing the symmetric expansion of satellite stem cells through the planar cell polarity pathway and by activating the Akt/mTOR growth pathway in muscle fibers. Here we describe a third level of activity where Wnt7a/Fzd7 increases the polarity and directional migration of mouse satellite cells and human myogenic progenitors through activation of Dvl2 and the small GTPase Rac1. Importantly, these effects can be exploited to potentiate the outcome of myogenic cell transplantation into dystrophic muscles. We observed that a short Wnt7a treatment markedly stimulated tissue dispersal and engraftment, leading to significantly improved muscle function. Moreover, myofibers at distal sites that fused with Wnt7a-treated cells were hypertrophic, suggesting that the transplanted cells deliver activated Wnt7a/Fzd7 signaling complexes to recipient myofibers. Taken together, we describe a viable and effective ex vivo cell modulation process that profoundly enhances the efficacy of stem cell therapy for skeletal muscle.

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation is a mandatory proximal step in radiation-induced activation of the protein kinase C signaling pathway in human B-lymphocyte precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, F M; Schieven, G L; Tuel-Ahlgren, L M; Dibirdik, I; Myers, D E; Ledbetter, J A; Song, C W

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation triggers a signal in human B-lymphocyte precursors that is intimately linked to an active protein-tyrosine kinase regulatory pathway. We show that in B-lymphocyte precursors, irradiation with gamma-rays leads to (i) stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover; (ii) downstream activation by covalent modification of multiple serine-specific protein kinases, including protein kinase C; and (iii) activation of nuclear factor kappa B. All of the radiation-induced signals were effectively prevented by the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation is an important and perhaps mandatory proximal step in the activation of the protein kinase C signaling cascade in human B-lymphocyte precursors. Our report expands current knowledge of the radiation-induced signaling cascade by clarifying the chronological sequence of biochemical events that follow irradiation. Images PMID:8419931

  11. Transcriptome analysis of post-hatch breast muscle in legacy and modern broiler chickens reveals enrichment of several regulators of myogenic growth.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard V N; Lamont, Susan J; Rothschild, Max F; Persia, Michael E; Ashwell, Chris M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Post-Hatch Breast Muscle in Legacy and Modern Broiler Chickens Reveals Enrichment of Several Regulators of Myogenic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Richard V. N.; Lamont, Susan J.; Rothschild, Max F.; Persia, Michael E.; Ashwell, Chris M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers. PMID:25821972

  13. Occurring of In Vitro Functional Vasculogenic Pericytes from Human Circulating Early Endothelial Precursor Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Cantoni, Silvia; Bianchi, Francesca; Galletti, Margherita; Olivi, Elena; Alviano, Francesco; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ventura, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are periendothelial cells of the microcirculation which contribute to tissue homeostasis and hemostasis by regulating microvascular morphogenesis and stability. Because of their multipotential ex vivo differentiation capabilities, pericytes are becoming very interesting in regenerative medicine field. Several studies address this issue by attempting to isolate pericyte/mesenchymal-like cells from peripheral blood; however the origin of these cells and their culture conditions are still debated. Here we showed that early Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) expressing CD45+/CD146+/CD31+ can be a source of cells with pericyte/mesenchymal phenotype and function, identified as human Progenitor Perivascular Cells (hPPCs). We provided evidence that hPPCs have an immunophenotype consistent with Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) from human adipose tissue (hASCs) and fetal membranes of term placenta (FM-hMSCs). In addition, hPPCs can be subcultured and exhibit expression of pluripotent genes (OCT-4, KLF-4, and NANOG) as well as a remarkable vasculogenic potential. Our findings could be helpful to develop innovative cell-based therapies for future clinical applications with distinct therapeutic purposes. PMID:26064139

  14. Occurring of In Vitro Functional Vasculogenic Pericytes from Human Circulating Early Endothelial Precursor Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Francesca; Galletti, Margherita; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ventura, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are periendothelial cells of the microcirculation which contribute to tissue homeostasis and hemostasis by regulating microvascular morphogenesis and stability. Because of their multipotential ex vivo differentiation capabilities, pericytes are becoming very interesting in regenerative medicine field. Several studies address this issue by attempting to isolate pericyte/mesenchymal-like cells from peripheral blood; however the origin of these cells and their culture conditions are still debated. Here we showed that early Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) expressing CD45+/CD146+/CD31+ can be a source of cells with pericyte/mesenchymal phenotype and function, identified as human Progenitor Perivascular Cells (hPPCs). We provided evidence that hPPCs have an immunophenotype consistent with Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) from human adipose tissue (hASCs) and fetal membranes of term placenta (FM-hMSCs). In addition, hPPCs can be subcultured and exhibit expression of pluripotent genes (OCT-4, KLF-4, and NANOG) as well as a remarkable vasculogenic potential. Our findings could be helpful to develop innovative cell-based therapies for future clinical applications with distinct therapeutic purposes. PMID:26064139

  15. In vitro culture and characterization of enteric neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens using polymer scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamohan, Janardhanam; Senthilnathan, Venugopal S; Vaikundaraman, Tirunelveli Muthiah; Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Balamurugan, Madasamy; Iwasaki, Masaru; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel JK

    2013-01-01

    Summary In vitro expansion and characterization of neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens with or without Hirschsprung's disease using a novel thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) is reported aiming at a possible future treatment. Gut biopsy samples were obtained from five patients undergoing gut resection for Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1) or gastrointestinal disorders (n = 4). Cells isolated from the smooth muscle layer and the myenteric plexus were cultured in two groups for 18 to 28 days; Group I: conventional culture as earlier reported and Group II: using TGP scaffold. Neurosphere like bodies (NLBs) were observed in the cultures between 8th to 12th day and H & E staining was positive for neural cells in both groups including aganglionic gut portion from the Hirschsprung's disease patient. Immunohistochemistry using S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) was positive in both groups but the TGP group (Group II) showed more number of cells with intense cytoplasmic granular positivity for both NSE and S-100 compared to Group I. TGP supports the in vitro expansion of human gut derived neuronal cells with seemingly better quality NLBs. Animal Studies can be tried to validate their functional outcome by transplanting the NLBs with TGP scaffolds to see whether this can enhance the outcome of cell based therapies for Hirschsprung's disease. PMID:25343111

  16. Myogenic Progenitors from Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells for Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Magli, Alessandro; Incitti, Tania; Perlingeiro, Rita C R

    2016-01-01

    Muscle homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells which, in both pathologic and non-pathologic conditions, are able to repair or generate new muscle fibers. Although muscle stem cells have tremendous regenerative potential, their application in cell therapy protocols is prevented by several restrictions, including the limited ability to grow ex vivo. Since pluripotent stem cells have the unique potential to both self-renew and expand almost indefinitely, they have become an attractive source of progenitors for regenerative medicine studies. Our lab has demonstrated that embryonic stem cell (ES)-derived myogenic progenitors retain the ability to repair existing muscle fibers and contribute to the pool of resident stem cells. Because of their relevance in both cell therapy and disease modeling, in this chapter we describe the protocol to derive myogenic progenitors from murine ES cells followed by their intramuscular delivery in a murine muscular dystrophy model. PMID:27492174

  17. Preparation of Tyr-C-peptide from genetically altered human insulin precursor.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Tang, J; Hu, M

    1995-12-01

    C-peptide radioimmunoassay (C-peptide RIA) is widely used in determination of pancreatic B-cell secretion activity. 125I labeled Tyr-C-peptide is indispensable in C-peptide RIA kit. Herein we discuss a way of obtaining recombinant Tyr-C-peptide. Arg32Tyr human pro-insulin mutant (R32Y-proinsulin) gene was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purified R32Y-proinsulin was converted to insulin and Tyr-C-peptide by trypsin and carboxypeptidase B codigestion. Tyr-C-peptide was isolated through reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) and identified by C-peptide RIA and amino acid analysis.

  18. Cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles in human neural precursor cells and rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Uhn; Yoo, Chan-Jong; Kim, Yong-Jung; Yoo, Young-Mi

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles are promising tools for the advancement of drug delivery, medical imaging, and as diagnostic sensor. Medical nanodevices should develop miniaturization, because it would be injected into a human body. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes and shapes have therapeutic potential as a result of their small size, robust nature, excellent biocompatibility and optical properties. However, the application of GNPs as medical nanodevices it is necessary to know the biodegradation, biocompatibility, and development of surface coating which avoid the accumulation of nanoparticles. In this study, we carry out an in vitro toxicity and in vivo gene expression study using two kinds of GNPs. We found that GNPs toxicity is dependent on the dose or size administrated after the injected GNPs into the brain, and small particle size GNPs appeared more nestin expression compared to large particle size at short term implantation. These findings of toxicity of GNPs may play an important role in development of in vivo tools for the safety of GNPs.

  19. Expression and precursor processing of neuropeptide Y in human pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma tumors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, M M; Schwartz, T W

    1989-12-15

    The expression of the potent vasoactive peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) was studied in 16 clinically and/or histologically diagnosed human pheochromocytomas and 3 human neuroblastoma tumors. All tumors contained NPY in concentrations ranging from 21 pmol/g of tissue, similar to that found in normal adrenal tissue, to 91,000 pmol/g (median, 1,700 pmol/g). Three control tumors of Cushing's type did not contain NPY. An almost total proteolytic processing of pro-NPY to normal NPY was observed in the tumors (median, 93%; range, 72-100%). A positive correlation between the processing efficiency and the NPY content was also observed. The small amount of pro-NPY found in the tumors was characterized by "in vitro conversion" with endoproteinase Lys-C. In the tumor extracts, the majority of the NPY immunoreactivity, corresponding in size to the NPY standard, also behaved like synthetic NPY by high performance liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing. As assessed by both its elution position in isoelectric focusing and its reaction with an antiserum specific for the COOH-terminal amidated sequence, the peptide produced by the tumors was found to be efficiently amidated, a modification which is essential for the biological activity of NPY. It is concluded that although only a subset of chromaffin cells express NPY, a very high number of pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas produce correctly amidated and thus biologically active NPY in large amounts, and that this is of potential importance for tumor-related cardiovascular symptoms and for autocrine stimulation of tumor cells.

  20. Using BAC transgenesis in zebrafish to identify regulatory sequences of the amyloid precursor protein gene in humans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-coding DNA in and around the human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) gene that is central to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) shares little sequence similarity with that of appb in zebrafish. Identifying DNA domains regulating expression of the gene in such situations becomes a challenge. Taking advantage of the zebrafish system that allows rapid functional analyses of gene regulatory sequences, we previously showed that two discontinuous DNA domains in zebrafish appb are important for expression of the gene in neurons: an enhancer in intron 1 and sequences 28–31 kb upstream of the gene. Here we identify the putative transcription factor binding sites responsible for this distal cis-acting regulation, and use that information to identify a regulatory region of the human APP gene. Results Functional analyses of intron 1 enhancer mutations in enhancer-trap BACs expressed as transgenes in zebrafish identified putative binding sites of two known transcription factor proteins, E4BP4/ NFIL3 and Forkhead, to be required for expression of appb. A cluster of three E4BP4 sites at −31 kb is also shown to be essential for neuron-specific expression, suggesting that the dependence of expression on upstream sequences is mediated by these E4BP4 sites. E4BP4/ NFIL3 and XFD1 sites in the intron enhancer and E4BP4/ NFIL3 sites at −31 kb specifically and efficiently bind the corresponding zebrafish proteins in vitro. These sites are statistically over-represented in both the zebrafish appb and the human APP genes, although their locations are different. Remarkably, a cluster of four E4BP4 sites in intron 4 of human APP exists in actively transcribing chromatin in a human neuroblastoma cell-line, SHSY5Y, expressing APP as shown using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments. Thus although the two genes share little sequence conservation, they appear to share the same regulatory logic and are regulated by a similar set of transcription factors. Conclusion The

  1. Human midbrain precursors activate the expected developmental genetic program and differentiate long-term to functional A9 dopamine neurons in vitro. Enhancement by Bcl-X(L).

    PubMed

    Seiz, Emma G; Ramos-Gómez, Milagros; Courtois, Elise T; Tønnesen, Jan; Kokaia, Merab; Liste Noya, Isabel; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the molecular programs of the generation of human dopaminergic neurons (DAn) from their ventral mesencephalic (VM) precursors is of key importance for basic studies, progress in cell therapy, drug screening and pharmacology in the context of Parkinson's disease. The nature of human DAn precursors in vitro is poorly understood, their properties unstable, and their availability highly limited. Here we present positive evidence that human VM precursors retaining their genuine properties and long-term capacity to generate A9 type Substantia nigra human DAn (hVM1 model cell line) can be propagated in culture. During a one month differentiation, these cells activate all key genes needed to progress from pro-neural and pro-dopaminergic precursors to mature and functional DAn. For the first time, we demonstrate that gene cascades are correctly activated during differentiation, resulting in the generation of mature DAn. These DAn have morphological and functional properties undistinguishable from those generated by VM primary neuronal cultures. In addition, we have found that the forced expression of Bcl-X(L) induces an increase in the expression of key developmental genes (MSX1, NGN2), maintenance of PITX3 expression temporal profile, and also enhances genes involved in DAn long-term function, maintenance and survival (EN1, LMX1B, NURR1 and PITX3). As a result, Bcl-X(L) anticipates and enhances DAn generation.

  2. Myogenic progenitors contribute to open but not closed fracture repair

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bone repair is dependent on the presence of osteocompetent progenitors that are able to differentiate and generate new bone. Muscle is found in close association with orthopaedic injury, however its capacity to make a cellular contribution to bone repair remains ambiguous. We hypothesized that myogenic cells of the MyoD-lineage are able to contribute to bone repair. Methods We employed a MyoD-Cre+:Z/AP+ conditional reporter mouse in which all cells of the MyoD-lineage are permanently labeled with a human alkaline phosphatase (hAP) reporter. We tracked the contribution of MyoD-lineage cells in mouse models of tibial bone healing. Results In the absence of musculoskeletal trauma, MyoD-expressing cells are limited to skeletal muscle and the presence of reporter-positive cells in non-muscle tissues is negligible. In a closed tibial fracture model, there was no significant contribution of hAP+ cells to the healing callus. In contrast, open tibial fractures featuring periosteal stripping and muscle fenestration had up to 50% of hAP+ cells detected in the open fracture callus. At early stages of repair, many hAP+ cells exhibited a chondrocyte morphology, with lesser numbers of osteoblast-like hAP+ cells present at the later stages. Serial sections stained for hAP and type II and type I collagen showed that MyoD-lineage cells were surrounded by cartilaginous or bony matrix, suggestive of a functional role in the repair process. To exclude the prospect that osteoprogenitors spontaneously express MyoD during bone repair, we created a metaphyseal drill hole defect in the tibia. No hAP+ staining was observed in this model suggesting that the expression of MyoD is not a normal event for endogenous osteoprogenitors. Conclusions These data document for the first time that muscle cells can play a significant secondary role in bone repair and this knowledge may lead to important translational applications in orthopaedic surgery. Please see related article: http

  3. Dendritic cells with lymphocyte-stimulating activity differentiate from human CD133 positive precursors.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Maria Ida; Pieri, Laura; Domenici, Lola; Urbani, Serena; Romano, Giovanni; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Ballerini, Clara; Monici, Monica; Saccardi, Riccardo; Basile, Venere; Bosi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Paolo

    2011-04-14

    CD133 is a hallmark of primitive myeloid progenitors. We have addressed whether human cord blood cells selected for CD133 can generate dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells in particular, in conditions that promote that generation from CD34(+) progenitors. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and anti-TGF-β1 antibody, respectively, were added in some experiments. With TGF-β, monocytoid cells were recognized after 7 days. Immunophenotypically immature dendritic cells were present at day 14. After 4 more days, the cells expressed CD54, CD80, CD83, and CD86 and were potent stimulators in mixed lymphocyte reaction; part of the cells expressed CD1a and langerin, but not Birbeck granules. Without TGF-β, only a small fraction of cells acquired a dendritic shape and expressed the maturation-related antigens, and lymphocytes were poorly stimulated. With anti-TGF-β, the cell growth was greatly hampered, CD54 and langerin were never expressed, and lymphocytes were stimulated weakly. In conclusion, CD133(+) progenitors can give rise in vitro, through definite steps, to mature, immunostimulatory dendritic cells with molecular features of Langerhans cells, although without Birbeck granules. Addition of TGF-β1 helps to stimulate cell growth and promotes the acquisition of mature immunophenotypical and functional features. Neither langerin nor Birbeck granules proved indispensable for lymphocyte stimulation.

  4. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  5. Feasibility of a Dragon-Derived Mars Lander for Scientific and Human-Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John S.; Davis, Sanford S.; Allen, Gary A.; Glass, Brian J.; Gonzales, Andrew; Heldmann, Jennifer Lynne; Lemke, Lawrence G.; McKay, Chris; Stoker, Carol R.; Wooster, Paul Douglass; Zarchi, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A minimally-modified SpaceX Dragon capsule launched on a Falcon Heavy rocket presents the possibility of a new low-cost, high-capacity Mars lander for robotic missions. We have been evaluating such a "Red Dragon" platform as an option for the Icebreaker Discovery Program mission concept. Dragon is currently in service ferrying cargo to and from the International Space Station, and a crew transport version is in development. The upcoming version, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, exhibits most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant "SuperDraco" engines integrated directly into the capsule that are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters provide the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface, a descent approach which would also scale well to larger future human landers. We will discuss the motivations for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the current results of our analysis of its feasibility and capabilities, and the implications of the platform for the Icebreaker mission concept. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will also describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface. Our analysis to date indicates that a Red Dragon lander is feasible and that it would be capable of delivering more than 1000 kg of payload to sites at elevations three kilometers below the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reference, which includes sites throughout most of the northern plains and Hellas.

  6. Novel Strategy for Phenotypic Characterization of Human B Lymphocytes from Precursors to Effector Cells by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Vettier, Claire; Laurin, David; Pernollet, Martine; Raskovalova, Tatiana; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Dumestre-Pérard, Chantal; Jacob, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    A precise identification and phenotypic characterization of human B-cell subsets is of crucial importance in both basic research and medicine. In the literature, flow cytometry studies for the phenotypic characterization of B-lymphocytes are mainly focused on the description of a particular cell stage, or of specific cell stages observed in a single type of sample. In the present work, we propose a backbone of 6 antibodies (CD38, CD27, CD10, CD19, CD5 and CD45) and an efficient gating strategy to identify, in a single analysis tube, a large number of B-cell subsets covering the whole B-cell differentiation from precursors to memory and plasma cells. Furthermore, by adding two antibodies in an 8-color combination, our approach allows the analysis of the modulation of any cell surface marker of interest along B-cell differentiation. We thus developed a panel of seven 8-colour antibody combinations to phenotypically characterize B-cell subpopulations in bone marrow, peripheral blood, lymph node and cord blood samples. Beyond qualitative information provided by biparametric representations, we also quantified antigen expression on each of the identified B-cell subsets and we proposed a series of informative curves showing the modulation of seventeen cell surface markers along B-cell differentiation. Our approach by flow cytometry provides an efficient tool to obtain quantitative data on B-cell surface markers expression with a relative easy-to-handle technique that can be applied in routine explorations. PMID:27657694

  7. Structural Analysis using SHALiPE to Reveal RNA G-Quadruplex Formation in Human Precursor MicroRNA.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Chun Kit; Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2016-07-25

    RNA G-quadruplex (rG4) structures are of fundamental importance to biology. A novel approach is introduced to detect and structurally map rG4s at single-nucleotide resolution in RNAs. The approach, denoted SHALiPE, couples selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation with lithium ion-based primer extension, and identifies characteristic structural fingerprints for rG4 mapping. We apply SHALiPE to interrogate the human precursor microRNA 149, and reveal the formation of an rG4 structure in this non-coding RNA. Additional analyses support the SHALiPE results and uncover that this rG4 has a parallel topology, is thermally stable, and is conserved in mammals. An in vitro Dicer assay shows that this rG4 inhibits Dicer processing, supporting the potential role of rG4 structures in microRNA maturation and post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs. PMID:27355429

  8. The Krüppel-like Factor 15 as a Molecular Link between Myogenic Factors and a Chromosome 4q Transcriptional Enhancer Implicated in Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Petr; Petrov, Andrei; Ansseau, Eugenie; Stankevicins, Luiza; Charron, Sébastien; Kim, Elena; Bos, Tomas Jan; Robert, Thomas; Turki, Ahmed; Coppée, Frédérique; Belayew, Alexandra; Lazar, Vladimir; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj, Dalila; Lipinski, Marc; Vassetzky, Yegor S.

    2011-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), a dominant hereditary disease with a prevalence of 7 per 100,000 individuals, is associated with a partial deletion in the subtelomeric D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4q. The D4Z4 repeat contains a strong transcriptional enhancer that activates promoters of several FSHD-related genes. We report here that the enhancer within the D4Z4 repeat binds the Krüppel-like factor KLF15. KLF15 was found to be up-regulated during myogenic differentiation induced by serum starvation or by overexpression of the myogenic differentiation factor MYOD. When overexpressed, KLF15 activated the D4Z4 enhancer and led to overexpression of DUX4c (Double homeobox 4, centromeric) and FRG2 (FSHD region gene 2) genes, whereas its silencing caused inactivation of the D4Z4 enhancer. In immortalized human myoblasts, the D4Z4 enhancer was activated by the myogenic factor MYOD, an effect that was abolished upon KLF15 silencing or when the KLF15-binding sites within the D4Z4 enhancer were mutated, indicating that the myogenesis-related activation of the D4Z4 enhancer was mediated by KLF15. KLF15 and several myogenesis-related factors were found to be expressed at higher levels in myoblasts, myotubes, and muscle biopsies from FSHD patients than in healthy controls. We propose that KLF15 serves as a molecular link between myogenic factors and the activity of the D4Z4 enhancer, and it thus contributes to the overexpression of the DUX4c and FRG2 genes during normal myogenic differentiation and in FSHD. PMID:21937448

  9. The Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Is Superior to Tocopherol in Promoting Myogenic Differentiation in the Prevention of Replicative Senescence of Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Shy Cian; Razak, Azraul Mumtazah; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Abdul Karim, Norwahidah; Makpol, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Aging results in a loss of muscle mass and strength. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle mass through regenerative processes, which are impaired during aging. Vitamin E potentially ameliorates age-related phenotypes. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and α-tocopherol (ATF) in protecting myoblasts from replicative senescence and promoting myogenic differentiation. Primary human myoblasts were cultured into young and senescent stages and were then treated with TRF or ATF for 24 h, followed by an analysis of cell proliferation, senescence biomarkers, cellular morphology and differentiation. Our data showed that replicative senescence impaired the normal regenerative processes of myoblasts, resulting in changes in cellular morphology, cell proliferation, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) expression, myogenic differentiation and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression. Treatment with both TRF and ATF was beneficial to senescent myoblasts in reclaiming the morphology of young cells, improved cell viability and decreased SA-β-gal expression. However, only TRF treatment increased BrdU incorporation in senescent myoblasts, as well as promoted myogenic differentiation through the modulation of MRFs at the mRNA and protein levels. MYOD1 and MYOG gene expression and myogenin protein expression were modulated in the early phases of myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, the tocotrienol-rich fraction is superior to α-tocopherol in ameliorating replicative senescence-related aberration and promoting differentiation via modulation of MRFs expression, indicating vitamin E potential in modulating replicative senescence of myoblasts. PMID:26885980

  10. Human CRB2 Inhibits γ-Secretase Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein by Binding to the Presenilin Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuishi, Yachiyo; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Akinori; Araki, Wataru; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Tagami, Shinji; Okochi, Masayasu; Takeda, Masatoshi; Roepman, Ronald; Nishimura, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila Crumbs has been reported to attenuate Notch signaling by inhibition of γ-secretase cleavage at the wing margins. γ-Secretase is an intramembrane protease that is responsible for the generation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides from the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Here, we re-examined γ-secretase inhibition by human CRB2, which is the most abundant Crumbs ortholog in the brain. Transfected CRB2 inhibited proteolytic production of Aβ and APP intracellular domains from APP C-terminal fragments in HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous CRB2 increased γ-secretase cleavage products in SH-SY5Y cells. CRB2 inhibition of γ-cleavage was also detected in cell-free assays. CRB2 interacted with the γ-secretase complex, but was not a competitive substrate for γ-cleavage. The transmembrane domain of CRB2 was indispensable for inhibition of Aβ generation and mediated CRB2 binding with the γ-secretase complex. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain appeared to play a supportive role in γ-secretase inhibition, whereas mutational disruption of the two protein-binding motifs involved in the formation of cell adhesion complexes did not affect γ-secretase inhibition. Co-overexpression of presenilin-1 or APH-1 abrogated γ-secretase inhibition probably through prevention of the incorporation of CRB2 into the γ-secretase complex. Our results suggest that CRB2 functions as an inhibitory binding protein that is involved in the formation of a mature but inactive pool of the γ-secretase complex. PMID:20299451

  11. Altered Arginine Metabolism in Cells Transfected with Human Wild-Type Beta Amyloid Precursor Protein (βAPP).

    PubMed

    Jęśko, Henryk; Wilkaniec, Anna; Cieślik, Magdalena; Hilgier, Wojciech; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Lukiw, Walter J; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of enzymes linked to arginine metabolism have been recently implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite strong association of arginine changes with nitric oxide (NO) pathway, the impact of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides on arginine degradation and re-synthesis is unknown. In the present study we compared expression levels of arginases (ARG1, ARG2), neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthase isoforms (NNOS, ENOS, INOS), enzymes that metabolize arginine or resynthesize it from citrulline and the levels of corresponding amino acids in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells overexpressing humanprecursor protein (APPwt cells). Moreover, we investigated the changes in miRNAs responsible for modulation of arginine metabolism in AD brains. Real-time PCR analysis revealed in APPwt cells significant decreases of ARG1 and ARG2 which are responsible for lysing arginine into ornithine and urea; this reduction was followed by significantly lower enzyme activity. NNOS and ENOS mRNAs were elevated in APPwt cells while iNOS was undetectable in both cell lines. The expression of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) that metabolizes citrulline was down-regulated without changes in argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which decarboxylates ornithine to form putrescine was also reduced. Arginine, the substrate for both arginases and NOS, was unchanged in APPwt cells. However, citrulline concentration was significantly higher. Elevated miRNA-9 and miRNA-128a found in AD brain tissues might modulate the expression of ASS and NOS, respectively. Our results indicate that Aβ affects arginine metabolism and this influence might have important role in the pathomechanism of AD.

  12. Altered Arginine Metabolism in Cells Transfected with Human Wild-Type Beta Amyloid Precursor Protein (βAPP).

    PubMed

    Jęśko, Henryk; Wilkaniec, Anna; Cieślik, Magdalena; Hilgier, Wojciech; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Lukiw, Walter J; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of enzymes linked to arginine metabolism have been recently implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite strong association of arginine changes with nitric oxide (NO) pathway, the impact of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides on arginine degradation and re-synthesis is unknown. In the present study we compared expression levels of arginases (ARG1, ARG2), neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthase isoforms (NNOS, ENOS, INOS), enzymes that metabolize arginine or resynthesize it from citrulline and the levels of corresponding amino acids in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells overexpressing humanprecursor protein (APPwt cells). Moreover, we investigated the changes in miRNAs responsible for modulation of arginine metabolism in AD brains. Real-time PCR analysis revealed in APPwt cells significant decreases of ARG1 and ARG2 which are responsible for lysing arginine into ornithine and urea; this reduction was followed by significantly lower enzyme activity. NNOS and ENOS mRNAs were elevated in APPwt cells while iNOS was undetectable in both cell lines. The expression of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) that metabolizes citrulline was down-regulated without changes in argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which decarboxylates ornithine to form putrescine was also reduced. Arginine, the substrate for both arginases and NOS, was unchanged in APPwt cells. However, citrulline concentration was significantly higher. Elevated miRNA-9 and miRNA-128a found in AD brain tissues might modulate the expression of ASS and NOS, respectively. Our results indicate that Aβ affects arginine metabolism and this influence might have important role in the pathomechanism of AD. PMID:26971935

  13. Fam65b is important for formation of the HDAC6-dysferlin protein complex during myogenic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Kawahara, Genri; Gupta, Vandana A; Rozkalne, Anete; Beauvais, Ariane; Kunkel, Louis M; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2014-07-01

    Previously, we identified family with sequence similarity 65, member B (Fam65b), as a protein transiently up-regulated during differentiation and fusion of human myogenic cells. Silencing of Fam65b expression results in severe reduction of myogenin expression and consequent lack of myoblast fusion. The molecular function of Fam65b and whether misregulation of its expression could be causative of muscle diseases are unknown. Protein pulldowns were used to identify Fam65b-interacting proteins in differentiating human muscle cells and regenerating muscle tissue. In vitro, human muscle cells were treated with histone-deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and expression of Fam65b and interacting proteins was studied. Nontreated cells were used as controls. In vivo, expression of Fam65b was down-regulated in developing zebrafish to determine the effects on muscle development. Fam65b binds to HDAC6 and dysferlin, the protein mutated in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. The tricomplex Fam65b-HDAC6-dysferlin is transient, and Fam65b expression is necessary for the complex to form. Treatment of myogenic cells with pan-HDAC or HDAC6-specific inhibitors alters Fam65b expression, while dysferlin expression does not change. Inhibition of Fam65b expression in developing zebrafish results in abnormal muscle, with low birefringence, tears at the myosepta, and increased embryo lethality. Fam65b is an essential component of the HDAC6-dysferlin complex. Down-regulation of Fam65b in developing muscle causes changes consistent with muscle disease.-Balasubramanian, A., Kawahara, G., Gupta, V. A., Rozkalne, A., Beauvais, A., Kunkel, L. M., Gussoni, E. Fam65b is important for formation of the HDAC6-dysferlin protein complex during myogenic cell differentiation. PMID:24687993

  14. Cerebral Myogenic Reactivity and Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetic Rats: Role of Peroxynitrite in Hypoxia-Mediated Loss of Myogenic Tone

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Cobbs, Aisha I.; Prakash, Roshini; Coucha, Maha; Knight, Robert A.; Li, Weiguo; Ogbi, Safia N.; Johnson, Maribeth

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cerebral vascular function and, ultimately, cerebral blood flow (CBF) may contribute to complications such as stroke and cognitive decline in diabetes. We hypothesized that 1) diabetes-mediated neurovascular and myogenic dysfunction impairs CBF and 2) under hypoxic conditions, cerebral vessels from diabetic rats lose myogenic properties because of peroxynitrite (ONOO−)-mediated nitration of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) actin. Functional hyperemia, the ability of blood vessels to dilate upon neuronal stimulation, and myogenic tone of isolated middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were assessed as indices of neurovascular and myogenic function, respectively, in 10- to 12-week control and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. In addition, myogenic behavior of MCAs, nitrotyrosine (NY) levels, and VSM actin content were measured under normoxic and hypoxic [oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)] conditions with and without the ONOO− decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) prophyrinato iron (III), chloride (FeTPPs). The percentage of myogenic tone was higher in diabetes, and forced dilation occurred at higher pressures. Functional hyperemia was impaired. Consistent with these findings, baseline CBF was lower in diabetes. OGD reduced the percentage of myogenic tone in both groups, and FeTPPs restored it only in diabetes. OGD increased VSM NY in both groups, and although FeTPPs restored basal levels, it did not correct the reduced filamentous/globular (F/G) actin ratio. Acute alterations in VSM ONOO− levels may contribute to hypoxic myogenic dysfunction, but this cannot be solely explained by the decreased F/G actin ratio due to actin nitration, and mechanisms may differ between control and diabetic animals. Our findings also demonstrate that diabetes alters the ability of cerebral vessels to regulate CBF under basal and hypoxic conditions. PMID:22570365

  15. An experimental method to identify neurogenic and myogenic active mechanical states of intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marcello; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Arkwright, John W.; Spencer, Nicholas J.; Omari, Taher; Brookes, Simon J. H.; Dinning, Phil G.

    2013-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory enteric neural input to intestinal muscle acting on ongoing myogenic activity determines the rich repertoire of motor patterns involved in digestive function. The enteric neural activity cannot yet be established during movement of intact intestine in vivo or in vitro. We propose the hypothesis that is possible to deduce indirectly, but reliably, the state of activation of the enteric neural input to the muscle from measurements of the mechanical state of the intestinal muscle. The fundamental biomechanical model on which our hypothesis is based is the “three-element model” proposed by Hill. Our strategy is based on simultaneous video recording of changes in diameters and intraluminal pressure with a fiber-optic manometry in isolated segments of rabbit colon. We created a composite spatiotemporal map (DPMap) from diameter (DMap) and pressure changes (PMaps). In this composite map rhythmic myogenic motor patterns can readily be distinguished from the distension induced neural peristaltic contractions. Plotting the diameter changes against corresponding pressure changes at each location of the segment, generates “orbits” that represent the state of the muscle according to its ability to contract or relax actively or undergoing passive changes. With a software developed in MatLab, we identified twelve possible discrete mechanical states and plotted them showing where the intestine actively contracted and relaxed isometrically, auxotonically or isotonically, as well as where passive changes occurred or was quiescent. Clustering all discrete active contractions and relaxations states generated for the first time a spatio-temporal map of where enteric excitatory and inhibitory neural input to the muscle occurs during physiological movements. Recording internal diameter by an impedance probe proved equivalent to measuring external diameter, making possible to further develop similar strategy in vivo and humans. PMID:23596400

  16. Role of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathway in microgroove induced stem cell myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiong; Wen, Feng; Wang, Xincai; Tan, Lay Poh

    2015-06-01

    In our previous report, the authors have demonstrated that direct laser machined microchannels would trigger upregulation of myogenic markers in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through promotion of cell elongation. However, the molecular basis signaling pathways behind this observation remains unclear. In this work, three types of microchannels generated by femtosecond laser were utilized to investigate possible mechanisms behind the induction of hMSCs myogenesis by microchannels. The authors hypothesized that small G-proteins RhoA and Rac1 play a vital role on myogenesis of hMSCs through regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement, via cell tension signaling cascades. The RhoA and Rac1 activities were evaluated for cells cultured on the micropatterned substrates, using a flat unpatterned substrate as control. It was found that significant activation of RhoA GTPase was exhibited for cells cultured on narrow microchannels (20-20-20 and 30-30-20), while no obvious differences were obtained on wide ones (80-30-20). Meanwhile, no significant difference was found for Rac1 activities on all tested groups. To further deduce the role of RhoA signaling pathway in microchannel directed stem cell myogenesis, the effectors of Rho, Rho kinase (ROCK) was chosen to explore how cell shape regulate myogenesis of hMSCs cultured on laser micropatterned substrate. A pharmacological ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, was used to treat the cells and the effect on RhoA activation was investigated. Our data on the role of RhoA/ROCK in regulating cell myogenic differentiation on lasered microchannels substrates may provide a mechanistic insight on hMSCs fate directed by substrate topography.

  17. Arterial Myogenic Activation through Smooth Muscle Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Arhatte, Malika; Demolombe, Sophie; Peyronnet, Rémi; Baudrie, Véronique; Jodar, Martine; Bourreau, Jennifer; Henrion, Daniel; Offermanns, Stefan; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Feng, Yuanyi; Patel, Amanda; Duprat, Fabrice; Honoré, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in the filamin A (FlnA) gene are frequently associated with severe arterial abnormalities, although the physiological role for this cytoskeletal element remains poorly understood in vascular cells. We used a conditional mouse model to selectively delete FlnA in smooth muscle (sm) cells at the adult stage, thus avoiding the developmental effects of the knockout. Basal blood pressure was significantly reduced in conscious smFlnA knockout mice. Remarkably, pressure-dependent tone of the resistance caudal artery was lost, whereas reactivity to vasoconstrictors was preserved. Impairment of the myogenic behavior was correlated with a lack of calcium influx in arterial myocytes upon an increase in intraluminal pressure. Notably, the stretch activation of CaV1.2 was blunted in the absence of smFlnA. In conclusion, FlnA is a critical upstream element of the signaling cascade underlying the myogenic tone. These findings allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of arterial autoregulation and associated disease states. PMID:26923587

  18. Myogenic skeletal muscle satellite cells communicate by tunnelling nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tavi, Pasi; Korhonen, Topi; Hänninen, Sandra L; Bruton, Joseph D; Lööf, Sara; Simon, Andras; Westerblad, Håkan

    2010-05-01

    Quiescent satellite cells sit on the surface of the muscle fibres under the basal lamina and are activated by a variety of stimuli to disengage, divide and differentiate into myoblasts that can regenerate or repair muscle fibres. Satellite cells adopt their parent's fibre type and must have some means of communication with the parent fibre. The mechanisms behind this communication are not known. We show here that satellite cells form dynamic connections with muscle fibres and other satellite cells by F-actin based tunnelling nanotubes (TNTs). Our results show that TNTs readily develop between satellite cells and muscle fibres. Once developed, TNTs permit transport of intracellular material, and even cellular organelles such as mitochondria between the muscle fibre and satellite cells. The onset of satellite cell differentiation markers Pax-7 and MyoD expression was slower in satellite cells cultured in the absence than in the presence of muscle cells. Furthermore physical contact between myofibre and satellite cell progeny is required to maintain subtype identity. Our data establish that TNTs constitute an integral part of myogenic cell communication and that physical cellular interaction control myogenic cell fate determination.

  19. In-situ resource utilization for the human exploration of Mars : a Bayesian approach to valuation of precursor missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    The need for sufficient quantities of oxygen, water, and fuel resources to support a crew on the surface of Mars presents a critical logistical issue of whether to transport such resources from Earth or manufacture them on Mars. An approach based on the classical Wildcat Drilling Problem of Bayesian decision theory was applied to the problem of finding water in order to compute the expected value of precursor mission sample information. An implicit (required) probability of finding water on Mars was derived from the value of sample information using the expected mass savings of alternative precursor missions.

  20. Chromosomal locations of the human and mouse genes for precursors of epidermal growth factor and the. beta. subunit of nerve growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, B.U.; Eddy, R.L.; Lalley, P.A.; Scott, J.; Bell, G.I.; Shows, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    DNA probes for pre-pro-epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the precursor of the ..beta.. subunit of nerve growth factor (NGF) were used to chromosomally map human and mouse EGF and NGF genes in panels of human-mouse and mouse-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. The EGF and NGF genes were mapped to human chromosomes 4 and 1, respectively, by using human-mouse cell hybrids. A combination of regional mapping using a chromosome 1 translocation and comparative gene mapping suggests that the human NGF gene is in the p21-p22.1 region of chromosome 1. In mouse-Chinese hamster cell hybrids, both genes were assigned to mouse chromosome 3. A knowledge of the chromosomal assignment of these genes should help in our understanding of their regulation and role in development and disease.

  1. Pentosan polysulfate promotes proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study was undertaken to determine whether the anti-osteoarthritis drug pentosan polysulfate (PPS) influenced mesenchymal precursor cell (MPC) proliferation and differentiation. Methods Human MPCs were maintained in monolayer, pellet or micromass cultures (MMC) for up to 10 days with PPS at concentrations of 0 to 20 μg/ml. MPC viability and proliferation was assessed using the WST-1 assay and 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, while apoptosis was monitored by flow cytometry. Proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis was determined by 35SO42- incorporation and staining with Alcian blue. Proteoglycan and collagen type I and collagen type II deposition in pellet cultures was also examined by Toluidine blue and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The production of hyaluronan (HA) by MPCs in MMC was assessed by ELISA. The relative outcome of PPS, HA, heparin or dextran sulfate (DS) on PG synthesis was compared in 5-day MMC. Gene expression of MPCs in 7-day and 10-day MMC was examined using real-time PCR. MPC differentiation was investigated by co-culturing with PPS in osteogenic or adipogenic inductive culture media for 28 days. Results Significant MPC proliferation was evident by day 3 at PPS concentrations of 1 to 5 μg/ml (P < 0.01). In the presence of 1 to 10 μg/ml PPS, a 38% reduction in IL-4/IFNγ-induced MPC apoptosis was observed. In 5-day MMC, 130% stimulation of PG synthesis occurred at 2.5 μg/ml PPS (P < 0.0001), while 5.0 μg/ml PPS achieved maximal stimulation in the 7-day and 10-day cultures (P < 0.05). HA and DS at ≥ 5 μg/ml inhibited PG synthesis (P < 0.05) in 5-day MMC. Collagen type II deposition by MMC was significant at ≥ 0.5 μg/ml PPS (P < 0.001 to 0.05). In MPC-PPS pellet cultures, more PG, collagen type II but less collagen type I was deposited than in controls. Real-time PCR results were consistent with the protein data. At 5 and 10 μg/ml PPS, MPC osteogenic differentiation was suppressed (P < 0.01). Conclusions This is

  2. Temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids and selected precursors (including isomers) in Swedish human serum.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Glynn, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors were determined in serum samples from Swedish women. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA), as well as its N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA) were consistently detected. Highest PFOS precursor concentrations were found for EtFOSAA (before year 2000) or MeFOSAA and FOSAA (after 2000). Disappearance half-lives for all PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. 4:2/6:2 and 6:2/6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) were detected in <60% of the samples, whereas 6:2/8:2 and 8:2/8:2 diPAPs were detected in >60% of the samples, but showed no significant change in concentrations over time. Linear and sum-branched isomers were quantified separately for three PFAAs and three precursors. Significant changes between 1997 and 2012 in the % linear isomer were observed for PFOA and FOSA (increase) and PFOS (decrease).

  3. Incorporation of 12-methoxydodecanoate into the human immunodeficiency virus 1 gag polyprotein precursor inhibits its proteolytic processing and virus production in a chronically infected human lymphoid cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.L.; Ratner, L.; Duronio, R.J.; Gordon, J.I. ); Kishore, N.S. ); Devadas, B.; Adams, S.P. )

    1991-03-15

    Covalent linkage of myristate (tetradecanoate; 14:0) to the NH{sub 2}-terminal glycine residue of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) 55-kDa gag polyprotein precursor (Pr55{sup gag}) is necessary for its proteolytic processing and viral assembly. The authors have shown recently that several analogs of myristate in which a methylene group is replaced by a single oxygen or sulfur atom are substrates for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase despite their reduced hydrophobicity. To examine the mechanism of their antiviral effects, they performed labeling studies with two analogs, 12-methoxydodecanoate (13-oxamyristate; 13-OxaMyr) and 5-octyloxypentanoate (6-oxamyristate; 6-OxaMyr), the former being much more effective than the latter in blocking virus production. ({sup 3}H)Myristate and ({sup 3}H)13-OxaMyr were incorporated into Pr55{sup gag} with comparable efficiency when it was coexpressed with S. cerevisiae NMT in Escherichia coli. Unlike AZT, the analog is able to inhibit virus production (up to 70%) in chronically infected H9 cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect lasts 6-8 days. These results suggest that (i) its mechanism of action is distinct from that of AZT and involves a late step in virus assembly; (ii) the analog may allow reduction in the dose of AZT required to affect viral replication; and (iii) combinations of analog and HIV-1 protease inhibitors may have synergistic effects on the processing of Pr55{sup gag}.

  4. Neurogenic and myogenic motor activity in the colon of the guinea pig, mouse, rabbit, and rat.

    PubMed

    Costa, M; Dodds, K N; Wiklendt, L; Spencer, N J; Brookes, S J H; Dinning, P G

    2013-11-15

    Gastrointestinal motility involves interactions between myogenic and neurogenic processes intrinsic to the gut wall. We have compared the presence of propagating myogenic contractions of the isolated colon in four experimental animals (guinea pig, mouse, rabbit, and rat), following blockade of enteric neural activity. Isolated colonic preparations were distended with fluid, with the anal end either closed or open. Spatiotemporal maps of changes in diameter were constructed from video recordings. Distension-induced peristaltic contractions were abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.6 μM) in all animal species. Subsequent addition of carbachol (0.1-1 μM) did not evoke myogenic motor patterns in the mouse or guinea pig, although some activity was observed in rabbit and rat colon. These myogenic contractions propagated both orally and anally and differed from neurogenic propagating contractions in their frequency, extent of propagation, and polarity. Niflumic acid (300 μM), used to block myogenic activity, also blocked neural peristalsis and thus cannot be used to discriminate between these mechanisms. In all species, except the mouse colon, small myogenic "ripple" contractions were revealed in TTX, but in both rat and rabbit an additional, higher-frequency ripple-type contraction was superimposed. Following blockade of enteric nerve function, a muscarinic agonist can evoke propulsive myogenic peristaltic contractions in isolated rabbit and rat colon, but not in guinea pig or mouse colon. Marked differences between species exist in the ability of myogenic mechanisms to propel luminal content, but in all species there is normally a complex interplay between neurogenic and myogenic processes.

  5. The effect of hyperammonemia on myostatin and myogenic regulatory factor gene expression in broiler embryos

    PubMed Central

    Stern, R.A.; Ashwell, C.M.; Dasarathy, S.; Mozdziak, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    Myogenesis is facilitated by four myogenic regulatory factors and is significantly inhibited by myostatin. The objective of the current study was to examine embryonic gene regulation of myostatin/myogenic regulatory factors, and subsequent manipulations of protein synthesis, in broiler embryos under induced hyperammonemia. Broiler eggs were injected with ammonium acetate solution four times over 48 hours beginning on either embryonic day (ED) 15 or 17. Serum ammonia concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in ammonium acetate injected embryos for both ED17 and ED19 collected samples when compared to sham-injected controls. Expression of mRNA, extracted from pectoralis major of experimental and control embryos, was measured using real-time quantitative PCR for myostatin, myogenic regulatory factors myogenic factor 5, myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor 4, and paired box 7. A significantly lower (P < 0.01) myostatin expression was accompanied by a higher serum ammonia concentration in both ED17 and ED19 collected samples. Myogenic factor 5 expression was higher (P < 0.05) in ED17 collected samples administered ammonium acetate. In both ED17 and ED19 collected samples, myogenic regulatory factor 4 was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in ammonium acetate injected embryos. No significant difference was seen in myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, or paired box 7 expression between treatment groups for either age of sample collection. Additionally, there was no significant difference in BrdU staining of histological samples taken from treated and control embryos. Myostatin protein levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis, and also showed lower myostatin expression (P < 0.05). Overall, it appears possible to inhibit myostatin expression through hyperammonemia, which is expected to have a positive effect on embryonic myogenesis and postnatal muscle growth. PMID:25689990

  6. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in a Female Population with Migraine.

    PubMed

    Yetiser, Sertac; Gok, Meltem Hale; Kutukcu, Yasar; Ince, Dilay

    2016-06-01

    The objective is to analyze the vestibular system by vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in 30 female patients with migraine and balance problem in a controlled study. Thirty female patients with migraine and vestibular problems were enrolled in the study (2009-2012). Fifteen age-matched healthy subjects were selected as the controls. Air conduction cervical VEMP was used. Tone-burst sound stimuli of 95 dB nHL with rarefaction polarity, 5 Hz stimulus repetition rate, 1 ms rise/fall time and 2 ms plateau time were delivered at 500 Hz. 200 sweeps were averaged. Myogenic responses were amplified and band-pass filtered (800-10 Hz). The latency and the amplitude of p1 and n1 waves and interpeak amplitude and latency differences were measured. Results were given as mean and SDs. Interaural p1 and n1 amplitude greater than 30 % asymmetry was accepted as abnormal. VEMP results were compared with controls. The One-way ANOVA test was used. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. VEMP responses were elicited in all controls and the patients. Comparative analysis of p1 amplitude between the patients and the controls was statistically significant (P = 0.010). P1n1 interaural amplitude difference was greater than 30 % in 4 patients (13.4 %). No statistically significant difference was found when comparing latency of all wave forms between the patients and healthy controls (P > 0.05). VEMP is an useful tool to test the vestibular system in patients with migraine and balance problem at the very early period. Clinicians should always consider migraine in patients with vertigo. PMID:27340638

  7. Genetically distinct leukemic stem cells in human CD34- acute myeloid leukemia are arrested at a hemopoietic precursor-like stage.

    PubMed

    Quek, Lynn; Otto, Georg W; Garnett, Catherine; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Karamitros, Dimitris; Stoilova, Bilyana; Lau, I-Jun; Doondeea, Jessica; Usukhbayar, Batchimeg; Kennedy, Alison; Metzner, Marlen; Goardon, Nicolas; Ivey, Adam; Allen, Christopher; Gale, Rosemary; Davies, Benjamin; Sternberg, Alexander; Killick, Sally; Hunter, Hannah; Cahalin, Paul; Price, Andrew; Carr, Andrew; Griffiths, Mike; Virgo, Paul; Mackinnon, Stephen; Grimwade, David; Freeman, Sylvie; Russell, Nigel; Craddock, Charles; Mead, Adam; Peniket, Andrew; Porcher, Catherine; Vyas, Paresh

    2016-07-25

    Our understanding of the perturbation of normal cellular differentiation hierarchies to create tumor-propagating stem cell populations is incomplete. In human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), current models suggest transformation creates leukemic stem cell (LSC) populations arrested at a progenitor-like stage expressing cell surface CD34. We show that in ∼25% of AML, with a distinct genetic mutation pattern where >98% of cells are CD34(-), there are multiple, nonhierarchically arranged CD34(+) and CD34(-) LSC populations. Within CD34(-) and CD34(+) LSC-containing populations, LSC frequencies are similar; there are shared clonal structures and near-identical transcriptional signatures. CD34(-) LSCs have disordered global transcription profiles, but these profiles are enriched for transcriptional signatures of normal CD34(-) mature granulocyte-macrophage precursors, downstream of progenitors. But unlike mature precursors, LSCs express multiple normal stem cell transcriptional regulators previously implicated in LSC function. This suggests a new refined model of the relationship between LSCs and normal hemopoiesis in which the nature of genetic/epigenetic changes determines the disordered transcriptional program, resulting in LSC differentiation arrest at stages that are most like either progenitor or precursor stages of hemopoiesis. PMID:27377587

  8. Genetically distinct leukemic stem cells in human CD34- acute myeloid leukemia are arrested at a hemopoietic precursor-like stage.

    PubMed

    Quek, Lynn; Otto, Georg W; Garnett, Catherine; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Karamitros, Dimitris; Stoilova, Bilyana; Lau, I-Jun; Doondeea, Jessica; Usukhbayar, Batchimeg; Kennedy, Alison; Metzner, Marlen; Goardon, Nicolas; Ivey, Adam; Allen, Christopher; Gale, Rosemary; Davies, Benjamin; Sternberg, Alexander; Killick, Sally; Hunter, Hannah; Cahalin, Paul; Price, Andrew; Carr, Andrew; Griffiths, Mike; Virgo, Paul; Mackinnon, Stephen; Grimwade, David; Freeman, Sylvie; Russell, Nigel; Craddock, Charles; Mead, Adam; Peniket, Andrew; Porcher, Catherine; Vyas, Paresh

    2016-07-25

    Our understanding of the perturbation of normal cellular differentiation hierarchies to create tumor-propagating stem cell populations is incomplete. In human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), current models suggest transformation creates leukemic stem cell (LSC) populations arrested at a progenitor-like stage expressing cell surface CD34. We show that in ∼25% of AML, with a distinct genetic mutation pattern where >98% of cells are CD34(-), there are multiple, nonhierarchically arranged CD34(+) and CD34(-) LSC populations. Within CD34(-) and CD34(+) LSC-containing populations, LSC frequencies are similar; there are shared clonal structures and near-identical transcriptional signatures. CD34(-) LSCs have disordered global transcription profiles, but these profiles are enriched for transcriptional signatures of normal CD34(-) mature granulocyte-macrophage precursors, downstream of progenitors. But unlike mature precursors, LSCs express multiple normal stem cell transcriptional regulators previously implicated in LSC function. This suggests a new refined model of the relationship between LSCs and normal hemopoiesis in which the nature of genetic/epigenetic changes determines the disordered transcriptional program, resulting in LSC differentiation arrest at stages that are most like either progenitor or precursor stages of hemopoiesis.

  9. Grafted Human iPS Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Contribute to Robust Remyelination of Demyelinated Axons after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Soya; Takano, Morito; Numasawa-Kuroiwa, Yuko; Itakura, Go; Kobayashi, Yoshiomi; Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Sugai, Keiko; Nishimura, Soraya; Iwai, Hiroki; Isoda, Miho; Shibata, Shinsuke; Kohyama, Jun; Iwanami, Akio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Summary Murine- and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NS/PCs) promote functional recovery following transplantation into the injured spinal cord in rodents and primates. Although remyelination of spared demyelinated axons is a critical mechanism in the regeneration of the injured spinal cord, human iPSC-NS/PCs predominantly differentiate into neurons both in vitro and in vivo. We therefore took advantage of our recently developed protocol to obtain human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cell-enriched neural stem/progenitor cells and report the benefits of transplanting these cells in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model. We describe how this approach contributes to the robust remyelination of demyelinated axons and facilitates functional recovery after SCI. PMID:26724902

  10. Potential Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Myogenic Program of Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Amritpal S.; Putman, Charles T.; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26884682

  11. Potential Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Myogenic Program of Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Amritpal S; Putman, Charles T; Mazurak, Vera C

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids.

  12. Distinct Malignant Behaviors of Mouse Myogenic Tumors Induced by Different Oncogenetic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hettmer, Simone; Bronson, Roderick T.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are heterogeneous cancers with myogenic differentiation features. The cytogenetic and mutational aberrations in RMS are diverse. This study examined differences in the malignant behavior of two genetically distinct and disease-relevant mouse myogenic tumor models. Kras; p1619null myogenic tumors, initiated by expression of oncogenic Kras in p16p19null mouse satellite cells, were metastatic to the lungs of the majority of tumor-bearing animals and repopulated tumors in seven of nine secondary recipients. In contrast, SmoM2 tumors, initiated by ubiquitous expression of a mutant Smoothened allele, did not metastasize and repopulated tumors in 2 of 18 recipients only. In summary, genetically distinct myogenic tumors in mice exhibit marked differences in malignant behavior. PMID:25759794

  13. Myogenic Growth Factor Present in Skeletal Muscle is Purified by Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardami, Elissavet; Spector, Dennis; Strohman, Richard C.

    1985-12-01

    A myogenic growth factor has been purified from a skeletal muscle, the anterior latissimus dorsi, of adult chickens. In the range of 1-10 ng, this factor stimulates DNA synthesis as well as protein and muscle-specific myosin accumulation in myogenic cell cultures. Purification is achieved through binding of the factor to heparin. The factor is distinct from transferrin and works synergistically with transferrin in stimulating myogenesis in vitro.

  14. Kras activation in p53-deficient myoblasts results in high-grade sarcoma formation with impaired myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Timothy; Venier, Rosemarie; Dickson, Brendan C.; Kabaroff, Leah; Alkema, Manon; Chen, Li; Shern, Jack F.; Yohe, Marielle E.; Khan, Javed; Gladdy, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    While genomic studies have improved our ability to classify sarcomas, the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation and progression of many sarcoma subtypes are unknown. To better understand developmental origins and genetic drivers involved in rhabdomyosarcomagenesis, we describe a novel sarcoma model system employing primary murine p53-deficient myoblasts that were isolated and lentivirally transduced with KrasG12D. Myoblast cell lines were characterized and subjected to proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and differentiation assays to assess the effects of transgenic KrasG12D expression. KrasG12D overexpression transformed p53−/− myoblasts as demonstrated by an increased anchorage-independent growth. Induction of differentiation in parental myoblasts resulted in activation of key myogenic regulators. In contrast, Kras-transduced myoblasts had impaired terminal differentiation. p53−/− myoblasts transformed by KrasG12D overexpression resulted in rapid, reproducible tumor formation following orthotopic injection into syngeneic host hindlimbs. Pathological analysis revealed high-grade sarcomas with myogenic differentiation based on the expression of muscle-specific markers, such as Myod1 and Myog. Gene expression patterns of murine sarcomas shared biological pathways with RMS gene sets as determined by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and were 61% similar to human RMS as determined by metagene analysis. Thus, our novel model system is an effective means to model high-grade sarcomas along the RMS spectrum. PMID:25992772

  15. Proinflammatory macrophages enhance the regenerative capacity of human myoblasts by modifying their kinetics of proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bencze, Maximilien; Negroni, Elisa; Vallese, Denis; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Chaouch, Soraya; Wolff, Annie; Aamiri, Ahmed; Di Santo, James P; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Savino, Wilson; Mouly, Vincent; Riederer, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    Macrophages have been shown to be essential for muscle repair by delivering trophic cues to growing skeletal muscle precursors and young fibers. Here, we investigated whether human macrophages, either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory, coinjected with human myoblasts into regenerating muscle of Rag2(-/-) γC(-/-) immunodeficient mice, could modify in vivo the kinetics of proliferation and differentiation of the transplanted human myogenic precursors. Our results clearly show that proinflammatory macrophages improve in vivo the participation of injected myoblasts to host muscle regeneration, extending the window of proliferation, increasing migration, and delaying differentiation. Interestingly, immunostaining of transplanted proinflammatory macrophages at different time points strongly suggests that these cells are able to switch to an anti-inflammatory phenotype in vivo, which then may stimulate differentiation during muscle regeneration. Conceptually, our data provide for the first time in vivo evidence strongly suggesting that proinflammatory macrophages play a supportive role in the regulation of myoblast behavior after transplantation into preinjured muscle, and could thus potentially optimize transplantation of myogenic progenitors in the context of cell therapy.

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor/Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling Augments Resistance Artery Myogenic Tone in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Meghan; Hui, Sonya K; Dinh, Danny D; Foltz, Warren D; Momen, Abdul; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Offermanns, Stefan; Husain, Mansoor; Kroetsch, Jeffrey T; Lidington, Darcy; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes strongly associates with microvascular complications that ultimately promote multiorgan failure. Altered myogenic responsiveness compromises tissue perfusion, aggravates hypertension, and sets the stage for later permanent structural changes to the microcirculation. We demonstrate that skeletal muscle resistance arteries isolated from patients with diabetes have augmented myogenic tone, despite reasonable blood glucose control. To understand the mechanisms, we titrated a standard diabetes mouse model (high-fat diet plus streptozotocin [HFD/STZ]) to induce a mild increase in blood glucose levels. HFD/STZ treatment induced a progressive myogenic tone augmentation in mesenteric and olfactory cerebral arteries; neither HFD nor STZ alone had an effect on blood glucose or resistance artery myogenic tone. Using gene deletion models that eliminate tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or sphingosine kinase 1, we demonstrate that vascular smooth muscle cell TNF drives the elevation of myogenic tone via enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. Therapeutically antagonizing TNF (etanercept) or S1P (JTE013) signaling corrects this defect. Our investigation concludes that vascular smooth muscle cell TNF augments resistance artery myogenic vasoconstriction in a diabetes model that induces a small elevation of blood glucose. Our data demonstrate that microvascular reactivity is an early disease marker and advocate establishing therapies that strategically target the microcirculation. PMID:27207546

  17. Extracellular deposition of matrilin-2 controls the timing of the myogenic program during muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Deák, Ferenc; Mátés, Lajos; Korpos, Éva; Zvara, Ágnes; Szénási, Tibor; Kiricsi, Mónika; Mendler, Luca; Keller-Pintér, Anikó; Ózsvári, Béla; Juhász, Hajnalka; Sorokin, Lydia; Dux, László; Mermod, Nicolas; Puskás, László G.; Kiss, Ibolya

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we identify a role for the matrilin-2 (Matn2) extracellular matrix protein in controlling the early stages of myogenic differentiation. We observed Matn2 deposition around proliferating, differentiating and fusing myoblasts in culture and during muscle regeneration in vivo. Silencing of Matn2 delayed the expression of the Cdk inhibitor p21 and of the myogenic genes Nfix, MyoD and Myog, explaining the retarded cell cycle exit and myoblast differentiation. Rescue of Matn2 expression restored differentiation and the expression of p21 and of the myogenic genes. TGF-β1 inhibited myogenic differentiation at least in part by repressing Matn2 expression, which inhibited the onset of a positive-feedback loop whereby Matn2 and Nfix activate the expression of one another and activate myoblast differentiation. In vivo, myoblast cell cycle arrest and muscle regeneration was delayed in Matn2−/− relative to wild-type mice. The expression levels of Trf3 and myogenic genes were robustly reduced in Matn2−/− fetal limbs and in differentiating primary myoblast cultures, establishing Matn2 as a key modulator of the regulatory cascade that initiates terminal myogenic differentiation. Our data thus identify Matn2 as a crucial component of a genetic switch that modulates the onset of tissue repair. PMID:24895400

  18. Measurement of chloride flux associated with the myogenic response in rat cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Doughty, J M; Langton, P D

    2001-08-01

    1. Self-referencing ion-selective (SERIS) electrodes were used to measure the temperature and pressure dependence of Cl(-) efflux, during myogenic contraction of pressurized rat cerebral resistance arteries. 2. At room temperature (18-21 degrees C), a small, pressure-independent Cl(-) efflux was measured. On warming to 37 degrees C, arteries developed pressure-dependent myogenic tone, and this was associated with a pressure-dependent increase in Cl(-) efflux (n = 5). 3. Both myogenic tone and the pressure- and temperature-dependent Cl(-) efflux were abolished on application of 10 microM tamoxifen, a Cl(-) channel blocker (IC(50) 3.75 +/- 0.2 microM). Tamoxifen (10 microM) also prevented contraction to 60 mM K(+), suggesting non-specific effects of tamoxifen (n = 5). 4. Myogenic tone was abolished by 2 microM nimodipine, but Cl(-) efflux was unaffected. In the presence of nimodipine, 10 microM tamoxifen still abolished pressure- and temperature-dependent Cl(-) efflux (n = 3). 5. In summary, a Cl(-) efflux can be measured from rat cerebral arteries, with a temperature dependence that is closely correlated with myogenic contraction. We conclude that Cl(-) efflux through Cl(-) channels contributes to the depolarization associated with myogenic contraction.

  19. Measurement of chloride flux associated with the myogenic response in rat cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Doughty, Joanne M; Langton, Philip D

    2001-01-01

    Self-referencing ion-selective (SERIS) electrodes were used to measure the temperature and pressure dependence of Cl− efflux, during myogenic contraction of pressurized rat cerebral resistance arteries. At room temperature (18–21 °C), a small, pressure-independent Cl− efflux was measured. On warming to 37 °C, arteries developed pressure-dependent myogenic tone, and this was associated with a pressure-dependent increase in Cl− efflux (n = 5). Both myogenic tone and the pressure- and temperature-dependent Cl− efflux were abolished on application of 10 μm tamoxifen, a Cl− channel blocker (IC50 3.75 ± 0.2 μm). Tamoxifen (10 μm) also prevented contraction to 60 mm K+, suggesting non-specific effects of tamoxifen (n = 5). Myogenic tone was abolished by 2 μm nimodipine, but Cl− efflux was unaffected. In the presence of nimodipine, 10 μm tamoxifen still abolished pressure- and temperature-dependant Cl− efflux (n = 3). In summary, a Cl− efflux can be measured from rat cerebral arteries, with a temperature dependence that is closely correlated with myogenic contraction. We conclude that Cl− efflux through Cl− channels contributes to the depolarization associated with myogenic contraction. PMID:11483706

  20. Myogenic reprogramming of retina-derived cells following their spontaneous fusion with myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Kirillova, Irina; Gussoni, Emanuela; Goldhamer, David J.; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2008-01-01

    Satellite cells are recognized as the main source for myoblasts in postnatal muscle. The possible participation of other cell types in myofiber maintenance remains a subject of debate. Here, we investigated the potential of vascular preparations from mouse retina to undergo myogenesis when cultured alone or with differentiated primary myogenic cultures. The choice of retina, an organ richly supplied with capillary network and anatomically separated from skeletal muscles, ensures that the vasculature preparation is devoid of satellite cells. We demonstrate that retinal-derived cells spontaneously fuse with preexisting myotubes and contribute additional myonuclei, some of which initiate expression of muscle-specific genes after fusion. Myogenic differentiation of retinal cells prior to their fusion with preexisting myotubes was not detected. Although originating from vasculature preparations, nuclei undergoing myogenic reprogramming were contributed by cells that were neither endothelial nor blood borne. Our results suggest smooth muscle/pericytes as the possible source, and that myogenic reprogramming depends on the muscle specific transcription factor MyoD. Our studies provide insights into a novel avenue for myofiber maintenance, relying on nuclei of non-myogenic origin that undergo fusion and subsequent myogenic conversion within host myofibers. This process may support ongoing myofiber maintenance throughout life. PMID:17919536

  1. miR-411 is up-regulated in FSHD myoblasts and suppresses myogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder, which is linked to the contraction of the D4Z4 array at chromosome 4q35. Recent studies suggest that this shortening of the D4Z4 array leads to aberrant expression of double homeobox protein 4 (DUX4) and causes FSHD. In addition, misregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been reported in muscular dystrophies including FSHD. In this study, we identified a miRNA that is differentially expressed in FSHD myoblasts and investigated its function. Methods To identify misregulated miRNAs and their potential targets in FSHD myoblasts, we performed expression profiling of both miRNA and mRNA using TaqMan Human MicroRNA Arrays and Affymetrix Human Genome U133A plus 2.0 microarrays, respectively. In addition, we over-expressed miR-411 in C2C12 cells to determine the effect of miR-411 on myogenic markers. Results Using miRNA and mRNA expression profiling, we identified 8 miRNAs and 1,502 transcripts that were differentially expressed in FSHD myoblasts during cell proliferation. One of the 8 differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-411, was validated by quantitative RT-PCR in both primary (2.1 fold, p<0.01) and immortalized (2.7 fold, p<0.01) myoblasts. In situ hybridization showed cytoplasmic localization of miR-411 in FSHD myoblasts. By analyzing both miRNA and mRNA data using Partek Genomics Suite, we identified 4 mRNAs potentially regulated by miR-411 including YY1 associated factor 2 (YAF2). The down-regulation of YAF2 in immortalized myoblasts was validated by immunoblotting (−3.7 fold, p<0.01). C2C12 cells were transfected with miR-411 to determine whether miR-411 affects YAF2 expression in myoblasts. The results showed that over-expression of miR-411 reduced YAF2 mRNA expression. In addition, expression of myogenic markers including Myod, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain 1 (Myh1) were suppressed by miR-411. Conclusions The study demonstrated that miR-411 was differentially

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of mRNAs and microRNAs in Human Bone Marrow Precursor B Cells Identifies Subset- and Age-Specific Variations

    PubMed Central

    Aass, Hans Christian Dalsbotten; Olstad, Ole K.; Kierulf, Peter; Gautvik, Kaare M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular mechanisms explaining age-related changes in the bone marrow with reduced precursor B cell output are poorly understood. Methods We studied the transcriptome of five precursor B cell subsets in individual bone marrow samples from 4 healthy children and 4 adults employing GeneChip® Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays (Affymetrix®) and TaqMan® Array MicroRNA Cards (Life Technologies™). Results A total of 1796 mRNAs (11%) were at least once differentially expressed between the various precursor B cell subsets in either age group (FDR 0.1%, p≤1.13×10−4) with more marked cell stage specific differences than those related to age. In contrast, microRNA profiles of the various precursor B cell subsets showed less hierarchical clustering as compared to the corresponding mRNA profiles. However, 17 of the 667 microRNA assays (2.5%) were at least once differentially expressed between the subsets (FDR 10%, p≤0.004). From target analysis (Ingenuity® Systems), functional assignment between postulated interacting mRNAs and microRNAs showed especially association to cellular growth, proliferation and cell cycle regulation. One functional network connected up-regulation of the differentiation inhibitor ID2 mRNA to down-regulation of the hematopoiesis- or cell cycle regulating miR-125b-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-24-3p and miR-320d in adult PreBII large cells. Noteworthy was also the stage-dependent expression of the growth promoting miR-17-92 cluster, showing a partly inverse trend with age, reaching statistical significance at the PreBII small stage (up 3.1–12.9 fold in children, p = 0.0084–0.0270). Conclusions The global mRNA profile is characteristic for each precursor B cell developmental stage and largely similar in children and adults. The microRNA profile is much cell stage specific and not changing much with age. Importantly, however, specific age-dependent differences involving key networks like differentiation and cellular growth may

  3. 1 -O-alkyl-2-(omega-oxo)acyl-sn-glycerols from shark oil and human milk fat are potential precursors of PAF mimics and GHB.

    PubMed

    Hartvigsen, Karsten; Ravandi, Amir; Harkewicz, Richard; Kamido, Hiroshi; Bukhave, Klaus; Hølmera, Gunhild; Kuksis, Arnis

    2006-07-01

    This study examines the feasibility that peroxidation and lipolysis of 1-O-alkyl-2,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols (DAGE) found in shark liver oil and human milk fat constitutes a potential source of dietary precursors of platelet activating factor (PAF) mimics and of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Purified DAGE were converted into 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerols by pancreatic lipase, without isomerization, and transformed into 1-O-alkyl-2-oxoacyl-sn-glycerols by mild autooxidation. The various core aldehydes without derivatization, as well as the corresponding dinitrophenylhydrazones, were characterized by chromatographic retention time and diagnostic ions by online electrospray mass spectrometry. Core aldehydes of oxidized shark liver oil yielded 23 molecular species of 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols with short-chain sn-2 oxoacyl groups, ranging from 4 to 13 carbons, some unsaturated. Autooxidation of human milk fat yielded 1-O-octadecyl-2-(9-oxo)nonanoyl-sn-glycerol, as the major core aldehyde. Because diradylglycerols with short fatty chains are absorbed in the intestine and react with cytidine diphosphate-choline in the enterocytes, it is concluded that formation of such PAF mimics as 1-O-alkyl-2-(omega-oxo)acyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine from unsaturated dietary DAGE is a realistic possibility. Likewise, a C4 core alcohol produced by aldol-keto reduction of a C4 core aldehyde constitutes a dietary precursor of the neuromodulator and recreational drug GHB, which has not been previously pointed out.

  4. Development of a Gaussia Luciferase-Based Human Norovirus Protease Reporter System: Cell Type-Specific Profile of Norwalk Virus Protease Precursors and Evaluation of Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Lin; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Atmar, Robert L.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype strain of human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a group of positive-strand RNA viruses in the Caliciviridae family and the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Investigation of HuNoV replication and development of antiviral therapeutics in cell culture remain challenging tasks. Here, we present NoroGLuc, a HuNoV protease reporter system based on a fusion of NV p41 protein with a naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase (GLuc), linked by the p41/p22 cleavage site for NV protease (Pro). trans cleavage of NoroGLuc by NV Pro or Pro precursors results in release and secretion of an active GLuc. Using this system, we observed a cell type-specific activity profile of NV Pro and Pro precursors, suggesting that the activity of NV Pro is modulated by other viral proteins in the precursor forms and strongly influenced by cellular factors. NoroGLuc was also cleaved by Pro and Pro precursors generated from replication of NV stool RNA in transfected cells, resulting in a measurable increase of secreted GLuc. Truncation analysis revealed that the N-terminal membrane association domain of NV p41 is critical for NoroGLuc activity. Although designed for NV, a genogroup GI.1 norovirus, NoroGLuc also efficiently detects Pro activities from GII.3 and GII.4 noroviruses. At noncytotoxic concentrations, protease inhibitors ZnCl2 and Nα-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on a GII.4 Pro by NoroGLuc assay. These results establish NoroGLuc as a pan-genogroup HuNoV protease reporter system that can be used for the study of HuNoV proteases and precursors, monitoring of viral RNA replication, and evaluation of antiviral agents. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available to counter these highly contagious viruses. These viruses are currently noncultivatable in cell culture. Here, we report

  5. Time course and side-by-side analysis of mesodermal, pre-myogenic, myogenic and differentiated cell markers in the chicken model for skeletal muscle formation

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Federica; Nogueira, Júlia Meireles; Wöhrle, Svenja; Sobreira, Débora Rodrigues; Hawrot, Katarzyna; Dietrich, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The chicken is a well-established model for amniote (including human) skeletal muscle formation because the developmental anatomy of chicken skeletal muscle matches that of mammals. The accessibility of the chicken in the egg as well as the sequencing of its genome and novel molecular techniques have raised the profile of this model. Over the years, a number of regulatory and marker genes have been identified that are suited to monitor the progress of skeletal myogenesis both in wildtype and in experimental embryos. However, in the various studies, differing markers at different stages of development have been used. Moreover, contradictory results on the hierarchy of regulatory factors are now emerging, and clearly, factors need to be able to cooperate. Thus, a reference paper describing in detail and side-by-side the time course of marker gene expression during avian myogenesis is needed. We comparatively analysed onset and expression patterns of the key markers for the chicken immature paraxial mesoderm, for muscle-competent cells, for cells committed to myogenesis and for cells entering terminal differentiation. We performed this analysis from stages when the first paraxial mesoderm is being laid down to the stage when mesoderm formation comes to a conclusion. Our data show that, although the sequence of marker gene expression is the same at the various stages of development, the timing of the expression onset is quite different. Moreover, marker gene expression in myogenic cells being deployed from the dorsomedial and ventrolateral lips of the dermomyotome is different from those being deployed from the rostrocaudal lips, suggesting different molecular programs. Furthermore, expression of Myosin Heavy Chain genes is overlapping but different along the length of a myotube. Finally, Mef2c is the most likely partner of Mrf proteins, and, in contrast to the mouse and more alike frog and zebrafish fish, chicken Mrf4 is co-expressed with MyoG as cells enter terminal

  6. GREG cells, a dysferlin-deficient myogenic mouse cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Glen W.; Mekhedov, Elena; Blank, Paul S.; Morree, Antoine de; Pekkurnaz, Gulcin; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2012-01-15

    The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large ({approx} 200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by laser wounding in the presence of FM1-43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority ({approx} 66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.

  7. Dehydrocorydaline promotes myogenic differentiation via p38 MAPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Miran; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Baek, Nam-In; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Kang, Jong-Sun; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2016-01-01

    Muscle regeneration is a coordinated process that involves proliferation and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells. Activation of MyoD is a key event in myogenic differentiation, which is regulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). In a screen of natural compounds for the enhancement of MyoD activity, dehydrocorydaline (DHC) from the Corydalis tuber was identified. Treatment of C2C12 myoblasts with DHC increased the expression levels of muscle-specific proteins, including MyoD, myogenin and myosin heavy chain. In addition, C2C12 myoblasts exhibited enhanced multinucleated myotube formation without any cytotoxicity. Treatment with DHC elevated p38 MAPK activation and the interaction of MyoD with an E protein, which is likely to result in activation of MyoD and promotion of myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, defects in differentiation-induced p38 MAPK activation and myoblast differentiation induced by depletion of the promyogenic receptor protein Cdo in C2C12 myoblasts were restored by DHC treatment. In conclusion, these results indicated that DHC stimulates p38 MAPK activation, which can enhance heterodimerization of MyoD and E proteins, thus resulting in MyoD activation and myoblast differentiation. These findings suggested that DHC may be considered a potential therapeutic compound for the improvement of muscle stem cell regenerative capacity in injured muscle. PMID:27573543

  8. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Özgür, Abdulkadir; Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Terzi, Suat; Coşkun, Zerrin Özergin; Dursun, Engin

    2016-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Although sacroiliac joint involvement is the classic sign along with the formed immune mediators, it may result in immune-mediated inner ear disease and may cause damage to the audiovestibular system. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) is a clinical reflex test used in the diagnosis of vestibular diseases and is performed by recording and evaluating the muscle potentials resulting from the stimulation of the vestibular system with different stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cervical VEMP test results in AS patients without vestibular symptoms. Thirty-three patients with AS and a control group of 30 healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics were evaluated in the study. VEMP wave latency, P13-N23 wave amplitude, and VEMP asymmetry ratio (VAR) values were compared between the groups. The relationship between clinical and laboratory findings of the AS patients and VEMP data were also investigated. Compared with healthy people, this study shows the response rate of patients with ankylosing spondylitis was reduced in the VEMP test, and P13-N23 wave amplitude showed a decrease in AS patients who had VEMP response (p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the clinical and laboratory findings and VEMP findings in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The data obtained from this study suggest that AS may lead to decreased sensitivity of the vestibular system.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A enhances myogenesis by coordinating muscle regulatory factors and myogenic repressors

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Hiroki; Saito, Fumiaki; Masaki, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Miki; Nakamura-Ohkuma, Ayami; Shimizu, Teruo; Matsumura, Kiichiro

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of TSA, one of most potent HDACIs, on myogenesis using the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, and suppresses the late MRF, myogenin, after 24 h treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of the myogenic repressors, Ids, which inhibit myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA promotes myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors. -- Abstract: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to promote skeletal muscle formation. However, their mechanisms that include effects on the expression of major muscle components such as the dystrophin-associated proteins complex (DAPC) or myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of HDACIs on skeletal muscle formation using the C2C12 cell culture system. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to trichostatin A (TSA), one of the most potent HDACIs, and differentiation was subsequently induced. We found that TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. In addition, TSA increases the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, whereas it suppresses the expression of the late MRF, myogenin. Interestingly, TSA also enhances the expression of Id1, Id2, and Id3 (Ids). Ids are myogenic repressors that inhibit myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest that TSA promotes gene expression in proliferation and suppresses it in the differentiation stage of muscle formation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TSA enhances myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors.

  10. The human insulin gene displays transcriptionally active epigenetic marks in islet-derived mesenchymal precursor cells in the absence of insulin expression.

    PubMed

    Mutskov, Vesco; Raaka, Bruce M; Felsenfeld, Gary; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2007-12-01

    Human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs), mesenchymal cells derived in vitro from adult pancreas, proliferate freely and do not express insulin but can be differentiated to epithelial cells that express insulin. hIPCs have been studied with the goal of obtaining large quantities of insulin-producing cells suitable for transplantation into patients suffering from type 1 diabetes. It appeared that undifferentiated hIPCs are "committed" to a pancreatic endocrine phenotype through multiple cell divisions, suggesting that epigenetic modifications at the insulin locus could be responsible. We determined patterns of histone modifications over the insulin gene in human islets and hIPCs and compared them with HeLa and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs), neither of which expresses insulin. The insulin gene in islets displays high levels of histone modifications (H4 hyperacetylation and dimethylation of H3 lysine 4) typical of active genes. These are not present in HeLa and hBM-MSCs, which instead have elevated levels of H3 lysine 9 dimethylation, a mark of inactive genes. hIPCs, in contrast, show significant levels of active chromatin modifications, as much as half those seen in islets, and show no measurable H3 K9 methylation. Cells expanded from a minor population of mesenchymal stromal cells found in islets exhibit the same histone modifications as established hIPCs. We conclude that hIPCs, which do not express the insulin gene, nonetheless uniquely exhibit epigenetic marks that could poise them for activation of insulin expression. This epigenetic signature may be a general mechanism whereby tissue-derived precursor cells are committed to a distinct specification. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  11. Human blood contains both the uncleaved precursor of anti-Mullerian hormone and a complex of the NH2- and COOH-terminal peptides.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, Michael W; McLennan, Ian S

    2013-11-15

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in blood is a marker of ovarian status in women and the presence of cryptic testes in babies. Despite this, the molecular form of AMH in blood has not been verified. AMH is synthesized as an inert proprotein precursor (proAMH), which can be cleaved to yield NH2-terminal (AMHN) and COOH-terminal (AMHC) fragments, that can complex noncovalently (AMHN,C). Developing males have 10-fold more AMH than young adults. We report here that human blood is a mixture of inactive proAMH and receptor-binding AMHN,C. The AMH in the blood of boys, men, and premenopausal women was immunoprecipitated using antibodies to the NH2- and COOH-terminal peptides. The precipitated proteins were then analyzed by Western blots, using recombinant proteins as markers. The glycosylation status of AMH was verified using deglycosylating enzymes. The NH2-terminal antibody precipitated a major protein that migrated alongside rhproAMH and was detected by anti-AMHN and anti-AMHC. This antibody also precipitated significant levels of AMHN and AMHC from all participants. Antibodies specific to AMHC precipitated rhAMHC but did not precipitate AMHC from human blood. Hence, all the AMHC in human blood appears to be bound to AMHN. Both AMHN and proAMH were glycosylated, independent of age and sex. In conclusion, boys and young adults have the same form of AMH, with a significant proportion being the inactive precursor. This raises the possibility that the endocrine functions of AMH are partly controlled by its cleavage in the target organ. The presence of proAMH in blood may confound the use of AMH for diagnosis.

  12. Melatonin decreases cell proliferation, impairs myogenic differentiation and triggers apoptotic cell death in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Codenotti, Silvia; Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Salucci, Sara; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Rezzani, Rita; Faggi, Fiorella; Colombi, Marina; Monti, Eugenio; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Melatonin is a small indole produced by the pineal gland and other tissues, and has numerous functions that aid in the maintenance of the whole body homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep to protection from oxidative stress. Melatonin has also been reported to counteract cell growth and chemoresistance in different types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on different human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. The results showed that melatonin significantly affected the behavior of RMS cells, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and impairment of myogenic differentiation followed by increased apoptotic cell death, as observed by immunoblotting analysis of apoptosis-related markers including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. Similar findings were observed using a combination of microscopy techniques, including scanning/transmission electron and confocal microscopy. Furthermore, melatonin in combination with doxorubicin or cisplatin, two compounds commonly used for the treatment of solid tumors, increased the sensitivity of RMS cells to apoptosis. These data indicated that melatonin may be effective in counteracting RMS tumor growth and chemoresistance.

  13. Myogenic factors that regulate expression of muscle-specific microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Rao, Prakash K; Kumar, Roshan M; Farkhondeh, Mina; Baskerville, Scott; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-06-01

    Since their discovery as key regulators of early animal development, microRNAs now are recognized as widespread regulators of gene expression. Despite their abundance, little is known regarding the regulation of microRNA biogenesis. We show that three highly conserved muscle-specific microRNAs, miR-1, miR-133 and miR-206, are robustly induced during the myoblast-myotube transition, both in primary human myoblasts and in the mouse mesenchymal C2C12 stem cell line. These microRNAs were not induced during osteogenic conversion of C2C12 cells. Moreover, both loci encoding miR-1, miR-1-1, and miR-1-2, and two of the three encoding miR-133, miR-133a-1 and miR-133a-2, are strongly induced during myogenesis. Some of the induced microRNAs are in intergenic regions, whereas two are transcribed in the opposite direction to the nonmuscle-specific gene in which they are embedded. By using CHIP analysis, we demonstrate that the myogenic factors Myogenin and MyoD bind to regions upstream of these microRNAs and, therefore, are likely to regulate their expression. Because miR-1 and miR-206 are predicted to repress similar mRNA targets, our work suggests that induction of these microRNAs is important in regulating the expression of muscle-specific proteins.

  14. Application of a human factors classification framework for patient safety to identify precursor and contributing factors to adverse clinical incidents in hospital.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann; Molesworth, Brett

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify temporal precursor and associated contributing factors for adverse clinical incidents in a hospital setting using the Human Factors Classification Framework (HFCF) for patient safety. A random sample of 498 clinical incidents were reviewed. The framework identified key precursor events (PE), contributing factors (CF) and the prime causes of incidents. Descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis were used to examine incident characteristics. Staff action was the most common type of PE identified. Correspondence analysis for all PEs that involved staff action by error type showed that rule-based errors were strongly related to performing medical or monitoring tasks or the administration of medication. Skill-based errors were strongly related to misdiagnoses. Factors relating to the organisation (66.9%) or the patient (53.2%) were the most commonly identified CFs. The HFCF for patient safety was able to identify patterns of causation for the clinical incidents, highlighting the need for targeted preventive approaches, based on an understanding of how and why incidents occur. PMID:26360210

  15. An alternative conformation of the gp41 heptad repeat 1 region coiled coil exists in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Mische, Claudia C.; Yuan Wen; Strack, Bettina; Craig, Stewart; Farzan, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph . E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-07-20

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, gp41, which mediates virus-cell fusion, exists in at least three different conformations within the trimeric envelope glycoprotein complex. The structures of the prefusogenic and intermediate states are unknown; structures representing the postfusion state have been solved. In the postfusion conformation, three helical heptad repeat 2 (HR2) regions pack in an antiparallel fashion into the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of a triple-helical coiled coil formed by the heptad repeat 1 (HR1) regions. We studied the prefusogenic conformation of gp41 by mutagenic alteration of membrane-anchored and soluble forms of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Our results indicate that, in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein precursor, the gp41 HR1 region is in a conformation distinct from that of a trimeric coiled coil. Thus, the central gp41 coiled coil is formed during the transition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins from the precursor state to the receptor-bound intermediate.

  16. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human Fe65-PTB2 in complex with the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain

    SciTech Connect

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which releases the aggregation-prone amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and liberates the intracellular domain (AICD) that interacts with various adaptor proteins. The crystallized AICD–Fe65-PTB2 complex is of central importance for APP translocation, nuclear signalling, processing and Aβ generation. Alzheimer’s disease is associated with typical brain deposits (senile plaques) that mainly contain the neurotoxic amyloid β peptide. This peptide results from proteolytic processing of the type I transmembrane protein amyloid precursor protein (APP). During this proteolytic pathway the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is released into the cytosol, where it associates with various adaptor proteins. The interaction of the AICD with the C-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain of Fe65 (Fe65-PTB2) regulates APP translocation, signalling and processing. Human AICD and Fe65-PTB2 have been cloned, overproduced and purified in large amounts in Escherichia coli. A complex of Fe65-PTB2 with the C-terminal 32 amino acids of the AICD gave well diffracting hexagonal crystals and data have been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Initial phases obtained by the molecular-replacement method are of good quality and revealed well defined electron density for the substrate peptide.

  17. Decreased IL7Rα and TdT expression underlie the skewed immunoglobulin repertoire of human B-cell precursors from fetal origin

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Magdalena B.; Jensen, Kristin; van der Burg, Mirjam; van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S.; Kroek, Roel; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; van der Velden, Vincent H. J.; Cupedo, Tom; Olstad, Ole K.; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.; van Zelm, Menno C.

    2016-01-01

    Newborns are unable to mount antibody responses towards certain antigens. This has been related to the restricted repertoire of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of their B cells. The mechanisms underlying the restricted fetal Ig gene repertoire are currently unresolved. We here addressed this with detailed molecular and cellular analysis of human precursor-B cells from fetal liver, fetal bone marrow (BM), and pediatric BM. In the absence of selection processes, fetal B-cell progenitors more frequently used proximal V, D and J genes in complete IGH gene rearrangements, despite normal Ig locus contraction. Fewer N-nucleotides were added in IGH gene rearrangements in the context of low TdT and XRCC4 expression. Moreover, fetal progenitor-B cells expressed lower levels of IL7Rα than their pediatric counterparts. Analysis of progenitor-B cells from IL7Rα-deficient patients revealed that TdT expression and N-nucleotides additions in Dh-Jh junctions were dependent on functional IL7Rα. Thus, IL7Rα affects TdT expression, and decreased expression of this receptor underlies at least in part the skewed Ig repertoire formation in fetal B-cell precursors. These new insights provide a better understanding of the formation of adaptive immunity in the developing fetus. PMID:27658954

  18. Production of recombinant human growth hormone in Escherichia coli: expression of different precursors and physiological effects of glucose, acetate, and salts.

    PubMed

    Jensen, E B; Carlsen, S

    1990-06-01

    The constitutive cytoplasmic expression in E. coli of human growth hormone (hGH) with different N-terminal extensions (3 or 4 amino acids) has been studied. These hGH precursors were used for in vitro cleavage to obtain the mature, authentic hormone. Small changes in the amino acid extensions of the hGH precursors led to three-fold differences in specific expression rates. The specific expression rate of the hGH precursors was inversely proportional to the ratios of the specific growth rates of plasmid containing and plasmid free cells (micro(+)/micro(-)) and also to the genetic stability. To ensure a satisfactory genetic stability in production fermentors, an hGH precursor with a moderate expression efficiency was chosen.The medium composition and growth conditions were studied, resulting in the choice of a glucose fed batch fermentation process using a complex medium. In this process a yield of 2000 mg/L of met-ala-glu-hGH (MAE-hGH) was obtained. The fermentation process comprised a glucose-limited growth phase followed by a second phase with increased glucose feed and exhaustion of phosphate from the medium. The second phase is characterized by an MAE-hGH production, whereas further biomass formation is blocked. High concentrations of glucose led to reduced specific expression of MAE-hGH--the specific and total yield in batch glucose fermentations is only about 30% of the yield in optimized fed batch fermentations. The physiological background for this was investigated. Chemostat experiments showed that the glucose concentration and the metabolic condition of the cells--i.e. with or without formation of acetate--was not critical per se in order to obtain a high specific yield of MAE-hGH. Therefore it is unlikely that formation of MAE-hGH is catabolite repressed by glucose. Furthermore it was shown that the specific production rate of MAE-hGH was independent of the specific growth rate and it was further demonstrated that the decrease in expression efficiency in

  19. Differential interaction of Apolipoprotein-E isoforms with insulin receptors modulates brain insulin signaling in mutant human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elizabeth S; Chen, Christopher; Cole, Gregory M; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2015-09-08

    It is unclear how human apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although Aβ levels can lead to insulin signaling impairment, these experiments were done in the absence of human ApoE. To examine ApoE role, we crossed the human ApoE-targeted replacement mice with mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice. In 26 week old mice with lower Aβ levels, the expression and phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins remained comparable among APP, ApoE3xAPP and ApoE4xAPP mouse brains. When the mice aged to 78 weeks, these proteins were markedly reduced in APP and ApoE4xAPP mouse brains. While Aβ can bind to insulin receptor, how ApoE isoforms modulate this interaction remains unknown. Here, we showed that ApoE3 had greater association with insulin receptor as compared to ApoE4, regardless of Aβ42 concentration. In contrast, ApoE4 bound more Aβ42 with increasing peptide levels. Using primary hippocampal neurons, we showed that ApoE3 and ApoE4 neurons are equally sensitive to physiological levels of insulin. However, in the presence of Aβ42, insulin failed to elicit a downstream response only in ApoE4 hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our data show that ApoE genotypes can modulate this Aβ-mediated insulin signaling impairment.

  20. Dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to fusion competence of myogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Atsushi; Kurisaki, Tomohiro; Sato, Satoshi B.; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kondoh, Gen; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2009-10-15

    Recent research indicates that the leading edge of lamellipodia of myogenic cells (myoblasts and myotubes) contains presumptive fusion sites, yet the mechanisms that render the plasma membrane fusion-competent remain largely unknown. Here we show that dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to both cell adhesion and plasma membrane union during myogenic cell fusion. Adhesion-complex proteins including M-cadherin, {beta}-catenin, and p120-catenin accumulated at the leading edge of lamellipodia, which contains the presumptive fusion sites of the plasma membrane, in a lipid raft-dependent fashion prior to cell contact. In addition, disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion directly prevented the membrane union of myogenic cell fusion. Time-lapse recording showed that lipid rafts were laterally dispersed from the center of the lamellipodia prior to membrane fusion. Adhesion proteins that had accumulated at lipid rafts were also removed from the presumptive fusion sites when lipid rafts were laterally dispersed. The resultant lipid raft- and adhesion complex-free area at the leading edge fused with the opposing plasma membrane. These results demonstrate a key role for dynamic clustering/dispersion of lipid rafts in establishing fusion-competent sites of the myogenic cell membrane, providing a novel mechanistic insight into the regulation of myogenic cell fusion.

  1. Lrrc75b is a novel negative regulator of C2C12 myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yuechun; Zou, Liyi; Wang, Zonggui; Pan, Yaqiong; Dai, Zhong; Liu, Xinguang; Cui, Liao; Zuo, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Many transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in the guidance of myogenic differentiation have been investigated in previous studies. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of myogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. In the present study, by performing a meta-analysis of C2C12 myogenic differentiation microarray data, we found that leucine-rich repeat-containing 75B (Lrrc75b), also known as AI646023, a molecule of unknown biological function, was downregulated during C2C12 myogenic differentiation. The knockdown of Lrrc75b using specific siRNA in C2C12 myoblasts markedly enhanced the expression of muscle-specific myogenin and increased myoblast fusion and the myotube diameter. By contrast, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Lrrc75b in C2C12 cells markedly inhibited myoblast differentiation accompanied by a decrease in myogenin expression. In addition, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) was suppressed in the cells in which Lrrc75b was silenced. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Lrrc75b is a novel suppressor of C2C12 myogenic differentiation by modulating myogenin and Erk1/2 signaling. PMID:27633041

  2. Mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 localization in CD4-negative thymocytes: differentiation from a CD4-positive precursor allows productive infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, S G; Uittenbogaart, C H; Zack, J A

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the thymus could have profound effects on development of the immune response, particularly in children. We and others have established that in addition to infecting and depleting CD4-bearing thymocytes, functional HIV proviruses are found in thymocytes lacking surface CD4 expression. Using in vitro thymocyte cultures, we show that neither HIV-mediated down regulation of CD4 nor CD4-independent infection contributes to the localization of HIV in cells lacking the primary virus receptor. Rather, infection of a CD4-positive precursor cell (CD4 positive/CD8 positive) with subsequent differentiation into a mature CD4-negative phenotype results in productively infected CD4-negative cells. This novel mechanism may contribute to pathogenesis by distributing viral sequences into functional subsets of T cells typically refractory to HIV infection and could account for the presence of viral DNA in CD8-positive lymphocytes recently observed in patients. PMID:9223457

  3. A Vision for the Exploration of Mars: Robotic Precursors Followed by Humans to Mars Orbit in 2033

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, Piers J.; Garvin, James B.; Kinney, Anne L.; Amato, Michael J.; White, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The reformulation of the Mars program gives NASA a rare opportunity to deliver a credible vision in which humans, robots, and advancements in information technology combine to open the deep space frontier to Mars. There is a broad challenge in the reformulation of the Mars exploration program that truly sets the stage for: 'a strategic collaboration between the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) and the Office of the Chief Technologist, for the next several decades of exploring Mars'.Any strategy that links all three challenge areas listed into a true long term strategic program necessitates discussion. NASA's SMD and HEOMD should accept the President's challenge and vision by developing an integrated program that will enable a human expedition to Mars orbit in 2033 with the goal of returning samples suitable for addressing the question of whether life exists or ever existed on Mars

  4. Modulation of the Innate Immune Response by Human Neural Precursors Prevails over Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Remyelination to Rescue a Severe Model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease.

    PubMed

    Marteyn, Antoine; Sarrazin, Nadège; Yan, Jun; Bachelin, Corinne; Deboux, Cyrille; Santin, Mathieu D; Gressens, Pierre; Zujovic, Violetta; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) results from an X-linked misexpression of proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1). This leukodystrophy causes severe hypomyelination with progressive inflammation, leading to neurological dysfunctions and shortened life expectancy. While no cure exists for PMD, experimental cell-based therapy in the dysmyelinated shiverer model suggested that human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hOPCs) or human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) are promising candidates to treat myelinopathies. However, the fate and restorative advantages of human NPCs/OPCs in a relevant model of PMD has not yet been addressed. Using a model of Plp1 overexpression, resulting in demyelination with progressive inflammation, we compared side-by-side the therapeutic benefits of intracerebrally grafted hNPCs and hOPCs. Our findings reveal equal integration of the donor cells within presumptive white matter tracks. While the onset of exogenous remyelination was earlier in hOPCs-grafted mice than in hNPC-grafted mice, extended lifespan occurred only in hNPCs-grafted animals. This improved survival was correlated with reduced neuroinflammation (microglial and astrocytosis loads) and microglia polarization toward M2-like phenotype followed by remyelination. Thus modulation of neuroinflammation combined with myelin restoration is crucial to prevent PMD pathology progression and ensure successful rescue of PMD mice. These findings should help to design novel therapeutic strategies combining immunomodulation and stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for disorders associating hypomyelination with inflammation as observed in PMD.

  5. Major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted cytolytic activity of human T cells: analysis of precursor frequency and effector phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.S.; Thiele, D.L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1987-12-01

    The frequency and phenotype of human T cells that mediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted cytolysis were analyzed. T cell clones were generated by culturing adherent cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a density of 0.3 cell/well with phytohemagglutinin, recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2), and irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells and/or Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. All of the 198 clones generated by this method were T cells (CD2/sup +/, CD3/sup +/, CD4/sup +/ or CD2/sup +/, CD3/sup +/, CD8/sup +/) that possessed potent lytic activity against K562, an erythroleukemia line sensitive to lysis by human natural killer cells, and Cur, a renal carcinoma cell line resistant to human natural killer activity. Cytolysis, measured by /sup 51/Cr release, was MHC-unrestricted, since the clones were able to lyse MHC class I or class II negative targets, as well as MHC class I and class II negative targets. Although the clones produced tissue necrosis factor/lymphotoxin-like molecules, lysis of Cur of K562 was not mediated by a soluble factor secreted by the clones. These data indicate that the capacity for MHC-unrestricted tumoricidal activity and expression of NKH1 and CD11b, but not CD 16, are properties common to all or nearly all human peripheral blood-derived T cell clones regardless of CD4 or CD8 phenotype.

  6. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa, Michiko; Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke; Song, Si-Yong; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  7. Calcium dynamics underlying the myogenic response of the renal afferent arteriole

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    The renal afferent arteriole reacts to an elevation in blood pressure with an increase in muscle tone and a decrease in luminal diameter. This effect, known as the myogenic response, is believed to stabilize glomerular filtration and to protect the glomerulus from systolic blood pressure increases, especially in hypertension. To study the mechanisms underlying the myogenic response, we developed a mathematical model of intracellular Ca2+ signaling in an afferent arteriole smooth muscle cell. The model represents detailed transmembrane ionic transport, intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, the kinetics of myosin light chain phosphorylation, and the mechanical behavior of the cell. It assumes that the myogenic response is initiated by pressure-induced changes in the activity of nonselective cation channels. Our model predicts spontaneous vasomotion at physiological luminal pressures and KCl- and diltiazem-induced diameter changes comparable to experimental findings. The time-periodic oscillations stem from the dynamic exchange of Ca2+ between the cytosol and the sarcoplasmic reticulum, coupled to the stimulation of Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa) and chloride (ClCa) channels, and the modulation of voltage-activated L-type channels; blocking sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps, ryanodine receptors (RyR), KCa, ClCa, or L-type channels abolishes these oscillations. Our results indicate that the profile of the myogenic response is also strongly dependent on the conductance of ClCa and L-type channels, as well as the activity of plasmalemmal Ca2+ pumps. Furthermore, inhibition of KCa is not necessary to induce myogenic contraction. Lastly, our model suggests that the kinetic behavior of L-type channels results in myogenic kinetics that are substantially faster during constriction than during dilation, consistent with in vitro observations (Loutzenhiser R, Bidani A, Chilton L. Circ. Res. 90: 1316–1324, 2002). PMID:24173354

  8. American Cancer Society Guideline for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors.

    PubMed

    Saslow, Debbie; Castle, Philip E; Cox, J Thomas; Davey, Diane D; Einstein, Mark H; Ferris, Daron G; Goldie, Sue J; Harper, Diane M; Kinney, Walter; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Noller, Kenneth L; Wheeler, Cosette M; Ades, Terri; Andrews, Kimberly S; Doroshenk, Mary K; Kahn, Kelly Green; Schmidt, Christy; Shafey, Omar; Smith, Robert A; Partridge, Edward E; Garcia, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) has developed guidelines for the use of the prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for the prevention of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. These recommendations are based on a formal review of the available evidence. They address the use of prophylactic HPV vaccines, including who should be vaccinated and at what age, as well as a summary of policy and implementation issues. Implications for screening are also discussed.

  9. Remyelination Is Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Induction Following Human Embryoid Body-Derived Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Plaisted, Warren C; Zavala, Angel; Hingco, Edna; Tran, Ha; Coleman, Ronald; Lane, Thomas E; Loring, Jeanne F; Walsh, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs) that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods. Since the therapeutic potential of human NPCs may differ greatly depending on the method of derivation and culture, we wanted to determine whether NPCs differentiated using conventional methods would be similarly effective in improving clinical outcome under neuroinflammatory demyelinating conditions. For the current study, we utilized hNPCs differentiated from a human induced pluripotent cell line via an embryoid body intermediate stage (EB-NPCs). Intraspinal transplantation of EB-NPCs into mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in decreased accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the central nervous system that was concomitant with reduced demyelination at the site of injection. Dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination was correlated with a transient increase in CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) concentrated within the peripheral lymphatics. However, compared to our earlier study, pathological improvements were modest and did not result in significant clinical recovery. We conclude that the genetic signature of NPCs is critical to their effectiveness in this model of viral-induced neurologic disease. These comparisons will be useful for understanding what factors are critical for the sustained clinical improvement. PMID:27310015

  10. Remyelination Is Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Induction Following Human Embryoid Body-Derived Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Plaisted, Warren C.; Zavala, Angel; Hingco, Edna; Tran, Ha; Coleman, Ronald; Lane, Thomas E.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Walsh, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs) that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods. Since the therapeutic potential of human NPCs may differ greatly depending on the method of derivation and culture, we wanted to determine whether NPCs differentiated using conventional methods would be similarly effective in improving clinical outcome under neuroinflammatory demyelinating conditions. For the current study, we utilized hNPCs differentiated from a human induced pluripotent cell line via an embryoid body intermediate stage (EB-NPCs). Intraspinal transplantation of EB-NPCs into mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in decreased accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the central nervous system that was concomitant with reduced demyelination at the site of injection. Dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination was correlated with a transient increase in CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) concentrated within the peripheral lymphatics. However, compared to our earlier study, pathological improvements were modest and did not result in significant clinical recovery. We conclude that the genetic signature of NPCs is critical to their effectiveness in this model of viral-induced neurologic disease. These comparisons will be useful for understanding what factors are critical for the sustained clinical improvement. PMID:27310015

  11. Familial amyloid precursor protein mutants cause caspase-6-dependent but amyloid β-peptide-independent neuronal degeneration in primary human neuron cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Sivananthan, S N; Lee, A W; Goodyer, C G; LeBlanc, A C

    2010-01-01

    Although familial Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated autosomal dominant mutants have been extensively studied, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration induced by these mutants in AD. Wild-type, Swedish or London amyloid precursor protein (APP) transfection in primary human neurons induced neuritic beading, in which several co-expressed proteins, such as enhanced green fluorescent protein, red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tau and RFP-ubiquitin, accumulated. APP-induced neuritic beading was dependent on caspase-6 (Casp6), because it was inhibited with 5 μM z-VEID-fmk or with dominant-negative Casp6. Neuritic beading was independent from APP-mediated amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production, because the APPM596V (APPMV) mutant, which cannot generate Aβ, still induced Casp6-dependent neuritic beading. However, the beaded neurons underwent Casp6- and Aβ-dependent cell death. These results indicate that overexpression of wild-type or mutant APP causes Casp6-dependent but Aβ-independent neuritic degeneration in human neurons. Because Casp6 is activated early in AD and is involved in axonal degeneration, these results suggest that the inhibition of Casp6 may represent an efficient early intervention against familial forms of AD. Furthermore, these results indicate that removing Aβ without inhibiting Casp6 may have little effect in preventing the progressive dementia associated with sporadic or familial AD. PMID:21368865

  12. BDNF Increases Survival and Neuronal Differentiation of Human Neural Precursor Cells Cotransplanted with a Nanofiber Gel to the Auditory Nerve in a Rat Model of Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yu; Palmgren, Björn; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Englund Johansson, Ulrica; Spieles-Engemann, Anne L.; Kale, Ajay; Stupp, Samuel I.; Olivius, Petri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To study possible nerve regeneration of a damaged auditory nerve by the use of stem cell transplantation. Methods. We transplanted HNPCs to the rat AN trunk by the internal auditory meatus (IAM). Furthermore, we studied if addition of BDNF affects survival and phenotypic differentiation of the grafted HNPCs. A bioactive nanofiber gel (PA gel), in selected groups mixed with BDNF, was applied close to the implanted cells. Before transplantation, all rats had been deafened by a round window niche application of β-bungarotoxin. This neurotoxin causes a selective toxic destruction of the AN while keeping the hair cells intact. Results. Overall, HNPCs survived well for up to six weeks in all groups. However, transplants receiving the BDNF-containing PA gel demonstrated significantly higher numbers of HNPCs and neuronal differentiation. At six weeks, a majority of the HNPCs had migrated into the brain stem and differentiated. Differentiated human cells as well as neurites were observed in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus. Conclusion. Our results indicate that human neural precursor cells (HNPC) integration with host tissue benefits from additional brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment and that these cells appear to be good candidates for further regenerative studies on the auditory nerve (AN). PMID:25243135

  13. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Expression in Human B Cell Precursors Is Essential for Central B Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cantaert, Tineke; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Bannock, Jason M; Ng, Yen-Shing; Massad, Christopher; Oe, Tyler; Wu, Renee; Lavoie, Aubert; Walter, Jolan E; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Al-Herz, Waleed; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Ochs, Hans D; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Durandy, Anne; Meffre, Eric

    2015-11-17

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme-mediating class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes, is essential for the removal of developing autoreactive B cells. How AID mediates central B cell tolerance remains unknown. We report that AID enzymes were produced in a discrete population of immature B cells that expressed recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2), suggesting that they undergo secondary recombination to edit autoreactive antibodies. However, most AID+ immature B cells lacked anti-apoptotic MCL-1 and were deleted by apoptosis. AID inhibition using lentiviral-encoded short hairpin (sh)RNA in B cells developing in humanized mice resulted in a failure to remove autoreactive clones. Hence, B cell intrinsic AID expression mediates central B cell tolerance potentially through its RAG-coupled genotoxic activity in self-reactive immature B cells.

  14. Peribiliary Glands as a Niche of Extrapancreatic Precursors Yielding Insulin-Producing Cells in Experimental and Human Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Guido; Puca, Rosa; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Renzi, Anastasia; Scafetta, Gaia; Nevi, Lorenzo; Rossi, Massimo; Berloco, Pasquale B; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano; Reid, Lola M; Maroder, Marella; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Peribiliary glands (PBGs) are niches in the biliary tree and containing heterogeneous endodermal stem/progenitors cells that can differentiate, in vitro and in vivo, toward pancreatic islets. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in experimental and human diabetes, proliferation of cells in PBGs and differentiation of the biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs) toward insulin-producing cells. Diabetes was generated in mice by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 200 mg/kg (N = 12) or 120 mg/kg (N = 12) of streptozotocin. Liver, pancreas, and extrahepatic biliary trees were en bloc dissected and examined. Cells in PBGs proliferated in experimental diabetes, and their proliferation was greatest in the PBGs of the hepatopancreatic ampulla, and inversely correlated with the pancreatic islet area. In rodents, the cell proliferation in PBGs was characterized by the expansion of Sox9-positive stem/progenitor cells that gave rise to insulin-producing cells. Insulin-producing cells were located mostly in PBGs in the portion of the biliary tree closest to the duodenum, and their appearance was associated with upregulation of MafA and Gli1 gene expression. In patients with type 2 diabetes, PBGs at the level of the hepatopancreatic ampulla contained cells showing signs of proliferation and pancreatic fate commitment. In vitro, high glucose concentrations induced the differentiation of human BTSCs cultures toward pancreatic beta cell fates. The cells in PBGs respond to diabetes with proliferation and differentiation towards insulin-producing cells indicating that PBG niches may rescue pancreatic islet impairment in diabetes. These findings offer important implications for the pathophysiology and complications of this disease. Stem Cells 2016;34:1332-1342. PMID:26850087

  15. hUTP24 is essential for processing of the human rRNA precursor at site A1, but not at site A0.

    PubMed

    Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Drazkowska, Karolina; Cysewski, Dominik; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Production of ribosomes relies on more than 200 accessory factors to ensure the proper sequence of steps and faultless assembly of ribonucleoprotein machinery. Among trans-acting factors are numerous enzymes, including ribonucleases responsible for processing the large rRNA precursor synthesized by RNA polymerase I that encompasses sequences corresponding to mature 18S, 5.8S, and 25/28S rRNA. In humans, the identity of most enzymes responsible for individual processing steps, including endoribonucleases that cleave pre-rRNA at specific sites within regions flanking and separating mature rRNA, remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of hUTP24 in rRNA maturation in human cells. hUTP24 is a human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative PIN domain-containing endoribonuclease Utp24 (yUtp24), which was suggested to participate in the U3 snoRNA-dependent processing of yeast pre-rRNA at sites A0, A1, and A2. We demonstrate that hUTP24 interacts to some extent with proteins homologous to the components of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome. Moreover, mutation in the putative catalytic site of hUTP24 results in slowed growth of cells and reduced metabolic activity. These effects are associated with a defect in biogenesis of the 40S ribosomal subunit, which results from decreased amounts of 18S rRNA as a consequence of inaccurate pre-rRNA processing at the 5'-end of the 18S rRNA segment (site A1). Interestingly, and in contrast to yeast, site A0 located upstream of A1 is efficiently processed upon UTP24 dysfunction. Finally, hUTP24 inactivation leads to aberrant processing of 18S rRNA 2 nucleotides downstream of the normal A1 cleavage site.

  16. Radiosensitivity of human clonogenic myeloma cells and normal bone marrow precursors: Effect of different dose rates and fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Glueck, S.; Van Dyk, J.; Messner, H.A. )

    1994-03-01

    Evaluation of radiation dose rate and fractionation effects on clonogenic myeloma cells was carried out. The radiosensitivity of clonogenic myeloma cells was evaluated for seven human myeloma cell lines. The lines were maintained in liquid suspension culture. Following radiation, cells were plated in semisolid medium using methylcellulose as viscous support. Radiation doses up to 12 Gy were delivered at dose rates of 0.05 and 0.5 Gy/min by a [sup 60]Co source. Each total dose was administered either as a single dose or in multiple fractions of 2 Gy. The data were analyzed according to the linear quadratic and multi target model of irradiation. Clonogenic progenitors of the seven myeloma cell lines differed in their radiosensitivity as measured by multiple parameters. The differences were mainly observed at low dose. The most effective cytoreduction was seen when radiation was administered in a single fraction at high dose rate. The cytoreductive effect on clonogenic myeloma cells was compared for clinically practiced total body irradiation (TBI) schedules delivered either in a single or in multiple fractions without causing significant pulmonary toxicity. The administration of 12 Gy delivered in six fractions of 2 Gy resulted in a superior reduction of clonogenic cells compared to a single fraction of 5 Gy. The preparation of bone marrow transplant recipients with multiple myeloma using fractionated radiation with a total dose of 12 Gy appears to afford better ablation than a single dose of 5 Gy while maintaining a low incidence of pulmonary toxicity. 20 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Chronic hypoxia during gestation enhances uterine arterial myogenic tone via heightened oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Daliao; Hu, Xiang-Qun; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jianjun; Wilson, Sean M; Yang, Shumei; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia during gestation has profound adverse effects on the adaptation of uteroplacental circulation in pregnancy. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in uterine arteries plays a critical role in the maladaptation of uterine circulation associated with chronic hypoxia. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep maintained at sea level (~300 m) or exposed to high-altitude (3801 m) hypoxia for 110 days. Hypoxia significantly increased ROS production in uterine arteries of pregnant, but not nonpregnant, sheep. This was associated with a significant increase in NADPH oxidase (Nox) 2, but not Nox1 or Nox4, protein abundance and total Nox activity in uterine arteries of pregnant animals. Chronic hypoxia significantly increased pressure-dependent uterine arterial myogenic tone in pregnant sheep, which was abrogated by a Nox inhibitor apocynin. Additionally, the hypoxia-induced increase in myogenic reactivity of uterine arteries to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in pregnant sheep was blocked by apocynin and tempol. In consistence with the myogenic responses, the hypoxia-mediated down-regulation of BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries of pregnant animals was reversed by apocynin. The findings suggest that heightened oxidative stress in uterine arteries plays a key role in suppressing the BKCa channel activity, resulting in increased myogenic reactivity and maladaptation of uteroplacental circulation caused by chronic hypoxia during gestation.

  18. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-15

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells.

  19. MicroRNA regulation of myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Harding, Rachel L; Velleman, Sandra G

    2016-01-01

    Myogenic satellite cells are stem cells responsible for muscle growth and regeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in regulating numerous cellular processes. Two genes essential to satellite cell function are syndecan-4 and glypican-1. To determine if miRNAs influence myogenic satellite cell function, one miRNA predicted to bind syndecan-4 (miR-128) and two predicted to bind glypican-1 (miR-24 and miR-16) were inhibited in vitro by transfection of inhibitors targeting each miRNA. Inhibition of these miRNAs differentially affected the expression of syndecan-4, glypican-1, and myogenic regulatory factors myoD and myogenin. Inhibition of miR-16 reduced proliferation of satellite cells at 72 h. Inhibition of miR-128 and miR-24 did not affect proliferation. Inhibition of miRNAs reduced differentiation of satellite cells into myotubes at 48 and 72 h except for miR-16, which only affected differentiation at 72 h. Inhibition of all three miRNAs decreased myotube width at 24 h of differentiation and increased myotube width at 48 h of differentiation. Inhibiting these miRNAs also increased the number of nuclei per myotube at 72 h of differentiation. These data demonstrate individual miRNAs regulate genes essential for myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

  20. A contemporary atlas of the mouse diaphragm: myogenicity, vascularity, and the Pax3 connection.

    PubMed

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Keire, Paul; Almuly, Ricardo; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-09-01

    The thoracic diaphragm is a unique skeletal muscle composed of costal, crural, and central tendon domains. Although commonly described in medical textbooks, newer insights into the diaphragm cell composition are scarce. Here, using reporter mice, combined with gene expression analyses of whole tissues and primary cultures, we compared the diaphragm domains and their myogenic progenitors (i.e., Pax3/7 satellite cells). The outcomes of these analyses underscore the similarities between the myogenic aspects of the costal and crural domains. Expression levels of all myogenic genes examined (except Pax3) were strongly affected in mdx (dystrophin-null) mice and accompanied by an increase in fibrosis- and adiposity-related gene expression. Cell culture studies further indicated the presence of a non-myogenic Pax3-expressing population, potentially related to vascular mural cells. We additionally investigated the diaphragm vasculature. XLacZ4 and Sca1-GFP transgenes allowed a fine definition of the arterial and microvasculature network based on reporter expression in mural cells and capillary endothelium, respectively. We also provide insights into the organization of the diaphragm venous system, especially apparent in the central tendon and exhibiting arcades lined with fat-containing cells. The novel information in this "contemporary atlas" can be further explored in the context of diaphragm pathology and genetic disorders.

  1. Myogenic Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells That Lack a Functional Pax7 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Czerwinska, Areta M.; Grabowska, Iwona; Archacka, Karolina; Bem, Joanna; Swierczek, Barbara; Helinska, Anita; Streminska, Wladyslawa; Fogtman, Anna; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Koblowska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Pax7 plays a key role during embryonic myogenesis and sustains the proper function of satellite cells, which serve as adult skeletal muscle stem cells. Overexpression of Pax7 has been shown to promote the myogenic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. However, the effects of the absence of functional Pax7 in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have not yet been directly tested. Herein, we studied mouse stem cells that lacked a functional Pax7 gene and characterized the differentiation of these stem cells under conditions that promoted the derivation of myoblasts in vitro. We analyzed the expression of myogenic factors, such as myogenic regulatory factors and muscle-specific microRNAs, in wild-type and mutant cells. Finally, we compared the transcriptome of both types of cells and did not find substantial differences in the expression of genes related to the regulation of myogenesis. As a result, we showed that the absence of functional Pax7 does not prevent the in vitro myogenic differentiation of ESCs. PMID:26649785

  2. Invited Review: Extrinsic regulation of domestic animal-derived myogenic satellite cells II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of myogenic satellite cells was reported some forty-seven years ago, and, since that time, satellite cell research has flourished. So much new information is generated (daily) on these cells that it can be difficult for individuals to keep abreast of important issues related to the act...

  3. Myogenic and metabolic feedback in cerebral autoregulation: Putative involvement of arachidonic acid-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ronan M G

    2016-07-01

    The present paper presents a mechanistic model of cerebral autoregulation, in which the dual effects of the arachidonic acid metabolites 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on vascular smooth muscle mediate the cerebrovascular adjustments to a change in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). 20-HETE signalling in vascular smooth muscle mediates myogenic feedback to changes in vessel wall stretch, which may be modulated by metabolic feedback through EETs released from astrocytes and endothelial cells in response to changes in brain tissue oxygen tension. The metabolic feedback pathway is much faster than 20-HETE-dependent myogenic feedback, and the former thus initiates the cerebral autoregulatory response, while myogenic feedback comprises a relatively slower mechanism that functions to set the basal cerebrovascular tone. Therefore, assessments of dynamic cerebral autoregulation, which may provide information on the response time of the cerebrovasculature, may specifically be used to yield information on metabolic feedback mechanisms, while data based on assessments of static cerebral autoregulation represent the integrated functionality of myogenic and metabolic feedback. PMID:27241246

  4. SOD1 overexpression prevents acute hyperglycemia-induced cerebral myogenic dysfunction: relevance to contralateral hemisphere and stroke outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coucha, Maha; Li, Weiguo; Hafez, Sherif; Abdelsaid, Mohammed; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Fagan, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Admission hyperglycemia (HG) amplifies vascular injury and neurological deficits in acute ischemic stroke, but the mechanisms remain controversial. We recently reported that ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury impairs the myogenic response in both hemispheres via increased nitration. However, whether HG amplifies contralateral myogenic dysfunction and whether loss of tone in the contralateral hemisphere contributes to stroke outcomes remain to be determined. Our hypothesis was that contralateral myogenic dysfunction worsens stroke outcomes after acute hyperglycemic stroke in an oxidative stress-dependent manner. Male wild-type or SOD1 transgenic rats were injected with saline or 40% glucose solution 10 min before surgery and then subjected to 30 min of ischemia/45 min or 24 h of reperfusion. In another set of animals (n = 5), SOD1 was overexpressed only in the contralateral hemisphere by stereotaxic adenovirus injection 2–3 wk before I/R. Myogenic tone and neurovascular outcomes were determined. HG exacerbated myogenic dysfunction in contralateral side only, which was associated with infarct size expansion, increased edema, and more pronounced neurological deficit. Global and selective SOD1 overexpression restored myogenic reactivity in ipsilateral and contralateral sides, respectively, and enhanced neurovascular outcomes. In conclusion, our results show that SOD1 overexpression nullified the detrimental effects of HG on myogenic tone and stroke outcomes and that the contralateral hemisphere may be a novel target for the management of acute hyperglycemic stroke. PMID:25552308

  5. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Mauban, Joseph R H; Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-06-15

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K(+) concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca(2+) waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca(2+) entry and promote vasoconstriction.

  6. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K+ concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca2+ waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca2+ entry and promote vasoconstriction. PMID:25888510

  7. Transplantation of GABAergic cells derived from bioreactor-expanded human neural precursor cells restores motor and cognitive behavioral deficits in a rodent model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Marcus C; Kobayashi, Nao R; Sen, Arindom; Baghbaderani, Behnam A; Sadi, Damaso; Ulalia, Ruperto; Behie, Leo A; Mendez, Ivar

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive dementia, choreiform involuntary movements, and emotional deterioration. Neuropathological features include the progressive degeneration of striatal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. New therapeutic approaches, such as the transplantation of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) to replace damaged or degenerated cells, are currently being investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for utilizing telencephalic hNPCs expanded in suspension bioreactors for cell restorative therapy in a rodent model of HD. hNPCs were expanded in a hydrodynamically controlled and homogeneous environment under serum-free conditions. In vitro analysis revealed that the bioreactor-expanded telencephalic (BET)-hNPCs could be differentiated into a highly enriched population of GABAergic neurons. Behavioral assessments of unilateral striatal quinolinic acid-lesioned rodents revealed a significant improvement in motor and memory deficits following transplantation with GABAergic cells differentiated from BET-hNPCs. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that transplanted BET-hNPCs retained a GABAergic neuronal phenotype without aberrant transdifferentiation or tumor formation, indicating that BET-hNPCs are a safe source of cells for transplantation. This preclinical study has important implications as the transplantation of GABAergic cells derived from predifferentiated BET-hNPCs may be a safe and feasible cell replacement strategy to promote behavioral recovery in HD.

  8. Structural Characterization of the E2 Domain of APL-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans Homolog of Human Amyloid Precursor Protein, and Its Heparin Binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, James T.; Liu, Xuying; Xu, Xiaomeng; Demeler, Borries; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa; Li, Chris; Ha, Ya

    2010-01-01

    The amyloid β-peptide deposit found in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer disease is derived from a large heparin-binding protein precursor APP. The biological function of APP and its homologs is not precisely known. Here we report the x-ray structure of the E2 domain of APL-1, an APP homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, and compare it to the human APP structure. We also describe the structure of APL-1 E2 in complex with sucrose octasulfate, a highly negatively charged disaccharide, which reveals an unexpected binding pocket between the two halves of E2. Based on the crystal structure, we are able to map, using site-directed mutagenesis, a surface groove on E2 to which heparin may bind. Our biochemical data also indicate that the affinity of E2 for heparin is influenced by pH: at pH 5, the binding appears to be much stronger than that at neutral pH. This property is likely caused by histidine residues in the vicinity of the mapped heparin binding site and could be important for the proposed adhesive function of APL-1. PMID:19906646

  9. Structural Characterization of the E2 Domain of APL-1, a C. Elegans Homolog of Human Amyloid Precursor Protein, and its Heparin Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopes, J.; Liu, X; Xu, X; Demeler, B; Folta-Stogniew, E; Li, C; Ha, Y

    2010-01-01

    The amyloid {beta}-peptide deposit found in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer disease is derived from a large heparin-binding protein precursor APP. The biological function of APP and its homologs is not precisely known. Here we report the x-ray structure of the E2 domain of APL-1, an APP homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, and compare it to the human APP structure. We also describe the structure of APL-1 E2 in complex with sucrose octasulfate, a highly negatively charged disaccharide, which reveals an unexpected binding pocket between the two halves of E2. Based on the crystal structure, we are able to map, using site-directed mutagenesis, a surface groove on E2 to which heparin may bind. Our biochemical data also indicate that the affinity of E2 for heparin is influenced by pH: at pH 5, the binding appears to be much stronger than that at neutral pH. This property is likely caused by histidine residues in the vicinity of the mapped heparin binding site and could be important for the proposed adhesive function of APL-1.

  10. Overlapping binding sites of two different transcription factors in the promoter of the human gene for the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Pollwein, P

    1993-01-29

    A four- to fivefold overexpression of the gene for the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) appears to be responsible for the fifty year earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease pathology in DS compared to the normal population. Elucidation of the mechanisms regulating the expression of the human APP gene might therefore be an important step forward in understanding the processes leading to Alzheimer's disease. Recently, an activating DNA fragment proximal to the transcriptional start site of the APP gene was identified, composed of two GC-elements, A and C, both required for full transcriptional activation (1). Here I present evidence that the transcription factor Sp1 can bind to element A and that another specific complex, called C2A, can be observed, which covers a region overlapping with the Sp1 binding site on the APP promoter. Gene transfer experiments with a truncated version of the APP promoter containing mutated binding sites for the factors mentioned above support that at least two different and independent regulatory pathways for APP gene expression might exist. An imbalance between these pathways is proposed to be a putative risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Sodium pump alpha2 subunits control myogenic tone and blood pressure in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Lee, Moo Yeol; Cavalli, Maurizio; Chen, Ling; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Balke, C William; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Patrizia; Hamlyn, John M; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Lingrel, Jerry B; Matteson, Donald R; Wier, W Gil; Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2005-11-15

    A key question in hypertension is: How is long-term blood pressure controlled? A clue is that chronic salt retention elevates an endogenous ouabain-like compound (EOLC) and induces salt-dependent hypertension mediated by Na(+)/Ca(2)(+) exchange (NCX). The precise mechanism, however, is unresolved. Here we study blood pressure and isolated small arteries of mice with reduced expression of Na(+) pump alpha1 (alpha1(+/-)) or alpha2 (alpha2(+/-)) catalytic subunits. Both low-dose ouabain (1-100 nm; inhibits only alpha2) and high-dose ouabain (> or =1 microm; inhibits alpha1) elevate myocyte Ca(2)(+) and constrict arteries from alpha1(+/-), as well as alpha2(+/-) and wild-type mice. Nevertheless, only mice with reduced alpha2 Na(+) pump activity (alpha2(+/-)), and not alpha1 (alpha1(+/-)), have elevated blood pressure. Also, isolated, pressurized arteries from alpha2(+/-), but not alpha1(+/-), have increased myogenic tone. Ouabain antagonists (PST 2238 and canrenone) and NCX blockers (SEA0400 and KB-R7943) normalize myogenic tone in ouabain-treated arteries. Only the NCX blockers normalize the elevated myogenic tone in alpha2(+/-) arteries because this tone is ouabain independent. All four agents are known to lower blood pressure in salt-dependent and ouabain-induced hypertension. Thus, chronically reduced alpha2 activity (alpha2(+/-) or chronic ouabain) apparently regulates myogenic tone and long-term blood pressure whereas reduced alpha1 activity (alpha1(+/-)) plays no persistent role: the in vivo changes in blood pressure reflect the in vitro changes in myogenic tone. Accordingly, in salt-dependent hypertension, EOLC probably increases vascular resistance and blood pressure by reducing alpha2 Na(+) pump activity and promoting Ca(2)(+) entry via NCX in myocytes. PMID:16166162

  12. Vascular ENaC proteins are required for renal myogenic constriction.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Nikki L; Drummond, Heather A

    2005-10-01

    The myogenic response is an essential component of renal blood flow autoregulation and is the inherent ability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to contract in response to increases in intraluminal pressure. Although mechanosensitive ion channels are thought to initiate VSMC stretch-induced contraction, their molecular identity is unknown. Recent reports suggest degenerin/epithelial Na(+) channels (DEG/ENaC) may form mechanotransducers in sensory neurons and VSMCs; however, the role of DEG/ENaC proteins in myogenic constriction of mouse renal arteries has not been established. To test the hypothesis that DEG/ENaC proteins are required for myogenic constriction in renal vessels, we first determined expression of ENaC transcripts and proteins in mouse renal VSMCs. Then, we determined pressure- and agonist-induced constriction and changes in vascular smooth muscle cytosolic Ca(2+) and Na(+) in isolated mouse renal interlobar arteries following DEG/ENaC inhibition with amiloride and benzamil. We detect alpha-, beta-, and gammaENaC transcript and protein expression in cultured mouse renal VSMC. In contrast, we detect only beta- and gamma- but not alphaENaC protein in freshly dispersed mrVMSC. Selective DEG/ENaC inhibition, with low doses of amiloride and benzamil, abolishes pressure-induced constriction and increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) and Na(+) without diminishing agonist-induced responses in isolated mouse interlobar arteries. Our findings indicate that DEG/ENaC proteins are required for myogenic constriction in mouse interlobar arteries and are consistent with our hypothesis that DEG/ENaC proteins may be components of mechanosensitive ion channel complexes required for myogenic vasoconstriction. PMID:15914781

  13. Regulation of myogenic tone and structure of parenchymal arterioles by hypertension and the mineralocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Pires, Paulo W; Jackson, William F; Dorrance, Anne M

    2015-07-01

    Proper perfusion is vital for maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and brain function. Changes in the function and structure of cerebral parenchymal arterioles (PAs) could impair blood flow regulation and increase the risk of cerebrovascular diseases, including dementia and stroke. Hypertension alters the structure and function of large cerebral arteries, but its effects on PAs remain unknown. We hypothesized that hypertension increases myogenic tone and induces inward remodeling in PAs; we further proposed that antihypertensive therapy or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade would reverse the effects of hypertension. PAs from 18-wk-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were isolated and cannulated in a pressure myograph. At 50-mmHg intraluminal pressure, PAs from SHRSP showed higher myogenic tone (%tone: 39.1 ± 1.9 vs. 28.7 ± 2.5%, P < 0.01) and smaller resting luminal diameter (34.7 ± 1.9 vs. 46.2 ± 2.4 μm, P < 0.01) than those from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, through a mechanism that seems to require Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. PAs from SHRSP showed inward remodeling (luminal diameter at 60 mmHg: 55.2 ± 1.4 vs. 75.7 ± 5.1 μm, P < 0.01) and a paradoxical increase in distensibility and compliance. Treatment of SHRSP for 6 wk with antihypertensive therapy reduced PAs' myogenic tone, increased their resting luminal diameter, and prevented inward remodeling. In contrast, treatment of SHRSP for 6 wk with an MR antagonist did not reduce blood pressure or myogenic tone, but prevented inward remodeling. Thus, while hypertensive remodeling of PAs may involve the MR, myogenic tone seems to be independent of MR activity. PMID:25910805

  14. α5-Integrin-mediated cellular signaling contributes to the myogenic response of cerebral resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Colinas, Olaia; Moreno-Domínguez, Alejandro; Zhu, Hai-Lei; Walsh, Emma J; Pérez-García, M Teresa; Walsh, Michael P; Cole, William C

    2015-10-01

    The myogenic response of resistance arterioles and small arteries involving constriction in response to intraluminal pressure elevation and dilation on pressure reduction is fundamental to local blood flow regulation in the microcirculation. Integrins have garnered considerable attention in the context of initiating the myogenic response, but evidence indicative of mechanotransduction by integrin adhesions, for example established changes in tyrosine phosphorylation of key adhesion proteins, has not been obtained to substantiate this interpretation. Here, we evaluated the role of integrin adhesions and associated cellular signaling in the rat cerebral arterial myogenic response using function-blocking antibodies against α5β1-integrins, pharmacological inhibitors of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src family kinase (SFK), an ultra-high-sensitivity western blotting technique, site-specific phosphoprotein antibodies to quantify adhesion and contractile filament protein phosphorylation, and differential centrifugation to determine G-actin levels in rat cerebral arteries at varied intraluminal pressures. Pressure-dependent increases in the levels of phosphorylation of FAK (FAK-Y397, Y576/Y577), SFK (SFK-Y416; Y527 phosphorylation was reduced), vinculin-Y1065, paxillin-Y118 and phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1)-Y783 were detected. Treatment with α5-integrin function-blocking antibodies, FAK inhibitor FI-14 or SFK inhibitor SU6656 suppressed the changes in adhesion protein phosphorylation, and prevented pressure-dependent phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1) at T855 and 20kDa myosin regulatory light chains (LC20) at S19, as well as actin polymerization that are necessary for myogenic constriction. We conclude that mechanotransduction by integrin adhesions and subsequent cellular signaling play a fundamental role in the cerebral arterial myogenic response.

  15. S. macrurus myogenic regulatory factors induce mammalian skeletal muscle differentiation: Evidence for functional conservation of MRFs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Güth, Robert; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Unguez, Graciela A.

    2009-01-01

    The current-producing cells of the electric organ (EO), i.e., electrocytes, in Sternopygus macrurus derive from skeletal muscle fibers. Mature electrocytes are not contractile but they do retain some muscle proteins, are multinucleated, and receive cholinergic innervation. Electrocytes express the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) MyoD, myogenin, Myf5 and MRF4 despite their incomplete muscle phenotype. Although S. macrurus MRFs share functional domains that are highly conserved and their expression is confined to the myogenic lineage, their capability to induce the muscle phenotype has not been determined. To test the functional conservation of S. macrurus MRFs to transcriptionally activate skeletal muscle gene expression and induce the myogenic program, we transiently over-expressed S. macrurus MyoD (SmMyoD) and myogenin (SmMyoG) in mouse C3H/10T1/2 and NIH3T3 embryonic cells. RT-PCR and immunolabeling studies showed that SmMyoD and SmMyoG efficiently can convert these two cell lines into multinucleated myotubes that expressed differentiated muscle markers. The levels of myogenic induction by SmMyoD and SmMyoG were comparable to those obtained with mouse MRF homologs. Furthermore, SmMyoD and SmMyoG proteins were able to induce mouse MyoD and myogenin in C3H/10T1/2 cells. We conclude that S. macrurus MRFs are functionally conserved as they can transcriptionally activate skeletal muscle gene expression and induce the myogenic program in mammalian non-muscle cells. Hence, these data suggest that the partial muscle phenotype of electrocytes is not likely due to differences in the MRF-dependent transcriptional program between skeletal muscle and electric organ. PMID:19598116

  16. Ablation of Prion Protein in Wild Type Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice Does Not Alter The Proteolysis of APP, Levels of Amyloid-β or Pathologic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Baybutt, Herbert; Diack, Abigail B.; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In cellular models PrPC inhibited the action of the β-secretase BACE1 on wild type amyloid precursor protein resulting in a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we have assessed the effect of genetic ablation of PrPC in transgenic mice expressing human wild type amyloid precursor protein (line I5). Deletion of PrPC had no effect on the α- and β-secretase proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) nor on the amount of Aβ38, Aβ40 or Aβ42 in the brains of the mice. In addition, ablation of PrPC did not alter Aβ deposition or histopathology phenotype in this transgenic model. Thus using this transgenic model we could not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that PrPC regulates Aβ production. PMID:27447728

  17. Ablation of Prion Protein in Wild Type Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice Does Not Alter The Proteolysis of APP, Levels of Amyloid-β or Pathologic Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Isobel J; Brown, Deborah; Baybutt, Herbert; Diack, Abigail B; Kellett, Katherine A B; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C; Hooper, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In cellular models PrPC inhibited the action of the β-secretase BACE1 on wild type amyloid precursor protein resulting in a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we have assessed the effect of genetic ablation of PrPC in transgenic mice expressing human wild type amyloid precursor protein (line I5). Deletion of PrPC had no effect on the α- and β-secretase proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) nor on the amount of Aβ38, Aβ40 or Aβ42 in the brains of the mice. In addition, ablation of PrPC did not alter Aβ deposition or histopathology phenotype in this transgenic model. Thus using this transgenic model we could not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that PrPC regulates Aβ production. PMID:27447728

  18. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Using Head Striker Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Kofman, I. S.; Peters, B. T.; Reschke, M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Noohibezanjani, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Seidler, R. D.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last two decades, several studies have been published on the impact of long-duration (i.e., 22 days or longer) spaceflight on the central nervous system (CNS). In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers in flight and post-flight, we are conducting a controlled prospective longitudinal study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor, cognitive, and neural changes. Multiple studies have demonstrated the effects of spaceflight on the vestibular system. One of the supporting tests conducted in this protocol is the Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP) test that provides a unilateral measure of otolith (saccule and utricle) function. A different approach was taken for ocular VEMP (oVEMP) testing using a head striker system (Wackym et al. 2012). The oVEMP is generally considered to be a measure of utricle function. The the otolithic input to the inferior oblique muscle is predominately from the utricular macula. Thus, quantitatively, oVEMP tests utricular function. Another practical extension of these relationships is that the oVEMP reflects the superior vestibular nerve function. Methods: Ground testing was administered on 16 control subjects and for 8 subjects over four repeated sessions spanning 70 days. The oVEMP was elicitied via a hand held striker by a vibrotactile pulse presented at the rate of 1 Hz for 24 seconds on the side of the head as subjects lay supine on a gurney. Subjects were directed to gaze approximately 25 degrees above straight ahead in semi-darkness. For the oVEMP electromyograms will be recorded with active bipolar electrodes (Delsys Inc., Boston, MA) on the infra-orbital ridge 1 cm below the eyelid with a reference electrode on the below the knee cap. The EMG potentials were amplified; band-pass filtered using a BagnoliTM Desktop EMG System (Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA). This EMG signal is sampled at 10 kHz and the data stimulus onset to

  19. OTX2 exhibits cell-context-dependent effects on cellular and molecular properties of human embryonic neural precursors and medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Aiken, Christopher; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Rao, Radhika; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Rampalli, Shravanti; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor and is currently divided into four subtypes based on different genomic alterations, gene expression profiles and response to treatment: WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. This extensive heterogeneity has made it difficult to assess the functional relevance of genes to malignant progression. For example, expression of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox2 (OTX2) is frequently dysregulated in multiple MB variants; however, its role may be subtype specific. We recently demonstrated that neural precursors derived from transformed human embryonic stem cells (trans-hENs), but not their normal counterparts (hENs), resemble Groups 3 and 4 MB in vitro and in vivo. Here, we tested the utility of this model system as a means of dissecting the role of OTX2 in MB using gain- and loss-of-function studies in hENs and trans-hENs, respectively. Parallel experiments with MB cells revealed that OTX2 exerts inhibitory effects on hEN and SHH MB cells by regulating growth, self-renewal and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This was accompanied by decreased expression of pluripotent genes, such as SOX2, and was supported by overexpression of SOX2 in OTX2+ SHH MB and hENs that resulted in significant rescue of self-renewal and cell migration. By contrast, OTX2 is oncogenic and promotes self-renewal of trans-hENs and Groups 3 and 4 MB independent of pluripotent gene expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OTX2 in self-renewal and migration of hENs and MB cells and reveal a cell-context-dependent link between OTX2 and pluripotent genes. Our study underscores the value of human embryonic stem cell derivatives as alternatives to cell lines and heterogeneous patient samples for investigating the contribution of key developmental regulators to MB progression. PMID:26398939

  20. A new method to measure muscle protein synthesis in humans by endogenously introduced d9-leucine and using blood for precursor enrichment determination.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lee; Masters, Haley; Roust, Lori R; Katsanos, Christos S

    2015-08-01

    Enrichment from the easily accessible blood amino acid pool is commonly used as precursor enrichment to calculate rates of muscle protein fractional synthesis in relevant human studies in lieu of the less accessible muscle fluid amino acid pool. However, the accuracy of this approach depends largely on the extent to which there is low discrepancy in free amino acid enrichment between blood and muscle. Steady-state gradient (i.e., ratio) of amino acid enrichment between blood and muscle fluid in the basal state and in response to amino acid infusion were determined in five healthy subjects, and in association with two separate tracers: d9-leucine, introduced endogenously by the metabolism of d10-leucine (i.e., l-[2,3,3,4,5,5,5,6,6,6-(2)H10]leucine) infused in blood, and (13)C6-phenylalanine introduced/infused in blood. The blood-to-muscle fluid amino acid enrichment ratio was lower (P < 0.05) for d9-leucine compared to (13)C6-phenylalanine both before (1.5 ± 0.1 vs. 2.5 ± 0.1) and during (1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1) amino acid infusion. Importantly, the decrease in this ratio in association with the amino acid infusion was considerably less for the d9-leucine than the (13)C6-phenylalanine (-0.38 ± 0.03 vs. -1.29 ± 0.07; P < 0.05). In conclusion, blood d9-leucine enrichment introduced endogenously by intravenous infusion of d10-leucine provides a closer estimate of the muscle fluid amino acid enrichment, and its associated changes, than blood phenylalanine enrichment to calculate rates of muscle protein synthesis in humans. PMID:26243214

  1. A new method to measure muscle protein synthesis in humans by endogenously introduced d9-leucine and using blood for precursor enrichment determination

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lee; Masters, Haley; Roust, Lori R; Katsanos, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment from the easily accessible blood amino acid pool is commonly used as precursor enrichment to calculate rates of muscle protein fractional synthesis in relevant human studies in lieu of the less accessible muscle fluid amino acid pool. However, the accuracy of this approach depends largely on the extent to which there is low discrepancy in free amino acid enrichment between blood and muscle. Steady-state gradient (i.e., ratio) of amino acid enrichment between blood and muscle fluid in the basal state and in response to amino acid infusion were determined in five healthy subjects, and in association with two separate tracers: d9-leucine, introduced endogenously by the metabolism of d10-leucine (i.e., l-[2,3,3,4,5,5,5,6,6,6-2H10]leucine) infused in blood, and 13C6-phenylalanine introduced/infused in blood. The blood-to-muscle fluid amino acid enrichment ratio was lower (P < 0.05) for d9-leucine compared to 13C6-phenylalanine both before (1.5 ± 0.1 vs. 2.5 ± 0.1) and during (1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1) amino acid infusion. Importantly, the decrease in this ratio in association with the amino acid infusion was considerably less for the d9-leucine than the 13C6-phenylalanine (−0.38 ± 0.03 vs. −1.29 ± 0.07; P < 0.05). In conclusion, blood d9-leucine enrichment introduced endogenously by intravenous infusion of d10-leucine provides a closer estimate of the muscle fluid amino acid enrichment, and its associated changes, than blood phenylalanine enrichment to calculate rates of muscle protein synthesis in humans. PMID:26243214

  2. OTX2 exhibits cell-context-dependent effects on cellular and molecular properties of human embryonic neural precursors and medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Aiken, Christopher; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Rao, Radhika; Del Bigio, Marc R; Rampalli, Shravanti; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra

    2015-10-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor and is currently divided into four subtypes based on different genomic alterations, gene expression profiles and response to treatment: WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. This extensive heterogeneity has made it difficult to assess the functional relevance of genes to malignant progression. For example, expression of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox2 (OTX2) is frequently dysregulated in multiple MB variants; however, its role may be subtype specific. We recently demonstrated that neural precursors derived from transformed human embryonic stem cells (trans-hENs), but not their normal counterparts (hENs), resemble Groups 3 and 4 MB in vitro and in vivo. Here, we tested the utility of this model system as a means of dissecting the role of OTX2 in MB using gain- and loss-of-function studies in hENs and trans-hENs, respectively. Parallel experiments with MB cells revealed that OTX2 exerts inhibitory effects on hEN and SHH MB cells by regulating growth, self-renewal and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This was accompanied by decreased expression of pluripotent genes, such as SOX2, and was supported by overexpression of SOX2 in OTX2+ SHH MB and hENs that resulted in significant rescue of self-renewal and cell migration. By contrast, OTX2 is oncogenic and promotes self-renewal of trans-hENs and Groups 3 and 4 MB independent of pluripotent gene expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OTX2 in self-renewal and migration of hENs and MB cells and reveal a cell-context-dependent link between OTX2 and pluripotent genes. Our study underscores the value of human embryonic stem cell derivatives as alternatives to cell lines and heterogeneous patient samples for investigating the contribution of key developmental regulators to MB progression. PMID:26398939

  3. A myogenic precursor cell that could contribute to regeneration in zebrafish and its similarity to the satellite cell.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Ashley L; Gurevich, David B; Currie, Peter D

    2013-09-01

    The cellular basis for mammalian muscle regeneration has been an area of intense investigation over recent decades. The consensus is that a specialized self-renewing stem cell, termed the satellite cell, plays a major role during the process of regeneration in amniotes. How broadly this mechanism is deployed within the vertebrate phylogeny remains an open question. A lack of information on the role of cells analogous to the satellite cell in other vertebrate systems is even more unexpected given the fact that satellite cells were first designated in frogs. An intriguing aspect of this debate is that a number of amphibia and many fish species exhibit epimorphic regenerative processes in specific tissues, whereby regeneration occurs by the dedifferentiation of the damaged tissue, without deploying specialized stem cell populations analogous to satellite cells. Hence, it is feasible that a cellular process completely distinct from that deployed during mammalian muscle regeneration could operate in species capable of epimorphic regeneration. In this minireview, we examine the evidence for the broad phylogenetic distribution of satellite cells. We conclude that, in the vertebrates examined so far, epimorphosis does not appear to be deployed during muscle regeneration, and that analogous cells expressing similar marker genes to satellite cells appear to be deployed during the regenerative process. However, the functional definition of these cells as self-renewing muscle stem cells remains a final hurdle to the definition of the satellite cell as a generic vertebrate cell type.

  4. Changes in expression of the long non-coding RNA FMR4 associate with altered gene expression during differentiation of human neural precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Peschansky, Veronica J.; Pastori, Chiara; Zeier, Zane; Motti, Dario; Wentzel, Katya; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Magistri, Marco; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.; Silva, José P.; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2015-01-01

    CGG repeat expansions in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are responsible for a family of associated disorders characterized by either intellectual disability and autism Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or adult-onset neurodegeneration Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome. However, the FMR1 locus is complex and encodes several long non-coding RNAs, whose expression is altered by repeat expansion mutations. The role of these lncRNAs is thus far unknown; therefore we investigated the functionality of FMR4, which we previously identified. “Full”-length expansions of the FMR1 triplet repeat cause silencing of both FMR1 and FMR4, thus we are interested in potential loss-of-function that may add to phenotypic manifestation of FXS. Since the two transcripts do not exhibit cis-regulation of one another, we examined the potential for FMR4 to regulate target genes at distal genomic loci using gene expression microarrays. We identified FMR4-responsive genes, including the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 4 (MBD4). Furthermore, we found that in differentiating human neural precursor cells, FMR4 expression is developmentally regulated in opposition to expression of both FMR1 (which is expected to share a bidirectional promoter with FMR4) and MBD4. We therefore propose that FMR4’s function is as a gene-regulatory lncRNA and that this transcript may function in normal development. Closer examination of FMR4 increases our understanding of the role of regulatory lncRNA and the consequences of FMR1 repeat expansions. PMID:26322075

  5. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS INDUCES MYOSTATIN PRECURSOR PROTEIN AND NF-κB IN CULTURED HUMAN MUSCLE FIBERS: RELEVANCE TO INCLUSION-BODY MYOSITIS.

    PubMed Central

    Nogalska, Anna; Wojcik, Slawomir; Engel, W. King; McFerrin, Janis; Askanas, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Sporadic-inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) is the most common progressive muscle disease of older persons. It leads to pronounced muscle fiber atrophy and weakness, and there is no successful treatment. We have previously shown that myostatin precursor protein (MstnPP) and myostatin (Mstn) dimer are increased in biopsied s-IBM muscle fibers, and proposed that MstnPP/Mstn increase may contribute to muscle fiber atrophy and weakness in s-IBM patients. Mstn is known to be a negative regulator of muscle-fiber mass. It is synthesized as MstnPP, which undergoes posttranslational processing in the muscle fiber to produce mature, active Mstn. To explore possible mechanisms involved in Mstn abnormalities in s-IBM, in the present study we utilized primary cultures of normal human muscle fibers and experimentally modified the intracellular micro-environment to induce endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-stress, thereby mimicking an important aspect of the s-IBM muscle fiber milieu. ER-stress was induced by treating well-differentiated cultured muscle fibers with either tunicamycin or thapsigargin, both well-established ER-stress inducers. Our results indicate for the first time that the ER-stress significantly increased MstnPP mRNA and protein. The results also suggest that in our system ER-stress activates NF-κB, and we suggest that MstnPP increase occurred through the ER-stress-activated NF-κB. We therefore propose a novel mechanism leading to the Mstn increase in s-IBM. Accordingly, interfering with pathways inducing ER-stress, NF-κB activation, or its action on the MstnPP gene promoter might prevent Mstn increase and provide a new therapeutic approach for s-IBM and, possibly, for muscle atrophy in other neuromuscular diseases. PMID:17261282

  6. Protein nitration impairs the myogenic tone of rat middle cerebral arteries in both ischemic and nonischemic hemispheres after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Coucha, Maha; Li, Weiguo; Johnson, Maribeth H; Fagan, Susan C; Ergul, Adviye

    2013-12-01

    The myogenic response is crucial for maintaining vascular resistance to achieve constant perfusion during pressure fluctuations. Reduced cerebral blood flow has been reported in ischemic and nonischemic hemispheres after stroke. Ischemia-reperfusion injury and the resulting oxidative stress impair myogenic responses in the ischemic hemisphere. Yet, the mechanism by which ischemia-reperfusion affects the nonischemic side is still undetermined. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the myogenic reactivity of cerebral vessels from both hemispheres and whether protein nitration due to excess peroxynitrite production is the underlying mechanism of loss of tone. Male Wistar rats were subjected to sham operation or 30-min middle cerebral artery occlusion/45-min reperfusion. Rats were administered saline, the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)prophyrinato iron (III), or the nitration inhibitor epicatechin at reperfusion. Middle cerebral arteries isolated from another set of control rats were exposed to ex vivo oxygen-glucose deprivation with and without glycoprotein 91 tat (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) or N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Myogenic tone and nitrotyrosine levels were determined. Ischemia-reperfusion injury impaired the myogenic tone of vessels in both hemispheres compared with the sham group (P < 0.001). Vessels exposed to ex vivo oxygen-glucose deprivation experienced a similar loss of myogenic tone. Inhibition of peroxynitrite parent radicals significantly improved the myogenic tone. Peroxynitrite scavenging or inhibition of nitration improved the myogenic tone of vessels from ischemic (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and nonischemic (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) hemispheres. Nitration was significantly increased in both hemispheres versus the sham group and was normalized with epicatechin treatment. In conclusion, ischemia-reperfusion injury impairs

  7. Differentiated evolutionary relationships among chordates from comparative alignments of multiple sequences of MyoD and MyoG myogenic regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Oliani, L C; Lidani, K C F; Gabriel, J E

    2015-10-16

    MyoD and MyoG are transcription factors that have essential roles in myogenic lineage determination and muscle differentiation. The purpose of this study was to compare multiple amino acid sequences of myogenic regulatory proteins to infer evolutionary relationships among chordates. Protein sequences from Mus musculus (P10085 and P12979), human Homo sapiens (P15172 and P15173), bovine Bos taurus (Q7YS82 and Q7YS81), wild pig Sus scrofa (P49811 and P49812), quail Coturnix coturnix (P21572 and P34060), chicken Gallus gallus (P16075 and P17920), rat Rattus norvegicus (Q02346 and P20428), domestic water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (D2SP11 and A7L034), and sheep Ovis aries (Q90477 and D3YKV7) were searched from a non-redundant protein sequence database UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and subsequently analyzed using the Mega6.0 software. MyoD evolutionary analyses revealed the presence of three main clusters with all mammals branched in one cluster, members of the order Rodentia (mouse and rat) in a second branch linked to the first, and birds of the order Galliformes (chicken and quail) remaining isolated in a third. MyoG evolutionary analyses aligned sequences in two main clusters, all mammalian specimens grouped in different sub-branches, and birds clustered in a second branch. These analyses suggest that the evolution of MyoD and MyoG was driven by different pathways.

  8. Differentiated evolutionary relationships among chordates from comparative alignments of multiple sequences of MyoD and MyoG myogenic regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Oliani, L C; Lidani, K C F; Gabriel, J E

    2015-01-01

    MyoD and MyoG are transcription factors that have essential roles in myogenic lineage determination and muscle differentiation. The purpose of this study was to compare multiple amino acid sequences of myogenic regulatory proteins to infer evolutionary relationships among chordates. Protein sequences from Mus musculus (P10085 and P12979), human Homo sapiens (P15172 and P15173), bovine Bos taurus (Q7YS82 and Q7YS81), wild pig Sus scrofa (P49811 and P49812), quail Coturnix coturnix (P21572 and P34060), chicken Gallus gallus (P16075 and P17920), rat Rattus norvegicus (Q02346 and P20428), domestic water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (D2SP11 and A7L034), and sheep Ovis aries (Q90477 and D3YKV7) were searched from a non-redundant protein sequence database UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and subsequently analyzed using the Mega6.0 software. MyoD evolutionary analyses revealed the presence of three main clusters with all mammals branched in one cluster, members of the order Rodentia (mouse and rat) in a second branch linked to the first, and birds of the order Galliformes (chicken and quail) remaining isolated in a third. MyoG evolutionary analyses aligned sequences in two main clusters, all mammalian specimens grouped in different sub-branches, and birds clustered in a second branch. These analyses suggest that the evolution of MyoD and MyoG was driven by different pathways. PMID:26505406

  9. Deregulation of Fragile X-related protein 1 by the lipodystrophic lamin A p.R482W mutation elicits a myogenic gene expression program in preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Anja R; Delbarre, Erwan; Thiede, Bernd; Vigouroux, Corinne; Collas, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    The nuclear lamina is implicated in the regulation of various nuclear functions. Several laminopathy-causing mutations in the LMNA gene, notably the p.R482W substitution linked to familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2), are clustered in the immunoglobulin fold of lamin A. We report a functional association between lamin A and fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1P), a protein of the fragile X-related family involved in fragile X syndrome. Searching for proteins differentially interacting with the immunoglobulin fold of wild-type and R482W mutant lamin A, we identify FXR1P as a novel component of the lamin A protein network. The p.R482W mutation abrogates interaction of FXR1P with lamin A. Fibroblasts from FPLD2 patients display elevated levels of FXR1P and delocalized FXR1P. In human adipocyte progenitors, deregulation of lamin A expression leads to FXR1P up-regulation, impairment of adipogenic differentiation and induction of myogenin expression. FXR1P overexpression also stimulates a myogenic gene expression program in these cells. Our results demonstrate a cross-talk between proteins hitherto implicated in two distinct mesodermal pathologies. We propose a model where the FPLD2 lamin A p.R482W mutation elicits, through up-regulation of FXR1P, a remodeling of an adipogenic differentiation program into a myogenic program.

  10. Selective androgen receptor modulator, YK11, regulates myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by follistatin expression.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Ota, Rumi; Someya, Kousuke; Kusakabe, Taichi; Kato, Keisuke; Inouye, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells is induced by the novel androgen receptor (AR) partial agonist, (17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene)bis-(oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11), as well as by dihydrotestosterone (DHT). YK11 is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), which activates AR without the N/C interaction. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism by which YK11 induces myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. The induction of key myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), such as myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD), myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) and myogenin, was more significant in the presence of YK11 than in the presence of DHT. YK11 treatment of C2C12 cells, but not DHT, induced the expression of follistatin (Fst), and the YK11-mediated myogenic differentiation was reversed by anti-Fst antibody. These results suggest that the induction of Fst is important for the anabolic effect of YK11. PMID:23995658

  11. Common Phenolic Metabolites of Flavonoids, but Not Their Unmetabolized Precursors, Reduce the Secretion of Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecules by Human Endothelial Cells123

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Emily F; Zhang, Qingzhi; Raheem, K Saki; O’Hagan, David; O’Connell, Maria A; Kay, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids have been implicated in the prevention of cardiovascular disease; however, their mechanisms of action have yet to be elucidated, possibly because most previous in vitro studies have used supraphysiological concentrations of unmetabolized flavonoids, overlooking their more bioavailable phenolic metabolites. Objective: We aimed to explore the effects of phenolic metabolites and their precursor flavonoids at physiologically achievable concentrations, in isolation and combination, on soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). Method: Fourteen phenolic acid metabolites and 6 flavonoids were screened at 1 μM for their relative effects on sVCAM-1 secretion by human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The active metabolites were further studied for their response at different concentrations (0.01 μM–100 μM), structure-activity relationships, and effect on vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 mRNA expression. In addition, the additive activity of the metabolites and flavonoids was investigated by screening 25 unique mixtures at cumulative equimolar concentrations of 1 μM. Results: Of the 20 compounds screened at 1 μM, inhibition of sVCAM-1 secretion was elicited by 4 phenolic metabolites, of which protocatechuic acid (PCA) was the most active (−17.2%, P = 0.05). Investigations into their responses at different concentrations showed that PCA significantly reduced sVCAM-1 15.2–36.5% between 1 and 100 μM, protocatechuic acid-3-sulfate and isovanillic acid reduced sVCAM-1 levels 12.2–54.7% between 10 and 100 μM, and protocatechuic acid-4-sulfate and isovanillic acid-3-glucuronide reduced sVCAM-1 secretion 27.6% and 42.8%, respectively, only at 100 μM. PCA demonstrated the strongest protein response and was therefore explored for its effect on VCAM-1 mRNA, where 78.4% inhibition was observed only after treatment with 100 μM PCA. Mixtures of the metabolites showed no

  12. Stabilin-2 modulates the efficiency of myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Yoon; Yun, Youngeun; Lim, Jung-Suk; Kim, Mi-Jin; Kim, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-San

    2016-01-01

    Myoblast fusion is essential for the formation of skeletal muscle myofibres. Studies have shown that phosphatidylserine is necessary for myoblast fusion, but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the phosphatidylserine receptor stabilin-2 acts as a membrane protein for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration. Stabilin-2 expression is induced during myogenic differentiation, and is regulated by calcineurin/NFAT signalling in myoblasts. Forced expression of stabilin-2 in myoblasts is associated with increased myotube formation, whereas deficiency of stabilin-2 results in the formation of small, thin myotubes. Stab2-deficient mice have myofibres with small cross-sectional area and few myonuclei and impaired muscle regeneration after injury. Importantly, myoblasts lacking stabilin-2 have reduced phosphatidylserine-dependent fusion. Collectively, our results show that stabilin-2 contributes to phosphatidylserine-dependent myoblast fusion and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism by which phosphatidylserine mediates myoblast fusion during muscle growth and regeneration. PMID:26972991

  13. Stabilin-2 modulates the efficiency of myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Yoon; Yun, Youngeun; Lim, Jung-Suk; Kim, Mi-Jin; Kim, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-San

    2016-01-01

    Myoblast fusion is essential for the formation of skeletal muscle myofibres. Studies have shown that phosphatidylserine is necessary for myoblast fusion, but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the phosphatidylserine receptor stabilin-2 acts as a membrane protein for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration. Stabilin-2 expression is induced during myogenic differentiation, and is regulated by calcineurin/NFAT signalling in myoblasts. Forced expression of stabilin-2 in myoblasts is associated with increased myotube formation, whereas deficiency of stabilin-2 results in the formation of small, thin myotubes. Stab2-deficient mice have myofibres with small cross-sectional area and few myonuclei and impaired muscle regeneration after injury. Importantly, myoblasts lacking stabilin-2 have reduced phosphatidylserine-dependent fusion. Collectively, our results show that stabilin-2 contributes to phosphatidylserine-dependent myoblast fusion and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism by which phosphatidylserine mediates myoblast fusion during muscle growth and regeneration. PMID:26972991

  14. Dnmt1 regulates the myogenic lineage specification of muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renjing; Kim, Kun-Yong; Jung, Yong-Wook; Park, In-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression. Dnmt1 plays an important role in maintaining DNA methylation patterns on daughter DNA strands. Studies have shed light into the functional role of Dnmt1 regulation in the hematopoietic and epidermal systems. Here we show that Dnmt1 is required for myogenesis. Loss of Dnmt1 results in reduced expression of myogenic genes and defects in myogenic differentiation. We have utilized a conditional knockout mouse approach to examine the functional consequences of Dnmt1 depletion specifically in the developing muscle. These mice were born runted, with smaller body weights, and reduced ability to form myotubes in vitro. We show that expression of Id-1, a negative regulator of myogenesis, is enhanced in Dnmt1-deficient cultures, leading to enhanced transdifferentiation of myoblasts toward the osteogenic lineage. Thus, these studies demonstrate that Dnmt1 influences cellular identity and determines lineage fidelity. PMID:27752090

  15. Myogenic program induction in mature fat tissue (with MyoD expression)

    SciTech Connect

    Kocaefe, Y.C. . E-mail: kocaefe@hacettepe.edu.tr; Israeli, D.; Ozguc, M.; Danos, O.; Garcia, L. . E-mail: garcia@genethon.fr

    2005-08-15

    MyoD exerts a master transcriptional control over the myogenic differentiation cascade. Here, we study different approaches to induce myogenic transdifferentiation in mature adipocytes utilizing MyoD gene transfer. Organotypic cultures of fat tissue and a long-term culture of in vitro differentiated adipocytes deduced that MyoD provoked morphological changes in mature adipocytes that can be summarized as loss of fat content, acquisition of a fusiform shape and eventual fusion with committed neighbor cells. In vivo, MyoD gene transfer into rat interscapular and inguinal fat pads demonstrated that while structural proteins of muscle lineage were expressed, they co-existed with specific adipocyte proteins. Expression of these proteins diminished over time likewise the fat content. The transdifferentiation process initiated by MyoD did not require cell cycle progression and was well tolerated by the fully differentiated and mature adipocytes.

  16. Murine Muscle Engineered from Dermal Precursors: An In Vitro Model for Skeletal Muscle Generation, Degeneration, and Fatty Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    García-Parra, Patricia; Naldaiz-Gastesi, Neia; Maroto, Marcos; Padín, Juan Fernando; Goicoechea, María; Aiastui, Ana; Fernández-Morales, José Carlos; García-Belda, Paula; Lacalle, Jaione; Álava, Jose Iñaki; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; García, Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle can be engineered by converting dermal precursors into muscle progenitors and differentiated myocytes. However, the efficiency of muscle development remains relatively low and it is currently unclear if this is due to poor characterization of the myogenic precursors, the protocols used for cell differentiation, or a combination of both. In this study, we characterized myogenic precursors present in murine dermospheres, and evaluated mature myotubes grown in a novel three-dimensional culture system. After 5–7 days of differentiation, we observed isolated, twitching myotubes followed by spontaneous contractions of the entire tissue-engineered muscle construct on an extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro engineered myofibers expressed canonical muscle markers and exhibited a skeletal (not cardiac) muscle ultrastructure, with numerous striations and the presence of aligned, enlarged mitochondria, intertwined with sarcoplasmic reticula (SR). Engineered myofibers exhibited Na+- and Ca2+-dependent inward currents upon acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation and tetrodotoxin-sensitive spontaneous action potentials. Moreover, ACh, nicotine, and caffeine elicited cytosolic Ca2+ transients; fiber contractions coupled to these Ca2+ transients suggest that Ca2+ entry is activating calcium-induced calcium release from the SR. Blockade by d-tubocurarine of ACh-elicited inward currents and Ca2+ transients suggests nicotinic receptor involvement. Interestingly, after 1 month, engineered muscle constructs showed progressive degradation of the myofibers concomitant with fatty infiltration, paralleling the natural course of muscular degeneration. We conclude that mature myofibers may be differentiated on the ECM from myogenic precursor cells present in murine dermospheres, in an in vitro system that mimics some characteristics found in aging and muscular degeneration. PMID:23631552

  17. Distinct neural circuits control rhythm inhibition and spitting by the myogenic pharynx of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bhatla, Nikhil; Droste, Rita; Sando, Steven R.; Huang, Anne; Horvitz, H. Robert

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Neural circuits have long been known to modulate myogenic muscles such as the heart, yet a mechanistic understanding at the cellular and molecular levels remains limited. We studied how light inhibits pumping of the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx, a myogenic muscular pump for feeding, and found three neural circuits that alter pumping. First, light inhibits pumping via the I2 neuron monosynaptic circuit. Our electron microscopic reconstruction of the anterior pharynx revealed evidence for synapses from I2 onto muscle that were missing from the published connectome, and we show that these "missed synapses" are likely functional. Second, light inhibits pumping through the RIP-I1-MC neuron polysynaptic circuit, in which an inhibitory signal is likely transmitted from outside the pharynx into the pharynx in a manner analogous to how the mammalian autonomic nervous system controls the heart. Third, light causes a novel pharyngeal behavior, reversal of flow or "spitting," which is induced by the M1 neuron. These three neural circuits show that neurons can control a myogenic muscle organ not only by changing the contraction rate but also by altering the functional consequences of the contraction itself, transforming swallowing into spitting. Our observations also illustrate why connectome builders and users should be cognizant that functional synaptic connections might exist despite the absence of a declared synapse in the connectome. PMID:26212880

  18. Myogenic capacity of muscle progenitor cells from head and limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M; Torensma, Ruurd; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2012-02-01

    The restoration of muscles in the soft palate of patients with cleft lip and/or palate is accompanied by fibrosis, which leads to speech and feeding problems. Treatment strategies that improve muscle regeneration have only been tested in limb muscles. Therefore, in the present study the myogenic potential of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) isolated from head muscles was compared with that of limb muscles. Muscle progenitor cells were isolated from the head muscles and limb muscles of rats and cultured. The proliferation of MPCs was analysed by DNA quantification. The differentiation capacity was analysed by quantifying the numbers of fused cells, and by measuring the mRNA levels of differentiation markers. Muscle progenitor cells were stained to quantify the expression of paired box protein Pax 7 (Pax-7), myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD), and myogenin. Proliferation was similar in the head MPCs and the limb MPCs. Differentiating head and limb MPCs showed a comparable number of fused cells and mRNA expression levels of myosin-1 (Myh1), myosin-3 (Myh3), and myosin-4 (Myh4). During proliferation and differentiation, the number of Pax-7(+), MyoD(+), and myogenin(+) cells in head and limb MPCs was equal. It was concluded that head and limb MPCs show similar myogenic capacities in vitro. Therefore, in vivo myogenic differences between those muscles might rely on the local microenvironment. Thus, regenerative strategies for limb muscles might also be used for head muscles.

  19. Correcting myogenic ptosis accompanying extraocular muscle weakness: The "Bobby Pin" procedure.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Swapna; Christianson, Murray D; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-10-01

    This article evaluates the "Bobby Pin" procedure in the correction of myogenic ptosis accompanying extraocular muscle weakness. We retrospectively reviewed 26 eyelids of 13 patients who underwent "Bobby Pin" procedure for myogenic ptosis accompanying extraocular muscle weakness. We evaluated the patients' clinical features such as age, etiology of ptosis, symptoms, standard ptosis measurements, associated systemic diseases, additional ophthalmic conditions, complications, and recurrence. Etiology of myogenic ptosis and extraocular muscle weakness was oculopharyngeal dystrophy in 4 (31%) patients, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia in 4 (31%) patients, myotonic dystrophy in 2 (23%) patients, and idiopathic in 3 (15%) patients. The mean levator function was approximately 5 mm pre- and post-operatively (range 1 to 12 mm). The mean margin-to-reflex distance 1 increased from -1.1 mm (below the light reflex) pre-operatively to +0.4 mm (above the light reflex) post-operatively. After a mean follow-up of 40 months, only 1 (8%) patient experienced ptosis recurrence. Upper eyelids were symmetric in both contour and height in all patients. Mild superficial keratopathy involving less than 10% of cornea was observed in 4 (31%) patients. The "Bobby Pin" procedure is an effective and long-lasting treatment option for correcting acquired ptosis accompanying extraocular muscle weakness. The procedure is safe, simple, easily learned, time- and cost-effective, and does not require any expensive equipment. PMID:27541941

  20. Middle Ear Myoclonus: Two Informative Cases and a Systematic Discussion of Myogenic Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Ellenstein, Aviva; Yusuf, Nadia; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The term middle ear myoclonus (MEM) has been invoked to explain symptoms of tinnitus presumably caused by the dysfunctional movement of either of the two muscles that insert in the middle ear: tensor tympani and stapedius. MEM has been characterized through heterogeneous case reports in the otolaryngology literature, where clinical presentation is variable, phenomenology is scarcely described, the pathogenic muscle is usually not specified, natural history is unknown, and the presumptive definitive treatment, tensor tympani or stapedius tendon lysis, is inconsistently effective. It is not surprising that no unique acoustogenic mechanism or pathophysiologic process has been identified to explain MEM, one of several descriptive diagnoses associated with the complicated disorders of myogenic tinnitus. Methods Here, we explore MEM from the neurologist’s perspective. Following the detailed descriptions of two informative cases from our clinic, we systematically evaluate the different mechanisms and movement disorder phenomena that could lead to a diagnosis of MEM. Results From a functional neuroanatomic perspective, we explain how tensor tympani MEM is best explained as a form of peritubal myogenic tinnitus, similar to the related disorder of essential palatal tremor. From a pathogenic perspective, we discuss how MEM symptomatology may reflect different mechanical and neurologic processes. We emphasize the diagnostic imperative to recognize when myogenic tinnitus is consistent with a psychogenic origin. Discussion Both individual patient care and further elucidation of MEM will rely on more detailed clinical characterization as well as multidisciplinary input from neurology, otolaryngology, and dentistry. PMID:23610741

  1. Stretch-induced myogenic responses of airways after histamine and carbachol.

    PubMed

    Thulesius, O; Mustafa, S

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to determine the possible role of a myogenic response of bronchial smooth muscle in deep inspiration (DI)-induced bronchoconstriction. Model experiments were performed on sheep tracheal strips. The effect of sudden stepwise elongation on isometric tension of tracheal muscle was studied in the absence and presence of the bronchoconstrictors carbachol (10(-8) M) and histamine (10(-4) M). In control strips tension increased rapidly with stretch and was followed by stress relaxation which corresponds to creep or bronchial dilatation. In histamine- and carbachol-treated strips a reactive contraction with a rhythmic pattern interrupted the process of stress relaxation. These responses appeared after only 20% elongation and were characteristic of a myogenic contraction which in the in vivo situation would correspond to a bronchoconstriction. These findings are interpreted as a functional transformation of multiple- to single-unit smooth muscle due to the influence of carbachol and histamine. This suggests that stretching (DI) of bronchial smooth muscle in the presence of carbachol and histamine induces a protracted myogenic contraction, which may explain bronchoconstriction after DI in severe asthma. PMID:8205744

  2. Mitophagy is required for mitochondrial biogenesis and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Jon; Andres, Allen M.; Taylor, David J. R.; Weston, Thomas; Hiraumi, Yoshimi; Stotland, Aleksandr; Kim, Brandon J.; Huang, Chengqun; Doran, Kelly S.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myogenesis is a crucial process governing skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. Differentiation of primitive myoblasts into mature myotubes requires a metabolic switch to support the increased energetic demand of contractile muscle. Skeletal myoblasts specifically shift from a highly glycolytic state to relying predominantly on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) upon differentiation. We have found that this phenomenon requires dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial network involving both mitochondrial clearance and biogenesis. During early myogenic differentiation, autophagy is robustly upregulated and this coincides with DNM1L/DRP1 (dynamin 1-like)-mediated fragmentation and subsequent removal of mitochondria via SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1)-mediated mitophagy. Mitochondria are then repopulated via PPARGC1A/PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha)-mediated biogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1 [autosomal dominant]) is then briskly upregulated, resulting in the reformation of mitochondrial networks. The final product is a myotube replete with new mitochondria. Respirometry reveals that the constituents of these newly established mitochondrial networks are better primed for OXPHOS and are more tightly coupled than those in myoblasts. Additionally, we have found that suppressing autophagy with various inhibitors during differentiation interferes with myogenic differentiation. Together these data highlight the integral role of autophagy and mitophagy in myogenic differentiation. PMID:26566717

  3. Limit-cycle-based control of the myogenic wingbeat rhythm in the fruit fly Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bartussek, Jan; Mutlu, A. Kadir; Zapotocky, Martin; Fry, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    In many animals, rhythmic motor activity is governed by neural limit cycle oscillations under the control of sensory feedback. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the wingbeat rhythm is generated myogenically by stretch-activated muscles and hence independently from direct neural input. In this study, we explored if generation and cycle-by-cycle control of Drosophila's wingbeat are functionally separated, or if the steering muscles instead couple into the myogenic rhythm as a weak forcing of a limit cycle oscillator. We behaviourally tested tethered flying flies for characteristic properties of limit cycle oscillators. To this end, we mechanically stimulated the fly's ‘gyroscopic’ organs, the halteres, and determined the phase relationship between the wing motion and stimulus. The flies synchronized with the stimulus for specific ranges of stimulus amplitude and frequency, revealing the characteristic Arnol'd tongues of a forced limit cycle oscillator. Rapid periodic modulation of the wingbeat frequency prior to locking demonstrates the involvement of the fast steering muscles in the observed control of the wingbeat frequency. We propose that the mechanical forcing of a myogenic limit cycle oscillator permits flies to avoid the comparatively slow control based on a neural central pattern generator. PMID:23282849

  4. Expression of myogenic regulatory factors and myo-endothelial remodeling in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    PubMed Central

    Wanschitz, Julia V.; Dubourg, Odile; Lacene, Emmanuelle; Fischer, Michael B.; Höftberger, Romana; Budka, Herbert; Romero, Norma B.; Eymard, Bruno; Herson, Serge; Butler-Browne, Gillian S.; Voit, Thomas; Benveniste, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Muscle repair relies on coordinated activation and differentiation of satellite cells, a process that is unable to counterbalance progressive degeneration in sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). To explore features of myo regeneration, the expression of myogenic regulatory factors Pax7, MyoD and Myogenin and markers of regenerating fibers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in s-IBM muscle compared with polymyositis, dermatomyositis, muscular dystrophy and age-matched controls. In addition, the capillary density and number of interstitial CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells was determined by double-immunoflourescence staining. Satellite cells and regenerating fibers were significantly increased in s-IBM similar to other inflammatory myopathies and correlated with the intensity of inflammation (R > 0.428). Expression of MyoD, visualizing activated satellite cells and proliferating myoblasts, was lower in s-IBM compared to polymyosits. In contrast, Myogenin a marker of myogenic cell differentiation was strongly up-regulated in s-IBM muscle. The microvascular architecture in s-IBM was distorted, although the capillary density was normal. Notably, CD34+ hematopoietic cells were significantly increased in the interstitial compartment. Our findings indicate profound myo-endothelial remodeling of s-IBM muscle concomitant to inflammation. An altered expression of myogenic regulatory factors involved in satellite cell activation and differentiation, however, might reflect perturbations of muscle repair in s-IBM. PMID:23058947

  5. Premature myogenic differentiation and depletion of progenitor cells cause severe muscle hypotrophy in Delta1 mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Cordes, Ralf; Gossler, Achim

    2007-01-01

    In vertebrates, skeletal myogenesis is initiated by the generation of myoblasts followed by their differentiation to myocytes and the formation of myofibers. The determination of myoblasts and their differentiation are controlled by muscle regulatory factors that are activated at specific stages during myogenesis. During late embryonic and fetal stages a distinct population of resident proliferating progenitor cells is the major source of myogenic cells. How the differentiation of myoblasts and progenitor cells is regulated is not clear. We show that in mouse embryos the Notch ligand Delta1 (Dll1) controls both differentiation of early myoblasts and maintenance of myogenic progenitor cells. Early dermomyotome-derived myoblasts are determined normally in Dll1 mutant embryos, but their differentiation is accelerated, leading to a transient excess of myotomal muscle fibers. Similarly, migratory hypaxial myogenic cells colonize the limb buds and activate muscle regulatory factor expression normally, but muscle differentiation progresses more rapidly. Resident progenitor cells defined by Pax3/Pax7 expression are formed initially, but they are progressively lost and virtually absent at embryonic day 14.5. Muscle growth declines beginning around embryonic day 12, leading to subsequent severe muscle hypotrophy in hypomorphic Dll1 fetuses. We suggest that premature and excessive differentiation leads to depletion of progenitor cells and cessation of muscle growth, and we conclude that Dll1 provides essential signals that are required to prevent uncontrolled differentiation early and ensure sustained muscle differentiation during development. PMID:17194759

  6. Polyimide Precursor Solid Residuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A polyimide precursor solid residuum is an admixture of an aromatic dianhydride or derivative thereof and an aromatic diamine or derivative thereof plus a complexing agent, which is complexed with the admixture by hydrogen bonding. The polyimide precursor solid residuum is effectively employed in the preparation of polyimide foam and the fabrication of polyimide foam structures.

  7. A Functional Interplay between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Residues 77 and 93 Involved in Differential Regulation of Precursor Autoprocessing and Mature Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Counts, Christopher J.; Ho, P. Shing; Donlin, Maureen J.; Tavis, John E.; Chen, Chaoping

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is a viral enzyme vital to the production of infectious virions. It is initially synthesized as part of the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor in the infected cell. The free mature PR is liberated as a result of precursor autoprocessing upon virion release. We previously described a model system to examine autoprocessing in transfected mammalian cells. Here, we report that a covariance analysis of miniprecursor (p6*-PR) sequences derived from drug naïve patients identified a series of amino acid pairs that vary together across independent viral isolates. These covariance pairs were used to build the first topology map of the miniprecursor that suggests high levels of interaction between the p6* peptide and the mature PR. Additionally, several PR-PR covariance pairs are located far from each other (>12 Å Cα to Cα) relative to their positions in the mature PR structure. Biochemical characterization of one such covariance pair (77–93) revealed that each residue shows distinct preference for one of three alkyl amino acids (V, I, and L) and that a polar or charged amino acid at either of these two positions abolishes precursor autoprocessing. The most commonly observed 77V is preferred by the most commonly observed 93I, but the 77I variant is preferred by other 93 variances (L, V, or M) in supporting precursor autoprocessing. Furthermore, the 77I93V covariant enhanced precursor autoprocessing and Gag polyprotein processing but decreased the mature PR activity. Therefore, both covariance and biochemical analyses support a functional association between residues 77 and 93, which are spatially distant from each other in the mature PR structure. Our data also suggests that these covariance pairs differentially regulate precursor autoprocessing and the mature protease activity. PMID:25893662

  8. A Functional Interplay between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Residues 77 and 93 Involved in Differential Regulation of Precursor Autoprocessing and Mature Protease Activity.

    PubMed

    Counts, Christopher J; Ho, P Shing; Donlin, Maureen J; Tavis, John E; Chen, Chaoping

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is a viral enzyme vital to the production of infectious virions. It is initially synthesized as part of the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor in the infected cell. The free mature PR is liberated as a result of precursor autoprocessing upon virion release. We previously described a model system to examine autoprocessing in transfected mammalian cells. Here, we report that a covariance analysis of miniprecursor (p6*-PR) sequences derived from drug naïve patients identified a series of amino acid pairs that vary together across independent viral isolates. These covariance pairs were used to build the first topology map of the miniprecursor that suggests high levels of interaction between the p6* peptide and the mature PR. Additionally, several PR-PR covariance pairs are located far from each other (>12 Å Cα to Cα) relative to their positions in the mature PR structure. Biochemical characterization of one such covariance pair (77-93) revealed that each residue shows distinct preference for one of three alkyl amino acids (V, I, and L) and that a polar or charged amino acid at either of these two positions abolishes precursor autoprocessing. The most commonly observed 77V is preferred by the most commonly observed 93I, but the 77I variant is preferred by other 93 variances (L, V, or M) in supporting precursor autoprocessing. Furthermore, the 77I93V covariant enhanced precursor autoprocessing and Gag polyprotein processing but decreased the mature PR activity. Therefore, both covariance and biochemical analyses support a functional association between residues 77 and 93, which are spatially distant from each other in the mature PR structure. Our data also suggests that these covariance pairs differentially regulate precursor autoprocessing and the mature protease activity.

  9. Yeast secretory expression of insulin precursors.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, T

    2000-09-01

    Since the 1980s, recombinant human insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has been produced using either the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the prokaryote Escherichia coli. Here, development of the insulin secretory expression system in S. cerevisiae and its subsequent optimisation is described. Expression of proinsulin in S. cerevisiae does not result in efficient secretion of proinsulin or insulin. However, expression of a cDNA encoding a proinsulin-like molecule with deletion of threonine(B30) as a fusion protein with the S. cerevisiae alpha-factor prepro-peptide (leader), followed either by replacement of the human proinsulin C-peptide with a small C-peptide (e.g. AAK), or by direct fusion of lysine(B29) to glycine(A1), results in the efficient secretion of folded single-chain proinsulin-like molecules to the culture supernatant. The secreted single-chain insulin precursor can then be purified and subsequently converted to human insulin by tryptic transpeptidation in organic aqueous medium in the presence of a threonine ester. The leader confers secretory competence to the insulin precursor, and constructed (synthetic) leaders have been developed for efficient secretory expression of the insulin precursor in the yeasts S. cerevisiae and Pichia pastories. The Kex2 endoprotease, specific for dibasic sites, cleaves the leader-insulin precursor fusion protein in the late secretory pathway and the folded insulin precursor is secreted to the culture supernatant. However, the Kex2 endoprotease processing of the pro-peptide-insulin precursor fusion protein is incomplete and a significant part of the pro-peptide-insulin precursor fusion protein is secreted to the culture supernatant in a hyperglycosylated form. A spacer peptide localised between the leader and the insulin precursor has been developed to optimise Kex2 endoprotease processing and insulin precursor fermentation yield. PMID:11030562

  10. Studies of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. I. Evidence using novel monoclonal antibodies that most human LAK precursor cells share a common surface marker

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Separation of LAK precursor (LAKp) cells (as defined by LAK effector generation after incubation with IL-2 for 7 d) from cells with NK activity/LGL morphology was achieved on Percoll gradients using a longer, slower centrifugation than that used for optimal NK enrichment. mAb were generated using the various Percoll fractions as the immunizing cells and used for separation and depletion studies. Two mAbs DM-1 (IgM,k) and DM-2 (IgM,k) recognizing 2-15% and 15-30% of PBL, respectively, abrogated a large proportion of LAK generative potential after complement depletion, but had little effect on NK or LAK effector activity. Cell sorting experiments indicated that the majority of LAKp cells are found within the DM-1+ population and that DM-1+ cells are not simply an accessory cell required for LAKp generation. Further, these two mAbs do not recognize cells that are responsible for generating cytotoxicity during MLC or co-culture with the PR-1 EBV lymphoblastoid cell line. Western blot analysis indicated that DM-1 and DM-2 recognize a 38,000 and 44,000 dalton moiety, respectively. The frequency of cells bearing these antigens and the intensity of cell surface staining decreased during the 7-d culture period, suggesting that these antibodies recognize determinants found only at the precursor level. These findings indicate that cells other than NK effectors or mature T cells are capable of generating a LAK cell response. These LAK precursor cells share a common differentiation surface antigen and are different from AK or antigen-specific CTL precursors. The possibility exists that these cells are identical to, or include, the NK precursor cell. PMID:2784480

  11. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  12. Effect of anthocyanidins on myogenic differentiation in induced and non-induced primary myoblasts from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Villasante, Alejandro; Powell, Madison S; Murdoch, Gordon K; Overturf, Ken; Cain, Kenneth; Wacyk, Jurij; Hardy, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to test whether an anthocyanidin mixture (peonidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin chloride) modulates myogenesis in both induced and non-induced myogenic cells from juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We evaluated three different anthocyanidin concentrations (1×, 2.5× and 10×) at two sampling times (24 and 36h). To test for treatment effects, we analyzed the expression of myoD and pax7 as well as two target genes of the Notch signaling pathway, hey2 and her6. In induced myogenic cells, the lowest and middle anthocyanidin doses caused significantly greater expression of myoD after 24h of treatment compared to control. A significantly higher expression of pax7 in cells exposed to either anthocyanidin treatment during 36h compared was observed. Similarly, the pax7/myoD ratio was significantly lower in cells exposed to the lowest anthocyanidin doses during 24h compared to control. No significant effect of anthocyanidin treatments on the expression of hey2 and her6 at either sampling point was detected. In non-induced cells, we observed no effect of anthocyanidins on myoD expression and significant down-regulation on pax7 expression in cells exposed to either anthocyanidin mixture concentrations after 24 and 36h of treatment compared to control. Further, the pax7/myoD ratio was significantly lower in cells exposed to either anthocyanidin doses at both sampling time. In non-induced cells, the highest anthocyanidin dose provoked significantly greater expression of hey2 after 24h of treatment compared to control. We detected no such effect in non-induced cells exposed to the lowest and middle anthocyanidin doses during 24h of treatment. The expression of her6 was unaffected by anthocyanidin treatments at either sampling time or doses compared to control. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that anthocyanidins modulate specific components of the myogenic programming in fish, thereby potentially affecting somatic growth in fish fed

  13. Redox signaling via oxidative inactivation of PTEN modulates pressure-dependent myogenic tone in rat middle cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Debebe; Terashvili, Maia; Wickramasekera, Nadi; Zhang, David X; Rau, Nicole; Miura, Hiroto; Harder, David R

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the level of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and roles of inactivation of the phosphatase PTEN and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in response to an increase in intramural pressure-induced myogenic cerebral arterial constriction. Step increases in intraluminal pressure of cannulated cerebral arteries induced myogenic constriction and concomitant formation of superoxide (O2 (.-)) and its dismutation product hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as determined by fluorescent HPLC analysis, microscopic analysis of intensity of dihydroethidium fluorescence and attenuation of pressure-induced myogenic constriction by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger 4,hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine1-oxyl (tempol) or Mito-tempol or MitoQ in the presence or absence of PEG-catalase. An increase in intraluminal pressure induced oxidation of PTEN and activation of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition of endogenous PTEN activity potentiated pressure-dependent myogenic constriction and caused a reduction in NPo of a 238 pS arterial KCa channel current and an increase in [Ca(2+)]i level in freshly isolated cerebral arterial muscle cells (CAMCs), responses that were attenuated by Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings demonstrate an increase in intraluminal pressure induced increase in ROS production triggered redox-sensitive signaling mechanism emanating from the cross-talk between oxidative inactivation of PTEN and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that involves in the regulation of pressure-dependent myogenic cerebral arterial constriction.

  14. The effect of nutritional status and myogenic satellite cell age on turkey satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and expression of myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors and heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Laura B; McFarland, Douglas C; Velleman, Sandra G

    2014-01-01

    Posthatch satellite cell mitotic activity is a critical component of muscle development and growth. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be induced by nutrition to follow other cellular developmental pathways, and whose mitotic activity declines with age. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of restricting protein synthesis on the proliferation and differentiation, expression of myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, and myogenic regulatory factor 4, and expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1 in satellite cells isolated from 1-d-, 7-wk-, and 16-wk-old turkey pectoralis major muscle (1 d, 7 wk, and 16 wk cells, respectively) by using variable concentrations of Met and Cys. Four Met concentrations-30 (control), 7.5, 3, or 0 mg/L with 3.2 mg/L of Cys per 1 mg/L of Met-were used for culture of satellite cells to determine the effect of nutrition and age on satellite cell behavior during proliferation and differentiation. Proliferation was reduced by lower Met and Cys concentrations in all ages at 96 h of proliferation. Differentiation was increased in the 1 d Met-restricted cells, whereas the 7 wk cells treated with 3 mg/L of Met had decreased differentiation. Reduced Met and Cys levels from the control did not significantly affect the 16 wk cells at 72 h of differentiation. However, medium with no Met or Cys suppressed differentiation at all ages. The expression of myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor 4, syndecan-4, and glypican-1 was differentially affected by age and Met or Cys treatment. These data demonstrate the age-specific manner in which turkey pectoralis major muscle satellite cells respond to nutritional availability and the importance of defining optimal nutrition to maximize satellite cell proliferation and differentiation for subsequent muscle mass accretion.

  15. MEK1 plays contrary stage-specific roles in skeletal myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chulman; Jang, Bong Geom; Jo, Sangmee Ahn

    2009-12-01

    The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in skeletal myogenesis has been reported to be both stimulatory and inhibitory. We propose that this discrepancy may arise from the stage-specific, different roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1). We found that the phosphorylated MEK1 level of differentiating C2C12 cells was low on day 1 (early-stage) and reached a maximum on days 2-3 (mid-stage). Cells treated at early stage with the MEK-specific inhibitors, PD184352 and U0126, reduced both the MHC protein level and MCK promoter activity, demonstrating that high MEK1 activity at the mid-stage is required for myogenic differentiation. In contrast, treatment with the ERK-specific inhibitors, FR180204 and ERK inhibitor I, had no effect. However, because the sustained overexpression of constitutively active MEK1 inhibits myogenic differentiation, we further analyzed the stage-specific role of MEK1 using the Tet-Off expression system. The results demonstrated that myogenic differentiation was inhibited if active MEK1 expression was induced earlier than day 1 in differentiation condition, but stimulated if induced after that, demonstrating that activated MEK1 plays differential roles depending on activation time. In addition, the induction of active MEK1 at 12h enhanced the Id2 protein level, while the induction at 36h resulted in reduction. Thus, MEK1 plays stage-specific and contrary roles in myogenesis, and MEK1 activated at the mid-stage promotes muscle differentiation independent of ERK.

  16. Gender differences in myogenic regulation along the vascular tree of the gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Katrin; Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri; Wier, Withrow Gil; Wangemann, Philine

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of cochlear blood flow is critical for hearing due to its exquisite sensitivity to ischemia and oxidative stress. Many forms of hearing loss such as sensorineural hearing loss and presbyacusis may involve or be aggravated by blood flow disorders. Animal experiments and clinical outcomes further suggest that there is a gender preference in hearing loss, with males being more susceptible. Autoregulation of cochlear blood flow has been demonstrated in some animal models in vivo, suggesting that similar to the brain, blood vessels supplying the cochlea have the ability to control flow within normal limits, despite variations in systemic blood pressure. Here, we investigated myogenic regulation in the cochlear blood supply of the Mongolian gerbil, a widely used animal model in hearing research. The cochlear blood supply originates at the basilar artery, followed by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and inside the inner ear, by the spiral modiolar artery and the radiating arterioles that supply the capillary beds of the spiral ligament and stria vascularis. Arteries from male and female gerbils were isolated and pressurized using a concentric pipette system. Diameter changes in response to increasing luminal pressures were recorded by laser scanning microscopy. Our results show that cochlear vessels from male and female gerbils exhibit myogenic regulation but with important differences. Whereas in male gerbils, both spiral modiolar arteries and radiating arterioles exhibited pressure-dependent tone, in females, only radiating arterioles had this property. Male spiral modiolar arteries responded more to L-NNA than female spiral modiolar arteries, suggesting that NO-dependent mechanisms play a bigger role in the myogenic regulation of male than female gerbil cochlear vessels.

  17. Carp myogens of white and red muscles. General composition and isolation of low-molecular-weight components of abnormal amino acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Hamoir, G.; Konosu, S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The general composition of the carp myogens of white and red muscles was examined by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. 2. Eight and nine peaks were found in the electrophoretic analysis at pH7·3 and I0·075 of white and red muscle respectively. Lowering of the pH to 5 or 6 did not increase the number of peaks. The electrophoretic pattern of white-muscle myogen was remarkably different from that of red-muscle myogen, though ultracentrifugal analyses of the both types of myogen gave similar diagrams, in which about one-third of the total myogen sedimented slowly. 3. The pH–mobility curves of the myogen of white muscle indicated that the net charges of the components 2, 3 and 5 vary only slightly within the pH range 7·3–5·4, suggesting that their histidine content is very low. 4. The slow-sedimenting fraction of white-muscle myogen was isolated in fairly good yield by ammonium sulphate fractionation, by taking advantage of their high salting-out range, and the fraction was shown to be composed mainly of components 2, 3 and 5. 5. The same method of fractionation was applied to red-muscle myogen and the absence of the three components was confirmed. These results bring to light a new difference between the two types of fish muscle. PMID:14343157

  18. A Natural Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor Autocrine Loop in Myoblast Cells and the Effect of the Constitutive Met Kinase Activation on Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, Sergio; Giordano, Silvia; Sthandier, Olga; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Maione, Rossella; Comoglio, Paolo; Amati, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    As a rule, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is produced by mesenchymal cells, while its receptor, the tyrosine kinase encoded by the met proto-oncogene, is expressed by the neighboring epithelial cells in a canonical paracrine fashion. In the present work we show that both HGF/SF and met are coexpressed by undifferentiated C2 mouse myoblasts. In growing cells, the autocrine loop is active as the receptor exhibits a constitutive phosphorylation on tyrosine that can be abrogated by exogenously added anti-HGF/SF neutralizing antibodies. The transcription of HGF/SF and met genes is downregulated when myoblasts stop proliferating and differentiate. The coexpression of HGF/SF and met genes is not exclusive to C2 cells since it has been assessed also in other myogenic cell lines and in mouse primary satellite cells, suggesting that HGF/SF could play a role in muscle development through an autocrine way. To analyze the biological effects of HGF/SF receptor activation, we stably expressed the constitutively activated receptor catalytic domain (p65tpr-met) in C2 cells. This active kinase determined profound changes in cell shape and inhibited myogenesis at both morphological and biochemical levels. Notably, a complete absence of muscle regulatory markers such as MyoD and myogenin was observed in p65tpr-met highly expressing C2 clones. We also studied the effects of the ectopic expression of human isoforms of met receptor (h-met) and of HGF/SF (h-HGF/SF) in stable transfected C2 cells. Single constitutive expression of h-met or h-HGF/SF does not alter substantially the growth and differentiation properties of the myoblast cells, probably because of a species-specific ligand–receptor interaction. A C2 clone expressing simultaneously both h-met and h-HGF/SF is able to grow in soft agar and shows a decrease in myogenic potential comparable to that promoted by p65tpr-met kinase. These data indicate that a met kinase signal released from differentiation

  19. Identification of Desirable Precursor Properties for Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

    2011-06-01

    In solution precursor plasma spray chemical precursor solutions are injected into a standard plasma torch and the final material is formed and deposited in a single step. This process has several attractive features, including the ability to rapidly explore new compositions and to form amorphous and metastable phases from molecularly mixed precursors. Challenges include: (a) moderate deposition rates due to the need to evaporate the precursor solvent, (b) dealing on a case by case basis with precursor characteristics that influence the spray process (viscosity, endothermic and exothermic reactions, the sequence of physical states through which the precursor passes before attaining the final state, etc.). Desirable precursor properties were identified by comparing an effective precursor for yttria-stabilized zirconia with four less effective candidate precursors for MgO:Y2O3. The critical parameters identified were a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and highly dense resultant particles.

  20. Bit-1 is an essential regulator of myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Genevieve S; Doe, Jinger; Jijiwa, Mayumi; Van Ry, Pam; Cruz, Vivian; de la Vega, Michelle; Ramos, Joe W; Burkin, Dean J; Matter, Michelle L

    2015-05-01

    Muscle differentiation requires a complex signaling cascade that leads to the production of multinucleated myofibers. Genes regulating the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway also function in controlling cell differentiation. How such signaling pathways are regulated during differentiation is not fully understood. Bit-1 (also known as PTRH2) mutations in humans cause infantile-onset multisystem disease with muscle weakness. We demonstrate here that Bit-1 controls skeletal myogenesis through a caspase-mediated signaling pathway. Bit-1-null mice exhibit a myopathy with hypotrophic myofibers. Bit-1-null myoblasts prematurely express muscle-specific proteins. Similarly, knockdown of Bit-1 expression in C2C12 myoblasts promotes early differentiation, whereas overexpression delays differentiation. In wild-type mice, Bit-1 levels increase during differentiation. Bit-1-null myoblasts exhibited increased levels of caspase 9 and caspase 3 without increased apoptosis. Bit-1 re-expression partially rescued differentiation. In Bit-1-null muscle, Bcl-2 levels are reduced, suggesting that Bcl-2-mediated inhibition of caspase 9 and caspase 3 is decreased. Bcl-2 re-expression rescued Bit-1-mediated early differentiation in Bit-1-null myoblasts and C2C12 cells with knockdown of Bit-1 expression. These results support an unanticipated yet essential role for Bit-1 in controlling myogenesis through regulation of Bcl-2.

  1. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Cui, Jian; Ning, Jiao-nin; Wang, Guan-song; Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo; Qian, Gui-sheng; Lu, Kai-zhi; Yi, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-α-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-α-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • CBDL-rat serum promotes the myogenic

  2. Flavonoid metabolites reduce tumor necrosis factor‐α secretion to a greater extent than their precursor compounds in human THP‐1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    di Gesso, Jessica L.; Kerr, Jason S.; Zhang, Qingzhi; Raheem, Saki; Yalamanchili, Sai Krishna; O'Hagan, David; Kay, Colin D.; O'Connell, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    1 Scope Flavonoids are generally studied in vitro, in isolation, and as unmetabolized precursor structures. However, in the habitual diet, multiple flavonoids are consumed together and found present in the circulation as complex mixtures of metabolites. Using a unique study design, we investigated the potential for singular or additive anti‐inflammatory effects of flavonoid metabolites relative to their precursor structures. 2 Methods and results Six flavonoids, 14 flavonoid metabolites, and 29 combinations of flavonoids and their metabolites (0.1–10 μM) were screened for their ability to reduce LPS‐induced tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) secretion in THP‐1 monocytes. One micromolar peonidin‐3‐glucoside, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside, and the metabolites isovanillic acid (IVA), IVA‐glucuronide, vanillic acid‐glucuronide, protocatechuic acid‐3‐sulfate, and benzoic acid‐sulfate significantly reduced TNF‐α secretion when in isolation, while there was no effect on TNF‐α mRNA expression. Four combinations of metabolites that included 4‐hydroxybenzoic acid (4HBA) and/or protocatechuic acid also significantly reduced TNF‐α secretion to a greater extent than the precursors or metabolites alone. The effects on LPS‐induced IL‐1β and IL‐10 secretion and mRNA expression were also examined. 4HBA significantly reduced IL‐1β secretion but none of the flavonoids or metabolites significantly modified IL‐10 secretion. 3 Conclusion This study provides novel evidence suggesting flavonoid bioactivity results from cumulative or additive effects of circulating metabolites. PMID:25801720

  3. Derivation of a continuous myogenic cell culture from an embryo of common killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Sarah J; Vo, Nguyen T K; Mikhaeil, Michael S; Alexander, J Andrew N; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Schulte, Patricia M; Lee, Lucy E J

    2014-09-01

    The common killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an estuarine teleost increasingly used in comparative physiology, toxicology and embryology. Their ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions and ease of maintenance has made them popular aquatic research organisms. Scientific advances with most popular model organisms have been assisted with the availability of continuous cell lines; however, cell lines from F. heteroclitus appear to be unavailable. The development of a killifish cell line, KFE-5, derived from the mid trunk region of a late stage embryo is described here. KFE-5 grows well in Leibovitz's L-15 media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been passaged over 60 times in a span of three years, and cells at various passages have been successfully cryopreserved and thawed. The cells are mostly fibroblastic but contain myogenic cells that differentiate into mono-, bi- and multi-nucleated striated myocytes. Immunofluorescence detection of muscle specific antigens such as α-actinin, desmin, and myosin confirms KFE-5 as a myogenic cell line. KFE-5 has a temperature preference for 26-28°C and has been shown to withstand temperatures up to 37°C. The cell line responds to chemical signals including growth factors, hormones and extracellular matrix components. KFE-5 could thus be useful not only for mummichog's thermobiology but also for studies in fish muscle physiology and development. PMID:24836542

  4. Activation of Wnt3a signaling promotes myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yan-chang; Wang, Shu-hui; Xiong, Fu; Peng, Fu-ning; Liu, Zhen-shan; Geng, Jia; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic muscular disorder with no effective treatment at present. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been used to treat DMD, but the efficiency is low. Our previous studies show that activation of Wnt3a signaling promotes myogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. Here we report an effective MSC transplantation therapy in mdx mice by activation of Wnt3a signaling. Methods: MSCs were isolated from mouse bone marrow, and pretreated with Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM), then transplanted into mdx mice. The recipient mice were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after the transplantation, and muscle pathological changes were examined. The expression of dystrophin in muscle was detected using immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: Sixteen weeks later, transplantation of Wnt3a-pretreated MSCs in mdx mice improved the characteristics of dystrophic muscles evidenced by significant reductions in centrally nucleated myofibers, the variability range of cross-sectional area (CSA) and the connective tissue area of myofibers. Furthermore, transplantation of Wnt3a-pretreated MSCs in mdx mice gradually and markedly increased the expression of dystrophin in muscle, and improved the efficiency of myogenic differentiation. Conclusion: Transplantation of Wnt3a-pretreated MSCs in mdx mice results in long-term amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype and restores dystrophin expression in muscle. The results suggest that Wnt3a may be a promising candidate for the treatment of DMD. PMID:27133298

  5. Myogenic regulatory factors during regeneration of skeletal muscle in young, adult, and old rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, D. R.; Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1997-01-01

    Myogenic factor mRNA expression was examined during muscle regeneration after bupivacaine injection in Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats aged 3, 18, and 31 mo of age (young, adult, and old, respectively). Mass of the tibialis anterior muscle in the young rats had recovered to control values by 21 days postbupivacaine injection but in adult and old rats remained 40% less than that of contralateral controls at 21 and 28 days of recovery. During muscle regeneration, myogenin mRNA was significantly increased in muscles of young, adult, and old rats 5 days after bupivacaine injection. Subsequently, myogenin mRNA levels in young rat muscle decreased to postinjection control values by day 21 but did not return to control values in 28-day regenerating muscles of adult and old rats. The expression of MyoD mRNA was also increased in muscles at day 5 of regeneration in young, adult, and old rats, decreased to control levels by day 14 in young and adult rats, and remained elevated in the old rats for 28 days. In summary, either a diminished ability to downregulate myogenin and MyoD mRNAs in regenerating muscle occurs in old rat muscles, or the continuing myogenic effort includes elevated expression of these mRNAs.

  6. Molecular Basis for the Regulation of Transcriptional Coactivator p300 in Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihong; Wang, Yingjian; Hamed, Munerah; Lacroix, Natascha; Li, Qiao

    2015-09-10

    Skeletal myogenesis is a highly ordered process which specifically depends on the function of transcriptional coactivator p300. Previous studies have established that Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), a positive regulator of p300 in proliferating cells, is also important for proper skeletal muscle development. Nevertheless, it is not clear as to how the p300 is regulated by myogenic signaling events given that both p300 and Akt are involved in many cellular processes. Our studies revealed that the levels of p300 protein are temporally maintained in ligand-enhanced skeletal myocyte development. Interestingly, this maintenance of p300 protein is observed at the stage of myoblast differentiation, which coincides with an increase in Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, regulation of p300 during myoblast differentiation appears to be mediated by Akt signaling. Blunting of p300 impairs myogenic expression and myoblast differentiation. Thus, our data suggests a particular role for Akt in myoblast differentiation through interaction with p300. Our studies also establish the potential of exploiting p300 regulation and Akt activation to decipher the complex signaling cascades involved in skeletal muscle development.

  7. Assessing Myogenic Response and Vasoactivity In Resistance Mesenteric Arteries Using Pressure Myography.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Rachakonda, Vikrant; Bagi, Zsolt; Khurana, Sandeep

    2015-07-06

    Small resistance arteries constrict and dilate respectively in response to increased or decreased intraluminal pressure; this phenomenon known as myogenic response is a key regulator of local blood flow. In isobaric conditions small resistance arteries develop sustained constriction known as myogenic tone (MT), which is a major determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Hence, ex vivo pressurized preparations of small resistance arteries are major tools to study microvascular function in near-physiological states. To achieve this, a freshly isolated intact segment of a small resistance artery (diameter ~260 μm) is mounted onto two small glass cannulas and pressurized. These arterial preparations retain most in vivo characteristics and permit assessment of vascular tone in real-time. Here we provide a detailed protocol for assessing vasoactivity in pressurized small resistance mesenteric arteries from rats; these arteries develop sustained vasoconstriction - approximately 25% of maximal diameter - when pressurized at 70 mmHg. These arterial preparations may be used to study the effect of investigational compounds on relationship between intra-arterial pressure and vasoactivity and determine changes in microvascular function in animal models of various diseases.

  8. Accuracy of the surface electromyography RMS processing for the diagnosis of myogenous temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Berni, Kelly Cristina dos Santos; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Pires, Paulo Fernandes; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2015-08-01

    Due to the multifactor etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), the precise diagnosis remains a matter of debate and validated diagnostic tools are needed. The aim was to determine the accuracy of surface electromyography (sEMG) activity, assessed in the amplitude domain by the root mean square (RMS), in the diagnosis of TMD. One hundred twenty-three volunteers were evaluated using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and distributed into two groups: women with myogenous TMD (n=80) and women without TMD (n=43). The volunteers were then submitted to sEMG evaluation of the anterior temporalis, masseter and suprahyoid muscles at rest and during maximum voluntary teeth clenching (MVC) on parafilm. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the muscle activity were analyzed. Differences between groups were found in all muscles analyzed at rest as well as in the masseter and suprahyoid muscles during MVC on parafilm. Moderate accuracy (AUC: 0.74-0.84) of the RMS sEMG was found in all muscles regarding the diagnosis of TMD at rest and in the suprahyoid muscles during MVC on parafilm. Moreover, sensitivity ranging from 71.3% to 80% and specificity from 60.5% to 76.6%. In contrast, RMS sEMG did not exhibit acceptable degrees of accuracy in the other masticatory muscles during MVC on parafilm. It was concluded that the RMS sEMG is a complementary tool for clinical diagnosis of the myogenous TMD.

  9. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yu; Wong, Nicholas; Guan, Yinghui; Salamanca, Clara M.; Cheng, Jung Chien; Lee, Jonathan M.; Gray, Joe W.; Auersperg, Nelly

    2008-04-25

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OEC) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We defined the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities, and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.

  10. Fetzima (levomilnacipran), a drug for major depressive disorder as a dual inhibitor for human serotonin transporters and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Khan, Mahiuddin; Biswas, Deboshree; Hameed, Nida; Shakil, Shazi

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological management of Major Depressive Disorder includes the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors which targets serotonin transporters (SERT) to increase the synaptic concentrations of serotonin. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) is responsible for amyloid β plaque formation. Hence it is an interesting target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. This study describes molecular interactions of a new Food and Drug Administration approved antidepressant drug named 'Fetzima' with BACE-1 and SERT. Fetzima is chemically known as levomilnacipran. The study has explored a possible link between the treatment of Depression and AD. 'Autodock 4.2' was used for docking study. The free energy of binding (ΔG) values for 'levomilnacipran-SERT' interaction and 'levomilnacipran-BACE1' interaction were found to be -7.47 and -8.25 kcal/mol, respectively. Levomilnacipran was found to interact with S438, known to be the most important amino acid residue of serotonin binding site of SERT during 'levomilnacipran-SERT' interaction. In the case of 'levomilnacipran-BACE1' interaction, levomilnacipran interacted with two very crucial aspartic acid residues of BACE-1, namely, D32 and D228. These residues are accountable for the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and the subsequent formation of amyloid β plaques in AD brain. Hence, Fetzima (levomilnacipran) might act as a potent dual inhibitor of SERT and BACE-1 and expected to form the basis of a future dual therapy against depression and AD. It is an established fact that development of AD is associated with Major Depressive Disorder. Therefore, the design of new BACE-1 inhibitors based on antidepressant drug scaffolds would be particularly beneficial. PMID:25345508

  11. Effect of anthocyanidins on myogenic differentiation in induced and non-induced primary myoblasts from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to test whether an anthocyanidin mixture (peonidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin chloride) modulates myogenesis in both induced and non-induced myogenic cells from juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We evaluated three different anthocyanidin concentrations (1X, 2.5X and...

  12. Muscle satellite cell-specific genes identified by genetic profiling of MyoD-deficient myogenic cell.

    PubMed

    Seale, Patrick; Ishibashi, Jeff; Holterman, Chet; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2004-11-15

    Satellite cells are committed myogenic progenitors that give rise to proliferating myoblasts during postnatal growth and repair of skeletal muscle. To identify genes expressed at different developmental stages in the satellite cell myogenic program, representational difference analysis of cDNAs was employed to identify more than 50 unique mRNAs expressed in wild-type myoblasts and MyoD-/- myogenic cells. Novel expression patterns for several genes, such as Pax7, Asb5, IgSF4, and Hoxc10, were identified that were expressed in both quiescent and activated satellite cells. Several previously uncharacterized genes that represent putative MyoD target genes were also identified, including Pw1, Dapk2, Sytl2, and NLRR1. Importantly, many genes such as IgSF4, Neuritin, and Klra18 that were expressed exclusively in MyoD-/- myoblasts were also expressed by satellite cells in undamaged muscle in vivo but were not expressed by primary myoblasts. These data are consistent with a biological role for activated satellite cells that induce Myf5 but not MyoD. Lastly, additional endothelial and hematopoietic markers were identified supporting a nonsomitic developmental origin of the satellite cell myogenic lineage. PMID:15501219

  13. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase-1 on the myogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhenyang; Leng, Yan; Zhou, Chen; Ma, Zhenyu; Zhong, Zhigang; Shi, Xing-Ming; Zhang, Weixi

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 is a member of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 has no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 can promote the myogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MyoD and desmin were chosen as myogenic markers in this study. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is a member of the family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading extracellular matrix (ECM) and certain non-matrix proteins. It has been shown that MMP-1 can enhance muscle regeneration by improving the differentiation and migration of myoblasts. However, it is still not known whether MMP-1 can promote the myogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To address this question, we isolated BMSCs from C57BL/6J mice and investigated the effects of MMP-1 on their proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Our results showed that MMP-1 treatment, which had no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs, increased the mRNA and protein levels of MyoD and desmin in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that MMP-1 promoted myogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. These results suggest that BMSCs may have a therapeutic potential for treating muscular disorders.

  14. Integrated Functions of Pax3 and Pax7 in the Regulation of Proliferation, Cell Size and Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    White, Robert B.; Boldrin, Luisa; Perez-Ruiz, Ana; Relaix, Frederic; Morgan, Jennifer E.; Zammit, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    Pax3 and Pax7 are paired-box transcription factors with roles in developmental and adult regenerative myogenesis. Pax3 and Pax7 are expressed by postnatal satellite cells or their progeny but are down regulated during myogenic differentiation. We now show that constitutive expression of Pax3 or Pax7 in either satellite cells or C2C12 myoblasts results in an increased proliferative rate and decreased cell size. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative constructs leads to slowing of cell division, a dramatic increase in cell size and altered morphology. Similarly to the effects of Pax7, retroviral expression of Pax3 increases levels of Myf5 mRNA and MyoD protein, but does not result in sustained inhibition of myogenic differentiation. However, expression of Pax3 or Pax7 dominant-negative constructs inhibits expression of Myf5, MyoD and myogenin, and prevents differentiation from proceeding. In fibroblasts, expression of Pax3 or Pax7, or dominant-negative inhibition of these factors, reproduce the effects on cell size, morphology and proliferation seen in myoblasts. Our results show that in muscle progenitor cells, Pax3 and Pax7 function to maintain expression of myogenic regulatory factors, and promote population expansion, but are also required for myogenic differentiation to proceed. PMID:19221588

  15. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  16. Development of Bipotent Cardiac/Skeletal Myogenic Progenitors from MESP1+ Mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sunny Sun-Kin; Hagen, Hannah R.; Swanson, Scott A.; Stewart, Ron; Boll, Karly A.; Aho, Joy; Thomson, James A.; Kyba, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Summary The branchiomeric skeletal muscles co-evolved with new chambers of the heart to enable predatory feeding in chordates. These co-evolved tissues develop from a common population in anterior splanchnic mesoderm, referred to as cardiopharyngeal mesoderm (CPM). The regulation and development of CPM are poorly understood. We describe an embryonic stem cell-based system in which MESP1 drives a PDGFRA+ population with dual cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation potential, and gene expression resembling CPM. Using this system, we investigate the regulation of these bipotent progenitors, and find that cardiac specification is governed by an antagonistic TGFβ-BMP axis, while skeletal muscle specification is enhanced by Rho kinase inhibition. We define transcriptional signatures of the first committed CPM-derived cardiac and skeletal myogenic progenitors, and discover surface markers to distinguish cardiac (PODXL+) from the skeletal muscle (CDH4+) CPM derivatives. These tools open an accessible window on this developmentally and evolutionarily important population. PMID:26771351

  17. Imaging Approaches in Functional Assessment of Implantable Myogenic Biomaterials and Engineered Muscle Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine utilize implantable biomaterials and engineered tissues to regenerate damaged cells or replace lost tissues. There are distinct challenges in all facets of this research, but functional assessments and monitoring of such complex environments as muscle tissues present the current strategic priority. Many extant methods for addressing these questions result in the destruction or alteration of tissues or cell populations under investigation. Modern advances in non-invasive imaging modalities present opportunities to rethink some of the anachronistic methods, however, their standard employment may not be optimal when considering advancements in myology. New image analysis protocols and/or combinations of established modalities need to be addressed. This review focuses on efficacies and limitations of available imaging modalities to the functional assessment of implantable myogenic biomaterials and engineered muscle tissues. PMID:26913149

  18. Distinct populations of adipogenic and myogenic Myf5-lineage progenitors in white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Liang, Xinrong; Bi, Pengpeng; Zhang, Pengpeng; Liu, Weiyi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2013-08-01

    Brown adipose tissues (BAT) are derived from a myogenic factor 5 (Myf5)-expressing cell lineage and white adipose tissues (WAT) predominantly arise from non-Myf5 lineages, although a subpopulation of adipocytes in some WAT depots can be derived from the Myf5 lineage. However, the functional implication of the Myf5- and non-Myf5-lineage cells in WAT is unclear. We found that the Myf5-lineage constitution in subcutaneous WAT depots is negatively correlated to the expression of classical BAT and newly defined beige/brite adipocyte-specific genes. Consistently, fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS)-purified Myf5-lineage adipo-progenitors give rise to adipocytes expressing lower levels of BAT-specific Ucp1, Prdm16, Cidea, and Ppargc1a genes and beige adipocyte-specific CD137, Tmem26, and Tbx1 genes compared with the non-Myf5-lineage adipocytes from the same depots. Ablation of the Myf5-lineage progenitors in WAT stromal vascular cell (SVC) cultures leads to increased expression of BAT and beige cell signature genes. Strikingly, the Myf5-lineage cells in WAT are heterogeneous and contain distinct adipogenic [stem cell antigen 1(Sca1)-positive] and myogenic (Sca1-negative) progenitors. The latter differentiate robustly into myofibers in vitro and in vivo, and they restore dystrophin expression after transplantation into mdx mouse, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These results demonstrate the heterogeneity and functional differences of the Myf5- and non-Myf5-lineage cells in the white adipose tissue.

  19. Modulation of turkey myogenic satellite cell differentiation through the shedding of glypican-1.

    PubMed

    Velleman, S G; Song, Y; Shin, J; McFarland, D C

    2013-01-01

    Glypican-1 is a cell membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It is composed of a core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycan, and N-linked glycosylated (N-glycosylated) chains, and is attached to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Glypican-1 plays a key role in the growth and development of muscle by regulating fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). The GPI anchor of glypican-1 can be cleaved, resulting in glypican-1 being secreted or shed into the extracellular matrix environment. The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of glypican-1 shedding and the glycosaminoglycan and N-glycosylated chains in regulating the differentiation of turkey myogenic satellite cells. A glypican-1 construct without the GPI anchor was cloned into the mammalian expression vector pCMS-EGFP, and glypican-1 without the GPI anchor and glycosaminoglycan and N-glycosylated chains were also cloned. These constructs were co-transfected into turkey myogenic satellite cells with a small interference RNA targeting the GPI anchor of endogenous glypican-1. The soluble glypican-1 mutants were not detected in the satellite cells but in the cell medium, suggesting the secretion of the soluble glypican-1 mutants. Soluble glypican-1 increased satellite cell differentiation and enhanced myotube formation in the presence of exogenous FGF2. The increase in differentiation was supported by the elevated expression of myogenin. In conclusion, the shedding of glypican-1 from the satellite cell surface acts as a positive regulator of satellite cell differentiation and sequesters FGF2, permitting further differentiation. PMID:23069913

  20. Age-associated decrease in muscle precursor cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lees, Simon J; Rathbone, Christopher R; Booth, Frank W

    2006-02-01

    Muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are required for the regrowth, regeneration, and/or hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, which are deficient in sarcopenia. In the present investigation, we have addressed the issue of age-associated changes in MPC differentiation. MPCs, including satellite cells, were isolated from both young and old rat skeletal muscle with a high degree of myogenic purity (>90% MyoD and desmin positive). MPCs isolated from skeletal muscle of 32-mo-old rats exhibited decreased differentiation into myotubes and demonstrated decreased myosin heavy chain (MHC) and muscle creatine kinase (CK-M) expression compared with MPCs isolated from 3-mo-old rats. p27(Kip1) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that has been shown to enhance muscle differentiation in culture. Herein we describe our finding that p27(Kip1) protein was lower in differentiating MPCs from skeletal muscle of 32-mo-old rats than in 3-mo-old rat skeletal muscle. Although MHC and CK-M expression were approximately 50% lower in differentiating MPCs isolated from 32-mo-old rats, MyoD protein content was not different and myogenin protein concentration was twofold higher. These data suggest that there are inherent differences in cell signaling during the transition from cell cycle arrest to the formation of myotubes in MPCs isolated from sarcopenic muscle. Furthermore, there is an age-associated decrease in muscle-specific protein expression in differentiating MPCs despite normal MyoD and elevated myogenin levels. PMID:16192302

  1. Human skeletal muscle xenograft as a new preclinical model for muscle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanfan; King, Oliver D.; Rahimov, Fedik; Jones, Takako I.; Ward, Christopher W.; Kerr, Jaclyn P.; Liu, Naili; Emerson, Charles P.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Partridge, Terence A.; Wagner, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Development of novel therapeutics requires good animal models of disease. Disorders for which good animal models do not exist have very few drugs in development or clinical trial. Even where there are accepted, albeit imperfect models, the leap from promising preclinical drug results to positive clinical trials commonly fails, including in disorders of skeletal muscle. The main alternative model for early drug development, tissue culture, lacks both the architecture and, usually, the metabolic fidelity of the normal tissue in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate the feasibility and validity of human to mouse xenografts as a preclinical model of myopathy. Human skeletal muscle biopsies transplanted into the anterior tibial compartment of the hindlimbs of NOD-Rag1null IL2rγnull immunodeficient host mice regenerate new vascularized and innervated myofibers from human myogenic precursor cells. The grafts exhibit contractile and calcium release behavior, characteristic of functional muscle tissue. The validity of the human graft as a model of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is demonstrated in disease biomarker studies, showing that gene expression profiles of xenografts mirror those of the fresh donor biopsies. These findings illustrate the value of a new experimental model of muscle disease, the human muscle xenograft in mice, as a feasible and valid preclinical tool to better investigate the pathogenesis of human genetic myopathies and to more accurately predict their response to novel therapeutics. PMID:24452336

  2. Precursors of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Cheng, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is the only accepted precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma, according to numerous studies of animal models and man; other proposed precursors include atrophy and malignancy-associated changes (with no morphologic changes). PIN is characterized by progressive abnormalities of phenotype and genotype that are intermediate between benign prostatic epithelium and cancer, indicating impairment of cell differentiation and regulatory control with advancing stages of prostatic carcinogenesis. The only method of detection of PIN is biopsy because it does not significantly elevate serum prostate-specific antigen concentration and cannot be detected by ultrasonography. The mean incidence of PIN in biopsies is 9% (range, 4%-16%), representing about 115,000 new cases of isolated PIN diagnosed each year in the United States. The clinical importance of PIN is its high predictive value as a marker for adenocarcinoma, and its identification warrants repeat biopsy for concurrent or subsequent carcinoma, especially when multifocal or observed in association with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). Carcinoma develops in most patients with PIN within 10 years. Androgen deprivation therapy and radiation therapy decrease the prevalence and extent of PIN, suggesting that these forms of treatment may play a role in prevention of subsequent cancer. Multiple clinical trials to date of men with PIN have had modest success in delaying or preventing subsequent cancer. PMID:22212075

  3. Genetic interference with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in smooth muscle enhances myogenic tone in the cerebrovasculature via A Rho kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    De Silva, T Michael; Ketsawatsomkron, Pimonrat; Pelham, Christopher; Sigmund, Curt D; Faraci, Frank M

    2015-02-01

    Myogenic responses by resistance vessels are a key component of autoregulation in brain, thus playing a crucial role in regulating cerebral blood flow and protecting the blood-brain barrier against potentially detrimental elevations in blood pressure. Although cerebrovascular disease is often accompanied by alterations in myogenic responses, mechanisms that control these changes are poorly understood. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ has emerged as a regulator of vascular tone. We hypothesized that interference with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in smooth muscle would augment myogenic responses in cerebral arteries. We studied transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ selectively in smooth muscle (S-P467L) and nontransgenic littermates. Myogenic tone in middle cerebral arteries from S-P467L was elevated 3-fold when compared with nontransgenic littermates. Rho kinase is thought to play a major role in cerebrovascular disease. The Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, abolished augmented myogenic tone in middle cerebral arteries from S-P467L mice. CN-03, which modifies RhoA making it constitutively active, elevated myogenic tone to ≈60% in both strains, via a Y-27632-dependent mechanism. Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BKCa) modulate myogenic tone. Inhibitors of BKCa caused greater constriction in middle cerebral arteries from nontransgenic littermates when compared with S-P467L. Expression of RhoA or Rho kinase-I/II protein was similar in cerebral arteries from S-P467L mice. Overall, the data suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in smooth muscle normally inhibits Rho kinase and promotes BKCa function, thus influencing myogenic tone in resistance arteries in brain. These findings have implications for mechanisms that underlie large- and small-vessel disease in brain, as well as regulation of cerebral blood flow. PMID:25385762

  4. Arsenic affects expression and processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in primary neuronal cells overexpressing the Swedish mutation of human APP.

    PubMed

    Zarazúa, Sergio; Bürger, Susanne; Delgado, Juan M; Jiménez-Capdeville, Maria E; Schliebs, Reinhard

    2011-06-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated water and soil, mining waste, glass manufacture, select agrochemicals, as well as sea food, affects millions of people world wide. Recently, an involvement of arsenic in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been hypothesized (Gong and O'Bryant, 2010). The present study stresses the hypothesis whether sodium arsenite, and its main metabolite, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), may affect expression and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), using the cholinergic cell line SN56.B5.G4 and primary neuronal cells overexpressing the Swedish mutation of APP, as experimental approaches. Exposure of cholinergic SN56.B5.G4 cells with either sodium arsenite or DMA decreased cell viability in a concentration- and exposure-time dependent manner, and affected the activities of the cholinergic enzymes acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase. Both sodium arsenite and DMA exposure of SN56.B5.G4 cells resulted in enhanced level of APP, and sAPP in the membrane and cytosolic fractions, respectively. To reveal any effect of arsenic on APP processing, the amounts of APP cleavage products, sAPPβ, and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, released into the culture medium of primary neuronal cells derived from transgenic Tg2576 mice, were assessed by ELISA. Following exposure of neuronal cells by sodium arsenite for 12h, the membrane-bound APP level was enhanced, the amount of sAPPβ released into the culture medium was slightly higher, while the levels of Aβ peptides in the culture medium were considerably lower as compared to that assayed in the absence of any drug. The sodium arsenite-induced reduction of Aβ formation suggests an inhibition of the APP γ-cleavage step by arsenite. In contrast, DMA exposure of neuronal cells considerably increased formation of Aβ and sAPPβ, accompanied by enhanced membrane APP level. The DMA-induced changes in APP processing may be the result of the enhanced APP expression. Alternatively, increased Aβ production

  5. Clonal analysis of a human antibody response. Quantitation of precursors of antibody-producing cells and generation and characterization of monoclonal IgM, IgG, and IgA to rabies virus

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We quantitated and characterized the changes in the human B cell repertoire, at the clonal level, before and after immunization with rabies virus. Moreover, we generated 10 monoclonal cell lines producing IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies to the virus. We found that in healthy subjects, not previously exposed to the virus, nearly 2% of the circulating B lymphocytes were committed to the production of antibodies that bound the virus. These B cells expressed the surface CD5 molecule. The antibodies they produced were polyreactive IgM that displayed a relatively low affinity for the virus components (Kd, 1.0- 2.4 x 10(-6) g/microliters). After immunization, different anti-virus (IgG and IgA) antibody-producing cells consistently appeared in the circulation and increased from less than 0.005% to greater than 10% of the total B cells committed to the production of IgG and IgA, respectively. Most of such B cells do not express CD5 and produce monoreactive antibodies of high affinity for rabies virus (Kd, 6.5 x 10(-9) to 1.2 x 10(-10) g/microliters). One of these IgG mAbs efficiently neutralized rabies virus in vitro and in vivo, as detailed elsewhere (Dietzschold, B., P. Casali, Y. Ueki, M. Gore, C. E. Rupprecht, A. L. Notkins, and H. Koprowski, manuscript submitted for publication). Hybridization experiments using probes specific for the different human V gene segment families revealed that cell precursors producing low affinity IgM binding to rabies virus utilized a restricted number of VH gene segments (i.e., only members of the VHIIIb subfamily), whereas cell precursors producing high affinity IgG and IgA to rabies virus utilized an assortment of different VH gene segments (i.e., members of the VHI, VHIII, VHIV, and VHVI families and VHIIIb subfamily). In conclusion, our studies show that EBV transformation in conjunction with limiting dilution technology and somatic cell hybridization techniques are useful methods for quantitating, at the B cell clonal level, the human

  6. Human sputum cathepsin B degrades proteoglycan, is inhibited by alpha 2-macroglobulin and is modulated by neutrophil elastase cleavage of cathepsin B precursor and cystatin C.

    PubMed Central

    Buttle, D J; Abrahamson, M; Burnett, D; Mort, J S; Barrett, A J; Dando, P M; Hill, S L

    1991-01-01

    The high-Mr alkali-stable form of cathepsin B was purified from purulent human sputum. It was shown to solubilize proteoglycan monomer entrapped in polyacrylamide at a rate comparable with that of human lysosomal cathepsin B. Like the enzyme from lysosomes, sputum cathepsin B was bound by human alpha 2-macroglobulin, which inhibited its action on proteoglycan. Cystatin C in purulent sputum was shown to be the N-terminally truncated form generated by neutrophil elastase cleavage, and sputum cathepsin B was only weakly inhibited by recombinant cystatin C that had been cleaved by neutrophil elastase in vitro. Addition of neutrophil elastase to mucoid sputum led to a 5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity concomitant with a lowering in Mr of the cysteine proteinase from 40,000 to 37,000, i.e. the size of the active enzyme purified from purulent sputum. It is concluded that the high-Mr form of cathepsin B present in purulent sputum is a functional proteinase, unlike similar forms of the enzyme secreted by mammary gland in organ culture. The activity of cathepsin B in sputum is modulated by neutrophil elastase, by a combination of inhibitor inactivation and zymogen activation. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1710889

  7. A soluble and active form of Wnt-3a protein is involved in myogenic differentiation after cholesterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Portilho, Débora M; Martins, Eliane R; Costa, Manoel L; Mermelstein, Cláudia S

    2007-12-22

    Cholesterol is one of the major lipids of plasma membranes. Recently, we have shown that cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M beta CD) induces the activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and enhances myogenic differentiation. Here, we show that M beta CD-conditioned media accelerates myogenesis in a similar way as M beta CD does, suggesting that the effects induced by M beta CD could be caused by soluble factors present in the culture medium. Soluble Wnt-3 protein is significantly enhanced in M beta CD-conditioned medium. Wnt-3a-enriched media induces myogenesis as much as M beta CD does, whereas Wnt-5a-enriched media inhibits. We suggest that Wnt-3a is involved in the myogenic induction observed after cholesterol depletion.

  8. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  9. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  10. Role of miR-181a-5p and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the regulation of myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yingying; Tao, Xuelian; Xu, Huaming; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Li; Tang, Guoqing; Li, Mingzhou; Jiang, Anan; Shuai, Surong; Ma, Jideng; Jin, Long; Wen, Anxiang; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Guangxiang; Xie, Meng; Wu, Jiayun; He, Tao; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuewei

    2016-10-30

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play critical roles in myoblast differentiation. However, the regulation roles of miRNAs and ER stress in myogenic differentiation have not been fully revealed and need to be further studied. Here, we discovered that the expression levels of miR-181a-5p were strongly upregulated during C2C12 cell differentiation. miR-181a-5p overexpression promoted ER stress and differentiation of C2C12 cells, which was accompanied by increasing expression levels of marker genes related to ER stress-mediated apoptosis and myogenic differentiation. Opposite results were observed after inhibition of the miR-181a-5p expression. The gain- and loss-of-function experiments on C2C12 cells showed that miR-181a-5p affected the development of muscle fiber type, but had no significant influence on C2C12 cell proliferation. In the ER-stressed C2C12 cells induced by thapsigargin (Tg), the expression levels of both miR-181a-5p and marker genes related to ER stress and myogenesis were upregulated. In the ER-stressed C2C12 cells and porcine muscle fibroblast (PMF) cells pretreated with Tg, we found that miR-181a-5p targeted glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BIP), and influenced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, these results indicate that miR-181a-5p and ER stress have positive synergistic effects on myogenic differentiation by increasing the expression levels of myogenic differentiation key genes and activating the ER stress-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway.

  11. Role of miR-181a-5p and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the regulation of myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yingying; Tao, Xuelian; Xu, Huaming; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Li; Tang, Guoqing; Li, Mingzhou; Jiang, Anan; Shuai, Surong; Ma, Jideng; Jin, Long; Wen, Anxiang; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Guangxiang; Xie, Meng; Wu, Jiayun; He, Tao; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuewei

    2016-10-30

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play critical roles in myoblast differentiation. However, the regulation roles of miRNAs and ER stress in myogenic differentiation have not been fully revealed and need to be further studied. Here, we discovered that the expression levels of miR-181a-5p were strongly upregulated during C2C12 cell differentiation. miR-181a-5p overexpression promoted ER stress and differentiation of C2C12 cells, which was accompanied by increasing expression levels of marker genes related to ER stress-mediated apoptosis and myogenic differentiation. Opposite results were observed after inhibition of the miR-181a-5p expression. The gain- and loss-of-function experiments on C2C12 cells showed that miR-181a-5p affected the development of muscle fiber type, but had no significant influence on C2C12 cell proliferation. In the ER-stressed C2C12 cells induced by thapsigargin (Tg), the expression levels of both miR-181a-5p and marker genes related to ER stress and myogenesis were upregulated. In the ER-stressed C2C12 cells and porcine muscle fibroblast (PMF) cells pretreated with Tg, we found that miR-181a-5p targeted glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BIP), and influenced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, these results indicate that miR-181a-5p and ER stress have positive synergistic effects on myogenic differentiation by increasing the expression levels of myogenic differentiation key genes and activating the ER stress-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway. PMID:27461948

  12. Dengue virus-specific human CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses in a recipient of an experimental live-attenuated dengue virus type 1 vaccine: bulk culture proliferation, clonal analysis, and precursor frequency determination.

    PubMed Central

    Green, S; Kurane, I; Edelman, R; Tacket, C O; Eckels, K H; Vaughn, D W; Hoke, C H; Ennis, F A

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed the CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses 4 months after immunization of a volunteer with an experimental live-attenuated dengue virus type 1 vaccine (DEN-1 45AZ5). We examined bulk culture proliferation to noninfectious antigens, determined the precursor frequency of specific CD4+ T cells by limiting dilution, and established and analyzed CD4+ T-cell clones. Bulk culture proliferation was predominantly dengue virus type 1 specific with a lesser degree of cross-reactive responses to other dengue virus serotypes, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. Precursor frequency determination by limiting dilution in the presence of noninfectious dengue virus antigens revealed a frequency of antigen-reactive cells of 1 in 1,686 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for dengue virus type 1, 1 in 9,870 PBMC for dengue virus type 3, 1 in 14,053 PBMC for dengue virus type 2, and 1 in 17,690 PBMC for dengue virus type 4. Seventeen CD4+ T-cell clones were then established by using infectious dengue virus type 1 as antigen. Two patterns of dengue virus specificity were found in these clones. Thirteen clones were dengue virus type 1 specific, and four clones recognized both dengue virus types 1 and 3. Analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction revealed that five clones are HLA-DRw52 restricted, one clone is HLA-DP3 restricted, and one clone is HLA-DP4 restricted. These results indicate that in this individual, the CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses to immunization with live-attenuated dengue virus type 1 vaccine are predominantly serotype specific and suggest that a multivalent vaccine may be necessary to elicit strong serotype-cross-reactive CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses in such individuals. PMID:8371350

  13. Using Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology to Generate CRX‐Reporter Human Embryonic Stem Cells as a Tool to Identify and Study the Emergence of Photoreceptors Precursors During Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Joseph; Mellough, Carla B; Dorgau, Birthe; Przyborski, Stefan; Moreno‐Gimeno, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to generate human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines harboring the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter at the endogenous loci of the Cone‐Rod Homeobox (CRX) gene, a key transcription factor in retinal development. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) designed to cleave in the 3′ UTR of CRX were transfected into hESCs along with a donor construct containing homology to the target region, eGFP reporter, and a puromycin selection cassette. Following selection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis of antibiotic resistant clones indicated targeted integration of the reporter cassette at the 3′ of the CRX gene, generating a CRX‐GFP fusion. Further analysis of a clone exhibiting homozygote integration of the GFP reporter was conducted suggesting genomic stability was preserved and no other copies of the targeting cassette were inserted elsewhere within the genome. This clone was selected for differentiation towards the retinal lineage. Immunocytochemistry of sections obtained from embryoid bodies and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR of GFP positive and negative subpopulations purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting during the differentiation indicated a significant correlation between GFP and endogenous CRX expression. Furthermore, GFP expression was found in photoreceptor precursors emerging during hESC differentiation, but not in the retinal pigmented epithelium, retinal ganglion cells, or neurons of the developing inner nuclear layer. Together our data demonstrate the successful application of ZFN technology to generate CRX‐GFP labeled hESC lines, which can be used to study and isolate photoreceptor precursors during hESC differentiation. Stem Cells 2016;34:311–321 PMID:26608863

  14. Using Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology to Generate CRX-Reporter Human Embryonic Stem Cells as a Tool to Identify and Study the Emergence of Photoreceptors Precursors During Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Collin, Joseph; Mellough, Carla B; Dorgau, Birthe; Przyborski, Stefan; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; Lako, Majlinda

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines harboring the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter at the endogenous loci of the Cone-Rod Homeobox (CRX) gene, a key transcription factor in retinal development. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) designed to cleave in the 3' UTR of CRX were transfected into hESCs along with a donor construct containing homology to the target region, eGFP reporter, and a puromycin selection cassette. Following selection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis of antibiotic resistant clones indicated targeted integration of the reporter cassette at the 3' of the CRX gene, generating a CRX-GFP fusion. Further analysis of a clone exhibiting homozygote integration of the GFP reporter was conducted suggesting genomic stability was preserved and no other copies of the targeting cassette were inserted elsewhere within the genome. This clone was selected for differentiation towards the retinal lineage. Immunocytochemistry of sections obtained from embryoid bodies and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR of GFP positive and negative subpopulations purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting during the differentiation indicated a significant correlation between GFP and endogenous CRX expression. Furthermore, GFP expression was found in photoreceptor precursors emerging during hESC differentiation, but not in the retinal pigmented epithelium, retinal ganglion cells, or neurons of the developing inner nuclear layer. Together our data demonstrate the successful application of ZFN technology to generate CRX-GFP labeled hESC lines, which can be used to study and isolate photoreceptor precursors during hESC differentiation.

  15. Hypoxia converts the myogenic action of insulin-like growth factors into mitogenic action by differentially regulating multiple signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongxia; Accili, Domenico; Duan, Cunming

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate myoblast proliferation and differentiation. It remains elusive how these mutually exclusive cellular responses are elicited by the same growth factor. Here we report that whereas IGF promotes myoblast differentiation under normoxia, it stimulates proliferation under hypoxia. Hypoxia activates the HIF-1 transcriptional program and knockdown of HIF-1α changes the mitogenic action of IGF into myogenic action under hypoxia. Conversely, overexpression of HIF-1α abolishes the myogenic effect of IGF under normoxia. Under normoxia, IGF activates the Akt-mTOR, p38, and Erk1/2 MAPK pathways. Hypoxia suppresses basal and IGF-induced Akt-mTOR and p38 activity, whereas it enhances and prolongs IGF-induced Erk1/2 activation in a HIF-1–dependent fashion. Activation of Akt-mTOR and p38 promotes myogenesis, and p38 also inhibits proliferation. Activation of Erk stimulates myoblast proliferation but inhibits differentiation. These results suggest that hypoxia converts the myogenic action of IGFs into mitogenic action by differentially regulating multiple signaling pathways via HIF-1-dependent mechanisms. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the paradoxical actions of IGFs during myogenesis and reveal a novel mechanism by which cells sense and integrate growth factor signals and oxygen availability in their microenvironments. PMID:20231451

  16. Pax7 Is Necessary and Sufficient for the Myogenic Specification of CD45+:Sca1+ Stem Cells from Injured Muscle

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    CD45+:Sca1+ adult stem cells isolated from uninjured muscle do not display any myogenic potential, whereas those isolated from regenerating muscle give rise to myoblasts expressing the paired-box transcription factor Pax7 and the bHLH factors Myf5 and MyoD. By contrast, CD45+:Sca1+ isolated from injured Pax7 −/− muscle were incapable of forming myoblasts. Infection of CD45+:Sca1+ cells from uninjured muscle with retrovirus expressing Pax7 efficiently activated the myogenic program. The resulting myoblasts expressed Myf5 and MyoD and differentiated into myotubes that expressed myogenin and myosin heavy chain. Infection of CD45−:Sca1− cells from Pax7 −/− muscle similarly gave rise to myoblasts. Notably, infection of Pax7-deficient muscle with adenoviral Pax7 resulted in the de novo formation of regenerated myofibers. Taken together, these results indicate that Pax7 is necessary and sufficient to induce the myogenic specification of CD45+ stem cells resident in adult skeletal muscle. Moreover, these experiments suggest that viral transduction of Pax7 is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuromuscular degenerative diseases. PMID:15138500

  17. Distinct Neural Circuits Control Rhythm Inhibition and Spitting by the Myogenic Pharynx of C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Nikhil; Droste, Rita; Sando, Steven R; Huang, Anne; Horvitz, H Robert

    2015-08-17

    Neural circuits have long been known to modulate myogenic muscles such as the heart, yet a mechanistic understanding at the cellular and molecular levels remains limited. We studied how light inhibits pumping of the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx, a myogenic muscular pump for feeding, and found three neural circuits that alter pumping. First, light inhibits pumping via the I2 neuron monosynaptic circuit. Our electron microscopic reconstruction of the anterior pharynx revealed evidence for synapses from I2 onto muscle that were missing from the published connectome, and we show that these "missed synapses" are likely functional. Second, light inhibits pumping through the RIP-I1-MC neuron polysynaptic circuit, in which an inhibitory signal is likely transmitted from outside the pharynx into the pharynx in a manner analogous to how the mammalian autonomic nervous system controls the heart. Third, light causes a novel pharyngeal behavior, reversal of flow or "spitting," which is induced by the M1 neuron. These three neural circuits show that neurons can control a myogenic muscle organ not only by changing the contraction rate but also by altering the functional consequences of the contraction itself, transforming swallowing into spitting. Our observations also illustrate why connectome builders and users should be cognizant that functional synaptic connections might exist despite the absence of a declared synapse in the connectome.

  18. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.

  19. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required. PMID:27447507

  20. Potential for Cell-Transplant Therapy with Human Neuronal Precursors to Treat Neuropathic Pain in Models of PNS and CNS Injury: Comparison of hNT2.17 and hNT2.19 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Mary J.; Berrocal, Yerko; Wolfe, Stacey Q.

    2012-01-01

    Effective treatment of sensory neuropathies in peripheral neuropathies and spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most difficult problems in modern clinical practice. Cell therapy to release antinociceptive agents near the injured spinal cord is a logical next step in the development of treatment modalities. But few clinical trials, especially for chronic pain, have tested the potential of transplant of cells to treat chronic pain. Cell lines derived from the human neuronal NT2 cell line parentage, the hNT2.17 and hNT2.19 lines, which synthesize and release the neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin (5HT), respectively, have been used to evaluate the potential of cell-based release of antinociceptive agents near the lumbar dorsal (horn) spinal sensory cell centers to relieve neuropathic pain after PNS (partial nerve and diabetes-related injury) and CNS (spinal cord injury) damage in rat models. Both cell lines transplants potently and permanently reverse behavioral hypersensitivity without inducing tumors or other complications after grafting. Functioning as cellular minipumps for antinociception, human neuronal precursors, like these NT2-derived cell lines, would likely provide a useful adjuvant or replacement for current pharmacological treatments for neuropathic pain. PMID:22619713

  1. Comparative immunohistochemical study of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, growth hormone-releasing factor and the carboxyterminus of precursor protein GHRF in the human hypothalamic infundibular area.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, P; Tramu, G; Bloch, B

    1990-04-01

    It is now well documented that various polyclonal antisera to the human growth hormone-releasing factor (hGHRF, somatocrinin) visualize in the brain by immunohistochemistry the classical hypothalamic hypophysiotropic neurons and also antigens present in otherwise characterized peptidergic neuronal systems. The nature of these antigens is still an open question. One of these hGHRF antisera, raised against an immunogen of hGHRF1-44NH2, labels in the arcuate nucleus of the human mediobasal hypothalamus the neuropeptide Y (NPY) containing neurons which for the most part constitute a tuberoextrainfundibular system. The identity of the hGHRF-like substance present in these neurons with true somatocrinin has been assessed by performing a comparative immunohistochemical study including sequential double and triple labeling using the antiserum to hGHRF1-44NH2 in conjunction with antisera to the carboxyterminus of preprosomatocrinin (CTPG) and to NPY. This made it feasible to dissociate the hGHRF1-44NH2-immunoreactive neurons into two major subpopulations costaining either for CTPG of NPY, and a minor neuronal group displaying simultaneously the three labelings. A subset of arcuate neurons also showed NPY staining only. These results suggest that (1) the hGHRF-like antigen present in the majority of the NPY neurons is not true somatocrinin, or alternatively that preprosomatocrinin undergoes a unique maturational processing in these neurons, and (2) a subset of tuberoinfundibular somatocrininergic neurons produces and releases NPY which may be involved in the multifactorial control of the pituitary function.

  2. Characterization of neurons from adult human skin-derived precursors in serum-free medium : a PCR array and immunocytological analysis.

    PubMed

    Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Boulais, Nicholas; Le Gall, Christelle; Chéret, Jeremy; Pereira, Ulysse; Mignen, Olivier; Bardey, Vincent; Jeanmaire, Christine; Danoux, Louis; Pauly, Gilles; Misery, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Adult stem cells could be small sources of neurons or other cellular types for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Recently, pluripotent stem cells have been extracted from skin tissue, which opened a new accessible source for research. To routinely obtain a high yield of functional neurons from adult human skin stem cells with defined serum-free medium, stem cells from abdominal skin were cultured in serum-free medium. To differentiate them, we used a defined medium containing growth factors. Differentiated cells were identified using the following methods: (i) Oil-red-O staining for adipocytes, immunocytochemistry with antibodies recognising (ii) neurofilaments and PGP9.5 for neural differentiation, (iii) glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for glial differentiation, (iv) Ki-67 for proliferative cells, (v) FM1-43 staining to analyse vesicle trafficking in neuronal cells and (vi) a PCR array was used. Stem cells were floating in spheres and were maintained in culture for 4 months or more. They expressed nestin and Oct 4 and were proliferative. We induced specific differentiation into adipocytes, glial and neuronal cells. The yields of differentiated neurons were high and reproducible. They were maintained for long time (1 month) in the culture medium. Furthermore, these neurons incorporated FM1-43 dye, which indicates a potent acquisition of synaptic features in neurons. Stem cells from adult human skin could be valuable and reproducible tools/source to obtain high numbers of functional specific cellular types, such as neurons, for tissue engineering. In this work, the possibility to obtain a high yield of differentiated neurons, with the ability of endocytosis and vesicle cell trafficking, was shown.

  3. Identification of Retinoic Acid in a High Content Screen for Agents that Overcome the Anti-Myogenic Effect of TGF-Beta-1

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Chateen; Hoffmann, F. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is an inhibitor of muscle cell differentiation that is associated with fibrosis, poor regeneration and poor function in some diseases of muscle. When neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β1 or the angiotensin II inhibitor losartan were used to reduce TGF-β1 signaling, muscle morphology and function were restored in mouse models of Marfan Syndrome and muscular dystrophy. The goal of our studies was to identify additional agents that overcome the anti-myogenic effect of TGF-β1. Methodology/Principal Findings A high-content cell-based assay was developed in a 96-well plate format that detects the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) in C2C12 cells. The assay was used to quantify the dose-dependent responses of C2C12 cell differentiation to TGF-β1 and to the TGF-β1 Type 1 receptor kinase inhibitor, SB431542. Thirteen agents previously described as promoting C2C12 differentiation in the absence of TGF-β1 were screened in the presence of TGF-β1. Only all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid allowed a maximal level of C2C12 cell differentiation in the presence of TGF-β1; the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril and 10 nM estrogen provided partial rescue. Vitamin D was a potent inhibitor of retinoic acid-induced myogenesis in the presence of TGF-β1. TGF-β1 inhibits myoblast differentiation through activation of Smad3; however, retinoic acid did not inhibit TGF-β1-induced activation of a Smad3-dependent reporter gene in C2C12 cells. Conclusions/Significance Retinoic acid alleviated the anti-myogenic effect of TGF-β1 by a Smad3-independent mechanism. With regard to the goal of improving muscle regeneration and function in individuals with muscle disease, the identification of retinoic acid is intriguing in that some retinoids are already approved for human therapy. However, retinoids also have well-described adverse effects. The quantitative, high-content assay will be useful to screen for

  4. Activation of non-myogenic mesenchymal stem cells during the disease progression in dystrophic dystrophin/utrophin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jihee; Lu, Aiping; Tang, Ying; Wang, Bing; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic calcification as well as fatty and fibrotic tissue accumulation occurs in skeletal muscle during the disease progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a degenerative muscle disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The cellular origin and the environmental cues responsible for this ectopic calcification, fatty and fibrotic infiltration during the disease progression, however, remain unknown. Based on a previously published preplate technique, we isolated two distinct populations of muscle-derived cells from skeletal muscle: (i) a rapidly adhering cell population, which is non-myogenic, Pax7− and express the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha; hence, we termed this population of cells non-myogenic MSCs (nmMSCs); and (ii) a slowly adhering cell population which is Pax7+ and highly myogenic, termed muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). Previously, we demonstrated that the rapid progression of skeletal muscle histopathologies in dystrophin/utrophin knockout (dys−/− utro−/− dKO) mice is closely associated with a rapid depletion of the MPC population pool. In the current study, we showed that in contrast to the MPCs, the nmMSCs become activated during the disease progression in dKO mice, displaying increased proliferation and differentiation potentials (adipogenesis, osteogenesis and fibrogenesis). We also found that after co-culturing the dKO-nmMSCs with dKO-MPCs, the myogenic differentiation potential of the dKO-MPCs was reduced. This effect was found to be potentially mediated by the secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 by the dKO-nmMSCs. We therefore posit that the rapid occurrence of fibrosis, ectopic calcification and fat accumulation, in dKO mice, is not only attributable to the rapid depletion of the MPC pool, but is also the consequence of nmMSC activation. Results from this study suggest that approaches to alleviate muscle weakness and wasting in DMD patients should not

  5. Selective apoptosis of pluripotent mouse and human stem cells by novel ceramide analogues prevents teratoma formation and enriches for neural precursors in ES cell–derived neural transplants

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard; Silva, Jeane; Wang, Guanghu; Krishnamurthy, Kannan; Condie, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of stem cell–derived tumors (teratomas) is observed when engrafting undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryoid body–derived cells (EBCs), or mammalian embryos and is a significant obstacle to stem cell therapy. We show that in tumors formed after engraftment of EBCs into mouse brain, expression of the pluripotency marker Oct-4 colocalized with that of prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4), a protein mediating ceramide-induced apoptosis during neural differentiation of ES cells. We tested the ability of the novel ceramide analogue N-oleoyl serinol (S18) to eliminate mouse and human Oct-4(+)/PAR-4(+) cells and to increase the proportion of nestin(+) neuroprogenitors in EBC-derived cell cultures and grafts. S18-treated EBCs persisted in the hippocampal area and showed neuronal lineage differentiation as indicated by the expression of β-tubulin III. However, untreated cells formed numerous teratomas that contained derivatives of endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Our results show for the first time that ceramide-induced apoptosis eliminates residual, pluripotent EBCs, prevents teratoma formation, and enriches the EBCs for cells that undergo neural differentiation after transplantation. PMID:15545317

  6. Intermediate conformation between native β-sheet and non-native α-helix is a precursor of trifluoroethanol-induced aggregation of Human Carbonic Anhydrase-II

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Preeti; Deep, Shashank

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • HCAII forms amyloid-like aggregates at moderate concentration of trifluoroethanol. • Protein adopts a state between β-sheet and α-helix at moderate % of TFE. • Hydrophobic surface(s) of partially structured conformation forms amyloid. • High % of TFE induces stable α-helical state preventing aggregation. - Abstract: In the present work, we examined the correlation between 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)-induced conformational transitions of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) and its aggregation propensity. Circular dichroism data indicates that protein undergoes a transition from β-sheet to α-helix on addition of TFE. The protein was found to aggregate maximally at moderate concentration of TFE at which it exists somewhere between β-sheet and α-helix, probably in extended non-native β-sheet conformation. Thioflavin-T (ThT) and Congo-Red (CR) assays along with fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data suggest that the protein aggregates induced by TFE possess amyloid-like features. Anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding studies reveal that the exposure of hydrophobic surface(s) was maximum in intermediate conformation. Our study suggests that the exposed hydrophobic surface and/or the disruption of the structural features protecting a β-sheet protein might be the major reason(s) for the high aggregation propensity of non-native intermediate conformation of HCAII.

  7. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) marks adult myogenic cells committed to differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Capkovic, Katie L.; Stevenson, Severin; Johnson, Marc C.; Thelen, Jay J.; Cornelison, D.D.W.

    2008-04-15

    Although recent advances in broad-scale gene expression analysis have dramatically increased our knowledge of the repertoire of mRNAs present in multiple cell types, it has become increasingly clear that examination of the expression, localization, and associations of the encoded proteins will be critical for determining their functional significance. In particular, many signaling receptors, transducers, and effectors have been proposed to act in higher-order complexes associated with physically distinct areas of the plasma membrane. Adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells) must, upon injury, respond appropriately to a wide range of extracellular stimuli: the role of such signaling scaffolds is therefore a potentially important area of inquiry. To address this question, we first isolated detergent-resistant membrane fractions from primary satellite cells, then analyzed their component proteins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Transmembrane and juxtamembrane components of adhesion-mediated signaling pathways made up the largest group of identified proteins; in particular, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a multifunctional cell-surface protein that has previously been associated with muscle regeneration, was significant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that not only is NCAM localized to discrete areas of the plasma membrane, it is also a very early marker of commitment to terminal differentiation. Using flow cytometry, we have sorted physically homogeneous myogenic cultures into proliferating and differentiating fractions based solely upon NCAM expression.

  8. Validation of Regression-Based Myogenic Correction Techniques for Scalp and Source-Localized EEG

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Brenton W.; Shackman, Alexander J.; Maxwell, Jeffrey S.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    EEG and EEG source-estimation are susceptible to electromyographic artifacts (EMG) generated by the cranial muscles. EMG can mask genuine effects or masquerade as a legitimate effect - even in low frequencies, such as alpha (8–13Hz). Although regression-based correction has been used previously, only cursory attempts at validation exist and the utility for source-localized data is unknown. To address this, EEG was recorded from 17 participants while neurogenic and myogenic activity were factorially varied. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of four regression-based techniques: between-subjects, between-subjects using difference-scores, within-subjects condition-wise, and within-subject epoch-wise on the scalp and in data modeled using the LORETA algorithm. Although within-subject epoch-wise showed superior performance on the scalp, no technique succeeded in the source-space. Aside from validating the novel epoch-wise methods on the scalp, we highlight methods requiring further development. PMID:19298626

  9. Saccular function in otosclerosis patients: bone conducted-vestibular evoked myogenic potential analysis.

    PubMed

    Amali, Amin; Mahdi, Parvane; Karimi Yazdi, Alireza; Khorsandi Ashtiyani, Mohammad Taghi; Yazdani, Nasrin; Vakili, Varasteh; Pourbakht, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular involvements have long been observed in otosclerotic patients. Among vestibular structures saccule has the closest anatomical proximity to the sclerotic foci, so it is the most prone vestibular structure to be affected during the otosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to investigate the saccular function in patients suffering from otosclerosis, by means of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP). The material consisted of 30 otosclerosis patients and 20 control subjects. All participants underwent audiometric and VEMP testing. Analysis of tests results revealed that the mean values of Air-Conducted Pure Tone Average (AC-PTA) and Bone-Conducted Pure Tone Average (BC-PTA) in patients were 45.28 ± 15.57 and 19.68 ± 10.91, respectively and calculated 4 frequencies Air Bone Gap (ABG) was 25.64 ± 9.95. The VEMP response was absent in 14 (28.57%) otosclerotic ears. A statistically significant increase in latency of the p13 was found in the affected ears (P=0.004), differences in n23 latency did not reach a statistically significant level (P=0.112). Disparities in amplitude of p13-n23 in between two study groups was statistically meaningful (P=0.009), indicating that the patients with otosclerosis had lower amplitudes. This study tends to suggest that due to the direct biotoxic effect of the materials released from the otosclerosis foci on saccular receptors, there might be a possibility of vestibular dysfunction in otosclerotic patients. PMID:24659067

  10. A Dual Mode Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Cell Stimulator Produces Acceleration of Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Rizk, Hatem; Mo, Chenglin; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Brotto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test of a dual-mode electric and magnetic biological stimulator (EM-Stim). The stimulator generates pulsing electric and magnetic fields at programmable rates and intensities. While electric and magnetic stimulators have been reported before, this is the first device that combines both modalities. The ability of the dual stimulation to target bone and muscle tissue simultaneously has the potential to improve the therapeutic treatment of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The device is fully programmable, portable and easy to use, and can run from a battery or a power supply. The device can generate magnetic fields of up to 1.6 mT and output voltages of +/−40 V. The EM-Stim accelerated myogenic differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes as evidenced by morphometric, gene expression, and protein content analyses. Currently, there are many patents concerned with the application of single electrical or magnetic stimulation, but none that combine both simultaneously. However, we applied for and obtained a provisional patent for new device to fully explore its therapeutic potential in pre-clinical models. PMID:23445453

  11. Nitric Oxide Donor Molsidomine Positively Modulates Myogenic Differentiation of Embryonic Endothelial Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Tirone, Mario; Conti, Valentina; Manenti, Fabio; Nicolosi, Pier Andrea; D’Orlando, Cristina; Azzoni, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic VE-Cadherin-expressing progenitors (eVE-Cad+), including hemogenic endothelium, have been shown to generate hematopoietic stem cells and a variety of other progenitors, including mesoangioblasts, or MABs. MABs are vessel-associated progenitors with multilineage mesodermal differentiation potential that can physiologically contribute to skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and have been used in an ex vivo cell therapy setting for the treatment of muscular dystrophy. There is currently a therapeutic need for molecules that could improve the efficacy of cell therapy protocols; one such good candidate is nitric oxide. Several studies in animal models of muscle dystrophy have demonstrated that nitric oxide donors provide several beneficial effects, including modulation of the activity of endogenous cell populations involved in muscle repair and the delay of muscle degeneration. Here we used a genetic lineage tracing approach to investigate whether the therapeutic effect of nitric oxide in muscle repair could derive from an improvement in the myogenic differentiation of eVE-Cad+ progenitors during embryogenesis. We show that early in vivo treatment with the nitric oxide donor molsidomine enhances eVE-Cad+ contribution to embryonic and fetal myogenesis, and that this effect could originate from a modulation of the properties of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium. PMID:27760216

  12. Dehydrocorydaline promotes myogenic differentiation via p38 MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Miran; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Baek, Nam-In; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Kang, Jong-Sun; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2016-10-01

    Muscle regeneration is a coordinated process that involves proliferation and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells. Activation of MyoD is a key event in myogenic differentiation, which is regulated by p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK). In a screen of natural compounds for the enhancement of MyoD activity, dehydrocorydaline (DHC) from the Corydalis tuber was identified. Treatment of C2C12 myoblasts with DHC increased the expression levels of muscle‑specific proteins, including MyoD, myogenin and myosin heavy chain. In addition, C2C12 myoblasts exhibited enhanced multinucleated myotube formation without any cytotoxicity. Treatment with DHC elevated p38 MAPK activation and the interaction of MyoD with an E protein, which is likely to result in activation of MyoD and promotion of myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, defects in differentiation‑induced p38 MAPK activation and myoblast differentiation induced by depletion of the promyogenic receptor protein Cdo in C2C12 myoblasts were restored by DHC treatment. In conclusion, these results indicated that DHC stimulates p38 MAPK activation, which can enhance heterodimerization of MyoD and E proteins, thus resulting in MyoD activation and myoblast differentiation. These findings suggested that DHC may be considered a potential therapeutic compound for the improvement of muscle stem cell regenerative capacity in injured muscle.

  13. Dehydrocorydaline promotes myogenic differentiation via p38 MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Miran; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Baek, Nam-In; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Kang, Jong-Sun; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2016-10-01

    Muscle regeneration is a coordinated process that involves proliferation and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells. Activation of MyoD is a key event in myogenic differentiation, which is regulated by p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK). In a screen of natural compounds for the enhancement of MyoD activity, dehydrocorydaline (DHC) from the Corydalis tuber was identified. Treatment of C2C12 myoblasts with DHC increased the expression levels of muscle‑specific proteins, including MyoD, myogenin and myosin heavy chain. In addition, C2C12 myoblasts exhibited enhanced multinucleated myotube formation without any cytotoxicity. Treatment with DHC elevated p38 MAPK activation and the interaction of MyoD with an E protein, which is likely to result in activation of MyoD and promotion of myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, defects in differentiation‑induced p38 MAPK activation and myoblast differentiation induced by depletion of the promyogenic receptor protein Cdo in C2C12 myoblasts were restored by DHC treatment. In conclusion, these results indicated that DHC stimulates p38 MAPK activation, which can enhance heterodimerization of MyoD and E proteins, thus resulting in MyoD activation and myoblast differentiation. These findings suggested that DHC may be considered a potential therapeutic compound for the improvement of muscle stem cell regenerative capacity in injured muscle. PMID:27573543

  14. Phospholipase D is involved in myogenic differentiation through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Komati, Hiba; Naro, Fabio; Mebarek, Saida; De Arcangelis, Vania; Adamo, Sergio; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France; Némoz, Georges

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) in myogenic differentiation of cultured L6 rat skeletal myoblasts. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a differentiation inducer, rapidly activated PLD in a Rho-dependent way, as shown by almost total suppression of activation by C3 exotoxin pretreatment. Addition of 1-butanol, which selectively inhibits PA production by PLD, markedly decreased AVP-induced myogenesis. Conversely, myogenesis was potentiated by PLD1b isoform overexpression but not by PLD2 overexpression, establishing that PLD1 is involved in this process. The expression of the PLD isoforms was differentially regulated during differentiation. AVP stimulation of myoblasts induced the rapid formation of stress fiber-like actin structures (SFLSs). 1-Butanol selectively inhibited this response, whereas PLD1b overexpression induced SFLS formation, showing that it was PLD dependent. Endogenous PLD1 was located at the level of SFLSs, and by means of an intracellularly expressed fluorescent probe, PA was shown to be accumulated along these structures in response to AVP. In addition, AVP induced a PLD-dependent neosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which also was accumulated along actin fibers. These data support the hypothesis that PLD participates in myogenesis through PA- and PIP2-dependent actin fiber formation. PMID:15616193

  15. Diagnostic Value of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Endolymphatic Hydrops: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sulin; Leng, Yangming; Liu, Bo; Shi, Hao; Lu, Meixia; Kong, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the clinical diagnostic value of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) for endolymphatic hydrops (EH) by systematic review and Meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and area under summary receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Subgroup analysis and publication bias assessment were also conducted. The pooled sensitivity and the specificity were 49% (95% CI: 46% to 51%) and 95% (95% CI: 94% to 96%), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio was 18.01 (95% CI: 9.45 to 34.29) and the pooled negative likelihood ratio was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.47 to 0.61). AUC was 0.78 and the pooled diagnostic odds ratio of VEMPs was 39.89 (95% CI: 20.13 to 79.03). In conclusion, our present meta-analysis has demonstrated that VEMPs test alone is not sufficient for Meniere’s disease or delayed endolymphatic hydrops diagnosis, but that it might be an important component of a test battery for diagnosing Meniere’s disease or delayed endolymphatic hydrops. Moreover, VEMPs, due to its high specificity and non-invasive nature, might be used as a screening tool for EH. PMID:26455332

  16. Involvement of Type 4 cAMP-Phosphodiesterase in the Myogenic Differentiation of L6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Naro, Fabio; Sette, Claudio; Vicini, Elena; De Arcangelis, Vania; Grange, Muriel; Conti, Marco; Lagarde, Michel; Molinaro, Mario; Adamo, Sergio; Némoz, Georges

    1999-01-01

    Myogenic cell differentiation is induced by Arg8-vasopressin, whereas high cAMP levels and protein kinase A (PKA) activity inhibit myogenesis. We investigated the role of type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) during L6-C5 myoblast differentiation. Selective PDE4 inhibition resulted in suppression of differentiation induced by vasopressin. PDE4 inhibition prevented vasopressin-induced nuclear translocation of the muscle-specific transcription factor myogenin without affecting its overall expression level. The effects of PDE4 inhibition could be attributed to an increase of cAMP levels and PKA activity. RNase protection, reverse transcriptase PCR, immunoprecipitation, Western blot, and enzyme activity assays demonstrated that the PDE4D3 isoform is the major PDE4 expressed in L6-C5 myoblasts and myotubes, accounting for 75% of total cAMP-hydrolyzing activity. Vasopressin cell stimulation caused a biphasic increase of PDE4 activity, which peaked at 2 and 15 min and remained elevated for 48 h. In the continuous presence of vasopressin, cAMP levels and PKA activity were lowered. PDE4D3 overexpression increased spontaneous and vasopressin-dependent differentiation of L6-C5 cells. These results show that PDE4D3 plays a key role in the control of cAMP levels and differentiation of L6-C5 cells. Through the modulation of PDE4 activity, vasopressin inhibits the cAMP signal transduction pathway, which regulates myogenesis possibly by controlling the subcellular localization of myogenin. PMID:10588663

  17. Correlation between acceleration magnitude and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Jen; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Young, Yi-Ho

    2012-05-10

    This study combined bone-conducted vibration (BCV) stimulation with triaxial accelerometry to correlate the acceleration magnitudes of BCV stimuli with ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) test results. Fourteen healthy volunteers underwent oVEMP test using BCV stimuli with simultaneous monitoring the triaxial acceleration. All (100%) subjects exhibited clear oVEMPs in response to BCV stimuli from a vibrator. The lowest acceleration magnitudes for eliciting oVEMPs along the x-, y- and z-axes were 0.05±0.01 g, 0.16±0.08 g, and 0.04±0.01 g, respectively, exhibiting significantly higher acceleration magnitude along the y-axis than those along the x- and z-axes. In addition, significantly positive correlations were noted between the acceleration magnitude along each axis and the oVEMP amplitude. In conclusion, measuring the acceleration magnitude throughout oVEMP testing revealed a significant correlation between linear acceleration and oVEMP responses. Restated, increasing acceleration magnitude may have more synchronization of firing of vestibular afferents, resulting in more synchronized evoked potentials and greater oVEMP amplitude.

  18. Phospholipase D is involved in myogenic differentiation through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Komati, Hiba; Naro, Fabio; Mebarek, Saida; De Arcangelis, Vania; Adamo, Sergio; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France; Némoz, Georges

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) in myogenic differentiation of cultured L6 rat skeletal myoblasts. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a differentiation inducer, rapidly activated PLD in a Rho-dependent way, as shown by almost total suppression of activation by C3 exotoxin pretreatment. Addition of 1-butanol, which selectively inhibits PA production by PLD, markedly decreased AVP-induced myogenesis. Conversely, myogenesis was potentiated by PLD1b isoform overexpression but not by PLD2 overexpression, establishing that PLD1 is involved in this process. The expression of the PLD isoforms was differentially regulated during differentiation. AVP stimulation of myoblasts induced the rapid formation of stress fiber-like actin structures (SFLSs). 1-Butanol selectively inhibited this response, whereas PLD1b overexpression induced SFLS formation, showing that it was PLD dependent. Endogenous PLD1 was located at the level of SFLSs, and by means of an intracellularly expressed fluorescent probe, PA was shown to be accumulated along these structures in response to AVP. In addition, AVP induced a PLD-dependent neosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which also was accumulated along actin fibers. These data support the hypothesis that PLD participates in myogenesis through PA- and PIP2-dependent actin fiber formation.

  19. Stem Cell Differentiation Toward the Myogenic Lineage for Muscle Tissue Regeneration: A Focus on Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Shi, Xuetao; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Salehi, Sahar; Fujie, Toshinori; Bae, Hojae; Ramalingam, Murugan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is one of the important ways for regenerating functionally defective muscles. Among the myopathies, the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive disease due to mutations of the dystrophin gene leading to progressive myofiber degeneration with severe symptoms. Although current therapies in muscular dystrophy are still very challenging, important progress has been made in materials science and in cellular technologies with the use of stem cells. It is therefore useful to review these advances and the results obtained in a clinical point of view. This article focuses on the differentiation of stem cells into myoblasts, and their application in muscular dystrophy. After an overview of the different stem cells that can be induced to differentiate into the myogenic lineage, we introduce scaffolding materials used for muscular tissue engineering. We then described some widely used methods to differentiate different types of stem cell into myoblasts. We highlight recent insights obtained in therapies for muscular dystrophy. Finally, we conclude with a discussion on stem cell technology. We discussed in parallel the benefits brought by the evolution of the materials and by the expansion of cell sources which can differentiate into myoblasts. We also discussed on future challenges for clinical applications and how to accelerate the translation from the research to the clinic in the frame of DMD.

  20. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  1. PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287

    SciTech Connect

    Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L.; Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Liakos, A.; Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Provencal, J.; Santangelo, M. M. M.; Salo, H.; Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; and others

    2013-02-10

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

  2. Enzymatically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for the 3D culture and release of human embryonic stem cell derived pancreatic precursor cell aggregates.

    PubMed

    Amer, Luke D; Holtzinger, Audrey; Keller, Gordon; Mahoney, Melissa J; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to develop a three dimensional culture platform for aggregates of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitors that enables long-term culture, maintains aggregate size and morphology, does not adversely affect differentiation and provides a means for aggregate recovery. A platform was developed with poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels containing collagen type I, for cell-matrix interactions, and peptide crosslinkers, for facile recovery of aggregates. The platform was first demonstrated with RIN-m5F cells, showing encapsulation and subsequent release of single cells and aggregates without adversely affecting viability. Aggregates of hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors with an effective diameter of 82 (15)μm were either encapsulated in hydrogels or cultured in suspension for 28 days. At day 14, aggregate viability was maintained in the hydrogels, but significantly reduced (88%) in suspension culture. However by day 28, viability was reduced under both culture conditions. Aggregate size was maintained in the hydrogels, but in suspension was significantly higher (∼ 2-fold) by day 28. The ability to release aggregates followed by a second enzyme treatment to achieve single cells enabled assessment by flow cytometry. Prior to encapsulation, there were 39% Pdx1(+)/Nkx6.1(+) cells, key endocrine markers required for β-cell maturation. The fraction of doubly positive cells was not affected in hydrogels but was slightly and significantly lower in suspension culture by 28 days. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a MMP-sensitive PEG hydrogel containing collagen type I is a promising platform for hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors that maintains viable aggregates, aggregate size, and progenitor state and offers facile recovery of aggregates.

  3. Enzymatically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for the 3D culture and release of human embryonic stem cell derived pancreatic precursor cell aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Luke D.; Holtzinger, Audrey; Keller, Gordon; Mahoney, Melissa J.; Bryant, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a three dimensional culture platform for aggregates of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitors that enables long-term culture, maintains aggregate size and morphology, does not adversely affect differentiation and provides a means for aggregate recovery. A platform was developed with poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels containing collagen type I, for cell-matrix interactions, and peptide crosslinkers, for facile recovery of aggregates. The platform was first demonstrated with RIN-m5F cells, showing encapsulation and subsequent release of single cells and aggregates without adversely affecting viability. Aggregates of hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors with an effective diameter of 82 (15) μm were either encapsulated in hydrogels or cultured in suspension for 28 days. At day 14, aggregate viability was maintained in the hydrogels, but significantly reduced (88%) in suspension culture. However by day 28, viability was reduced in both culture conditions. Aggregate size was maintained in the hydrogels, but in suspension was significantly higher (~2-fold) by day 28. The ability to release aggregates followed by a second enzyme treatment to achieve single cells enabled assessment by flow cytometry. Prior to encapsulation, there were 39% Pdx1+/Nkx6.1+ cells, key endocrine markers required for β-cell maturation. The fraction of doubly positive cells was not affected in hydrogels but was slightly and significantly lower in suspension culture by 28 days. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a MMP-sensitive PEG hydrogel containing collagen type I is a promising platform for hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors that maintains viable aggregates, aggregate size, and progenitor state and offers facile recovery of aggregates. PMID:25913222

  4. Clinical Study of Styping Detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection with Microarray from Paraffinembedded Specimens of Cervical Cancer and Precursor Lesions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Wang, Xubo; Geng, Jianxiang; Zhao, Xue

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Jiangsu, China was investigated. A total of 93 cases with cervical cancer and 176 CINII-III tissue samples were obtained from women undergoing biopsy or surgery. The 1047 exfoliated cervical cell samples were collected with cervical brush in physical examination women. HPV DNA and typing were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene-chip. The results showed that HPV DNA was detected in 82 cases with cervical cancer (88.17%), HPV 16 being detected in 65 (69.89%) cases, HPV 18 in 12 (12.90%) cases, HPV 33 in 10 (10.75%) cases, HPV 31 in 4 (4.30%) cases, and HPV 45 in 3 (3.23%) cases. HPV DNA was detected in 154 cases with CINII-III (87.50%), HPV 16 being detected in 92 (52.27%) cases, HPV 18 in 50 (28.41%) cases, HPV 33 in 25 (14.21%) cases, HPV 58 in 25 (14.21%) cases, and HPV 31 in 20 (11.36%) cases. About 20.43% cervical cancer and 38.64% CINII-III specimens exhibited multiple infections (p < 0.01). The total positive rate, single infection and mixed infection rate of the CINII-III and SCC group all had a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared with the normal cells group. The total positive rate, single infection rate and mixed infection rate of CINII-III group did not show significant difference (p > 0.05) when compared with SCC group. CINII-III and SCC had all intimate relation with HPV infection. The high prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 33, 31 and 58 in Jiangsu (China) deserves more attention, as it has important implications for the successful use of HPV vaccine and choice of diagnostic methods. PMID:26716195

  5. Suppression of interleukin 2-dependent human T cell growth in vitro by prostaglandin E (PGE) and their precursor fatty acids. Evidence for a PGE-independent mechanism of inhibition by the fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Santoli, D; Phillips, P D; Colt, T L; Zurier, R B

    1990-01-01

    PGE represent oxygenation products of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids and are important regulators of cell-mediated immune responses. Because oils enriched in such fatty acids reduce inflammation and tissue injury in vivo, we examined the effects of these PGE precursors on IL-2-driven growth of human T lymphocytes. Dihomogamma linoleic acid (DGLA), AA, and their metabolites (PGE1 and PGE2, respectively) strongly inhibited short- and long-term growth of IL-2-dependent T cell cultures; EPA was much less inhibitory and its product, PGE3, failed to suppress IL-2 responses. Short-term pretreatment of the cells with DGLA or AA and removal of the fatty acids before the proliferation assay resulted in a smaller reduction in [3H]TdR incorporation. PGE and fatty acids did not alter the number of high affinity IL-2 binding sites on the T cell cultures but reduced the percentage of cells expressing CD25 and HLA class II molecules. No PGE was detected in supernatants from the fatty acid-treated cultures. Moreover, indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, did not reverse the antiproliferative effects of the fatty acids. Together, these findings indicate that fatty acids can inhibit IL-2-driven T cell growth via a PGE-independent mechanism and might be relevant to inflammatory diseases associated with persistent T cell activation. Images PMID:2298918

  6. Ca2+ sensitization due to myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition and cytoskeletal reorganization in the myogenic response of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Domínguez, Alejandro; Colinas, Olaia; El-Yazbi, Ahmed; Walsh, Emma J; Hill, Michael A; Walsh, Michael P; Cole, William C

    2013-01-01

    The myogenic response of resistance arteries to intravascular pressure elevation is a fundamental physiological mechanism of crucial importance for blood pressure regulation and organ-specific control of blood flow. The importance of Ca2+ entry via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels leading to phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin regulatory light chains (LC20) in the myogenic response is well established. Recent studies, however, have suggested a role for Ca2+ sensitization via activation of the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROK) pathway in the myogenic response. The possibility that enhanced actin polymerization is also involved in myogenic vasoconstriction has been suggested. Here, we have used pressurized resistance arteries from rat gracilis and cremaster skeletal muscles to assess the contribution to myogenic constriction of Ca2+ sensitization due to: (1) phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1) by ROK; (2) phosphorylation of the 17 kDa protein kinase C (PKC)-potentiated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor protein (CPI-17) by PKC; and (3) dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton evoked by ROK and PKC. Arterial diameter, MYPT1, CPI-17 and LC20 phosphorylation, and G-actin content were determined at varied intraluminal pressures ± H1152, GF109203X or latrunculin B to suppress ROK, PKC and actin polymerization, respectively. The myogenic response was associated with an increase in MYPT1 and LC20 phosphorylation that was blocked by H1152. No change in phospho-CPI-17 content was detected although the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, suppressed myogenic constriction. Basal LC20 phosphorylation at 10 mmHg was high at ∼40%, increased to a maximal level of ∼55% at 80 mmHg, and exhibited no additional change on further pressurization to 120 and 140 mmHg. Myogenic constriction at 80 mmHg was associated with a decline in G-actin content by ∼65% that was blocked by inhibition of ROK or PKC. Taken together, our findings indicate

  7. Ca2+ sensitization due to myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition and cytoskeletal reorganization in the myogenic response of skeletal muscle resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Domínguez, Alejandro; Colinas, Olaia; El-Yazbi, Ahmed; Walsh, Emma J; Hill, Michael A; Walsh, Michael P; Cole, William C

    2013-03-01

    Abstract  The myogenic response of resistance arteries to intravascular pressure elevation is a fundamental physiological mechanism of crucial importance for blood pressure regulation and organ-specific control of blood flow. The importance of Ca(2+) entry via voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin regulatory light chains (LC20) in the myogenic response is well established. Recent studies, however, have suggested a role for Ca(2+) sensitization via activation of the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROK) pathway in the myogenic response. The possibility that enhanced actin polymerization is also involved in myogenic vasoconstriction has been suggested. Here, we have used pressurized resistance arteries from rat gracilis and cremaster skeletal muscles to assess the contribution to myogenic constriction of Ca(2+) sensitization due to: (1) phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1) by ROK; (2) phosphorylation of the 17 kDa protein kinase C (PKC)-potentiated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor protein (CPI-17) by PKC; and (3) dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton evoked by ROK and PKC. Arterial diameter, MYPT1, CPI-17 and LC20 phosphorylation, and G-actin content were determined at varied intraluminal pressures ± H1152, GF109203X or latrunculin B to suppress ROK, PKC and actin polymerization, respectively. The myogenic response was associated with an increase in MYPT1 and LC20 phosphorylation that was blocked by H1152. No change in phospho-CPI-17 content was detected although the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, suppressed myogenic constriction. Basal LC20 phosphorylation at 10 mmHg was high at ∼40%, increased to a maximal level of ∼55% at 80 mmHg, and exhibited no additional change on further pressurization to 120 and 140 mmHg. Myogenic constriction at 80 mmHg was associated with a decline in G-actin content by ∼65% that was blocked by inhibition of ROK or PKC. Taken together, our

  8. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  9. Long-term Engraftment of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells That Differentiate to Form Myogenic Cells in Dogs With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nitahara-Kasahara, Yuko; Hayashita-Kinoh, Hiromi; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Okada, Hironori; Wada-Maeda, Michiko; Nakamura, Akinori; Okada, Takashi; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable genetic disease with early mortality. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are of interest because of their ability to differentiate to form myogenic cells in situ. In the present study, methods were developed to expand cultures of MSCs and to promote the myogenic differentiation of these cells, which were then used in a new approach for the treatment of DMD. MSC cultures enriched in CD271+ cells grew better than CD271-depleted cultures. The transduction of CD271+ MSCs with MyoD caused myogenic differentiation in vitro and the formation of myotubes expressing late myogenic markers. CD271+ MSCs in the myogenic cell lineage transplanted into dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical dogs formed clusters of muscle-like tissue. Intra-arterial injection of the CD271+ MSCs resulted in engraftment at the site of the cardiotoxin (CTX)-injured muscle. Dogs affected by X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMDJ) treated with an intramuscular injection of CD271+ MSCs similarly developed muscle-like tissue within 8–12 weeks in the absence of immunosuppression. In the newly formed tissues, developmental myosin heavy chain (dMyHC) and dystrophin were upregulated. These findings demonstrate that a cell transplantation strategy using CD271+ MSCs may offer a promising treatment approach for patients with DMD. PMID:21934652

  10. Myeloperoxidase is synthesized as larger phosphorylated precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Hasilik, A; Pohlmann, R; Olsen, R L; von Figura, K

    1984-01-01

    Synthesis and processing of myeloperoxidase were examined in metabolically labeled cells of the human promyelocyte line HL-60 and in an in vitro rabbit reticulocyte lysate system directed with HL-60 mRNA. Radioactivity labeled products were isolated by immunoprecipitation and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and fluorography. In vivo, myeloperoxidase was labeled initially as a 85-K glycosylated polypeptide (75 K after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H). This polypeptide was soon processed to an 81-K intermediate and to smaller mature fragments of 60 K and 13 K within approximately 1 day. A minor portion of the precursor was converted to fragments of 40 K and 43 K. The pattern of labeled polypeptides of mature myeloperoxidase was similar to that of the enzyme purified from human leucocytes. The modifications of the polypeptide and of the oligosaccharide side chains in myeloperoxidase resembled those known to occur during the processing of lysosomal enzymes. In the absence or presence of dog pancreas membranes, myeloperoxidase was synthesized in vitro as a 76-K polypeptide or a 87-K glycosylated polypeptide, respectively. In HL-60 cells [32P]phosphate was incorporated into endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-sensitive oligosaccharides. The presence of phosphorylated oligosaccharides was inferred from the fact that endocytosis of leucocyte myeloperoxidase in fibroblasts was sensitive to mannose 6-phosphate. It is suggested that myeloperoxidase is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum as a precursor of larger molecular mass and that the oligosaccharide side chains in the precursor are modified to contain mannose 6-phosphate residues which may be involved in the segregation and transport of the precursor. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6096138

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.; Gallardo-Escarate, C.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  12. MASSAGE THERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MYOGENIC TMD: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    CAPELLINI, Verena Kise; de SOUZA, Gisela Soares; de FARIA, Cláudia Regina Sgobbi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is greatly prevalent in the population and can be associated with bruxism. This disorder produces several signs and symptoms. Among them, pain is one of the most important because it reduces life quality and productivity of people who have such disorder. The aim of this research was to study if massage causes pain relief and/or electromyographic (EMG) changes. Materials and methods: The subjects were chosen by a questionnaire and divided into 2 different groups. Their ages varied from 19 to 22 years. The experimental group consisted of 6 TMD patients, who were submitted to the massage treatment and 4 EMG-sessions (the 1st EMG-session occurred before the treatment and the others in the 1st, 15th and 30th days after the treatment). The control group consisted of 6 TMD patients, who were submitted to the same 4 EMG-sessions. While EMG activity was recorded, subjects were asked to keep mandibular rest position (MRP) and to perform maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). The treatment consisted of 15 massage-sessions on face and neck and in application of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring pain level. The massage sessions had 30 minutes of duration and were performed daily. The EMG data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Square (RMS), which were normalized by MVC. Results: It was demonstrated that (1) RMS-MRP of the right masseter in experimental group at the 1st EMG-session was higher than at the 2nd EMG-session and (2) statistically significant reduction was found for VAS values after massage session. Conclusion: Unfortunately the sample is insufficient to draw any conclusions, therefore, more studies regarding the use of massage in the management of myogenic TMD are necessary. PMID:19089025

  13. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  14. Identification of L- and T-type Ca2+ channels in rat cerebral arteries: role in myogenic tone development.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahman, Rasha R; Harraz, Osama F; Brett, Suzanne E; Anfinogenova, Yana; Mufti, Rania E; Goldman, Daniel; Welsh, Donald G

    2013-01-01

    L-type Ca(2+) channels are broadly expressed in arterial smooth muscle cells, and their voltage-dependent properties are important in tone development. Recent studies have noted that these Ca(2+) channels are not singularly expressed in vascular tissue and that other subtypes are likely present. In this study, we ascertained which voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are expressed in rat cerebral arterial smooth muscle and determined their contribution to the myogenic response. mRNA analysis revealed that the α(1)-subunit of L-type (Ca(v)1.2) and T-type (Ca(v)3.1 and Ca(v)3.2) Ca(2+) channels are present in isolated smooth muscle cells. Western blot analysis subsequently confirmed protein expression in whole arteries. With the use of patch clamp electrophysiology, nifedipine-sensitive and -insensitive Ba(2+) currents were isolated and each were shown to retain electrical characteristics consistent with L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels. The nifedipine-insensitive Ba(2+) current was blocked by mibefradil, kurtoxin, and efonidpine, T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitors. Pressure myography revealed that L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibition reduced tone at 20 and 80 mmHg, with the greatest effect at high pressure when the vessel is depolarized. In comparison, the effect of T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade on myogenic tone was more limited, with their greatest effect at low pressure where vessels are hyperpolarized. Blood flow modeling revealed that the vasomotor responses induced by T-type Ca(2+) blockade could alter arterial flow by ∼20-50%. Overall, our findings indicate that L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels are expressed in cerebral arterial smooth muscle and can be electrically isolated from one another. Both conductances contribute to myogenic tone, although their overall contribution is unequal. PMID:23103495

  15. Myogenic differentiation of the muscle clonal cell line BC3H-1 is accompanied by changes in its lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Pediconi, M F; Politi, L E; Bouzat, C B; De Los Santos, E B; Barrantes, F J

    1992-09-01

    Phospholipid and neutral lipid composition was studied in the course of myogenic differentiation of the clonal cell line BC3H-1. Total phospholipid content increased during differentiation, predominantly in the major classes of choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. The contents of other lipids, such as triacylglycerols, diminished more than 50% during this period. The content and distribution of fatty acids also underwent marked differentiation-dependent changes. The polyunsaturated (tetrapenta- and hexaenoic) fatty acid species of several phospholipid classes diminished during differentiation, especially those in choline, serine and inositol glycerophospholipids. Most noticeable were the changes in phosphatidylserine; long-chain fatty acids having 20 to 22 carbon atoms and 4 to 6 double bonds decreased from about 30 to about 10 mol%. Although increased levels of saturation in other phospholipid fatty acyl chains appear to accompany the myogenic changes of BC3H-1 cells, some unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (18:1), increased by as much as 80% during the same period, suggesting the activation of a delta 9 desaturase. Sphingomyelin contained only saturated and monoenoic fatty acids and exhibited a four- to five-fold decrease in its content of monoenoic acyl groups. Diacylglycerols became enriched in arachidonate and docosahexaenoate. The amount of cholesterol and its esters increased slightly during differentiation of BC3H-1 cells. The data show that several metabolic pathways change during myogenic differentiation of the BC3H-1 clonal cell line, particularly de novo biosynthetic pathways, elongation/desaturation reactions, and acyl chain turnover.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Muscarine enhances soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y by a pathway dependent on protein kinase C(alpha), src-tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase but not phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Canet-Aviles, Rosa-Maria; Anderton, Mark; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J; Vaughan, Peter F T

    2002-06-15

    The signalling pathways by which muscarine and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate the secretion of the alpha-secretase cleavage product (sAPPalpha) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were examined in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. Using specific inhibitors it was found that over 80% of sAPPalpha secretion, enhanced by muscarine, occurred via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and was dependent on protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and a member of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src-TK). In contrast the stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion by EGF was not affected by inhibitors of PKC nor Src-TK but was dependent on ERK1/2. In addition muscarine-enhanced sAPPalpha secretion and ERK1/2 activation were inhibited 60 and 80%, respectively, by micromolar concentrations of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor wortmannin. In comparison wortmannin decreased EGF stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion and ERK 1/2 activation by approximately 40%. Unexpectedly, U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, did not inhibit muscarine enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion. These data are discussed in relation to a pathway for the enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion by muscarine which involves the activation of a Src-TK by G-protein beta/gamma-subunits leading to activation of PKCalpha, and ERK1/2 by a mechanism not involving phospholipase C. PMID:12191495

  17. Biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored human placental alkaline phosphatase: evidence for a phospholipase C-sensitive precursor and its post-attachment conversion into a phospholipase C-resistant form.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Y W; Low, M G

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that some cells (e.g. SKG3a) express human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) in a form which can be released from the membrane by bacterial PtdIns-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) while others (e.g. HeLa) are relatively resistant to this enzyme. Chemical and enzymic degradation studies have suggested that the PI-PLC resistance of AP is due to inositol acylation of its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. In order to identify the biosynthetic origin of PI-PLC resistance we determined the PI-PLC sensitivity of AP in 35S-labelled cells (10 min pulse; 0-60 min chase) by Triton X-114 phase separation. At the beginning of the chase period, the majority of the AP synthesized was hydrophilic, indicating that it had not acquired a GPI anchor. The concentration of hydrophilic AP species decreased with a t1/2 of 30-60 min but was not processed to an endoglycosidase H-resistant species or secreted into the medium. In both SKG3a and HeLa cells all of the hydrophobic, GPI-anchored AP detectable at the beginning of the chase was PI-PLC sensitive. PI-PLC-resistant species of AP were only observed in HeLa cells and these only appeared after about 30 min. The delayed appearance of PI-PLC resistance was unexpected as previous studies have suggested that candidate GPI-anchor precursors are PI-PLC-resistant as a result of inositol acylation. This work reveals unanticipated complexities in the biosynthesis of AP and its GPI anchor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8037672

  18. Differences in the Expression and Distribution of Flotillin-2 in Chick, Mice and Human Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Possidonio, Ana Claudia Batista; Soares, Carolina Pontes; Portilho, Débora Morueco; Midlej, Victor; Benchimol, Marlene; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Myoblasts undergo a series of changes in the composition and dynamics of their plasma membranes during the initial steps of skeletal muscle differentiation. These changes are crucial requirements for myoblast fusion and allow the formation of striated muscle fibers. Membrane microdomains, or lipid rafts, have been implicated in myoblast fusion. Flotillins are scaffold proteins that are essential for the formation and dynamics of lipid rafts. Flotillins have been widely studied over the last few years, but still little is known about their role during skeletal muscle differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and distribution of flotillin-2 in chick, mice and human muscle cells grown in vitro. Primary cultures of chick myogenic cells showed a decrease in the expression of flotillin-2 during the first 72 hours of muscle differentiation. Interestingly, flotillin-2 was found to be highly expressed in chick myogenic fibroblasts and weakly expressed in chick myoblasts and multinucleated myotubes. Flotillin-2 was distributed in vesicle-like structures within the cytoplasm of chick myogenic fibroblasts, in the mouse C2C12 myogenic cell line, and in neonatal human muscle cells. Cryo-immunogold labeling revealed the presence of flotillin-2 in vesicles and in Golgi stacks in chick myogenic fibroblasts. Further, brefeldin A induced a major reduction in the number of flotillin-2 containing vesicles which correlates to a decrease in myoblast fusion. These results suggest the involvement of flotillin-2 during the initial steps of skeletal myogenesis. PMID:25105415

  19. Differences in the expression and distribution of flotillin-2 in chick, mice and human muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Possidonio, Ana Claudia Batista; Soares, Carolina Pontes; Portilho, Débora Morueco; Midlej, Victor; Benchimol, Marlene; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Myoblasts undergo a series of changes in the composition and dynamics of their plasma membranes during the initial steps of skeletal muscle differentiation. These changes are crucial requirements for myoblast fusion and allow the formation of striated muscle fibers. Membrane microdomains, or lipid rafts, have been implicated in myoblast fusion. Flotillins are scaffold proteins that are essential for the formation and dynamics of lipid rafts. Flotillins have been widely studied over the last few years, but still little is known about their role during skeletal muscle differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and distribution of flotillin-2 in chick, mice and human muscle cells grown in vitro. Primary cultures of chick myogenic cells showed a decrease in the expression of flotillin-2 during the first 72 hours of muscle differentiation. Interestingly, flotillin-2 was found to be highly expressed in chick myogenic fibroblasts and weakly expressed in chick myoblasts and multinucleated myotubes. Flotillin-2 was distributed in vesicle-like structures within the cytoplasm of chick myogenic fibroblasts, in the mouse C2C12 myogenic cell line, and in neonatal human muscle cells. Cryo-immunogold labeling revealed the presence of flotillin-2 in vesicles and in Golgi stacks in chick myogenic fibroblasts. Further, brefeldin A induced a major reduction in the number of flotillin-2 containing vesicles which correlates to a decrease in myoblast fusion. These results suggest the involvement of flotillin-2 during the initial steps of skeletal myogenesis.

  20. Dedifferentiation of Adult Human Myoblasts Induced by Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Mao, Zebin; Liu, Shuhong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Wu, Haitao; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Tong; Fan, Wenhong; Li, Yong; Yew, David T.; Kindler, Pawel M.; Li, Linsong; He, Qihua; Qian, Lingjia; Wang, Xiaomin; Fan, Ming

    2005-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is primarily known for its important cellular effects within the nervous system. However, recent studies indicate that its receptor can be highly expressed in denervated skeletal muscle. Here, we investigated the direct effect of CNTF on skeletal myoblasts of adult human. Surprisingly, we found that CNTF induced the myogenic lineage-committed myoblasts at a clonal level to dedifferentiate into multipotent progenitor cells—they not only could proliferate for over 20 passages with the expression absence of myogenic specific factors Myf5 and MyoD, but they were also capable of differentiating into new phenotypes, mainly neurons, glial cells, smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes. These “progenitor cells” retained their myogenic memory and were capable of redifferentiating into myotubes. Furthermore, CNTF could activate the p44/p42 MAPK and down-regulate the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). Finally, PD98059, a specific inhibitor of p44/p42 MAPK pathway, was able to abolish the effects of CNTF on both myoblast fate and MRF expression. Our results demonstrate the myogenic lineage-committed human myoblasts can dedifferentiate at a clonal level and CNTF is a novel regulator of skeletal myoblast dedifferentiation via p44/p42 MAPK pathway. PMID:15843428

  1. Brillouin precursors in Debye media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macke, Bruno; Ségard, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically study the formation of Brillouin precursors in Debye media. We point out that the precursors are visible only at propagation distances such that the impulse response of the medium is essentially determined by the frequency dependence of its absorption and is practically Gaussian. By simple convolution, we then obtain explicit analytical expressions of the transmitted waves generated by reference incident waves, distinguishing precursor and main signal by a simple examination of the long-time behavior of the overall signal. These expressions are in good agreement with the signals obtained in numerical or real experiments performed on water in the radio-frequency domain and explain in particular some observed shapes of the precursor. Results are obtained for other remarkable incident waves. In addition, we show quite generally that the shape of the Brillouin precursor appearing alone at sufficiently large propagation distance and the law giving its amplitude as a function of this distance do not depend on the precise form of the incident wave but only on its integral properties. The incidence of a static conductivity of the medium is also examined and explicit analytical results are again given in the limit of weak and strong conductivities.

  2. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 expression impacts myogenic C2C12 cell commitment via the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Der Vartanian, Audrey; Audfray, Aymeric; Al Jaam, Bilal; Janot, Mathilde; Legardinier, Sébastien; Maftah, Abderrahman; Germot, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a crucial role in skeletal muscle regeneration in mammals by controlling the transition of satellite cells from quiescence to an activated state, their proliferation, and their commitment toward myotubes or self-renewal. O-fucosylation on Notch receptor epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats is catalyzed by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) and primarily controls Notch interaction with its ligands. To approach the role of O-fucosylation in myogenesis, we analyzed a murine myoblastic C2C12 cell line downregulated for Pofut1 expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibition during the time course of differentiation. Knockdown of Pofut1 affected the signaling pathway activation by a reduction of the amount of cleaved Notch intracellular domain and a decrease in downstream Notch target gene expression. Depletion in Pax7(+)/MyoD(-) cells and earlier myogenic program entrance were observed, leading to an increase in myotube quantity with a small number of nuclei, reflecting fusion defects. The rescue of Pofut1 expression in knockdown cells restored Notch signaling activation and a normal course in C2C12 differentiation. Our results establish the critical role of Pofut1 on Notch pathway activation during myogenic differentiation.

  3. Skeletal Myogenic Differentiation of Urine-Derived Stem Cells and Angiogenesis Using Microbeads Loaded with Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guihua; Pareta, Rajesh A; Wu, Rongpei; Shi, Yingai; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Deng, Chunhua; Sun, Xiangzhou; Atala, Anthony; Opara, Emmanuel C; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    To provide site-specific delivery and targeted release of growth factors to implanted urine-derived stem cells (USCs), we prepared microbeads of alginate containing growth factors. The growth factors included VEGF, IGF-1, FGF-1, PDGF, HGF and NGF. Radiolabeled growth factors were loaded separately and used to access the in vitro release from the microbeads with a gamma counter over 4 weeks. In vitro endothelial differentiation of USCs by the released VEGF from the microbeads in a separate experiment confirmed that the released growth factors from the microbeads were bioactive. USCs and microbeads were mixed with the collagen gel type 1 (2 mg/ml) and used for in vivo studies through subcutaneous injection into nude mice. Four weeks after subcutaneous injection, we found that grafted cell survival was improved and more cells expressed myogenic and endothelial cell transcripts and markers compared to controls. More vessel formation and innervations were observed in USCs combined with six growth factors cocktail incorporated in microbeads compared to controls. In conclusion, a combination of growth factors released locally from the alginate microbeads induced USCs to differentiate into a myogenic lineage, enhanced revascularization and innervation, and stimulated resident cell growth in vivo. This approach could potentially be used for cell therapy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. PMID:23137393

  4. Protein O-Fucosyltransferase 1 Expression Impacts Myogenic C2C12 Cell Commitment via the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Der Vartanian, Audrey; Audfray, Aymeric; Al Jaam, Bilal; Janot, Mathilde; Legardinier, Sébastien; Maftah, Abderrahman

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a crucial role in skeletal muscle regeneration in mammals by controlling the transition of satellite cells from quiescence to an activated state, their proliferation, and their commitment toward myotubes or self-renewal. O-fucosylation on Notch receptor epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats is catalyzed by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) and primarily controls Notch interaction with its ligands. To approach the role of O-fucosylation in myogenesis, we analyzed a murine myoblastic C2C12 cell line downregulated for Pofut1 expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibition during the time course of differentiation. Knockdown of Pofut1 affected the signaling pathway activation by a reduction of the amount of cleaved Notch intracellular domain and a decrease in downstream Notch target gene expression. Depletion in Pax7+/MyoD− cells and earlier myogenic program entrance were observed, leading to an increase in myotube quantity with a small number of nuclei, reflecting fusion defects. The rescue of Pofut1 expression in knockdown cells restored Notch signaling activation and a normal course in C2C12 differentiation. Our results establish the critical role of Pofut1 on Notch pathway activation during myogenic differentiation. PMID:25384974

  5. Regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers from autologous satellite cells multiplied in vitro. An experimental model for testing cultured cell myogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Alameddine, H.S.; Dehaupas, M.; Fardeau, M. )

    1989-07-01

    An experimental model used to test in vivo myogenicity of autologous satellite cells multiplied in vitro is described. Free muscle autotransplantation served as the basis and was combined with x-irradiation. Administration of 1500, 2500, and 3500 rad doses 24 hours before or after ischemia showed that inhibition of spontaneous regeneration is dose dependent and more efficient when irradiation was applied before injury. A single dose of 2500 rad before injury resulted in the formation of a cystic structure ideal for cell implantation. FITC-latex beads and/or carbocyanine dyes were internalized by mononucleated satellite cells in vitro. Labeling did not affect survival or development of these cells. No sign of marker release or spreading from labeled to unlabeled cells was detectable unless by the fusion process. These labels were retained for several weeks. Grafting of labeled dense cellular suspensions into x-irradiated ischemic muscles indicated that satellite cells retain their myogenic characteristic and are able to reform fully differentiated muscle fibers. 55 references.

  6. Flow modulates myogenic responses in isolated microperfused rabbit afferent arterioles via endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Juncos, L A; Garvin, J; Carretero, O A; Ito, S

    1995-01-01

    Flow may be a physiological stimulus of the endothelial release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs). We tested the hypothesis that pressure-induced constriction of the glomerular afferent arteriole (Af-Art) is modulated by luminal flow via endothelial production of NO. We microdissected the terminal segment of an interlobular artery together with two Af-Arts, their glomeruli (GL) and efferent arterioles (Ef-Art). The two Af-Arts were perfused simultaneously from the interlobular artery, while one Ef-Art was occluded. Since the arteriolar perfusate contained 5% albumin, oncotic pressure built up in the glomerulus with the occluded Ef-Art and opposed the force of filtration, resulting in little or no flow through the corresponding Af-Art. Thus this preparation allowed us to observe free-flow and no-flow Af-Arts simultaneously during stepwise 30-mmHg increases in intraluminal pressure (from 30 to 120 mmHg). Pressure-induced constriction was weaker in free-flow than no-flow Af-Arts, with the luminal diameter decreasing by 11.1 +/- 1.7 and 25.6 +/- 2.3% (n = 30), respectively, at 120 mmHg. To examine whether flow modulates myogenic constriction through endothelium-derived NO and/or PGs, we examined pressure-induced constriction before and after (a) disruption of the endothelium, (b) inhibition of NO synthesis with NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or (c) inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin. Both endothelial disruption and L-NAME augmented pressure-induced constriction in free-flow but not no-flow Af-Arts, abolishing the differences between the two. However, indomethacin had no effect in either free-flow or no-flow Af-Arts. These results suggest that intraluminal flow attenuates pressure-induced constriction in Af-Arts via endothelium-derived NO. Thus flow-stimulated NO release may be important in the fine control of glomerular hemodynamics. Images PMID:7769114

  7. Expression and function of heterotypic adhesion molecules during differentiation of human skeletal muscle in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, J. R.; Abraham, D. J.; Bou-Gharios, G.; Partridge, T. A.; Olsen, I.

    1992-01-01

    The infiltration of skeletal muscle by leukocytes occurs in a variety of myopathies and frequently accompanies muscle degeneration and regeneration. The latter involves development of new myofibers from precursor myoblasts, and so infiltrating cells may interact with muscle at all stages of differentiation. The authors have investigated the surface expression of ligands for T-cell adhesion during the differentiation of human skeletal muscle in vitro. Myoblasts expressed low levels of ICAM-1 (CD54), which remained constant during muscle cell differentiation and could be induced by cytokines such as gamma-interferon. It is therefore likely that ICAM-1 is involved in the invasive accumulation of lymphocytes during skeletal muscle inflammation. In contrast, LFA-3 (CD58) was expressed at higher levels than ICAM-1 on myoblasts, decreased significantly during myogenesis, and was unaffected by immune mediators. Both ICAM-1 and LFA-3 were able to mediate T cell binding to myoblasts, whereas adhesion to myotubes was independent of the LFA-3 ligand. Although expressed throughout myogenesis, human leukocyte antigen class I and CD44 did not appear to mediate T cell binding. The expression of ligands that facilitate interaction of myogenic cells with lymphocytes may have important implications for myoblast transplantation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1739132

  8. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cell differentiation toward myogenic lineages: facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Galli, Daniela; Vitale, Marco; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are valuable platforms for new therapies based on regenerative medicine. BM-MSCs era is coming of age since the potential of these cells is increasingly demonstrated. In fact, these cells give origin to osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and adipocyte precursors in vitro, and they can also differentiate versus other mesodermal cell types like skeletal muscle precursors and cardiomyocytes. In our short review, we focus on the more recent manipulations of BM-MSCs toward skeletal and heart muscle differentiation, a growing field of obvious relevance considering the toll of muscle disease (i.e., muscular dystrophies), the heavier toll of heart disease in developed countries, and the still not completely understood mechanisms of muscle differentiation and repair. PMID:25054145

  9. Biomimetic three-dimensional anisotropic geometries by uniaxial stretch of poly(ε-caprolactone) films for mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, alignment, and myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zu-yong; Teo, Erin Yiling; Chong, Mark Seow Khoon; Zhang, Qin-yuan; Lim, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Hong, Ming-hui; Thian, Eng-san; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Teoh, Swee-hin

    2013-07-01

    Anisotropic geometries are critical for eliciting cell alignment to dictate tissue microarchitectures and biological functions. Current fabrication techniques are complex and utilize toxic solvents, hampering their applications for translational research. Here, we present a novel simple, solvent-free, and reproducible method via uniaxial stretching for incorporating anisotropic topographies on bioresorbable films with ambitions to realize stem cell alignment control. Uniaxial stretching of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films resulted in a three-dimensional micro-ridge/groove topography (inter-ridge-distance: ~6 μm; ridge-length: ~90 μm; ridge-depth: 200-900 nm) with uniform distribution and controllable orientation by the direction of stretch on the whole film surface. When stretch temperature (Ts) and draw ratio (DR) were increased, the inter-ridge-distance was reduced and ridge-length increased. Through modification of hydrolysis, increased surface hydrophilicity was achieved, while maintaining the morphology of PCL ridge/grooves. Upon seeding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on uniaxial-stretched PCL (UX-PCL) films, aligned hMSC organization was obtained. Compared to unstretched films, hMSCs on UX-PCL had larger increase in cellular alignment (>85%) and elongation, without indication of cytotoxicity or reduction in cellular proliferation. This aligned hMSC organization was homogenous and stably maintained with controlled orientation along the ridges on the whole UX-PCL surface for over 2 weeks. Moreover, the hMSCs on UX-PCL had a higher level of myogenic genes' expression than that on the unstretched films. We conclude that uniaxial stretching has potential in patterning film topography with anisotropic structures. The UX-PCL in conjunction with hMSCs could be used as "basic units" to create tissue constructs with microscale control of cellular alignment and elongation for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  11. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  12. Role of PRDM16 and its PR domain in the epigenetic regulation of myogenic and adipogenic genes during transdifferentiation of C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Jinquan; Jiang, Zheng; Guo, Feng; Soloway, Paul D; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-10-10

    The positive regulatory domain containing 16 (PRDM16) is commonly regarded as a "switch" controlling the transdifferentiation of myoblasts to brown adipocytes. The N-positive regulatory (PR) domain, which is highly homologous to SET domain, is a characteristic structure for the PRDM family. Many SET domain containing proteins and several PRDM members have been found to possess histone methyltransferase activity, yet the role of PRDM16 and its PR domain in the epigenetic regulation of myogenic and adipogenic genes during myoblasts/adipocytes transdifferentiation remains unexplored. In this study, we transfected C2C12 myoblasts to stably express PRDM16 and observed the repression of myogenic genes and activation of adipogenic genes at both proliferation and differentiation stages. Ectopic PRDM16-induced reprogramming of myogenic and adipogenic genes was associated with the hypermethylation on some CpG sites in the enhancer or promoter of MyoD and myogenin, but the methylation status of PPARγ promoter was not affected. C2C12 cells expressing truncated PRDM16 lacking PR domain (ΔPR-PRDM16) demonstrated attenuation of both adipogenic and myogenic potentials, indicated by PPARγ inactivation and decreased triglyceride deposition, as well as a downregulation of MyoD, MyHC and MCK genes, as compared with C2C12 cells expressing intact PRDM16. Furthermore, C2C12 cells expressing ΔPR-PRDM16 exhibited significant differences in histone modifications on the promoters of MyoD and PPARγ genes. Taken together, PRDM16-induced C2C12 transdifferentiation is associated with alterations in CpG methylation of myogenic factors, and PR domain affects both myogenesis and adipogenesis with modified histone methylation marks on MyoD and PPARγ promoters.

  13. Ambient glucose levels qualify the potency of insulin myogenic actions by regulating SIRT1 and FoxO3a in C2C12 myocytes.

    PubMed

    Nedachi, Taku; Kadotani, Akito; Ariga, Miyako; Katagiri, Hideki; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Nutrition availability is one of the major environmental signals influencing cell fate, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, often functioning in concert with other humoral factors, including insulin. Herein, we show that low-serum-induced differentiation of C(2)C(12) myocytes is significantly hampered under low glucose (LG; 5 mM) compared with high glucose (HG; 22.5 mM) conditions, concurrently with nuclear accumulation of SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, and FoxO3a, both of which are implicated in the negative regulation of myogenesis. Intriguingly, insulin appears to exert opposite actions, depending on glucose availability, with regard to the regulation of SIRT1 and FoxO3a abundance, which apparently contributes to modulating the potency of insulin's myogenic action. Namely, insulin exerts a potent myogenic effect in the presence of sufficient glucose, whereas insulin is unable to exert its myogenic action under LG conditions, since insulin evokes massive upregulation of both SIRT1 and FoxO3a in the absence of sufficient ambient glucose. In addition, the hampered differentiation state under LG is significantly restored by sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor, whereas insulin abolished this sirtinol-dependent restoration, indicating that insulin can function as a negative as well as a positive myogenic factor depending on glucose availability. Taken together, our data reveal the importance of ambient glucose levels in the regulation of myogenesis and also in the determination of insulin's myogenic potency, which is achieved, at least in part, through regulation of the cellular contents and localization of SIRT1 and FoxO3a in differentiating C(2)C(12) myocytes.

  14. Prostaglandin E2: from clinical applications to its potential role in bone- muscle crosstalk and myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chenglin; Romero-Suarez, Sandra; Bonewald, Lynda; Johnson, Mark; Brotto, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a prostanoid synthesized from arachidonic acid via the cyclooxygenase pathway, is a modulator of physiological responses including inflammation, fever, and muscle regeneration. Several patents have been filed that are related to PGE(2), one of them being directly related to skeletal muscles. In this report, we first summarize the key patents describing inventions for the utilization of PGE(2) for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, including skeletal muscle. In the second part of our work we present new and exciting data that demonstrates that PGE(2) accelerates skeletal muscle myogenic differentiation. Our discovery resulted from our recent and novel concept of bone-muscle crosstalk. Bone and muscle are anatomically intimate endocrine organs and we aimed to determine whether this anatomical intimacy also translates into a biochemical communication from bone cells to muscle cells at the in vitro level. The effects of MLOY4 osteocyte-like cell conditioned medium (CM) and three osteocyte-secreted factors, PGE(2), sclerostin and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-3), on C2C12 myogenic differentiation were evaluated using morphological analyses, a customized 96-gene PCR array, and measurements of intracellular calcium levels. MLO-Y4 CM and PGE(2), but not sclerostin and MCP-3, induced acceleration of myogenesis of C2C12 myoblasts that was linked with significant modifications in intracellular calcium homeostasis. This finding should further stimulate the pursuit of new patents to explore the use of PGE(2) and the new concept of bone-muscle crosstalk for the development and application of inventions designed to treat muscle diseases characterized by enhanced muscle wasting, such as sarcopenia. PMID:23092433

  15. Prostaglandin E2: From clinical applications to its potential role in bone-muscle crosstalk and myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Chenglin; Romero-Suarez, Sandra; Bonewald, Lynda; Johnson, Mark; Brotto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a prostanoid synthesized from arachidonic acid via the cyclooxygenase pathway, is a modulator of physiological responses including inflammation, fever, and muscle regeneration. Several patents have been filed that are related to PGE2, one of them being directly related to skeletal muscles. In this report, we first summarize the key patents describing inventions for the utilization of PGE2 for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, including skeletal muscle. In the second part of our work we present new and exciting data that demonstrates that PGE2 accelerates skeletal muscle myogenic differentiation. Our discovery resulted from our recent and novel concept of bone-muscle crosstalk. Bone and muscle are anatomically intimate endocrine organs and we aimed to determine whether this anatomical intimacy also translates into a biochemical communication from bone cells to muscle cells at the in vitro level. The effects of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cell conditioned medium (CM) and three osteocyte-secreted factors, PGE2, sclerostin and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-3), on C2C12 myogenic differentiation were evaluated using morphological analyses, a customized 96-PCR gene array, and measurements of intracellular calcium levels. MLO-Y4 CM and PGE2, but not sclerostin and MCP-3, induced acceleration of myogenesis of C2C12 myoblasts that was linked with significant modifications in intracellular calcium homeostasis. This finding should further stimulate the pursuit of new patents to explore the use of PGE2 and the new concept of bone-muscle crosstalk for the development and application of inventions designed to treat muscle diseases characterized by enhanced muscle wasting, such as sarcopenia. PMID:23092433

  16. Nanolipodendrosome-loaded glatiramer acetate and myogenic differentiation 1 as augmentation therapeutic strategy approaches in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Ehsan; Zakeri, Saba; Keyhanvar, Peyman; Bagheri, Meisam; Mahjoubi, Parvin; Asadian, Mahtab; Omoomi, Nogol; Dehqanian, Mohammad; Ghalandarlaki, Negar; Darvishmohammadi, Tahmineh; Farjadian, Fatemeh; Golvajoee, Mohammad Sadegh; Afzal, Shadi; Ghaffari, Maryam; Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Gravand, Amin; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee

    2013-01-01

    Backgrond Muscular dystrophies consist of a number of juvenile and adult forms of complex disorders which generally cause weakness or efficiency defects affecting skeletal muscles or, in some kinds, other types of tissues in all parts of the body are vastly affected. In previous studies, it was observed that along with muscular dystrophy, immune inflammation was caused by inflammatory cells invasion – like T lymphocyte markers (CD8+/CD4+). Inflammatory processes play a major part in muscular fibrosis in muscular dystrophy patients. Additionally, a significant decrease in amounts of two myogenic recovery factors (myogenic differentation 1 [MyoD] and myogenin) in animal models was observed. The drug glatiramer acetate causes anti-inflammatory cytokines to increase and T helper (Th) cells to induce, in an as yet unknown mechanism. MyoD recovery activity in muscular cells justifies using it alongside this drug. Methods In this study, a nanolipodendrosome carrier as a drug delivery system was designed. The purpose of the system was to maximize the delivery and efficiency of the two drug factors, MyoD and myogenin, and introduce them as novel therapeutic agents in muscular dystrophy phenotypic mice. The generation of new muscular cells was analyzed in SW1 mice. Then, immune system changes and probable side effects after injecting the nanodrug formulations were investigated. Results The loaded lipodendrimer nanocarrier with the candidate drug, in comparison with the nandrolone control drug, caused a significant increase in muscular mass, a reduction in CD4+/CD8+ inflammation markers, and no significant toxicity was observed. The results support the hypothesis that the nanolipodendrimer containing the two candidate drugs will probably be an efficient means to ameliorate muscular degeneration, and warrants further investigation. PMID:23966782

  17. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  18. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  19. Neurotransmitter precursors and brain function.

    PubMed

    Conlay, L A; Zeisel, S H

    1982-04-01

    Brain function can be affected by the availability of dietary precursors of neurotransmitters. This occurs because the rate-limiting synthetic enzymes are not "saturated" with substrate under normal circumstances. Tyrosine affects catecholaminergic neurons that fire rapidly, whether in the brain stem to decrease blood pressure in hypertension or in the adrenal gland to increase blood pressure in hypotension, and has been used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and depression. Choline forms acetylcholine and has been used successfully in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia and memory disorders. Tryptophan, which forms serotonin, has been used for chronic pain therapy, sleep disorders, depression, and appetite control. Although these substances may lack the potency of traditionally used agonists, they offer an increase in specificity because the enzymes necessary to convert them to neurotransmitters are found only in neurons. Precursors are also "physiological"; they are consumed as foods and, therefore, should be relatively safe therapeutic agents. PMID:6124895

  20. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshöft, Marc; Orth, Robert G.; Dräger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M.; Zenk, Meinhart H.; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D3]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD3]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD3]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD3]-codeine and [N-CD3]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors. PMID:20421505

  1. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice.

    PubMed

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshöft, Marc; Orth, Robert G; Dräger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M; Zenk, Meinhart H; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-05-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D(3)]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD(3)]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD(3)]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD(3)]-codeine and [N-CD(3)]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors.

  2. Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troja, E.; Rosswog, S.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a systematic search of precursors on the sample of short GRBs observed by Swift. We found that approx. 8-10% of short GRBs display such early episode of emission. One burst (GRB 090510) shows two precursor events, the former approx.13 s and the latter approx. 0.5 s before the GRB. We did not find any substantial difference between the precursor and the main GRB emission, and between short GRBs with and without precursors. We discuss possible mechanisms to reproduce the observed precursor emission within the scenario of compact object mergers. The implications of our results on quantum gravity constraints are also discussed.

  3. Precursor Lesions of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Michiyo; Yamada, Norishige; Goto, Masamichi

    2008-01-01

    This review article describes morphological aspects, gene abnormalities, and mucin expression profiles in precursor lesions such as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas, as well as their relation to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The gene abnormalities in precursors of PDAC are summarized as follows: (1) KRAS mutation and p16/CDKN2A inactivation are early events whose frequencies increase with the dysplasia grade in both PanIN and IPMN; (2) TP53 mutation and SMAD4/DPC4 inactivation are late events observed in PanIN3 or carcinomatous change of IPMN in both PanIN and IPMN, although the frequency of the TP53 mutation is lower in IPMN than in PDAC; and (3) also in MCN, KRAS mutation is an early event whose frequency increases with the dysplasia grade, whereas TP53 mutation and SMAD4/DPC4 inactivation are evident only in the carcinoma. The mucin expression profiles in precursors of PDAC are summarized as follows: (1) MUC1 expression increases with the PanIN grade, and is high in PDAC; (2) the expression pattern of MUC2 differs markedly between the major subtypes of IPMN with different malignancy potentials (i.e., IPMN-intestinal type with MUC2+ expression and IPMN-gastric type with MUC2- expression); (3) MUC2 is not expressed in any grade of PanINs, which is useful for differentiating PanIN from intestinal-type IPMN; (4) de novo expression of MUC4, which appears to increase with the dysplasia grade; and (5) high de novo expression of MUC5AC in all grades of PanINs, all types of IPMN, MCN, and PDAC. PMID:20485640

  4. Human myostatin negatively regulates human myoblast growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Craig; Hui, Gu Zi; Amanda, Wong Zhi Wei; Lau, Hiu Yeung; Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Xiaojia, Ge; Mouly, Vincent; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gluckman, Peter D; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2011-07-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, has been implicated in the potent negative regulation of myogenesis in murine models. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which human myostatin negatively regulates human skeletal muscle growth. Using human primary myoblasts and recombinant human myostatin protein, we show here that myostatin blocks human myoblast proliferation by regulating cell cycle progression through targeted upregulation of p21. We further show that myostatin regulates myogenic differentiation through the inhibition of key myogenic regulatory factors including MyoD, via canonical Smad signaling. In addition, we have for the first time demonstrated the capability of myostatin to regulate the Notch signaling pathway during inhibition of human myoblast differentiation. Treatment with myostatin results in the upregulation of Hes1, Hes5, and Hey1 expression during differentiation; moreover, when we interfere with Notch signaling, through treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor L-685,458, we find enhanced myotube formation despite the presence of excess myostatin. Therefore, blockade of the Notch pathway relieves myostatin repression of differentiation, and myostatin upregulates Notch downstream target genes. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that myostatin treatment of myoblasts results in enhanced association of Notch1-intracellular domain with Smad3, providing an additional mechanism through which myostatin targets and represses the activity of the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD. On the basis of these results, we suggest that myostatin function and mechanism of action are very well conserved between species, and that myostatin regulation of postnatal myogenesis involves interactions with numerous downstream signaling mediators, including the Notch pathway. PMID:21508334

  5. Enzymatic activities of human cytomegalovirus maturational protease assemblin and its precursor (pPR, pUL80a) are comparable: [corrected] maximal activity of pPR requires self-interaction through its scaffolding domain.

    PubMed

    Brignole, Edward J; Gibson, Wade

    2007-04-01

    Herpesviruses encode an essential, maturational serine protease whose catalytic domain, assemblin (28 kDa), is released by self-cleavage from a 74-kDa precursor (pPR, pUL80a). Although there is considerable information about the structure and enzymatic characteristics of assemblin, a potential pharmacologic target, comparatively little is known about these features of the precursor. To begin studying pPR, we introduced five point mutations that stabilize it against self-cleavage at its internal (I), cryptic (C), release (R), and maturational (M) sites and at a newly discovered "tail" (T) site. The resulting mutants, called ICRM-pPR and ICRMT-pPR, were expressed in bacteria, denatured in urea, purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, and renatured by a two-step dialysis procedure and by a new method of sedimentation into glycerol gradients. The enzymatic activities of the pPR mutants were indistinguishable from that of IC-assemblin prepared in parallel for comparison, as determined by using a fluorogenic peptide cleavage assay, and approximated rates previously reported for purified assemblin. The percentage of active enzyme in the preparations was also comparable, as determined by using a covalent-binding suicide substrate. An unexpected finding was that, in the absence of the kosmotrope Na2SO4, optimal activity of pPR requires interaction through its scaffolding domain. We conclude that although the enzymatic activities of assemblin and its precursor are comparable, there may be differences in how their catalytic sites become fully activated.

  6. Preparation of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGluR5) PET Tracer [18F]FPEB for Human Use: An Automated Radiosynthesis and a Novel One-Pot Synthesis of its Radiolabeling Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Keunpoong; Labaree, David; Li, Songye; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    The radiotracer 3-[18F]fluoro-5-(2-pyridinylethynyl)benzonitrile, or [18F]FPEB, is a promising PET imaging agent for the metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptor (mGluR5). In an effort to develop a routine production method of this radiotracer for use in clinical research we adapted its radiosynthesis to an automated chemistry module. In the meanwhile, we also developed a simplified “one-pot” method for the preparation of the nitrobenzonitrile radiolabeling precursor for [18F]FPEB and its reference standard to replace the existing multi-step synthetic approach. PMID:25305528

  7. Effects of 4-Week Hindlimb Unweighting with and without 1H/Day Standing on Myogenic-Tone and Vasoconstrictor Responses of Mesenteric Arteries in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Le-Jian; Bao, Jun-Xiang; Bai, Yun-Gang; Zhang, Li-Fan; Ma, Jin

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of 4-week hindlimd unweighting (HU) with and without 1h/day standing (STD) on myotonic-tone and vasoconstrictor responses of rats mesenteric resistance arteries. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4-week hindlimb-unweighting to simulate cardiovascular deconditioning due to microgravity, 1h/day standing as the countermeasure. The diameter of isolated mesenteric resistance artery (diameter from 180-220μm) were recorded with Pressure myograph system in both Physiology salt solution (Da) and calcium-free Physiology salt solution (Dp), the myogenic-tone were obtained from (Dp-Da)/Dp*100%. The responses of these arteries to vasoconstrictors Phenylephrine were also detected. Results showed that 1) The myogenic tone of arteries was significantly attenuated by 4-week hindlimb-unweighting in HU group compared to control (CON) group(P<0.05); With 1h/day standing, the attenuated myogenic tone was recovered completely (P<0.05). 2) The vasoconstrictor responses of arteries to PE was decreased by 4-week hindlimb unweighting, and 1h/day standing can also prevent the attenuation (P<0.05). These results indicated that the myogenic tone and vasoconstrictor responses of rats mesenteric arteries were significantly attenuated by 4-week hindlimb-unweighting, 1h/d standing can prevent the attenuation completely, which could give us a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of orthostatic-intolerance post-flight and can also provide us new countermeasures to avoid it.

  8. Association of 17-β Estradiol with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: New Strategy to Produce Functional Myogenic Differentiated Cells with a Nano-Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chunxiang; Hu, Jinqian; Liu, Chang; Liu, Shiliang; Liao, Guiying; Song, Linjie

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in postmenopausal women has been proposed to be associated with a reduction in the level of 17-β estradiol (E2). E2 has also been shown to enhance the multi-differentiation ability of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. However, studies on the potential value of E2 for tissue engineering in SUI treatment are rare. In the present study, we successfully fabricated myogenically differentiated ASCs (MD-ASCs), which were seeded onto a Poly(l-lactide)/Poly(e-caprolactone) electrospinning nano-scaffold, and incorporated E2 into the system, with the aim of improving the proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs. ASCs were collected from the inguinal subcutaneous fat of rats. The proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs, as well as the nano-scaffold biocompatibility of MD-ASCs, with or without E2 supplementation, were investigated. We demonstrated that E2 incorporation enhanced the proliferation of ASCs in vitro, and the most optimal concentration was 10−9 M. E2 also led to modulation of the MD-ASCs phenotype toward a concentrated type with smooth muscle-inductive medium. The expression of early (alpha-smooth muscle actin), mid (calponin), and late-stage (myosin heavy chain) contractile markers in MD-ASCs was enhanced by E2 during the different differentiation stages. Furthermore, the nano-scaffold was biocompatible with MD-ASCs, and cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by E2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that E2 can enhance the proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs and can be used to construct a biocompatible cell/nano-scaffold. These scaffolds with desirable differentiation cells show promising applications for tissue engineering. PMID:27783699

  9. Myogenic differentiation of L6 rat myoblasts: evidence for pleiotropic effects on myogenesis by RNA polymerase II mutations to alpha-amanitin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Crerar, M M; Leather, R; David, E; Pearson, M L

    1983-01-01

    To assess the functional role of RNA polymerase II in the regulation of transcription during muscle differentiation, we isolated and characterized a large number of independent alpha-amanitin-resistant (AmaR) mutants of L6 rat myoblasts that express both wild-type and altered RNA polymerase II activities. We also examined their myogenic (Myo) phenotype by determining their ability to develop into mature myotubes, to express elevated levels of muscle creatine kinase, and to synthesize muscle-characteristic proteins as detected by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found a two- to threefold increase in the frequency of clones with a myogenic-defective phenotype in the AmaR (RNA polymerase II) mutants as compared to control ethyl methane sulfonate-induced, 6-thioguanine-resistant (hypoxanthine, guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) mutants or to unselected survivors also exposed to ethyl methane sulfonate. Subsequent analysis showed that about half of these myogenic-defective AmaR mutants had a conditional Myo(ama) phenotype; when cultured in the presence of amanitin, they exhibited a Myo- phenotype; in its absence they exhibited a Myo+ phenotype. This conditional Myo(ama) phenotype is presumably caused by the inactivation by amanitin of the wild-type amanitin-sensitive RNA polymerase II activity and the subsequent rise in the level of mutant amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase II activity. In these Myo(ama) mutants, the wild-type RNA polymerase II is normally dominant with respect to the Myo+ phenotype, whereas the mutant RNA polymerase II is recessive and results in a Myo- phenotype only when the wild-type enzyme is inactivated. These findings suggest that certain mutations in the amaR structural gene for the amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II can selectively impair the transcription of genes specific for myogenic differentiation but not those specific for myoblast proliferation. Images PMID:6865946

  10. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on Sow Performance and mRNA Expression of Myogenic Markers in Skeletal Muscle of Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, H F; Zhu, J T; Shen, Y; Xiang, X; Yin, H J; Fang, Z F; Che, L Q; Lin, Y; Xu, S Y; Feng, B; Wu, D

    2016-02-01

    The effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during gestation on reproductive performance of sows and the mRNA expression of myogenic markers in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs were determined. At day 35 of gestation, a total of 20 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire, at third parity) were randomly assigned to two groups, with each group receiving either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 4 g/day β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium (HMB-Ca) until parturition. At parturition, the total and live litter size were not markedly different between treatments, however, the sows fed HMB diet had a decreased rate of stillborn piglets compared with the sows fed the control (CON) diets (p < 0.05). In addition, piglets from the sows fed HMB diet tended to have an increased birth weight (p = 0.08), and a reduced rate of low birth weight piglets (p = 0.05) compared with piglets from the CON sows. Nevertheless, lower feed intake during lactation was observed in the sows fed the HMB diet compared with those on the CON diet (p < 0.01). The relative weights of the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST) muscle were higher (p < 0.05) in neonatal pigs from the HMB than the CON sows. Furthermore, maternal HMB treatment increased the mRNA levels of the myogenic genes, including muscle regulatory factor-4 (MRF4, p < 0.05), myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, p < 0.01). In conclusion, dietary HMB supplementation to sows at 4 g/day from day 35 of gestation to term significantly improves pregnancy outcomes and increases the expression of myogenic genes in skeletal muscle of neonatal piglets, but reduces feed intake of sows during lactation.

  11. The synergy of earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, Sergey

    2011-12-01

    The system of geophysical shells (lithosphere, atmosphere, ionosphere) is considered as an open complex nonlinear system with dissipation where earthquake preparation could be regarded as a self-organizing process leading to the critical state of the system. The processes in atmosphere and ionosphere are considered from the point of view of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The intensive ionization of boundary layer of atmosphere (probably provided by radon in occasion of earthquake preparation) gives start to the synergetic sequence of coupling processes where the ionosphere and even magnetosphere are the last links in the chain of interactions. Every anomaly observed in different geophysical fields (surface temperature, latent heat flux, electromagnetic emissions, variations in ionosphere, particle precipitation, etc.) is not considered as an individual process but the part of the self-organizing process, the final goal of which is the reaching of the point of the maximum entropy. Radon anomaly before the Kobe earthquake is considered as a perfect example to satisfy the formal seismological determination of the earthquake precursor. What is genetically connected with radon through the ionization process can also be regarded as a precursor. The problem of co-seismic variations of the discussed parameters of atmosphere and ionosphere is considered as well.

  12. Annealing of aromatic polyimide precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakelyn, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of the thermal behavior of polyimide precursors: an isomeric pair of crystals of the complex formed by p-phenylenediamine with the separated isomers of the di-isopropyl ester of pyromellitic acid. Specimens of this material were isothermally annealed in the temperature range 120 C to 170 C for periods of time up to 1 week. Although this temperature range is well below that customarily used for imidizations, the working hypothesis was that it would be more likely that a polymer embodying at least part of the precursor structure could be formed if the molecular motion was minimized to that actually required for the formation of the imide linkage. The progress of the annealing was followed by: infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Single crystal X-ray analysis of the meta monomer yields a structure of chains of alternating acid and base and suggests that this monomer is amenable to polymerization with a minimum of geometrical disruption.

  13. Normal myogenic cells from newborn mice restore normal histology to degenerating muscles of the mdx mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.E.; Hoffman, E.P.; Partridge, T.A. )

    1990-12