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Sample records for human p53 p63

  1. p53, p63 and p73 expression and angiogenesis in keratocystic odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chandrangsu, Soranun

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTSs) are odontogenic tumors previously referred to as odontogenic keratocysts. Several studies have reported that KCOT behavior is more like that of a benign neoplasm than a cyst. KCOTs are locally destructive and exhibit a high recurrence rate. The objective of this study is to characterize the expression of p53, p63 and p73 in KCOTs together with the relationship between their expression and KCOT angiogenesis and recurrence. Material and Methods Standard indirect immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies specific to human p53, p63, p73 and CD105 was performed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 39 KCOT samples. Grading of p53, p63 and p73 immunohistochemical staining was divided into three groups, whereas microvessel density (MVD) was presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. Associations between p53, p63 and p73 expression and clinical-pathological parameters were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test, whereas associations among MVD levels, clinical and pathological parameters and p53, p63 and p73 expression were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations among p53, p63, p73 and MVD levels were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. For all analyses, p< 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results p53, p63 and p73 expression was noted in 23, 32 and 26 of 39 KCOT cases, respectively. The mean MVD was 26.7 ± 15.8 per high-power field. In addition, correlations between the expression levels of p53, p63, p73 and MVD in KCOT were examined. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted for all proteins (p<0.001). Conclusions Three members of the p53 protein family are expressed in KCOTs, and their expression relates to angiogenesis in these tumors. Key words:p53, p63, p73, angiogenesis, keratocystic odontogenic tumors. PMID:27957261

  2. Functional interplay between p63 and p53 controls RUNX1 function in the transition from proliferation to differentiation in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Masse, I; Barbollat-Boutrand, L; Molina, M; Berthier-Vergnes, O; Joly-Tonetti, N; Martin, M T; Caron de Fromentel, C; Kanitakis, J; Lamartine, J

    2012-06-07

    The interfollicular epidermis is continuously renewed, thanks to a regulated balance between proliferation and differentiation. The ΔNp63 transcription factor has a key role in the control of this process. It has been shown that ΔNp63 directly regulates Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) transcription factor expression in mouse keratinocytes. The present study showed for the first time that RUNX1 is expressed in normal human interfollicular epidermis and that its expression is tightly regulated during the transition from proliferation to differentiation. It demonstrated that ΔNp63 directly binds two different RUNX1 regulatory DNA sequences and modulates RUNX1 expression differentially in proliferative or differentiated human keratinocytes. It also showed that the regulation of RUNX1 expression by ΔNp63 is dependent on p53 and that this coregulation relies on differential binding and activation of RUNX1 regulatory sequences by ΔNp63 and p53. We also found that RUNX1 inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and activates directly the expression of KRT1, a critical actor in early keratinocyte differentiation. Finally, we described that RUNX1 expression, similar to ΔNp63 and p53, was strongly expressed and downregulated in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas respectively. Taken together, these data shed light on the importance of tight control of the functional interplay between ΔNp63 and p53 in regulating RUNX1 transcription factor expression for proper regulation of interfollicular epidermal homeostasis.

  3. Comparative study of p63 and p53 expression in tissue microarrays of malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Ulrich; Ruschenburg, Ilka; Di Como, Charles J; Buschmann, Nadine; Betke, Herbert; Stachura, Jerzy; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Korabiowska, Monika

    2002-12-01

    p63 is a known homologue of p53. In contrast to p53, however, p63 mutations are rarely seen in tumours. There have been several reports that p63 plays a regulatory role in the normal differentiation of cells, whereas its role in tumour biology must still be elucidated. The main aim of this study was to compare p63 and p53 expression in tissue microarrays of malignant melanomas and to establish any prognostic significance. p63 expression was found in 2 out of 59 tumours, both pT4. The p63 index did not exceed 30%. p53 expression was found in 27 out of 59 melanomas, with maximal expression in up to 80% of tumour cells. There were no correlations observed between the two markers. Multivariate analysis confirmed the prognostically independent role of p53. This study also confirmed that tissue microarrays can be used effectively for evaluation of the expression of certain tumour markers.

  4. A Mutant-p53/Smad complex opposes p63 to empower TGFbeta-induced metastasis.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Maddalena; Cordenonsi, Michelangelo; Montagner, Marco; Dupont, Sirio; Wong, Christine; Hann, Byron; Solari, Aldo; Bobisse, Sara; Rondina, Maria Beatrice; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Parenti, Anna R; Rosato, Antonio; Bicciato, Silvio; Balmain, Allan; Piccolo, Stefano

    2009-04-03

    TGFbeta ligands act as tumor suppressors in early stage tumors but are paradoxically diverted into potent prometastatic factors in advanced cancers. The molecular nature of this switch remains enigmatic. Here, we show that TGFbeta-dependent cell migration, invasion and metastasis are empowered by mutant-p53 and opposed by p63. Mechanistically, TGFbeta acts in concert with oncogenic Ras and mutant-p53 to induce the assembly of a mutant-p53/p63 protein complex in which Smads serve as essential platforms. Within this ternary complex, p63 functions are antagonized. Downstream of p63, we identified two candidate metastasis suppressor genes associated with metastasis risk in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. Thus, two common oncogenic lesions, mutant-p53 and Ras, selected in early neoplasms to promote growth and survival, also prefigure a cellular set-up with particular metastasis proclivity by TGFbeta-dependent inhibition of p63 function.

  5. High thermostability and lack of cooperative DNA binding distinguish the p63 core domain from the homologous tumor suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Georges, G; Künkele, K P; Huber, R; Engh, R A; Hansen, S

    2001-10-05

    The p53 protein is the major tumor suppressor in mammals. The discovery of the p53 homologs p63 and p73 defined a family of p53 members with distinct roles in tumor suppression, differentiation, and development. Here, we describe the biochemical characterization of the core DNA-binding domain of a human isoform of p63, p63-delta, and particularly novel features in comparison with p53. In contrast to p53, the free p63 core domain did not show specific binding to p53 DNA consensus sites. However, glutathione S-transferase-fused and thus dimerized p63 and p53 core domains had similar affinity and specificity for the p53 consensus sites p21, gadd45, cyclin G, and bax. Furthermore, the fold of p63 core was remarkably stable compared with p53 as judged by differential scanning calorimetry (T(m) = 61 degrees C versus 44 degrees C for p53) and equilibrium unfolding ([urea](50%) = 5.2 m versus 3.1 m for p53). A homology model of p63 core highlights differences at a segment near the H1 helix hypothetically involved in the formation of the dimerization interface in p53, which might reduce cooperativity of p63 core DNA binding compared with p53. The model also shows differences in the electrostatic and hydrophobic potentials of the domains relevant to folding stability.

  6. Novel therapeutic interventions for p53-altered tumors through manipulation of its family members, p63 and p73

    PubMed Central

    Venkatanarayan, Avinashnarayan; Raulji, Payal; Norton, William; Flores, Elsa R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT TP53 is highly mutated in human cancers, thus targeting this tumor suppressor pathway is highly desirable and will impact many cancer patients.1,2 Therapeutic strategies to reactivate the p53-pathway have been challenging,3,4 and no effective treatment exists.5 We utilized the p53-family members, p63 and p73, which are not frequently mutated in cancer, to treat p53-defective cancers. The N-terminal splice variants of p63 and p73 are denoted as the TA and ΔN isoforms. We recently demonstrated that deletion of either ΔNp63 or ΔNp73 in p53-deficient mouse tumors results in tumor regression mediated by metabolic programming. Using this strategy, we identified pramlintide, a synthetic analog of amylin, as an effective treatment for p53 deficient and mutant tumors. Here, we show the utility of using pramlintide, as a potential cancer preventive option for p53-deficient tumors in mouse models. Additionally, we found that in vivo inhibition of both ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 in combination accelerates tumor regression and increases survival of p53-deficient mice. We report that inhibition of both ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 in combination results in upregulation of 3 key metabolic regulators, IAPP, GLS2, and TIGAR resulting in an increase in apoptosis and tumor regression in ΔNp63/ΔNp73/p53 deficient thymic lymphomas. These data highlight the value of generating inhibitors that will simultaneously target ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 to treat cancer patients with alterations in p53. PMID:26652033

  7. Alterations of p63 and p73 in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazushi; Fry, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    p53 and its related genes, p63 and p73 constitute the p53 gene family. While p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human tumors, p63 and p73 are rarely mutated or deleted in cancers. Many studies have reported p63/p73 overexpression in human cancers while others showed that a loss of p63/p73 is associated with tumor progression and metastasis. Thus, whether p63 or p73 is a tumor suppressor gene or an oncogene has been a matter of debate. This controversy has been attributed to the existence of multiple splicing isoforms with distinct functions; the full-length TA isoform of p63 has structural and functional similarity to wild-type p53, whereas the ΔNp63 acts primarily in dominant-negative fashion against all family members of p53. Differential activities of TA and ΔN isoforms have been shown in vivo by creating isform-specific gene knockout mice. All p53, p63, p73 proteins bind to and activate target genes with p53-response elements; p63 also binds to distinct p63-response elements and regulate expression of specific target genes involved in skin, limb, and craniofacial development. Interestingly, several studies have shown that both p63 and p73 are involved in cellular response to cancer therapy and others have indicated that both of these molecules are required for p53-induced apoptosis, suggesting functional interplay among p53 family proteins. Consistent with these findings, aberrant splicing that result in ΔNp63 or ΔNp73 overexpression are frequently found in human cancers, and is associated with poor clinical outcomes of patients in the latter. Thus immunohistochemical staining of tumor specimen with ΔNp73-specific antibody might have diagnostic values in cancer clinics.

  8. p63 is an alternative p53 repressor in melanoma that confers chemoresistance and a poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Matin, Rubeta N.; Chikh, Anissa; Law Pak Chong, Stephanie; Mesher, David; Graf, Manuela; Sanza’, Paolo; Senatore, Valentina; Scatolini, Maria; Moretti, Francesca; Leigh, Irene M.; Proby, Charlotte M.; Costanzo, Antonio; Chiorino, Giovanna; Cerio, Rino; Harwood, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of apoptosis in melanoma pathogenesis and chemoresistance is poorly characterized. Mutations in TP53 occur infrequently, yet the TP53 apoptotic pathway is often abrogated. This may result from alterations in TP53 family members, including the TP53 homologue TP63. Here we demonstrate that TP63 has an antiapoptotic role in melanoma and is responsible for mediating chemoresistance. Although p63 was not expressed in primary melanocytes, up-regulation of p63 mRNA and protein was observed in melanoma cell lines and clinical samples, providing the first evidence of significant p63 expression in this lineage. Upon genotoxic stress, endogenous p63 isoforms were stabilized in both nuclear and mitochondrial subcellular compartments. Our data provide evidence of a physiological interaction between p63 with p53 whereby translocation of p63 to the mitochondria occurred through a codependent process with p53, whereas accumulation of p53 in the nucleus was prevented by p63. Using RNA interference technology, both isoforms of p63 (TA and ΔNp63) were demonstrated to confer chemoresistance, revealing a novel oncogenic role for p63 in melanoma cells. Furthermore, expression of p63 in both primary and metastatic melanoma clinical samples significantly correlated with melanoma-specific deaths in these patients. Ultimately, these observations provide a possible explanation for abrogation of the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway in melanoma, implicating novel approaches aimed at sensitizing melanoma to therapeutic agents. PMID:23420876

  9. A Subset of Tumor-Derived Mutant Forms of p53 Down-Regulate p63 and p73 through a Direct Interaction with the p53 Core Domain

    PubMed Central

    Gaiddon, C.; Lokshin, M.; Ahn, J.; Zhang, T.; Prives, C.

    2001-01-01

    The p53 protein is related by sequence homology and function to the products of two other genes, p63 and p73, that each encode several isoforms. We and others have discovered previously that certain tumor-derived mutants of p53 can associate and inhibit transcriptional activation by the α and β isoforms of p73. In this study we have extended these observations to show that in transfected cells a number of mutant p53 proteins could bind and down-regulate several isoforms not only of p73 (p73α, -β, -γ, and -δ) but also of p63 (p63α and -γ; ΔNp63α and -γ). Moreover, a correlation existed between the efficiency of p53 binding and the inhibition of p63 or p73 function. We also found that wild-type p63 and p73 interact efficiently with each other when coexpressed in mammalian cells. The interaction between p53 mutants and p63 or p73 was confirmed in a physiological setting by examining tumor cell lines that endogenously express these proteins. We also demonstrated that purified p53 and p73 proteins interact directly and that the p53 core domain, but not the tetramerization domain, mediates this interaction. Using a monoclonal antibody (PAb240) that recognizes an epitope within the core domain of a subset of p53 mutants, we found a correlation between the ability of p53 proteins to be immunoprecipitated by this antibody and their ability to interact with p73 or p63 in vitro and in transfected cells. Based on these results and those of others, we propose that interactions between the members of the p53 family are likely to be widespread and may account in some cases for the ability of tumor-derived p53 mutants to promote tumorigenesis. PMID:11238924

  10. Influenza A Viruses Control Expression of Proviral Human p53 Isoforms p53β and Δ133p53α

    PubMed Central

    Marcel, Virginie; Cartet, Gaëlle; Lane, David P.; Lina, Bruno; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have described the role of p53 isoforms, including p53β and Δ133p53α, in the modulation of the activity of full-length p53, which regulates cell fate. In the context of influenza virus infection, an interplay between influenza viruses and p53 has been described, with p53 being involved in the antiviral response. However, the role of physiological p53 isoforms has never been explored in this context. Here, we demonstrate that p53 isoforms play a role in influenza A virus infection by using silencing and transient expression strategies in human lung epithelial cells. In addition, with the help of a panel of different influenza viruses from different subtypes, we also show that infection differentially regulates the expressions of p53β and Δ133p53α. Altogether, our results highlight the role of p53 isoforms in the viral cycle of influenza A viruses, with p53β and Δ133p53α acting as regulators of viral production in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:22647703

  11. p53 responsive elements in human retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Harris, C R; Dewan, A; Zupnick, A; Normart, R; Gabriel, A; Prives, C; Levine, A J; Hoh, J

    2009-11-05

    Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (L1s) are highly repetitive DNA elements that are capable of altering the human genome through retrotransposition. To protect against L1 retroposition, the cell downregulates the expression of L1 proteins by various mechanisms, including high-density cytosine methylation of L1 promoters and DICER-dependent destruction of L1 mRNAs. In this report, a large number of p53 responsive elements, or p53 DNA binding sites, were detected in L1 elements within the human genome. At least some of these p53 responsive elements are functional and can act to increase the levels of L1 mRNA expression. The p53 protein can directly bind to a short 15-nucleotide sequence within the L1 promoter. This p53 responsive element within L1 is a recent addition to evolution, appearing approximately 20 million years ago. This suggests an interplay between L1 elements, which have a rich history of causing changes in the genome, and the p53 protein, the function of which is to protect against genomic changes. To understand these observations, a model is proposed in which the increased expression of L1 mRNAs by p53 actually increases, rather than decreases, the genomic stability through amplification of p53-dependent processes for genomic protection.

  12. Mutant p53 uses p63 as a molecular chaperone to alter gene expression and induce a pro-invasive secretome.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Paul M; Noll, Jacqueline E; Suetani, Rachel J; Schulz, Renee B; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Evdokiou, Andreas; Lane, David P; Callen, David F

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in the TP53 gene commonly result in the expression of a full-length protein that drives cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Herein, we have deciphered the global landscape of transcriptional regulation by mutant p53 through the application of a panel of isogenic H1299 derivatives with inducible expression of several common cancer-associated p53 mutants. We found that the ability of mutant p53 to alter the transcriptional profile of cancer cells is remarkably conserved across different p53 mutants. The mutant p53 transcriptional landscape was nested within a small subset of wild-type p53 responsive genes, suggesting that the oncogenic properties of mutant p53 are conferred by retaining its ability to regulate a defined set of p53 target genes. These mutant p53 target genes were shown to converge upon a p63 signalling axis. Both mutant p53 and wild-type p63 were co-recruited to the promoters of these target genes, thus providing a molecular basis for their selective regulation by mutant p53. We demonstrate that mutant p53 manipulates the gene expression pattern of cancer cells to facilitate invasion through the release of a pro-invasive secretome into the tumor microenvironment. Collectively, this study provides mechanistic insight into the complex nature of transcriptional regulation by mutant p53 and implicates a role for tumor-derived p53 mutations in the manipulation of the cancer cell secretome.

  13. Glyoxalase II, a detoxifying enzyme of glycolysis byproduct methylglyoxal and a target of p63 and p73, is a pro-survival factor of the p53 family.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Chen, Xinbin

    2006-09-08

    The p53 family proteins are transcription factors and have both common and distinct functions. p53 is a classic tumor suppressor, whereas p63 and p73 have fundamental functions in development. To gain an insight into the functional diversities among the p53 family, target genes specifically regulated by p63 and p73 were examined. Here, we found that the GLX2 gene, which encodes glyoxalase II enzyme, is up-regulated by p63 and p73. Accordingly, a specific responsive element was found in intron 1 of the GLX2 gene, which can be activated and bound by p63 and p73. We also found that, upon overexpression, the cytosolic, but not the mitochondrial, GLX2 inhibits the apoptotic response of a cell to methylglyoxal, a by-product of glycolysis. Likewise, we showed that cells deficient in GLX2 are hypersensitive to methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, a deficiency in GLX2 also enhances the susceptibility of a cell to DNA damage-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. These observations reveal a novel link between the p53 family and the glyoxalase system. Given that methylglyoxal is frequently generated under both physiological and pathological conditions, we postulate that GLX2 serves as a pro-survival factor of the p53 family and plays a critical role in the normal development and in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Oncogenic Intra-p53 Family Member Interactions in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ferraiuolo, Maria; Di Agostino, Silvia; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The p53 gene family members p53, p73, and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologs but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73, and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic “gain of function” activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance, and genomic instability in cancer cells. These oncogenic functions are promoted either by the aberrant transcriptional cooperation of mutant p53 (mutp53) with transcription cofactors (e.g., NF-Y, E2F1, Vitamin D Receptor, Ets-1, NF-kB and YAP) or by the interaction with the p53 family members, p73 and p63, determining their functional inactivation. The instauration of these aberrant transcriptional networks leads to increased cell growth, low activation of DNA damage response pathways (DNA damage response and DNA double-strand breaks response), enhanced invasion, and high chemoresistance to different conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. Several studies have clearly shown that different cancers harboring mutant p53 proteins exhibit a poor prognosis when compared to those carrying wild-type p53 (wt-p53) protein. The interference of mutantp53/p73 and/or mutantp53/p63 interactions, thereby restoring p53, p73, and p63 tumor suppression functions, could be among the potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of mutant p53 human cancers. PMID:27066457

  15. Differential expression of p53, p63 and p73 protein and mRNA for DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Huse, Shue-Sang; Lin, Li-Min

    2004-01-01

    Abnormalities in the p53 gene are regarded as the most consistent of the genetic abnormalities associated with oral squamous-cell carcinoma. Two related members of the p53 gene family, p73 and p63, have shown remarkable structural similarity to p53, suggesting possible functional and biological interactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential expression of p73, p63 and p53 genes for DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis for protein expression and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA expression were performed for 40 samples of hamster buccal pouches, the total being separated into one experimental group (15-week DMBA-treated; 20 animals) and two control groups (untreated and mineral oil-treated; 10 animals each). Using immunohistochemical techniques, nuclear staining of p53 and p73 proteins was detected in a subset of hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for a period of 15 weeks, whereas p63 proteins were noted for all of the 20 hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks as well as for all of the untreated and mineral oil-treated hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens. Differential expression of p63, p73 and p53 protein for the experimental group was as follows: p63+/p73+/p53+ (n = 14; 70%); p63+/p73+/p53− (n = 2; 10%); p63+/p73−/p53− (n = 4; 20%) and p63+/p73−/p53− (untreated [n = 10] and mineral oil-treated mucosa [n = 10]; 100% each). Upon RT-PCR, ΔNp63mRNA was detected within all of the 20 hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks, whereas expression of TAp63 was not detected. Furthermore, p73 mRNA was identified for 16 of the hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks, whereas p53 mRNA was noted for 14 15-week DMBA-treated pouches. The proportional (percentage) expression of ΔNp63, p73 and p53 mRNA for the hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens

  16. Effect of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors on the p53/p63-dependent survival of carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Montariello, Daniela; Troiano, Annaelena; Di Girolamo, Daniela; Beneke, Sascha; Calabrò, Viola; Quesada, Piera

    2015-04-01

    Depending on their genetic background (p53(wt) versus p53(null)), carcinoma cells are more or less sensitive to drug-induced cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Among the members of the p53 family, p63 is characterized by two N-terminal isoforms, TAp63 and ΔNp63. TAp63 isoform has p53-like functions, while ΔNp63 acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of p53. We have previously published that TAp63 is involved in poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) signaling of DNA damage deriving from DNA topoisomerase I (TOP I) inhibition in carcinoma cells. In the present study, we treated MCF7 breast carcinoma cells (p53(+)/ΔNp63(-)) or SCC022 (p53(-)/ΔNp63(+)) squamous carcinoma cells with the TOP I inhibitor topotecan (TPT) and the PJ34 PARP inhibitor, to compare their effects in the two different cell contexts. In MCF7 cells, we found that PJ34 addition reverts TPT-dependent PARP-1 auto-modification and triggers caspase-dependent PARP-1 proteolysis. Moreover, TPT as single agent stimulates p53(ser15) phosphorylation, p53 PARylation and occupancy of the p21WAF promoter by p53 resulting in an increase of p21WAF expression. Interestingly, PJ34 in combination with TPT enhances p53 occupancy at the BAX promoter and is associated with increased BAX protein level. In SCC022 cells, instead, TPT+PJ34 combined treatment reduces the level of the anti-apoptotic ΔNp63α protein without inducing apoptosis. Remarkably, in such cells, either exogenous p53 or TAp63 can rescue the apoptotic program in response to the treatment. All together our results suggest that in cancer cells PARP inhibitor(s) can operate in the choice between growth arrest and apoptosis by modulating p53 family-dependent signal.

  17. Functional Diversification after Gene Duplication: Paralog Specific Regions of Structural Disorder and Phosphorylation in p53, p63, and p73

    PubMed Central

    Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Conformational and functional flexibility promote protein evolvability. High evolvability allows related proteins to functionally diverge and perhaps to neostructuralize. p53 is a multifunctional protein frequently referred to as the Guardian of the Genome–a hub for e.g. incoming and outgoing signals in apoptosis and DNA repair. p53 has been found to be structurally disordered, an extreme form of conformational flexibility. Here, p53, and its paralogs p63 and p73, were studied for further insights into the evolutionary dynamics of structural disorder, secondary structure, and phosphorylation. This study is focused on the post gene duplication phase for the p53 family in vertebrates, but also visits the origin of the protein family and the early domain loss and gain events. Functional divergence, measured by rapid evolutionary dynamics of protein domains, structural properties, and phosphorylation propensity, is inferred across vertebrate p53 proteins, in p63 and p73 from fish, and between the three paralogs. In particular, structurally disordered regions are redistributed among paralogs, but within clades redistribution of structural disorder also appears to be an ongoing process. Despite its deemed importance as the Guardian of the Genome, p53 is indeed a protein with high evolvability as seen not only in rearranged structural disorder, but also in fluctuating domain sequence signatures among lineages. PMID:27003913

  18. Regulation of p53 during senescence in normal human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Reuben H; Kang, Mo K; Kim, Terresa; Yang, Paul; Bae, Susan; Williams, Drake W; Phung, Samantha; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Hong, Christine; Park, No-Hee

    2015-01-01

    p53, the guardian of the genome, is a tumor suppressor protein and critical for the genomic integrity of the cells. Many studies have shown that intracellular level of p53 is enhanced during replicative senescence in normal fibroblasts, and the enhanced level of p53 is viewed as the cause of senescence. Here, we report that, unlike in normal fibroblasts, the level of intracellular p53 reduces during replicative senescence and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). We found that the intracellular p53 level was also decreased in age-dependent manner in normal human epithelial tissues. Senescent NHKs exhibited an enhanced level of p16INK4A, induced G2 cell cycle arrest, and lowered the p53 expression and transactivation activity. We found that low level of p53 in senescent NHKs was due to reduced transcription of p53. The methylation status at the p53 promoter was not altered during senescence, but senescent NHKs exhibited notably lower level of acetylated histone 3 (H3) at the p53 promoter in comparison with rapidly proliferating cells. Moreover, p53 knockdown in rapidly proliferating NHKs resulted in the disruption of fidelity in repaired DNA. Taken together, our study demonstrates that p53 level is diminished during replicative senescence and OIS and that such diminution is associated with H3 deacetylation at the p53 promoter. The reduced intracellular p53 level in keratinocytes of the elderly could be a contributing factor for more frequent development of epithelial cancer in the elderly because of the loss of genomic integrity of cells. PMID:26138448

  19. Influence of Human p53 on Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian p53 is a super tumor suppressor and plays a key role in guarding genome from DNA damage. However, p53 has not been found in plants which do not bear cancer although they constantly expose to ionizing radiation of ultraviolet light. Here we introduced p53 into the model plant Arabidopsis and examined p53-conferred phenotype in plant. Most strikingly, p53 caused early senescence and fasciation. In plants, fasciation has been shown as a result of the elevated homologous DNA recombination. Consistently, a reporter with overlapping segments of the GUS gene (1445) showed that the frequency of homologous recombination was highly induced in p53-transgenic plants. In contrast to p53, SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1 INDUCIBLE 1 (SNI1), as a negative regulator of homologous recombination in plants, is not present in mammals. Comet assay and clonogenic survival assay demonstrated that SNI1 inhibited DNA damage repair caused by either ionizing radiation or hydroxyurea in human osteosarcoma U2OS cancer cells. RAD51D is a recombinase in homologous recombination and functions downstream of SNI1 in plants. Interestingly, p53 rendered the sni1 mutants madly branching of inflorescence, a phenotype of fasciation, whereas rad51d mutant fully suppressed the p53-induced phenotype, indicating that human p53 action in plant is mediated by the SNI1-RAD51D signaling pathway. The reciprocal species-swap tests of p53 and SNI1 in human and Arabidopsis manifest that these species-specific proteins play a common role in homologous recombination across kingdoms of animals and plants. PMID:27648563

  20. The p53 gene and protein in human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, D.N. )

    1994-01-01

    Because p53 gene alterations are commonplace in human tumors and because p53 protein is involved in a number of important cellular pathways, p53 has become a topic of intensive investigation, both by basic scientists and clinicians. p53 was initially identified by two independent laboratories in 1979 as a 53 kilodalton (kD) protein that complexes with the large T antigen of SV40 virus. Shortly thereafter, it was shown that the E1B oncoprotein of adenovirus also binds p53. The binding of two different oncogenic viral tumor proteins to the same cellular protein suggested that p53 might be integral to tumorigenesis. The human p53 cDNA and gene were subsequently cloned in the mid-1980s, and analysis of p53 gene alterations in human tumors followed a few year later. During these 10 years, researchers grappling with the vagaries of p53 first characterized the gene as an oncogene, then as a tumor suppressor gene, and most recently as both a tumor suppressor gene and a so-called [open quotes]dominant negative[close quotes] oncogene. The last few years have seen an explosion in work on this single gene and its protein product. A review of a computerized medical database revealed approximately 650 articles on p53 in 1992 alone. p53 has assumed importance in neuro-oncology because p53 mutations and protein alterations are frequent in the common diffuse, fibrillary astrocytic tumors of adults. p53 mutations in astrocytomas were first described in 1989 and were followed by more extensive analyses of gene mutations and protein alterations in adult astrocytomas. The gene has also been studied in less common brain tumors. Elucidating the role of p53 in brain tumorigenesis will not only enhance understanding of brain tumor biology but may also contribute to improved diagnosis and therapy. This discussion reviews key aspects of the p53 gene and protein, and describe their emerging roles in central nervous system neoplasia. 102 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Interaction of p53 with the human Rad51 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Buchhop, S; Gibson, M K; Wang, X W; Wagner, P; Stürzbecher, H W; Harris, C C

    1997-01-01

    p53 is thought to function in the maintenance of genomic stability by modulating transcription and interacting with cellular proteins to influence the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis. p53 mutations occur in >50% of human cancers, and cells which lack wild type p53 accumulate karyotypic abnormalities such as amplifications, deletions, inversions and translocations. We propose that p53 hinders these promiscuous recombinational events by interacting with cellular recombination and repair machinery. We recently reported that p53 can directly bind in vivo to human Rad51 (hRad51) protein and in vitro to its bacterial homologue RecA. We used GST-fusion and his-tagged protein systems to further investigate the physical interaction between p53 and hRad51, homologue of the yeast Rad51 protein that is involved in recombination and DNA double strand repair. The hRad51 binds to wild-type p53 and to a lesser extent, point mutants 135Y, 249S and 273H. This binding is not mediated by a DNA or RNA intermediate. Mapping studies using a panel of p53 deletion mutants indicate that hRad51 could bind to two regions of p53; one between amino acids 94 and 160 and a second between 264 and 315. Addition of anti-p53 antibody PAb421 (epitope 372-381 amino acids) inhibited the interaction with hRad51. In contrast, p53 interacts with the region between aa 125 and 220 of hRad51, which is highly conserved among Rad51 related proteins from bacteria to human. In Escherichia coli ecA protein, this region is required for homo-oligomerization, suggesting that p53 might disrupt the interaction between RecA and Rad51 subunits, thus inhibiting biochemical functions of Rad51 like proteins. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that p53 interaction with hRAD51 may influence DNA recombination and repair and that additional modifications of p53 by mutation and protein binding may affect this interaction. PMID:9380510

  2. p53 regulates the mevalonate pathway in human glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Laezza, C; D'Alessandro, A; Di Croce, L; Picardi, P; Ciaglia, E; Pisanti, S; Malfitano, A M; Comegna, M; Faraonio, R; Gazzerro, P; Bifulco, M

    2015-01-01

    The mevalonate (MVA) pathway is an important metabolic pathway implicated in multiple aspects of tumorigenesis. In this study, we provided evidence that p53 induces the expression of a group of enzymes of the MVA pathway including 3′-hydroxy-3′-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, MVA kinase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase and farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase 1, in the human glioblastoma multiforme cell line, U343 cells, and in normal human astrocytes, NHAs. Genetic and pharmacologic perturbation of p53 directly influences the expression of these genes. Furthermore, p53 is recruited to the gene promoters in designated p53-responsive elements, thereby increasing their transcription. Such effect was abolished by site-directed mutagenesis in the p53-responsive element of promoter of the genes. These findings highlight another aspect of p53 functions unrelated to tumor suppression and suggest p53 as a novel regulator of the MVA pathway providing insight into the role of this pathway in cancer progression. PMID:26469958

  3. The p53 status of cultured human premalignant oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J. E.; Clark, L. J.; Yeudall, W. A.; Mitchell, R.; Mackenzie, K.; Chang, S. E.; Parkinson, E. K.

    1994-01-01

    Around 60% of oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) have been shown to harbour p53 mutations, and other studies have demonstrated mutant p53 genes in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium adjacent to these SCCs. In line with these earlier studies we show here that DOK, a keratinocyte cell line derived from a dysplasia, displays elevated levels of p53 protein and harbours a 12 bp in-frame deletion of the p53 gene spanning codons 188-191. In contrast, the coding region of the p53 gene was normal in a series of six benign recurrent laryngeal papillomas and a series of four premalignant oral erythroplakia biopsies and their cell cultures. All but one of these lesions were free of malignancy at the time of biopsy, in contrast to the premalignant lesions studied by previous investigators, but keratinocytes cultured from these lesions all displayed a partially transformed phenotype that was less pronounced than that of DOK. Since three out of four of the erythroplakia patients developed SCC within 1 year of biopsy, these lesions were by definition premalignant. The availability of strains of partially transformed keratinocytes from premalignant erythroplakias which possess normal p53 genes should enable us to test the role of mutant p53 in the progression of erythroplakia to SCC. The premalignant tissues and cultures were also tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is known to inactivate p53 function in some cases. Only the benign papillomas were shown to contain high levels of either HPV 6 or HPV 11 E6 DNA, but not both, and none of the samples contained detectable levels of HPV 16, HPV 18 or HPV 33 E6 DNA or L1 DNA of several other HPV types. There was therefore no evidence to suggest that p53 was being inactivated by a highly oncogenic HPV in these samples. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7917902

  4. Mapping of UV photoproducts along the human P53 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tornaletti, S.; Rozek, D.; Pfeifer, G.P.

    1994-12-31

    Methods to detect DNA adducts at the DNA sequence level in mammalian cells have been developed, and it is now possible to relate adduct frequency and repair efficiency with mutations at certain nucleotide positions in human cancer-relevant genes. Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been found in a large proportion of human skin cancers. These mutations are predominantly C to T transitions and CC to TT double transition mutations, two types of base alterations specifically induced by UV light. In order to find possible correlations between adduct distribution and mutations at specific p53 sequences, we have mapped at single-base resolution the distribution of cyclobutane dimers (CBD) and (6-4) photoproducts along the p53 gene in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts by ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LMPCR).

  5. [Structural organization of the human p53 gene. I. Molecular cloning of the human p53 gene].

    PubMed

    Bukhman, V L; Ninkina, N N; Chumakov, P M; Khilenkova, M A; Samarina, O P

    1987-09-01

    Human p53 gene was cloned from the normal human placenta DNA and DNA from the strain of human kidney carcinoma transplanted into nude mice. Representative gene library from tumor strain of human kidney carcinoma and library of 15 kb EcoRI fragments of DNA from normal human placenta were constructed. Maniatis gene library was also used. Five clones were isolated from kidney carcinoma library; they covered 27 kb and included full-length p53 gene of 19.5 kb and flanking sequences. From normal placenta libraries three overlapped clones were obtained. Restriction map of cloned sequences was constructed and polarity of the p53 gene determined. The first intron of the gene is large (10.4 kb); polymorphic BglII site was observed in this intron, which allows to discriminate between allelic genes. One of these (BglII-) is ten times more abundant that the other (BglII+). Both allelic genes are able to synthesize the 2.8 kb p53 gene.

  6. The 3p63d9-(3p53d10+3p63d84f) Transitions in Cobalt-like ions: As VII, Se VIII and Br IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kleef, Th A. M.; Uylings, P.; Ryabtsev, A. N.; Joshi, Y. N.

    1986-01-01

    The spectra of As VII, Se VIII and Br IX have been studied in the 100 Å - 130 Å, 80 Å - 120 Å and 70 Å - 115 Å wavelength regions, respectively, using high dispersion spectrographs at various laboratories. A triggered vacuum spark was used as excitation source. It has been shown that substantial configuration interaction exists between the 3p5 3d10 and 3p63d84f configurations. In the 3p63d84f configuration, 34 levels have been established in As VII, 35 out of 37 levels reported earlier in Se VIII, have been confirmed, two have been revised and one additional level established, and 30 levels have been established in Br IX. Least-Squares-Fit calculations using a two-configuration model space support the analyses. Fifty-two (52), 5 and 40 newly classified lines are reported in As VII, Se VIII and Br IX, respectively.

  7. Comparison of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, thyroid transcription factor-1, Ki-67, p63, p53 and high-molecular weight cytokeratin expressions in papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular adenoma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ayca; Etit, Demet; Bayol, Umit; Altinel, Deniz; Tan, Sedat

    2011-04-01

    The searching of the reliable and repeatable immunohistochemical markers in the differential diagnosis of the thyroid's differentiated follicular epithelial neoplasms has been continuing. Recently, the studies have majored on immunohistochemical markers such as high-molecular weight cytokeratin (HMW-CK), galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, and p27. We aimed to evaluate the differences of the expressions of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), Ki-67, p63, p53, and HMW-CK among the papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), follicular carcinomas (FCs), and follicular adenomas (FAs). Thirty-nine patients with the diagnoses of the PTC, FC, and FA in the archives of the Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital Pathology Laboratory registries in between 2004 and 2009 were included in the study. Immunohistochemical stains for PCNA, TTF-1, Ki-67, p63, p53, and HMW-CK were applied. The results were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 16.0 program (SPSS Inc., IBM, Somers, New York, USA). In all 3 groups, all tumors showed PCNA and TTF-1 positivity. Ki-67 proliferation index varied in a wide range in all groups. Although it was not statistically significant, 19 of 39 tumors (7 PTCs, 2 FCs, and 10 FAs) were stained with p63. The results of the immunoreactivity seen in PTCs with p53 (41.2%) and HMW-CK (52.9%) were statistically significant. The tumors in the other 2 groups (FC and FA) showed no reactivity with HMW-CK. Although the differential diagnosis of the thyroid follicular neoplasms are based on the histologic and cytomorphological criteria, p53 and HMW-CK positivity might be undertaken in favor of the diagnosis of the PTC.

  8. Ligand dependent restoration of human TLR3 signaling and death in p53 mutant cells

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Daniel; Lowe, Julie M.; Snipe, Joyce; Resnick, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Diversity within the p53 transcriptional network can arise from a matrix of changes that include target response element sequences and p53 expression level variations. We previously found that wild type p53 (WT p53) can regulate expression of most innate immune-related Toll-like-receptor genes (TLRs) in human cells, thereby affecting immune responses. Since many tumor-associated p53 mutants exhibit change-of-spectrum transactivation from various p53 targets, we examined the ability of twenty-five p53 mutants to activate endogenous expression of the TLR gene family in p53 null human cancer cell lines following transfection with p53 mutant expression vectors. While many mutants retained the ability to drive TLR expression at WT levels, others exhibited null, limited, or change-of-spectrum transactivation of TLR genes. Using TLR3 signaling as a model, we show that some cancer-associated p53 mutants amplify cytokine, chemokine and apoptotic responses after stimulation by the cognate ligand poly(I:C). Furthermore, restoration of WT p53 activity for loss-of-function p53 mutants by the p53 reactivating drug RITA restored p53 regulation of TLR3 gene expression and enhanced DNA damage-induced apoptosis via TLR3 signaling. Overall, our findings have many implications for understanding the impact of WT and mutant p53 in immunological responses and cancer therapy. PMID:27533082

  9. Regulation of Human p53 Activity and Cell Localization by Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anirban; Stewart, Deborah; Matlashewski, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The development of cancer is a multistep process involving mutations in proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and other genes which control cell proliferation, telomere stability, angiogenesis, and other complex traits. Despite this complexity, the cellular pathways controlled by the p53 tumor suppressor protein are compromised in most, if not all, cancers. In normal cells, p53 controls cell proliferation, senescence, and/or mediates apoptosis in response to stress, cell damage, or ectopic oncogene expression, properties which make p53 the prototype tumor suppressor gene. Defining the mechanisms of regulation of p53 activity in normal and tumor cells has therefore been a major priority in cell biology and cancer research. The present study reveals a novel and potent mechanism of p53 regulation originating through alternative splicing of the human p53 gene resulting in the expression of a novel p53 mRNA. This novel p53 mRNA encodes an N-terminally deleted isoform of p53 termed p47. As demonstrated within, p47 was able to effectively suppress p53-mediated transcriptional activity and impair p53-mediated growth suppression. It was possible to select for p53-null cells expressing p47 alone or coexpressing p53 in the presence of p47 but not cells expressing p53 alone. This showed that p47 itself does not suppress cell viability but could control p53-mediated growth suppression. Interestingly, p47 was monoubiquitinated in an Mdm2-independent manner, and this was associated with its export out of the nucleus. In the presence of p47, there was a reduction in Mdm2-mediated polyubiquitination and degradation of p53, and this was also associated with increased monoubiquitination and nuclear export of p53. The expression of p47 through alternative splicing of the p53 gene thus has a major influence over p53 activity at least in part through controlling p53 ubiquitination and cell localization. PMID:15340061

  10. PPAR{gamma} ligands induce growth inhibition and apoptosis through p63 and p73 in human ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jae-Jung; Heo, Dae Seog

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands increased the rate of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands induced p63 and p73 expression, but not p53. {yields} p63 and p73 leads to an increase in p21 expression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with treatment PPAR{gamma} ligands. {yields} These findings suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands suppressed growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulation of p63 and p73. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), can induce anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cell types. This study investigated the mechanism of the anticancer effect of TZDs on human ovarian cancer. Six human ovarian cancer cell lines (NIH:OVCAR3, SKOV3, SNU-251, SNU-8, SNU-840, and 2774) were treated with the TZD, which induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Additionally, these cell lines exhibited various expression levels of PPAR{gamma} protein as revealed by Western blotting. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, as demonstrated by the appearance of a sub-G1 peak. This observation was corroborated by the finding of increased levels of Bax, p21, PARP, and cleaved caspase 3 in TGZ-treated cells. Interestingly, when we determined the effect of p53-induced growth inhibition in these three human ovarian cancer cells, we found that they either lacked p53 or contained a mutant form of p53. Furthermore, TGZ induced the expression of endogenous or exogenous p63 and p73 proteins and p63- or p73-directed short hairpin (si) RNAs inhibited the ability of TGZ to regulate expression of p21 in these cells. Thus, our results suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells and mediate p63 and p73 expression, leading to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis. The tumor suppressive effects of PPAR{gamma} ligands

  11. DDP-induced cytotoxicity is not influenced by p53 in nine human ovarian cancer cell lines with different p53 status.

    PubMed Central

    De Feudis, P.; Debernardis, D.; Beccaglia, P.; Valenti, M.; Graniela Siré, E.; Arzani, D.; Stanzione, S.; Parodi, S.; D'Incalci, M.; Russo, P.; Broggini, M.

    1997-01-01

    Nine human ovarian cancer cell lines that express wild-type (wt) or mutated (mut) p53 were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin (DDP). The concentrations inhibiting the growth by 50% (IC50) were calculated for each cell line, and no differences were found between cells expressing wt p53 and mut p53. Using, for each cell line, the DDP IC50, we found that these concentrations were able to induce an increase in p53 levels in all four wt-p53-expressing cell lines and in one out of five mut-p53-expressing cell lines. WAF1 and GADD45 mRNAs were also increased by DDP treatment, independently of the presence of a wt p53. Bax levels were only marginally affected by DDP, and this was observed in both wt-p53- and mut-p53-expressing cells. DDP-induced apoptosis was evident 72 h after treatment, and the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was slightly higher for wt-p53-expressing cells. However, at doses near the IC50, the percentage of apoptotic cells was less than 20% in all the cell lines investigated. We conclude that the presence of wt p53 is not a determinant for the cytotoxicity induced by DDP in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9275024

  12. Expression of the human tumor suppressor p53 induces cell death in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula-Souissi, Salma; Mabrouk, Imed; Gargouri, Ali; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2012-02-01

    The human tumor suppressor p53 is known as guardian of genome because of its involvement in many signals related to cell life or death. In this work, we report that human p53 induces cell death in the yeast Pichia pastoris. We showed a growth inhibition effect, which increased with the p53 protein expression level in recombinant Mut(s) (methanol utilization slow) strain of Pichia. However, no effect of p53 was observed in recombinant strain of Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) phenotype. Interestingly, human p53 induces cell death in recombinant strains Mut(s) with characteristic markers of apoptosis such as DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine, and reactive oxygen species generation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that human p53 is biologically active in this heterologous context. Thus, we propose that P. pastoris could be a useful tool to better understand the biological function of human p53.

  13. Endogenous retrovirus drives hitherto unknown proapoptotic p63 isoforms in the male germ line of humans and great apes.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Ulrike; Moll-Rocek, Julian; Moll, Ute M; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    TAp63, but not its homolog p53, eliminates oocytes that suffered DNA damage. An equivalent gene for guarding the male germ line is currently not known. Here we identify hitherto unknown human p63 transcripts with unique 5'-ends derived from incorporated exons upstream of the currently mapped TP63 gene. These unique p63 transcripts are highly and specifically expressed in testis. Their most upstream region corresponds to a LTR of the human endogenous retrovirus 9 (ERV9). The insertion of this LTR upstream of the TP63 locus occurred only recently in evolution and is unique to humans and great apes (Hominidae). A corresponding p63 protein is the sole p63 species in healthy human testis, and is strongly expressed in spermatogenic precursors but not in mature spermatozoa. In response to DNA damage, this human male germ-cell-encoded TAp63 protein (designated GTAp63) is activated by caspase cleavage near its carboxyterminal domain and induces apoptosis. Human testicular cancer tissues and cell lines largely lost p63 expression. However, pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases completely restores p63 expression in testicular cancer cells (>3,000-fold increase). Our data support a model whereby testis-specific GTAp63 protects the genomic integrity of the male germ line and acts as a tumor suppressor. In Hominidae, this guardian function was greatly enhanced by integration of an endogenous retrovirus upstream of the TP63 locus that occurred 15 million years ago. By providing increased germ-line stability, this event may have contributed to the evolution of hominids and enabled their long reproductive periods.

  14. Temperature sensitivity of human wild-type and mutant p53 proteins expressed in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ponchel, F.; Milner, J.

    1998-01-01

    p53 is activated in response to DNA damage and functions in the maintenance of genetic integrity. Loss of p53 function because of mutation of the p53 gene is associated with over half all human cancers. Certain human p53 mutants are conformationally flexible in vitro and are temperature sensitive, with partial or complete recovery of wild-type (wt) properties at 32 degrees C. We have now tested the functional capacities of selected p53 mutants in vivo, by transfection into established human cell lines. Unexpectedly, we found that wt p53 can be temperature sensitive for transactivation of a co-transfected target gene in vivo. Flexible mutants retained varying degrees of functional capacity in transfected cells, and the recipient cell line appeared to be a significant determinant of both wt and mutant p53 function; importantly, two p53 null cell lines commonly used to study p53 function (Saos-2 and Hep3B) differed markedly in this latter respect. We also show that the p53 mutant V272M, which exhibits sequence-specific DNA binding in vitro, is nonetheless defective for transactivation and is unable to induce apoptosis in vivo. The valine 272 residue may thus be crucial for properties (other than sequence-specific DNA binding) that are important for p53 function(s) in vivo. Images Figure 4 PMID:9635828

  15. Characterization of a murine p53ser246 mutant equivalent to the human p53ser249 associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and aflatoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Ghebranious, N; Knoll, B J; Wu, H; Lozano, G; Sell, S

    1995-06-01

    A mutation in the tumor suppressor p53 gene resulting in an Arg-->Ser substitution in position 249 is found frequently in human hepatocellular carcinomas associated with hepatitis B infection and with aflatoxin exposure. To determine the significance of this mutation in an in vivo experimental model using transgenic mice, we introduced a two-nucleotide change in the mouse p53 gene at amino-acid position 246, which is equivalent to position 249 in human p53, by the recombinant polymerase chain reaction mismatched primer method. This p53 mutation resulted in the same change, an Arg-->Ser substitution, as in the human p53 gene at position 249. We now report that the protein product of this mutant mouse p53ser246 had properties similar to those of the wild-type protein when tested by binding to (i) monoclonal antibodies PAb246 and PAb240, ii) simian virus 40 large T antigen, and (iii) heat-shock protein. However, it had mutant-type transforming properties when tested for colony formation with an osteosarcoma cell line. It was not active, as is wild-type p53, in transcription activation of the muscle creatine kinase promoter. These properties are the same as those found in the p53trp248 product of the p53 mutation associated with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Although less is known about the human p53ser249 product associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, the mutant murine p53ser246 protein shares the known properties of the human gene product.

  16. The p53 tumor suppressor protein protects against chemotherapeutic stress and apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Parasido, Erika; Tricoli, Lucas; Sivakumar, Angiela; Mikhaiel, John P.; Yenugonda, Venkata; Rodriguez, Olga C.; Karam, Sana D.; Rood, Brian R.; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Albanese, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor and remains incurable in about a third of patients. Currently, survivors carry a significant burden of late treatment effects. The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a crucial role in influencing cell survival in response to cellular stress and while the p53 pathway is considered a key determinant of anti-tumor responses in many tumors, its role in cell survival in MB is much less well defined. Herein, we report that the experimental drug VMY-1-103 acts through induction of a partial DNA damage-like response as well induction of non-survival autophagy. Surprisingly, the genetic or chemical silencing of p53 significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of both VMY and the DNA damaging drug, doxorubicin. The inhibition of p53 in the presence of VMY revealed increased late stage apoptosis, increased DNA fragmentation and increased expression of genes involved in apoptosis, including CAPN12 and TRPM8, p63, p73, BIK, EndoG, CIDEB, P27Kip1 and P21cip1. These data provide the groundwork for additional studies on VMY as a therapeutic drug and support further investigations into the intriguing possibility that targeting p53 function may be an effective means of enhancing clinical outcomes in MB. PMID:26540407

  17. Alternate splicing of the p53 inhibitor HDMX offers a superior prognostic biomarker than p53 mutation in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Lenos, Kristiaan; Grawenda, Anna M; Lodder, Kirsten; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Teunisse, Amina F A S; Repapi, Emmanouela; Grochola, Lukasz F; Bartel, Frank; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Wuerl, Peter; Taubert, Helge; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bond, Gareth L; Jochemsen, Aart G

    2012-08-15

    Conventional high-grade osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy. Although altered expression of the p53 inhibitor HDMX (Mdmx/Mdm4) is associated with cancer risk, progression, and outcome in other tumor types, little is known about its role in osteosarcoma. High expression of the Hdmx splice variant HDMX-S relative to the full-length transcript (the HDMX-S/HDMX-FL ratio) correlates with reduced HDMX protein expression, faster progression, and poorer survival in several cancers. Here, we show that the HDMX-S/HDMX-FL ratio positively correlates with less HDMX protein expression, faster metastatic progression, and a trend to worse overall survival in osteosarcomas. We found that the HDMX-S/HDMX-FL ratio associated with common somatic genetic lesions connected with p53 inhibition, such as p53 mutation and HDM2 overexpression in osteosarcoma cell lines. Interestingly, this finding was not limited to osteosarcomas as we observed similar associations in breast cancer and a variety of other cancer cell lines, as well as in tumors from patients with soft tissue sarcoma. The HDMX-S/HDMX-FL ratio better defined patients with sarcoma with worse survival rates than p53 mutational status. We propose a novel role for alternative splicing of HDMX, whereby it serves as a mechanism by which HDMX protein levels are reduced in cancer cells that have already inhibited p53 activity. Alternative splicing of HDMX could, therefore, serve as a more effective biomarker for p53 pathway attenuation in cancers than p53 gene mutation.

  18. Mouse Models for the p53 R72P Polymorphism Mimic Human Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Dollé, Martijn E.T.; Berton, Thomas R.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Capps, Carrie; Espejo, Alexsandra; McArthur, Mark J.; Bedford, Mark T.; van Steeg, Harry; de Vries, Annemieke; Johnson, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene contains a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that results in either an arginine or proline at position 72 of the p53 protein. This polymorphism affects the apoptotic activity of p53 but the mechanistic basis and physiological relevance of this phenotypic difference remain unclear. Here we describe the development of mouse models for the p53 R72P SNP using two different approaches. In both sets of models the human or humanized p53 proteins are functional as evidenced by the transcriptional induction of p53 target genes in response to DNA damage and the suppression of early lymphomagenesis. Consistent with in vitro studies, mice expressing the 72R variant protein (p53R) have a greater apoptotic response to several stimuli compared to mice expressing the p53P variant. Molecular studies suggest that both transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms may contribute to the differential abilities of the p53 variants to induce apoptosis. Despite a difference in the acute response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, no difference in the tumorigenic response to chronic UV exposure was observed between the polymorphic mouse models. These findings suggest that under at least some conditions, the modulation of apoptosis by the R72P polymorphism does not impact the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:20587514

  19. Transduction of Recombinant M3-p53-R12 Protein Enhances Human Leukemia Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tsung Chi; Zhao, Guan- Hao; Chen, Yao Yun; Chien, Chia-Ying; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lin, Kwang Hui; Chen, Shen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in initiating cell cycle arrest and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that p53 is either mutated or defective in approximately 50% of human cancers; therefore restoring normal p53 activity in cancer cells might be an effective anticancer therapeutic approach. Herein, we designed a chimeric p53 protein flanked with the MyoD N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (amino acids 1-62, called M3) and a poly-arginine (R12) cell penetrating signal in its N-and C-termini respectively. This chimeric protein, M3-p53-R12, can be expressed in E. coli and purified using immobilized metal ion chromatography followed by serial refolding dialysis. The purified M3-p53-R12 protein retains DNA-binding activity and gains of cell penetrating ability. Using MTT assay, we demonstrated that M3-p53-R12 inhibited the growth of K562, Jurkat as well as HL-60 leukemia cells carrying mutant p53 genes. Results from FACS analysis also demonstrated that transduction of M3-p53-R12 protein induced cell cycle arrest of these leukemia cells. Of special note, M3-p53-R12 has no apoptotic effect on normal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and leukocytes, highlighting its differential effects on normal and tumor cells. To sum up, our results reveal that purified recombinant M3-p53-R12 protein has functions of suppressing the leukemia cell lines' proliferation and launching cell apoptosis, suggesting the feasibility of using M3-p53-R12 protein as an anticancer drug. In the future we will test whether this chimeric protein can preferentially trigger the death of malignant cancer cells without affecting normal cells in animals carrying endogenous or xenographic tumors. PMID:27390612

  20. Biophysical characterizations of human mitochondrial transcription factor A and its binding to tumor suppressor p53

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tuck Seng; Rajagopalan, Sridharan; Freund, Stefan M.; Rutherford, Trevor J.; Andreeva, Antonina; Townsley, Fiona M.; Petrovich, Miriana; Fersht, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a multi-functional protein, involved in different aspects of maintaining mitochondrial genome integrity. In this report, we characterized TFAM and its interaction with tumor suppressor p53 using various biophysical methods. DNA-free TFAM is a thermally unstable protein that is in equilibrium between monomers and dimers. Self-association of TFAM is modulated by its basic C-terminal tail. The DNA-binding ability of TFAM is mainly contributed by its first HMG-box, while the second HMG-box has low-DNA-binding capability. We also obtained backbone resonance assignments from the NMR spectra of both HMG-boxes of TFAM. TFAM binds primarily to the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53, with a Kd of 1.95 ± 0.19 μM. The C-terminal regulatory domain of p53 provides a secondary binding site for TFAM. The TFAM–p53-binding interface involves both TAD1 and TAD2 sub-domains of p53. Helices α1 and α2 of the HMG-box constitute the main p53-binding region. Since both TFAM and p53 binds preferentially to distorted DNA, the TFAM–p53 interaction is implicated in DNA damage and repair. In addition, the DNA-binding mechanism of TFAM and biological relevance of the TFAM–p53 interaction are discussed. PMID:19755502

  1. Human pregnane X receptor compromises the function of p53 and promotes malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, D; Cherian, M; Wu, J; Chen, T

    2016-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is well established as a nuclear receptor that has a central role in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition. However, emerging evidence suggests that PXR is also a regulator of apoptosis, promoting a malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The tumor suppressor p53 can be activated in the presence of DNA damage and induce cell cycle arrest to allow for DNA repair or, ultimately, apoptosis to suppress tumor formation. We previously identified p53 as a novel PXR-associated protein by using a mass spectrometric approach. In the current study, we identified a novel inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, revealing an anti-apoptotic function of PXR in colon carcinogenesis. PXR expression reduced p53 transactivation and the expression of its downstream target genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by decreasing p53 recruitment to the promoter regions of these genes. Consistent with the inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, elevated PXR levels decreased doxorubicin- or nutlin-3a-mediated toxicity and promoted malignant transformation in colon cancer cells. Our findings show for the first time that PXR expression modulates p53 target gene promoter binding and contributes to the downregulation of p53 function in human colon cancer cells. These results define the functional significance of PXR expression in modulating p53-mediated mechanisms of tumor suppression. PMID:27547448

  2. Mutations in p53 as potential molecular markers for human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Runnebaum, I.B.; Nagarajan, M.; Bowman, M.; Soto, D.; Sukumar, S. )

    1991-12-01

    Based on the high incidence of loss of heterozygosity for loci on chromosome 17p in the vicinity of the p53 locus in human breast tumors. The authors investigated the frequency and effects of mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene in mammary neoplasia. They examined the p53 gene in 20 breast cancer cell lines and 59 primary breast tumors. Northern blot analysis, immunoprecipitation, and nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed aberrant mRNA expression, over-expression of protein, and point mutations in the p53 gene in 50% of the cell line tested. A multiplex PCR assay was developed to search for deletions in the p53 genomic locus. Multiplex PCR of genomic DNA showed that up to 36% of primary tumors contained aberrations in the p53 locus. Mutations in exons 5-9 of the p53 gene were found in 10 out of 59 (17%) of the primary tumors studied by single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. They conclude that, compared to amplification of HER2/NEU, MYC, or INT2 oncogene loci, p53 gene mutations and deletions are the most frequently observed genetic change in breast cancer related to a single gene. Correlated to disease status, p53 gene mutations could prove to be a valuable marker for diagnosis and/or prognosis of breast neoplasia.

  3. Modulation of cellular and viral promoters by mutant human p53 proteins found in tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Jackson, C T; Subler, M A; Martin, D W

    1992-01-01

    Wild-type p53 has recently been shown to repress transcription from several cellular and viral promoters. Since p53 mutations are the most frequently reported genetic defects in human cancers, it becomes important to study the effects of mutations of p53 on promoter functions. We, therefore, have studied the effects of wild-type and mutant human p53 on the human proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter and on several viral promoters, including the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL9 promoter, the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter-enhancer, and the long terminal repeat promoters of Rous sarcoma virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. HeLa cells were cotransfected with a wild-type or mutant p53 expression vector and a plasmid containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene under viral (or cellular) promoter control. As expected, expression of the wild-type p53 inhibited promoter function. Expression of a p53 with a mutation at any one of the four amino acid positions 175, 248, 273, or 281, however, correlated with a significant increase of the PCNA promoter activity (2- to 11-fold). The viral promoters were also activated, although to a somewhat lesser extent. We also showed that activation by a mutant p53 requires a minimal promoter containing a lone TATA box. A more significant increase (25-fold) in activation occurs when the promoter contains a binding site for the activating transcription factor or cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. Using Saos-2 cells that do not express p53, we showed that activation by a mutant p53 was a direct enhancement. The mutant forms of p53 used in this study are found in various cancer cells. The activation of PCNA by mutant p53s may indicate a way to increase cell proliferation by the mutant p53s. Thus, our data indicate a possible functional role for the mutants of p53 found in cancer cells in activating several important loci, including PCNA. Images PMID:1356162

  4. Uncovering the role of p53 splice variants in human malignancy: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Surget, Sylvanie; Khoury, Marie P; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-five years of research on p53 gave rise to more than 68,000 articles and reviews, but did not allow the uncovering of all the mysteries that this major tumor suppressor holds. How p53 handles the different signals to decide the appropriate cell fate in response to a stress and its implication in tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear. Nevertheless, the uncovering of p53 isoforms has opened new perspectives in the cancer research field. Indeed, the human TP53 gene encodes not only one but at least twelve p53 protein isoforms, which are produced in normal tissues through alternative initiation of translation, usage of alternative promoters, and alternative splicing. In recent years, it became obvious that the different p53 isoforms play an important role in regulating cell fate in response to different stresses in normal cells by differentially regulating gene expression. In cancer cells, abnormal expression of p53 isoforms contributes actively to cancer formation and progression, regardless of TP53 mutation status. They can also be associated with response to treatment, depending on the cell context. The determination of p53 isoform expression and p53 mutation status helps to define different subtypes within a particular cancer type, which would have different responses to treatment. Thus, the understanding of the regulation of p53 isoform expression and their biological activities in relation to the cellular context would constitute an important step toward the improvement of the diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive values of p53 in cancer treatment. This review aims to summarize the involvement of p53 isoforms in cancer and to highlight novel potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24379683

  5. Arsenic promotes centrosome abnormalities and cell colony formation in p53 compromised human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Weiting; Lin Pinpin; Cheng, T.-S.; Yu, H.-S.; Chang, Louis W.

    2007-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus, an interaction between arsenic and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. p53 dysfunction or mutation in lung epithelial cells was frequently observed in cigarette smokers. Our present study was to explore the differential effects by arsenic on H1355 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with mutation in p53), BEAS-2B (immortalized lung epithelial cell with functional p53) and pifithrin-{alpha}-treated BEAS-2B cells (p53-inhibited cells). These cells were treated with different doses of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 {mu}M) for 48 h. A greater reduction in cell viability was observed in the BEAS-2B cells vs. p53 compromised cells (H1355 or p53-inhibited BEAS-2B). Similar observation was also made on 7-day cell survival (growth) study. TUNEL analysis confirmed that there was indeed a significantly reduced arsenite-induced apoptosis found in p53-compromised cells. Centrosomal abnormality has been attributed to eventual chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. In our present study, reduced p21 and Gadd45a expressions and increased centrosomal abnormality (atopic and multiple centrosomes) were observed in both arsenite-treated H1355 and p53-inhibited BEAS-2B cells as compared with similarly treated BEAS-2B cells. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells co-treated with pifithrin-{alpha} and 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that arsenic would act specifically on p53 compromised cells (either with p53 dysfunction or inhibited) to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenic, especially under the condition of p53 dysfunction.

  6. The role of p53 inactivation in human cervical cell carcinoma development.

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Kato, H.; Imamura, T.; Nishida, M.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Wake, N.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p53 gene mutation in 47 primary uterine cervical cancers. HPV DNA sequences were present in 43 cancers (91.5%), and one of these cancers contained a p53 gene mutation. In addition, one of the remaining four HPV-negative cancers also contained a p53 gene mutation. As a result, p53 inactivation corresponded to the development of 44 of the primary uterine cervical cancers studied (93.6%). We obtained both primary and recurrent tumours from four cases. In two of these cases, the HPV genomes that were present in an episomal state in the primary tumours were observed to have disappeared in the recurrent tumours. One of these recurrent tumours also contained a p53 gene mutation, which suggested the possibility that p53 inactivation was required in order to maintain the aggressive behaviour in this cancer either by an HPV infection or by a p53 gene mutation. No MDM2 gene amplification was observed in the tumours that carried neither HPV DNAs nor p53 gene mutations. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7841033

  7. p53 Mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Travis, W.H.; Linehan, H.M.; Karl, M.; Mastorakos, G.; Chrousos, G.P.

    1994-03-01

    p53 is a recessive tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p. Mutations in the p53 gene play an important role in the tumorigenesis of diverse types of human neoplasms including breast and colon cancers. More than 90% of all mutations discovered in such tumors have been detected in 4 hot spot areas that lie between exons 5 and 8. In contrast to wild-type p53, mutant p53 accumulates intracellularly and can be easily detected by immunohistochemistry. The authors therefore investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms using molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Five patients with adrenocortical adenomas (5 female; ages 39-72 yr), 11 patients with adrenocortical carcinomas (8 female, 3 male; ages 15-50 yr), and two adrenocortical tumor cell lines were studied. After DNA extraction from frozen tumor tissue or paraffin-embedded material, exons 5 through 8 were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced by the dideoxy termination method. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens obtained during adrenalectomy using a monoclonal antibody reacting with both wild-type and mutant p53. Prevalence of mutations was adenomas, 0/5, carcinomas, 3/11, and adrenocortical cell lines, 2/2. Single point mutations were detected in 3 cases (exons 5, 6, and 7, respectively), and rearrangements of exon 7/8 and 8 were found in 2 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected strong nuclear and/or cytoplasmic p53 immunoreactivity in all adrenocortical carcinomas with point mutations of the p53 gene but not in adenomas and carcinomas with the wild-type sequence or with deletion/rearrangement of the p53 gene. They conclude that p53 plays a role in the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinomas but is of less importance to benign adenomas. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

    2011-12-15

    We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

  9. Effects of recombinant human adenovirus-p53 on the regression of hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yehong; Yang, Puye; Chen, Na; Lin, Shumei; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a scarring process that may progress to hepatic cirrhosis and even hepatic carcinoma if left untreated. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play essential roles in the development of hepatic fibrosis. The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a transcription factor that is involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and DNA repair. Recombinant human adenovirus-p53 (Ad-p53) has been demonstrated to act as a promising antitumor gene therapy in various types of cancer. However, there is limited infomration regarding the therapeutic effect of Ad-p53 on the regression of hepatic fibrosis. In order to examine the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the effects of Ad-p53 on HSCs, a rat model of hepatic fibrosis was established and HSC-T6 cells were cultured under different conditions. The expression of p53, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), which is a marker of activated HSCs, was detected by immunohistochemical assays and RT-qPCR. In vitro, five different concentrations (1×106, 5×106, 1×107, 2×107 and 5×107 PFU/ml) of Ad-p53 were selected for use in the MTT assay to analyze the proliferation of HSCs at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Flow cytometric analysis was applied to determine the effect of three different concentrations of Ad-p53 (5×106, 1×107 and 2×107 PFU/ml) on the cell cycle and the apoptosis of HSC-T6 cells at 24 and 48 h. The results of immunohistochemical studies and RT-qPCR showed that Ad-p53 upregulated the expression of p53, and downregulated the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA. The MTT assay revealed that when treated with various doses of Ad-p53, the proliferation of HSCs was inhibited within a certain range of concentrations and time periods. Analysis of flow cytometric data showed that Ad-p53 arrested the cell cycle in G1 phase and significantly induced apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ad-p53 promotes apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation of HSCs in

  10. P53 alters the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity for oxidized graphene in human B-lymphoblastoid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibone, Dayton Matthew

    Widespread use of oxidized graphene nanomaterials in industry, medicine, and consumer products raises concern about potential adverse impacts on human health. The p53 tumor suppressor protein is crucial to maintaining cellular and genetic stability to prevent carcinogenesis. Here, we show that oxygen functionalized graphene (f-G) absorption and p53 functional status correlate with cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human B-lymphoblastoid cells. Trends in f-G absorption by were dose-dependent. Cells with functional p53 exposed to f-G arrested in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, suppressed f-G induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and had elevated apoptosis. While compared to p53 competent cells, the p53 deficient cells exposed to f-G accumulated in S-phase of the cell cycle, had elevated ROS levels, and evaded apoptosis. The f-G genotoxicity was evident as increased loss-of-heterozygosity mutants independent of p53 status, and structural chromosome damage in p53 deficient cells. These findings have broad implications for the safety and efficacy of oxidized graphene nanomaterials in industrial, consumer products and biomedical applications.

  11. Dipeptide analysis of p53 mutations and evolution of p53 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Yu, Long; Levine, Arnold J; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2014-01-01

    p53 gain-of-function mutations are similar to driver mutations in cancer genes, with both promoting tumorigenesis. Most previous studies focused on residues lost by mutations, providing information related to a dominantly-negative effect. However, to understand gain-of-function mutations, it is also important to investigate what are the distributions of residues gained by mutations. We compile available p53/p63/p73 protein sequences and construct a non-redundant dataset. We analyze the amino acid and dipeptide composition of p53/p63/p73 proteins across evolution and compare them with the gain/loss of amino acids and dipeptides in human p53 following cancer-related somatic mutations. We find that the ratios of amino acids gained via somatic mutations during evolution to those lost through p53 cancer mutations correlate with the ratios found in single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human proteome. The dipeptide mutational gain/loss ratios are inversely correlated with those observed over p53 evolution but tend to follow the increasing p63/p73-like dipeptide propensities. We successfully simulated the p53 cancer mutation spectrum using the dipeptide composition across the p53 family accounting for the likelihood of mutations in p53 codons. The results revealed that the p53 mutation spectrum is dominated not only by p53 evolution but also by reversal of evolution to a certain degree. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics, Systems Biology & Clinical Implications. Guest Editor: Yudong Cai.

  12. Cadmium induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl(2) and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl(2) concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis.

  13. ZIKA virus elicits P53 activation and genotoxic stress in human neural progenitors similar to mutations involved in severe forms of genetic microcephaly and p53

    PubMed Central

    Ghouzzi, Vincent El; Bianchi, Federico T; Molineris, Ivan; Mounce, Bryan C; Berto, Gaia E; Rak, Malgorzata; Lebon, Sophie; Aubry, Laetitia; Tocco, Chiara; Gai, Marta; Chiotto, Alessandra MA; Sgrò, Francesco; Pallavicini, Gianmarco; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Passemard, Sandrine; Vignuzzi, Marco; Gressens, Pierre; Di Cunto, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence from the current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and recent studies in animal models indicate a strong causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly. ZIKV infection induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in proliferating neural progenitors. However, the mechanisms leading to these phenotypes are still largely obscure. In this report, we explored the possible similarities between transcriptional responses induced by ZIKV in human neural progenitors and those elicited by three different genetic mutations leading to severe forms of microcephaly in mice. We found that the strongest similarity between all these conditions is the activation of common P53 downstream genes. In agreement with these observations, we report that ZIKV infection increases total P53 levels and nuclear accumulation, as well as P53 Ser15 phosphorylation, correlated with genotoxic stress and apoptosis induction. Interestingly, increased P53 activation and apoptosis are induced not only in cells expressing high levels of viral antigens but also in cells showing low or undetectable levels of the same proteins. These results indicate that P53 activation is an early and specific event in ZIKV-infected cells, which could result from cell-autonomous and/or non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight a small group of P53 effector proteins that could act as critical mediators, not only in ZIKV-induced microcephaly but also in many genetic microcephaly syndromes. PMID:27787521

  14. The influence of SV40 immortalization of human fibroblasts on p53-dependent radiation responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohli, M.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 Tag) has been ascribed many functions critical to viral propagation, including binding to the mammalian tumor suppressor p53. Recent studies have demonstrated that SV40-transformed murine cells have functional p53. The status of p53 in SV40-immortalized human cells, however, has not been characterized. We have found that in response to ionizing radiation, p53-dependent p21 transactivation activity is present, albeit reduced, in SV40-immortalized cells and that this activity can be further reduced with either dominant negative p53 expression or higher SV40 Tag expression. Furthermore, overexpression of p53 in SV40-immortalized ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells restores p53-dependent p21 induction to typical A-T levels. All SV40-immortalized cell lines exhibited an absence of G1 arrest. Moreover, all SV40-immortalized cell lines exhibited increased apoptosis relative to primary cells in response to ionizing radiation, suggesting that SV40 immortalization results in a unique phenotype with regard to DNA damage responses. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Concurrent expression of heme oxygenase-1 and p53 in human retinal pigment epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Yull; Jo, Hong Jae; Kim, Kang Mi; Song, Ju Dong; Chung, Hun Taeg; Park, Young Chul

    2008-01-25

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive protein that is known to regulate cellular functions such as cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effects of HO activity on the expression of p53 in the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) induced the expression of both HO-1 and p53 without significant toxicity to the cells. In addition, the blockage of HO activity with the iron chelator DFO or with HO-1 siRNA inhibited the CoPP-induced expression of p53. Similarly, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO, suppressed p53 expression in ARPE-19 cells, although ZnPP increased the level of HO-1 protein while inhibiting HO activity. Also, CoPP-induced p53 expression was not affected by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these results, we conclude that HO activity is involved in the regulation of p53 expression in a ROS-independent mechanism, and also suggest that the expression of p53 in ARPE-19 cells is associated with heme metabolites such as biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and iron produced by the activity of HO.

  16. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffner, M.; Muenger, K.; Byrne, J.C.; Howley, P.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Human cervical carcinoma cell lines that were either positive or negative for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences were analyzed for evidence of mutation of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes. Each of five HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines expressed normal pRB and low levels of wild-type p53 proteins, which are presumed to be altered in function as a consequence of association with HPV E7 and E6 oncoproteins, respectively. In contrast, mutations were identified in the p53 and RB genes expressed in the C-33A and HT-3 cervical cancer cell lines, which lack HPV DNA sequences. Mutations in the p53 genes mapped to codon 273 and codon 245 in the C33-A and HT-3 cell lines, respectively, located in the highly conserved regions of p53, where mutations appear in a variety of human cancers. Mutations in RB occurred at splice junctions, resulting in in-frame deletions, affecting exons 13 and 20 in the HT-3 and C-33A cell lines, respectively. These mutations resulted in aberrant proteins that were not phosphorylated and were unable to complex with the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. These results support the hypothesis that the inactivation of the normal functions of the tumor-suppressor proteins pRB and p53 are important steps in human cervical carcinogenesis, either by mutation or from complex formation with the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins.

  17. Teroxirone inhibited growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by activating p53

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Lin, Kai-Han; Liu, Chun-Yen; Yu, Ya-Chu; Wu, Pei-Tsun; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Su, Chun-Li; Chen, Kwun-Min; Fang, Kang

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we demonstrated that the growth of human non-small-cell-lung-cancer cells H460 and A549 cells can be inhibited by low concentrations of an epoxide derivative, teroxirone, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The cytotoxicity was mediated by apoptotic cell death through DNA damage. The onset of ultimate apoptosis is dependent on the status of p53. Teroxirone caused transient elevation of p53 that activates downstream p21 and procaspase-3 cleavage. The presence of caspase-3 inhibitor reverted apoptotic phenotype. Furthermore, we showed the cytotoxicity of teroxirone in H1299 cells with stable ectopic expression of p53, but not those of mutant p53. A siRNA-mediated knockdown of p53 expression attenuated drug sensitivity. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that teroxirone suppressed growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice. Being a potential therapeutic agent by restraining cell growth through apoptotic death at low concentrations, teroxirone provides a feasible perspective in reversing tumorigenic phenotype of human lung cancer cells. - Highlights: • Teroxirone repressed tumor cell growth in nude mice of human lung cancer cells. • The apoptotic cell death reverted by caspase-3 inhibitor is related to p53 status. • Teroxirone provides a good candidate for lung cancer treatment.

  18. Peptide interactions stabilize and restructure human papillomavirus type 16 E6 to interact with p53.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Tina; Brimer, Nicole; Vande Pol, Scott B

    2012-10-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 (16E6) binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP and p53, thereby targeting degradation of p53 (M. Scheffner, B. A. Werness, J. M. Huibregtse, A. J. Levine, and P. M. Howley, Cell 63:1129-1136, 1990). Here we show that minimal 16E6-binding LXXLL peptides reshape 16E6 to confer p53 interaction and stabilize 16E6 in vivo but that degradation of p53 by 16E6 requires E6AP expression. These experiments establish a general mechanism for how papillomavirus E6 binding to LXXLL peptides reshapes E6 to then act as an adapter molecule.

  19. Peptide Interactions Stabilize and Restructure Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 To Interact with p53

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Tina; Brimer, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 (16E6) binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP and p53, thereby targeting degradation of p53 (M. Scheffner, B. A. Werness, J. M. Huibregtse, A. J. Levine, and P. M. Howley, Cell 63:1129–1136, 1990). Here we show that minimal 16E6-binding LXXLL peptides reshape 16E6 to confer p53 interaction and stabilize 16E6 in vivo but that degradation of p53 by 16E6 requires E6AP expression. These experiments establish a general mechanism for how papillomavirus E6 binding to LXXLL peptides reshapes E6 to then act as an adapter molecule. PMID:22896608

  20. Calpain-mediated Processing of p53-associated Parkin-like Cytoplasmic Protein (PARC) Affects Chemosensitivity of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells by Promoting p53 Subcellular Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Michael G.; Xue, Kai; Liu, Jiayin; McBride, Heidi; Tsang, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to cisplatin (CDDP)-based therapy is a major hurdle to the successful treatment of human ovarian cancer (OVCA), and the chemoresistant phenotype in OVCA cells is associated with Akt-attenuated p53-mediated apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic functions of p53 involve both transcription-dependent and -independent signaling pathways, and dysfunctional localization and/or inactivation of p53 contribute to the development of chemoresistance. PARC is a cytoplasmic protein regulating p53 subcellular localization and subsequent function. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating PARC. Although PARC contains putative caspase-3 cleavage sites, and CDDP is known to induce the activation of caspases and calpains and induce proteasomal degradation of anti-apoptotic proteins, if and how PARC is regulated by CDDP in OVCA are unknown. Here, we present evidence that CDDP promotes calpain-mediated PARC down-regulation, mitochondrial and nuclear p53 accumulation, and apoptosis in chemosensitive but not resistant OVCA cells. Inhibition of Akt is required to sensitize chemoresistant cells to CDDP in a p53-dependent manner, an effect enhanced by PARC down-regulation. CDDP-induced PARC down-regulation is reversible by inhibition of calpain but not of caspases or the 26 S proteasome. Furthermore, in vitro experiments confirm the ability of calpain in mediating Ca2+-dependent PARC down-regulation. The role of Ca2+ in PARC down-regulation was further confirmed as ionomycin-induced PARC down-regulation in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. The data presented here implicate the regulation of p53 subcellular localization and apoptosis by PARC as a contributing factor in CDDP resistance in OVCA cells and Ca2+/calpain in PARC post-translational processing and chemosensitivity. PMID:22117079

  1. P53 Regulation-Association Long Non-Coding RNA (LncRNA PRAL) Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Regulation of P53 in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Pengxiao; Wang, Fengqin; Qi, Bin; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Shaobo

    2017-04-11

    BACKGROUND Lung cancer is among the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, but its tumorigenic mechanisms are largely unknown. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been shown to have significant roles in multiple cancers. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the detailed effects of a newly-discovered LncRNA, termed PRAL, on cell proliferation in lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 100 lung cancer patients were subjected to RT-PCR analysis to detect the expressions of PRAL. Western blot analysis was performed to examine P53 protein levels. PRAL plasmid and specific siRNA against P53 was transfected into lung cancer cell lines NCI-H929 and A549. Cell viability assay was conducted in the presence or absence of siP53. RESULTS The transcript level of PRAL in human lung cancer was remarkably decreased in vivo compared with their adjacent non-cancerous counterparts, and the protein levels of P53 were accordingly suppressed. Moreover, the expression of PRAL was also decreased in all of the 5 lung cancer cell lines. Transfection of PRAL plasmid inhibited cell proliferation in NCI-H929 and A549 cells and promoted the transcription of P53; however, knockdown of P53 caused no notable effects on PRAL transcription, but it retarded the inhibitory effects mediated by PRAL. CONCLUSIONS The transcript level of PRAL was decreased in lung cancer in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of PRAL inhibited cell proliferation by upregulating the expression of P53. Our results indicate that PRAL might be a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and thus provides novel clues for the diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer in clinical practice.

  2. Loss of p53 protein during radiation transformation of primary human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wazer, D E; Chu, Q; Liu, X L; Gao, Q; Safaii, H; Band, V

    1994-01-01

    The causative factors leading to breast cancer are largely unknown. Increased incidence of breast cancer following diagnostic or therapeutic radiation suggests that radiation may contribute to mammary oncogenesis. This report describes the in vitro neoplastic transformation of a normal human mammary epithelial cell strain, 76N, by fractionated gamma-irradiation at a clinically used dose (30 Gy). The transformed cells (76R-30) were immortal, had reduced growth factor requirements, and produced tumors in nude mice. Remarkably, the 76R-30 cells completely lacked the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Loss of p53 was due to deletion of the gene on one allele and a 26-bp deletion within the third intron on the second allele which resulted in abnormal splicing out of either the third or fourth exon from the mRNA. PCR with a mutation-specific primer showed that intron 3 mutation was present in irradiated cells before selection for immortal phenotype. 76R-30 cells did not exhibit G1 arrest in response to radiation, indicating a loss of p53-mediated function. Expression of the wild-type p53 gene in 76R-30 cells led to their growth inhibition. Thus, loss of p53 protein appears to have contributed to neoplastic transformation of these cells. This unique model should facilitate analyses of molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced breast cancer and allow identification of p53-regulated cellular genes in breast cells. Images PMID:7511207

  3. p53/PUMA expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts mediates cell activation and migration in silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Fang, Shencun; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Zhang, Xilong; Chao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of SiO2 into the lung causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Clinical evidence has indicated that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, which, in turn, induces fibrosis. However, the details of events downstream of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 activity in pulmonary fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, to elucidate the role of p53 in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts led to the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in p53 and PUMA protein levels; 2) the MAPK and PI3K pathways were involved in the SiO2-induced alteration of p53 and PUMA expression; and 3) RNA interference targeting p53 and PUMA prevented the SiO2-induced increases in fibroblast activation and migration. Our study elucidated a link between SiO2-induced p53/PUMA expression in fibroblasts and cell migration, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of p53/PUMA in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment. PMID:26576741

  4. Phenylbutyrate Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells Lacking Wild-Type P53 Function to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos A. Feng, Felix Y.; Herman, Joseph M.; Nyati, Mukesh K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ljungman, Mats

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phenylbutyrate (PB) is a HDAC inhibitor used clinically for treatment of urea cycle disorders. Because of its low cytotoxicity, cerebrospinal fluid penetration, and high oral bioavailability, we investigated PB as a potential radiation sensitizer in human glioblastoma cell lines. Methods and Materials: Four glioblastoma cell lines were selected for this study. Phenylbutyrate was used at a concentration of 2 mM, which is achievable in humans. Western blots were used to assess levels of acetylated histone H3 in tumor cells after treatment with PB. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Clonogenic assays were performed to assess the effect of PB on radiation sensitivity. We used shRNA against p53 to study the role of p53 in radiosensitization. Results: Treatment with PB alone resulted in hyperacetylation of histones, confirmed by Western blot analysis. The PB alone resulted in cytostatic effects in three cell lines. There was no evidence of G{sub 1} arrest, increase in sub-G{sub 1} fraction or p21 protein induction. Clonogenic assays showed radiosensitization in two lines harboring p53 mutations, with enhancement ratios ({+-} SE) of 1.5 ({+-} 0.2) and 1.3 ({+-} 0.1), respectively. There was no radiopotentiating effect in two cell lines with wild-type p53, but knockdown of wild-type p53 resulted in radiosensitization by PB. Conclusions: Phenylbutyrate can produce p21-independent cytostasis, and enhances radiation sensitivity in p53 mutant human glioblastoma cells in vitro. This suggests the potential application of combined PB and radiotherapy in glioblastoma harboring mutant p53.

  5. Cellular localization of human p53 expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effect of NLSI deletion.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula-Souissi, Salma; Delahodde, Agnès; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Gargouri, Ali; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2011-07-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in the regulation of cellular growth and apoptosis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, over-expression of the human wtp53 leads to growth inhibition and cell death on minimal medium. In the present work, we showed that deletion of the nuclear localization signal (NLSI) of p53 restores the yeast growth. In this heterologous context, the level of p53∆NLSI was low and the protein mainly located in the cytoplasm while the wtp53 was observed in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Interestingly, the wtp53 protein was observed in the mitochondria, whereas the p53∆NLSI protein failed to localize in mitochondria. Moreover, mitochondrial morphology defect and release of cytochrome c in the cytosol were noticed only in the yeast strain expressing the wtp53. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that the human wtp53 is active in S. cerevisiae probably through dependent and independent transcriptional mechanisms leading to cell death. The deletion of the NLSI sequence decreases p53 nuclear translocation as well as its mitochondrial localization and consequently its effect on yeast growth.

  6. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  7. Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial p53- and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S.; Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Morgan, Thomas J., Jr.; Bishop, Brian; Levenson, Cathy W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent…

  8. Abnormal mitosis triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in human tetraploid cells.

    PubMed

    Kuffer, Christian; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Storchová, Zuzana

    2013-08-01

    Erroneously arising tetraploid mammalian cells are chromosomally instable and may facilitate cell transformation. An increasing body of evidence shows that the propagation of mammalian tetraploid cells is limited by a p53-dependent arrest. The trigger of this arrest has not been identified so far. Here we show by live cell imaging of tetraploid cells generated by an induced cytokinesis failure that most tetraploids arrest and die in a p53-dependent manner after the first tetraploid mitosis. Furthermore, we found that the main trigger is a mitotic defect, in particular, chromosome missegregation during bipolar mitosis or spindle multipolarity. Both a transient multipolar spindle followed by efficient clustering in anaphase as well as a multipolar spindle followed by multipolar mitosis inhibited subsequent proliferation to a similar degree. We found that the tetraploid cells did not accumulate double-strand breaks that could cause the cell cycle arrest after tetraploid mitosis. In contrast, tetraploid cells showed increased levels of oxidative DNA damage coinciding with the p53 activation. To further elucidate the pathways involved in the proliferation control of tetraploid cells, we knocked down specific kinases that had been previously linked to the cell cycle arrest and p53 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates p53 in tetraploid cells after abnormal mitosis and thus contributes to proliferation control of human aberrantly arising tetraploids.

  9. MK-8776, a novel chk1 kinase inhibitor, radiosensitizes p53-defective human tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Kathleen A.; Chen, Xingxing; Liu, Huifeng; Rock, Crosby; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Shumway, Stuart D.; Skinner, Heath D.; Meyn, Raymond E.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat a variety of solid tumors but improvements in the therapeutic ratio are sorely needed. The aim of this study was to assess the Chk1 kinase inhibitor, MK-8776, for its ability to radiosensitize human tumor cells. Cells derived from NSCLC and HNSCC cancers were tested for radiosensitization by MK-8776. The ability of MK-8776 to abrogate the radiation-induced G2 block was determined using flow cytometry. Effects on repair of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were determined on the basis of rad51, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci. Clonogenic survival analyses indicated that MK-8776 radiosensitized p53-defective tumor cells but not lines with wild-type p53. Abrogation of the G2 block was evident in both p53-defective cells and p53 wild-type lines indicating no correlation with radiosensitization. However, only p53-defective cells entered mitosis harboring unrepaired DSBs. MK-8776 appeared to inhibit repair of radiation-induced DSBs at early times after irradiation. A comparison of MK-8776 to the wee1 inhibitor, MK-1775, suggested both similarities and differences in their activities. In conclusion, MK-8776 radiosensitizes tumor cells by mechanisms that include abrogation of the G2 block and inhibition of DSB repair. Our findings support the clinical evaluation of MK-8776 in combination with radiation. PMID:27690219

  10. Human Glioblastoma Multiforme: p53 Reactivation by a Novel MDM2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Barbara; Bendinelli, Sara; Gabelloni, Pamela; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Daniele, Simona; Scatena, Fabrizio; Vanacore, Renato; Campiglia, Pietro; Bertamino, Alessia; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel; Sorriento, Daniela; Del Giudice, Carmine; Iaccarino, Guido; Novellino, Ettore; Martini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Cancer development and chemo-resistance are often due to impaired functioning of the p53 tumor suppressor through genetic mutation or sequestration by other proteins. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), p53 availability is frequently reduced because it binds to the Murine Double Minute-2 (MDM2) oncoprotein, which accumulates at high concentrations in tumor cells. The use of MDM2 inhibitors that interfere with the binding of p53 and MDM2 has become a valid approach to inhibit cell growth in a number of cancers; however little is known about the efficacy of these inhibitors in GBM. We report that a new small-molecule inhibitor of MDM2 with a spirooxoindolepyrrolidine core structure, named ISA27, effectively reactivated p53 function and inhibited human GBM cell growth in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In immunoincompetent BALB/c nude mice bearing a human GBM xenograft, the administration of ISA27 in vivo activated p53, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in tumor tissue. Significantly, ISA27 was non-toxic in an in vitro normal human cell model and an in vivo mouse model. ISA27 administration in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) produced a synergistic inhibitory effect on GBM cell viability in vitro, suggesting the possibility of lowering the dose of TMZ used in the treatment of GBM. In conclusion, our data show that ISA27 releases the powerful antitumor capacities of p53 in GBM cells. The use of this MDM2 inhibitor could become a novel therapy for the treatment of GBM patients. PMID:23977270

  11. Relative biological effectiveness of light ions in human tumoural cell lines: role of protein p53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggio, L.; Cavinato, M.; Cherubini, R.; Conzato, M.; Cucinotta, F.; Favaretto, S.; Gerardi, S.; Lora, S.; Stoppa, P.; Williams, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Protons and alpha particles of high linear energy transfer (LET) have shown an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with respect to X/gamma rays for several cellular and molecular endpoints in different in vitro cell systems. To contribute to understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the increased effectiveness of high LET radiation, an extensive study has been designed. The present work reports the preliminary result of this study on two human tumoural cell lines, DLD1 and HCT116, (with different p53 status), which indicate that for these cell lines, p53 does not appear to take a part in the response to radiation induced DNA damage, suggesting an alternative p53-independent pathway and a cell biochemical mechanism dependent on the cell type.

  12. Undecylprodigiosin selectively induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cells independent of p53

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.-F.; Ma, C.-J.; Lu, C.-H.; Tsai, Yo-Ting; Wei, Y.-H.; Chang, J.-S.; Lai, J.-K.; Cheuh, Pin-Ju; Yeh, C.-T.; Tang, P.-C.; Jingua, T.C.; Ko, J.-L.; Liu, F.-S.; Yen, H.E.

    2007-12-15

    Undecylprodigiosin (UP) is a bacterial bioactive metabolite produced by Streptomyces and Serratia. In this study, we explored the anticancer effect of UP. Human breast carcinoma cell lines BT-20, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T47D and one nonmalignant human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, were tested in this study. We found that UP exerted a potent cytotoxicity against all breast carcinoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, UP showed limited toxicity to MCF-10A cells, indicating UP's cytotoxic effect is selective for malignant cells. UP's cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, as confirmed by positive TUNEL signals, annexin V-binding, caspase 9 activation and PARP cleavage. Notably, UP-induced apoptosis was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD.fmk, further indicating the involvement of caspase activity. Moreover, UP caused a marked decrease of the levels of antiapoptotic BCL-X{sub L}, Survivin and XIAP while enhancing the levels of proapoptotic BIK, BIM, MCL-1S and NOXA, consequently favoring induction of apoptosis. Additionally, we found that cells with functional p53 (MCF-7, T47D) or mutant p53 (BT-20, MDA-MB-231) were both susceptible to UP's cytotoxicity. Importantly, UP was able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells with p53 knockdown by RNA interference, confirming the dispensability of p53 in UP-induced apoptosis. Overall, our results establish that UP induces p53-independent apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells with no marked toxicity to nonmalignant cells, raising the possibility of its use as a new chemotherapeutic drug for breast cancer irrespective of p53 status.

  13. Frequent mutation of the p53 gene in human esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hollstein, M.C.; Montesano, R. ); Metcalf, R.A.; Welsh, J.A.; Harris, C.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Sequence alterations in the p53 gene have been detected in human tumors of the brain, breast, lung, and colon, and it has been proposed that p53 mutations spanning a major portion of the coding region inactivate the tumor suppressor function of this gene. To our knowledge, neither transforming mutations in oncogenes nor mutations in tumor suppressor genes have been reported in human esophageal tumors. The authors examined four human esophageal carcinoma cell lines and 14 human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing for the presence of p53 mutations in exons 5,6,7,8, and 9. Two cell lines and five of the tumor speicmens contained a mutated allele (one frameshift and six missense mutations). All missense mutations detected occurred at G{center dot}C base pairs in codons at or adjacent to mutations previously reported in other cancers. The identification of aberrant p53 genes alleles in one-third of the tumors they tested suggests that mutations at this locus are common genetic events in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus.

  14. Induction of p53-dependent activation of the human proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene in chromatin by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Xu, Jin; Zhuo, Ying; Morris, Cindy A; Morris, Gilbert F

    2003-11-07

    A human fibroblast cell line with conditional p53 expression displayed a p53-dependent increase in both the protein and mRNA levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The combination of p53 induction and IR cooperated to activate a transiently expressed human PCNA promoter-reporter gene via a p53-responsive element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with antibodies specific for p53 or p300/CREB-binding protein revealed specific p53-dependent enrichment of PCNA promoter sequences in immunoprecipitates of sheared chromatin prepared from irradiated cells. Maximal and specific association of acetylated histone H4 with the PCNA promoter also depended on p53 induction and exposure to IR. These data demonstrate p53 binding to a target site in the PCNA promoter, recruitment of p300/CREB-binding protein, and localized acetylation of histone H4 in an IR-dependent manner. These molecular events are likely to play a role in mediating activation of PCNA gene expression by p53 during the cellular response to DNA damage. The analyses indicate that the combination of p53 induction and IR activate the PCNA gene via mechanisms similar to that of p21/wild-type p53-activated factor but to a lesser extent. This differential regulation of PCNA and p21/wild-type p53-activated factor may establish the proper ratio of the two proteins to coordinate DNA repair with cell cycle arrest.

  15. Human papillomavirus and p53 mutations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma among Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hiromi; Yasui, Toshimichi; Ishikawa-Fujiwara, Tomoko; Morii, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshii, Tadashi; Takenaka, Yukinori; Nakahara, Susumu; Todo, Takeshi; Hongyo, Tadashi; Inohara, Hidenori

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to reveal the prevalence and pattern of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p53 mutations among Japanese head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients in relation to clinicopathological parameters. Human papillomavirus DNA and p53 mutations were examined in 493 HNSCCs and its subset of 283 HNSCCs. Oropharyngeal carcinoma was more frequently HPV-positive than non-oropharyngeal carcinoma (34.4% vs 3.6%, P < 0.001), and HPV16 accounted for 91.1% of HPV-positive tumors. In oropharyngeal carcinoma, which showed an increasing trend of HPV prevalence over time (P < 0.001), HPV infection was inversely correlated with tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, p53 mutations, and a disruptive mutation (P = 0.003, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). The prevalence of p53 mutations differed significantly between virus-unrelated HNSCC and virus-related HNSCC consisting of nasopharyngeal and HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas (48.3% vs 7.1%, P < 0.001). Although p53 mutations were associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, this association disappeared in virus-unrelated HNSCC. A disruptive mutation was never found in virus-related HNSCC, whereas it was independently associated with primary site, such as the oropharynx and hypopharynx (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively), in virus-unrelated HNSCC. Moreover, in virus-unrelated HNSCC, G:C to T:A transversions were more frequent in ever-smokers than in never-smokers (P = 0.04), whereas G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites were less frequent in ever-smokers than in never-smokers (P = 0.04). In conclusion, HNSCC is etiologically classified into virus-related and virus-unrelated subgroups. In virus-related HNSCC, p53 mutations are uncommon with the absence of a disruptive mutation, whereas in virus-unrelated HNSCC, p53 mutations are common, and disruptive mutagenesis of p53 is related with oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

  16. Reciprocal regulation of p63 by C/EBP delta in human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Serena; Testoni, Barbara; Callari, Maurizio; Alotto, Daniela; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Romano, Rose-Anne; Sinha, Satrajit; Viganò, Alessandra M; Mantovani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Genetic experiments have clarified that p63 is a key transcription factor governing the establishment and maintenance of multilayered epithelia. Key to our understanding of p63 strategy is the identification of target genes. We perfomed an RNAi screening in keratinocytes for p63, followed by profiling analysis. Results C/EBPδ, member of a family with known roles in differentiation pathways, emerged as a gene repressed by p63. We validated C/EBPδ as a primary target of ΔNp63α by RT-PCR and ChIP location analysis in HaCaT and primary cells. C/EBPδ is differentially expressed in stratification of human skin and it is up-regulated upon differentiation of HaCaT and primary keratinocytes. It is bound to and activates the ΔNp63 promoter. Overexpression of C/EBPδ leads to alteration in the normal profile of p63 isoforms, with the emergence of ΔNp63β and γ, and of the TA isoforms, with different kinetics. In addition, there are changes in the expression of most p63 targets. Inactivation of C/EBPδ leads to gene expression modifications, in part due to the concomitant repression of ΔNp63α. Finally, C/EBPδ is found on the p63 targets in vivo by ChIP analysis, indicating that coregulation is direct. Conclusion Our data highlight a coherent cross-talk between these two transcription factors in keratinocytes and a large sharing of common transcriptional targets. PMID:17903252

  17. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  18. Human papillomavirus oncogenic E6 protein regulates human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) expression via the tumor suppressor protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong; Wang, Liming; Jin, Jessica; Ghosh, Santosh K.; Kawsar, Hameem I.; Zender, Chad; Androphy, Elliot J.; Weinberg, Aaron; McCormick, Thomas S.; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Human β-defensin-3 (hBD3) is an epithelial cell-derived innate immune regulatory molecule overexpressed in oral dysplastic lesions and fosters a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Expression of hBD3 is induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Here we describe a novel pathway through which the high-risk human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) oncoprotein E6 induces hBD3 expression in mucosal keratinocytes. Ablation of E6 by siRNA induces the tumor suppressor p53 and diminishes hBD3 in HPV-16 positive CaSki cervical cancer cells and UM-SCC-104 head and neck cancer cells. Malignant cells in HPV-16-associated oropharyngeal cancer overexpress hBD3. HPV-16 E6 induces hBD3 mRNA expression, peptide production and gene promoter activity in mucosal keratinocytes. Reduction of cellular levels of p53 stimulates hBD3 expression, while activation of p53 by doxorubicin inhibits its expression in primary oral keratinocytes and CaSki cells, suggesting that p53 represses hBD3 expression. A p53 binding site in the hBD3 gene promoter has been identified by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In addition, the p63 protein isoform ΔNp63α, but not TAp63, stimulated transactivation of the hBD3 gene and was co-expressed with hBD3 in head and neck cancer specimens. Therefore, high-risk HPV E6 oncoproteins may stimulate hBD3 expression in tumor cells to facilitate tumorigenesis of HPV-associated head and neck cancer. PMID:27034006

  19. Aciculatin Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis via MDM2 Depletion in Human Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chin-Yu; Tsai, An-Chi; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Chang, Li-Hsun; Sun, Hui-Lung; Chang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Aciculatin, a natural compound extracted from the medicinal herb Chrysopogon aciculatus, shows potent anti-cancer potency. This study is the first to prove that aciculatin induces cell death in human cancer cells and HCT116 mouse xenografts due to G1 arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The primary reason for cell cycle arrest and cell death was p53 accumulation followed by increased p21 level, dephosphorylation of Rb protein, PUMA expression, and induction of apoptotic signals such as cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. We demonstrated that p53 allele-null (−/−) (p53-KO) HCT116 cells were more resistant to aciculatin than cells with wild-type p53 (+/+). The same result was achieved by knocking down p53 with siRNA in p53 wild-type cells, indicating that p53 plays a crucial role in aciculatin-induced apoptosis. Although DNA damage is the most common event leading to p53 activation, we found only weak evidence of DNA damage after aciculatin treatment. Interestingly, the aciculatin-induced downregulation of MDM2, an important negative regulator of p53, contributed to p53 accumulation. The anti-cancer activity and importance of p53 after aciculatin treatment were also confirmed in the HCT116 xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that aciculatin treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inhibition of MDM2 expression, thereby inducing p53 accumulation without significant DNA damage and genome toxicity. PMID:22912688

  20. Mitochondrially targeted wild-type p53 induces apoptosis in a solid human tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Gustavo; Crawford, Howard C.; Vaseva, Angelina; Moll, Ute M.

    2013-01-01

    Classic but also novel roles of p53 are becoming increasingly well characterized. We previously showed that ex vivo retroviral transfer of mitochondrially targeted wild type p53 (mitop53) in the Eμ-myc mouse lymphoma model efficiently induces tumor cell killing in vivo. In an effort to further explore the therapeutic potential of mitop53 for its pro-apoptotic effect in solid tumors, we generated replication-deficient recombinant human Adenovirus type 5 vectors. We show here that adenoviral delivery of mitop53 by intratumoral injection into HCT116 human colon carcinoma xenograft tumors in nude mice is surprisingly effective, resulting in tumor cell death of comparable potency to conventional p53. These apoptotic effects in vivo were confirmed by Ad5-mitop53 mediated cell death of HCT116 cells in culture. Together, these data provide encouragement to further explore the potential for novel mitop53 proteins in cancer therapy to execute the shortest known circuitry of p53 death signaling. PMID:18719383

  1. Heterozygous p53V172F mutation in cisplatin-resistant human tumor cells promotes MDM4 recruitment and decreases stability and transactivity of p53

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaolei; Lozano, Guillermina; Siddik, Zahid H.

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is an important antitumor agent, but its clinical utility is often limited by multifactorial mechanism of resistance. Loss of tumor suppressor p53 function is a major mechanism, affected by either mutation in the DNA binding domain or dysregulation by overexpression of p53 inhibitors MDM2 and MDM4 that destabilize p53 by increasing its proteosomal degradation. In the present study, cisplatin-resistant 2780CP/Cl-16 ovarian tumor cells expressed a heterozygous, temperature-sensitive p53V172F mutation, which reduced p53 half-life by 2- to 3-fold compared to homozygous wild-type p53 in parental A2780 cells. Although reduced p53 stability in 2780CP/Cl-16 cells was associated with moderate cellular overexpression of MDM2 or MDM4 (<1.5-fold), their binding to p53 was substantially enhanced (5- to 8-fold). The analogous cisplatin-resistant 2780CP/Cl-24 cells, which express loss of p53 heterozygosity, retained the p53V172F mutation and high p53-MDM4 binding, but demonstrated lower p53-bound MDM2 that was associated with reduced p53 ubiquitination and enhanced p53 stability. The inference that p53 was unstable as a hetromeric p53wt/p53V172F complex was confirmed in 2780CP/Cl-24 cells transfected with wild-type (wt) p53 or multimer-inhibiting p53L344P mutant, and further supported by normalization of p53 stability in both resistant cell lines grown at the permissive temperature of 32.5°C. Surprisingly, in 2780CP/Cl-16 and 2780CP/Cl-24 models, cisplatin-induced transactivity of p53 was attenuated at 37°C, and this correlated with cisplatin resistance. However, downregulation of MDM2 or MDM4 by siRNA in either resistant cell line induced p53 and restored p21 transactivation at 37°C, as did cisplatin-induced DNA damage at 32.5°C that coincided with reduced p53-MDM4 binding and cisplatin resistance. These results demonstrate that cisplatin-mediated p53V172F mutation regulates p53 stability at the normothermic temperature, but it is the increased recruitment of MDM4

  2. Mouse p63 variants and chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Junxia; Lu, Yaojuan; Qiao, Longwei; Ran, Deyuan; Li, Na; Cao, Hong; Gao, Yan; Zheng, Qiping

    2013-01-01

    As a critical member of the p53 family of transcription factors, p63 has been implicated a role in development than in tumor formation, because p63 is seldom mutated in human cancers, while p63 null mice exhibit severe developmental abnormalities without increasing cancer susceptibility. Notably, besides the major epithelial and cardiac defect, p63 deficient mice show severe limb and craniofacial abnormalities. In addition, humans with p63 mutations also show severe limb and digit defects, suggesting a putative role of p63 in skeletal development. There are eight p63 variants which encode for the TAp63 and ΔNp63 isoforms by alternative promoters. How these isoforms function during skeletal development is currently largely unknown. Our recent transgenic studies suggest a role of TAP63α, but not ΔNP63α, during embryonic long bone development. However, the moderate skeletal phenotypes in the TAP63α transgenic mice suggest requirement of additional p63 isoform(s) for the limb defects in p63 null mice. Here, we report analysis of mouse p63 variants in MCT and ATDC5 cells, two cell models undergo hypertrophic differentiation and mimic the process of endochondral bone formation upon growth arrest or induction. We detected increased level of p63 variants in hypertrophic MCT cells by regular RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis by qRT-PCR, we detected significantly upregulated level of γ variant (p<0.05), but not α or β variant (p>0.05), in hypertrophic MCT cells than in proliferative MCT cells. Moreover, we detected upregulated TAP63γ in ATDC5 cells undergoing hypertrophic differentiation. Our results suggest that TAp63γ plays a positive role during endochondral bone formation. PMID:24294373

  3. Tracing the Evolution of the p53 Tetramerization Domain

    PubMed Central

    Joerger, Andreas C.; Wilcken, Rainer; Andreeva, Antonina

    2014-01-01

    Summary The tetrameric transcription factors p53, p63, and p73 evolved from a common ancestor and play key roles in tumor suppression and development. Surprisingly, p63 and p73 require a second helix in their tetramerization domain for the formation of stable tetramers that is absent in human p53, raising questions about the evolutionary processes leading to diversification. Here we determined the crystal structure of the zebrafish p53 tetramerization domain, which contains a second helix, reminiscent of p63 and p73, combined with p53-like features. Through comprehensive phylogenetic analyses, we systematically traced the evolution of vertebrate p53 family oligomerization domains back to the beginning of multicellular life. We provide evidence that their last common ancestor also had an extended p63/p73-like domain and pinpoint evolutionary events that shaped this domain during vertebrate radiation. Domain compaction and transformation of a structured into a flexible, intrinsically disordered region may have contributed to the expansion of the human p53 interactome. PMID:25185827

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the human p53 transcriptional network unveils a lncRNA tumour suppressor signature.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Yolanda; Segura, Victor; Marín-Béjar, Oskar; Athie, Alejandro; Marchese, Francesco P; González, Jovanna; Bujanda, Luis; Guo, Shuling; Matheu, Ander; Huarte, Maite

    2014-12-19

    Despite the inarguable relevance of p53 in cancer, genome-wide studies relating endogenous p53 activity to the expression of lncRNAs in human cells are still missing. Here, by integrating RNA-seq with p53 ChIP-seq analyses of a human cancer cell line under DNA damage, we define a high-confidence set of 18 lncRNAs that are p53 transcriptional targets. We demonstrate that two of the p53-regulated lncRNAs are required for the efficient binding of p53 to some of its target genes, modulating the p53 transcriptional network and contributing to apoptosis induction by DNA damage. We also show that the expression of p53-lncRNAs is lowered in colorectal cancer samples, constituting a tumour suppressor signature with high diagnostic power. Thus, p53-regulated lncRNAs establish a positive regulatory feedback loop that enhances p53 tumour suppressor activity. Furthermore, the signature defined by p53-regulated lncRNAs supports their potential use in the clinic as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  5. {sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Su Xiaoming; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

  6. Involvement of human ribosomal proteins in nucleolar structure and p53-dependent nucleolar stress

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emilien; Parisot, Pascaline; Pinto-Monteiro, Celina; de Walque, Roxane; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolus is a potent disease biomarker and a target in cancer therapy. Ribosome biogenesis is initiated in the nucleolus where most ribosomal (r-) proteins assemble onto precursor rRNAs. Here we systematically investigate how depletion of each of the 80 human r-proteins affects nucleolar structure, pre-rRNA processing, mature rRNA accumulation and p53 steady-state level. We developed an image-processing programme for qualitative and quantitative discrimination of normal from altered nucleolar morphology. Remarkably, we find that uL5 (formerly RPL11) and uL18 (RPL5) are the strongest contributors to nucleolar integrity. Together with the 5S rRNA, they form the late-assembling central protuberance on mature 60S subunits, and act as an Hdm2 trap and p53 stabilizer. Other major contributors to p53 homeostasis are also strictly late-assembling large subunit r-proteins essential to nucleolar structure. The identification of the r-proteins that specifically contribute to maintaining nucleolar structure and p53 steady-state level provides insights into fundamental aspects of cell and cancer biology. PMID:27265389

  7. Viral Single-Strand DNA Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Matthew L.; Fagan, B. Matthew; Dumitru, Raluca; Bower, Jacquelyn J.; Yadav, Swati; Porteus, Matthew H.; Pevny, Larysa H.; Samulski, R. Jude

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication. PMID:22114676

  8. 2.6 Å X-ray Crystal Structure of Human p53R2, a p53 Inducible Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter; Zhou, Bingsen; Ho, Nam; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Su, Leila; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Yen, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Human p53R2 (hp53R2) is a 351 residue p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) small subunit. It shares >80% sequence identity with hRRM2, the small RNR subunit responsible for normal maintenance of the deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pool used for DNA replication, which is active during the S-phase in a cell-cycle dependent fashion. But rather than cyclic dNTP synthesis, hp53R2 has been shown to supply dNTPs for DNA repair to cells in G0-G1 in a p53-dependent fashion. The first x-ray crystal structure of hp53R2 is solved to 2.6 Å, in which monomers A and B exhibit mono- and bi-nuclear iron occupancy, respectively. The pronounced structural differences at three regions between hp53R2 and hRRM2 highlight the possible regulatory role in iron assimilation, and help explain previously observed physical and biochemical differences in the mobility and accessibility of the radical-iron center, as well as radical transfer pathways between the two enzymes. The sequence-structure-function correlations that differentiate hp53R2 and hRRM2 are revealed for the first time. Insight gained from this structural work will be used toward the identification of biological function, regulation mechanism and inhibitors selection in RNR small subunits. PMID:19728742

  9. Mutations of the p53 gene in human functional adrenal neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu-Ru Lin; Yau-Jiunn Lee; Juei-Hsiung Tsai

    1994-02-01

    To clarify gene alterations in functional human adrenal tumors, the authors performed molecular analysis for p53 abnormalities in 23 cases with adrenal neoplasms. The immunohistochemical study with anti-p53 monoclonal antibody pAb1801 demonstrated that 10 of 23 (43.5%) cases overexpressed p53 protein in the tumor cells. Using a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism study, 5 of 6 (83.3%) pheochromocytoma tissues (1 malignant and 5 benign) and 11 of 15 (73.3%) adrenocortical adenomas (2 with Cushing`s syndrome and 13 with primary aldosteronism, all benign) showed an apparent electrophoretic mobility shift between the tumor and its paired adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Such differences were detected in exon 4 (12 cases), exon 5 (2 cases), and exon 7 (3 cases). The types of these mutations in exon 4 were a substitution from threonine (ACC) to isoleucine (ATC) at codon 102 in 5 cases, from glutamine (CAG) to histidine (CAC) at codon 104 in 1 case, from glycine (GGG) to alanine (CGG) at codon 117 in 1 case, from glutamate (GAG) to glutamine (CAG) at codon 68 in 1 case, and single base changes resulting in a premature stop codon at codon 100 in 2 cases. A 2-basepair deletion at codon 175 in exon 5 resulting in a frame shift was identified in 1 case. A single point mutation was identified, resulting in the substitution of glutamine (CAG) for arginine (CGG) at codon 248 of exon 7 in 1 case. A single basepair deletion at codon 249 resulted in a frame shift in 2 cases. There was 1 case with malignant pheochromocytoma that combined a single point mutation in exon 4 and a single base deletion in exon 7. Only 2 of 23 cases showed a loss of a normal allele encoding in the p53 gene. Northern blot analysis with 1.8-kilobase p53 cDNA revealed that p53 mRNA was overexpressed in 6 cases. The results indicate that high frequencies of p53 gene mutation, especially in exon 4, exist in functional adrenal tumors. 39 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. p53 mutations in human lymphoid malignancies: Association with Burkitt lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidano, G.; Ballerini, P.; Gong, J.Z.; Inghirami, G.; Knowles, D.M.; Dalla-Favera, R. ); Neri, A, Centro Malattie del Sangue G. Marcora, Milan ); Newcomb, E.W. ); Magrath, I.T. )

    1991-06-15

    The authors have investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in B- and T-cell human lymphoid malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the major subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. p53 exons 5-9 were studied by using genomic DNA from 197 primary tumors and 27 cell lines by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and by direst sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments. Mutations were found associated with (i) Burkitt lymphoma (9/27 biopsoes; 17/27 cell lines) and its leukemic counterpart L{sub 3}-type B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5/9), both of which also carry activated c-myc oncogenes, and (ii) B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (6/40) and, in particular, its stage of progression known as Richter's transformation (3/7). Mutations were not found at any significant frequency in other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In many cases, only the mutated allele was detectable, implying loss of the normal allele. These results suggest that (1) significant differences in the frequency of p53 mutations are present among subtypes of neoplasms derived from the same tissue; (2) p53 may play a role in tumor progression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; (3) the presence of both p53 loss/inactivation and c-myc oncogene activation may be important in the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma and its leukemia form L{sub 3}-type B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  11. HJURP regulates cellular senescence in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells via a p53-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jong-Ik; Cho, Jung Hee; Kim, Jae-Ryong

    2013-08-01

    Holliday junction recognition protein (HJURP), a centromere protein-A (CENP-A) histone chaperone, mediates centromere-specific assembly of CENP-A nucleosome, contributing to high-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division. However, the role of HJURP in cellular senescence of human primary cells remains unclear. We found that the expression levels of HJURP decreased in human dermal fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells in replicative or premature senescence. Ectopic expression of HJURP in senescent cells partially overcame cell senescence. Conversely, downregulation of HJURP in young cells led to premature senescence. p53 knockdown, but not p16 knockdown, abolished senescence phenotypes caused by HJURP reduction. These data suggest that HJURP plays an important role in the regulation of cellular senescence through a p53-dependent pathway and might contribute to tissue or organismal aging and protection of cellular transformation.

  12. Involvement of Nuclear Export in Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E6-Mediated Ubiquitination and Degradation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Deborah; Ghosh, Anirban; Matlashewski, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The E6 protein from high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) targets the p53 tumor suppressor for degradation by the proteasome pathway. This ability contributes to the oncogenic potential of these viruses. However, several aspects concerning the mechanism of E6-mediated p53 degradation at the cellular level remain to be clarified. This study therefore examined the role of cell localization and ubiquitination in the E6-mediated degradation of p53. As demonstrated within, following coexpression both p53 and high-risk HPV type 18 (HPV-18) E6 (18E6) shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Mutation of the C-terminal nuclear export signal (NES) of p53 or treatment with leptomycin B inhibited the 18E6-mediated nuclear export of p53. Impairment of nuclear export resulted in only a partial reduction in 18E6-mediated degradation, suggesting that both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomes can target p53 for degradation. This was also consistent with the observation that 18E6 mediated the accumulation of polyubiquitinated p53 in the nucleus. In comparison, a p53 isoform that localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm was not targeted for degradation by 18E6 in vivo but could be degraded in vitro, arguing that nuclear p53 is the target for E6-mediated degradation. This study supports a model in which (i) E6 mediates the accumulation of polyubiquitinated p53 in the nucleus, (ii) E6 is coexported with p53 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm via a CRM1 nuclear export mechanism involving the C-terminal NES of p53, and (iii) E6-mediated p53 degradation can be mediated by both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomes. PMID:15994771

  13. Mutability of p53 hotspot codons to benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) and the frequency of p53 mutations in nontumorous human lung.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S P; Amstad, P; Raja, K; Sawyer, M; Hofseth, L; Shields, P G; Hewer, A; Phillips, D H; Ryberg, D; Haugen, A; Harris, C C

    2001-09-01

    p53 mutations are common in lung cancer. In smoking-associated lung cancer,the occurrence of G:C to T:A transversions at hotspot codons, e.g., 157, 248, 249,and 273, has been linked to the presence of carcinogenic chemicalsin tobacco smoke including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons suchas benzo(a)pyrene (BP). In the present study, we have used a highly sensitive mutation assay to determine the p53 mutation load in nontumorous human lung and to study the mutability of p53 codons 157, 248, 249, and 250 to benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE), an active metabolite of BP in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. We determined the p53 mutational load at codons 157, 248, 249, and 250 in nontumorous peripheral lung tissue either from lung cancer cases among smokers or noncancer controls among smokers and nonsmokers. A 5-25-fold higher frequency of GTC(val) to TTC(phe) transversions at codon 157 was found in nontumorous samples (57%) from cancer cases (n = 14) when compared with noncancer controls (n = 8; P < 0.01). Fifty percent (7/14) of the nontumorous samples from lung cancer cases showed a high frequency of codon 249 AGG(arg) to AGT(ser) mutations (P < 0.02). Four of these seven samples with AGT(ser) mutations also showed a high frequency of codon 249 AGG(arg) to ATG(met) mutations, whereas only one sample showed a codon 250 CCC to ACC transversion. Tumor tissue from these lung cancer cases (38%) contained p53 mutations but were different from the above mutations found in the nontumorous pair. Noncancer control samples from smokers or nonsmokers did not contain any detectable mutations at codons 248, 249, or 250. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells exposed to doses of 0.125, 0.5, and 1.0 microM BPDE, showed G:C to T:A transversions at codon 157 at a frequency of 3.5 x 10(-7), 4.4 x 10(-7), and 8.9 x 10(-7), respectively. No mutations at codon 157 were found in the DMSO-treated controls. These doses of BPDE induced higher frequencies, ranging from 4-12-fold, of G:C to

  14. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals in human oral cancer cells bearing mutated p53 gene after exposure to high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Yosuke; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Imai, Yuichiro; Ota, Ichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Mori, Eiichiro; Noda, Taichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation induces efficiently apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined whether high-LET radiation depresses the Akt-survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation depresses of survival signals even in the mp53 cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation activates Caspase-9 through depression of survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation suppresses cell growth through depression of survival signals. -- Abstract: Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status in cancer cells. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signaling were analyzed with Western Blotting 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis. Akt-related protein levels decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G{sub 2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and suppresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signaling, even in mp

  15. Acute Endurance Exercise Induces Nuclear p53 Abundance in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tachtsis, Bill; Smiles, William J.; Lane, Steven C.; Hawley, John A.; Camera, Donny M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor suppressor protein p53 may have regulatory roles in exercise response-adaptation processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy, although its cellular location largely governs its biological role. We investigated the subcellular localization of p53 and selected signaling targets in human skeletal muscle following a single bout of endurance exercise. Methods: Sixteen, untrained individuals were pair-matched for aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and allocated to either an exercise (EX, n = 8) or control (CON, n = 8) group. After a resting muscle biopsy, EX performed 60 min continuous cycling at ~70% of VO2peak during which time CON subjects rested. A further biopsy was obtained from both groups 3 h post-exercise (EX) or 4 h after the first biopsy (CON). Results: Nuclear p53 increased after 3 h recovery with EX only (~48%, p < 0.05) but was unchanged in the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic fractions in either group. Autophagy protein 5 (Atg-5) decreased in the mitochondrial protein fraction 3 h post-EX (~69%, P < 0.05) but remained unchanged in CON. There was an increase in cytoplasmic levels of the mitophagy marker PINK1 following 3 h of rest in CON only (~23%, P < 0.05). There were no changes in mitochondrial, nuclear, or cytoplasmic levels of PGC-1α post-exercise in either group. Conclusions: The selective increase in nuclear p53 abundance following endurance exercise suggests a potential pro-autophagy response to remove damaged proteins and organelles prior to initiating mitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling responses in untrained individuals. PMID:27199762

  16. p53 inhibits autophagy by interacting with the human ortholog of yeast Atg17, RB1CC1/FIP200.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Shen, Shensi; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Bauer, Maria Anna; Mariño, Guillermo; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Criollo, Alfredo; Michaud, Mickael; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Chano, Tokuhiro; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2011-08-15

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 tonically suppresses autophagy when it is present in the cytoplasm. This effect is phylogenetically conserved from mammals to nematodes, and human p53 can inhibit autophagy in yeast, as we show here. Bioinformatic investigations of the p53 interactome in relationship to the autophagy-relevant protein network underscored the possible relevance of a direct molecular interaction between p53 and the mammalian ortholog of the essential yeast autophagy protein Atg17, namely RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1 (RB1CC1), also called FAK family kinase-interacting protein of 200 KDa (FIP200). Mutational analyses revealed that a single point mutation in p53 (K382R) abolished its capacity to inhibit autophagy upon transfection into p53-deficient human colon cancer or yeast cells. In conditions in which wild-type p53 co-immunoprecipitated with RB1CC1/FIP200, p53 (K382R) failed to do so, underscoring the importance of the physical interaction between these proteins for the control of autophagy. In conclusion, p53 regulates autophagy through a direct molecular interaction with RB1CC1/FIP200, a protein that is essential for the very apical step of autophagy initiation.

  17. Human p53 oncogene contains one promoter upstream of exon 1 and a second, stronger promoter within intron 1

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D.; Greenberg, M.; Rotter, V. )

    1988-07-01

    To gain insight into how transcription of the human p53 oncogene is controlled, the authors characterized the regulatory regions of the gene. A 3.8-kilobase-pair (kbp) EcoRI restriction fragment encompassing the 5{prime} end of the human p53 gene, as well as subfragments generated by restriction digests, was cloned upstream of the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene and CAT activity was assayed in extracts of transfected cells. Two types of CAT vectors were used: Epstein-Barr virus oriP-derived constructs that were stably introduced into the human cell lines K562, Raji, and HL-60, and pSVO-CAT-derived constructs that were transiently introduced into the monkey cell line COS. By this approach they have identified two promoters for the human p53 gene. One promoter, p53P1, is located 100-250 bp upstream of the 218-bp noncoding first exon; a second, stronger promoter, p53P2, maps within the first intron. CAT activity and expression of CAT RNA indicate that p53P2 functions up to 50-fold more efficiently than p53P1. They conclude that the expression of the human p53 gene may be controlled by two promoters and that differential regulation of these promoters may play an important role in the altered expression of the gene in both normal and transformed cells.

  18. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Yen-Ting; Kao, Jun-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Husan-Wen; Chang, Chuan-Hsun; Liang, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Jau-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  19. The Enigma of p53.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Guillermina

    2016-12-08

    This perspective will focus on the physiological impact of wild-type and mutant p53 activities. In particular, the tissue-specific nature of activation of p53 targets and their subsequent effects on cell behavior will be discussed. Because mutations in p53 are common in human cancers, the regulation and physiological consequences of mutant p53 proteins will also be discussed.

  20. Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wenshu; Lee Yijang; Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of {gamma}-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

  1. Molecular cloning and in vitro expression of a cDNA clone for human cellular tumor antigen p53.

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, E; Williamson, N M; Ralston, R; Helfman, D M; Adams, T E

    1985-01-01

    Three clones for the human tumor antigen p53 were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from A431 cells. One of these clones, pR4-2, contains the entire coding region for human p53. This clone directs the synthesis of a polypeptide with the correct molecular weight and immunological epitopes of an authentic p53 molecule in an in vitro transcription-translation reaction. Although the pR4-2 clone contains the coding region for p53, it is not a full-length copy of the human p53 mRNA. Northern analysis showed that the p53 mRNA is approximately 2,500 nucleotides long, whereas the pR4-2 insert is only 1,760 base pairs in length. Analysis of the DNA sequence of this clone suggests that the human p53 polypeptide has 393 amino acids. We compared the predicted amino acid sequence of the pR4-2 clone with similar clones for the mouse p53 and found long regions of amino acid homology between these two molecules. Images PMID:3894933

  2. Preimplantation factor is an anti-apoptotic effector in human trophoblasts involving p53 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Moindjie, Hadia; Santos, Esther Dos; Gouesse, Rita-Josiane; Swierkowski-Blanchard, Nelly; Serazin, Valérie; Barnea, Eytan R; Vialard, François; Dieudonné, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest stages of gestation, embryonic–maternal interaction has a key role in a successful pregnancy. Various factors present during gestation may significantly influence this type of juxta/paracrine interaction. PreImplantation Factor (PIF) is a recently identified factor with activity at the fetomaternal interface. PIF is secreted by viable embryos and directly controls placental development by increasing the invasive capacity of human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). To further specify PIF's role in the human placenta, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profile of the EVT in the presence of a synthetic PIF analog (sPIF). We found that sPIF exposure altered several pathways related to p53 signaling, survival and the immune response. Functional assays revealed that sPIF acts through the p53 pathway to reduce both early and late trophoblast apoptosis. More precisely, sPIF (i) decreases the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15, (ii) enhances the B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) expression and (iii) reduces the BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and BCL2 homologous antagonist killer (BAK) mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, invalidation experiments of TP53 allowed us to demonstrate that PIF's effects on placental apoptosis seemed to be essentially mediated by this gene. We have clearly shown that p53 and sPIF pathways could interact in human trophoblast and thus promotes cell survival. Furthermore, sPIF was found to regulate a gene network related to immune tolerance in the EVT, which emphasizes the beneficial effect of this peptide on the human placenta. Finally, the PIF protein levels in placentas from pregnancies affected by preeclampsia or intra-uterine growth restriction were significantly lower than in gestational age-matched control placentas. Taken as a whole, our results suggest that sPIF protects the EVT's functional status through a variety of mechanisms. Clinical application of sPIF in the treatment of disorders of early pregnancy can be envisioned

  3. Regulation of Drug Sensitivity by Functional Status of p53 in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    We also determined the effect of compounds that alter p53 function on MRP1 expression. We found that chlorpromazine , promazine, and trans...flupenthixol caused a 2-3-fold increase in wild-type p53 conformation and CP-31398 increased wild-type p53 conformation 6-10- fold. Promazine and chlorpromazine ...the p53 wild-type conformation, we incubated the cells with phenothiazines and performed an ELISA. Figure 1 lb shows that promazine and chlorpromazine

  4. Rosiglitazone enhances the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shu-Jun; Hsaio, Ching-Hui; Tseng, Ho-Hsing; Su, Yu-Han; Shih, Wen-Ling; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chuah, Jennifer Qiu-Yu

    2010-04-09

    Combined-modality treatment has improved the outcome in cases of various solid tumors, and radiosensitizers are used to enhance the radiotherapeutic efficiency. Rosiglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors {gamma} used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, has been shown to reduce tumor growth and metastasis in human cancer cells, and may have the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer in radiotherapy for human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of p53-wild type HCT116 cells but not p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Interestingly, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiosensitivity in p53-mutant HT-29 cells but not HCT116 cells, and prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and enhanced radiation-induced cell growth inhibition in HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with rosiglitazone also suppressed radiation-induced H2AX phosphorylation in response to DNA damage and AKT activation for cell survival; on the contrary, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiation-induced caspase-8, -9, and -3 activation and PARP cleavage in HT-29 cells. In addition, pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, attenuated the levels of caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in radiation-exposed cancer cells in combination with rosiglitazone pretreatment. Our results provide proof for the first time that rosiglitazone suppresses radiation-induced survival signals and DNA damage response, and enhances the radiation-induced apoptosis signaling cascade. These findings can assist in the development of rosiglitazone as a novel radiosensitizer.

  5. Allicin induces p53-mediated autophagy in Hep G2 human liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chung, Jing-Gung; Rajasekaran, Raghu; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-08-29

    Garlic has been used throughout history for both culinary and medicinal purpose. Allicin is a major component of crushed garlic. Although it is sensitive to heat and light and easily metabolized into various compounds such as diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and diallyl sulfide, allicin is still a major bioactive compound of crushed garlic. The mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma is quite high and ranks among the top 10 cancer-related deaths in Taiwan. Although numerous studies have shown the cancer-preventive properties of garlic and its components, there is no study on the effect of allicin on the growth of human liver cancer cells. In this study, we focused on allicin-induced autophagic cell death in human liver cancer Hep G2 cells. Our results indicated that allicin induced p53-mediated autophagy and inhibited the viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Using Western blotting, we observed that allicin decreased the level of cytoplasmic p53, the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, and the level of Bcl-2 and increased the expression of AMPK/TSC2 and Beclin-1 signaling pathways in Hep G2 cells. In addition, the colocalization of LC3-II with MitoTracker-Red (labeling mitochondria), resulting in allicin-induced degradation of mitochondria, could be observed by confocal laser microscopy. In conclusion, allicin of garlic shows great potential as a novel chemopreventive agent for the prevention of liver cancer.

  6. Specific loss of apoptotic but not cell-cycle arrest function in a human tumor derived p53 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, S; Ludwig, R L; Haupt, Y; Bates, S; Lu, X; Oren, M; Vousden, K H

    1996-01-01

    The p53 tumor-suppressor gene product is frequently inactivated in malignancies by point mutation. Although most tumor-derived p53 mutants show loss of sequence specific transcriptional activation, some mutants have been identified which retain this activity. One such mutant, p53175P, is defective for the suppression of transformation in rodent cells, despite retaining the ability to suppress the growth of p53-null human cells. We now demonstrate that p53175P can induce a cell-cycle arrest in appropriate cell types but shows loss of apoptotic function. Our results therefore support a direct role of p53 transcriptional activation in mediating a cell-cycle arrest and demonstrate that such activity is not sufficient for the full apoptotic response. These data suggest that either p53 can induce apoptosis through a transcriptionally independent mechanism, a function lost by p53175P, or that this mutant has specifically lost the ability to activate genes which contribute to cell death, despite activation of genes responsible for the G1 arrest. This dissociation of the cell-cycle arrest and apoptotic activities of p53 indicates that inactivation of p53 apoptotic function without concomitant loss of growth inhibition can suffice to relieve p53-dependent tumor-suppression in vivo and thereby contribute to tumor development. Images PMID:8631304

  7. Lack of dependence on p53 for DNA double strand break repair of episomal vectors in human lymphoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohli, M.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene has been shown to be involved in a variety of repair processes, and recent findings have suggested that p53 may be involved in DNA double strand break repair in irradiated cells. The role of p53 in DNA double strand break repair, however, has not been fully investigated. In this study, we have constructed a novel Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based shuttle vector, designated as pZEBNA, to explore the influence of p53 on DNA strand break repair in human lymphoblasts, since EBV-based vectors do not inactivate the p53 pathway. We have compared plasmid survival of irradiated, restriction enzyme linearized, and calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIP)-treated pZEBNA with a Simian virus 40 (SV40)-based shuttle vector, pZ189, in TK6 (wild-type p53) and WTK1 (mutant p53) lymphoblasts and determined that p53 does not modulate DNA double strand break repair in these cell lines. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. An immunohistochemical study of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and colorectum: III. Expressions of EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, p53, Ki-67 antigen, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63 in normal mucosa and in 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    There have no comprehensive immunohistochemical studies of primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) in the stomach and colorectum. The author examined the expression of nine common antigens (EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, p53, Ki-67 antigen, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63) in the non-tumorous normal epithelium of the stomach and colorectum and in 42 cases of primary SRCC of the stomach (30 cases) and colorectum (12 cases). The normal epithelium of the stomach and colon consistently (100%) expressed EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, and Ki-67 (labeling <15%). Normal epithelium of these locations never expressed p53, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63. In the primary gastric SRCC, the expression percentage of EMA was 57% (17/30), CEA 100% (30/30), CA19-9 100% (30/30), CDX-2 43% (13/30), p53 83% (25/30), Ki-67 100% (30/30) (labeling index= 36 ± 23 %), TTF-1 0% (0/30), vimentin 0% (0/30), and p63 0% (0/30). In primary colorectal SRCC, the expression percentage of EMA was 25% (3/12), CEA 100% (12/12), CA19-9 100% (12/12), CDX-2 93% (28/30), p53 75% (9/12), Ki-67 100% (30/30) (labeling index= 47% ± 26 %), TTF-1 0% (0/12), vimentin 0% (0/12), and p63 0% (0/12). A comparative statistical analysis showed significant difference in EMA (gastric SRCC 57% vs colorectal SRCC 25%) and CDX-2 (43% vs 93%). There were no significant differences in the other seven antigens' expression between primary gastric SRCC and primary colorectal SRCC. These findings provide much knowledge of primary SRCC of the stomach and colorectum. The data indicated primary gastric SRCC frequently express EMA but not CDX-2 whereas primary colorectal SRCC frequently express CDX-2 but not EMA. These findings also suggest that EMA and CDX-2 are down-regulated during the gastric SRCC carcinogenesis. This down regulations may be associated with the malignant transformation of gastric SRCC. The data of colorectal SRCC suggest EMA is markedly down-regulated and also suggest that this EMA down-regulation may be associated with the

  9. Unequal prognostic potentials of p53 gain-of-function mutations in human cancers associate with drug-metabolizing activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Wang, J; Hu, Y; Qian, J; Xu, B; Chen, H; Zou, W; Fang, J-Y

    2014-03-06

    Mutation of p53 is the most common genetic change in human cancer, causing complex effects including not only loss of wild-type function but also gain of novel oncogenic functions (GOF). It is increasingly likely that p53-hotspot mutations may confer different types and magnitudes of GOF, but the evidences are mainly supported by cellular and transgenic animal models. Here we combine large-scale cancer genomic data to characterize the prognostic significance of different p53 mutations in human cancers. Unexpectedly, only mutations on the Arg248 and Arg282 positions displayed significant association with shorter patient survival, but such association was not evident for other hotspot GOF mutations. Gene set enrichment analysis on these mutations revealed higher activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes, including the CYP3A4 cytochrome P450. Ectopic expression of p53 mutant R282W in H1299 and SaOS2 cells significantly upregulated CYP3A4 mRNA and protein levels, and cancer cell lines bearing mortality-associated p53 mutations display higher CYP3A4 expression and resistance to several CYP3A4-metabolized chemotherapeutic drugs. Our results suggest that p53 mutations have unequal GOF activities in human cancers, and future evaluation of p53 as a cancer biomarker should consider which mutation is present in the tumor, rather than having comparison between wild-type and mutant genotypes.

  10. Human T-cell leukemia virus I tax protein sensitizes p53-mutant cells to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Mihaylova, Valia T; Green, Allison M; Khurgel, Moshe; Semmes, Oliver J; Kupfer, Gary M

    2008-06-15

    Mutations in p53 are a common cause of resistance of cancers to standard chemotherapy and, thus, treatment failure. Reports have shown that Tax, a human T-cell leukemia virus type I encoded protein that has been associated with genomic instability and perturbation of transcription and cell cycle, sensitizes HeLa cells to UV treatment. The extent to which Tax can sensitize cells and the mechanism by which it exerts its effect are unknown. In this study, we show that Tax sensitizes p53-mutant cells to a broad range of DNA-damaging agents, including mitomycin C, a bifunctional alkylator, etoposide, a topoisomerase II drug, and UV light, but not ionizing radiation, a double-strand break agent, or vinblastine, a tubulin poison. Tax caused hypersensitivity in all p53-deleted cell lines and several, but not all, mutant-expressed p53-containing cell lines, while unexpectedly being protective in p53 wild-type (wt) cells. The effect observed in p53-deleted lines could be reversed for this by transfection of wt p53. We also show that Tax activates a p53-independent proapoptotic program through decreased expression of the retinoblastoma protein and subsequent increased E2F1 expression. The expression of several proapoptotic proteins was also induced by Tax, including Puma and Noxa, culminating in a substantial increase in Bax dimerization. Our results show that Tax can sensitize p53-mutant cells to DNA damage while protecting p53 wt cells, a side benefit that might result in reduced toxicity in normal cells. Such studies hold the promise of a novel adjunctive therapy that could make cancer chemotherapy more effective.

  11. Wild-type p53-mediated down-modulation of interleukin 15 and interleukin 15 receptors in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    De Giovanni, C.; Nanni, P.; Sacchi, A.; Soddu, S.; Manni, I.; D'Orazi, G.; Bulfone-Paus, S.; Pohl, T.; Landuzzi, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Frabetti, F.; Rossi, I.; Lollini, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    We recently reported that rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines express and secrete interleukin 15 (IL-15), a tightly regulated cytokine with IL-2-like activity. To test whether the p53-impaired function that is frequently found in this tumour type could play a role in the IL-15 production, wild-type p53 gene was transduced in the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line RD (which harbours a mutated p53 gene), and its effect on proliferation and expression of IL-15 was studied. Arrest of proliferation was induced by wild-type p53; increased proportions of G1-arrested cells and of apoptotic cells were observed. A marked down-modulation of IL-15 expression, at both the mRNA and protein level, was found in p53-transduced cells. Because a direct effect of IL-15 on normal muscle cells has been reported, the presence of IL-15 membrane receptors was studied by cytofluorometric analysis. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells showed IL-15 membrane receptors, which are down-modulated by wild-type p53 transfected gene. In conclusion, wild-type p53 transduction in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells induces the down-modulation of both IL-15 production and IL-15 receptor expression. Images Figure 3 PMID:9862562

  12. Tetraploidization or autophagy: The ultimate fate of senescent human endometrial stem cells under ATM or p53 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Borodkina, Aleksandra V; Shatrova, Alla N; Deryabin, Pavel I; Grukova, Anastasiya A; Nikolsky, Nikolay N; Burova, Elena B

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that endometrium-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs) via activation of the ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway enter the premature senescence in response to oxidative stress. Down regulation effects of the key components of this signaling pathway, particularly ATM and p53, on a fate of stressed hMESCs have not yet been investigated. In the present study by using the specific inhibitors Ku55933 and Pifithrin-α, we confirmed implication of both ATM and p53 in H(2)O(2)-induced senescence of hMESCs. ATM or p53 down regulation was shown to modulate differently the cellular fate of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs. ATM inhibition allowed H(2)O(2)-stimulated hMESCs to escape the permanent cell cycle arrest due to loss of the functional ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway, and induced bypass of mitosis and re-entry into S phase, resulting in tetraploid cells. On the contrary, suppression of the p53 transcriptional activity caused a pronounced cell death of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs via autophagy induction. The obtained data clearly demonstrate that down regulation of ATM or p53 shifts senescence of human endometrial stem cells toward tetraploidization or autophagy.

  13. p53 elevation in human cells halt SV40 infection by inhibiting T-ag expression

    PubMed Central

    Drayman, Nir; Ben-nun-Shaul, Orly; Butin-Israeli, Veronika; Srivastava, Rohit; Rubinstein, Ariel M.; Mock, Caroline S.; Elyada, Ela; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Lahav, Galit; Oppenheim, Ariella

    2016-01-01

    SV40 large T-antigen (T-ag) has been known for decades to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 by sequestration and additional mechanisms. Our present study revealed that the struggle between p53 and T-ag begins very early in the infection cycle. We found that p53 is activated early after SV40 infection and defends the host against the infection. Using live cell imaging and single cell analyses we found that p53 dynamics are variable among individual cells, with only a subset of cells activating p53 immediately after SV40 infection. This cell-to-cell variabilty had clear consequences on the outcome of the infection. None of the cells with elevated p53 at the beginning of the infection proceeded to express T-ag, suggesting a p53-dependent decision between abortive and productive infection. In addition, we show that artificial elevation of p53 levels prior to the infection reduces infection efficiency, supporting a role for p53 in defending against SV40. We further found that the p53-mediated host defense mechanism against SV40 is not facilitated by apoptosis nor via interferon-stimulated genes. Instead p53 binds to the viral DNA at the T-ag promoter region, prevents its transcriptional activation by Sp1, and halts the progress of the infection. These findings shed new light on the long studied struggle between SV40 T-ag and p53, as developed during virus-host coevolution. Our studies indicate that the fate of SV40 infection is determined as soon as the viral DNA enters the nucleus, before the onset of viral gene expression. PMID:27462916

  14. Antitumor effects of recombinant human adenovirus-p53 against human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanchao; He, Wei; Wang, Rupeng; Yang, Libin; Zhou, Chunli; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify the anti-tumor effects of rAd/p53, which is a recombinant human serotype 5 adenovirus, in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Mouse models of human cSCC were constructed by injecting human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells into both flanks of nude mice. Subsequently, the 75 nude mice with cSCC xenograft tumors were randomly divided into recombinant human serotype 5 adenovirus (rAd)/p53, rAd/p53 + 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and 5-Fu groups. One side of the tumors was administered the therapeutic agents as the therapeutic group, whereas the remaining side was treated with medical saline as the control. At 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 h post-intratumoral injection, alterations in tumor volume, tumor necrosis and the expression of several tumor-associated genes, including Smad4, Brca1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2), were analyzed. Compared with its control group, the rAd/P53 group exhibited a significantly increased tumor necrosis ratio. In addition, Smad4 and Brca1 expression levels increased significantly at various time points (P<0.05), and MMP-2 expression decreased significantly (P<0.05). In the rAd/p53 + 5-Fu group, the tumor necrosis ratio, and Smad4 and Brca1 expression levels also significantly increased at various time points (P<0.05). MMP-2 gene transcription gradually decreased, high expression of Smad4 was prolonged, and high expression of Brca1 was observed in the early period following treatment compared with the rAd/P53 group. In addition, p53 expression exhibited a positive correlation with the tumor necrosis ratio and Smad4 expression, and showed a negative correlation with MMP-2 gene transcription (P<0.05). These findings indicate that rAd/p53 has a potent anti-tumor effect in cSCC via the promotion of tumor necrosis and regulating the expression of various tumor-associated genes. PMID:28105142

  15. p53 Degradation Activity, Expression, and Subcellular Localization of E6 Proteins from 29 Human Papillomavirus Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mesplède, Thibault; Gagnon, David; Bergeron-Labrecque, Fanny; Azar, Ibrahim; Sénéchal, Hélène; Coutlée, François

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical cancer and other human malignancies. HPVs are classified into high- and low-risk genotypes according to their association with cancer. Host cell transformation by high-risk HPVs relies in part on the ability of the viral E6 protein to induce the degradation of p53. We report the development of a cellular assay that accurately quantifies the p53 degradation activity of E6 in vivo, based on the fusion of p53 to Renilla luciferase (RLuc-p53). This assay was used to measure the p53 degradation activities of E6 proteins from 29 prevalent HPV types and variants of HPV type 16 (HPV16) and HPV33 by determining the amount of E6 expression vector required to reduce by half the levels of RLuc-p53 (50% effective concentration [EC50]). These studies revealed an unexpected variability in the p53 degradation activities of different E6 proteins, even among active types whose EC50s span more than 2 log units. Differences in activity were greater between types than between variants and did not correlate with differences in the intracellular localization of E6, with most being predominantly nuclear. Protein and mRNA expression of the 29 E6 proteins was also examined. For 16 high-risk types, spliced transcripts that encode shorter E6*I proteins of variable sizes and abundances were detected. Mutation of the splice donor site in five different E6 proteins increased their p53 degradation activity, suggesting that mRNA splicing can limit the activity of some high-risk E6 types. The quantification of p53 degradation in vivo represents a novel tool to systematically compare the oncogenic potentials of E6 proteins from different HPV types and variants. PMID:22013048

  16. Chemotherapy-induced Dkk-1 expression by primary human mesenchymal stem cells is p53 dependent.

    PubMed

    Hare, Ian; Evans, Rebecca; Fortney, James; Moses, Blake; Piktel, Debbie; Slone, William; Gibson, Laura F

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are abundant throughout the body and regulate signaling within tumor microenvironments. Wnt signaling is an extrinsically regulated pathway that has been shown to regulate tumorigenesis in many types of cancer. After evaluating a panel of Wnt activating and inhibiting molecules, we show that primary human MSCs increase the expression of Dkk-1, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, into the extracellular environment following chemotherapy exposure in a p53-dependent manner. Dkk-1 has been shown to promote tumor growth in several models of malignancy, suggesting that MSC-derived Dkk-1 could counteract the intent of cytotoxic chemotherapy, and that pharmacologic inhibition of Dkk-1 in patients receiving chemotherapy treatment for certain malignancies may be warranted.

  17. The p63 Protein Isoform ΔNp63α Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mai N.; Choi, Woonyoung; Wszolek, Matthew F.; Navai, Neema; Lee, I-Ling C.; Nitti, Giovanni; Wen, Sijin; Flores, Elsa R.; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene; Czerniak, Bogdan; Dinney, Colin; Barton, Michelle; McConkey, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that plays important roles in tumor metastasis, “stemness,” and drug resistance. EMT is typically characterized by the loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased expression of EMT-associated transcriptional repressors, including ZEB1 and ZEB2. The miR-200 family and miR-205 prevent EMT through suppression of ZEB1/2. p53 has been implicated in the regulation of miR-200c, but the mechanisms controlling miR-205 expression remain elusive. Here we report that the p53 family member and p63 isoform, ΔNp63α, promotes miR-205 transcription and controls EMT in human bladder cancer cells. ΔNp63α, E-cadherin and miR-205 were coexpressed in a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (n = 28) and a cohort of primary bladder tumors (n = 98). Stable knockdown of ΔNp63α in the “epithelial” bladder cancer cell line UM-UC6 decreased the expression of miR-205 and induced the expression of ZEB1/2, effects that were reversed by expression of exogenous miR-205. Conversely, overexpression of ΔNp63α in the “mesenchymal” bladder cancer cell line UM-UC3 induced miR-205 and suppressed ZEB1/2. ΔNp63α knockdown reduced the expression of the primary and mature forms of miR-205 and the miR-205 “host” gene (miR-205HG) and decreased binding of RNA Pol II to the miR-205HG promoter, inhibiting miR-205HG transcription. Finally, high miR-205 expression was associated with adverse clinical outcomes in bladder cancer patients. Together, our data demonstrate that ΔNp63α-mediated expression of miR-205 contributes to the regulation of EMT in bladder cancer cells and identify miR-205 as a molecular marker of the lethal subset of human bladder cancers. PMID:23239884

  18. Species-specific mutual regulation of p53 and miR-138 between human, rat and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Xia, Wei; Su, Xueting; Qin, Xingliang; Chen, Ying; Li, Shaohua; Dong, Jie; Ding, Hongmei; Li, Hui; Huang, Aixue; Ge, Xingfeng; Hou, Lvbin; Wang, Chaonan; Sun, Leqiao; Bai, Chenjun; Shen, Xuelian; Fang, Tao; Liu, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Hongru; Zhang, Hongwen; Shao, Ningsheng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, p53 was identified to regulate the expression of many miRNAs and was also regulated by miRNAs. In this paper, we found that miR-138 showed a pronounced increase after p53 activation in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, which is mediated by p53 binding sites in the promoter region of its host gene, but this did not happen with rat and mouse cells. More interestingly, we found that p53 could be also regulated by miR-138 in mouse and rat cells, but not in the human NSCLC cells. Our results suggest the existence of species-specific differences of the regulations of miRNA against its targets and the regulations of miRNA itself by other proteins. PMID:27183959

  19. SIRT1 inhibition restores apoptotic sensitivity in p53-mutated human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, Katharine J.; Cook, Anthony L. Snow, Elizabeth T.

    2014-06-15

    Mutations to the p53 gene are common in UV-exposed keratinocytes and contribute to apoptotic resistance in skin cancer. P53-dependent activity is modulated, in part, by a complex, self-limiting feedback loop imposed by miR-34a-mediated regulation of the lysine deacetylase, SIRT1. Expression of numerous microRNAs is dysregulated in squamous and basal cell carcinomas; however the contribution of specific microRNAs to the pathogenesis of skin cancer remains untested. Through use of RNAi, miRNA target site blocking oligonucleotides and small molecule inhibitors, this study explored the influence of p53 mutational status, SIRT1 activity and miR-34a levels on apoptotic sensitivity in primary (NHEK) and p53-mutated (HaCaT) keratinocyte cell lines. SIRT1 and p53 are overexpressed in p53-mutated keratinocytes, whilst miR-34a levels are 90% less in HaCaT cells. HaCaTs have impaired responses to p53/SIRT1/miR-34a axis manipulation which enhanced survival during exposure to the chemotherapeutic agent, camptothecin. Inhibition of SIRT1 activity in this cell line increased p53 acetylation and doubled camptothecin-induced cell death. Our results demonstrate that p53 mutations increase apoptotic resistance in keratinocytes by interfering with miR-34a-mediated regulation of SIRT1 expression. Thus, SIRT1 inhibitors may have a therapeutic potential for overcoming apoptotic resistance during skin cancer treatment. - Highlights: • Impaired microRNA biogenesis promotes apoptotic resistance in HaCaT keratinocytes. • TP53 mutations suppress miR-34a-mediated regulation of SIRT1 expression. • SIRT1 inhibition increases p53 acetylation in HaCaTs, restoring apoptosis.

  20. Efficacy of recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene in the treatment of lung cancer-mediated pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    LI, KUN-LIN; KANG, JUN; ZHANG, PENG; LI, LI; WANG, YU-BO; CHEN, HENG-YI; HE, YONG

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusion induced by lung cancer exerts a negative impact on quality of life and prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the value of the recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene (rAd-p53) in the local treatment of lung cancer and its synergistic effect with chemotherapy. The present study retrospectively recruited 210 patients with lung cancer-mediated pleural effusion who had adopted a treatment strategy of platinum chemotherapy. Pleurodesis was performed via the injection of cisplatin or rAd-p53. Long-term follow-up was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects of cisplatin and rAd-p53 administration on pleural effusion and other relevant clinical indicators. The short-term effect of pleurodesis was as follows: The efficacy rate of rAd-p53 therapy was significantly higher compared with cisplatin therapy (71.26 vs. 54.47%), and the efficacy of treatment with ≥2×1012 viral particles of rAd-p53 for pleurodesis was significantly greater than treatment with 40 mg cisplatin (P<0.05). Furthermore, efficacy analysis performed 6 and 12 months after pleurodesis indicated that the efficacy rate of rAd-p53 was significantly greater than that of cisplatin (P<0.05). A comparison of median progression-free survival (PFS) time identified a significant difference (P<0.05) between rAd-p53 and cisplatin therapy (3.3 vs. 2.7 months); however, a comparison of median overall survival time identified no significant difference (P>0.05) between rAd-p53 and cisplatin therapy (9.6 vs. 8.7 months). In addition, Cox regression analysis indicated that PFS was not affected by clinical indicators such as age, gender, prognostic staging and smoking status; however, PFS was affected by pathological subtype (adenocarcinoma or squamous carcinoma) in the rAd-p53 group. rAd-p53 administration for pleurodesis exerts long-term therapeutic effects on the local treatment of lung cancer. Thus, a combination of rAd-p53 and chemotherapy may exert a synergistic effect and

  1. Involvement of RB-1, p53, p16INK4 and telomerase in immortalisation of human cells.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, N J; Bryan, T M; Bonnefin, P; Chang, A C; Musgrove, E A; Braithwaite, A W; Reddel, R R

    1995-09-07

    Involvement of the retinoblastoma susceptibility (RB-1), p16INK4, p53 and telomerase genes in immortalisation was examined by determining their status in 15 human cell lines representing four immortalisation complementation groups. No abnormalities of RB-1, p53 and p16INK4 were detected in cell lines containing DNA tumour virus proteins known to bind to the protein products of the RB-1 and p53 genes. In contrast, in all other cell lines from each of the four groups either RB-1 was mutant or p16INK4 protein was undetectable and there were cell lines containing p53 mutations in three of the groups. Telomerase activity was detected in 12/15 lines, including some of the virally immortalised lines and in some lines from each group. Since none of these changes correlated with complementation group, other genetic changes must be required for immortalisation.

  2. Novel small molecule induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Eun; Min, Yong Ki; Ha, Jae Du; Kim, Bum Tae; Lee, Woo Ghil . E-mail: bigguy@krict.re.kr

    2007-07-06

    Using high-throughput screening with small-molecule libraries, we identified a compound, KCG165 [(2-(3-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethoxy)-1,10b-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c] quinazolin-5(6H)-one)], which strongly activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity. KCG165-induced phosphorylations of p53 at Ser{sup 6}, Ser{sup 15}, and Ser{sup 20}, which are all key residues involved in the activation and stabilization of p53. Consistent with these findings, KCG165 increased level of p53 protein and led to the accumulation of transcriptionally active p53 in the nucleus with the increased occupancy of p53 in the endogenous promoter region of its downstream target gene, p21{sup WAF1/CIP}. Notably, KCG165-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, we suggested topoisomerase II as the molecular target of KCG165. Together, these results indicate that KCG165 may have potential applications as an antitumor agent.

  3. A regulatory feedback loop involving p63 and IRF6 links the pathogenesis of 2 genetically different human ectodermal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Francesca; Marinari, Barbara; Lo Iacono, Nadia; Botti, Elisabetta; Giunta, Alessandro; Spallone, Giulia; Garaffo, Giulia; Vernersson-Lindahl, Emma; Merlo, Giorgio; Mills, Alea A; Ballarò, Costanza; Alemà, Stefano; Chimenti, Sergio; Guerrini, Luisa; Costanzo, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The human congenital syndromes ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate syndrome, ankyloblepharon ectodermal dysplasia clefting, and split-hand/foot malformation are all characterized by ectodermal dysplasia, limb malformations, and cleft lip/palate. These phenotypic features are a result of an imbalance between the proliferation and differentiation of precursor cells during development of ectoderm-derived structures. Mutations in the p63 and interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) genes have been found in human patients with these syndromes, consistent with phenotypes. Here, we used human and mouse primary keratinocytes and mouse models to investigate the role of p63 and IRF6 in proliferation and differentiation. We report that the DeltaNp63 isoform of p63 activated transcription of IRF6, and this, in turn, induced proteasome-mediated DeltaNp63 degradation. This feedback regulatory loop allowed keratinocytes to exit the cell cycle, thereby limiting their ability to proliferate. Importantly, mutations in either p63 or IRF6 resulted in disruption of this regulatory loop: p63 mutations causing ectodermal dysplasias were unable to activate IRF6 transcription, and mice with mutated or null p63 showed reduced Irf6 expression in their palate and ectoderm. These results identify what we believe to be a novel mechanism that regulates the proliferation-differentiation balance of keratinocytes essential for palate fusion and skin differentiation and links the pathogenesis of 2 genetically different groups of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes into a common molecular pathway.

  4. Apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma and in liver cell dysplasia is correlated with p53 protein immunoreactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, M; Zimmermann, A

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) of different types and grades and in liver cell dysplasia, and to test whether the apoptotic rate is correlated with the p53 protein status. METHODS: 37 HCC and 66 six liver samples with liver cell dysplasia were analysed for apoptosis using in situ DNA end labelling (ISEL), and for p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. In HCCs, proliferative activity was quantitatively assessed using proliferating cell nuclear antigen labelling. RESULTS: The apoptotic index in HCC as based on ISEL ranged from 0.1 to 13.5 per 1000 cells analysed and was not related to type or grade. No nuclear staining was observed in multinuclear tumour cells. There was a significant correlation between the apoptotic rate and both the proliferative activity and p53 protein reactivity. In liver samples containing p53 protein positive liver cell dysplasia cells, there was a significantly higher apoptotic rate of these cells. CONCLUSIONS: Apoptosis is detectable in HCC, and is not related to type and grade. There is a highly significant positive correlation between the apoptotic rate in HCC and both the proliferative activity and p53 protein expression. A similar phenomenon occurs for putative cancer precursors. The findings support the role of p53 in regulating apoptosis in preneoplastic and neoplastic liver lesions. Images PMID:9215122

  5. Distinctive patterns of p53 protein expression and microsatellite instability in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nyiraneza, Christine; Jouret-Mourin, Anne; Kartheuser, Alex; Camby, Philippe; Plomteux, Olivier; Detry, Roger; Dahan, Karin; Sempoux, Christine

    2011-12-01

    Although evidence suggests an inverse relationship between microsatellite instability and p53 alterations in colorectal cancer, no study has thoroughly examined the use of p53 immunohistochemistry in phenotyping colorectal cancers. We investigated the value of p53 immunohistochemistry in microsatellite instability-positive colorectal cancers prescreening and attempted to clarify the relationship between DNA mismatch repair system and p53 pathway. In a series of 104 consecutive colorectal cancers, we performed p53 immunohistochemistry, TP53 mutational analysis, DNA mismatch repair system efficiency evaluation (DNA mismatch repair system immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability status, MLH1/MSH2 germ line, and BRAF, murine double minute 2, and p21 immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability high was observed in 25 of 104 colorectal cancers, with DNA mismatch repair system protein loss (24/25) and germ line (8/25) or BRAF mutations (8/25). p53 immunohistochemistry revealed 3 distinct patterns of expression: complete negative immunostaining associated with truncating TP53 mutations (P < .0001), diffuse overexpression associated with missense TP53 mutations (P < .0001), and restricted overexpression characterized by a limited number of homogenously scattered strongly positive tumor cells in 36.5% of colorectal cancers. This latest pattern was associated with wild-type TP53 and microsatellite instability high colorectal cancers (P < .0001) including all Lynch tumors (8/8), but its presence among 22% of DNA mismatch repair system-competent colorectal cancers decreased its positive predictive value (55.2% [95% confidence interval, 45%-65%]). It was also correlated with murine double minute 2 overexpression (P < .0001) and inversely with p21 loss (P = .0002), independently of microsatellite instability status. In conclusion, a restricted pattern of p53 overexpression is preferentially associated with microsatellite instability high phenotype and could

  6. Clinical utility of recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene therapy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-xia; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiao-hua; Liu, Shi-yu; Ma, Chao; Zou, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy has promised to be a highly effective antitumor treatment by introducing a tumor suppressor gene or the abrogation of an oncogene. Among the potential therapeutic transgenes, the tumor suppressor gene p53 serves as an attractive target. Restoration of wild-type p53 function in tumors can be achieved by introduction of an intact complementary deoxyribonucleic acid copy of the p53 gene using a suitable viral vector, in most cases an adenoviral vector (Adp53). Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Adp53 triggers a dramatic tumor regression response in various cancers. These viruses are engineered to lack certain early proteins and are thus replication defective, including Gendicine, SCH-58500, and Advexin. Several types of tumor-specific p53-expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus vectors (known as replication-competent CRAdp53 vectors) have been developed, such as ONYX 015, AdDelta24-p53, SG600-p53, OBP-702, and H101. Various clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the safety and efficiency of these adenoviral vectors. In this review we will talk about the biological mechanisms, clinical utility, and therapeutic potentials of the replication-deficient Adp53-based and replication-competent CRAdp53-based gene therapy. PMID:25364261

  7. Allicin induces anti-human liver cancer cells through the p53 gene modulating apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chung, Jing-Gung; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lo, Yi-Chen; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-10-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent type of liver cancer globally and ranks first among the cancer-related mortalities in Taiwan. This study aims to understand the modes of cell death mechanism induced by allicin, a major phytochemical of crushed garlic, in human hepatoma cells. Our earlier study indicated that allicin induced autophagic cell death in human HCC Hep G2 (p53(wild type)) cells, whereas in the present study, allicin induced apoptotic cell death through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in human HCC Hep 3B (p53(mutation)) cells. To gain insight into the cell death mechanism in p53 knocked down Hep G2, we silenced the p53 gene using siRNA-mediated silencing. Allicin treatment induced apoptotic cell death in p53 knocked down Hep G2 cells similar to that of Hep 3B cells. These results suggest that allicin induced cell death in human hepatoma cells through either autophagy or apoptosis and might be a potential novel complementary gene therapeutic agent for the treatment of apoptosis-resistant cancer cells.

  8. Sirt 1 activator inhibits the AGE-induced apoptosis and p53 acetylation in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Changyong; Lin, Nan; Liu, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by nonenzymatic glycation reactions are extremely accumulated in the diabetic vascular cells, neurons, and glia, and are confirmed to play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus -induced cardiovascular complications. Sirt 1, known as mammalian sirtuin, has been recognized to regulate insulin secretion and protect cells against oxidative stress, which is promoted by the accumulated AGEs in cardiovascular cells. In the present study, we treated human endothelial Eahy926 cells with AGEs, and determined the apoptosis induction, caspase activation, the Sirt 1 activity, the expression and acetylation of p53. Then we manipulated Sirt 1 activity with a Sirt 1 activator, Resveratrol (RSV), and a Sirt 1 inhibitor, sirtinol, in the AGE-BSA-treated Eahy926 cells, and then re-evaluated the apoptosis induction, caspase activation, the expression and acetylation of p53. Results demonstrated that AGEs induced apoptosis in the human endothelial Eahy926 cells, by promoting the cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 9/3. Also, the AGE-BSA treatment promoted the total p53 level and acetylated (Ac) p53, but reduced the Sirt 1 level and activity. On the other hand, the Sirt 1 inhibitor/activator not only deteriorated/ameliorated the promotion to p53 level and Ac p53, but also aggravated/inhibited the AGE-induced apoptosis and the promotion to apoptosis-associated signaling molecules. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the apoptosis promotion by AGEs in endothelial Eahy926 cells, by regulating the Sirt 1 activity and p53 signaling, it also implies the protective role of Sirt 1 activator against the AGE-induced apoptosis.

  9. p63 regulates glutaminase 2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Giacobbe, Arianna; Bongiorno-Borbone, Lucilla; Bernassola, Francesca; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Markert, Elke Katrin; Levine, Arnold J.; Feng, Zhaohui; Agostini, Massimilano; Zolla, Lello; Agrò, Alessandro Finazzi; Notterman, Daniel A.; Melino, Gerry; Peschiaroli, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor p63 is critical for many biological processes, including development and maintenance of epidermal tissues and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the TAp63 isoforms regulate cell metabolism through the induction of the mitochondrial glutaminase 2 (GLS2) gene both in primary cells and tumor cell lines. By ChIP analysis and luciferase assay, we confirmed that TAp63 binds directly to the p53/p63 consensus DNA binding sequence within the GLS2 promoter region. Given the critical role of p63 in epidermal differentiation, we have investigated the regulation of GLS2 expression during this process. GLS2 and TAp63 expression increases during the in vitro differentiation of primary human keratinocytes, and depletion of GLS2 inhibits skin differentiation both at molecular and cellular levels. We found that GLS2 and TAp63 expression are concomitantly induced in cancer cells exposed to oxidative stresses. siRNA-mediated depletion of GLS2 sensitizes cells to ROS-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the TAp63/GLS2 axis can be functionally important as a cellular antioxidant pathway in the absence of p53. Accordingly, we found that GLS2 is upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that GLS2 is a bona fide TAp63 target gene, and that the TAp63-dependent regulation of GLS2 is important for both physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23574722

  10. High prevalence of mutations of the p53 gene in poorly differentiated human thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Fagin, J A; Matsuo, K; Karmakar, A; Chen, D L; Tang, S H; Koeffler, H P

    1993-01-01

    The development and progression of thyroid tumors is signaled by phenotype-specific mutations of genes involved in growth control. Molecular events associated with undifferentiated thyroid cancer are not known. We examined normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue for structural abnormalities of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Mutations were detected by single-strand conformation polymorphisms of PCR-amplified DNA, using primers bracketing the known hot spots on either exons 5, 6, 7, or 8. The prevalence of mutations was as follows: normal thyroid 0/6; follicular adenomas 0/31; papillary carcinomas 0/37; medullary carcinomas 0/2; follicular carcinomas 1/11; anaplastic carcinomas 5/6; thyroid carcinoma cell lines 3/4. Positive cases were confirmed by direct sequencing of the PCR products. All five anaplastic carcinoma tissues and the anaplastic carcinoma cell line ARO had G:C to A:T transitions leading to an Arg to His substitution at codon 273. In both tumors and cell lines, examples of heterozygous and homozygous p53 mutations were identified. The only thyroid carcinoma cell line in which p53 mutations were not detected in exons 5-8 had markedly decreased p53 mRNA levels, suggesting the presence of a structural abnormality of either p53 itself or of some factor controlling its expression. The presence of p53 mutations almost exclusively in poorly differentiated thyroid tumors and thyroid cancer cell lines suggests that inactivation of p53 may confer these neoplasms with aggressive properties, and further loss of differentiated function. Images PMID:8423216

  11. Human transcription factors in yeast: the fruitful examples of P53 and NF-кB.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vasundhara; Monti, Paola; Fronza, Gilberto; Inga, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    The observation that human transcription factors (TFs) can function when expressed in yeast cells has stimulated the development of various functional assays to investigate (i) the role of binding site sequences (herein referred to as response elements, REs) in transactivation specificity, (ii) the impact of polymorphic nucleotide variants on transactivation potential, (iii) the functional consequences of mutations in TFs and (iv) the impact of cofactors or small molecules. These approaches have found applications in basic as well as applied research, including the identification and the characterisation of mutant TF alleles from clinical samples. The ease of genome editing of yeast cells and the availability of regulated systems for ectopic protein expression enabled the development of quantitative reporter systems, integrated at a chosen chromosomal locus in isogenic yeast strains that differ only at the level of a specific RE targeted by a TF or for the expression of distinct TF alleles. In many cases, these assays were proven predictive of results in higher eukaryotes. The potential to work in small volume formats and the availability of yeast strains with modified chemical uptake have enhanced the scalability of these approaches. Next to well-established one-, two-, three-hybrid assays, the functional assays with non-chimeric human TFs enrich the palette of opportunities for functional characterisation. We review ∼25 years of research on human sequence-specific TFs expressed in yeast, with an emphasis on the P53 and NF-кB family of proteins, highlighting outcomes, advantages, challenges and limitations of these heterologous assays.

  12. The evaluation of human papillomavirus and p53 gene mutation in benign and malignant conjunctiva and eyelid lesions.

    PubMed

    Joanna, Reszec; Renata, Zalewska; Witold, Pepiński; Małgorzata, Skawronska; Bernaczyk, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech

    2010-12-01

    Papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common conjunctival and eyelid lesions. The etiology is still unclear and recently human papillomavirus infection and p53 gene mutation have been taken into consideration. The aim of our study was the evaluation of HPV DNApresence and p53 gene mutation in 45 benign and 38 malignant squamous lesions of the conjunctiva and eyelid. For HPV detection PCR-RFLP and immunohistochemical reaction were used; for p53 gene mutation PCR-SSCP was used. Only 8.8% papillomas, 9.1% squamous cell cancers and 3.7% basal cell cancers (using PCR-RFLP method) and 26.6% papillomas, 7.4% squamous cell cancers and 9.1% basal cell cancers (using immunohisto-chemical reaction) were HPV positive. p53 gene mutation was evaluated in 24.4% papillomas, 54.5% squamous cell cancers and 22.2% basal cell cancers; most commonly in 6 and 7 exon. Human papillomavirus infection, opposite to p53 gene mutation, is not a significant etiological factor of the benign and malignant conjunctival and eyelid lesions development.

  13. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    JEDINAK, ANDREJ; SLIVA, DANIEL

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the global consumption of mushrooms, only two epidemiological studies demonstrated an inverse correlation between mushroom intake and the risk of cancer. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated whether extracts from edible mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (portabella), Flammulina velutipes (enoki), Lentinula edodes (shiitake) and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster) affect the growth of breast and colon cancer cells. Here, we identified as the most potent, P. ostreatus (oyster mushroom) which suppressed proliferation of breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-116) cells, without affecting proliferation of epithelial mammary MCF-10A and normal colon FHC cells. Flow cytometry revealed that the inhibition of cell proliferation by P. ostreatus was associated with the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, P. ostreatus induced the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1), whereas inhibited the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma Rb protein in MCF-7 cells. In addition, P. ostreatus also up-regulated expression of p21 and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in HT-29 cells, suggesting that that P. ostreatus suppresses the proliferation of breast and colon cancer cells via p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway. In conclusion, our results indicated that the edible oyster mushroom has potential therapeutic/preventive effects on breast and colon cancer. PMID:19020765

  14. A novel charged trinuclear platinum complex effective against cisplatin-resistant tumours: hypersensitivity of p53-mutant human tumour xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pratesi, G; Perego, P; Polizzi, D; Righetti, S C; Supino, R; Caserini, C; Manzotti, C; Giuliani, F C; Pezzoni, G; Tognella, S; Spinelli, S; Farrell, N; Zunino, F

    1999-01-01

    Multinuclear platinum compounds were rationally designed to bind to DNA in a different manner from that of cisplatin and its mononuclear analogues. A triplatinum compound of the series (BBR 3464) was selected for preclinical development, since, in spite of its charged nature, it was very potent as cytotoxic agent and effective against cisplatin-resistant tumour cells. Anti-tumour efficacy studies were performed in a panel of human tumour xenografts refractory or poorly responsive to cisplatin. The novel platinum compound exhibited efficacy in all tested tumours and an impressive efficacy (including complete tumour regressions) was displayed in two lung carcinoma models, CaLu-3 and POCS. Surprisingly, BBR 3464 showed a superior activity against p53-mutant tumours as compared to those carrying the wild-type gene. The involvement of p53 in tumour response was investigated in an osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS, which is null for p53 and is highly sensitive to BBR 3464, and in the same cells following introduction of the wild-type p53 gene. Thus the pattern of cellular response was investigated in a panel of human tumour cells with a different p53 gene status. The results showed that the transfer of functional p53 resulted in a marked (tenfold) reduction of cellular chemosensitivity to the multinuclear platinum complex but in a moderate sensitization to cisplatin. In addition, in contrast to cisplatin, the triplatinum complex was very effective as an inducer of apoptosis in a lung carcinoma cell line carrying mutant p53. The peculiar pattern of anti-tumour activity of the triplatinum complex and its ability to induce p53-independent cell death may have relevant pharmacological implications, since p53, a critical protein involved in DNA repair and induction of apoptosis by conventional DNA-damaging agents, is defective in several human tumours. We suggest that the peculiar DNA binding properties of the triplatinum complex may contribute to the striking profile of anti

  15. Central role of mitochondria and p53 in PUVA-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes cell line NCTC-2544

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, Giampietro Fortunato, Elena; Cecconet, Laura; Del Giudice, Laura; Dall'Acqua, Francesco; Basso, Giuseppe

    2008-02-15

    Despite strong evidence concerning the high efficiency of PUVA therapy (psoralen plus UVA light), its mechanism of action has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we have evaluated in a cell line of human keratinocytes (NCTC-2544) the effects of two linear psoralen derivatives, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), that are widely used in PUVA therapy and two angular derivatives, Angelicin (ANG) and 4,6,4'-trymetyl angelicin (TMA). All derivatives photoinduce cellular death, TMA being the most active compound. The cell cycle analysis showed that the four derivatives induce, 24 h after irradiation, a cell cycle arrest in G1 phase later followed by massive apoptosis. The G1 arrest is correlated to an increase in the expression of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1}, a protein associated with the cell cycle block and apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of NCTC-2544 resulted in p53 activation by 5-MOP, 8-MOP, and ANG but not TMA and its phosphorylation at serine-15. The levels of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} paralleled p53 protein staining pattern suggesting that p53 activation correlated with p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} induction. Simultaneous to p53 activation, psoralens induced mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, as well as caspase-3 and -9 activation. Thus these results strongly indicate the necessity of p53 activation and the induction of the apoptotic machinery downstream of mitochondria.

  16. Delayed expression of apoptosis in X-irradiated human leukemic MOLT-4 cells transfected with mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hisako; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Kunio

    2003-06-01

    The effects of X-rays on cell survival, apoptosis, and long-term response in the development of cell death as measured by the dye exclusion test were studied in human leukemic MOLT-4 cells (p53 wild-type) stably transfected with a mutant p53 cDNA expression vector. Cell survival, as determined from colony-forming ability, was increased in an expression level dependent manner, but the increase was partial even with the highest-expressing clone (B3). This contrasts with the prior observation that cell death and apoptosis in B3 are completely inhibited at 24 h after irradiation with 1.8 Gy of X-rays. The examination of B3 cells incubated for longer than 24 h after X-irradiation showed a delay in the induction of cell death and apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that the time required to reach the highest level of wild-type p53 protein in B3 was longer than the time in MOLT-4 and that the p53 may be stabilized by the phosphorylation at Ser-15. These results suggest that the introduction of mutant p53 into MOLT-4 merely delays the development of apoptosis, during which the cells could repair the damage induced by X-rays, and results in the partial increase in cell survival.

  17. Human papillomavirus E6 proteins mediate resistance to interferon-induced growth arrest through inhibition of p53 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Hebner, Christy; Beglin, Melanie; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2007-12-01

    The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 proteins act cooperatively to mediate multiple activities in viral pathogenesis. For instance, E7 acts to increase p53 levels while E6 accelerates its rate of turnover through the binding of the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP. Interferons are important antiviral agents that modulate both the initial and persistent phases of viral infection. The expression of HPV type 16 E7 was found to sensitize keratinocytes to the growth-inhibitory effects of interferon, while coexpression of E6 abrogates this inhibition. Treatment of E7-expressing cells with interferon ultimately resulted in cellular senescence through a process that is dependent upon acetylation of p53 by p300/CBP at lysine 382. Cells expressing mutant forms of E6 that are unable to bind p300/CBP or bind p53 failed to block acetylation of p53 at lysine 382 and were sensitive to growth arrest by interferon. In contrast, mutant forms of E6 that are unable to bind E6AP remain resistant to the effects of interferon, demonstrating that the absolute levels of p53 are not the major determinants of this activity. Finally, p53 acetylation at lysine 382 was found not to be an essential determinant of other types of senescence such as that induced by overexpression of Ras in human fibroblasts. This study identifies an important physiological role for E6 binding to p300/CBP in blocking growth arrest of human keratinocytes in the presence of interferon and so contributes to the persistence of HPV-infected cells.

  18. Special AT-rich Binding Protein-2 (SATB2) Differentially Affects Disease-causing p63 Mutant Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jacky; Grant, R. Ian; Kaplan, David R.; Irwin, Meredith S.

    2011-01-01

    p63, a p53 family member, is critical for proper skin and limb development and directly regulates gene expression in the ectoderm. Mice lacking p63 exhibit skin and craniofacial defects including cleft palate. In humans p63 mutations are associated with several distinct developmental syndromes. p63 sterile-α-motif domain, AEC (ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting)-associated mutations are associated with a high prevalence of orofacial clefting disorders, which are less common in EEC (ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting) patients with DNA binding domain p63 mutations. However, the mechanisms by which these mutations differentially influence p63 function remain unclear, and interactions with other proteins implicated in craniofacial development have not been identified. Here, we show that AEC p63 mutations affect the ability of the p63 protein to interact with special AT-rich binding protein-2 (SATB2), which has recently also been implicated in the development of cleft palate. p63 and SATB2 are co-expressed early in development in the ectoderm of the first and second branchial arches, two essential sites where signaling is required for craniofacial patterning. SATB2 attenuates p63-mediated gene expression of perp (p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22), a critical downstream target gene during development, and specifically decreases p63 perp promoter binding. Interestingly, AEC but not EEC p63 mutations affect the ability of p63 to interact with SATB2 and the inhibitory effects of SATB2 on p63 transactivation of perp are most pronounced for AEC-associated p63 mutations. Our findings reveal a novel gain-of-function property of AEC-causing p63 mutations and identify SATB2 as the first p63 binding partner that differentially influences AEC and EEC p63 mutant proteins. PMID:21965674

  19. Regulation of The Tumor Suppressor Activity of P53 In Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    Lenglet, S., Moreau , V., Iggo, R., and Frehourg. T. Michael Datto and Xiao-Fan Wang (Duke University) for the p21 pro- (1998) Oncgene 16, 1369-1372...School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA Depending upon particular cellular conditions, the tumor suppressor protein p53

  20. Effect of Mir-122 on Human Cholangiocarcinoma Proliferation, Invasion, and Apoptosis Through P53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuiping; Zhang, Jinmei; Cao, Xiangang; Yang, Qian; Xia, Dequan

    2016-01-01

    Background Bile duct carcinoma is a common digestive tract tumor with high morbidity and mortality. As a kind of important non-coding RNA, microRNA (miR) plays an important role in post-transcriptional regulation. MiR-122 is the most abundant miR in the liver. Multiple studies have shown that miR-122 level is reduced in a variety of liver tumors and can be used as a specific marker for liver injury. P53 is a classic tumor suppressor gene that can induce tumor cell apoptosis through various pathways. Whether miR-122 affects p53 in bile duct carcinoma still needs investigation. Material/Methods miR inhibitor or mimics was transfected to bile duct carcinoma cells to evaluate its function on proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and p53 expression. Results MiR-122 overexpression reduced cell invasion and migration ability, and inhibited cell apoptosis and p53 expression. Inhibiting miR-122 caused the opposite results. Conclusions Upregulating miR-122 can suppress bile duct carcinoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. MiR-122 could be used as a target for bile duct carcinoma treatment, which provides a new strategy for cholangiocarcinoma patients. PMID:27472451

  1. Misfolding, Aggregation, and Disordered Segments in c-Abl and p53 in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Guilherme A. P.; Rangel, Luciana P.; Costa, Danielly C.; Silva, Jerson L.

    2015-01-01

    The current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to cancer is not sufficient to explain the loss or gain of function in proteins related to tumorigenic processes. Among them, more than 100 oncogenes, 20–30 tumor-suppressor genes, and hundreds of genes participating in DNA repair and replication have been found to play a role in the origins of cancer over the last 25 years. The phosphorylation of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues is a critical step in cellular growth and development and is achieved through the tight regulation of protein kinases. Phosphorylation plays a major role in eukaryotic signaling as kinase domains are found in 2% of our genes. The deregulation of kinase control mechanisms has disastrous consequences, often leading to gains of function, cell transformation, and cancer. The c-Abl kinase protein is one of the most studied targets in the fight against cancer and is a hotspot for drug development because it participates in several solid tumors and is the hallmark of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Tumor suppressors have the opposite effects. Their fundamental role in the maintenance of genomic integrity has awarded them a role as the guardians of DNA. Among the tumor suppressors, p53 is the most studied. The p53 protein has been shown to be a transcription factor that recognizes and binds to specific DNA response elements and activates gene transcription. Stress triggered by ionizing radiation or other mutagenic events leads to p53 phosphorylation and cell-cycle arrest, senescence, or programed cell death. The p53 gene is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. Mutations in the DNA-binding domain are classified as class I or class II depending on whether substitutions occur in the DNA contact sites or in the protein core, respectively. Tumor-associated p53 mutations often lead to the loss of protein function, but recent investigations have also indicated gain-of-function mutations. The prion-like aggregation of mutant p

  2. Influence of zinc deficiency on AKT-MDM2-P53 signaling axes in normal and malignant human prostate cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With prostate being the highest zinc-accumulating tissue before the onset of cancer, the effects of physiologic levels of zinc on Akt-Mdm2-p53 and Akt-p21 signaling axes in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and malignant prostate LNCaP cells were examined. Cells were cultured for 6 d in...

  3. Curcumin enhances temsirolimus-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells through upregulation of YAP/p53

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Yang, Zheng; Fan, Yizeng; Guan, Bing; Jia, Jing; Gao, Yang; Wang, Ke; Wu, Kaijie; Wang, Xinyang; Zheng, Pengsheng; He, Dalin; Guo, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has frequently been used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of various types of disease and is known to enhance the drug sensitivity of cells. In the present study, the combined effect of curcumin and temsirolimus treatment on apoptosis in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells was investigated. Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway and used in the first-line treatment of metastatic RCC. It was demonstrated that curcumin combined with temsirolimus markedly induced apoptosis in RCC cells, however this effect was not observed following curcumin or temsirolimus treatment alone. Co-treatment with temsirolimus and curcumin led to the activation of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase and caspase 3, upregulation of p53 expression and nuclear translocation, and downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 protein expression. Furthermore, curcumin treatment was demonstrated to increase Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression in a time-dependent manner, which was concurrent with the curcumin-induced expression pattern of p53 after 2 h. In addition, knockdown of YAP by small interfering RNA caused the attenuation of curcumin-induced increased p53 expression in RCC cells. In conclusion, the present results indicate that combined curcumin and temsirolimus treatment has a synergistic effect on apoptosis in human RCC cells, through the activation of p53. Mechanistically, YAP is essential in the induction of p53 expression by curcumin. Furthermore, the results suggest that pre-treatment or co-treatment of cells with low concentration curcumin enhances the response to targeted drugs, and this presents a potentially novel and efficient strategy to overcome drug resistance in human RCC. PMID:28105206

  4. Downregulation of Polo-like kinase 1 induces cellular senescence in human primary cells through a p53-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Cho, Jung Hee; Kim, Jae-Ryong

    2013-10-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays a key role in various stages of mitosis from entry into M phase to exit from mitosis. However, its role in cellular senescence remains to be determined. Therefore, the effects of PLK1 on cellular senescence in human primary cells were investigated. We found that expression of PLK1 decreased in human dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells under replicative senescence and premature senescence induced by adriamycin. PLK1 knockdown with PLK1 small interfering RNAs in young cells induced premature senescence. In contrast, upregulation of PLK1 in old cells partially reversed senescence phenotypes. Cellular senescence by PLK1 inhibition was observed in p16 knockdown cells but not in p53 knockdown cells. Our data suggest that PLK1 repression might result in cellular senescence in human primary cells via a p53-dependent pathway.

  5. Differential response between the p53 ubiquitin-protein ligases Pirh2 and MdM2 following DNA damage in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Wenrui; Gao, Li; Wu Xin; Zhang Yang; Otterson, Gregory A.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A. . E-mail: Miguel.villalona@osumc.edu

    2006-10-15

    Pirh2, a recently identified ubiquitin-protein ligase, has been reported to promote p53 degradation. Pirh2 physically interacts with p53 and promotes ubiquitination of p53 independently of MDM2. Like MDM2, Pirh2 is thought to participate in an autoregulatory feedback loop that controls p53 function. We have previously reported that Pirh2 was overexpressed in human and murine lung cancers as compared to uninvolved lung tissue. Pirh2 increase could potentially cause degradation of wildtype p53 and reduce its tumor suppression function in the lung tumor cells. Since Pirh2 has been reported to be transactivated by p53, however, the mechanisms by which a high level of Pirh2 expression is maintained in tumor cells despite low level of wildtype p53 protein are unclear. In order to evaluate p53 involvement in the transactivation of Pirh2, we evaluated Pirh2, MDM2, p53 and p21 expression with Western blot analysis and real time PCR after {gamma} irradiation or cisplatin DNA damage treatment using human cancer cell lines containing wildtype (A549, MCF-7), mutant (H719) and null (H1299) p53. Surprisingly, Pirh2 expression was not affected by the presence of wildtype p53 in the cancer cells. In contrast, MDM2 was upregulated by wildtype p53 in A549 and MCF-7 cells and was absent from the H1299 and the H719 cells. We conclude that Pirh2 operates in a distinct manner from MDM2 in response to DNA damage in cancer cells. Pirh2 elevation in p53 null cells indicates the existence of additional molecular mechanisms for Pirh2 upregulation and suggests that p53 is not the sole target of Pirh2 ubiquitin ligase activity.

  6. Discovery of novel tumor suppressor p53 response elements using information theory

    PubMed Central

    Lyakhov, Ilya G.; Krishnamachari, Annangarachari; Schneider, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate method for locating genes under tumor suppressor p53 control that is based on a well-established mathematical theory and built using naturally occurring, experimentally proven p53 sites is essential in understanding the complete p53 network. We used a molecular information theory approach to create a flexible model for p53 binding. By searching around transcription start sites in human chromosomes 1 and 2, we predicted 16 novel p53 binding sites and experimentally demonstrated that 15 of the 16 (94%) sites were bound by p53. Some were also bound by the related proteins p63 and p73. Thirteen of the adjacent genes were controlled by at least one of the proteins. Eleven of the 16 sites (69%) had not been identified previously. This molecular information theory approach can be extended to any genetic system to predict new sites for DNA-binding proteins. PMID:18495754

  7. Cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53 by a heat shock protein 70 family member, mortalin, in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gestl, Erin E.; Anne Boettger, S.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight human colorectal cell lines were evaluated for p53 and mortalin localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six cell lines displayed cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct interaction between mortalin and p53 was shown in five cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell lines positive for p53 sequestration yielded elevated p53 expression levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study yields the first evidence of cytoplasmic sequestration p53 by mortalin. -- Abstract: While it is known that cytoplasmic retention of p53 occurs in many solid tumors, the mechanisms responsible for this retention have not been positively identified. Since heatshock proteins like mortalin have been associated with p53 inactivation in other tumors, the current study sought to characterize this potential interaction in never before examined colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Six cell lines, one with 3 different fractions, were examined to determine expression of p53 and mortalin and characterize their cellular localization. Most of these cell lines displayed punctate p53 and mortalin localization in the cell cytoplasm with the exception of HCT-8 and HCT116 379.2 cells, where p53 was not detected. Nuclear p53 was only observed in HCT-116 40-16, LS123, and HT-29 cell lines. Mortalin was only localized in the cytoplasm in all cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry revealed that p53 and mortalin were bound and co-localized in the cytoplasmic fraction of four cell lines, HCT-116 (40-16 and 386; parental and heterozygous fractions respectively of the same cell line), HT-29, LS123 and LoVo, implying that p53 nuclear function is limited in those cell lines by being restricted to the cytoplasm. Mortalin gene expression levels were higher than gene expression levels of p53 in all cell lines. Cell lines with cytoplasmic sequestration of p53, however, also displayed elevated p53

  8. Mouse p53-Deficient Cancer Models as Platforms for Obtaining Genomic Predictors of Human Cancer Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas, Marta; Santos, Mirentxu; Aranda, Juan F.; Bielza, Concha; Martínez-Cruz, Ana B.; Lorz, Corina; Taron, Miquel; Ciruelos, Eva M.; Rodríguez-Peralto, José L.; Martín, Miguel; Larrañaga, Pedro; Dahabreh, Jubrail; Stathopoulos, George P.; Rosell, Rafael; Paramio, Jesús M.; García-Escudero, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the TP53 gene are very common in human cancers, and are associated with poor clinical outcome. Transgenic mouse models lacking the Trp53 gene or that express mutant Trp53 transgenes produce tumours with malignant features in many organs. We previously showed the transcriptome of a p53-deficient mouse skin carcinoma model to be similar to those of human cancers with TP53 mutations and associated with poor clinical outcomes. This report shows that much of the 682-gene signature of this murine skin carcinoma transcriptome is also present in breast and lung cancer mouse models in which p53 is inhibited. Further, we report validated gene-expression-based tests for predicting the clinical outcome of human breast and lung adenocarcinoma. It was found that human patients with cancer could be stratified based on the similarity of their transcriptome with the mouse skin carcinoma 682-gene signature. The results also provide new targets for the treatment of p53-defective tumours. PMID:22880004

  9. Targeting of MCL-1 kills MYC-driven mouse and human lymphomas even when they bear mutations in p53.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gemma L; Grabow, Stephanie; Glaser, Stefan P; Fitzsimmons, Leah; Aubrey, Brandon J; Okamoto, Toru; Valente, Liz J; Robati, Mikara; Tai, Lin; Fairlie, W Douglas; Lee, Erinna F; Lindstrom, Mikael S; Wiman, Klas G; Huang, David C S; Bouillet, Philippe; Rowe, Martin; Rickinson, Alan B; Herold, Marco J; Strasser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator c-MYC is abnormally overexpressed in many human cancers. Evasion from apoptosis is critical for cancer development, particularly c-MYC-driven cancers. We explored which anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member (expressed under endogenous regulation) is essential to sustain c-MYC-driven lymphoma growth to reveal which should be targeted for cancer therapy. Remarkably, inducible Cre-mediated deletion of even a single Mcl-1 allele substantially impaired the growth of c-MYC-driven mouse lymphomas. Mutations in p53 could diminish but not obviate the dependency of c-MYC-driven mouse lymphomas on MCL-1. Importantly, targeting of MCL-1 killed c-MYC-driven human Burkitt lymphoma cells, even those bearing mutations in p53. Given that loss of one allele of Mcl-1 is well tolerated in healthy tissues, our results suggest that therapeutic targeting of MCL-1 would be an attractive therapeutic strategy for MYC-driven cancers.

  10. p53 activation by Ni(II) is a HIF-1α independent response causing caspases 9/3-mediated apoptosis in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Victor C.; Morse, Jessica L.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2013-06-15

    Hypoxia mimic nickel(II) is a human respiratory carcinogen with a suspected epigenetic mode of action. We examined whether Ni(II) elicits a toxicologically significant activation of the tumor suppressor p53, which is typically associated with genotoxic responses. We found that treatments of H460 human lung epithelial cells with NiCl{sub 2} caused activating phosphorylation at p53-Ser15, accumulation of p53 protein and depletion of its inhibitor MDM4 (HDMX). Confirming the activation of p53, its knockdown suppressed the ability of Ni(II) to upregulate MDM2 and p21 (CDKN1A). Unlike DNA damage, induction of GADD45A by Ni(II) was p53-independent. Ni(II) also increased p53-Ser15 phosphorylation and p21 expression in normal human lung fibroblasts. Although Ni(II)-induced stabilization of HIF-1α occurred earlier, it had no effect on p53 accumulation and Ser15 phosphorylation. Ni(II)-treated H460 cells showed no evidence of necrosis and their apoptosis and clonogenic death were suppressed by p53 knockdown. The apoptotic role of p53 involved a transcription-dependent program triggering the initiator caspase 9 and its downstream executioner caspase 3. Two most prominently upregulated proapoptotic genes by Ni(II) were PUMA and NOXA but only PUMA induction required p53. Knockdown of p53 also led to derepression of antiapoptotic MCL1 in Ni(II)-treated cells. Overall, our results indicate that p53 plays a major role in apoptotic death of human lung cells by Ni(II). Chronic exposure to Ni(II) may promote selection of resistant cells with inactivated p53, providing an explanation for the origin of p53 mutations by this epigenetic carcinogen. - Highlights: • Ni(II) is a strong activator of the transcription factor p53. • Apoptosis is a principal form of death by Ni(II) in human lung epithelial cells. • Ni(II)-activated p53 triggers caspases 9/3-mediated apoptotic program. • NOXA and PUMA are two main proapoptotic genes induced by Ni(II). • HIF-1α and p53 are independent

  11. Age-Related Susceptibility to Apoptosis in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Is Triggered by Disruption of p53–Mdm2 Association

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Chaum, Edward; Johnson, Dianna A.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Relatively little is known about the contribution of p53/Mdm2 pathway in apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells or its possible link to dysfunction of aging RPE or to related blinding disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Age-associated changes in p53 activation were evaluated in primary RPE cultures from human donor eyes of various ages. Apoptosis was evaluated by activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation. Gene-specific small interfering RNA was used to knock down expression of p53. Results. We observed that the basal rate of p53-dependent apoptosis increased in an age-dependent manner in human RPE. The age-dependent increase in apoptosis was linked to alterations in several aspects of the p53 pathway. p53 phosphorylation Ser15 was increased through the stimulation of ATM-Ser1981. p53 acetylation Lys379 was increased through the inhibition of SIRT1/2. These two posttranslational modifications of p53 blocked the sequestration of p53 by Mdm2, thus resulting in an increase in free p53 and of p53 stimulation of apoptosis through increased expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and activation of caspase-3. Aged RPE also had reduced expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, which contributed to the increase in apoptosis. Of particular interest in these studies was that pharmacologic treatments to block p53 phosphorylation, acetylation, or expression were able to protect RPE cells from apoptosis. Conclusions. Our studies suggest that aging in the RPE leads to alterations of specific checkpoints in the apoptotic pathway, which may represent important molecular targets for the treatment of RPE-related aging disorders such as AMD. PMID:23139272

  12. Intratumoral heterogeneity in a p53 null mouse model of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Tsimelzon, Anna; Chang, Chi-Hsuan; Fan, Cheng; Wolff, Andrew; Perou, Charles M.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Rosen, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity correlates with clinical outcome and reflects the cellular complexity and dynamics within a tumor. Such heterogeneity is thought to contribute to radio- and chemoresistance since many treatments may only target certain tumor cell subpopulations. A better understanding of the functional interactions between various subpopulations of cells, therefore, may help in the development of effective cancer treatments. We identified a unique subpopulation of tumor cells expressing mesenchymal-like markers in a p53 null mouse model of basal-like breast cancer using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and microarray analysis. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed the existence of crosstalk between these “mesenchymal-like” cells and tumor-initiating cells. Knockdown of genes encoding ligands upregulated in the mesenchymal cells and their corresponding receptors in the tumor-initiating cells resulted in reduced tumorigenicity and increased tumor latency. These studies illustrate the non-cell autonomous properties and importance of cooperativity between tumor subpopulations. PMID:25735774

  13. Localization of the E6-AP regions that direct human papillomavirus E6 binding, association with p53, and ubiquitination of associated proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Huibregtse, J M; Scheffner, M; Howley, P M

    1993-01-01

    E6-AP is a 100-kDa cellular protein that mediates the interaction of the human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 E6 proteins with p53. The association of p53 with E6 and E6-AP promotes the specific ubiquitination and subsequent proteolytic degradation of p53 in vitro. We recently isolated a cDNA encoding E6-AP and have now mapped functional domains of E6-AP involved in binding E6, association with p53, and ubiquitination of p53. The E6 binding domain consists of an 18-amino-acid region within the central portion of the molecule. Deletion of these 18 amino acids from E6-AP results in loss of both E6 and p53 binding activities. The region that directs p53 binding spans the E6 binding domain and consists of approximately 500 amino acids. E6-AP sequences in addition to those required for formation of a stable ternary complex with E6 and p53 are necessary to stimulate the ubiquitination of p53. These sequences lie within the C-terminal 84 amino acids of E6-AP. The entire region required for E6-dependent ubiquitination of p53 is also required for the ubiquitination of an artificial E6 fusion protein. Images PMID:8393140

  14. Gene expression profiling of mouse p53-deficient epidermal carcinoma defines molecular determinants of human cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The epidermal specific ablation of Trp53 gene leads to the spontaneous development of aggressive tumors in mice through a process that is accelerated by the simultaneous ablation of Rb gene. Since alterations of p53-dependent pathway are common hallmarks of aggressive, poor prognostic human cancers, these mouse models can recapitulate the molecular features of some of these human malignancies. Results To evaluate this possibility, gene expression microarray analysis was performed in mouse samples. The mouse tumors display increased expression of cell cycle and chromosomal instability associated genes. Remarkably, they are also enriched in human embryonic stem cell gene signatures, a characteristic feature of human aggressive tumors. Using cross-species comparison and meta-analytical approaches, we also observed that spontaneous mouse tumors display robust similarities with gene expression profiles of human tumors bearing mutated TP53, or displaying poor prognostic outcome, from multiple body tissues. We have obtained a 20-gene signature whose genes are overexpressed in mouse tumors and can identify human tumors with poor outcome from breast cancer, astrocytoma and multiple myeloma. This signature was consistently overexpressed in additional mouse tumors using microarray analysis. Two of the genes of this signature, AURKA and UBE2C, were validated in human breast and cervical cancer as potential biomarkers of malignancy. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrate that these mouse models are promising preclinical tools aimed to search for malignancy biomarkers and to test targeted therapies of prospective use in human aggressive tumors and/or with p53 mutation or inactivation. PMID:20630075

  15. Disposable Amperometric Immunosensor for the Determination of Human P53 Protein in Cell Lysates Using Magnetic Micro-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Pedrero, María; Manuel de Villena, F. Javier; Muñoz-San Martín, Cristina; Campuzano, Susana; Garranzo-Asensio, María; Barderas, Rodrigo; Pingarrón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    An amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the determination of human p53 protein is described in this work using a sandwich configuration involving the covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs) and incubation of the modified MBs with a mixture of the target protein and horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody (HRP-anti-p53). The resulting modified MBs are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and the amperometric responses are measured at −0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as a redox mediator and H2O2 as the enzyme substrate. The magnetoimmunosensing platform was successfully applied for the detection of p53 protein in different cell lysates without any matrix effect after a simple sample dilution. The results correlated accurately with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit, thus confirming the immunosensor as an attractive alternative for rapid and simple determination of this protein using portable and affordable instrumentation. PMID:27879639

  16. The carcinogenic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone induces GC to TA transversion mutations in human p53 sequences.

    PubMed

    vom Brocke, Jochen; Krais, Annette; Whibley, Catherine; Hollstein, Monica C; Schmeiser, Heinz H

    2009-01-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and a suspected human carcinogen present in particulate matter of diesel exhaust and ambient air pollution. Employing an assay with human p53 knock-in (Hupki) murine embryonic fibroblasts (HUFs), we examined p53 mutations induced by 3-NBA and its active metabolite, N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA). Twenty-nine immortalized cultures (cell lines) from 89 HUF primary cultures exposed at passage 1 for 5 days to 2 microM 3-NBA harboured 22 different mutations in the human DNA-binding domain sequence of the Hupki p53 tumour suppressor gene. The most frequently observed mutation was GC to TA transversion (46%), corroborating previous mutation studies with 3-NBA, and consistent with the presence of persistent 3-NBA-guanosine adducts found in DNA of exposed rodents. Six of the transversions found solely in 3-NBA-treated HUFs have not been detected thus far in untreated HUFs, but have been found repeatedly in human lung tumours. (32)P-post-labelling adduct analysis of DNA from HUF cells treated with 2 microM 3-NBA for 5 days showed a pattern similar to that found in vivo, indicating the metabolic competence of HUF cells to metabolize 3-NBA to electrophilic intermediates. Total DNA binding was 160 +/- 56 per 10(7) normal nucleotides with N(2)-guanosine being the major adduct. In contrast, identical treatment with N-OH-3-ABA resulted in a 100-fold lower level of specific DNA adducts and no carcinogen-specific mutation pattern in the Hupki assay. This indicates that the level of DNA adduct formation by the mutagen is critical to obtain specific mutation spectra in the assay. Our results are consistent with previous experiments in Muta Mouse and are compatible with the possibility that diesel exhaust exposure contributes to mutation load in humans and to lung cancer risk.

  17. Differences in the ability of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 tax to inhibit p53 function.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, R; Pise-Masison, C A; Lambert, P F; Nicot, C; De Marchis, L; Gessain, A; Green, P; Hall, W; Brady, J N

    2000-08-01

    We have analyzed the functional activity of the p53 tumor suppressor in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2)-transformed cells. Abundant levels of the p53 protein were detected in both HTLV-2A and -2B virus-infected cell lines. The p53 was functionally inactive, however, both in transient-transfection assays using a p53 reporter plasmid and in induction of p53-responsive genes in response to gamma irradiation. We further investigated HTLV-2A Tax and HTLV-2B Tax effects on p53 activity. Interestingly, although Tax-2A and -2B inactivate p53, the Tax-2A protein appears to inhibit p53 function less efficiently than either Tax-1 or Tax-2B. In transient-cotransfection assays, Tax-1 and Tax-2B inactivated p53 by 80%, while Tax2A reduced p53 activity by 20%. In addition, Tax-2A does not increase the steady-state level of cellular p53 as well as Tax-1 or -2B does in the same assays. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that Tax-2A could efficiently transactivate CREB-responsive promoters to the same level as Tax-1 and Tax-2B, indicating that the protein was functional. This report provides evidence of the first functional difference between the HTLV-2A and -2B subtypes. This comparison of the action of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax proteins on p53 function will provide important insights into the mechanism of HTLV transformation.

  18. Differences in the Ability of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 Tax To Inhibit p53 Function

    PubMed Central

    Mahieux, Renaud; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A.; Lambert, Paul F.; Nicot, Christophe; De Marchis, Laura; Gessain, Antoine; Green, Patrick; Hall, William; Brady, John N.

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed the functional activity of the p53 tumor suppressor in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2)-transformed cells. Abundant levels of the p53 protein were detected in both HTLV-2A and -2B virus-infected cell lines. The p53 was functionally inactive, however, both in transient-transfection assays using a p53 reporter plasmid and in induction of p53-responsive genes in response to gamma irradiation. We further investigated HTLV-2A Tax and HTLV-2B Tax effects on p53 activity. Interestingly, although Tax-2A and -2B inactivate p53, the Tax-2A protein appears to inhibit p53 function less efficiently than either Tax-1 or Tax-2B. In transient-cotransfection assays, Tax-1 and Tax-2B inactivated p53 by 80%, while Tax2A reduced p53 activity by 20%. In addition, Tax-2A does not increase the steady-state level of cellular p53 as well as Tax-1 or -2B does in the same assays. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that Tax-2A could efficiently transactivate CREB-responsive promoters to the same level as Tax-1 and Tax-2B, indicating that the protein was functional. This report provides evidence of the first functional difference between the HTLV-2A and -2B subtypes. This comparison of the action of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax proteins on p53 function will provide important insights into the mechanism of HTLV transformation. PMID:10888626

  19. The role of tumor protein 53 mutations in common human cancers and targeting the murine double minute 2-p53 interaction for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamzehloie, Tayebeh; Mojarrad, Majid; Hasanzadeh Nazarabadi, Mohammad; Shekouhi, Sahar

    2012-03-01

    The gene TP53 (also known as protein 53 or tumor protein 53), encoding transcription factor P53, is mutated or deleted in half of human cancers, demonstrating the crucial role of P53 in tumor suppression. There are reports of nearly 250 independent germ line TP53 mutations in over 100 publications. The P53 protein has the structure of a transcription factor and, is made up of several domains. The main function of P53 is to organize cell defense against cancerous transformation. P53 is a potent transcription factor that is activated in response to diverse stresses, leading to the induction of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence. The P53 tumor suppressor is negatively regulated in cells by the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) protein. Murine double minute 2 favors its nuclear export, and stimulates its degradation. Inhibitors of the P53-MDM2 interaction might be attractive new anticancer agents that could be used to activate wild-type P53 in tumors. Down regulation of MDM2 using an small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach has recently provided evidence for a new role of MDM2 in the P53 response, by modulating the inhibition of the cyclindependent kinase 2 (cdk2) by P21/WAF1 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1).

  20. p53 amplifies Toll-like receptor 5 response in human primary and cancer cells through interaction with multiple signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shatz, Maria; Shats, Igor; Menendez, Daniel; Resnick, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor regulates transcription of genes associated with diverse cellular functions including apoptosis, growth arrest, DNA repair and differentiation. Recently, we established that p53 can modulate expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) innate immunity genes but the degree of cross-talk between p53 and TLR pathways remained unclear. Here, using gene expression profiling we characterize the global effect of p53 on the TLR5-mediated transcription in MCF7 cells. We found that combined activation of p53 and TLR5 pathways synergistically increases expression of over 200 genes, mostly associated with immunity and inflammation. The synergy was observed in several human cancer cells and primary lymphocytes. The p53-dependent amplification of transcriptional response to TLR5 activation required expression of NFκB subunit p65 and was mediated by several molecular mechanisms including increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, PI3K and STAT3 signaling. Additionally, p53 induction increased cytokine expression in response to TNFα, another activator of NFκB and MAP kinase pathways, suggesting a broad interaction between p53 and these signaling pathways. The expression of many synergistically induced genes is elevated in breast cancer patients responsive to chemotherapy. We suggest that p53's capacity to enhance immune response could be exploited to increase antitumor immunity and to improve cancer treatment. PMID:26220208

  1. Biological functions of p53 isoforms through evolution: lessons from animal and cellular models.

    PubMed

    Marcel, V; Dichtel-Danjoy, M-L; Sagne, C; Hafsi, H; Ma, D; Ortiz-Cuaran, S; Olivier, M; Hall, J; Mollereau, B; Hainaut, P; Bourdon, J-C

    2011-12-01

    The TP53 tumour-suppressor gene is expressed as several protein isoforms generated by different mechanisms, including use of alternative promoters, splicing sites and translational initiation sites, that are conserved through evolution and within the TP53 homologues, TP63 and TP73. Although first described in the eighties, the importance of p53 isoforms in regulating the suppressive functions of p53 has only become evident in the last 10 years, by analogy with observations that p63 and p73 isoforms appeared indispensable to fully understand the biological functions of TP63 and TP73. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of 'p53 isoforms', including new data on p63 and p73 isoforms. Details of the alternative mechanisms that produce p53 isoforms and cis- and trans-regulators identified are provided. The main focus is on their biological functions (apoptosis, cell cycle, aging and so on) in cellular and animal models, including mouse, zebrafish and Drosophila. Finally, the deregulation of p53 isoform expression in human cancers is reviewed. Based on these latest results, several developments are expected in the future: the identification of drugs modulating p53 isoform expression; the generation of animal models and the evaluation of the use of p53 isoform as biomarkers in human cancers.

  2. Addition of TAT protein transduction domain and GrpE to human p53 provides soluble fusion proteins that can be transduced into dendritic cells and elicit p53-specific T-cell responses in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Justesen, S; Buus, S; Claesson, M H; Pedersen, A E

    2007-01-01

    The protein p53 has been shown to be an efficient tumour antigen in both murine and human cancer vaccine studies and cancer vaccines targeting p53 based on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I binding p53-derived peptides that induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) without p53-specific CD4+ T-cell help have been tested by several research groups including ours. To obtain such CD4+ T-cell help and cover a broader repertoire of MHC haplotypes we have previously attempted to produce recombinant human p53 for vaccination purposes. However, attempts to refold a hexahis-tagged p53 protein in our laboratory were unsuccessful. Here, we show that fusion of an 11-amino-acid region of the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein transduction domain (PTD) to human p53 increases the solubility of the otherwise insoluble p53 protein and this rTAT-p53 protein can be transduced into human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). The induction of a p53-specific HLA-A*0201 immune response was tested in HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mice after immunization with rTAT-p53-transduced bone-marrow-derived DCs. In these mice, p53-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation was observed and immunization resulted in the induction of HLA-A*0201-restricted CTLs specific for two human p53-derived HLA-A*0201-binding peptides, p5365−73 and p53149−157. Addition of GrpE to generate rTAT-GrpE-p53 led to a further increase in protein solubility and to a small increase in DC maturation but did not increase the observed p53-specific T-cell responses. The use of rTAT-p53 in ongoing clinical protocols should be applicable and offers advantages to current strategies omitting the use of HLA-typed patients. PMID:17610503

  3. p53 is preferentially recruited to the promoters of growth arrest genes p21 and GADD45 during replicative senescence of normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jackson, James G; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M

    2006-09-01

    Replicative senescence is the terminal growth arrest that most normal human cells enter into after a fixed number of divisions in vitro, limiting the proliferative potential of a cell and preventing genomic instability caused by critically short telomeres. Thus, senescence presents a tumor-suppressive mechanism and a barrier to tumor formation. However, senescent cells are inherently resistant to apoptosis and, as they accumulate in aging tissues, may contribute to organ dysfunction and promote tumor progression as part of the stromal environment. Replicative life span in normal human cells can be extended by inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 or its direct target, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, suggesting a direct role for this pathway in senescence. However, p53 recruitment to promoters of target genes during replicative senescence has not been shown in live cells. In this study, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine that p53 preferentially occupied the promoters of growth arrest genes p21 and GADD45 in senescent normal human diploid fibroblasts but not the promoters of other target genes that recruited p53 following doxorubicin-induced DNA damage, such as apoptosis regulators TNFRSF10b, TNFRSF6, and PUMA. This differential recruitment of p53 in senescent versus doxorubicin-treated fibroblasts was accompanied by differences in post-translational modification of p53. These data provide mechanisms for both the growth arrest mediated by p53 and the resistant nature of senescent cells to apoptosis despite p53 activity.

  4. Human thyroid cancer cells as a source of iso-genic, iso-phenotypic cell lines with or without functional p53

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, F S; Haughton, M F; Rowson, J M; Wynford-Thomas, D

    1999-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (in contrast to the rarer anaplastic form) are unusual among human cancers in displaying a remarkably low frequency of p53 mutation and appear to retain wild-type (wt) p53 function as assessed by the response of derived cell lines to DNA damage. Using one such cell line, K1, we have tested the effect of experimental abrogation of p53 function by generating matched sub-clones stably expressing either a neo control gene, a dominant-negative mutant p53 (143ala) or human papilloma virus protein HPV16 E6. Loss of p53 function in the latter two groups was confirmed by abolition of p53-dependent ‘stress’ responses including induction of the cyclin/CDK inhibitor p21WAF1 and G1/S arrest following DNA-damage. In contrast, no change was detected in the phenotype of ‘unstressed’ clones, with respect to any of the following parameters: proliferation rate in monolayer, serum-dependence for proliferation or survival, tumorigenicity, cellular morphology, or tissue-specific differentiation markers. The K1 line therefore represents a ‘neutral’ background with respect to p53 function, permitting the derivation of functionally p53 + or − clones which are not only iso-genic but also iso-phenotypic. Such a panel should be an ideal tool with which to test the p53-dependence of cellular stress responses, particularly the sensitivity to potential therapeutic agents, free from the confounding additional phenotypic differences which usually accompany loss of p53 function. The results also further support the hypothesis that p53 mutation alone is not sufficient to drive progression of thyroid cancer to the aggressive anaplastic form. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098744

  5. p53 missense but not truncation mutations are associated with low levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA expression in primary human sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Mousses, S; Gokgoz, N; Wunder, J S; Ozcelik, H; Bull, S; Bell, R S; Andrulis, I L

    2001-01-01

    Many growth-suppressing signals converge to control the levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1/WAF1. Some human cancers exhibit low levels of expression of p21CIP1/WAF1and mutations in p53 have been implicated in this down-regulation. To evaluate whether the presence of p53 mutations was related to the in vivo expression of p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA in sarcomas we measured the p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA levels for a group of 71 primary bone and soft tissue tumours with known p53 status. As expected, most tumours with p53 mutations expressed low levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA. However, we identified a group of tumours with p53 gene mutations that exhibited normal or higher levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA. The p53 mutations in the latter group were not the common missense mutations in exons 4–9, but were predominantly nonsense mutations predicted to result in truncation of the p53 protein. The results of this study suggest that different types of p53 mutations can have different effects on the expression of downstream genes such as p21CIP1/WAF1 in human sarcomas. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11401317

  6. Effect of an hdm-2 antagonist peptide inhibitor on cell cycle progression in p53-deficient H1299 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    VanderBorght, A; Valckx, A; Van Dun, J; Grand-Perret, T; De Schepper, S; Vialard, J; Janicot, M; Arts, J

    2006-10-26

    The hdm-2 oncogene is overexpressed in several types of malignancies including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcomas and gliomas and hdm-2 has been associated with accelerated tumor formation in both hereditary and sporadic cancers. Among the other key binding partners, hdm-2 forms a complex with the tumor suppressor p53, resulting in a rapid proteasome-mediated degradation of the p53 protein. This positions the hdm-2-p53 complex as an attractive target for the development of anticancer therapy and recently the first small molecule hdm-2 antagonist has been reported. Development of hdm-2 antagonists is currently focused on malignancies containing a wild-type p53 genotype, which is the case in approximately half of human cancer indications. However, hdm-2 has also been implicated in oncogenesis in the absence of p53. We therefore studied the effect of hdm-2 antagonists in p53-deficient human H1299 lung carcinoma cells. The hdm-2 antagonistic peptide caused G1 cell cycle arrest, inhibited colony growth and induced expression of G1 checkpoint regulatory proteins, such as p21(waf1,cip1). These data demonstrate that hdm-2 regulates the G1 cell cycle checkpoint in a p53-independent manner, suggesting that hdm-2 antagonists represent a novel class of anticancer therapeutics with broad applicability towards tumors with different p53 genetic backgrounds.

  7. Control of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by p63.

    PubMed

    Truong, Amy B; Khavari, Paul A

    2007-02-01

    The p53 family member p63 has been implicated in both the development and maintenance of stratified epithelial tissues, including the epidermis. Increasing data support p63 function in the regenerative capacity of basal keratinocytes by maintaining cell proliferation. Recent studies further suggest this regulation relies on inhibition of p53 activity. In addition, p63 appears to exert separate control over epidermal differentiation, which may involve control of such key signaling molecules as IKKalpha and Notch. While studies over the past decade have greatly expanded our knowledge of p63 function, much remains to be understood regarding how p63 regulates epidermal homeostasis. Future efforts to identify and validate direct p63 target genes as well as to understand the expression and function of individual p63 isoforms will be important to further define how p63 functions in the control of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

  8. UVB-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances resistance of normal human keratinocytes to apoptosis by stabilizing cytoplasmic p53.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Nadine; Valerie, Kristoffer; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Huot, Jacques

    2002-07-01

    Human keratinocytes respond to UV rays by developing a fast adaptive response that contributes to maintaining their functions and survival. We investigated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in transducing the UV signals in normal human keratinocytes. We found that UVA, UVB or UVC induced a marked and persistent activation of p38, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase were less or not activated respectively. Inhibition of p38 activity by expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p38 or with SB203580 impaired cell viability and led to an increase in UVB-induced apoptosis. This sensitization to apoptosis was independent of caspase activities. Inhibition of p38 did not sensitize transformed HaCaT keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis. In normal keratinocytes, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p53 increased UVB-induced cell death, pointing to a role for p53. In these cells, UVB triggered a p38-dependent phosphorylation of p53 on Ser-15. This phosphorylation was associated with an SB203580-sensitive accumulation of p53, even in the presence of a serine phosphatase inhibitor. Accumulated p53 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, independently of CRM1 nuclear export. In HaCaT cells, p53 was localized exclusively in the nucleus and its distribution and level were not affected by UVB or p38 inhibition. However, UVB induced an SB203580-insensitive phosphorylation on Ser-15 of mutated p53. Overall, our results suggest that, in normal human keratinocytes, protection against UVB depends on p38-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of p53 and is tightly associated with the cytoplasmic sequestration of wild-type p53. We conclude that the p38/p53 pathway plays a key role in the adaptive response of normal human keratinocytes against UV stress.

  9. Kaempferol induces ATM/p53-mediated death receptor and mitochondrial apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiu-Fang; Yang, Jai-Sing; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Chen, Chun; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-05-01

    Kaempferol is a member of the flavonoid compounds found in vegetables and fruits. It is shown to exhibit biological impact and anticancer activity, but no report exists on the angiogenic effect of kaempferol and induction of cell apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we investigated the role of kaempferol on anti-angiogenic property and the apoptotic mechanism of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results demonstrated that kaempferol decreased HUVEC viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol also induced morphological changes and sub-G1 phase cell population (apoptotic cells). Kaempferol triggered apoptosis of HUVECs as detecting by DNA fragmentation, comet assay and immunofluorescent staining for activated caspase-3. The caspase signals, including caspase-8, -9 and -3, were time-dependently activated in HUVECs after kaempferol exposure. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a specific inhibitor of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-FMK) significantly reduced the activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3, indicating that extrinsic pathway is a major signaling pathway in kaempferol-treated HUVECs. Importantly, kaempferol promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluated using flow cytometric assay in HUVECs. We further investigated the upstream extrinsic pathway and showed that kaempferol stimulated death receptor signals [Fas/CD95, death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5] through increasing the levels of phosphorylated p53 and phosphorylated ATM pathways in HUVECs, which can be individually confirmed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ATM specific inhibitor (caffeine) and p53 siRNA. Based on these results, kaempferol-induced HUVEC apoptosis was involved in an ROS-mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. Kaempferol might possess therapeutic effects on cancer treatment in anti-vascular targeting.

  10. APR-246/PRIMA-1(MET) rescues epidermal differentiation in skin keratinocytes derived from EEC syndrome patients with p63 mutations.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinfeng; van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Kouwenhoven, Evelyn N; Bykov, Vladimir J N; Rinne, Tuula; Zhang, Qiang; Tjabringa, Geuranne S; Gilissen, Christian; van Heeringen, Simon J; Schalkwijk, Joost; van Bokhoven, Hans; Wiman, Klas G; Zhou, Huiqing

    2013-02-05

    p53 and p63 share extensive sequence and structure homology. p53 is frequently mutated in cancer, whereas mutations in p63 cause developmental disorders manifested in ectodermal dysplasia, limb defects, and orofacial clefting. We have established primary adult skin keratinocytes from ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome patients with p63 mutations as an in vitro human model to study the disease mechanism in the skin of EEC patients. We show that these patient keratinocytes cultured either in submerged 2D cultures or in 3D skin equivalents have impaired epidermal differentiation and stratification. Treatment of these patient keratinocytes with the mutant p53-targeting compound APR-246/PRIMA-1(MET) (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis) that has been successfully tested in a phase I/II clinical trial in cancer patients partially but consistently rescued morphological features and gene expression during epidermal stratification in both 2D and 3D models. This rescue coincides with restoration of p63 target-gene expression. Our data show that EEC patient keratinocytes with p63 mutations can be used for characterization of the abnormal molecular circuitry in patient skin and may open possibilities for the design of novel pharmacological treatment strategies for patients with mutant p63-associated developmental abnormalities.

  11. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induced by tamoxifen in human bile duct carcinoma QBC939 cells via upregulated p53 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Peng; Kang, Jin-He; Li, Hua-Liang; Hu, Su-Xian; Lian, Hui-Hui; Qiu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Jian; Li, Wen-Gang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2009-07-24

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is a nonsteroidal antiestrogen that has been used in the treatment of breast cancer for over 30 years. Recently, it was shown that TAM also has efficacy on gastrointestinal neoplasms such as hepatocarcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma, and that the chemopreventive activities of TAM might be due to its abilities to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tamoxifen on growth and apoptosis in the human bile duct carcinoma (BDC) cell line QBC939 using MTT assay, inverted microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, classic DNA fragmentation agarose gel electrophoresis assay, PI single- and FITC/PI double-staining flow cytometry, and Western blotting. Our data revealed that TAM could significantly inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in QBC939 cells. Increased expression of p53 was observed in TAM-treated cells, indicating that p53 might play an important role in TAM-induced apoptosis in QBC939 cells. These results provide significant insight into the anticarcinogenic action of TAM on BDC.

  12. Mutant p53 can induce tumorigenic conversion of human bronchial epithelial cells and reduce their responsiveness to a negative growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gerwin, B I; Spillare, E; Forrester, K; Lehman, T A; Kispert, J; Welsh, J A; Pfeifer, A M; Lechner, J F; Baker, S J; Vogelstein, B

    1992-01-01

    Loss of normal functions and gain of oncogenic functions when the p53 tumor suppressor gene is mutated are considered critical events in the development of the majority of human cancers. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) provide an in vitro model system to study growth, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation of progenitor cells of lung carcinoma. When wild-type (WT) or mutant (MT; codon 143Val-Ala) human p53 cDNA was transfected into nontumorigenic BEAS-2B cells, we observed that (i) transfected WT p53 suppresses and MT p53 enhances the colony-forming efficiency of these cells, (ii) MT p53 increases resistance to transforming growth factor beta 1, and (iii) clones of MT p53 transfected BEAS-2B cells are tumorigenic when inoculated into athymic nude mice. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that certain mutations in p53 may function in multistage lung carcinogenesis by reducing the responsiveness of bronchial epithelial cells to negative growth factors. Images PMID:1557382

  13. R280T mutation of p53 gene promotes proliferation of human glioma cells through GSK-3β/PTEN pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chenli; Liang, Yinji; Zhu, Huili; Zhang, Jijun; Zhong, Xueyun

    2012-10-31

    p53 mutation is associated with "gain-of-function" capabilities of human cancers. We aim to identify p53 mutations in human glioma cells and to explore the potential mechanism for mutant p53-promoted cellular growth. Whole genomic DNA was isolated from SWO-38, a human glioma cell line and amplified for the region of exons 5, 6, and 8 in p53 gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By means of direct sequencing of PCR products and alignment analysis using BLAST database, a mutation of G to C transition at codon 280 of p53 exon 8 (AGA→ACA), i.e. R280T was detected in SWO-38 cells. Knockdown of R280T mutant p53 by RNA interference inhibited the GSK-3β/PTEN associated cell proliferation, and PI3K/Akt but not Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was involved in this process. Furthermore, depletion or overexpression of PTEN alone did not affect cell proliferation and cell cycle, implicating the impairment of PTEN function in SWO-38 cells. However, knockdown of both PTEN and p53 mutation could significantly rescue the p53 depletion-mediated growth inhibition, suggesting that the R280T mutation in glioma may promote the proliferation through an underlying mechanism related to PTEN. Our observations indicate that the R280T mutation of p53 regulates the proliferation of human glioma cells related to the GSK-3β/PTEN pathway. These findings provide valuable insights for better understanding the molecular mechanism of uncontrolled growth of glioma cells.

  14. Hypoxia induces p53 accumulation in the S-phase and accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in all cell cycle phases of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, T.; Hvidsten, M.; Stokke, T.; Solberg, K.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to induce accumulation of p53 and of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in tumour cells. In this study, the cell cycle dependence of p53 accumulation and pRb hypophosphorylation in four human melanoma cell lines that are wild type for p53 was investigated using two-parameter flow cytometry measurements of p53 or pRb protein content and DNA content. The hypoxia-induced increase in p53 protein was higher in S-phase than in G1 and G2 phases in all cell lines. The accumulation of p53 in S-phase during hypoxia was not related to hypoxia-induced apoptosis or substantial cell cycle specific cell inactivation during the first 24 h of reoxygenation. pRb was hypophosphorylated in all cell cycle phases by hypoxia treatment. The results did not support a direct link between p53 and pRb during hypoxia because p53 was induced in a cell cycle-specific manner, whereas no cell cycle-dependent differences in pRb hypophosphorylation were detected. Only a fraction of the cell populations (0.60+/-0.10) showed hypophosphorylated pRb. Thus, pRb is probably not the only mediator of the hypoxia-induced cell cycle block seen in all cells and all cell cycle phases. Moreover, the cell cycle-dependent induction of p53 by hypoxia suggests that the primary function of p53 accumulation during hypoxia is other than to arrest the cells. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:9862563

  15. Human p53 interacts with the elongating RNAPII complex and is required for the release of actinomycin D induced transcription blockage

    PubMed Central

    Borsos, Barbara N.; Huliák, Ildikó; Majoros, Hajnalka; Ujfaludi, Zsuzsanna; Gyenis, Ákos; Pukler, Peter; Boros, Imre M.; Pankotai, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor regulates the transcription initiation of selected genes by binding to specific DNA sequences at their promoters. Here we report a novel role of p53 in transcription elongation in human cells. Our data demonstrate that upon transcription elongation blockage, p53 is associated with genes that have not been reported as its direct targets. p53 could be co-immunoprecipitated with active forms of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1), highlighting its association with the elongating RNA polymerase II. During a normal transcription cycle, p53 and RPB1 are localised at distinct regions of selected non-canonical p53 target genes and this pattern of localisation was changed upon blockage of transcription elongation. Additionally, transcription elongation blockage induced the proteasomal degradation of RPB1. Our results reveal a novel role of p53 in human cells during transcription elongation blockage that may facilitate the removal of RNA polymerase II from DNA. PMID:28102346

  16. Cellular transcriptional profiling in human lung epithelial cells infected by different subtypes of influenza A viruses reveals an overall down-regulation of the host p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses can modulate and hijack several cellular signalling pathways to efficiently support their replication. We recently investigated and compared the cellular gene expression profiles of human lung A549 cells infected by five different subtypes of human and avian influenza viruses (Josset et al. Plos One 2010). Using these transcriptomic data, we have focused our analysis on the modulation of the p53 pathway in response to influenza infection. Results Our results were supported by both RT-qPCR and western blot analyses and reveal multiple alterations of the p53 pathway during infection. A down-regulation of mRNA expression was observed for the main regulators of p53 protein stability during infection by the complete set of viruses tested, and a significant decrease in p53 mRNA expression was also observed in H5N1 infected cells. In addition, several p53 target genes were also down-regulated by these influenza viruses and the expression of their product reduced. Conclusions Our data reveal that influenza viruses cause an overall down-regulation of the host p53 pathway and highlight this pathway and p53 protein itself as important viral targets in the altering of apoptotic processes and in cell-cycle regulation. PMID:21651802

  17. Deficiency in p53 is required for doxorubicin induced transcriptional activation of NF-κB target genes in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalmases, Alba; González, Irene; Menendez, Silvia; Arpí, Oriol; Corominas, Josep Maria; Servitja, Sonia; Tusquets, Ignasi; Chamizo, Cristina; Rincón, Raúl; Espinosa, Lluis; Bigas, Anna; Eroles, Pilar; Furriol, Jessica; Lluch, Anna; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; Rojo, Federico

    2014-01-01

    NF-κB has been linked to doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer patients. NF-κB nuclear translocation and DNA binding in doxorubicin treated-breast cancer cells have been extensively examined; however its functional relevance at transcriptional level on NF-κB -dependent genes and the biological consequences are unclear. We studied NF-κB -dependent gene expression induced by doxorubicin in breast cancer cells and fresh human cancer specimens with different genetic backgrounds focusing on their p53 status. NF-κB -dependent signature of doxorubicin was identified by gene expression microarrays in breast cancer cells treated with doxorubicin and the IKKβ-inhibitor MLN120B, and confirmed ex vivo in human cancer samples. The association with p53 was functionally validated. Finally, NF-κB activation and p53 status was determined in a cohort of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. Doxorubicin treatment in the p53-mutated MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in NF NF-κB driven-gene transcription signature. Modulation of genes related with invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance (ICAM-1, CXCL1, TNFAIP3, IL8) were confirmed in additional doxorubicin-treated cell lines and fresh primary human breast tumors. In both systems, p53-defcient background correlated with the activation of the NF-κB -dependent signature. Furthermore, restoration of p53WT in the mutant p53 MDA-MB-231 cells impaired NF-κB driven transcription induced by doxorubicin. Moreover, a p53 deficient background and nuclear NF-κB /p65 in breast cancer patients correlated with reduced disease free-survival. This study supports that p53 deficiency is necessary for a doxorubicin driven NF-κB -response that limits doxorubicin cytotoxicity in breast cancer and is linked to an aggressive clinical behavior. PMID:24344116

  18. Deficiency in p53 is required for doxorubicin induced transcriptional activation of NF-кB target genes in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalmases, Alba; González, Irene; Menendez, Silvia; Arpí, Oriol; Corominas, Josep Maria; Servitja, Sonia; Tusquets, Ignasi; Chamizo, Cristina; Rincón, Raúl; Espinosa, Lluis; Bigas, Anna; Eroles, Pilar; Furriol, Jessica; Lluch, Anna; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; Rojo, Federico

    2014-01-15

    NF-кB has been linked to doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer patients. NF-кB nuclear translocation and DNA binding in doxorubicin treated-breast cancer cells have been extensively examined; however its functional relevance at transcriptional level on NF-кB-dependent genes and the biological consequences are unclear. We studied NF-кB-dependent gene expression induced by doxorubicin in breast cancer cells and fresh human cancer specimens with different genetic backgrounds focusing on their p53 status. NF-кB-dependent signature of doxorubicin was identified by gene expression microarrays in breast cancer cells treated with doxorubicin and the IKKβ-inhibitor MLN120B, and confirmed ex vivo in human cancer samples. The association with p53 was functionally validated. Finally, NF-кB activation and p53 status was determined in a cohort of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. Doxorubicin treatment in the p53-mutated MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in NF-кB driven-gene transcription signature. Modulation of genes related with invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance (ICAM-1, CXCL1, TNFAIP3, IL8) were confirmed in additional doxorubicin-treated cell lines and fresh primary human breast tumors. In both systems, p53-deficient background correlated with the activation of the NF-кB-dependent signature. Furthermore, restoration of p53WT in the mutant p53 MDA-MB-231 cells impaired NF-кB driven transcription induced by doxorubicin. Moreover, a p53 deficient background and nuclear NF-кB/p65 in breast cancer patients correlated with reduced disease free-survival. This study supports that p53 deficiency is necessary for a doxorubicin driven NF-кB-response that limits doxorubicin cytotoxicity in breast cancer and is linked to an aggressive clinical behavior.

  19. Different Mutant/Wild-Type p53 Combinations Cause a Spectrum of Increased Invasive Potential in Nonmalignant Immortalized Human Mammary Epithelial Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Junk, Damian J; Vrba, Lukas; Watts, George S; Oshiro, Marc M; Martinez, Jesse D; Futscher, Bernard W

    2008-01-01

    Aberrations of p53 occur in most, if not all, human cancers. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is the most common genetic defect related to a single gene. Immortalized human mammary epithelial cells resemble the earliest forms of aberrant breast tissue growth but do not express many malignancy-associated phenotypes. We created a model of human mammary epithelial tumorigenesis by infecting hTERT-HME1 immortalized human mammary epithelial cells expressing wild-type p53 with four different mutant p53 constructs to determine the role of p53 mutation on the evolution of tumor phenotypes. We demonstrate that different mutant/wild-type p53 heterozygous models generate loss of function, dominant negative activity, and a spectrum of gain of function activities that induce varying degrees of invasive potential. We suggest that this model can be used to elucidate changes that occur in early stages of human mammary epithelial tumorigenesis. These changes may constitute novel biomarkers or reveal novel treatment modalities that could inhibit progression from primary to metastatic breast disease. PMID:18472962

  20. Synergistic anticancer effect of exogenous wild-type p53 gene combined with 5-FU in human colon cancer resistant to 5-FU in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Min-Yi; Zhang, Ding-Xuan; Yang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Bao-Shuai; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jin; Zhong, Wei-De; Hu, Jia-Ni

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the anticancer effect of a recombinant adenovirus-mediated p53 (rAd-p53) combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human colon cancer resistant to 5-FU in vivo and the mechanism of rAd-p53 in reversal of 5-FU resistance. METHODS Nude mice bearing human colon cancer SW480/5-FU (5-FU resistant) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 25 each): control group, 5-FU group, rAd-p53 group, and rAd-p53 + 5-FU group. At 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h and 168 h after treatment, 5 mice were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed using an overdose of anesthetics. The tumors were removed and the protein expressions of p53, protein kinase C (PKC), permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) (Western blot) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were determined. RESULTS The area ratios of tumor cell apoptosis were larger in the rAd/p53 + 5-FU group than that in the control, 5-FU and rAd/p53 groups (P < 0.05), and were larger in the rAd/p53 group than that of the control group (P < 0.05) and the 5-FU group at more than 48 h (P < 0.05). The p53 expression was higher in the rAd/p53 and the rAd/p53 + 5-FU groups than that of the control and 5-FU groups (P < 0.05), and were higher in the rAd/p53 + 5-FU group than that of the rAd/p53 group (P < 0.05). Overexpression of PKC, P-gp and MRP1 was observed in the 5-FU and control groups. In the rAd/p53 + 5-FU group, the expression of P-gp and MRP1 was lower that of the control and 5-FU groups (P < 0.05), and the expression of PKC was lower than that of the control, 5-FU and rAd/p53 groups at more than 48 h (P < 0.05). In the rAd/p53 group, the expression of P-gp and MRP1 was lower that of the control and 5-FU groups at more than 48 h (P < 0.05), and the expression of PKC was lower than that of the control and 5-FU groups at more than 120 h (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION 5-FU combined with rAd-p53 has a synergistic anticancer effect in SW480/5-FU (5-FU resistance), which contributes to reversal of 5-FU

  1. Mutant p53 R248Q but not R248W enhances in vitro invasiveness of human lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhito; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Tada, Mitsuhiro; Kameyama, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Suzuki, Yukiko; Ikawa, Mayumi; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Moriuchi, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    More than half of all human cancers are associated with mutations of the TP53 gene. In regard to the functional interaction with the remaining wild-type (WT) p53 allele, p53 mutations are classified into two types, recessive and dominant-negative (DN) mutations. The latter mutant protein has a DN activity over the remaining WT allele. We previously showed that the DN p53 mutant was useful as a predictor of poor outcome or a risk factor for metastatic recurrence in patients with some types of cancers, regardless of the presence or absence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of WT p53, suggesting that the DN p53 had 'gain-of-function (GOF)' activity besides the transdominance function. In this study, we investigated GOF activity of two DN p53 mutants which had a point mutation at codon 248 (R248Q and R248W), one of the hot spots, by transfecting them respectively into H1299 cells which originally expressed no p53 protein. Growth activity of the transfectants with the two mutants was not different from that of parent or Mock transfectants. Meanwhile, in vitro invasions of Matrigel and type I collagen gel by R248Q-transfectants were significantly higher than those by R248W-transfectants or the control cells. However, there were no differences in cell motile activities, expressions of extracellular matrix-degradative enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and heparanase, and their inhibitors, between R248Q- and R248W-transfectants. These findings indicate that the p53 mutants have a different quality in GOF activities even if the mutations occurred at the same codon. And detailed information of the status of p53, including transdominancy and GOF activity, is expected to be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic strategy fitting the individual patients.

  2. The p63 Gene Is Regulated by Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) through Reciprocal Feedback and Determines the Epithelial Phenotype in Human Keratinocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Mehrazarin, Shebli; Chen, Wei; Oh, Ju-Eun; Liu, Zi X.; Kang, Kyung L.; Yi, Jin K.; Kim, Reuben H.; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of p63 modulation in epithelial plasticity in human keratinocytes. The p63 isoforms ΔNp63α, ΔNp63β, and ΔNp63γ were ectopically expressed in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). The epithelial or mesenchymal state was determined by morphological changes and altered expression of various markers, e.g. fibronectin, E-Cadherin, and keratin 14. Overexpression of ΔNp63α and ΔNp63β but not ΔNp63γ isoforms led to morphological changes consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, only ΔNp63α overexpression was able to maintain the morphological changes and molecular phenotype consistent with EMT. Interestingly, knockdown of all p63 isoforms by transfection of p63 siRNA also led to the EMT phenotype, further confirming the role of p63 in regulating the epithelial phenotype in NHEKs. EMT in NHKs accompanied loss of Grainyhead-Like 2 (GHRL2) and miR-200 family gene expression, both of which play crucial roles in determining the epithelial phenotype. Modulation of GRHL2 in NHKs also led to congruent changes in p63 expression. ChIP revealed direct GRHL2 binding to the p63 promoter. GRHL2 knockdown in NHK led to impaired binding of GRHL2 and changes in the histone marks consistent with p63 gene silencing. These data indicate the presence of a reciprocal feedback regulation between p63 and GRHL2 in NHEKs to regulate epithelial plasticity. PMID:26085095

  3. p53 mutation and cyclin D1 amplification correlate with cisplatin sensitivity in xenografted human squamous cell carcinomas from head and neck.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Eva; Baldetorp, Bo; Borg, Ake; Kjellen, Elisabeth; Akervall, Jan; Wennerberg, Johan; Wahlberg, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the response of tumour growth to cisplatin treatment, in relation to p53 mutation and cyclin D1 dysregulation on DNA and protein level, biopsies from seven xenografted human squamous cell carcinomas from the head and neck were analysed with immunohistochemistry for p53 expression and cyclin D1 expression. Polymerase chain reaction-singlestranded conformation polymorphism was used to determine p53 mutations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to analyse cyclin D1 amplification. The mice were injected i.p. with NaCl (controls) or cisplatin. After injection the tumour volume were measured. The inhibition of tumour growth by cisplatin was defined as the area under the growth curves, and compared with the growth curves of the tumours in the control group. Xenografts with p53 mutation showed significantly higher resistance to cisplatin (p < 0.001) and also tumours with cyclin D1 amplification showed significantly higher resistance (p < 0.001).

  4. Human papillomavirus infection in Bowen disease: negative p53 expression, not p16(INK4a) overexpression, is correlated with human papillomavirus-associated Bowen disease.

    PubMed

    Murao, Kazutoshi; Yoshioka, Rika; Kubo, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    Genital Bowen disease (BD) has been linked to the high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, it has been recognized that HPV also can be associated with extragenital BD. HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 interfere with the function of p53 and pRb, respectively, leading carcinogenesis. p16(INK4a) overexpression induced by inactivation of pRb is recognized as a surrogate marker for HPV-associated cervical cancer. In this study, we examined the presence of HPV DNA in 142 BD lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and determined the type of HPV by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism or direct DNA sequencing. HPV DNA was detected in 66.7% of genital BD and 8.3% of extragenital BD. The types of HPV detected were HPV types 6, 16, 33, 52, 56, 58 and 59. We also investigated the expression of p16(INK4a) , pRb and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Positive expression was detected in 88.6% for p16(INK4a) , 25.2% for pRb, and 63.8% for p53. There was no significant difference in p16(INK4a) and pRb expression between HPV-positive and -negative BD. However, a strong correlation of HPV positivity with p53 negativity was found. A total of 66.7% of HPV-positive BD showed no p53 expression, whereas the corresponding rate was 32.8% of HPV-negative BD. This study demonstrated that HPV can participate in the development of BD, not only in the genital lesion, but also in extragenital lesion. p16(INK) (4a) overexpression is not a marker for HPV infection in BD. Instead, negative p53 expression is correlated with HPV-associated BD.

  5. Anti-cancer effect of adenovirus p53 on human cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ahn, W S; Bae, S M; Lee, J M; Namkoong, S E; Yoo, J Y; Seo, Y-S; Nam, S L; Cho, Y-L; Nam, K H; Kim, C K; Kim, Y-W

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate anti-tumor effects of recombinant adenovirus p53, time-course p53, E6 expression, and cell growth inhibition were investigated in vitro and in vivo using cervical cancer cell lines such as CaSki, SiHa, HeLa, HeLaS3, C33A, and HT3. The cell growth inhibition was studied via cell count assay, MTT assay and neutral red assay. After transfecting AdCMVp53 into SiHa cells-xenografted nude mice, the transduction efficiency and anti-tumor effect were investigated for a month. The results showed that adenoviral p53 expression induced significant growth suppression on the cancer cells, in which E6 transcript was strongly repressed, and that the expression of p53 and E6 were remarkably dependent on each cell type. The transduction efficiency was highly maintained in vivo as well as in vitro, and the size of tumor was remarkably decreased in comparison with AdCMVLacZ control. The results suggest that the adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transfection was done very effectively in vitro and in vivo experiment, and the cell growth was suppressed via p53-dependent apoptotic cell death, and that the anti-tumor effect could be related to E6 and p53 expression pattern.

  6. Liposome-mediated transfection of wild-type P53 DNA into human prostate cancer cells is improved by low-frequency ultrasound combined with microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    BAI, WEN-KUN; ZHANG, WEI; HU, BING; YING, TAO

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in elderly men. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound exposure in combination with SonoVue microbubbles on liposome-mediated transfection of wild-type P53 genes into human prostate cancer cells. PC-3 human prostate cancer cells were exposed to ultrasound; duty cycle was controlled at 20% (2 sec on, 8 sec off) for 5 min with and without SonoVue microbubble echo-contrast agent using a digital sonifier (frequency, 21 kHz; intensity, 46 mW/cm2). The cells were divided into eight groups, as follows: Group A (SonoVue + wild-type P53), group B (ultrasound + wild-type P53), group C (SonoVue + ultrasound + wild-type P53), group D (liposome + wild-type P53), group E (liposome + SonoVue + wild-type P53), group F (liposome + wild-type P53 + ultrasound), group G (liposome + wild-type P53 + ultrasound + SonoVue) and the control group (wild-type P53). Following treatment, a hemocytometer was used to measure cell lysis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to detect P53 gene transfection efficiency, Cell Counting Kit-8 was employed to reveal cell proliferation and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining was used to determine cell apoptosis. Cell lysis was minimal in each group. Wild-type P53 gene and protein expression were significantly increased in the PC-3 cells in group G compared with the control and all other groups (P<0.01). Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed in group G compared with the control group and all other groups (P<0.01). Cell apoptosis levels in group G were significantly improved compared with the control group and all other groups (P<0.01). Thus, the results of the present study indicate that the use of low-frequency and low-energy ultrasound in combination with SonoVue microbubbles may be a potent physical method for increasing liposome gene delivery efficiency. PMID:27313702

  7. CQ synergistically sensitizes human colorectal cancer cells to SN-38/CPT-11 through lysosomal and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via p53-ROS cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pinjia; Luo, Xiaoyong; Nie, Peipei; Wu, Baoyan; Xu, Wei; Shi, Xinpeng; Chang, Haocai; Li, Bing; Yu, Xiurong; Zou, Zhengzhi

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in supporting cell survival against chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In this study, we found the chemotherapy agent SN-38 induced autophagy in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. However, inhibition of autophagy using a small molecular inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and ATG5 siRNA did not increase SN-38-induced cytotoxicity in CRC cells. Notably, another autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor activity of SN-38 in CRC cells with wild type (WT) p53. Subsequently, we identified a potential mechanism of this cooperative interaction by showing that CQ and SN-38 acted together to trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, upregulate p53 expression, elicit the loss of lysosomal membrane potential (LMP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm). In addition, ROS induced by CQ plus SN-38 upregulated p53 levels by activating p38, conversely, p53 stimulated ROS. These results suggested that ROS and p53 reciprocally promoted each other's production and cooperated to induce CRC cell death. Moreover, we showed induction of ROS and p53 by the two agents provoked the loss of LMP and ∆ψm. Altogether, all results suggested that CQ synergistically sensitized human CRC cells with WT p53 to SN-38 through lysosomal and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via p53-ROS cross-talk. Lastly, we showed that CQ could enhance CRC cells response to CPT-11 (a prodrug of SN-38) in xenograft models. Thus the combined treatment might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CRC.

  8. Involvement of p53 mutation and mismatch repair proteins dysregulation in NNK-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Zhang, Shuilian; Huang, Xiaobin; Chen, Kailin; Shen, Jing; Wang, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is essential for normal cellular functions and cell survival. Its instability can cause genetic aberrations and is considered as a hallmark of most cancers. To investigate the carcinogenesis process induced by tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK, we studied the dynamic changes of two important protectors of genome integrity, p53 and MMR system, in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells after NNK exposure. Our results showed that the expression of MLH1, one of the important MMR proteins, was decreased early and maintained the downregulation during the transformation in a histone modification involved and DNA methylation-independent manner. Another MMR protein PMS2 also displayed a declined expression while being in a later stage of transformation. Moreover, we conducted p53 mutation analysis and revealed a mutation at codon 273 which led to the replacement of arginine by histidine. With the mutation, DNA damage-induced activation of p53 was significantly impaired. We further reintroduced the wild-type p53 into the transformed cells, and the malignant proliferation can be abrogated by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings indicate that p53 and MMR system play an important role in the initiation and progression of NNK-induced transformation, and p53 could be a potential therapeutic target for tobacco-related cancers.

  9. Heat stress induces apoptosis through transcription-independent p53-mediated mitochondrial pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z T; Wang, H; Li, L; Liu, Y S; Deng, X B; Huo, S F; Yuan, F F; Liu, Z F; Tong, H S; Su, L

    2014-03-26

    Cells apoptosis induced by intense heat stress is the prominent feature of heat-related illness. However, little is known about the biological effects of heat stress on cells apoptosis. Herein, we presented evidence that intense heat stress could induce early apoptosis of HUVEC cells through activating mitochondrial pathway with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential(ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9 and -3. We further revealed that p53 played a crucial role in heat stress-induced early apoptosis, with p53 protein rapidly translocated into mitochondria. Using pifithrin-α(PFT), a p53's mitochondrial translocation inhibitor, we found that pretreated with PFT, heat stress induced mitochondrial p53 translocation was significantly suppressed, accompanied by a significant alleviation in the loss of ΔΨm, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Furthermore, we also found that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was a critical mediator in heat stress-induced apoptosis. In addition, the antioxidant MnTMPyP significantly decreased the heat stress-induced p53's mitochondrial translocation, followed by the loss of ΔΨm, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation and heat stress-mediated apoptosis. Conclusively, these findings indicate the contribution of the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 pathway to early apoptosis in HUVEC cells induced by oxidative stress in response to intense heat stress.

  10. p53: out of Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, David

    2016-04-15

    Somatic mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53 occur in more than half of all human cancers. Rare germline mutations result in the Li-Fraumeni cancer family syndrome. In this issue ofGenes&Development, Jennis and colleagues (pp. 918-930) use an elegant mouse model to examine the affect of a polymorphism, P47S (rs1800371), in the N terminus of p53 that is found in Africans as well as more than a million African Americans. Remarkably, the single nucleotide change causes the mice to be substantially tumor-prone compared with littermates, suggesting that this allele causes an increased risk of developing cancer. The defect in p53 function is traced to a restriction in downstream gene regulation that reduces cell death in response to stress.

  11. The p53-Mdm2 interaction and the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2/Mdm4 are conserved from lampreys to humans.

    PubMed

    Coffill, Cynthia R; Lee, Alison P; Siau, Jia Wei; Chee, Sharon M; Joseph, Thomas L; Tan, Yaw Sing; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Verma, Chandra S; Ghadessy, Farid J; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Lane, David P

    2016-02-01

    The extant jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the oldest group of vertebrates and provide an interesting genomic evolutionary pivot point between invertebrates and jawed vertebrates. Through genome analysis of one of these jawless vertebrates, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), we identified all three members of the important p53 transcription factor family--Tp53, Tp63, and Tp73--as well as the Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes. These genes and their products are significant cellular regulators in human cancer, and further examination of their roles in this most distant vertebrate relative sheds light on their origin and coevolution. Their important role in response to DNA damage has been highlighted by the discovery of multiple copies of the Tp53 gene in elephants. Expression of lamprey p53, Mdm2, and Mdm4 proteins in mammalian cells reveals that the p53-Mdm2 interaction and the Mdm2/Mdm4 E3 ligase activity existed in the common ancestor of vertebrates and have been conserved for >500 million years of vertebrate evolution. Lamprey Mdm2 degrades human p53 with great efficiency, but this interaction is not blocked by currently available small molecule inhibitors of the human HDM2 protein, suggesting utility of lamprey Mdm2 in the study of the human p53 signaling pathway.

  12. The p53–Mdm2 interaction and the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2/Mdm4 are conserved from lampreys to humans

    PubMed Central

    Coffill, Cynthia R.; Lee, Alison P.; Siau, Jia Wei; Chee, Sharon M.; Joseph, Thomas L.; Tan, Yaw Sing; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Verma, Chandra S.; Ghadessy, Farid J.; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Lane, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The extant jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the oldest group of vertebrates and provide an interesting genomic evolutionary pivot point between invertebrates and jawed vertebrates. Through genome analysis of one of these jawless vertebrates, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), we identified all three members of the important p53 transcription factor family—Tp53, Tp63, and Tp73—as well as the Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes. These genes and their products are significant cellular regulators in human cancer, and further examination of their roles in this most distant vertebrate relative sheds light on their origin and coevolution. Their important role in response to DNA damage has been highlighted by the discovery of multiple copies of the Tp53 gene in elephants. Expression of lamprey p53, Mdm2, and Mdm4 proteins in mammalian cells reveals that the p53–Mdm2 interaction and the Mdm2/Mdm4 E3 ligase activity existed in the common ancestor of vertebrates and have been conserved for >500 million years of vertebrate evolution. Lamprey Mdm2 degrades human p53 with great efficiency, but this interaction is not blocked by currently available small molecule inhibitors of the human HDM2 protein, suggesting utility of lamprey Mdm2 in the study of the human p53 signaling pathway. PMID:26798135

  13. Acute cytotoxicity of MIRA-1/NSC19630, a mutant p53-reactivating small molecule, against human normal and cancer cells via a caspase-9-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bou-Hanna, Chantal; Jarry, Anne; Lode, Laurence; Schmitz, Ingo; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Kury, Sébastien; Bezieau, Stéphane; Mosnier, Jean-François; Laboisse, Christian L

    2015-04-10

    Although numerous studies have focused on the mechanisms of action of the candidate chemotherapeutic drug MIRA-1/NSC19630, initially described as a mutant p53-reactivating small molecule, the issue of its toxicological evaluation remains open. Here, we devised a strategy to examine the effects of MIRA-1 on a variety of human normal cells and cancer cell lines. First, we demonstrated a massive and rapid (within 2 hours) MIRA-1 apoptotic effect on human normal primary epithelial cells as shown using an intestinal mucosa explant assay. MIRA-1 was also cytotoxic to primary and subcultured human mesenchymal cells. Interestingly these effects were restricted to actively proliferating cells. Second, MIRA-1 acute toxicity was independent of p53, since it occurred in human normal cells with increased or silenced p53 expression level, in cancer cells derived from solid or liquid tumors, with either mutated or wt TP53, and in cancer cells devoid of p53. Third, combined pharmacological and genetic approaches showed that MIRA-1 acute cytotoxicity was mediated by a caspase-9-dependent apoptosis. In conclusion, our strategy unveils the limitations of the targeted action of a small molecule designed to reactivate mutant p53.

  14. Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by Alteration of Expression of the BRCA1 and/or P53 Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    later by injection with 5 U of human chorionic gonadotropin (hormones purchased from Sigma, St. Louis, MO). 1.5 days following the last hormone...AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0063 TITLE: Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by Alteration of Expression of the BRCA1 and/or P53 Genes...FUNDING NUMBERS Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by W81XWH-04-1-0063 Alteration of Expression of the BRCAI and/or P53 Genes 6. AUTHOR(S

  15. Frequent mutations of p53 gene in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas with and without human papillomavirus (HPV) involvement suggest the dominant role of environmental carcinogens in oesophageal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, F.; Syrjänen, S.; Tervahauta, A.; Kurvinen, K.; Wang, L.; Syrjänen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that alcohol intake, use of tobacco, ingestion of mycotoxins and nitrosamines and nutritional deficiencies are high-risk factors for the development of oesophageal cancer. Similarly, viral infections have been postulated to play a role in some tumours. However, the molecular events underlying the development of oesophageal carcinoma are poorly understood as yet. Loss of p53 tumour-suppressor gene function has been found in different human malignancies, and it can occur in a variety of ways, including gene mutation and interaction with the E6 protein of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Because the oesophageal mucosa is potentially exposed to mutagens and HPVs, we studied DNA samples derived from nine HPV-positive squamous cell carcinomas and 12 HPV-negative tumours. Exons 5-9 of the p53 gene containing phylogenetically conserved domains were examined using the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique. HPV detection was done using DNA in situ hybridisation with biotin-labelled HPV DNA probes. Mutations were detected in eight (38%) out of the 21 cases. Three mutations were found in exons 5/6, three in exon 7 and two in exon 8/9. Six (50%) of the 12 HPV-negative carcinomas showed p53 mutations. Two (22.2%) of the nine HPV-positive carcinomas were found to contain p53 mutations as well; one contained HPV 16 DNA sequences and showed p53 mutation in exon 8/9, and the other was HPV 6/11 positive with the mutation in exon 5/6. Although mutations were more common in HPV-negative tumours (50.0% vs 22.2%), the difference in p53 mutations in HPV-positive and -negative tumours did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.1946). These data indicate that inactivation of the p53 gene is a frequent event in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas and such an inactivation might be an important molecular pathway for the development of oesophageal cancer. The findings of p53 mutations in HPV

  16. Potential therapeutic role of Tridham in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line through induction of p53 independent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths reported worldwide. The incidence is higher in Asia and Africa, where there is greater endemic prevalence of hepatitis B and C. The devastating outcome of cancer can be minimized only by the use of potent therapeutic agents. Tridham (TD) has been acknowledged since olden days for its wide spectrum of biological properties and was used by traditional practitioners of Siddha and other indigenous systems of medicine. The present study aims at investigating the mechanistic action of TD by assessing the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh7). Methods Cell viability and apoptosis assay using MTT analysis and trypan blue staining, DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were determined in Huh7 cells. Results Viability studies of TD treated Huh7 cells showed an inhibition in cell growth in time and dose dependent manner. Chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies, which are structural changes characteristic of apoptosis, were found following TD treatment of Huh7 cells. DAPI staining and agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed the induction of apoptosis by TD. Cell cycle analysis of Huh7 cells treated with TD exhibited a marked accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle in a dose dependent manner. Immunofluorescent staining for Ki-67 showed a higher level of expression in untreated cells as compared to TD treated cells. We observed a significant loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol in TD treated cells. Down regulation of Bcl-2, up regulation of Bax and Bad as well as activation of caspases-3 and 9 were also observed. The p53 gene expression was found to be unaltered in TD treated cells

  17. Mutant p53 upregulates alpha-1 antitrypsin expression and promotes invasion in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shakya, R; Tarulli, G A; Sheng, L; Lokman, N A; Ricciardelli, C; Pishas, K I; Selinger, C I; Kohonen-Corish, M R J; Cooper, W A; Turner, A G; Neilsen, P M; Callen, D F

    2017-04-03

    Missense mutations in the TP53 tumor-suppressor gene inactivate its antitumorigenic properties and endow the incipient cells with newly acquired oncogenic properties that drive invasion and metastasis. Although the oncogenic effect of mutant p53 transcriptome has been widely acknowledged, the global influence of mutant p53 on cancer cell proteome remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that mutant p53 drives the release of invasive extracellular factors (the ‘secretome’) that facilitates the invasion of lung cancer cell lines. Proteomic characterization of the secretome from mutant p53-inducible H1299 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line discovered that the mutant p53 drives its oncogenic pathways through modulating the gene expression of numerous targets that are subsequently secreted from the cells. Of these genes, alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) was identified as a critical effector of mutant p53 that drives invasion in vitro and in vivo, together with induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers expression. Mutant p53 upregulated A1AT transcriptionally through the involvement with its family member p63. Conditioned medium containing secreted A1AT enhanced cell invasion, while an A1AT-blocking antibody attenuated the mutant p53-driven migration and invasion. Importantly, high A1AT expression correlated with increased tumor stage, elevated p53 staining and shorter overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Collectively, these findings suggest that A1AT is an indispensable target of mutant p53 with prognostic and therapeutic potential in mutant p53-expressing tumors. Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.66.

  18. Regulation of p53 tetramerization and nuclear export by ARC

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Roger S.-Y.; Nam, Young-Jae; Ostreicher, Marc Jason; Metzl, Mark D.; Whelan, Russell S.; Peng, Chang-Fu; Ashton, Anthony W.; Fu, Weimin; Mani, Kartik; Chin, Suet-Feung; Provenzano, Elena; Ellis, Ian; Figg, Nichola; Pinder, Sarah; Bennett, Martin R.; Caldas, Carlos; Kitsis, Richard N.

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of the transcription factor p53 is central to carcinogenesis. Yet only approximately one-half of cancers have p53 loss-of-function mutations. Here, we demonstrate a mechanism for p53 inactivation by apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), a protein induced in multiple cancer cells. The direct binding in the nucleus of ARC to the p53 tetramerization domain inhibits p53 tetramerization. This exposes a nuclear export signal in p53, triggering Crm1-dependent relocation of p53 to the cytoplasm. Knockdown of endogenous ARC in breast cancer cells results in spontaneous tetramerization of endogenous p53, accumulation of p53 in the nucleus, and activation of endogenous p53 target genes. In primary human breast cancers with nuclear ARC, p53 is almost always WT. Conversely, nearly all breast cancers with mutant p53 lack nuclear ARC. We conclude that nuclear ARC is induced in cancer cells and negatively regulates p53. PMID:18087040

  19. Arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, inhibits p53, represses DNA repair, and triggers DNA damage response in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Shan; Lee, Ka-Wo; Huang, Jau-Ling; Liu, Yu-Sen; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Kuo, Wen-Rei; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Lin, Chang-Shen; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2008-07-30

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer declared that areca nut was carcinogenic to human. Areca nut is the main component of betel quid (BQ), which is commonly consumed in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that BQ chewing is a predominant risk factor for oral and pharyngeal cancers. It has been known that areca nut is genotoxic to human epithelial cells. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying areca nut-associated genotoxicity are not fully understood. Here we showed that arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, might contribute to oral carcinogenesis through inhibiting p53 and DNA repair. We found, on the biological aspect, that arecoline could induce gamma-H2AX phosphorylation, a sensitive DNA damage marker, in KB, HEp-2, and 293 cells, suggesting that DNA damages were elicited by arecoline. This phenomenon was supported by the observations of arecoline-induced hyperphosphorylation of ATM, Nbs1, Chk1/2, p53, and Cdc25C, as well as G2/M cell cycle arrest, indicating that a cellular DNA damage response was activated. To explore the possible mechanism accounting for arecoline-elicited DNA damages, we found that arecoline could inhibit p53 by its expression and transactivation function. As a result, the expression of p53-regulated p21(WAF1) and the p53-activated DNA repair were repressed by arecoline. Finally, we showed that p53 mRNA transcripts were frequently down-regulated in BQ-associated oral cancer, suggesting that arecoline-mediated p53 inhibition might play a role in BQ-associated tumorigenesis.

  20. Enhanced Gadd45 expression and delayed G2/M progression are p53 dependent in zinc-supplemented human bronchial epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans; however, this study demonstrated for the first time that an elevated zinc status, created by culturing cells at optimal plasma zinc concentration attainable by oral zinc supplementation, is cytotoxic for normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. p53 p...

  1. From Sea Anemone to Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Arnold

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  2. From Sea Anemone to Homo sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Arnold

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  3. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) mediates the p53-independent overexpression of MDM4/MDMX and MDM2 in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swetzig, Wendy M.; Wang, Jianmin; Das, Gokul M.

    2016-01-01

    MDM2 and MDM4 are heterodimeric, non-redundant oncoproteins that potently inhibit the p53 tumor suppressor protein. MDM2 and MDM4 also enhance the tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo models and are overexpressed in primary human breast cancers. Prior studies have characterized Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα/ESR1) as a regulator of MDM2 expression and an MDM2- and p53-interacting protein. However, similar crosstalk between ERα and MDM4 has not been investigated. Moreover, signaling pathways that mediate the overexpression of MDM4 in human breast cancer remain to be elucidated. Using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast invasive carcinoma patient cohort, we have analyzed correlations between ERα status and MDM4 and MDM2 expression in primary, treatment-naïve, invasive breast carcinoma samples. We report that the expression of MDM4 and MDM2 is elevated in primary human breast cancers of luminal A/B subtypes and associates with ERα-positive disease, independently of p53 mutation status. Furthermore, in cell culture models, ERα positively regulates MDM4 and MDM2 expression via p53-independent mechanisms, and these effects can be blocked by the clinically-relevant endocrine therapies fulvestrant and tamoxifen. Additionally, ERα also positively regulates p53 expression. Lastly, we report that endogenous MDM4 negatively regulates ERα expression and forms a protein complex with ERα in breast cancer cell lines and primary human breast tumor tissue. This suggests direct signaling crosstalk and negative feedback loops between ERα and MDM4 expression in breast cancer cells. Collectively, these novel findings implicate ERα as a central component of the p53-MDM2-MDM4 signaling axis in human breast cancer. PMID:26909605

  4. Shikonin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death via Regulation of p53 and Nrf2 in AGS Human Stomach Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Sun-Joong; Shim, So Hee; Chang, HyoIhl; Ha, Chang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin, which derives from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been traditionally used against a variety of diseases, including cancer, in Eastern Asia. Here we determined that shikonin inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. Shikonin’s biological activity was validated by observing cell viability, caspase 3 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptotic marker expressions in AGS stomach cancer cells. The concentration range of shikonin was 35–250 nM with the incubation time of 6 h. Protein levels of Nrf2 and p53 were evaluated by western blotting and confirmed by real-time PCR. Our results revealed that shikonin induced the generation of ROS as well as caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) activity was significantly elevated in shikonin-treated cells, thereby linking JNK to apoptosis. Furthermore, our results revealed that shikonin induced p53 expression but repressed Nrf2 expression. Moreover, our results suggested that there may be a co-regulation between p53 and Nrf2, in which transfection with siNrf2 induced the p53 expression. We demonstrated for the first time that shikonin activated cell apoptosis in AGS cells via caspase 3- and JNK-dependent pathways, as well as through the p53-Nrf2 mediated signal pathway. Our study validates in partly the contribution of shikonin as a new therapeutic approaches/ agent for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27257011

  5. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection Restores ki67, p53, and Cyclin D1 Immunoreactivity in the Human Gastric Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, Vasilios; Emanouil, Theodoros; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Damaskou, Vasileia; Tziatzios, Georgios; Panayiotides, Ioannis G.; Vafiadis, Irene; Ladas, Spiros D.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication on p53, cyclin D1 expression, and cell proliferation in gastric mucosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS We assessed p53, cyclin D1, and ki67 immunoexpression in gastric mucosa from 31 HP chronic gastritis patients and 12 controls. Reassessment was performed 6 months after successful HP eradication. RESULTS Successful eradication resulted in significant decrease of p53 (1.53 ± 0.16 vs 0.83 ± 0.19, P = 0.01) and ki67 (9.84 ± 0.96 vs 4.77 ± 0.27, P < 0.001) staining in the antrum. Similarly, p53 immunoreactivity significantly decreased in the corpus (1.27 ± 0.20 vs 0.46 ± 0.15, P = 0.02), while there was a trend for decreased corpus cyclin D1 and ki67 expression (0.17 ± 0.07 vs 0.0, P = 0.08 and 8.71 ± 1.24 vs 5.85 ± 0.54, P = 0.09, respectively). Importantly, after successful HP eradication, the immunoreactivity of the studied parameters was similar to that of controls. CONCLUSION Successful HP infection eradication restores p53, cyclin D1, and ki67 immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa to the level of controls. PMID:27891056

  6. Evaluation of efficacy and safety for recombinant human adenovirus-p53 in the control of the malignant pleural effusions via thoracic perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Biaoxue, Rong; Hui, Pan; Wenlong, Gao; Shuanying, Yang

    2016-01-01

    A certain number of studies have showed that p53 gene transfer has an anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thoracic perfusion of recombinant human adenovirus p53 (rAd-p53, Gendicine) for controlling malignant pleural effusion (MPE). We searched for the relevant studies from the database of MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrance Library and CNKI to collect the trials concerning the efficacy and safety of rAd-p53 to treat MPE. Fourteen randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 879 patients were involved in this analysis. The rAd-p53 combined with chemotherapeutic agents significantly improved the overall response rate (ORR) (P < 0.001; odds ratio = 3.73) and disease control rate (DCR) (P < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.32) of patients with MPE as well as the quality of life (QOL) of patients (P < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.27), compared with that of chemotherapeutic agents alone. In addition, the participation of rAd-p53 did not have an obvious impact on the most of incidence of adverse reactions (AEs) (P < 0.05) except the fever (P < 0.001). However, the fever was self-limited and could be tolerated well. The application of rAd-p53 through thoracic perfusion for treating MPE had a better efficacy and safety, which could be a potential choice for controlling MPE. PMID:27976709

  7. Sprint-interval but not continuous exercise increases PGC-1α protein content and p53 phosphorylation in nuclear fractions of human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Cesare; Oliveira, Rodrigo S. F.; Little, Jonathan P.; Renner, Kathrin; Bishop, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Sprint interval training has been reported to induce similar or greater mitochondrial adaptations to continuous training. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of different exercise types on the early molecular events regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, we compared the effects of continuous and sprint interval exercise on key regulatory proteins linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in subcellular fractions of human skeletal muscle. Nineteen men, performed either 24 min of moderate-intensity continuous cycling at 63% of WPeak (CE), or 4 × 30-s “all-out” cycling sprints (SIE). Muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were collected pre-, immediately (+0 h) and 3 (+3 h) hours post-exercise. Nuclear p53 and PHF20 protein content increased at +0 h, with no difference between groups. Nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content increased at +0 h after SIE, but not CE. We demonstrate an exercise-induced increase in nuclear p53 protein content, an event that may relate to greater p53 stability - as also suggested by increased PHF20 protein content. Increased nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content immediately following SIE but not CE suggests these may represent important early molecular events in the exercise-induced response to exercise, and that SIE is a time-efficient and possibly superior option than CE to promote these adaptations. PMID:28281651

  8. Sprint-interval but not continuous exercise increases PGC-1α protein content and p53 phosphorylation in nuclear fractions of human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Granata, Cesare; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Little, Jonathan P; Renner, Kathrin; Bishop, David J

    2017-03-10

    Sprint interval training has been reported to induce similar or greater mitochondrial adaptations to continuous training. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of different exercise types on the early molecular events regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, we compared the effects of continuous and sprint interval exercise on key regulatory proteins linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in subcellular fractions of human skeletal muscle. Nineteen men, performed either 24 min of moderate-intensity continuous cycling at 63% of WPeak (CE), or 4 × 30-s "all-out" cycling sprints (SIE). Muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were collected pre-, immediately (+0 h) and 3 (+3 h) hours post-exercise. Nuclear p53 and PHF20 protein content increased at +0 h, with no difference between groups. Nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content increased at +0 h after SIE, but not CE. We demonstrate an exercise-induced increase in nuclear p53 protein content, an event that may relate to greater p53 stability - as also suggested by increased PHF20 protein content. Increased nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content immediately following SIE but not CE suggests these may represent important early molecular events in the exercise-induced response to exercise, and that SIE is a time-efficient and possibly superior option than CE to promote these adaptations.

  9. FOXM1 allows human keratinocytes to bypass the oncogene-induced differentiation checkpoint in response to gain of MYC or loss of p53

    PubMed Central

    Molinuevo, R; Freije, A; de Pedro, I; Stoll, S W; Elder, J T; Gandarillas, A

    2017-01-01

    Tumour suppressor p53 or proto-oncogene MYC is frequently altered in squamous carcinomas, but this is insufficient to drive carcinogenesis. We have shown that overactivation of MYC or loss of p53 via DNA damage triggers an anti-oncogenic differentiation-mitosis checkpoint in human epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in impaired cell division and squamous differentiation. Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a transcription factor recently proposed to govern the expression of a set of mitotic genes. Deregulation of FOXM1 occurs in a wide variety of epithelial malignancies. We have ectopically expressed FOXM1 in keratinocytes of the skin after overexpression of MYC or inactivation of endogenous p53. Ectopic FOXM1 rescues the proliferative capacity of MYC- or p53-mutant cells in spite of higher genetic damage and a larger cell size typical of differentiation. As a consequence, differentiation induced by loss of p53 or MYC is converted into increased proliferation and keratinocytes displaying genomic instability are maintained within the proliferative compartment. The results demonstrate that keratinocyte oncogene-induced differentiation is caused by mitosis control and provide new insight into the mechanisms driving malignant progression in squamous cancer. PMID:27452522

  10. Identification of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in green tea polyphenols as a potent inducer of p53-dependent apoptosis in the human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Rieko; Sasaki, Kaori; Yoshida, Kenichi

    2009-08-01

    The effects of green tea polyphenols on cultured cancer cells have been well characterized, especially the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), since EGCg suppresses oncogenic signaling pathways and induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis by regulating cell cycle-associated proteins. In the present study, we attempted to identify signaling pathways or target molecules regulated by each of or a mixture of green tea polyphenols, including epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECg), epigallocatechin (EGC), and EGCg, in the human lung cancer cell line A549. ECg, EGC, and a catechin mixture, in addition to EGCg, significantly decreased cell viability. In contrast, caspase 3/7 activity, an apoptosis indicator, was specifically induced by EGCg. By conducting a series of luciferase-based reporter assays, we revealed that the catechin mixture only up-regulates the p53 reporter. EGCg was a more potent inducer of p53-dependent transcription, and this induction was further supported by the induced level of p53 protein. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated p53 knockdown completely abolished EGCg-induced apoptosis. Finally, a proteome and western blot analysis using approximately 70 different antibodies failed to detect up-regulated proteins in catechin mixture-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that EGCg, among several green tea polyphenols, is a potent apoptosis inducer that functions exclusively through a p53-dependent pathway in A549 cells.

  11. Gamma irradiation results in phosphorylation of p53 at serine-392 in human T-lymphocyte leukaemia cell line MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Szkanderová, S; Vávrová, J; Rézacová, M; Vokurková, D; Pavlová, S; Smardová, J; Stulík, J

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of human leukaemia MOLT-4 cells to ionizing irradiation led to apoptosis, which was detected by flow cytometric analysis and degradation of the nuclear lamina. The multiple signalling pathways triggered by either membrane or DNA damage play a critical role in radiation-induced apoptosis. The response to DNA damage is typically associated with the p53 protein accumulation. In this study, we proved that the transcriptionally active p53 variant occurs in the MOLT-4 cells and its abundance alteration is triggered in the gamma-irradiated cell population concomitantly with phosphorylation at both the serine-392 and serine-15 residues. The p21 upregulation followed the p53 phosphorylation process in irradiated MOLT-4 cells.

  12. p53-dependent G2 arrest associated with a decrease in cyclins A2 and B1 levels in a human carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Badie, C; Bourhis, J; Sobczak-Thépot, J; Haddada, H; Chiron, M; Janicot, M; Janot, F; Tursz, T; Vassal, G

    2000-01-01

    In vivo transfer of wild-type (wt) p53 gene via a recombinant adenovirus has been proposed to induce apoptosis and increase radiosensitivity in several human carcinoma models. In the context of combining p53 gene transfer and irradiation, we investigated the consequences of adenoviral-mediated wtp53 gene transfer on the cell cycle and radiosensitivity of a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma line (SCC97) with a p53 mutated phenotype. We showed that ectopic expression of wtp53 in SCC97 cells resulted in a prolonged G1 arrest, associated with an increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor WAF1/p21 target gene. A transient arrest in G2 but not in G1 was observed after irradiation. This G2 arrest was permanent when exponentially growing cells were transduced by Ad5CMV- p53 (RPR/INGN201) immediately after irradiation with 5 or 10 Gy. Moreover, levels of cyclins A2 and B1, which are known to regulate the G2/M transition, dramatically decreased as cells arrived in G2, whereas maximal levels of expression were observed in the absence of wtp53. In conclusion, adenoviral mediated transfer of wtp53 in irradiated SCC97 cells, which are mutated for p53, appeared to increase WAF1/p21 expression and decrease levels of the mitotic cyclins A2 and B1. These observations suggest that the G2 arrest resulted from a p53-dependent premature inactivation of the mitosis promoting factor. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682678

  13. Regulation of autophagy by cytoplasmic p53.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, M Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan; D'Amelio, Marcello; Criollo, Alfredo; Morselli, Eugenia; Zhu, Changlian; Harper, Francis; Nannmark, Ulf; Samara, Chrysanthi; Pinton, Paolo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Carnuccio, Rosa; Moll, Ute M; Madeo, Frank; Paterlini-Brechot, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Rosario; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Pierron, Gérard; Blomgren, Klas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Codogno, Patrice; Cecconi, Francesco; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-06-01

    Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that deletion, depletion or inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells subjected to knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer cells under conditions of hypoxia and nutrient depletion, allowing them to maintain high ATP levels. Inhibition of p53 led to autophagy in enucleated cells, and cytoplasmic, not nuclear, p53 was able to repress the enhanced autophagy of p53(-/-) cells. Many different inducers of autophagy (for example, starvation, rapamycin and toxins affecting the endoplasmic reticulum) stimulated proteasome-mediated degradation of p53 through a pathway relying on the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2. Inhibition of p53 degradation prevented the activation of autophagy in several cell lines, in response to several distinct stimuli. These results provide evidence of a key signalling pathway that links autophagy to the cancer-associated dysregulation of p53.

  14. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone suppresses oxidative stress through a p53-mediated signaling pathway in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Chen, Juping; Yang, Jennifer; Chen, Shuna; Jameson, Joshua; Swope, Viki B; Cheng, Tan; Kadakia, Madhavi; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa

    2012-06-01

    Epidermal melanocytes are skin cells specialized in melanin production. Activation of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) on melanocytes by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) induces synthesis of the brown/black pigment eumelanin that confers photoprotection from solar UV radiation (UVR). Contrary to keratinocytes, melanocytes are slow proliferating cells that persist in the skin for decades, in an environment with high levels of UVR-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). We previously reported that in addition to its role in pigmentation, α-MSH also reduces oxidative stress and enhances the repair of DNA photoproducts in melanocytes, independent of melanin synthesis. Given the significance of ROS in carcinogenesis, here we investigated the mechanisms by which α-MSH exerts antioxidant effects in melanocytes. We show that activation of the MC1R by α-MSH contributes to phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15, a known requirement for stabilization and activation of p53, a major sensor of DNA damage. This effect is mediated by the cAMP/PKA pathway and by the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) ATR and DNA protein kinase (DNA-PK). α-MSH increases the levels of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE-1/Ref-1), enzymes essential for base excision repair. Nutlin-3, an HDM2 inhibitor, mimicked the effects of α-MSH resulting in reduced phosphorylation of H2AX (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA damage. Conversely, the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α or silencing of p53 abolished the effects of α-MSH and augmented oxidative stress. These results show that p53 is an important target of the downstream MC1R signaling that reduces oxidative stress and possibly malignant transformation of melanocytes.

  15. Study on X-ray-induced apoptosis and chromosomal damage in G2 human lymphocytes in the presence of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53.

    PubMed

    Ortenzi, Vincenza; Meschini, Roberta; Berni, Andrea; Mancinelli, Pierluigi; Palitti, Fabrizio

    2011-11-27

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the cell-cycle phase in cells exposed to radiation and chemicals in relation to the cellular response. The analysis was focused on the G2 cell-cycle phase, exploring the impact of p53 inhibition in human lymphocytes irradiated with X-rays in the presence or absence of pifithrin-α (PFT-α), a p53-specific inhibitor. Lymphocytes, 44h after stimulation to proliferate, were X-irradiated with 0.5Gy both in the presence or the absence of PFT-α and post-treated with a pulse of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to distinguish cells in the S- or G2-phase at the moment of irradiation. At early sampling times after X-ray exposure the following parameters were analysed: cellular proliferation, apoptosis, chromosomal aberrations and p53 expression. The results show an enhancement of apoptotic cells in G2 at early sampling times after irradiation and no differences in terms of chromosomal aberration induction both in cells treated with X-rays alone and in cells treated with X-rays plus PFT-α. Expression of p53 was not detectable at all recovery times. The results suggest a p53-independent apoptotic pathway acting at early times after X-ray exposure in G2 lymphocytes. Furthermore, the same yield of X-ray-induced chromatid breaks was observed both in the presence or absence of PFT-α implying that in G2 X-irradiated lymphocytes this inhibitor of the p53 protein does not affect DNA repair.

  16. Dihydroptychantol A, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl derivative, induces autophagy and following apoptosis associated with p53 pathway in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xia; Wu, William K.K.; Sun Bin; Cui Min; Liu Shanshan; Gao Jian; Lou Hongxiang

    2011-03-01

    Dihydroptychantol A (DHA), a novel macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound extracted from liverwort Asterella angusta, has antifungal and multi-drug resistance reversal properties. Here, the chemically synthesized DHA was employed to test its anti-cancer activities in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Our results demonstrated that DHA induced autophagy followed by apoptotic cell death accompanied with G{sub 2}/M-phase cell cycle arrest in U2OS cells. DHA-induced autophagy was morphologically characterized by the formation of double membrane-bound autophagic vacuoles recognizable at the ultrastructural level. DHA also increased the levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy. Surprisingly, DHA-mediated apoptotic cell death was potentiated by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, suggesting that autophagy may play a protective role that impedes the eventual cell death. Furthermore, p53 was shown to be involved in DHA-meditated autophagy and apoptosis. In this connection, DHA increased nuclear expression of p53, induced p53 phosphorylation, and upregulated p53 target gene p21{sup Waf1/Cip1}. In contrast, cytoplasmic p53 was reduced by DHA, which contributed to the stimulation of autophagy. In relation to the cell cycle, DHA decreased the expression of cyclin B{sub 1}, a cyclin required for progression through the G{sub 2}/M phase. Taken together, DHA induces G{sub 2}/M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U2OS cells. DHA-induced apoptosis was preceded by the induction of protective autophagy. DHA-mediated autophagy and apoptosis are associated with the cytoplasmic and nuclear functions of p53.

  17. Overexpression of the wip1 gene abrogates the p38 MAPK/p53/Wip1 pathway and silences p16 expression in human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eunsil; Ahn, Yeon Sun; Jang, Se Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung; Yoon, Ho Sung; Gong, Gyungyub; Choi, Jene

    2007-03-01

    Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase (Wip1 or PPM1D) is a serine/threonine protein phosphatase expressed under various stress conditions, which selectively inactivates p38 MAPK. The finding that this gene is amplified in association with frequent gain of 17q21-24 in breast cancers supports its role as a driver oncogene. However, the pathogenetic mechanism of the wip1 gene expression in breast carcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examine Wip1 mRNA and protein expression in 20 breast cancer tissues and six cell lines. We additionally investigate the relationship among Wip1, active p38 MAPK, p53, and p16 proteins. In our experiments, Wip1 mRNA was significantly upregulated in 7 of 20 (35%) invasive breast cancer samples. Overexpression of Wip1 was inversely correlated with that of active (phosphor-) p38 MAPK (P = 0.007). Furthermore, Wip1-overexpressing tumors exhibited no or low levels of p16, which normally accumulates upon p38 MAPK activation (P = 0.057). Loss of p16 expression was not associated with hypermethylation of its promoter or loss of heterozygosity on 9p21. Among the 135 primary breast carcinomas further examined, a significant association was found between the Wip1 overexpression and negative staining for p53 (P value = 0.057), indicating that the tumors are wild-type for p53. This is first report showing that Wip1 overexpression abrogates the homeostatic balance maintained through the p38-p53-Wip1 pathway, and contributes to malignant progression by inactivating wild-type p53 and p38 MAPK as well as decreasing p16 protein levels in human breast tissues.

  18. Destabilization of CARP mRNAs by aloe-emodin contributes to caspase-8-mediated p53-independent apoptosis of human carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Lu, Yao-Cheng; Su, Hong-Lin; Lin, Hsin-Ting; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Kang, Shang-En; Lai, Tan-Chen; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2011-04-01

    Using short hairpin RNA against p53, transient ectopic expression of wild-type p53 or mutant p53 (R248W or R175H), and a p53- and p21-dependent luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that growth arrest and apoptosis of FaDu (human pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma), Hep3B (hepatoma), and MG-63 (osteosarcoma) cells induced by aloe-emodin (AE) are p53-independent. Co-immunoprecipitation and small interfering RNA (siRNA) studies demonstrated that AE caused S-phase cell cycle arrest by inducing the formation of cyclin A-Cdk2-p21 complexes through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Ectopic expression of Bcl-X(L) and siRNA-mediated Bax attenuation significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by AE. Cyclosporin A or the caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK blocked AE-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented increases in reactive oxygen species and Ca(++). Z-IETD-FMK inhibited AE-induced apoptosis, Bax expression, Bid cleavage, translocation of tBid to mitochondria, ERK phosphorylation, caspase-9 activation, and the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and endonuclease G from mitochondria. The stability of the mRNAs encoding caspase-8 and -10-associated RING proteins (CARPs) 1 and 2 was affected by AE, whereas CARP1 or 2 overexpression inhibited caspase-8 activation and apoptosis induced by AE. Collectively, our data indicate AE induces caspase-8-mediated activation of mitochondrial death pathways by decreasing the stability of CARP mRNAs in a p53-independent manner.

  19. p53 mutation heterogeneity in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Soussi, T. . E-mail: thierry.soussi@free.fr; Lozano, G.

    2005-06-10

    The p53 gene is inactivated in about 50% of human cancers and the p53 protein is an essential component of the cell response induced by genotoxic stresses such as those generated by radiotherapy or chemotherapy. It is therefore highly likely that these alterations are an important component in tumor resistance to therapy. The particular characteristics of these alterations, 80% of which are missense mutations leading to functionally heterogeneous proteins, make p53 a unique gene in the class of tumor suppressor genes. A considerable number of mutant p53 proteins probably have an oncogenic activity per se and therefore actively participate in cell transformation. The fact that the apoptotic and antiproliferative functions of p53 can be dissociated in certain mutants also suggests another level of complexity in the relationships between p53 inactivation and neoplasia.

  20. Studying p53 family proteins in yeast: Induction of autophagic cell death and modulation by interactors and small molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Leão, Mariana; Gomes, Sara; Bessa, Cláudia; Soares, Joana; Raimundo, Liliana; Monti, Paola; Fronza, Gilberto; Pereira, Clara; Saraiva, Lucília

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to individually study human p53, p63 (full length and truncated forms) and p73. Using this cell system, the effect of these proteins on cell proliferation and death, and the influence of MDM2 and MDMX on their activities were analyzed. When expressed in yeast, wild-type p53, TAp63, ΔNp63 and TAp73 induced growth inhibition associated with S-phase cell cycle arrest. This growth inhibition was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and autophagic cell death. Furthermore, they stimulated rapamycin-induced autophagy. On the contrary, none of the tested p53 family members induced apoptosis either per se or after apoptotic stimuli. As previously reported for p53, also TAp63, ΔNp63 and TAp73 increased actin expression levels and its depolarization, suggesting that ACT1 is also a p63 and p73 putative yeast target gene. Additionally, MDM2 and MDMX inhibited the activity of all tested p53 family members in yeast, although the effect was weaker on TAp63. Moreover, Nutlin-3a and SJ-172550 were identified as potential inhibitors of the p73 interaction with MDM2 and MDMX, respectively. Altogether, the yeast-based assays herein developed can be envisaged as a simplified cell system to study the involvement of p53 family members in autophagy, the modulation of their activities by specific interactors (MDM2 and MDMX), and the potential of new small molecules to modulate these interactions. - Highlights: • p53, p63 and p73 are individually studied in the yeast S. cerevisiae. • p53 family members induce ROS production, cell cycle arrest and autophagy in yeast. • p53 family members increase actin depolarization and expression levels in yeast. • MDM2 and MDMX inhibit the activity of p53 family members in yeast. • Yeast can be a useful tool to study the biology and drugability of p53, p63 and p73.

  1. Establishment of human oral-cancer cell lines (KOSC-2 and -3) carrying p53 and c-myc abnormalities by geneticin treatment.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, T; Matsuwari, S; Takahashi, R; Shimada, K; Fujie, K; Maeda, S

    1994-01-15

    Two cultured cell lines derived from human squamous-cell carcinomas were established through xenografted tumors in nude mice by "Geneticin" treatment, which allows to eliminate contaminated mouse fibroblasts and obtain enriched tumor cells at the early stage of cultivation. Line KOSC-2 and KOSC-3 were each derived from a squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral floor and of the lower gingiva, respectively. Both lines grew in a cobblestone pattern, demonstrating their epithelial heritage. Giemsa-banding patterns by chromosome analysis confirmed that both lines are of human origin. Molecular analysis of cancer-related genes, including the Ha-ras, c-myc and p53 genes, was performed. KOSC-3 cells showed co-over-expression of p53 and c-myc mRNA, in addition to p53 point mutation at codon 248 with transition from CGG to TGG. However, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17 was detected in both lines by Southern blotting. These cell lines provide a model for elucidating the mechanism involving p53 inactivation and c-myc-gene over-expression.

  2. Suppression of tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells by transfer of human chromosome 17 does not require transferred BRCA1 and p53 genes.

    PubMed

    Theile, M; Hartmann, S; Scherthan, H; Arnold, W; Deppert, W; Frege, R; Glaab, F; Haensch, W; Scherneck, S

    1995-02-02

    A number of candidate tumor suppressor genes located on the human chromosome 17 are thought to have a role to play in the development of breast cancer. In addition to the p53 gene on 17p13.1 and the BRCA1 gene mapped to 17q12-21, other chromosomal regions for tumor suppressor genes have been suggested to exist on 17p13.3 and both the central and the distal parts of 17q, although definitive functional proof of their involvement in breast cancer tumorigenesis is still lacking. In this report we show that microcell transfer of a human chromosome 17 into wild-type p53 breast cancer cells CAL51 results in loss of tumorigenicity and anchorage-independent growth, changes in cell morphology and a reduction of cell growth rates of the neo-selected microcell hybrids. In the hybrid cells, which express the p53 wild-type protein, only the p- and the distal parts of the q arm of donor chromosome 17 are transferred. Thus, our results provide functional evidence for the presence of one or more tumor suppressor gene(s) on chromosome 17, which are distinct from the p53 and the BRCA1 genes.

  3. Regulation of hTERT Expression and Function in Newly Immortalized p53(+) Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    generation of multiple errors that permit telomerase reactivation.2 In contrast with post-selection HMEC, we show here that GSE22-mediated abrogation of...can also be readily overcome by multiple types of errors that inactivate an Rb-mediated barrier. Agonescence is characterized by a moderate LI...such as radiation, might also employ p53‑dependent p21 to enforce stasis. Multiple types of errors that can inactivate a stress‑induced Rb‑mediated

  4. Solution structure and binding specificity of the p63 DNA binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Enthart, Andreas; Klein, Christian; Dehner, Alexander; Coles, Murray; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst; Hagn, Franz

    2016-01-01

    p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show cooperative DNA binding properties and is significantly more stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. Here, we determined the solution structure of p63-DBD and show that it is markedly less dynamic than p53-DBD. In addition, we also investigate the effect of a double salt bridge present in p53-DBD, but not in p63-DBD on the cooperative binding behavior and specificity to various DNA sites. Restoration of the salt bridges in p63-DBD by mutagenesis leads to enhanced binding affinity to p53-specific, but not p63-specific response elements. Furthermore, we show that p63-DBD is capable of binding to anti-apoptotic BclxL via its DNA binding interface, a feature that has only been shown for p53 so far. These data suggest that all p53 family members - despite alterations in the specificity and binding affinity - are capable of activating pro-apoptotic pathways in a tissue specific manner. PMID:27225672

  5. Solution structure and binding specificity of the p63 DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Enthart, Andreas; Klein, Christian; Dehner, Alexander; Coles, Murray; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst; Hagn, Franz

    2016-05-26

    p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show cooperative DNA binding properties and is significantly more stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. Here, we determined the solution structure of p63-DBD and show that it is markedly less dynamic than p53-DBD. In addition, we also investigate the effect of a double salt bridge present in p53-DBD, but not in p63-DBD on the cooperative binding behavior and specificity to various DNA sites. Restoration of the salt bridges in p63-DBD by mutagenesis leads to enhanced binding affinity to p53-specific, but not p63-specific response elements. Furthermore, we show that p63-DBD is capable of binding to anti-apoptotic BclxL via its DNA binding interface, a feature that has only been shown for p53 so far. These data suggest that all p53 family members - despite alterations in the specificity and binding affinity - are capable of activating pro-apoptotic pathways in a tissue specific manner.

  6. Epigenetic inactivation of the p53-induced long noncoding RNA TP53 target 1 in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Crujeiras, Ana B; Lopez-Serra, Paula; Soler, Marta; Setien, Fernando; Goyal, Ashish; Sandoval, Juan; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Martinez-Cardús, Anna; Gomez, Antonio; Heyn, Holger; Moutinho, Catia; Espada, Jesús; Vidal, August; Paúles, Maria; Galán, Maica; Sala, Núria; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Martínez-Iniesta, María; Farré, Lourdes; Villanueva, Alberto; Gross, Matthias; Diederichs, Sven; Guil, Sonia; Esteller, Manel

    2016-11-22

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of cellular homeostasis. However, their contribution to the cancer phenotype still needs to be established. Herein, we have identified a p53-induced lncRNA, TP53TG1, that undergoes cancer-specific promoter hypermethylation-associated silencing. In vitro and in vivo assays identify a tumor-suppressor activity for TP53TG1 and a role in the p53 response to DNA damage. Importantly, we show that TP53TG1 binds to the multifaceted DNA/RNA binding protein YBX1 to prevent its nuclear localization and thus the YBX1-mediated activation of oncogenes. TP53TG1 epigenetic inactivation in cancer cells releases the transcriptional repression of YBX1-targeted growth-promoting genes and creates a chemoresistant tumor. TP53TG1 hypermethylation in primary tumors is shown to be associated with poor outcome. The epigenetic loss of TP53TG1 therefore represents an altered event in an lncRNA that is linked to classical tumoral pathways, such as p53 signaling, but is also connected to regulatory networks of the cancer cell.

  7. Epigenetic inactivation of the p53-induced long noncoding RNA TP53 target 1 in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Lopez-Serra, Paula; Soler, Marta; Setien, Fernando; Goyal, Ashish; Sandoval, Juan; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Martinez-Cardús, Anna; Gomez, Antonio; Heyn, Holger; Moutinho, Catia; Espada, Jesús; Vidal, August; Paúles, Maria; Galán, Maica; Sala, Núria; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Martínez-Iniesta, María; Farré, Lourdes; Villanueva, Alberto; Gross, Matthias; Diederichs, Sven; Guil, Sonia; Esteller, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of cellular homeostasis. However, their contribution to the cancer phenotype still needs to be established. Herein, we have identified a p53-induced lncRNA, TP53TG1, that undergoes cancer-specific promoter hypermethylation-associated silencing. In vitro and in vivo assays identify a tumor-suppressor activity for TP53TG1 and a role in the p53 response to DNA damage. Importantly, we show that TP53TG1 binds to the multifaceted DNA/RNA binding protein YBX1 to prevent its nuclear localization and thus the YBX1-mediated activation of oncogenes. TP53TG1 epigenetic inactivation in cancer cells releases the transcriptional repression of YBX1-targeted growth-promoting genes and creates a chemoresistant tumor. TP53TG1 hypermethylation in primary tumors is shown to be associated with poor outcome. The epigenetic loss of TP53TG1 therefore represents an altered event in an lncRNA that is linked to classical tumoral pathways, such as p53 signaling, but is also connected to regulatory networks of the cancer cell. PMID:27821766

  8. Noscapine induced apoptosis via downregulation of survivin in human neuroblastoma cells having wild type or null p53.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiwang; He, Jing; Li, Shuai; Cao, Guoqing; Tang, Shaotao; Tong, Qiangsong; Joshi, Harish C

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines, proapoptotic response to this promising chemopreventive agent is mediated by suppression of survivin protein expression. The Noscapine treatment increased levels of total and Ser(15)-phosphorylated p53 protein in SK-SY5Y cells, but the proapoptotic response to this agent was maintained even after knockdown of the p53 protein level. Exposure of SK-SY5Y and LA1-5S cells to Noscapine resulted in a marked decrease in protein and mRNA level of survivin as early as 12 hours after treatment. Ectopic expression of survivin conferred statistically significant protection against Noscapine-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Also, the Noscapine-induced apoptosis was modestly but statistically significantly augmented by RNA interference of survivin in both cell lines. Furthermore, Noscapine-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of Noscapine-induced apoptosis to indicate suppression of survivin expression as a critical mediator of this process.

  9. Genomic Instability Associated with p53 Knockdown in the Generation of Huntington’s Disease Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tidball, Andrew M.; Neely, M. Diana; Chamberlin, Reed; Aboud, Asad A.; Kumar, Kevin K.; Han, Bingying; Bryan, Miles R.; Aschner, Michael; Ess, Kevin C.; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in DNA damage response and repair have been observed in Huntington’s disease (HD). We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from primary dermal fibroblasts of 5 patients with HD and 5 control subjects. A significant fraction of the HD iPSC lines had genomic abnormalities as assessed by karyotype analysis, while none of our control lines had detectable genomic abnormalities. We demonstrate a statistically significant increase in genomic instability in HD cells during reprogramming. We also report a significant association with repeat length and severity of this instability. Our karyotypically normal HD iPSCs also have elevated ATM-p53 signaling as shown by elevated levels of phosphorylated p53 and H2AX, indicating either elevated DNA damage or hypersensitive DNA damage signaling in HD iPSCs. Thus, increased DNA damage responses in the HD genotype is coincidental with the observed chromosomal aberrations. We conclude that the disease causing mutation in HD increases the propensity of chromosomal instability relative to control fibroblasts specifically during reprogramming to a pluripotent state by a commonly used episomal-based method that includes p53 knockdown. PMID:26982737

  10. Biphasic Effects of Nitric Oxide Radicals on Radiation-Induced Lethality and Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lung Cancer Cells Carrying Different p53 Gene Status

    SciTech Connect

    Su Xiaoming; Takahashi, Akihisa; Guo Guozhen; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Ohnishi, Ken; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on radiation-induced cell killing and chromosome aberrations in two human lung cancer cell lines with a different p53 gene status. Methods and Materials: We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 cell lines that were derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53 null. The wtp53 and mp53 cell lines were generated by transfection of the appropriate p53 constructs into the parental cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (an NO donor) and/or 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) (an NO scavenger) and then exposed to X-rays. Cell survival, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored by use of a colony-forming assay, Hoechst 33342 staining assay and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP [deoxyuridine triphosphate] nick end labeling) assay, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In wtp53 cells the induction of radioresistance and the inhibition of apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in the presence of ISDN at low 2- to 10-{mu}mol/L concentrations before X-irradiation. The addition of c-PTIO and ISDN into the culture medium 6 h before irradiation almost completely suppressed these effects. However, at high concentrations of ISDN (100-500 {mu}mol/L), clear evidence of radiosensitization, enhancement of apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations was detected. However, these phenomena were not observed in mp53 cells at either concentration range with ISDN. Conclusions: These results indicate that low and high concentrations of NO radicals can choreograph inverse radiosensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations in human lung cancer cells and that NO radicals can affect the fate of wtp53 cells.

  11. Mimulone-induced autophagy through p53-mediated AMPK/mTOR pathway increases caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy.

  12. Mimulone-Induced Autophagy through p53-Mediated AMPK/mTOR Pathway Increases Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  13. Molecular dynamics of the full-length p53 monomer

    PubMed Central

    Chillemi, Giovanni; Davidovich, Pavel; D’Abramo, Marco; Mametnabiev, Tazhir; Garabadzhiu, Alexander Vasilievich; Desideri, Alessandro; Melino, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    The p53 protein is frequently mutated in a very large proportion of human tumors, where it seems to acquire gain-of-function activity that facilitates tumor onset and progression. A possible mechanism is the ability of mutant p53 proteins to physically interact with other proteins, including members of the same family, namely p63 and p73, inactivating their function. Assuming that this interaction might occurs at the level of the monomer, to investigate the molecular basis for this interaction, here, we sample the structural flexibility of the wild-type p53 monomeric protein. The results show a strong stability up to 850 ns in the DNA binding domain, with major flexibility in the N-terminal transactivations domains (TAD1 and TAD2) as well as in the C-terminal region (tetramerization domain). Several stable hydrogen bonds have been detected between N-terminal or C-terminal and DNA binding domain, and also between N-terminal and C-terminal. Essential dynamics analysis highlights strongly correlated movements involving TAD1 and the proline-rich region in the N-terminal domain, the tetramerization region in the C-terminal domain; Lys120 in the DNA binding region. The herein presented model is a starting point for further investigation of the whole protein tetramer as well as of its mutants. PMID:23974096

  14. Regulation of autophagy by cytoplasmic p53

    PubMed Central

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, M. Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan; D'Amelio, Marcello; Criollo, Alfredo; Morselli, Eugenia; Zhu, Changlian; Harper, Francis; Nannmark, Ulf; Samara, Chrysanthi; Pinton, Paolo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Carnuccio, Rosa; Moll, Ute M.; Madeo, Frank; Paterlini-Brechot, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Rosario; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Pierron, Gérard; Blomgren, Klas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Codogno, Patrice; Cecconi, Francesco; Kroemer, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer cells under conditions of hypoxia and nutrient depletion, allowing them to maintain high ATP levels. Inhibition of p53 led to autophagy in enucleated cells, and cytoplasmic, not nuclear, p53 was able to repress the enhanced autophagy of p53-/- cells. Many different inducers of autophagy (for example, starvation, rapamycin and toxins affecting the endoplasmic reticulum) stimulated proteasome-mediated degradation of p53 through a pathway relying on the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2. Inhibition of p53 degradation prevented the activation of autophagy in several cell lines, in response to several distinct stimuli. These results provide evidence of a key signalling pathway that links autophagy to the cancer-associated dysregulation of p53. PMID:18454141

  15. Cellular Stress and p53-Associated Apoptosis by Juniperus communis L. Berry Extract Treatment in the Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lantto, Tiina A.; Laakso, Into; Dorman, H. J. Damien; Mauriala, Timo; Hiltunen, Raimo; Kõks, Sulev; Raasmaja, Atso

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenolics have shown to activate apoptotic cell death in different tumourigenic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of juniper berry extract (Juniperus communis L.) on p53 protein, gene expression and DNA fragmentation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we analyzed the phenolic composition of the extract. We found that juniper berry extract activated cellular relocalization of p53 and DNA fragmentation-dependent cell death. Differentially expressed genes between treated and non-treated cells were evaluated with the cDNA-RDA (representational difference analysis) method at the early time point of apoptotic process when p53 started to be activated and no caspase activity was detected. Twenty one overexpressed genes related to cellular stress, protein synthesis, cell survival and death were detected. Interestingly, they included endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer and sensor HSPA5 and other ER stress-related genes CALM2 and YKT6 indicating that ER stress response was involved in juniper berry extract mediated cell death. In composition analysis, we identified and quantified low concentrations of fifteen phenolic compounds. The main groups of them were flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, flavanol and biflavonoid including glycosides of quercetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein and hypolaetin. It is suggested that juniper berry extract induced the p53-associated apoptosis through the potentiation and synergism by several phenolic compounds. PMID:27420050

  16. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in various model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 in various organ systems are reviewed and their limitations discussed. PMID:26618142

  17. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in various model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 in various organ systems are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  18. Anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangqian; Jiang, Kai; Liang, Bin; Huang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-02-01

    Xanthohumol may prevent and cure diabetes and atherosis, have oxidation resistance and antiviral function as well as anticancer effect preventing cancer cell metastasis. We investigate whether the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway. Human liver cancer HepG2 cell were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 40 µM xanthohumol for 48 h. The present study showed that the anticancer effect of xanthohumol was effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the caspase-3 activity of human liver cancer HepG2 cells was increased by xanthohumol. In addition, 48-h treatment with xanthohumol suppressed NF-κB expression and promoted p53, cleaved PARP, AIF and cytochrome c expression and downregulated XIAP and Bcl-2/Bax expression in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Therefore, the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway.

  19. Anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIANGQIAN; JIANG, KAI; LIANG, BIN; HUANG, XIAOQIANG

    2016-01-01

    Xanthohumol may prevent and cure diabetes and atherosis, have oxidation resistance and antiviral function as well as anticancer effect preventing cancer cell metastasis. We investigate whether the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway. Human liver cancer HepG2 cell were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 40 µM xanthohumol for 48 h. The present study showed that the anticancer effect of xanthohumol was effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the caspase-3 activity of human liver cancer HepG2 cells was increased by xanthohumol. In addition, 48-h treatment with xanthohumol suppressed NF-κB expression and promoted p53, cleaved PARP, AIF and cytochrome c expression and downregulated XIAP and Bcl-2/Bax expression in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Therefore, the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway. PMID:26718026

  20. p53 Superfamily proteins in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Charles W; Van Beneden, Rebecca J; Muttray, Annette F; Böttger, S Anne; Kelley, Melissa L; Tucker, Abraham E; Thomas, W Kelley

    2011-01-01

    The human p53 tumour suppressor protein is inactivated in many cancers and is also a major player in apoptotic responses to cellular stress. The p53 protein and the two other members of this protein family (p63, p73) are encoded by distinct genes and their functions have been extensively documented for humans and some other vertebrates. The structure and relative expression levels for members of the p53 superfamily have also been reported for most major invertebrate taxa. The functions of homologous proteins have been investigated for only a few invertebrates (specifically, p53 in flies, nematodes and recently a sea anemone). These studies of classical model organisms all suggest that the gene family originally evolved to mediate apoptosis of damaged germ cells or to protect germ cells from genotoxic stress. Here, we have correlated data from a number of molluscan and other invertebrate sequencing projects to provide a framework for understanding p53 signalling pathways in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology. These data suggest that (a) the two identified p53 and p63/73-like proteins in soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Northern European squid (Loligo forbesi) have identical core sequences and may be splice variants of a single gene, while some molluscs and most other invertebrates have two or more distinct genes expressing different p53 family members; (b) transcriptional activation domains (TADs) in bivalve p53 and p63/73-like protein sequences are 67-69% conserved with human p53, while those in ecdysozoan, cnidarian, placozoan and choanozoan eukaryotes are ≤33% conserved; (c) the Mdm2 binding site in the transcriptional activation domain is 100% conserved in all sequenced bivalve p53 proteins (e.g. Mya, Mytilus, Crassostrea and Spisula) but is not present in other non-deuterostome invertebrates; (d) an Mdm2 homologue has been cloned for Mytilus trossulus; (e) homologues for both human p53 upstream regulatory and

  1. p53 dependent apoptosis and cell cycle delay induced by heteroleptic complexes in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gunjan; Rana, Nishant Kumar; Singh, Priya; Dubey, Pradeep; Pandey, Daya Shankar; Koch, Biplob

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported synthesis of novel arene ruthenium (Ru) complexes and evaluated their antitumor activity in murine lymphoma (DL) cells. In this present study we further investigated the mechanism of action of two ruthenium complexes [complex 1 (η6-arene)RuCl(2-pcdpm)] and complex 2 (η6-arene)RuCl(4-mtdpm)] in cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Our studies demonstrate that anticancer property of these two complexes was due to induction of apoptosis through p53 mediated pathway as well as arrest of cells in G2/M phase of cell cycle. It is worth to note that the complexes did not cause any substantial cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Further in comprehensive studies, apoptosis inducing property of both complexes were established in accordance with array of morphological changes ranging from membrane blebbing to formation of apoptotic bodies and followed by DNA fragmentation assay. Furthermore, Flow cytometry by Annexin V/PI staining delineate that complex 1 and 2 have strident impact to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. The complex 1 and 2 treated cells show increased level of intracellular ROS generation which was preceded by p53 activation. Apoptosis induced by 1 and 2 was preceded by mitochondrial aggregations which were monitored by mitotracker. In addition flow cytometry analysis showed that both complexes also effectively arrest cells at G2/M phase of cell cycle. Western blot, RT-PCR as well as Real Time analysis were used to further confirm that the complexes induced apoptosis in p53 dependent pathway. Thus, our promising results can contribute to the rational design of novel potential anticancer agents.

  2. Construction and Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines Containing Mutations in the p53 or BRCAl Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    We originally proposed the Differential Display method (Liang and Pardee 1992) to identify genes that are modulated by p53 and BRCA1 deficiency. As...retroviral delivery of tetracycline-inducible genes in a single autoregulatory cassette. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:5185-5190 (1996). Liang P, Pardee A...Shoemaker A, Dove W. ApcMin: a mouse model for intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. Eur J Cancer 3 1A: 1061-4 (1995). Moser A, Mattes E, Dove W, Lindstrom M

  3. The novel anthraquinone derivative IMP1338 induces death of human cancer cells by p53-independent S and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Kyung; Ryu, Hwani; Son, A-Rang; Seo, Bitna; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Song, Jie-Young; Ahn, Jiyeon

    2016-04-01

    To identify novel small molecules that induce selective cancer cell death, we screened a chemical library containing 1040 compounds in HT29 colon cancer and CCD18-Co normal colon cells, using a phenotypic cell-based viability assay system with the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). We discovered a novel anthraquinone derivative, N-(4-[{(9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-1-anthracenyl)sulfonyl}amino]phenyl)-N-methylacetamide (IMP1338), which was cytotoxic against the human colon cancer cells tested. The MTT cell viability assay showed that treatment with IMP1338 selectively inhibited HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), HT29, and A549 cancer cell proliferation compared to that of Beas2B normal epithelial cells. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity of IMP1338, we examined the effect of IMP1338 on the cell cycle distribution and death of cancer cells. IMP1338 treatment significantly arrested the cell cycle at S and G2/M phases by DNA damage and led to apoptotic cell death, which was determined using FACS analysis with Annexin V/PI double staining. Furthermore, IMP1338 increased caspase-3 cleavage in wild-type p53, p53 knockout HCT116, and HT29 cells as determined using immunoblotting. In addition, IMP1338 markedly induced the phosphorylation of histone H2AX and Chk1 in both cell lines while the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiation inhibited the viability of HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), and HT29 cells compared to 5-FU or radiation alone. Our findings indicated that IMP1338 induced p53-independent cell death through S and G2/M phase arrest as well as DNA damage. These results provide a basis for future investigations assessing the promising anticancer properties of IMP1338.

  4. Wild-type and mutated presenilins 2 trigger p53-dependent apoptosis and down-regulate presenilin 1 expression in HEK293 human cells and in murine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alves da Costa, Cristine; Paitel, Erwan; Mattson, Mark P.; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam; Ancolio, Karine; Checler, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Presenilins 1 and 2 are two homologous proteins that, when mutated, account for most early onset Alzheimer's disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that, among various functions, presenilins could modulate cell apoptotic responses. Here we establish that the overexpression of presenilin 2 (PS2) and its mutated form Asn-141-Ile-PS2 alters the viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells as established by combined trypan blue exclusion, sodium 3′-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid hydrate assay, and propidium iodide incorporation FACS analyses. The two parent proteins increase the acetyl-DEVD-al-sensitive caspase-3-like activity in both HEK293 cells and Telencephalon specific murine neurons, modulate Bax and bcl-2 expressions, and enhance cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol. We show that overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 increases p53-like immunoreactivity and transcriptional activity. We also establish that wild-type- and mutated PS2-induced caspase activation is reduced by p53 antisense approach and by pifithrin-α, a chemical inhibitor of p53. Furthermore, mouse fibroblasts in which the PS2 gene has been knocked out exhibited strongly reduced p53-transcriptional activity. Finally, we establish that the overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 is accompanied by a drastic reduction of endogenous presenilin 1 (PS1) expression. Interestingly, pifithrin-α diminished endogenous PS2 immunoreactivity, whereas the inhibitor increases PS1 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease-linked PS2 trigger apoptosis and down-regulate PS1 expression through p53-dependent mechanisms. PMID:11904448

  5. An anthraquinone derivative from Luffa acutangula induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 through p53-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Vanajothi, Ramar; Srinivasan, Pappu

    2016-01-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of 1,8-dihydroxy-4-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (DHMA) isolated from the Luffa acutangula against human non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460). Induction of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined through fluorescence microscopic technique. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analysis was carried out to detect the expression of pro-apoptotic (p53, p21, caspase-3, Bax, GADD45A, and ATM) and anti-apoptotic (NF-κB) proteins in NCI-H460 cell line. In silico studies also performed to predict the binding mechanism of DHMA with MDM2-p53 protein. The DHMA inhibited the cell viability of NCI-H460 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of about 50 µg/ml. It significantly reduced cell viability correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated with ROS generation. The apoptotic cell death was further confirmed through dual staining and DNA fragmentation assay. DHMA significantly increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein such as p53, p21, Bax, and caspase-3 but downregulated the expression of NF-κB in NCI-H460 cell line. In silico studies demonstrate that DHMA formed hydrogen bond interaction with key residues Trp26, Phe55 and Lys24 by which it disrupt the binding of p53 with MDM2 receptor. These findings suggested that DHMA induces apoptosis in NCI-H460 via a p53-dependent pathway. This the first study on cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of DHMA from L. acutangula against NCI-H460 cell line. Therefore, DHMA has therapeutic potential for lung cancer treatment.

  6. SCH529074, a small molecule activator of mutant p53, which binds p53 DNA binding domain (DBD), restores growth-suppressive function to mutant p53 and interrupts HDM2-mediated ubiquitination of wild type p53.

    PubMed

    Demma, Mark; Maxwell, Eugene; Ramos, Robert; Liang, Lianzhu; Li, Cheng; Hesk, David; Rossman, Randall; Mallams, Alan; Doll, Ronald; Liu, Ming; Seidel-Dugan, Cynthia; Bishop, W Robert; Dasmahapatra, Bimalendu

    2010-04-02

    Abrogation of p53 function occurs in almost all human cancers, with more than 50% of cancers harboring inactivating mutations in p53 itself. Mutation of p53 is indicative of highly aggressive cancers and poor prognosis. The vast majority of mutations in p53 occur in its core DNA binding domain (DBD) and result in inactivation of p53 by reducing its thermodynamic stability at physiological temperature. Here, we report a small molecule, SCH529074, that binds specifically to the p53 DBD in a saturable manner with an affinity of 1-2 microm. Binding restores wild type function to many oncogenic mutant forms of p53. This small molecule reactivates mutant p53 by acting as a chaperone, in a manner similar to that previously reported for the peptide CDB3. Binding of SCH529074 to the p53 DBD is specifically displaced by an oligonucleotide with a sequence derived from the p53-response element. In addition to reactivating mutant p53, SCH529074 binding inhibits ubiquitination of p53 by HDM2. We have also developed a novel variant of p53 by changing a single amino acid in the core domain of p53 (N268R), which abolishes binding of SCH529074. This amino acid change also inhibits HDM2-mediated ubiquitination of p53. Our novel findings indicate that through its interaction with p53 DBD, SCH529074 restores DNA binding activity to mutant p53 and inhibits HDM2-mediated ubiquitination.

  7. p63 Expression Defines a Lethal Subset of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woonyoung; Shah, Jay B.; Tran, Mai; Svatek, Robert; Marquis, Lauren; Lee, I-Ling; Yu, Dasom; Adam, Liana; Wen, Sijin; Shen, Yu; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David J.; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Background p63 is a member of the p53 family that has been implicated in maintenance of epithelial stem cell compartments. Previous studies demonstrated that p63 is downregulated in muscle-invasive bladder cancers, but the relationship between p63 expression and survival is not clear. Methodology/Principal Findings We used real-time PCR to characterize p63 expression and several genes implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bladder cancer cell lines (n = 15) and primary tumors (n = 101). We correlated tumor marker expression with stage, disease-specific (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Expression of E-cadherin and p63 correlated directly with one another and inversely with expression of the mesenchymal markers Zeb-1, Zeb-2, and vimentin. Non-muscle-invasive (Ta and T1) bladder cancers uniformly expressed high levels of E-cadherin and p63 and low levels of the mesenchymal markers. Interestingly, a subset of muscle-invasive (T2–T4) tumors maintained high levels of E-cadherin and p63 expression. As expected, there was a strongly significant correlation between EMT marker expression and muscle invasion (p<0.0001). However, OS was shorter in patients with muscle-invasive tumors that retained p63 (p = 0.007). Conclusions/Significance Our data confirm that molecular markers of EMT are elevated in muscle-invasive bladder cancers, but interestingly, retention of the “epithelial” marker p63 in muscle-invasive tumors is associated with a worse outcome. PMID:22253920

  8. [Investigation of detoxification polymorphisms genes, methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) and P53 in the radiosensitive human cells].

    PubMed

    Shagirova, Zh M; Ushenkova, L N; Mikhaĭlov, V F; Kurbatova, L A; Kuz'mina, N S; Semiachkina, A N; Vasil'eva, I M; Mazurik, V K; Zasukhina, G D

    2010-01-01

    The genes of detoxication, MTHFR and p53 were studied in Down' and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome cells. The frequency GSTM1(0/0) genotype in Down syndrome patients was in 1.5 times higher than in control cells (p < 0.069). Opposite the frequency GSTM1(0/0) genotype in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was 23.3% 2 times lower than in control cells (p < 0.034). This indication was in 2 times lower in women cells than in men cells and in 3 times lower than in control cells (p < 0.026). The mutations of p53 gene (7th exon) were detected in 4 from 11 Down patients (36.7%; in 2 cases af women and men), in Ehlers-Danlos patients--in 5 cases and only in men (29.4% among all the observed patients). The observations 24 healthy donors weren't revealed any mutations (p < 0.013-0.001). The hypothesis about the connection between gene polymorphisms which take a part in genome stability and radiosensitivity in Down and Ehlers-Danlos patients was developed.

  9. Plumbagin induces apoptosis via the p53 pathway and generation of reactive oxygen species in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Linqiang; Yin, Delong; Ren, Ye; Gong, Chen; Chen, Anmin; Guo, Feng-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents. A number of studies have indicated that plumbagin (PL) (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone), a compound found in the plants of the Plumbaginaceae and Droseraceae families, possesses anticancer activity. However, its anticancer effects and mechanisms against osteosarcoma have not been explored. To determine the anticancer effect of PL on osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and U2OS, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured, and Western blot analyses were performed. PL significantly inhibited the growth of osteosarcoma cells, particularly U2OS cells. PL up-regulated the expression of p53 in U2OS cells and p21 in the two osteosarcoma cell lines causing cell cycle arrest by decreasing the expression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2)/cyclin B1 and cyclin D1. Furthermore, PL altered the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and may have triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, resulting in caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation. We also found that PL induced the generation of ROS in osteosarcoma cell lines. To conclude, PL exerted anticancer activity on osteosarcoma cells by inducing pro-apoptotic signaling and modulating the intracellular ROS that causes induction of apoptosis. These effects may relate to the p53 status.

  10. The p53-dependent radioadaptive response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    We already reported that conditioning exposures at low doses, or at low dose-rates, lowered radiation-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cultured cells in vitro and in the spleens of mice in vivo. In this study, the aim was to characterize the p53-dependent radioadaptive response at the molecular level. We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 containing cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53-null. Cellular radiation sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. The accumulation of p53, Hdm2, and iNOS was analyzed with Western blotting. The quantification of chromosomal aberrations was estimated by scoring dicentrics per cell. In wtp53 cells, it was demonstrated that the lack of p53 accumulation was coupled with the activation of Hdm2 after low dose irradiation (0.02 Gy). Although NO radicals were only minimally induced in wtp53 cells irradiated with a challenging irradiation (6 Gy) alone, NO radicals were seen to increase about 2-4 fold after challenging irradiation following a priming irradiation (0.02 Gy). Under similar irradiation conditions with a priming and challenging irradiation in wtp53 cells, induction of radioresistance and a depression of chromosomal aberrations were observed only in the absence of Pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor), RITA or Nutlin-3 (p53-Hdm2 interaction inhibitors), aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor) and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). On the other hand, in p53 dysfunctional cells, a radioadaptive response was not observed in the presence or absence of those inhibitors. Moreover, radioresistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with ISDN (an NO generating agent) alone. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of the radioadaptive response acting through the activation of Hdm2 and the depression of p53 accumulations.

  11. Silencing of RUNX2 enhances gemcitabine sensitivity of p53-deficient human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells through the stimulation of TAp63-mediated cell death

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, H; Nakamura, M; Yoda, H; Hiraoka, K; Shinohara, K; Sang, M; Fujiwara, K; Shimozato, O; Nagase, H; Ozaki, T

    2015-01-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) has been considered to be one of master regulators for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Recently, we have described that RUNX2 attenuates p53/TAp73-dependent cell death of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells bearing wild-type p53 in response to adriamycin. In this study, we have asked whether RUNX2 silencing could enhance gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-deficient human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells. Under our experimental conditions, GEM treatment increased the expression level of p53 family TAp63, whereas RUNX2 was reduced following GEM exposure, indicating that there exists an inverse relationship between the expression level of TAp63 and RUNX2 following GEM exposure. To assess whether TAp63 could be involved in the regulation of GEM sensitivity of AsPC-1 cells, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of TAp63 was performed. As expected, silencing of TAp63 significantly prohibited GEM-dependent cell death as compared with GEM-treated non-silencing cells. As TAp63 was negatively regulated by RUNX2, we sought to examine whether RUNX2 knockdown could enhance the sensitivity to GEM. Expression analysis demonstrated that depletion of RUNX2 apparently stimulates the expression of TAp63, as well as proteolytic cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) after GEM exposure, and further augmented GEM-mediated induction of p53/TAp63-target genes, such as p21WAF1, PUMA and NOXA, relative to GEM-treated control-transfected cells, implying that RUNX2 has a critical role in the regulation of GEM resistance through the downregulation of TAp63. Notably, ablation of TAp63 gave a decrease in number of γH2AX-positive cells in response to GEM relative to control-transfected cells following GEM exposure. Consistently, GEM-dependent phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein was remarkably impaired in TAp63 knockdown cells. Collectively, our present findings strongly suggest that RUNX2-mediated repression of

  12. Moraxella catarrhalis decreases antiviral innate immune responses by down-regulation of TLR3 via inhibition of p53 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Annina; Haarmann, Helge; Zahradnik, Sabrina; Frenzel, Katrin; Schreiber, Frauke; Klassert, Tilman E; Heyl, Kerstin A; Endres, Anne-Sophie; Schmidtke, Michaela; Hofmann, Jörg; Slevogt, Hortense

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complicated by infectious exacerbations with acute worsening of respiratory symptoms. Coinfections of bacterial and viral pathogens are associated with more severe exacerbations. Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the most frequent lower respiratory tract pathogens detected in COPD. We therefore studied the impact of M. catarrhalis on the antiviral innate immune response that is mediated via TLR3 and p53. Molecular interactions between M. catarrhalis and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as well as Beas-2B cells were studied using flow cytometry, quantitative PCR analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and ELISA. M. catarrhalis induces a significant down-regulation of TLR3 in human bronchial epithelial cells. In M. catarrhalis-infected cells, expression of p53 was decreased. We detected a reduced binding of p53 to the tlr3 promoter, resulting in reduced TLR3 gene transcription. M. catarrhalis diminished the TLR3-dependent secretion of IFN-β, IFN-λ, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. In addition in M. catarrhalis infected cells, expression of rhinovirus type 1A RNA was increased compared with uninfected cells. M. catarrhalis reduces antiviral defense functions of bronchial epithelial cells, which may increase susceptibility to viral infections.-Heinrich, A., Haarmann, H., Zahradnik, S., Frenzel, K., Schreiber, F., Klassert, T. E., Heyl, K. A., Endres, A.-S., Schmidtke, M., Hofmann, J., Slevogt, H. Moraxella catarrhalis decreases antiviral innate immune responses by down-regulation of TLR3 via inhibition of p53 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  13. The function of Drosophila p53 isoforms in apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, B; Rotelli, M; Dixon, M; Calvi, B R

    2015-01-01

    The p53 protein is a major mediator of the cellular response to genotoxic stress and is a crucial suppressor of tumor formation. In a variety of organisms, p53 and its paralogs, p63 and p73, each encode multiple protein isoforms through alternative splicing, promoters, and translation start sites. The function of these isoforms in development and disease are still being defined. Here, we evaluate the apoptotic potential of multiple isoforms of the single p53 gene in the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster. Most previous studies have focused on the p53A isoform, but it has been recently shown that a larger p53B isoform can induce apoptosis when overexpressed. It has remained unclear, however, whether one or both isoforms are required for the apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. We show that p53B is a much more potent inducer of apoptosis than p53A when overexpressed. Overexpression of two newly identified short isoforms perturbed development and inhibited the apoptotic response to ionizing radiation. Analysis of physiological protein expression indicated that p53A is the most abundant isoform, and that both p53A and p53B can form a complex and co-localize to sub-nuclear compartments. In contrast to the overexpression results, new isoform-specific loss-of-function mutants indicated that it is the shorter p53A isoform, not full-length p53B, that is the primary mediator of pro-apoptotic gene transcription and apoptosis after ionizing radiation. Together, our data show that it is the shorter p53A isoform that mediates the apoptotic response to DNA damage, and further suggest that p53B and shorter isoforms have specialized functions. PMID:25882045

  14. Mutational analysis of the N-ras, p53, p16INK4a, CDK4, and MC1R genes in human congenital melanocytic naevi

    PubMed Central

    Papp, T.; Pemsel, H.; Zimmermann, R.; Bastrop, R.; Weiss, D.; Schiffmann, D.

    1999-01-01

    Eighteen human congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) from 17 patients were screened for activating point mutations in the oncogenes N-ras and CDK4 and for sequence variants in the MC1R gene by combined RFLP-PCR/SSCP analysis. In addition, all lesions were screened for deletions and point mutations in the tumour suppressor genes p53 and p16INK4a (CDKN2A) by combined multiplex PCR/SSCP analysis. Positive screening data were specified by sequencing of the corresponding PCR product. Activating point mutations in the N-ras gene (nine CAA (Gln) to AAA (Lys) transversions and one CAA (Gln) to CGA (Arg) transition at codon 61) were detected at high frequency (56%). Furthermore, three missense mutations (V92M) and two silent mutations (CGA (Arg) to CGG (Arg), codon 213, exon 6) were found in the MC1R and p53 genes, respectively. No mutations were found in p16 or CDK4. The activated N-ras oncogene, which is also found in human cutaneous melanomas, may constitute a potential risk factor for melanoma formation within CMN.


Keywords: naevi; N-ras; p53; p16 PMID:10465111

  15. Role of NF-κB-p53 crosstalk in ultraviolet A-induced cell death and G1 arrest in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Kyung; Cha, Hwa Jun; Hong, Misun; Yoon, Yeongmin; Lee, Hyunjin; An, Sungkwan

    2012-01-01

    Photoaging is the premature aging of the skin caused by repeated exposure to sunlight and is characterized by a depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix. This depletion is due to the loss of fibroblast cells and their multiple functions. UVA was revealed as a major inducer of photoaging in various clinical studies. As UVA photons have long wavelength spectra, UVA penetrates deeper into the dermis than UVB and UVC, leading to the induction of cell death, the destruction of the dermal extracellular matrix through the induction of matrix metalloproteinase expression, and the repression of collagen expression. However, the exact effects of UVA on the skin remain a matter of debate. Here, we assess cell cycle stage to demonstrate that NF-κB-p53 crosstalk induces apoptosis and growth arrest in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. In addition, UVA irradiation led to an increase of NF-κB-HDAC1 complexes, which in turn repressed cyclin D1 expression in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. We provide direct evidence that UVA irradiation induces changes in the p53-dependent NF-κB complex that lead to growth arrest and apoptosis through the repression of cyclin D1. These studies uncovered that NF-κB-p53 crosstalk is a key regulator of UVA-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis.

  16. Sedanolide induces autophagy through the PI3K, p53 and NF-κB signaling pathways in human liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Chen, Chi-Tsai; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Kuo, Yu-Hao; Li, Chien-Chun; Hsieh, Lan-Chi; Wu, Chih-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Sedanolide (SN), a phthalide-like compound from celery seed oil, possesses antioxidant effects. However, the effect of SN on cell death in human liver cancer cells has yet to be determined. In this study, cell viability determination, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) fluorescent staining and immunoblot analysis were performed to determine autophagy induction and autophagy-induced protein expression changes via molecular examination after human liver cancer (J5) cells were treated with SN. Our studies demonstrate that SN suppressed J5 cell viability by inducing autophagy. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-I, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Akt protein levels decreased, whereas PI3K-III, LC3-II and Beclin-1 protein levels increased following SN treatment in J5 cells. In addition, SN treatment upregulated nuclear p53 and damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) and downregulated cytosolic p53 and Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) expression in J5 cells. Furthermore, the cytosolic phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) and nuclear p65 and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB increased after SN treatment. These results suggest that SN induces J5 cell autophagy by regulating PI3K, p53 and NF-κB autophagy-associated signaling pathways in J5 cells.

  17. Phytochemical regulation of the tumor suppressive microRNA, miR-34a, by p53-dependent and independent responses in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hargraves, Kris G; He, Lin; Firestone, Gary L

    2016-05-01

    The tumor suppressive microRNA miR-34a is transcriptionally regulated by p53 and shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation as well as being a marker of increased disease free survival. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) derived from cruciferous vegetables, artemisinin, extracted from the sweet wormwood plant, and artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, are phytochemicals with anti-tumorigenic properties however, little is known about the role of microRNAs in their mechanism of action. Human breast cancer cells expressing wild-type (MCF-7) or mutant p53 (T47D) were treated with a concentration range and time course of each phytochemical under conditions of cell cycle arrest as detected by flow cytometry to examine the potential connection between miR-34a expression and their anti-proliferative responses. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis of extracted RNA and total protein revealed artemsinin and artesunate increased miR-34a expression in a dose-dependent manner correlating with down-regulation of the miR-34a target gene, CDK4. I3C stimulation of miR-34a expression required functional p53, whereas, both artemisinin and artesunate up-regulated miR-34a expression regardless of p53 mutational status or in the presence of dominant negative p53. Phytochemical treatments inhibited the luciferase activity of a construct containing the wild-type 3'UTR of CDK4, but not those with a mutated miR-34a binding site, whereas, transfection of miR-34a inhibitors ablated the phytochemical mediated down-regulation of CDK4 and induction of cell cycle arrest. Our results suggest that miR-34a is an essential component of the anti-proliferative activities of I3C, artemisinin, and artesunate and demonstrate that both wild-type p53 dependent and independent pathways are responsible for miR-34a induction.

  18. The Hsp90 inhibitor SNX-7081 is synergistic with fludarabine nucleoside via DNA damage and repair mechanisms in human, p53-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Munther; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Best, O. Giles; Pascovici, Dana; Mactier, Swetlana; Mulligan, Stephen P.; Haynes, Paul A.; Christopherson, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors have been limited by high toxicity. We previously showed that the Hsp90 inhibitor, SNX-7081, synergizes with and restores sensitivity to fludarabine nucleoside (2-FaraA) in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells with lesions in the p53 pathway (Best OG, et al., Leukemia Lymphoma 53:1367-75, 2012). Here, we used label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics and comprehensive bioinformatic analysis to determine the mechanism of this synergy. We propose that 2-FaraA-induced DNA damage is compounded by SNX-7081-mediated inhibition of DNA repair, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. DNA damage responses are impaired in part due to reductions in checkpoint regulators BRCA1 and cyclin D1, and cell death is triggered following reductions of MYC and nucleolin and an accumulation of apoptosis-inducing NFkB2 p100 subunit. Loss of nucleolin can activate Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to the increase of pro-apoptotic proteins (BID, fas-associated factor-2) and subsequent apoptosis of p53-negative, 2-FaraA refractory CLL cells. A significant induction of DNA damage, indicated by increases in DNA damage marker ϕH2AX, was observed following the dual drug treatment of additional cell lines, indicating that a similar mechanism may operate in other p53-mutated human B-lymphoid cancers. These results provide valuable insight into the synergistic mechanism between SNX-7081 and 2-FaraA that may provide an alternative treatment for CLL patients with p53 mutations, for whom therapeutic options are currently limited. Moreover, this drug combination reduces the effective dose of the Hsp90 inhibitor and may therefore alleviate any toxicity encountered. PMID:26556860

  19. Mutant p53 accumulation in human breast cancer is not an intrinsic property or dependent on structural or functional disruption but is regulated by exogenous stress and receptor status.

    PubMed

    Bouchalova, Pavla; Nenutil, Rudolf; Muller, Petr; Hrstka, Roman; Appleyard, M Virginia; Murray, Karen; Jordan, Lee B; Purdie, Colin A; Quinlan, Philip; Thompson, Alastair M; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Coates, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    Many human cancers contain missense TP53 mutations that result in p53 protein accumulation. Although generally considered as a single class of mutations that abrogate wild-type function, individual TP53 mutations may have specific properties and prognostic effects. Tumours that contain missense TP53 mutations show variable p53 stabilization patterns, which may reflect the specific mutation and/or aspects of tumour biology. We used immunohistochemistry on cell lines and human breast cancers with known TP53 missense mutations and assessed the effects of each mutation with four structure-function prediction methods. Cell lines with missense TP53 mutations show variable percentages of cells with p53 stabilization under normal growth conditions, ranging from approximately 50% to almost 100%. Stabilization is not related to structural or functional disruption, but agents that stabilize wild-type p53 increase the percentages of cells showing missense mutant p53 accumulation in cell lines with heterogeneous stabilization. The same heterogeneity of p53 stabilization occurs in primary breast cancers, independent of the effect of the mutation on structural properties or functional disruption. Heterogeneous accumulation is more common in steroid receptor-positive or HER2-positive breast cancers and cell lines than in triple-negative samples. Immunohistochemcal staining patterns associate with Mdm2 levels, proliferation, grade and overall survival, whilst the type of mutation reflects downstream target activity. Inhibiting Mdm2 activity increases the extent of p53 stabilization in some, but not all, breast cancer cell lines. The data indicate that missense mutant p53 stabilization is a complex and variable process in human breast cancers that associates with disease characteristics but is unrelated to structural or functional properties. That agents which stabilize wild-type p53 also stabilize mutant p53 has implications for patients with heterogeneous mutant p53 accumulation

  20. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels.

  1. p63 gene structure in the phylum mollusca.

    PubMed

    Baričević, Ana; Štifanić, Mauro; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato

    2015-08-01

    Roles of p53 family ancestor (p63) in the organisms' response to stressful environmental conditions (mainly pollution) have been studied among molluscs, especially in the genus Mytilus, within the last 15 years. Nevertheless, information about gene structure of this regulatory gene in molluscs is scarce. Here we report the first complete genomic structure of the p53 family orthologue in the mollusc Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and confirm its similarity to vertebrate p63 gene. Our searches within the available molluscan genomes (Aplysia californica, Lottia gigantea, Crassostrea gigas and Biomphalaria glabrata), found only one p53 family member present in a single copy per haploid genome. Comparative analysis of those orthologues, additionally confirmed the conserved p63 gene structure. Conserved p63 gene structure can be a helpful tool to complement or/and revise gene annotations of any future p63 genomic sequence records in molluscs, but also in other animal phyla. Knowledge of the correct gene structure will enable better prediction of possible protein isoforms and their functions. Our analyses also pointed out possible mis-annotations of the p63 gene in sequenced molluscan genomes and stressed the value of manual inspection (based on alignments of cDNA and protein onto the genome sequence) for a reliable and complete gene annotation.

  2. Crosstalk between p53 and TGF-β Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Elston, Rebecca; Inman, Gareth J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild-type p53 and TGF-β are key tumour suppressors which regulate an array of cellular responses. TGF-β signals in part via the Smad signal transduction pathway. Wild-type p53 and Smads physically interact and coordinately induce transcription of a number of key tumour suppressive genes. Conversely mutant p53 generally subverts tumour suppressive TGF-β responses, diminishing transcriptional activation of key TGF-β target genes. Mutant p53 can also interact with Smads and this enables complex formation with the p53 family member p63 and blocks p63-mediated activation of metastasis suppressing genes to promote tumour progression. p53 and Smad function may also overlap during miRNA biogenesis as they can interact with the same components of the Drosha miRNA processing complex to promote maturation of specific subsets of miRNAs. This paper investigates the crosstalk between p53 and TGF-β signalling and the potential roles this plays in cancer biology. PMID:22545213

  3. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by aspidin PB through the p53/p21 and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Daqian; Jiang, Chaoyin; Hua, Xin; Wang, Ting; Chai, Yimin

    2015-10-01

    Aspidin PB is a natural product extracted from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott, which has been characterized for its various biological activities. We reported that aspidin PB induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the p53/p21 and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human osteosarcoma cells. Aspidin PB inhibited the proliferation of Saos-2, U2OS, and HOS cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Aspidin PB induced changes in the cell cycle regulators (cyclin A, pRb, CDK2, p53, and p21), which caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase. We also explored the role of siRNA targeted to p53; it led to a dose-dependent attenuation of aspidin PB-induced apoptosis signaling. Moreover, after treatment with aspidin PB, the p21-silenced cells decreased significantly at the S phase. Aspidin PB increased the percentage of cells with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. Western blot analysis showed that aspidin PB inhibited Bcl-2 expression and induced Bax expression to disintegrate the outer mitochondrial membrane and caused cytochrome C release. Mitochondrial cytochrome C release was associated with the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascades. Furthermore, the double-stranded DNA breaks and reactive oxygen species signaling were both involved in aspidin PB-induced DNA damage. In addition, aspidin PB inhibited tumor growth significantly in U2OS xenografts. Above all, we conclude that aspidin PB represents a valuable natural source and may potentially be applicable in osteosarcoma therapy.

  4. Apoptotic effects of Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human breast carcinoma T-47D cells mediated by c-myc-, p53-, and caspase-3-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Kheng Leong; Tengku Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul; Lim, Chui Hun; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

    2010-03-01

    The chloroform extract of Physalis minima produced a significant growth inhibition against human T-47D breast carcinoma cells as compared with other extracts with an EC(50) value of 3.8 microg/mL. An analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited an apoptotic cell death. mRNA expression analysis revealed the coregulation of apoptotic genes, that is, c-myc , p53, and caspase-3. The c-myc was significantly induced by the chloroform extract at the earlier phase of treatment, followed by p53 and caspase-3. Biochemical assay and ultrastructural observation displayed typical apoptotic features in the treated cells, including DNA fragmentation, blebbing and convolution of cell membrane, clumping and margination of chromatin, and production of membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. The presence of different stages of apoptotic cell death and phosphatidylserine externalization were further reconfirmed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Thus, the results from this study strongly suggest that the chloroform extract of P. minima induced apoptotic cell death via p53-, caspase-3-, and c-myc-dependent pathways.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ inhibits human neuroblastoma cell tumorigenesis by inducing p53- and SOX2-mediated cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Li; Chen, Liping; Dobrzański, Tomasz P; Zhu, Bokai; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Müller, Rolf; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-12-20

    Neuroblastoma is a common childhood cancer typically treated by inducing differentiation with retinoic acid (RA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ, (PPARβ/δ) is known to promote terminal differentiation of many cell types. In the present study, PPARβ/δ was over-expressed in three human neuroblastoma cell lines, NGP, SK-N-BE(2), and IMR-32, that exhibit high, medium, and low sensitivity, respectively, to retinoic acid-induced differentiation to determine if PPARβ/δ and retinoic acid receptors (RARs) could be jointly targeted to increase the efficacy of treatment. All-trans-RA (atRA) decreased expression of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), a stem cell regulator and marker of de-differentiation, in NGP and SK-N-BE(2) cells with inactive or mutant tumor suppressor p53, respectively. However, atRA did not suppress SOX2 expression in IMR-32 cells carrying wild-type p53. Over-expression and/or ligand activation of PPARβ/δ reduced the average volume and weight of ectopic tumor xenografts from NGP, SK-N-BE(2), or IMR-32 cells compared to controls. Compared with that found with atRA, PPARβ/δ suppressed SOX2 expression in NGP and SK-N-BE(2) cells and ectopic xenografts, and was also effective in suppressing SOX2 expression in IMR-32 cells that exhibit higher p53 expression compared to the former cell lines. Combined, these observations demonstrate that activating or over-expressing PPARβ/δ induces cell differentiation through p53- and SOX2-dependent signaling pathways in neuroblastoma cells and tumors. This suggests that combinatorial activation of both RARα and PPARβ/δ may be suitable as an alternative therapeutic approach for RA-resistant neuroblastoma patients.

  6. Brahma-related gene 1 induces apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner in human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hongli; Xing, Weipeng; Li, Wuyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Blocked apoptosis and aggressive inflammatory responses occur in fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Although Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) is considered as a tumor suppressor, few research covers its role in RA. This study aims to reveal effects and potential mechanisms of BRG1 in human FLS cell line MH7A. BRG1 expression in MH7A cells was altered by transfection of overexpression vectors or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Cell viability and apoptosis were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry after transfection. Factors involved in inflammation and apoptosis were quantified by qPCR and Western blot. The interaction between BRG1 and p53 was assessed by immunoprecipitation (IP). Results showed that BRG1 overexpression significantly suppressed MH7A cell viability and induced apoptosis (P < 0.01), and its knockdown had opposite effects. BRG1 reduced mRNA levels of matrix metallopeptidase 3, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2, cyclooxygenase 2, and interleukin 6, implying its suppressive effects on inflammation. BRG1 interacted with and promoted p53 (P < 0.05). B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 was suppressed (P < 0.05), while cytochrome c, caspase 3 (CASP3) and CASP9 were activated (P < 0.01) by BRG1. However, the regulation on these factors was abrogated by p53 knockdown (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that BRG1 may induce apoptosis and suppress inflammation in MH7A cells. Potential functional mechanisms involve the regulation of apoptotic factors by BRG1, which may depend on the recruitment and promotion of p53. This study provides the essential proof for applying BRG1 to the molecular therapy of RA. PMID:28002318

  7. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA prevalence and p53 codon 72 (Arg72Pro) polymorphism in prostate cancer in a Greek group of patients.

    PubMed

    Michopoulou, Vasiliki; Derdas, Stavros P; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil; Mourmouras, Nikolaos; Nomikos, Alexandros; Delakas, Dimitris; Sourvinos, George; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm found in males and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in males in Greece. Among other pathogens, the detection frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found to be significantly increased in tumor tissues among patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), depending on the geographical distribution of each population studied. The present study focused on the detection of HPV and the distribution of Arg72Pro p53 polymorphism in a cohort of healthy individuals, as well as prostate cancer patients. We investigated the presence of HPV in 50 paraffin-embedded prostate cancer tissues, as well as in 30 physiological tissue samples from healthy individuals by real-time PCR. Furthermore, the same group of patients was also screened for the presence of the Arg72Pro polymorphism of the p53 gene, a p53 polymorphism related to HPV. Out of the 30 control samples, only 1 was found positive for HPV (3.33 %). On the contrary, HPV DNA was detected in 8 out of the total 50 samples (16 %) in the prostate cancer samples. The distribution of the three genotypes, Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro, was 69.6, 21.7, and 8.7 % in the cancer patients and 75.0, 17.86, and 7.14 % in healthy controls, respectively. No statistically significant association was observed between the HPV presence and the age, stage, p53 polymorphism status at codon 72, or PSA. The increased prevalence of HPV detected in the prostate cancer tissues is in agreement with that reported in previous studies, further supporting the association of HPV infection and prostate cancer.

  8. Emulsified isoflurane treatment inhibits the cell cycle and respiration of human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells in a p53-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Deng, Jia; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Jiao; Zeng, Xianzheng; He, Zhiyang; Jiang, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhuoning; Jiang, Chunling

    2016-07-01

    Emulsified isoflurane (EIso), as a result of its rapid anesthetic induction, recovery and convenience, is widely used as a novel intravenous general anesthetic. Treatment with EIso can reduce injuries caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) to organs, including the heart, lung and liver, without knowing understanding the molecular mechanism. The present study hypothesized that treatment with EIso can affect the physiological processes of human lung bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) prior to I/R. To test this hypothesis, the present study first constructed stable p53 knockdown and synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase (SCO)2 knockdown 16HBE cells. The above cells were subsequently treated with EIso at a concentration of 0.1 and 0.2% for 24 h. The relevant concentration of fat emulsion was used as a negative control. The expression levels of p53, p21, SCO1, SCO2 and Tp53‑induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Subsequently, the cell proliferation, respiration and glycolysis were investigated. The results revealed that EIso treatment significantly decreased the transcription of TIGAR, SCO1 and SCO2, and increased the transcription of p21, which are all p53 target genes, in a p53-independent manner. The cell cycle was inhibited by arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase. Respiration was reduced, which caused a decrease in oxygen consumption and the accumulation of lactate and reactive oxygen species. Taken together, EIso treatment inhibited the proliferation and respiration, and promoted glycolysis in 16HBE cells. This regulatory pathway may represent a protective mechanism of EIso treatment by inhibiting cell growth and decreasing the oxygen consumption from I/R.

  9. MicroRNA 203 expression in keratinocytes is dependent on regulation of p53 levels by E6.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Declan J; McDade, Simon S; Patel, Daksha; McCance, Dennis J

    2010-10-01

    A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miRNA 203 (miR-203), which has previously been shown to play an important role in epithelial cell biology by regulating p63 levels. We investigated how expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) oncoproteins E6 and E7 affected miR-203 expression during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We demonstrated that miR-203 expression is reduced in HFKs where p53 function is compromised, either by the viral oncoprotein E6 or by knockout of p53 using short hairpin RNAs (p53i). We show that the induction of miR-203 observed during calcium-induced differentiation of HFKs is significantly reduced in HFKs expressing E6 and in p53i HFKs. Induction of miR-203 in response to DNA damage is also reduced in the absence of p53. We report that proliferation of HFKs is dependent on the level of miR-203 expression and that overexpression of miR-203 can reduce overproliferation in E6/E7-expressing and p53i HFKs. In summary, these results indicate that expression of miR-203 is dependent on p53, which may explain how expression of HPV16 E6 can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation, as well as the response to DNA damage, in keratinocytes.

  10. p53 in the game of transposons.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Annika; Jones, Amanda E; Abrams, John M

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, p53 genes function to restrain mobile elements and recent observations indicate that transposons become derepressed in human cancers. Together, these emerging lines of evidence suggest that cancers driven by p53 mutations could represent "transpospoathies," i.e. disease states linked to eruptions of mobile elements. The transposopathy hypothesis predicts that p53 acts through conserved mechanisms to contain transposon movement, and in this way, prevents tumor formation. How transposon eruptions provoke neoplasias is not well understood but, from a broader perspective, this hypothesis also provides an attractive framework to explore unrestrained mobile elements as inciters of late-onset idiopathic disease. Also see the video abstract here.

  11. p53 shapes genome-wide and cell type-specific changes in microRNA expression during the human DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Janky, Rekin’s; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Aerts, Stein; Madan Babu, M; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    The human DNA damage response (DDR) triggers profound changes in gene expression, whose nature and regulation remain uncertain. Although certain micro-(mi)RNA species including miR34, miR-18, miR-16 and miR-143 have been implicated in the DDR, there is as yet no comprehensive description of genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs triggered by DNA breakage in human cells. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with rigorous integrative computational analyses, to describe genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs during the human DDR. The changes affect 150 of 1523 miRNAs known in miRBase v18 from 4–24 h after the induction of DNA breakage, in cell-type dependent patterns. The regulatory regions of the most-highly regulated miRNA species are enriched in conserved binding sites for p53. Indeed, genome-wide changes in miRNA expression during the DDR are markedly altered in TP53-/- cells compared to otherwise isogenic controls. The expression levels of certain damage-induced, p53-regulated miRNAs in cancer samples correlate with patient survival. Our work reveals genome-wide and cell type-specific alterations in miRNA expression during the human DDR, which are regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. These findings provide a genomic resource to identify new molecules and mechanisms involved in the DDR, and to examine their role in tumor suppression and the clinical outcome of cancer patients. PMID:25486198

  12. Simvastatin rises reactive oxygen species levels and induces senescence in human melanoma cells by activation of p53/p21 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Guterres, Fernanda Augusta de Lima Barbosa; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Winnischofer, Sheila Maria Brochado

    2013-11-15

    Recent studies demonstrated that simvastatin has antitumor properties in several types of cancer cells, mainly by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting growth. The arrest of proliferation is a feature of cellular senescence; however, the occurrence of senescence in melanoma cells upon simvastatin treatment has not been investigated until now. Our results demonstrated that exposure of human metastatic melanoma cells (WM9) to simvastatin induces a senescent phenotype, characterized by G1 arrest, positive staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, and morphological changes. Also, the main pathways leading to cell senescence were examined in simvastatin-treated human melanoma cells, and the expression levels of phospho-p53 and p21 were upregulated by simvastatin, suggesting that cell cycle regulators and DNA damage pathways are involved in the onset of senescence. Since simvastatin can act as a pro-oxidant agent, and oxidative stress may be related to senescence, we measured the intracellular ROS levels in WM9 cells upon simvastatin treatment. Interestingly, we found an increased amount of intracellular ROS in these cells, which was accompanied by elevated expression of catalase and peroxiredoxin-1. Collectively, our results demonstrated that simvastatin can induce senescence in human melanoma cells by activation of p53/p21 pathway, and that oxidative stress may be related to this process. - Highlights: • Lower concentrations of simvastatin can induce senescent phenotype in melanoma cells. • Simvastatin induces senescence in human melanoma cells via p53/p21 pathway. • Senescent phenotype is related with increased intracellular ROS. • Partial detoxification of ROS by catalase/peroxiredoxin-1 could lead cells to senescence rather than apoptosis.

  13. p53 shapes genome-wide and cell type-specific changes in microRNA expression during the human DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Janky, Rekin's; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Aerts, Stein; Madan Babu, M; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    The human DNA damage response (DDR) triggers profound changes in gene expression, whose nature and regulation remain uncertain. Although certain micro-(mi)RNA species including miR34, miR-18, miR-16 and miR-143 have been implicated in the DDR, there is as yet no comprehensive description of genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs triggered by DNA breakage in human cells. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with rigorous integrative computational analyses, to describe genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs during the human DDR. The changes affect 150 of 1523 miRNAs known in miRBase v18 from 4-24 h after the induction of DNA breakage, in cell-type dependent patterns. The regulatory regions of the most-highly regulated miRNA species are enriched in conserved binding sites for p53. Indeed, genome-wide changes in miRNA expression during the DDR are markedly altered in TP53-/- cells compared to otherwise isogenic controls. The expression levels of certain damage-induced, p53-regulated miRNAs in cancer samples correlate with patient survival. Our work reveals genome-wide and cell type-specific alterations in miRNA expression during the human DDR, which are regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. These findings provide a genomic resource to identify new molecules and mechanisms involved in the DDR, and to examine their role in tumor suppression and the clinical outcome of cancer patients.

  14. Development of a novel recombinant adenovirus containing gfp-zeocin fusion expression cassette for conditional replication in p53-deficient human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baoli; Joshua, Mallam Nock; Dong, Changyuan; Qi, Yipeng

    2004-05-01

    Two obstacles limiting the efficacy of nearly all cancer gene therapy trails are low gene transduction efficiency and the lack of tumor specificity. Fortunately, a replication-competent, E1B-deficient adenovirus (dl1520) was developed that could overcome these limitations, because it was capable of efficiently and selectively destroying tumor cells lacking functional p53. In an attempt to appraise the efficiency and safety of this approach, a novel recombinant adenovirus, r3/Ad, containing a gfp-zeocin expression cassette was constructed in this work. The study in vitro demonstrated that r3/Ad has the ability to replicate in and lyse only the p53-deficient human tumor cells such as the human glioblastoma cells (U251) and human bladder cells (EJ) but not in the human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) with functional p53. Importantly, this gfp-zeocin fusion gene driven by the bipromoter (CMV and EM-7) could be used as an effective selective marker and reporter in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and also zeocin as a selective marker could minimize contamination of the recombinant virus by the wt-Ad5. Additionally, it was found that the r3/Ad could be useful for studying the selective replication of E1B-deficient adenovirus in vivo, it could be used as a "guide" to study the ability of the recombinant adenovirus to spread and to infect distant tumor cells in any tumor bearing animal model by GFP as a reporter. This may help determine the safety of using any E1B-deficient adenovirus in cancer gene therapy.

  15. Anticancer Effects of a New SIRT Inhibitor, MHY2256, against Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells via Regulation of MDM2-p53 Binding.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Woo, Youngwoo; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Do Hyun; Lee, Eui Kyung; De, Umasankar; Kim, Kyeong Seok; Lee, Jaewon; Jung, Jee H; Ha, Ki-Tae; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, In Su; Lee, Byung Mu; Yoon, Sungpil; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2016-01-01

    The sirtuins (SIRTs), a family of NAD(+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase, are involved in various biological processes including cell survival, division, senescence, and metabolism via activation of the stress-response pathway. Recently, inhibition of SIRTs has been considered a promising anticancer strategy, but their precise mechanisms of action are not well understood. In particular, the relevance of p53 to SIRT-induced effects has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the anticancer effects of a novel SIRT inhibitor, MHY2256, and its efficacy was compared to that of salermide in MCF-7 (wild-type p53) and SKOV-3 (null-type p53) cells. Cell viability, SIRT1 enzyme activity, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death were measured. We compared sensitivity to cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells. MHY2256 significantly decreased the viability of MCF-7 (IC50, 4.8 μM) and SKOV-3 (IC50, 5.6 μM) cells after a 48 h treatment period. MHY2256 showed potent inhibition (IC50, 0.27 mM) against SIRT1 enzyme activity compared with nicotinamide (IC50, >1 mM). Moreover, expression of SIRT (1, 2, or 3) protein levels was significantly reduced by MHY2256 treatment in both MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that MHY2256 significantly induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, leading to an effective increase in apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells. A significant increase in acetylated p53, a target protein of SIRT, was observed in MCF-7 cells after MHY2256 treatment. MHY2256 up-regulated LC3-II and induced autophagic cell death in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, MHY2256 markedly inhibited tumor growth in a tumor xenograft model of MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that a new SIRT inhibitor, MHY2256, has anticancer activity through p53 acetylation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

  16. Anticancer Effects of a New SIRT Inhibitor, MHY2256, against Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells via Regulation of MDM2-p53 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Young; Woo, Youngwoo; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Do Hyun; Lee, Eui Kyung; De, Umasankar; Kim, Kyeong Seok; Lee, Jaewon; Jung, Jee H.; Ha, Ki-Tae; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, In Su; Lee, Byung Mu; Yoon, Sungpil; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2016-01-01

    The sirtuins (SIRTs), a family of NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylase, are involved in various biological processes including cell survival, division, senescence, and metabolism via activation of the stress-response pathway. Recently, inhibition of SIRTs has been considered a promising anticancer strategy, but their precise mechanisms of action are not well understood. In particular, the relevance of p53 to SIRT-induced effects has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the anticancer effects of a novel SIRT inhibitor, MHY2256, and its efficacy was compared to that of salermide in MCF-7 (wild-type p53) and SKOV-3 (null-type p53) cells. Cell viability, SIRT1 enzyme activity, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death were measured. We compared sensitivity to cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells. MHY2256 significantly decreased the viability of MCF-7 (IC50, 4.8 μM) and SKOV-3 (IC50, 5.6 μM) cells after a 48 h treatment period. MHY2256 showed potent inhibition (IC50, 0.27 mM) against SIRT1 enzyme activity compared with nicotinamide (IC50, >1 mM). Moreover, expression of SIRT (1, 2, or 3) protein levels was significantly reduced by MHY2256 treatment in both MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that MHY2256 significantly induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, leading to an effective increase in apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells. A significant increase in acetylated p53, a target protein of SIRT, was observed in MCF-7 cells after MHY2256 treatment. MHY2256 up-regulated LC3-II and induced autophagic cell death in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, MHY2256 markedly inhibited tumor growth in a tumor xenograft model of MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that a new SIRT inhibitor, MHY2256, has anticancer activity through p53 acetylation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PMID:27994519

  17. IκB kinase β Mediating the Downregulation of p53 and p21 by Lipopolysaccharide in Human Papillomavirus 16+ Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Yan; Tan, Wei; Li, Ying-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of woman in the world, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays an important role in the development of most of the cases. IκB kinase β (IKKβ) is a kinase-mediating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation by phosphorylating the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) and is related by some diseases caused by virus infection. However, there is little known about the correlation between IKKβ and HPV infection in cervical cancer. This study aimed to investigate the expression of IKKβ protein in cervical cancer tissues and effects of inflammation on HPV positive or negative cervical cancer cells through detecting the expression of IKKβ, IκBα, p53, and p21 proteins after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic bacterial infection. We also examined the effects of LPS on cervical cancer cells after blocking IKKβ with pharmacological inhibitor. Methods: Thirty-six matched specimens of cervical cancer and adjacent normal tissues were collected and analyzed in the study. The expression of IKKβ in the tissue specimens was determined by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, Western blot was used to detect the expression level changes of IKKβ, IκBα, p53, and p21 after LPS stimulated in the HPV16+ (SiHa) and HPV16− (C33A) cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of IKKβ inhibitor SC-514 on LPS-induced expression change of these proteins were investigated. Results: The expression of IKKβ was higher in cervical cancer than adjacent normal tissues, and there was no significant difference between tumor differentiation, size, and invasive depth with IKKβ expression. The LPS, which increased the expression level of IKKβ protein but decreased in the IκBα, p53 and p21 proteins, was illustrated in HPV16+ (SiHa) but not in HPV16− (C33A) cells. Moreover, IKKβ inhibitor SC-514 totally reversed the upregulation of IKKβ and downregulation of p53 and p21 by LPS in SiHa cells. Conclusions

  18. Genistein induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via ATM/p53-dependent pathway in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Du, Guang-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Calway, Tyler; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-07-01

    Soybean isoflavones have been used as a potential preventive agent in anticancer research for many years. Genistein is one of the most active flavonoids in soybeans. Accumulating evidence suggests that genistein alters a variety of biological processes in estrogen-related malignancies, such as breast and prostate cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of genistein in the prevention of human colon cancer remains unclear. Here we attempted to elucidate the anticarcinogenic mechanism of genistein in human colon cancer cells. First we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of genistein and two other isoflavones, daidzein and biochanin A, on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colon cancer cells. In addition, flow cyto-metry was performed to observe the morphological changes in HCT-116/SW-480 cells undergoing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, which had been visualized using Annexin V-FITC and/or propidium iodide staining. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were also employed to study the changes in expression of several important genes associated with cell cycle regulation. Our data showed that genistein, daidzein and biochanin A exhibited growth inhibitory effects on HCT-116/SW-480 colon cancer cells and promoted apoptosis. Genistein showed a significantly greater effect than the other two compounds, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, genistein caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by activation of ATM/p53, p21waf1/cip1 and GADD45α as well as downregulation of cdc2 and cdc25A demonstrated by q-PCR and immunoblotting assay. Interestingly, genistein induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner. These findings exemplify that isoflavones, especially genistein, could promote colon cancer cell growth inhibition and facilitate apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The ATM/p53-p21 cross-regulatory network may play a crucial role in mediating the anticarcinogenic activities of genistein in colon cancer.

  19. Hitting cancers' weak spots: vulnerabilities imposed by p53 mutation.

    PubMed

    Gurpinar, Evrim; Vousden, Karen H

    2015-08-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a critical role in limiting malignant development and progression. Almost all cancers show loss of p53 function, through either mutation in the p53 gene itself or defects in the mechanisms that activate p53. While reactivation of p53 can effectively limit tumor growth, this is a difficult therapeutic goal to achieve in the many cancers that do not retain wild type p53. An alternative approach focuses on identifying vulnerabilities imposed on cancers by virtue of the loss of or alterations in p53, to identify additional pathways that can be targeted to specifically kill or inhibit the growth of p53 mutated cells. These indirect ways of exploiting mutations in p53 - which occur in more than half of all human cancers - provide numerous exciting therapeutic possibilities.

  20. Nucleolar stress with and without p53

    PubMed Central

    James, Allison; Wang, Yubo; Raje, Himanshu; Rosby, Raphyel; DiMario, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A veritable explosion of primary research papers within the past 10 years focuses on nucleolar and ribosomal stress, and for good reason: with ribosome biosynthesis consuming ~80% of a cell’s energy, nearly all metabolic and signaling pathways lead ultimately to or from the nucleolus. We begin by describing p53 activation upon nucleolar stress resulting in cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. The significance of this mechanism cannot be understated, as oncologists are now inducing nucleolar stress strategically in cancer cells as a potential anti-cancer therapy. We also summarize the human ribosomopathies, syndromes in which ribosome biogenesis or function are impaired leading to birth defects or bone narrow failures; the perplexing problem in the ribosomopathies is why only certain cells are affected despite the fact that the causative mutation is systemic. We then describe p53-independent nucleolar stress, first in yeast which lacks p53, and then in other model metazoans that lack MDM2, the critical E3 ubiquitin ligase that normally inactivates p53. Do these presumably ancient p53-independent nucleolar stress pathways remain latent in human cells? If they still exist, can we use them to target >50% of known human cancers that lack functional p53? PMID:25482194

  1. Mutant p53 and ETS2, a Tale of Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    TP53 is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. However, unlike other tumor suppressor genes whose expression is lost, TP53 is usually inactivated as a result of a single nucleotide change within the coding region. Typically, these single nucleotide mutations result in a codon change that creates an amino acid substitution. Thus, unlike other tumor suppressor genes whose expression is lost due to genetic or epigenetic changes, the p53 gene primarily suffers missense mutations, and therefore, the cells retain and express a mutant form of the p53 protein (mtp53). It is now well established that mtp53 contributes to tumor development through its gain-of-function (GOF) activities. These GOF activities can arise from novel protein-protein interactions that can either disable other tumor suppressors (e.g., p63 and p73) or enable oncogenes such as ETS2, an ETS family member. In this review, I will focus on the identification of the mtp53/ETS2 complex and outline the diverse activities that this transcriptional regulatory complex controls to promote cancer.

  2. Human chorionic gonadotropin suppresses human breast cancer cell growth directly via p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and indirectly via ovarian steroid secretion.

    PubMed

    Yuri, Takashi; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-03-01

    The tumor-suppressive effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) against human breast cancer cells were examined. In cell viability assays, hCG inhibited the growth of three human breast cancer cell lines (estrogen receptor (ER)-positive KPL-1 and MCF-7, and ER-negative MKL-F cells), and the growth inhibition activity of hCG was most pronounced against KPL-1 cells (luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR)-positive and luminal-A subtype). In hCG-treated KPL-1 cells, immunoblotting analysis revealed the expression of tumor suppressor protein p53 peaking at 12 h following treatment, followed by cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. KPL-1-transplanted athymic mice were divided into 3 groups: a sham-treated group that received an inoculation of KPL-1 cells at 6 weeks of age followed by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of saline; an in vitro hCG-treated KPL-1 group that received an inoculation of KPL-1 cells pre-treated with 100 IU/ml hCG in vitro for 48 h at 6 weeks of age, followed by daily i.p. injection of saline; and an in vivo hCG-treated group that received an KPL-1 cell inoculation at 6 weeks of age, followed by daily i.p. injection of 100 IU hCG. The daily injections of saline or hCG continued until the end of the experiment when mice reached 11 weeks of age. KPL-1 tumor growth was retarded in in vitro and in vivo hCG-treated mice compared to sham-treated controls, and the final tumor volume and tumor weight tended to be suppressed in the in vitro hCG-treated group and were significantly suppressed in the in vivo hCG-treated group. In vivo 100-IU hCG injections for 5 weeks elevated serum estradiol levels (35.7 vs. 23.5 pg/ml); thus, the mechanisms of hCG action may be directly coordinated via the p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and indirectly through ovarian steroid secretion that elevates estrogen levels. It is thus concluded that hCG may be an attractive agent for treating human breast

  3. Curcumin inhibits growth potential by G1 cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in p53-mutated COLO 320DM human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dasiram, Jade Dhananjay; Ganesan, Ramamoorthi; Kannan, Janani; Kotteeswaran, Venkatesan; Sivalingam, Nageswaran

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound and it is isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, have been reported to possess anticancer effect against stage I and II colon cancer. However, the effect of curcumin on colon cancer at Dukes' type C metastatic stage III remains still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer effects of curcumin on p53 mutated COLO 320DM human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from Dukes' type C metastatic stage. The cellular viability and proliferation were assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay, respectively. The cytotoxicity effect was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by DNA fragmentation analysis, Hoechst and propidium iodide double fluorescent staining and confocal microscopy analysis. Cell cycle distribution was performed by flow cytometry analysis. Here we have observed that curcumin treatment significantly inhibited the cellular viability and proliferation potential of p53 mutated COLO 320DM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin treatment showed no cytotoxic effects to the COLO 320DM cells. DNA fragmentation analysis, Hoechst and propidium iodide double fluorescent staining and confocal microscopy analysis revealed that curcumin treatment induced apoptosis in COLO 320DM cells. Furthermore, curcumin caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, decreased the cell population in the S phase and induced apoptosis in COLO 320DM colon adenocarcinoma cells. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts anticancer effects and induces apoptosis in p53 mutated COLO 320DM human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from Dukes' type C metastatic stage.

  4. Restoring expression of wild-type p53 suppresses tumor growth but does not cause tumor regression in mice with a p53 missense mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongxing; Suh, Young-Ah; Fuller, Maren Y; Jackson, James G; Xiong, Shunbin; Terzian, Tamara; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Bankson, James A; El-Naggar, Adel K; Lozano, Guillermina

    2011-03-01

    The transcription factor p53 is a tumor suppressor. As such, the P53 gene is frequently altered in human cancers. However, over 80% of the P53 mutations found in human cancers are missense mutations that lead to expression of mutant proteins that not only lack p53 transcriptional activity but exhibit new functions as well. Recent studies show that restoration of p53 expression leads to tumor regression in mice carrying p53 deletions. However, the therapeutic efficacy of restoring p53 expression in tumors containing p53 missense mutations has not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that restoring wild-type p53 expression halted tumor growth in mice inheriting a p53(R172H) missense mutation that is equivalent to a P53 missense mutation detected in approximately 6% of human cancers. However, it did not lead to tumor regression, as was observed in mice lacking p53. We further showed that the dominant-negative effect of the mutant p53 encoded by p53(R172H) dampened the activity of the restored wild-type p53. We therefore conclude that in a mutant p53 background, p53 restoration has the therapeutic potential to suppress tumor progression. Our findings support using p53 restoration as a strategy to treat human cancers with P53 missense mutations and provide direction for optimizing p53 restoration in cancer therapy.

  5. Restoring expression of wild-type p53 suppresses tumor growth but does not cause tumor regression in mice with a p53 missense mutation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongxing; Suh, Young-Ah; Fuller, Maren Y.; Jackson, James G.; Xiong, Shunbin; Terzian, Tamara; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Bankson, James A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Lozano, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor p53 is a tumor suppressor. As such, the P53 gene is frequently altered in human cancers. However, over 80% of the P53 mutations found in human cancers are missense mutations that lead to expression of mutant proteins that not only lack p53 transcriptional activity but exhibit new functions as well. Recent studies show that restoration of p53 expression leads to tumor regression in mice carrying p53 deletions. However, the therapeutic efficacy of restoring p53 expression in tumors containing p53 missense mutations has not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that restoring wild-type p53 expression halted tumor growth in mice inheriting a p53R172H missense mutation that is equivalent to a P53 missense mutation detected in approximately 6% of human cancers. However, it did not lead to tumor regression, as was observed in mice lacking p53. We further showed that the dominant-negative effect of the mutant p53 encoded by p53R172H dampened the activity of the restored wild-type p53. We therefore conclude that in a mutant p53 background, p53 restoration has the therapeutic potential to suppress tumor progression. Our findings support using p53 restoration as a strategy to treat human cancers with P53 missense mutations and provide direction for optimizing p53 restoration in cancer therapy. PMID:21285512

  6. Discovery of Azurin-Like Anticancer Bacteriocins from Human Gut Microbiome through Homology Modeling and Molecular Docking against the Tumor Suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chuong; Nguyen, Van Duy

    2016-01-01

    Azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known anticancer bacteriocin, which can specifically penetrate human cancer cells and induce apoptosis. We hypothesized that pathogenic and commensal bacteria with long term residence in human body can produce azurin-like bacteriocins as a weapon against the invasion of cancers. In our previous work, putative bacteriocins have been screened from complete genomes of 66 dominant bacteria species in human gut microbiota and subsequently characterized by subjecting them as functional annotation algorithms with azurin as control. We have qualitatively predicted 14 putative bacteriocins that possessed functional properties very similar to those of azurin. In this work, we perform a number of quantitative and structure-based analyses including hydrophobic percentage calculation, structural modeling, and molecular docking study of bacteriocins of interest against protein p53, a cancer target. Finally, we have identified 8 putative bacteriocins that bind p53 in a same manner as p28-azurin and azurin, in which 3 peptides (p1seq16, p2seq20, and p3seq24) shared with our previous study and 5 novel ones (p1seq09, p2seq05, p2seq08, p3seq02, and p3seq17) discovered in the first time. These bacteriocins are suggested for further in vitro tests in different neoplastic line cells.

  7. Discovery of Azurin-Like Anticancer Bacteriocins from Human Gut Microbiome through Homology Modeling and Molecular Docking against the Tumor Suppressor p53

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chuong; Nguyen, Van Duy

    2016-01-01

    Azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known anticancer bacteriocin, which can specifically penetrate human cancer cells and induce apoptosis. We hypothesized that pathogenic and commensal bacteria with long term residence in human body can produce azurin-like bacteriocins as a weapon against the invasion of cancers. In our previous work, putative bacteriocins have been screened from complete genomes of 66 dominant bacteria species in human gut microbiota and subsequently characterized by subjecting them as functional annotation algorithms with azurin as control. We have qualitatively predicted 14 putative bacteriocins that possessed functional properties very similar to those of azurin. In this work, we perform a number of quantitative and structure-based analyses including hydrophobic percentage calculation, structural modeling, and molecular docking study of bacteriocins of interest against protein p53, a cancer target. Finally, we have identified 8 putative bacteriocins that bind p53 in a same manner as p28-azurin and azurin, in which 3 peptides (p1seq16, p2seq20, and p3seq24) shared with our previous study and 5 novel ones (p1seq09, p2seq05, p2seq08, p3seq02, and p3seq17) discovered in the first time. These bacteriocins are suggested for further in vitro tests in different neoplastic line cells. PMID:27239476

  8. The Regulation of Tumor Suppressor p63 by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Stephen R.; Wu, Hong; Wang, Benfan; Abuetabh, Yasser; Sergi, Consolato; Leng, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    The protein p63 has been identified as a homolog of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and is capable of inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, or senescence. p63 has at least six isoforms, which can be divided into two major groups: the TAp63 variants that contain the N-terminal transactivation domain and the ΔNp63 variants that lack the N-terminal transactivation domain. The TAp63 variants are generally considered to be tumor suppressors involved in activating apoptosis and suppressing metastasis. ΔNp63 variants cannot induce apoptosis but can act as dominant negative inhibitors to block the function of TAp53, TAp73, and TAp63. p63 is rarely mutated in human tumors and is predominately regulated at the post-translational level by phosphorylation and ubiquitination. This review focuses primarily on regulation of p63 by the ubiquitin E-3 ligase family of enzymes via ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, and introduces a new key regulator of the p63 protein. PMID:27929429

  9. Gene therapy for human nasopharyngeal carcinoma by adenovirus-mediated transfer of human p53, GM-CSF, and B7-1 genes in a mouse xenograft tumor model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Su-Ping; Wang, Lan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Bin; Han, Ying; Wang, Li-Sheng; Wu, Chu-Tse

    2008-10-01

    Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains high in endemic regions. Prevention of tumor recurrences and metastases is a crucial approach to improve therapeutic outcome in NPC patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of the cotransfer of the tumor suppressor gene, p53, in combination with the immunostimulatory genes, GM-CSF and B7-1, on tumor regression and subsequent tumor recurrence. We constructed a recombinant adenovirus carrying human wild-type p53, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and B7-1 genes (Ad-p53/GM-CSF/B7-1), which mediated high-level expression of these three genes in NPC CNE-1 cells. Ad-p53/GM-CSF/B7-1 infection inhibited the growth of CNE-1 cells and induced tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro. In CNE-1 xenograft tumor models in huPBL-nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice, an intratumoral injection of Ad-p53/GM-CSF/B7-1 resulted in a reduced tumor burden, compared to normal saline (NS) and Ad-p53 controls. Tumors in the Ad-p53/GM-CSF/B7-1 group displayed diffuse necrosis and infiltration of human T-cells. Further, the tumor occurrence of CNE-1 cell rechallenge largely decreased after the primary tumor was intratumorally injected with Ad-p53/GM-CSF/B7-1 in the HuPBL-NOD/SCID mice model. Only 2 of 8 (25%) animals in the Ad-p53/GM-CSF/B7-1 group had developed measurable tumors, which demonstrated extensive necrosis and much more human T-cell infiltration, compared to 5 of 7 (71%) in the NS and Ad-p53 groups. Therefore, the adenovirus-mediated introduction of p53, GM-CSF, and B7-1 genes could improve local control and prevent the recurrence or metastases of NPC tumors, which suggests a potential therapeutic value in NPC treatment.

  10. SIRT1 alleviates senescence of degenerative human intervertebral disc cartilage endo-plate cells via the p53/p21 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nian; Lin, Xin; Dong, Wen; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Wei; Lin, Liangbo; Qiu, Quanhe; Zhang, Xiaojun; Shen, Jieliang; Song, Zhaojun; Liang, Xi; Hao, Jie; Wang, Dawu; Hu, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage end plates (CEP) degeneration plays an integral role in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration resulting from nutrient diffusion disorders. Although cell senescence resulting from oxidative stress is known to contribute to degeneration, no studies concerning the role of senescence in CEP degeneration have been conducted. SIRT1 is a longevity gene that plays a pivotal role in many cellular functions, including cell senescence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether senescence is more prominent in human degenerative CEP and whether SIRT1-regulated CEP cells senescence in degenerative IVD as well as identify the signaling pathways that control that cell fate decision. In this study, the cell senescence phenotype was found to be more prominent in the CEP cells obtained from disc degenerative disease (DDD) patients than in the CEP cells obtained from age-matched lumbar vertebral fractures (LVF) patients. In addition, the results indicated that p53/p21 pathway plays an important role in the senescence of CEP cells in vivo and vitro. Furthermore, SIRT1 was found to be capable of alleviating the oxidative stress-induced senescence of CEP cells in humans via p53/p21 pathway. Thus, the information presented in this study could be used to further investigate the underlying mechanisms of CEP. PMID:26940203

  11. Mutational analysis of the N-ras, p53, p16INK4a, CDK4, and MC1R genes in human congenital melanocytic naevi.

    PubMed

    Papp, T; Pemsel, H; Zimmermann, R; Bastrop, R; Weiss, D G; Schiffmann, D

    1999-08-01

    Eighteen human congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) from 17 patients were screened for activating point mutations in the oncogenes N-ras and CDK4 and for sequence variants in the MC1R gene by combined RFLP-PCR/SSCP analysis. In addition, all lesions were screened for deletions and point mutations in the tumour suppressor genes p53 and p16INK4a (CDKN2A) by combined multiplex PCR/SSCP analysis. Positive screening data were specified by sequencing of the corresponding PCR product. Activating point mutations in the N-ras gene (nine CAA (Gln) to AAA (Lys) transversions and one CAA (Gln) to CGA (Arg) transition at codon 61) were detected at high frequency (56%). Furthermore, three missense mutations (V92M) and two silent mutations (CGA (Arg) to CGG (Arg), codon 213, exon 6) were found in the MC1R and p53 genes, respectively. No mutations were found in p16 or CDK4. The activated N-ras oncogene, which is also found in human cutaneous melanomas, may constitute a potential risk factor for melanoma formation within CMN.

  12. Abrogation of a mitotic checkpoint by E2 proteins from oncogenic human papillomaviruses correlates with increased turnover of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Frattini, M G; Hurst, S D; Lim, H B; Swaminathan, S; Laimins, L A

    1997-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 and E1 proteins are required for the replication of viral genomes in vivo. We have examined the effects of increasing the level of E2 on viral and cellular replication using recombinant adenoviruses. Infection of cells which maintain HPV 31 DNA episomally with E2 recombinant adenoviruses resulted in a 5-fold increase in genome copy number as well as an S phase arrest allowing for the continued replication of cellular DNA. Similar effects on cell cycle progression were seen following infection of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, the natural host cell. The DNA content of these cells increased beyond 4N indicating that multiple rounds of replication had occurred without an intervening mitotic event. In addition, increased cyclin A and E associated kinase activity was observed, while no change was detected in cyclin B associated kinase activity or in the activation state of cdc2 kinase. Interestingly, the levels of the p53 tumor suppresser protein were dramatically reduced through a post-transcriptional mechanism following infection. These data suggest a role for E2 in regulating viral and cellular replication by abrogation of a mitotic checkpoint, which is, at least in part, controlled by p53. PMID:9029152

  13. Protective effects of antioxidants against smokeless tobacco-induced oxidative stress and modulation of Bcl-2 and p53 genes in human oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, M; Kuszynski, C A; Balmoori, J; Joshi, S S; Stohs, S J; Bagchi, D

    2001-08-01

    The oral use of chewing tobacco has greatly increased in recent years, and this usage is associated with cancers of the mouth, lip, nasal cavities, esophagus and gut. Oral cancer accounts for 3% of all cancers in U.S.A. and is the seventh most common cancer. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the protective abilities of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against reactive oxygen species both in vitro and in vivo models, and provided significantly better protection as compared to vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. In the recent past, we have demonstrated smokeless tobacco (STE)-induced oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death in a primary culture of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK), and have compared the protective abilities of vitamins C and E, singly and in combination, and GSPE in this pathobiology [Free Rad. Biol. Med., 26, 992-1000 (1999)]. In the present study, we have assessed the protective role of vitamins C and E, and GSPE against STE-induced modulation of intracellular oxidized states in NHOK cells as demonstrated by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Approximately 11%, 26%, 28% and 50% protection were observed following incubation with vitamin C, vitamin E, a combination of vitamins C plus E, and GSPE, respectively. DNA fragmentation was assessed as an index of oxidative DNA damage and similar results were observed. Furthermore, the cellular viability and functional roles of Bcl-2, p53 and c-myc genes were assessed in STE-induced oxidative stress in NHOK cells. NHOK cells were treated with STE (0-200 micrograms/ml) for 24 h and changes in the expression of Bcl-2, p53 and c-myc genes were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the protective effect of GSPE was assessed. Approximately a 2.0-fold increase in p53 gene expression was observed following incubation of the oral keratinocytes with 100 micrograms/ml of STE, beyond which the expression of p53 decreased, confirming

  14. Regulation of hTERT Expression and Function in Newly Immortalized p53(+) Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    considered crucial for human carcinogenesis, in order for a single cell to accumulate the multiple errors necessary for malignancy. In human...prior to encountering stasis. Multiple types of single changes that prevent Rb-mediated growth inhibition will overcome stasis. Loss of CDKN2A...stringent barrier to human cellular immor- talization; in post-selection HMEC multiple errors appear to be necessary for telomerase reactivation, and

  15. Gene regulatory mechanisms orchestrated by p63 in epithelial development and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Kouwenhoven, Evelyn N; van Bokhoven, Hans; Zhou, Huiqing

    2015-06-01

    The transcription factor p63 belongs to the p53 family and is a key regulator in epithelial commitment and development. Mutations in p63 give rise to several epithelial related disorders with defects in skin, limb and orofacial structures. Since the discovery of p63, efforts have been made to identify its target genes using individual gene approaches and to understand p63 function in normal epithelial development and related diseases. Recent genome-wide approaches have identified tens of thousands of potential p63-regulated target genes and regulatory elements, and reshaped the concept of gene regulation orchestrated by p63. These data also provide insights into p63-related disease mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the regulatory role of p63 in normal and diseased epithelial development in light of these novel findings. We also propose future perspectives for dissecting the molecular mechanism of p63-mediated epithelial development and related disorders as well as for potential therapeutic strategies.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Apoptogenic Effects of Several Coumarins on Human Cancer Cell Lines: Osthole Induces Apoptosis in p53-Deficient H1299 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shokoohinia, Yalda; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Alipour, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are excellent resources for finding lead structures for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Coumarins are a class of natural compounds found in a variety of plants. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of coumarins isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. in PC3, SKNMC, and H1299 (p53 null) human carcinoma cell lines. Osthole proved to be an outstanding potent cytotoxic agent especially against PC3 cells. Isoimperatorin exhibited moderate inhibitory effect against SKNMC and PC3 cell lines. Oxypeucedanin and braylin did not display any cytotoxic activity. In the next set of experiments, the apoptotic potentials of osthole and isoimperatorin were investigated. Induction of apoptosis by isoimperatorin was accompanied by an increase in activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SKNMC cells and caspase-3 and -9 in PC3 cells. Moreover, isoimperatorin induced apoptosis by upregulating Bax and Smac/DIABLO genes in PC3 and SKNMC cells. Osthole induced apoptosis by downregulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in only PC3 cells and upregulating the proapoptotic genes Bax and Smac/DIABLO in PC3, SKNMC, and H1299 cells. The effects of osthole on H1299 cells are important because the loss of p53 has been associated with poor clinical prognosis in cancer treatment. PMID:25276123

  17. The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53-dependent and p21-dependent apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Lin; Lin, Ta-Chen; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-09-06

    The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin in two human liver cancer cell lines, Hep G2 and Hep 3B. We observed that aloe-emodin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both examined cell lines, but with different the antiproliferative mechanisms. In Hep G2 cells, aloe-emodin induced p53 expression and was accompanied by induction of p21 expression that was associated with a cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In addition, aloe-emodin had a marked increase in Fas/APO1 receptor and Bax expression. In contrast, with p53-deficient Hep 3B cells, the inhibition of cell proliferation of aloe-emodin was mediated through a p21-dependent manner that did not cause cell cycle arrest or increase the level of Fas/APO1 receptor, but rather promoted aloe-emodin induced apoptosis by enhancing expression of Bax. These findings suggest that aloe-emodin may be useful in liver cancer prevention.

  18. The long non-coding RNA GAS5 differentially regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of BRCA1 and p53 in human neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mazar, Joseph; Rosado, Amy; Shelley, John; Marchica, John; Westmoreland, Tamarah J

    2017-01-01

    The long non-coding RNA GAS5 has been shown to modulate cancer proliferation in numerous human cancer systems and has been correlated with successful patient outcome. Our examination of GAS5 in neuroblastoma has revealed robust expression in both MYCN-amplified and non-amplified cell lines. Knockdown of GAS5 In vitro resulted in defects in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest. Further analysis of GAS5 clones revealed multiple novel splice variants, two of which inversely modulated with MYCN status. Complementation studies of the variants post-knockdown of GAS5 indicated alternate phenotypes, with one variant (FL) considerably enhancing cell proliferation by rescuing cell cycle arrest and the other (C2) driving apoptosis, suggesting a unique role for each in neuroblastoma cancer physiology. Global sequencing and ELISA arrays revealed that the loss of GAS5 induced p53, BRCA1, and GADD45A, which appeared to modulate cell cycle arrest in concert. Complementation with only the FL GAS5 clone could rescue cell cycle arrest, stabilizing HDM2, and leading to the loss of p53. Together, these data offer novel therapeutic targets in the form of lncRNA splice variants for separate challenges against cancer growth and cell death. PMID:28035057

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Apoptogenic Effects of Several Coumarins on Human Cancer Cell Lines: Osthole Induces Apoptosis in p53-Deficient H1299 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shokoohinia, Yalda; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Alipour, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are excellent resources for finding lead structures for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Coumarins are a class of natural compounds found in a variety of plants. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of coumarins isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. in PC3, SKNMC, and H1299 (p53 null) human carcinoma cell lines. Osthole proved to be an outstanding potent cytotoxic agent especially against PC3 cells. Isoimperatorin exhibited moderate inhibitory effect against SKNMC and PC3 cell lines. Oxypeucedanin and braylin did not display any cytotoxic activity. In the next set of experiments, the apoptotic potentials of osthole and isoimperatorin were investigated. Induction of apoptosis by isoimperatorin was accompanied by an increase in activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SKNMC cells and caspase-3 and -9 in PC3 cells. Moreover, isoimperatorin induced apoptosis by upregulating Bax and Smac/DIABLO genes in PC3 and SKNMC cells. Osthole induced apoptosis by downregulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in only PC3 cells and upregulating the proapoptotic genes Bax and Smac/DIABLO in PC3, SKNMC, and H1299 cells. The effects of osthole on H1299 cells are important because the loss of p53 has been associated with poor clinical prognosis in cancer treatment.

  20. Mutant p53: One, No One, and One Hundred Thousand.

    PubMed

    Walerych, Dawid; Lisek, Kamil; Del Sal, Giannino

    2015-01-01

    Encoded by the mutated variants of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene, mutant p53 proteins are getting an increased experimental support as active oncoproteins promoting tumor growth and metastasis. p53 missense mutant proteins are losing their wild-type tumor suppressor activity and acquire oncogenic potential, possessing diverse transforming abilities in cell and mouse models. Whether various mutant p53s differ in their oncogenic potential has been a matter of debate. Recent discoveries are starting to uncover the existence of mutant p53 downstream programs that are common to different mutant p53 variants. In this review, we discuss a number of studies on mutant p53, underlining the advantages and disadvantages of alternative experimental approaches that have been used to describe the numerous mutant p53 gain-of-function activities. Therapeutic possibilities are also discussed, taking into account targeting either individual or multiple mutant p53 proteins in human cancer.

  1. Aggregation tendencies in the p53 family are modulated by backbone hydrogen bonds

    PubMed Central

    Cino, Elio A.; Soares, Iaci N.; Pedrote, Murilo M.; de Oliveira, Guilherme A. P.; Silva, Jerson L.

    2016-01-01

    The p53 family of proteins is comprised of p53, p63 and p73. Because the p53 DNA binding domain (DBD) is naturally unstable and possesses an amyloidogenic sequence, it is prone to form amyloid fibrils, causing loss of functions. To develop p53 therapies, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of p53 instability and aggregation. Light scattering, thioflavin T (ThT) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) assays showed that p53 DBD aggregates faster and to a greater extent than p63 and p73 DBDs, and was more susceptible to denaturation. The aggregation tendencies of p53, p63, and p73 DBDs were strongly correlated with their thermal stabilities. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations indicated specific regions of structural heterogeneity unique to p53, which may be promoted by elevated incidence of exposed backbone hydrogen bonds (BHBs). The results indicate regions of structural vulnerability in the p53 DBD, suggesting new targetable sites for modulating p53 stability and aggregation, a potential approach to cancer therapy. PMID:27600721

  2. P53 mutations and cancer: a tight linkage

    PubMed Central

    Pisconti, Salvatore; Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    P53 is often mutated in solid tumors, in fact, somatic changes involving the gene encoding for p53 (TP53) have been discovered in more than 50% of human malignancies and several data confirmed that p53 mutations represent an early event in cancerogenesis. Main p53 functions consist in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis induction in response to mutagenic stimuli, and, to exert those functions, p53 acts as transcriptional factor. Recent data have highlighted another very important role of p53, consisting in regulate cell metabolism and cell response to oxidative stress. Majority of tumor suppressor genes, such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), retinoblastoma-associated protein (RB) and Von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) are inactivated by deletion or early truncation mutations in tumors, resulting in the decreased or loss of expression of their proteins. Differently, most p53 mutations in human cancer are missense mutations, which result in the production of full-length mutant p53 proteins. It has been reported that mutant p53 proteins and wild type p53 proteins often regulate same cellular biological processes with opposite effects. So, mutant p53 has been reported to supply the cancer cells of glucose and nutrients, and, to avoid reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated damage during oxidative stress. These last features are able to render tumor cells resistant to ionizing radiations and chemotherapy. A future therapeutic approach in tumors bearing p53 mutations may be to deplete cancer cells of their energy reserves and antioxidants. PMID:28149884

  3. Phytometabolite Dehydroleucodine Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage in Human Astrocytoma Cells through p73/p53 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bailon-Moscoso, Natalia; González-Arévalo, Gabriela; Velásquez-Rojas, Gabriela; Malagon, Omar; Vidari, Giovanni; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Ratovitski, Edward A.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the idea that secondary metabolites obtained from medicinal plants (phytometabolites) may be important contributors in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents to reduce the occurrence or recurrence of cancer. Our study focused on Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene found in the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this study, we showed that DhL displayed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities on the human cerebral astrocytoma D384 cell line. With lactone isolated from Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd, a medicinal plant from Ecuador, we found that DhL induced cell death in D384 cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis and DNA damage. We further found that the cell death resulted in the increased expression of CDKN1A and BAX proteins. A marked induction of the levels of total TP73 and phosphorylated TP53, TP73, and γ-H2AX proteins was observed in D384 cells exposed to DhL, but no increase in total TP53 levels was detected. Overall these studies demonstrated the marked effect of DhL on the diminished survival of human astrocytoma cells through the induced expression of TP73 and phosphorylation of TP73 and TP53, suggesting their key roles in the tumor cell response to DhL treatment. PMID:26309132

  4. p53 genes function to restrain mobile elements

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Annika; Jones, Amanda E.; D'Brot, Alejandro; Lu, Wan-Jin; Kurtz, Paula; Moran, John V.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Chen, Kenneth S.; Hammer, Robert E.; Comerford, Sarah A.; Amatruda, James F.; Abrams, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, p53 genes govern stress response networks by specifying adaptive transcriptional responses. The human member of this gene family is mutated in most cancers, but precisely how p53 functions to mediate tumor suppression is not well understood. Using Drosophila and zebrafish models, we show that p53 restricts retrotransposon activity and genetically interacts with components of the piRNA (piwi-interacting RNA) pathway. Furthermore, transposon eruptions occurring in the p53− germline were incited by meiotic recombination, and transcripts produced from these mobile elements accumulated in the germ plasm. In gene complementation studies, normal human p53 alleles suppressed transposons, but mutant p53 alleles from cancer patients could not. Consistent with these observations, we also found patterns of unrestrained retrotransposons in p53-driven mouse and human cancers. Furthermore, p53 status correlated with repressive chromatin marks in the 5′ sequence of a synthetic LINE-1 element. Together, these observations indicate that ancestral functions of p53 operate through conserved mechanisms to contain retrotransposons. Since human p53 mutants are disabled for this activity, our findings raise the possibility that p53 mitigates oncogenic disease in part by restricting transposon mobility. PMID:26701264

  5. Enhancement of oligomeric stability by covalent linkage and its application to the human p53tet domain: thermodynamics and biological implications.

    PubMed

    Poon, G M K

    2007-12-01

    The formation of oligomeric proteins proceeds at a major cost of reducing the translational and rotational entropy for their subunits in order to form the stabilizing interactions found in the oligomeric state. Unlike site-directed mutations, covalent linkage of subunits represents a generically applicable strategy for enhancing oligomeric stability by reducing the entropic driving force for dissociation. Although this can be realized by introducing de novo disulfide cross-links between subunits, issues with irreversible aggregation limit the utility of this approach. In contrast, tandem linkage of subunits in a single polypeptide chain offers a universal method of pre-paying the entropic cost of oligomer formation. In the present paper, thermodynamic, structural and experimental aspects of designing and characterizing tandem-linked oligomers are discussed with reference to engineering a stabilized tetramer of the oligomerization domain of the human p53 tumour-suppressor protein by tandem dimerization.

  6. p53-dependent ceramide response to genotoxic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Dbaibo, G S; Pushkareva, M Y; Rachid, R A; Alter, N; Smyth, M J; Obeid, L M; Hannun, Y A

    1998-01-01

    Both p53 and ceramide have been implicated in the regulation of growth suppression. p53 has been proposed as the "guardian of the genome" and ceramide has been suggested as a "tumor suppressor lipid. " Both molecules appear to regulate cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between p53 and ceramide. We found that treatment of Molt-4 cells with low concentrations of actinomycin D or gamma-irradiation, which activate p53-dependent apoptosis, induces apoptosis only in cells expressing normal levels of p53. In these cells, p53 activation was followed by a dose- and time-dependent increase in endogenous ceramide levels which was not seen in cells lacking functional p53 and treated similarly. Similar results were seen in irradiated L929 cells whereby the p53-deficient clone was significantly more resistant to irradiation and exhibited no ceramide response. However, in p53-independent systems, such as growth suppression induced by TNF-alpha or serum deprivation, ceramide accumulated irrespective of the upregulation of p53, indicating that p53 regulates ceramide accumulation in only a subset of growth-suppressive pathways. Finally, ceramide did not increase p53 levels when used at growth-suppressive concentrations. Also, when cells lacking functional p53, either due to mutation or the expression of the E6 protein of human papilloma virus, were treated with exogenous ceramide, there was equal growth suppression, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis as compared with cells expressing normal p53. These results indicate that p53 is unlikely to function "downstream" of ceramide. Instead, they suggest that, in situations where p53 performs a critical regulatory role, such as the response to genotoxic stress, it functions "upstream" of ceramide. These studies begin to define a relationship between these two pathways of growth inhibition. PMID:9664074

  7. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  8. Tumor suppressor p53 protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Pingping; Wei, Jianchao; Zhu, Zixiang; Shi, Zixue; Shao, Donghua; Ma, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is involved in regulating immune responses, which contribute to antitumor and antiviral activity. However, whether p53 has anti-bacterial functions remains unclear. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) causes listeriosis in humans and animals, and it is a powerful model for studying innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, we illustrate an important regulatory role of p53 during LM infection. p53 knockout (p53KO) mice were more susceptible to LM infection, which was manifested by a shorter survival time and lower survival rate. p53KO mice showed significant impairments in LM eradication. Knockdown of p53 in RAW264.7 and HeLa cells resulted in increased invasion and intracellular survival of LM. Furthermore, the invasion and intracellular survival of LM was inhibited in p53-overexpressing RAW264.7 and HeLa cells. LM-infected p53KO mice exhibited severe clinical symptoms and organ injury, presumably because of the abnormal production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18. Decreased IFN-γ and GBP1 productions were observed in LM-infected p53-deficient mice or cells. The combination of these defects likely resulted in the overwhelming LM infection in the p53KO mice. These observations indicate that p53 serves as an important regulator of the host innate immune that protects against LM infection. PMID:27644341

  9. Human papillomavirus 16 oncoprotein E7 stimulates UBF1-mediated rDNA gene transcription, inhibiting a p53-independent activity of p14ARF.

    PubMed

    Dichamp, Isabelle; Séité, Paule; Agius, Gérard; Barbarin, Alice; Beby-Defaux, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus oncoproteins E6 and E7 play a major role in HPV-related cancers. One of the main functions of E7 is the degradation of pRb, while E6 promotes the degradation of p53, inactivating the p14ARF-p53 pathway. pRb and p14ARF can repress ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription in part by targeting the Upstream Binding Factor 1 (UBF1), a key factor in the activation of RNA polymerase I machinery. We showed, through ectopic expression and siRNA silencing of p14ARF and/or E7, that E7 stimulates UBF1-mediated rDNA gene transcription, partly because of increased levels of phosphorylated UBF1, preventing the inhibitory function of p14ARF. Unexpectedly, activation of rDNA gene transcription was higher in cells co-expressing p14ARF and E7, compared to cells expressing E7 alone. We did not find a difference in P-UBF1 levels that could explain this data. However, p14ARF expression induced E7 to accumulate into the nucleolus, where rDNA transcription takes place, providing an opportunity for E7 to interact with nucleolar proteins involved in this process. GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed interactions between p14ARF, UBF1 and E7, although p14ARF and E7 are not able to directly interact. Co-expression of a pRb-binding-deficient mutant (E7C24G) and p14ARF resulted in EC24G nucleolar accumulation, but not in a significant higher activation of rDNA transcription, suggesting that the inactivation of pRb is involved in this phenomenon. Thus, p14ARF fails to prevent E7-mediated UBF1 phosphorylation, but could facilitate nucleolar pRb inactivation by targeting E7 to the nucleolus. While others have reported that p19ARF, the mouse homologue of p14ARF, inhibits some functions of E7, we showed that E7 inhibits a p53-independent function of p14ARF. These results point to a mutually functional interaction between p14ARF and E7 that might partly explain why the sustained p14ARF expression observed in most cervical pre-malignant lesions and

  10. Newly synthesized quinazolinone HMJ-38 suppresses angiogenetic responses and triggers human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis through p53-modulated Fas/death receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Jo-Hua; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Hour, Mann-Jen; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lee, Tsung-Han; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-06-01

    The current study aims to investigate the antiangiogenic responses and apoptotic death of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by a newly synthesized compound named 2-(3′-methoxyphenyl)-6-pyrrolidinyl-4-quinazolinone (HMJ-38). This work attempted to not only explore the effects of angiogenesis on in vivo and ex vivo studies but also hypothesize the implications for HUVECs (an ideal cell model for angiogenesis in vitro) and further undermined apoptotic experiments to verify the underlying molecular signaling by HMJ-38. Our results demonstrated that HMJ-38 significantly inhibited blood vessel growth and microvessel formation by the mouse Matrigel plug assay of angiogenesis, and the suppression of microsprouting from the rat aortic ring assay was observed after HMJ-38 exposure. In addition, HMJ-38 disrupted the tube formation and blocked the ability of HUVECs to migrate in response to VEGF. We also found that HMJ-38 triggered cell apoptosis of HUVECs in vitro. HMJ-38 concentration-dependently suppressed viability and induced apoptotic damage in HUVECs. HMJ-38-influenced HUVECs were performed by determining the oxidative stress (ROS production) and ATM/p53-modulated Fas and DR4/DR5 signals that were examined by flow cytometry, Western blotting, siRNA and real-time RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that p53-regulated extrinsic pathway might fully contribute to HMJ-38-provoked apoptotic death in HUVECs. In view of these observations, we conclude that HMJ-38 reduces angiogenesis in vivo and ex vivo as well as induces apoptosis of HUVECs in vitro. Overall, HMJ-38 has a potent anti-neovascularization effect and could warrant being a vascular targeting agent in the future. - Highlights: • HMJ-38 suppresses angiogenic actions in vivo and ex vivo. • Inhibitions of blood vessel and microvessel formation by HMJ-38 are acted. • Cytotoxic effects of HUVECs occur by HMJ-38 challenge. • p53-modulated extrinsic pathway contributes to HMJ-38

  11. p53: its mutations and their impact on transcription.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Catherine; Pearsall, Isabella; Yeudall, Andrew; Deb, Swati Palit; Deb, Sumitra

    2014-01-01

    p53 is a tumor suppressor protein whose key function is to maintain the integrity of the cell. Mutations in p53 have been found in up to 50 % of all human cancers and cause an increase in oncogenic phenotypes such as proliferation and tumorigenicity. Both wild-type and mutant p53 have been shown to transactivate their target genes, either through directly binding to DNA, or indirectly through protein-protein interactions. This review discusses possible mechanisms behind both wild-type and mutant p53-mediated transactivation and touches on the concept of addiction to mutant p53 of cancer cells and how that may be used for future therapies.

  12. ATM-dependent telomere loss in aging human diploid fibroblasts and DNA damage lead to the post-translational activation of p53 protein involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, H; West, M D; Allsopp, R C; Davison, T S; Wu, Y S; Arrowsmith, C H; Poirier, G G; Benchimol, S

    1997-01-01

    Telomere loss has been proposed as a mechanism for counting cell divisions during aging in normal somatic cells. How such a mitotic clock initiates the intracellular signalling events that culminate in G1 cell cycle arrest and senescence to restrict the lifespan of normal human cells is not known. We investigated the possibility that critically short telomere length activates a DNA damage response pathway involving p53 and p21(WAF1) in aging cells. We show that the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of p53 protein increases with cell age in the absence of any marked increase in the level of p53 protein, and that p21(WAF1) promoter activity in senescent cells is dependent on both p53 and the transcriptional co-activator p300. Moreover, we detected increased specific activity of p53 protein in AT fibroblasts, which exhibit accelerated telomere loss and undergo premature senescence, compared with normal fibroblasts. We investigated the possibility that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is involved in the post-translational activation of p53 protein in aging cells. We show that p53 protein can associate with PARP and inhibition of PARP activity leads to abrogation of p21 and mdm2 expression in response to DNA damage. Moreover, inhibition of PARP activity leads to extension of cellular lifespan. In contrast, hyperoxia, an activator of PARP, is associated with accelerated telomere loss, activation of p53 and premature senescence. We propose that p53 is post-translationally activated not only in response to DNA damage but also in response to the critical shortening of telomeres that occurs during cellular aging. PMID:9312059

  13. Cytosolic Extract of Human Adipose Stem Cells Reverses the Amyloid Beta-Induced Mitochondrial Apoptosis via P53/Foxo3a Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Lee, Mijung; Ban, Jae-Jun; Im, Wooseok; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Kim, Manho

    2017-01-01

    Human adipose stem cells (hASC) have therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial dysfunction is frequently observed in most neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. We explored the therapeutic potential of hASC cytosolic extracts to attenuate neuronal death induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro models. Amyloid beta (Aβ) was used to induce cytotoxity in an immortal hippocampal cell line (HT22) and neuronal stem cells from the brain of TG2576 transgenic mice were also used to test the protective role of hASC cytosolic extracts. Cell viability and flow cytometry results demonstrated that the hASC extract prevents the toxicity and apoptosis in AD in vitro models. Moreover, JC-1 and MitoSoxRed staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry results showed that the hASC extract ameliorated the effect of Aβ-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot result showed that hASC extract modulated mitochondria-associated proteins, such as Bax and Bcl2, and down-regulated cleaved caspase-3. In addition, hASC extract decreased Aβ generation and reversed up-regulated p53 and foxo3a protein level in AD in vitro model cell derived from TG2576 mice. Taken together, these findings implicate a protective role of the hASC extract in the Aβ-induced mitochondrial apoptosis via regulation of P53/foxo3a pathway, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms of hASC extract and a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate neuronal death induced by Aβ. PMID:28046000

  14. An early function of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein is required for the nuclear relocalization of the cellular p53 protein in adenovirus-infected normal human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, F.M.; Kato, Sayuri E.M.; Huang Wenying; Flint, S. Jane; Gonzalez, Ramon A.

    2008-09-01

    It is well established that the human subgroup C adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55 kDa protein can regulate the activity and concentration of the cellular tumor suppressor, p53. However, the contribution(s) of these functions of the E1B protein to viral reproduction remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we examined properties of p53 in normal human cells infected by E1B mutant viruses that display defective entry into the late phase or viral late mRNA export. The steady-state concentrations of p53 were significantly higher in cells infected by the E1B 55 kDa null mutant Hr6 or three mutants carrying small insertions in the E1B 55 kDa protein coding sequence than in Ad5-infected cells. Nevertheless, none of the mutants induced apoptosis in infected cells. Rather, the localization of p53 to E1B containing nuclear sites observed during infection by Ad5 was prevented by mutations that impair interaction of the E1B protein with p53 and/or with the E4 Orf6 protein. These results indicate that the E1B protein fulfills an early function that correlates efficient entry into the late phase with the localization of E1B and p53 in the nucleus of Ad5-infected normal human cells.

  15. Modulation of cell death in human colorectal and breast cancer cells through a manganese chelate by involving GSH with intracellular p53 status.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Das, Satyajit; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Biswas, Jaydip; Choudhuri, Soumitra Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy is central to current treatment modality especially for advanced and metastatic colorectal and breast cancers. Targeting the key molecular events of the neoplastic cells may open a possibility to treat cancer. Although some improvements in understanding of colorectal and breast cancer treatment have been recorded, the involvement of glutathione (GSH) and dependency of p53 status on the modulation of GSH-mediated treatment efficacy have been largely overlooked. Herein, we tried to decipher the underlying mechanism of the action of Mn-N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (MnNG) against differential p53 status bearing Hct116, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-468 cells on the backdrop of intracellular GSH level and reveal the role of p53 status in modulating GSH-dependant abrogation of MnNG-induced apoptosis in these cancer cells. Present study discloses that MnNG targets specifically wild-type-p53 expressing Hct116 and MCF-7 cells by significantly depleting both cytosolic, mitochondrial GSH, and modulating nuclear GSH through Glutathione reductase and Glutamate-cysteine ligase depletion that may in turn induce p53-mediated intrinsic apoptosis in them. Thus GSH addition abrogates p53-mediated apoptosis in wild-type-p53 expressing cells. GSH addition also overrides MnNG-induced modulation of phase II detoxifying parameters in them. However, GSH addition partially replenishes the down-regulated or modulated GSH pool in cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus, and relatively abrogates MnNG-induced intrinsic apoptosis in p53-mutated MDA-MB-468 cells. On the contrary, although MnNG induces significant cell death in p53-null Hct116 cells, GSH addition fails to negate MnNG-induced cell death. Thus p53 status with intracellular GSH is critical for the modulation of MnNG-induced apoptosis.

  16. Microenvironment influence on human colon adenocarcinoma phenotypes and matrix metalloproteinase-2, p53 and β-catenin tumor expressions from identical monoclonal cell tumor in the orthotopic model in athymic nude rats.

    PubMed

    Priolli, Denise Gonçalves; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Neves, Silvia; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Lopes, Camila Oliveira; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Cardinalli, Izilda Aparecida; Ribeiro, Ana Bela Sarmento; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to identify differences between left and right colon adenocarcinoma arising from identical clonal cell and to find out if microenvironment has any influence on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), p53 and β-catenin tumor expressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Rats (RNU) were submitted to cecostomy to obtain the orthotopic model of right colon tumor (n = 10), while for the left colon model (n = 10), a colon diversion and distal mucous fistula in the descending colon was used. Cultivated human colon adenocarcinoma cells (WiDr) were inoculated in stomas submucosa. Histopathological analysis, real-time reverse transcription-PCR for β-catenin, p53 and MMP2, as well as immunohistochemical analysis for p53 and β-catenin expression were conducted. Central tendency, variance analysis and the Livak delta-delta-CT method were used for statistical analysis, adopting a 5% significance level. RESULTS. All tumors from the left colon exhibited infiltrative ulceration, while in the right colon tumor growth was predominantly exophytic (67%). In the left colon, tumor growth was undifferentiated (100%), while it was moderately differentiated in the right colon (83%). In right colon tumors, MMP2, p53, and β-catenin gene expressions were higher than compared to left colon (p = 4.59354E-05, p = 0.0035179, p = 0.00093798, respectively, for MMP2, p53 and β-catenin). β-catenin and p53 results obtained by real-time polymerase chain reaction were confirmed by immunohistochemistry assay (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively, for β-catenin and p53). CONCLUSION. Left and right human colon adenocarcinomas developed in animal models have distinct phenotypes even when they have the same clonal origin. Microenvironment has influenced p53, β-catenin, and MMP2 expression in animal models of colon cancer.

  17. Functional repair of p53 mutation in colorectal cancer cells using trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    He, Xingxing; Liao, Jiazhi; Liu, Fang; Yan, Junwei; Yan, Jingjun; Shang, Haitao; Dou, Qian; Chang, Ying; Lin, Jusheng; Song, Yuhu

    2015-02-10

    Mutation in the p53 gene is arguably the most frequent type of gene-specific alterations in human cancers. Current p53-based gene therapy contains the administration of wt-p53 or the suppression of mutant p53 expression in p53-defective cancer cells. . We hypothesized that trans-splicing could be exploited as a tool for the correction of mutant p53 transcripts in p53-mutated human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. In this study, the plasmids encoding p53 pre-trans-splicing molecules (PTM) were transfected into human CRC cells carrying p53 mutation. The plasmids carrying p53-PTM repaired mutant p53 transcripts in p53-mutated CRC cells, which resulted in a reduction in mutant p53 transcripts and an induction of wt-p53 simultaneously. Intratumoral administration of adenovirus vectors carrying p53 trans-splicing cassettes suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts. Repair of mutant p53 transcripts by trans-splicing induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-defective colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that trans-splicing was exploited as a strategy for the repair of mutant p53 transcripts, which revealed that trans-splicing would be developed as a new therapeutic approach for human colorectal cancers carrying p53 mutation.

  18. Epicatechin gallate induces cell death via p53 activation and stimulation of p38 and JNK in human colon cancer SW480 cells.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The tea flavonoid epicatechin gallate (ECG) exhibits a wide range of biological activities. In this study, the in vitro anticancer effects of ECG on SW480 colon cancer cell line was investigated by analyzing the cell cycle, apoptosis, key proteins involved in cellular survival/proliferation, namely AKT/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the role of p53 in these processes. ECG induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1-S phase border associated with the stimulation of p21, p-p53, and p53 and the suppression of cyclins D1 and B1. Exposure of SW480 cells to ECG also led to apoptosis as determined by time-dependent changes in caspase-3 activity, MAPKs [extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)], p21 and p53 activation, and AKT inhibition. The presence of pifithrin, an inhibitor of p53 function, blocked ECG-induced apoptosis as was manifested by restored cell viability and caspase-3 activity to control values and reestablished the balance among Bcl-2 anti- and proapoptotic protein levels. Interestingly, ECG also inhibited p53 protein and RNA degradation, contributing to the stabilization of p53. In addition, JNK and p38 have been identified as necessary for ECG-induced apoptosis, upon activation by p53. The results suggest that the activation of the p53-p38/JNK cascade is required for ECG-induced cell death in SW480 cells.

  19. Mild Electrical Stimulation at 0.1-ms Pulse Width Induces p53 Protein Phosphorylation and G2 Arrest in Human Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ryosuke; Suico, Mary Ann; Koyama, Kosuke; Omachi, Kohei; Kai, Yukari; Matsuyama, Shingo; Mitsutake, Kazunori; Taura, Manabu; Morino-Koga, Saori; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous low-intensity electrical stimulation has been used for treatment of various intractable diseases despite the dearth of information on the molecular underpinnings of its effects. Our work and that of others have demonstrated that applied electrical stimulation at physiological strength or mild electrical stimulation (MES) activates the PI3K-Akt pathway, but whether MES activates other molecules remains unknown. Considering that MES is a form of physiological stress, we hypothesized that it can activate the tumor suppressor p53, which is a key modulator of the cell cycle and apoptosis in response to cell stresses. The potential response of p53 to an applied electrical current of low intensity has not been investigated. Here, we show that p53 was transiently phosphorylated at Ser-15 in epithelial cells treated with an imperceptible voltage (1 V/cm) and a 0.1-ms pulse width. MES-induced p53 phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor and transfection of dominant-negative mutants of p38, MKK3b, and MKK6b, implying the involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, MES treatment enhanced p53 transcriptional function and increased the expression of p53 target genes p21, BAX, PUMA, NOXA, and IRF9. Importantly, MES treatment triggered G2 cell cycle arrest, but not cell apoptosis. MES treatment had no effect on the cell cycle in HCT116 p53−/− cells, suggesting a dependence on p53. These findings identify some molecular targets of electrical stimulation and incorporate the p38-p53 signaling pathway among the transduction pathways that MES affects. PMID:23599430

  20. Lysine methylation represses p53 activity in teratocarcinoma cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajun; Dou, Zhixun; Sammons, Morgan A.; Levine, Arnold J.; Berger, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    TP53 (which encodes the p53 protein) is the most frequently mutated gene among all human cancers, whereas tumors that retain the wild-type TP53 gene often use alternative mechanisms to repress the p53 tumor-suppressive function. Testicular teratocarcinoma cells rarely contain mutations in TP53, yet the transcriptional activity of wild-type p53 is compromised, despite its high expression level. Here we report that in the teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2, p53 is subject to lysine methylation at its carboxyl terminus, which has been shown to repress p53’s transcriptional activity. We show that reduction of the cognate methyltransferases reactivates p53 and promotes differentiation of the NTera2 cells. Furthermore, reconstitution of methylation-deficient p53 mutants into p53-depleted NTera2 cells results in elevated expression of p53 downstream targets and precocious loss of pluripotent gene expression compared with re-expression of wild-type p53. Our results provide evidence that lysine methylation of endogenous wild-type p53 represses its activity in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic possibilities of targeting testicular teratocarcinoma. PMID:27535933

  1. Role of the p53 Tumor Suppressor Homolog, p63, in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Tibshirani, R., and Chu, G. (2001). Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 5116-5121. 9...to date, in place of the MCF10A cells described in the original proposal. As explained in the previous Annual Report, ME180 cells were used in the...identified in a cervical epithelial (ME180) vs. mammary epithelial ( MCF10A ) cell line. It should also be possible to carry out downstream experiments in

  2. Role of the p53 Tumor Suppressor Homolog, p63, in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Christopher P. Crum5 & Frank McKeon1 Meiosis in the female germ line of mammals is distinguished by a prolonged arrest in prophase of meiosis I between...replication, homologous chromosome recombination between E13 and E18.5, and finally arrest in prophase of meiosis I (dictyate arrest) between E18.5 and...five days after birth (P5)1. Dictyate arrest is specific to meiosis in females pending recruit- ment of arrested oocytes for ovulation, and potentially

  3. p63 expression in adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Brendan C; Gortzak, Yair; Bell, Robert S; Ferguson, Peter C; Howarth, David J C; Wunder, Jay S; Kandel, Rita A

    2011-07-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm with epithelial differentiation that is frequently associated with a concomitant fibrous component. Clinical, cytogenetic and histomorphologic overlap has previously been described with osteofibrous dysplasia, thereby suggesting a relationship between these two lesions. We performed a retrospective review of our archives to characterize the clinical and pathologic aspects of adamantinoma and osteofibrous dysplasia diagnosed at our institution, and to compare the expression patterns of p63 and keratin. Nine cases of adamantinoma (six classical, three osteofibrous dysplasia-like) and 11 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia were identified. The epithelial component in adamantinoma was found to stain for p63. Rare cells expressing p63 were also identified in eight cases of osteofibrous dysplasia. Expression of p63 was not identified in any of the five cases of fibrous dysplasia controls. The presence of staining for p63, albeit rare, in osteofibrous dysplasia supports the notion of a possible relationship between osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma. Furthermore, our results suggest that, in some situations, p63 may be useful in helping differentiate metastatic carcinoma from adamantinoma.

  4. Characterization of human and mouse peroxiredoxin IV: evidence for inhibition by Prx-IV of epidermal growth factor- and p53-induced reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wong, C M; Chun, A C; Kok, K H; Zhou, Y; Fung, P C; Kung, H F; Jeang, K T; Jin, D Y

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize human and mouse Prx-IV. We identified mouse peroxiredoxin IV (Prx-IV) by virtue of sequence homology to its human ortholog previously called AOE372. Mouse Prx-IV conserves an amino-terminal presequence coding for signal peptide. The amino acid sequences of mature mouse and human Prx-IV share 97.5% identity. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that Prx-IV is more closely related to Prx-I/-II/-III than to Prx-V/-VI. Previously, we mapped the mouse Prx-IV gene to chromosome X by analyzing two sets of multiloci genetic crosses. Here we performed further comparative analysis of mouse and human Prx-IV genomic loci. Consistent with the mouse results, human Prx-IV gene localized to chromosome Xp22.135-136, in close proximity to SAT and DXS7178. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing the complete human Prx-IV locus was identified. The size of 7 exons and the sequences of the splice junctions were confirmed by PCR analysis. We conclude that mouse Prx-IV is abundantly expressed in many tissues. However, we could not detect Prx-IV in the conditioned media of NIH-3T3 and Jurkat cells. Mouse Prx-IV was specifically found in the nucleus-excluded region of cultured mouse cells. Intracellularly, overexpression of mouse Prx-IV prevented the production of reactive oxygen species induced by epidermal growth factor or p53. Taken together, mouse Prx-IV is likely a cytoplasmic or organellar peroxiredoxin involved in intracellular redox signaling.

  5. Induction of MDM2-P2 Transcripts Correlates with Stabilized Wild-Type p53 in Betel- and Tobacco-Related Human Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ralhan, Ranju; Sandhya, Agarwal; Meera, Mathur; Bohdan, Wasylyk; Nootan, Shukla K.

    2000-01-01

    MDM2, a critical element of cellular homeostasis mechanisms, is involved in complex interactions with important cell-cycle and stress-response regulators including p53. The mdm2-P2 promoter is a transcriptional target of p53. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mdm2-P2 transcripts and the status of the p53 gene in betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) to understand the mechanism of deregulation of MDM2 and p53 expression and their prognostic implications in oral tumorigenesis. Elevated levels of MDM2 proteins were observed in 11 of 25 (44%) oral hyperplastic lesions, nine of 15 (60%) dysplastic lesions, and 71 of 100 (71%) SCCs. The intriguing feature of the study was the identification and different subcellular localization of three isoforms of MDM2 (ie, 90 kd, 76 kd, and 57 kd) in oral SCCs and their correlation with p53 overexpression in each tumor. The hallmark of the study was the detection of mdm2-P2 transcripts in 12 of 20 oral SCCs overexpressing both MDM2 and p53 proteins while harboring wild-type p53 alleles. Furthermore, mdm2 amplification was an infrequent event in betel- and tobacco-associated oral tumorigenesis. The differential compartmentalization of the three isoforms of MDM2 suggests that each has a distinct function, potentially in the regulation of p53 and other gene products implicated in oral tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we report herein the first evidence suggesting that enhanced translation of mdm2-P2 transcripts (S-mdm2) may represent an important mechanism of overexpression and consequent stabilization and functional inactivation of wild-type p53 serving as an adverse prognosticator in betel- and tobacco-related oral cancer. The clinical significance of the functional inactivation of wild-type p53 by MDM2 is underscored by the significantly shorter median disease-free survival time (16 months) observed in p53/MDM2-positive cases as compared to those which did not show co-expression of

  6. Analyses of p53 antibodies in sera of patients with lung carcinoma define immunodominant regions in the p53 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Schlichtholz, B.; Trédaniel, J.; Lubin, R.; Zalcman, G.; Hirsch, A.; Soussi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Antibodies specific for human p53 were analysed in sera of lung cancer patients. We detected p53 antibodies in the sera of 24% (10/42) of patients with lung carcinoma. The distribution was as follows: 4/9 small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 2/18 squamous cell lung carcinomas (SCCs), 2/10 adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 2/5 large-cell lung carcinomas (LCCs). p53 antibodies were always present at the time of diagnosis and did not appear during progression of the disease. Using an original peptide-mapping procedure, we precisely localised the p53 epitopes recognised by p53 antibodies. Immunodominant epitopes reacting with antibodies were localised in the amino and carboxy termini of the protein, similar to those found in breast carcinoma patients or in animals immunised with p53. In light of these data, we suggest that p53 antibodies occur via a self-immunisation process that is the consequence of p53 accumulation in tumour cells. p53 antibodies were also detected in two patients without detected malignant disease. One of these patients died 6 months later of lung carcinoma, suggesting that p53 antibodies may be a precocious marker of p53 alteration. Images Figure 2 PMID:7514026

  7. Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by Alteration of Expression of the BRCA1 and/or p53 Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    including high level chromosome damage, variable chromosome counts, rearrangements and multiclonal populations ( dicentrics , translocations...sarcoma arising in the p53LoxP/LoxP group, while not normal, generally had patterns of whole chromosome gains and losses consistent with aneuploidy and...many fewer regions of interstitial chromosomal gains/losses detected by aCGH as compared to tumors isolated from Brca1LoxP/LoxP;p53LoxP/LoxP mice

  8. Epidermal p53 response and repair of thymine dimers in human skin after a single dose of ultraviolet radiation: effects of photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Ling, G; Chadwick, C A; Berne, B; Potten, C S; Pontén, J; Pontén, F

    2001-05-01

    A cellular p53 response, DNA repair enzymes and melanin pigmentation are important strategies utilized by skin keratinocytes against impairment caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In this study a double-immunofluorescence technique was used to investigate UVR-induced thymine dimers and p53 protein simultaneously. Four healthy volunteers were irradiated on both sides of their buttock skin with a single dose of solar-simulating UVR. One side was pretreated with a topical sunscreen. Biopsies from different time-points were immunostained for visualization of thymine dimers, p53 and proliferation. One single physiological dose of UVR generated widespread formation of thymine dimers throughout the epidermis 4h after irradiation. The level of thymine dimers decreased over time and was followed by a p53 response in the same cells. A late proliferative response was also found. The formation of thymine dimers, the p53 response and the late proliferative response were partially blocked by topical sunscreen. Large inter-individual differences in the kinetics of thymine dimer formation and repair as well as in the p53 response were evident in both sunscreen-protected and unprotected skin.

  9. Targeting Mortalin by Embelin Causes Activation of Tumor Suppressor p53 and Deactivation of Metastatic Signaling in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Nupur; Grover, Abhinav; Goyal, Sukriti; Katiyar, Shashank P.; Bhargava, Priyanshu; Wang, Pi-Chao; Sundar, Durai; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Embelin, a natural quinone found in the fruits of Embelia ribes, is commonly used in Ayurvedic home medicine for a variety of therapeutic potentials including anti-inflammation, anti-fever, anti-bacteria and anti-cancer. Molecular mechanisms of these activities and cellular targets have not been clarified to-date. We demonstrate that the embelin inhibits mortalin-p53 interactions, and activates p53 protein in tumor cells. We provide bioinformatics, molecular docking and experimental evidence to the binding affinity of embelin with mortalin and p53. Binding of embelin with mortalin/p53 abrogates their complex resulted in nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation function of p53 causing growth arrest in cancer cells. Furthermore, analyses of growth factors and metastatic signaling using antibody membrane array revealed their downregulation in embelin-treated cells. We also found that the embelin causes transcriptional attenuation of mortalin and several other proteins involved in metastatic signaling in cancer cells. Based on these molecular dynamics and experimental data, it is concluded that the anticancer activity of embelin involves targeting of mortalin, activation of p53 and inactivation of metastatic signaling. PMID:26376435

  10. Role of p53 isoforms and aggregations in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SeJin; An, Seong Soo A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract p53 is a master regulatory protein that is involved in diverse cellular metabolic processes such as apoptosis, DNA repair, and cell cycle arrest. The protective function of p53 (in its homotetrameric form) as a tumor suppressor is lost in more than 50% of human cancers. Despite considerable experimental evidence suggesting the presence of multiple p53 states, it has been difficult to correlate the status of p53 with cancer response to treatments and clinical outcomes, which suggest the importance of complex but essential p53 regulatory pathways. Recent studies have indicated that the expression pattern of p53 isoforms may play a crucial role in regulating normal and cancer cell fates in response to diverse stresses. The human TP53 gene encodes at least 12 p53 isoforms, which are produced in normal tissue through alternative initiation of translation, usage of alternative promoters, and alternative splicing. Furthermore, some researchers have suggested that the formation of mutant p53 aggregates may be associated with cancer pathogenesis due to loss-of function (LoF), dominant-negative (DN), and gain-of function (GoF) effects. As different isoforms or the aggregation state of p53 may influence tumorigenesis, this review aims to examine the correlation of p53 isoforms and aggregation with cancer. PMID:27368003

  11. Modulation of p53, c-fos, RARE, cyclin A, and cyclin D1 expression in human leukemia (HL-60) cells exposed to arsenic trioxide

    PubMed Central

    Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has recently been successfully used to treat all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resistant relapsing acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In the present study, we used the human leukemia (HL-60) cell line as a test model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer properties of As2O3. We hypothesized that As2O3-induced expression of stress genes and related proteins may play a role in the cellular and molecular events leading to cell cycle modulation in leukemic cells. To test this hypothesis, we performed Western blot analysis to assess the expression of specific cellular response proteins including p53, c-fos, RARE, Cyclin A, and Cyclin D1. Densitometric analysis was performed to determine the relative abundance of these proteins. Western Blot and densitometric analyses demonstrated a strong dose-response relationship with regard to p53 and RARE expression within the dose range of 0-8μg/mL. Expression of c-fos was slightly up-regulated at 2μg/mL, and down-regulated within the dose-range of 4-8 μg/mL. A statistically significant down-regulation of this protein was detected at the 6 and 8 μg/mL dose levels. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in Cyclin D1 expression was found between As2O3-treated cells and the control. Cyclin A expression in As2O3-treated HL-60 cells was up-regulated at 6μg/mL, suggesting that it is required for S phase and passage through G2 phase in cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results indicate that As2O3 has the potential to induce cell cycle arrest through activation of the 53-kDa tumor suppressor protein and repression of the c-fos transcription factor. Up-regulation of RARE by As2O3 indicates that its cytotoxicity may be mediated through interaction/binding with the retinoic acid receptor, and subsequent inhibition of growth and differentiation. PMID:19444595

  12. Autoantibody recognition mechanisms of p53 epitopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need for economical blood based, noninvasive molecular biomarkers to assist in the detection and diagnosis of cancers in a cost-effective manner at an early stage, when curative interventions are still possible. Serum autoantibodies are attractive biomarkers for early cancer detection, but their development has been hindered by the punctuated genetic nature of the ten million known cancer mutations. A landmark study of 50,000 patients (Pedersen et al., 2013) showed that a few p53 15-mer epitopes are much more sensitive colon cancer biomarkers than p53, which in turn is a more sensitive cancer biomarker than any other protein. The function of p53 as a nearly universal "tumor suppressor" is well established, because of its strong immunogenicity in terms of not only antibody recruitment, but also stimulation of autoantibodies. Here we examine dimensionally compressed bioinformatic fractal scaling analysis for identifying the few sensitive epitopes from the p53 amino acid sequence, and show how it could be used for early cancer detection (ECD). We trim 15-mers to 7-mers, and identify specific 7-mers from other species that could be more sensitive to aggressive human cancers, such as liver cancer. Our results could provide a roadmap for ECD.

  13. The p53-inducible gene 3 involved in flavonoid-induced cytotoxicity through the reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Guangdong; Qiu, Hongbin; Zhu, Liling; Ren, Zhongjuan; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit prooxidant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we investigated the potential mechanism that p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), a NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase, mediated the prooxidant cytotoxicity of flavonoids on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The results showed that flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, and quercetin) inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dosage- and time-dependent manner, and induced the morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. We also found that expression of PIG3 was increased markedly in HepG2 cells treated with flavonoids at both mRNA and protein levels, which was accompanied by increased intracellular ROS production and a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). All these effects were largely reversed through knockdown of the PIG3 gene in HepG2 cells. Western blotting indicated that flavonoids increased cytochrome c release, upregulated the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and activated the caspases-9 and -3. Moreover, knockdown of PIG3 could reverse the changes of these apoptotic-related proteins. These results suggest that PIG3 plays an important role in regulating the prooxidant activity and apoptosis-inducing action of flavonoids on HepG2 cells though the ROS-triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  14. The p53 family orchestrates the regulation of metabolism: physiological regulation and implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Marco; Flores, Elsa R

    2017-01-01

    The p53 family of transcription factors is essential to counteract tumour formation and progression. Although previously this was exclusively associated with the ability of the p53 family to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, an increasing number of reports have now indisputably demonstrated that the tumour suppressive functions of the p53 family members also rely on their ability to control and regulate cellular metabolism and maintain cellular oxidative homeostasis. Here, we review how each p53 family member, including p63 and p73, controls metabolic pathways in physiological conditions, and how these mechanisms could be exploited to provide anticancer therapeutic opportunities. PMID:27884017

  15. p63 protein is essential for the embryonic development of vibrissae and teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Rufini, Alessandro; McKeon, Frank; Barlattani, Alberto; Candi, Eleonora . E-mail: candi@uniroma2.it

    2006-02-17

    Development of skin appendages strongly depends on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. One of the genes involved in this process is p63, a member of the p53 family of transcription factors, essential for ectodermal development, as elucidated by the phenotype of p63 knock-out mice. Surprisingly, no information on p63 expression in tooth and hair is yet available. Here, we show p63 expression during teeth and vibrissae morphogenesis in mouse embryos and we also show a correlation with the expression patterns of the epithelial marker keratin 5 and the proliferation marker Ki67. Our results show that p63 colocalizes with both K5 and Ki67 in the epithelium of developing vibrissae, while in teeth p63 is expressed, together with K5, in the undifferentiated ectoderm (enamel organ), and in ameloblasts, a subpopulation of differentiated ectodermal cells. Moreover, p63 expression in tooth seems not to be fully colocalized with nuclear Ki67 expression.

  16. p53 isoform profiling in glioblastoma and injured brain.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, R; Giannini, C; Sarkaria, J N; Schroeder, M; Rogers, J; Mastroeni, D; Scrable, H

    2013-06-27

    The tumor suppressor p53 has been found to be the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers; however, the frequency of p53 mutations varies from 10 to 70% across different cancer types. This variability can partly be explained by inactivating mechanisms aside from direct genomic polymorphisms. The p53 gene encodes 12 isoforms, some of which can modulate full-length p53 activity in cancer. In this study, we characterized p53 isoform expression patterns in glioblastoma, gliosis, non-tumor brain and neural progenitor cells by SDS-PAGE, immunoblot, mass spectrometry and reverse transcription-PCR. We found that the most consistently expressed isoform in glioblastoma, Δ40p53, was uniquely expressed in regenerative processes, such as those involving neural progenitor cells and gliosis compared with tumor samples. Isoform profiling of glioblastoma tissues revealed the presence of both Δ40p53 and full-length p53, neither of which were detected in non-tumor cerebral cortex. Upon xenograft propagation of tumors, p53 levels increased. The variability of overall p53 expression and relative levels of isoforms suggest fluctuations in subpopulations of cells with greater or lesser capacity for proliferation, which can change as the tumor evolves under different growth conditions.

  17. Molecular genetic characterization of p53 mutated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells transformed with human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Oh; Shin, Jung-Young; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Won, Hye-Sung; Chun, Sang-Hoon; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Park, Won-Sang; Nam, Suk-Woo; Eun, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jin-Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer show better tumor response to radiation or chemotherapy than patients with HPV-negative cancer. HPV oncoprotein E6 binds and degrades a typically wild-type p53 protein product. However, HPV16 infection and p53 mutation infrequently coexist in a subset of HNSCCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms through which tumor biology and molecular genetic mechanisms change when two HPV-negative, p53-mutated oropharyngeal cell lines (YD8, non-disruptive p53 mutation; YD10B, disruptive p53 mutation) derived from patients with a history of heavy smoking are transfected with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in vitro. Transfection with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in YD8, reduced the abundance of proteins encoded by tumor suppressor genes, such as p-p53 and p-Rb. Cell proliferative activity was increased in the cells transfected with E6E7 compared to cells transfected with vector alone (P=0.09), whereas the invasiveness of E6E7-transfected cells was significantly reduced (P=0.02). cDNA microarray of the transfected cells with E6E7 showed significant changes in mRNA expression in several signaling pathways, including focal adhesion, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway. Regarding the qPCR array for the p53 signaling pathway, the mRNA expression of STAT1 was remarkably upregulated by 6.47-fold (P<0.05); in contrast, IGF-1R was significantly downregulated by 2.40-fold in the YD8-vector compared toYD8-E6E7 (P<0.01). Finally, data collected from these two array experiments enabled us to select two genes, STAT1 and IGF-1R, for further study. In immunohistochemical study, nuclear STAT1 expression was slightly higher in HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative oropharyngeal tumors (P=0.18); however, cytoplasmic STAT1 was significantly lower in HPV-positive cases (P=0.03). IGF-1R expression levels were remarkably lower in HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative cases (P=0.01). Our data suggest that

  18. Using yeast to determine the functional consequences of mutations in the human p53 tumor suppressor gene: An introductory course-based undergraduate research experience in molecular and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Brownell, Sara E; Seawell, Patricia Chandler; Malladi, Shyamala; Imam, Jamie F Conklin; Singla, Veena; Bradon, Nicole; Cyert, Martha S; Stearns, Tim

    2017-03-04

    The opportunity to engage in scientific research is an important, but often neglected, component of undergraduate training in biology. We describe the curriculum for an innovative, course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) appropriate for a large, introductory cell and molecular biology laboratory class that leverages students' high level of interest in cancer. The course is highly collaborative and emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of original scientific data. During the course, students work in teams to characterize a collection of mutations in the human p53 tumor suppressor gene via expression and analysis in yeast. Initially, student pairs use both qualitative and quantitative assays to assess the ability of their p53 mutant to activate expression of reporter genes, and they localize their mutation within the p53 structure. Through facilitated discussion, students suggest possible molecular explanations for the transactivation defects displayed by their p53 mutants and propose experiments to test these hypotheses that they execute during the second part of the course. They use a western blot to determine whether mutant p53 levels are reduced, a DNA-binding assay to test whether recognition of any of three p53 target sequences is compromised, and fluorescence microscopy to assay nuclear localization. Students studying the same p53 mutant periodically convene to discuss and interpret their combined data. The course culminates in a poster session during which students present their findings to peers, instructors, and the greater biosciences community. Based on our experience, we provide recommendations for the development of similar large introductory lab courses. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):161-178, 2017.

  19. p53 isoform Δ133p53 promotes efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells and ensures genomic integrity during reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Chen, Haide; Rao, Lingjun; Zeng, Yelin; Hang, Honghui; Peng, Jinrong; Xiao, Lei; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential in regenerative medicine, but this depends on the integrity of their genomes. iPS cells have been found to contain a large number of de novo genetic alterations due to DNA damage response during reprogramming. Thus, to maintain the genetic stability of iPS cells is an important goal in iPS cell technology. DNA damage response can trigger tumor suppressor p53 activation, which ensures genome integrity of reprogramming cells by inducing apoptosis and senescence. p53 isoform Δ133p53 is a p53 target gene and functions to not only antagonize p53 mediated apoptosis, but also promote DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we report that Δ133p53 is induced in reprogramming. Knockdown of Δ133p53 results 2-fold decrease in reprogramming efficiency, 4-fold increase in chromosomal aberrations, whereas overexpression of Δ133p53 with 4 Yamanaka factors showes 4-fold increase in reprogamming efficiency and 2-fold decrease in chromosomal aberrations, compared to those in iPS cells induced only with 4 Yamanaka factors. Overexpression of Δ133p53 can inhibit cell apoptosis and promote DNA DSB repair foci formation during reprogramming. Our finding demonstrates that the overexpression of Δ133p53 not only enhances reprogramming efficiency, but also results better genetic quality in iPS cells. PMID:27874035

  20. Frequent p53 mutation in brain (fetal)-type glycogen phosphorylase positive foci adjacent to human ‘de novo’olorectal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, S; Shiomori, K; Tashima, S; Tsuruta, J; Ogawa, M

    2001-01-01

    ‘de novo’ carcinogenesis has been advocated besides ‘adenoma carcinoma sequence’ as another dominant pathway leading to colorectal carcinoma. Our recent study has demonstrated that the distribution of brain (fetal)-type glycogen phosphorylase (BGP) positive foci (BGP foci) has a close relationship with the location of ‘de novo’ carcinoma. The aims of the present study are to investigate genetic alteration in the BGP foci and to characterize them in the ‘de novo’ carcinogenesis. 17 colorectal carcinomas without any adenoma component expressing both immunoreactive p53 and BGP protein were selected from 96 resected specimens from our previous study. Further investigations to examine the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labelling index, and the p53 and the codon 12 of K-ras mutation using the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism were performed in the BGP foci, BGP negative mucosa and carcinoma. The BGP foci were observed sporadically in the transitional mucosa adjacent to the carcinoma in all cases. The PCNA labelling index in the BGP foci was significantly higher than that in the BGP negative mucosa (P< 0.001). p53 mutations were observed in 8 carcinomas, but no K-ras mutation was detected. Interestingly, although none of the overexpressions of p53 protein was detected immunohistochemically in the BGP positive foci, the p53 gene frequently (41.2% of the BGP foci tested) mutated in spite of no K-ras mutation. The present study demonstrates potentially premalignant foci in the colorectal transitional mucosa with frequent p53 gene mutation. It is suggested that BGP foci are promising candidates for the further investigation of ‘de novo’ colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2001Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11384100

  1. Discovery of Novel Isatin-Based p53 Inducers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of isatin Schiff base derivatives were identified during in silico screening of the small molecule library for novel activators of p53. The compounds selected based on molecular docking results were further validated by a high-content screening assay using U2OS human osteosarcoma cells with an integrated EGFP-expressing p53-dependent reporter. The hit compounds activated and stabilized p53, as shown by Western blotting, at higher rates than the well-known positive control Nutlin-3. Thus, the p53-activating compounds identified by this approach represent useful molecular probes for various cancer studies. PMID:26288684

  2. A Platform for Interrogating Cancer-Associated p53 Alleles

    PubMed Central

    D’Brot, Alejandro; Kurtz, Paula; Regan, Erin; Jakubowski, Brandon; Abrams, John M

    2016-01-01

    p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. Compelling evidence argues that full transformation involves loss of growth suppression encoded by wild-type p53 together with poorly understood oncogenic activity encoded by missense mutations. Furthermore, distinguishing disease alleles from natural polymorphisms is an important clinical challenge. To interrogate the genetic activity of human p53 variants, we leveraged the Drosophila model as an in vivo platform. We engineered strains that replace the fly p53 gene with human alleles, producing a collection of stocks that are, in effect, ‘humanized’ for p53 variants. Like the fly counterpart, human p53 transcriptionally activated a biosensor and induced apoptosis after DNA damage. However, all humanized strains representing common alleles found in cancer patients failed to complement in these assays. Surprisingly, stimulus-dependent activation of hp53 occurred without stabilization, demonstrating that these two processes can be uncoupled. Like its fly counterpart, hp53 formed prominent nuclear foci in germline cells but cancer-associated p53 variants did not. Moreover, these same mutant alleles disrupted hp53 foci and inhibited biosensor activity, suggesting that these properties are functionally linked. Together these findings establish a functional platform for interrogating human p53 alleles and suggest that simple phenotypes could be used to stratify disease variants. PMID:26996664

  3. The presence of carbon nanostructures in bakery products induces metabolic stress in human mesenchymal stem cells through CYP1A and p53 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadi, Ahmed M; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    Ingredients commonly present in processed foods are excellent substrates for chemical reactions during modern thermal cooking or processing, which could possibly result in deteriorative carbonization changes mediated by a variety of thermal reactions. Spontaneous self-assembling complexation or polymerization of partially combusted lipids, proteins, and other food macromolecules with synthetic food additives during high temperature food processing or baking (200-250 °C) would result in the formation of carbon nanostructures (CNs). These unknown nanostructures may produce adverse physiological effects or potential health risks. The present work aimed to identify and characterize the nanostructures from the crusts of bread. Furthermore, a toxicological risk assessment of these nanostructures was conducted using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a model for cellular uptake and metabolic oxidative stress, with special reference to induced adipogenesis. CNs isolated from bread crusts were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro risk assessment of the CNs was carried out in hMSCs using an MTT assay, cell morphological assessment, a reactive oxygen species assay, a mitochondrial trans-membrane potential assay, cell cycle progression assessment and gene expression analysis. Our results revealed that bread crusts contain CNs, which may form during the bread-making process. The in vitro results indicate that carbon nanostructures have moderately toxic effects in the hMSCs at a high dose (400 μg/mL). The mitochondrial trans-membrane potentials and intracellular ROS levels of the hMSCs were altered at this dose. The levels of the mRNA transcripts of metabolic stress-responsive genes such as CAT, GSR, GSTA4, CYP1A and p53 were significantly altered in response to CNs.

  4. Metformin induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by activating an AMPK/p53/miR-23a/FOXA1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yunpeng; Tao, Chonglin; Huang, Xiaming; He, Han; Shi, Hongqi; Zhang, Qiyu; Wu, Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    The antidiabetic drug metformin has been shown to possess antitumor functions in many types of cancers. Although studies have revealed its beneficial effects on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this event remains largely unknown. In this work, we showed that miR-23a was significantly induced upon metformin treatment; inhibition of miR-23a abrogated the proapoptotic effect of metformin in HepG2 cells. We next established forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) as the functional target of miR-23a, and silencing FOXA1 mimicked the effect of metformin. Moreover, the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the expression of p53 were increased upon metformin treatment, and the inhibition of p53 abrogated the induction of miR-23a by metformin, suggesting that AMPK/p53 signaling axis is responsible for the induction of miR-23a by metformin. In summary, we unraveled a novel AMPK/p53/miR-23a/FOXA1 axis in the regulation of apoptosis in HCC, and the application of metformin could, therefore, be effective in the treatment of HCC. PMID:27274280

  5. Interleukin 7 signaling prevents apoptosis by regulating bcl-2 and bax via the p53 pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Hui; Wang, Ming-Hui; Ren, Hong-Jiu; Qu, Wei; Sun, Li-Mei; Zhang, Qing-Fu; Qiu, Xue-Shan; Wang, En-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 7/Interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7/IL-7R) signaling induces the upregulation of cyclin D1 to promote cell proliferation in lung cancer, but its role in preventing the apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines remains unknown. To study the role of IL-7 in lung cancer cell apoptosis, normal HBE cells as well as A549 and H1299 NSCLC cells were examined using flow cytometry. The results showed that the activation of IL-7R by its specific ligand, exogenous interleukin-7, was associated with a significant decline in apoptotic cells. Western blot and real-time PCR assays indicated that the activation of IL-7/IL-7R significantly upregulated anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and downregulated pro-apoptotic bax and p53 at both protein and mRNA levels. The knockdown of IL-7R through small interfering RNAs significantly attenuated these effects of exogenous IL-7. However, there was no significant anti-apoptotic effect in H1299 (p53-) cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of p53 significantly abolished the effects of IL-7/IL-7R on lung cancer cell apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that IL-7/IL-7R prevents apoptosis by upregulating the expression of bcl-2 and by downregulating the expression of bax, potentially via the p53 pathway in A549 and HBE cells.

  6. THE HEPARIN-BINDING DOMAIN AND V REGION OF FIBRONECTIN REGULATE APOPTOSIS BY SUPPRESSION OF P53 AND C-MYC IN HUMAN PRIMARY CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In apoptosis the tumor suppressor p53 and oncogene c-myc, are usually upregulated. However, we report here an alternate pathway of regulation that is triggered by inflammatory-associated matrix fragments of fibronectin (FN) and leads to apoptosis. It is mediated by transcriptio...

  7. Relationship between DNA double-strand break rejoining and cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation in human fibroblast strains with differing ATM/p53 status: Implications for evaluation of clinical radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Severin, Diane; Murray, David . E-mail: davem@cancerboard.ab.ca

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To better understand the impact of defects in the DNA damage-surveillance network on the various cell-based assays used for the prediction of patient radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: We examined noncancerous human fibroblast strains from individuals with ataxia telangiectasia (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM] deficient) or Li-Fraumeni syndrome (p53 deficient) using the neutral comet, H2AX phosphorylation, and clonogenic survival assays. Results: Using the comet assay, we found that, compared with normal fibroblasts, cells lacking either ATM or p53 function exhibited a reduced rate of double-strand break (DSB) rejoining early ({<=}4 h) after exposure to 8 Gy of {gamma}-radiation and also exhibited high levels of unrejoined DSBs later after irradiation. ATM-deficient and p53-deficient fibroblasts also exhibited abnormally increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) at later intervals after irradiation. In the clonogenic assay, ATM-deficient cells exhibited marked radiosensitivity and p53-deficient cells had varying degrees of radioresistance compared with normal fibroblasts. Conclusion: Regardless of whether ataxia telangiectasia and Li-Fraumeni syndrome fibroblasts are DSB-repair deficient per se, it is apparent that p53 and ATM defects greatly influence the cellular phenotype as evidenced by the neutral comet and {gamma}-H2AX assays. Our data suggest that the {gamma}-H2AX levels observed at later intervals after irradiation may represent a reliable measure of the overall DSB rejoining capabilities of human fibroblasts. However, it appears that using this parameter as a predictor of radiosensitivity without knowledge of the cells' p53 status could lead to incorrect conclusions.

  8. Targeting cancer stem cells with p53 modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ryo; Appella, Ettore; Kopelovich, Levy; DeLeo, Albert B.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) typically over-express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Thus, ALDHbright tumor cells represent targets for developing novel cancer prevention/treatment interventions. Loss of p53 function is a common genetic event during cancer development wherein small molecular weight compounds (SMWC) that restore p53 function and reverse tumor growth have been identified. Here, we focused on two widely studied p53 SMWC, CP-31398 and PRIMA-1, to target ALDHbright CSC in human breast, endometrial and pancreas carcinoma cell lines expressing mutant or wild type (WT) p53. CP-31398 and PRIMA-1 significantly reduced CSC content and sphere formation by these cell lines in vitro. In addition, these agents were more effective in vitro against CSC compared to cisplatin and gemcitabine, two often-used chemotherapeutic agents. We also tested a combinatorial treatment in methylcholantrene (MCA)-treated mice consisting of p53 SMWC and p53-based vaccines. Yet using survival end-point analysis, no increased efficacy in the presence of either p53 SMWC alone or with vaccine compared to vaccine alone was observed. These results may be due, in part, to the presence of immune cells, such as activated lymphocytes expressing WT p53 at levels comparable to some tumor cells, wherein further increase of p53 expression by p53 SMWC may alter survival of these immune cells and negatively impact an effective immune response. Continuous exposure of mice to MCA may have also interfered with the action of these p53 SMWC, including potential direct interaction with MCA. Nonetheless, the effect of p53 SMWC on CSC and cancer treatment remains of great interest. PMID:27074569

  9. INGN 201: Ad-p53, Ad5CMV-p53, Adenoviral p53, INGN 101, p53 gene therapy--Introgen, RPR/INGN 201.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Introgen's adenoviral p53 gene therapy [INGN 201, ADVEXIN] is in clinical development for the treatment of various cancers. The p53 tumour suppressor gene is deleted or mutated in many tumour cells and is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human tumours. INGN 201 has been shown to kill cancer cells directly. In August 2002, Introgen announced plans to file an application for INGN 201 with the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) for the treatment of head and neck cancer; the European filing will be submitted simultaneously with the previously scheduled (planned for 2004) submission of a Biologics License Application (BLA) for ADVEXIN to the US FDA. On 20 February 2003, INGN 201 received orphan drug designation from the US FDA for head and neck cancer. INGN 201 is available for licensing although Introgen favours retaining partial or full rights to the therapy in the US. Introgen Therapeutics and its collaborative partner for the p53 programme, Aventis Gencell, have been developing p53 gene therapy products. The agreement was originally signed by Rhône-Poulenc Rorer's Gencell division, which became Aventis Gencell after Rhône-Poulenc Rorer merged with Hoechst Marion Roussel to form Aventis Pharma. According to the original agreement, Introgen was responsible for phase I and preclinical development in North America, while Aventis Gencell was responsible for clinical trials conducted in Europe and for clinical trials in North America beyond phase I. In April 2001, Aventis Gencell and Introgen restructured their existing collaboration agreement for p53 gene therapy products. Aventis Gencell indicated that p53 research had suffered from internal competition for resources and was pulling back from its development agreement with Introgen for p53 gene therapy products. Introgen will assume responsibility for worldwide development of all p53 programmes and will obtain exclusive worldwide commercial rights to p53-based gene therapy

  10. Recognition of Local DNA Structures by p53 Protein.

    PubMed

    Brázda, Václav; Coufal, Jan

    2017-02-10

    p53 plays critical roles in regulating cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and metabolism and is commonly mutated in human cancer. These roles are achieved by interaction with other proteins, but particularly by interaction with DNA. As a transcription factor, p53 is well known to bind consensus target sequences in linear B-DNA. Recent findings indicate that p53 binds with higher affinity to target sequences that form cruciform DNA structure. Moreover, p53 binds very tightly to non-B DNA structures and local DNA structures are increasingly recognized to influence the activity of wild-type and mutant p53. Apart from cruciform structures, p53 binds to quadruplex DNA, triplex DNA, DNA loops, bulged DNA and hemicatenane DNA. In this review, we describe local DNA structures and summarize information about interactions of p53 with these structural DNA motifs. These recent data provide important insights into the complexity of the p53 pathway and the functional consequences of wild-type and mutant p53 activation in normal and tumor cells.

  11. Anoikis triggers Mdm2-dependent p53 degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Chen, Tina Chunyuan; Kapila, Yvonne L.

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in cell–cell communication and signaling, and the signals it propagates are important for tissue remodeling and survival. However, signals from disease-altered ECM may lead to anoikis—apoptotic cell death triggered by loss of ECM contacts. Previously, we found that an altered fibronectin matrix triggers anoikis in human primary ligament cells via a pathway that requires p53 transcriptional downregulation. Here we show that this p53 reduction is suppressed by transfecting cells with Mdm2 antisense oligonucleotides or small interfering RNA. Similar results were found in cells treated to prevent p53 and Mdm2 interactions. When p53 was overexpressed in cells lacking Mdm2 and p53, p53 levels were unaffected by anoikis conditions. However, cells cotransfected with p53 and wild type Mdm2, but not a mutant Mdm2, exhibited decreased p53 levels in response to anoikis conditions. Thus, cells under anoikis conditions undergo p53 degradation that is mediated by Mdm2. PMID:20577896

  12. Recognition of Local DNA Structures by p53 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brázda, Václav; Coufal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    p53 plays critical roles in regulating cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and metabolism and is commonly mutated in human cancer. These roles are achieved by interaction with other proteins, but particularly by interaction with DNA. As a transcription factor, p53 is well known to bind consensus target sequences in linear B-DNA. Recent findings indicate that p53 binds with higher affinity to target sequences that form cruciform DNA structure. Moreover, p53 binds very tightly to non-B DNA structures and local DNA structures are increasingly recognized to influence the activity of wild-type and mutant p53. Apart from cruciform structures, p53 binds to quadruplex DNA, triplex DNA, DNA loops, bulged DNA and hemicatenane DNA. In this review, we describe local DNA structures and summarize information about interactions of p53 with these structural DNA motifs. These recent data provide important insights into the complexity of the p53 pathway and the functional consequences of wild-type and mutant p53 activation in normal and tumor cells. PMID:28208646

  13. Adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transduction inhibits telomerase activity independent of its effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, M; Ogawa, T; Mizumoto, K; Ueno, H; Niiyama, H; Sato, N; Nakamura, M; Tanaka, M

    1999-08-01

    Evidence for a relationship between overexpression of wild-type p53 and telomerase activity remains controversial. We investigated whether p53 gene transduction could cause telomerase inhibition in pancreatic cancer cell lines, focusing on the relation of transduction to growth arrest, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic cell death. The cells were infected with recombinant adenovirus expressing wild-type p53 or p21WAF1 at a multiplicity of infection of 100 or were continuously exposed to 10 microM VP-16, which is well known to induce apoptosis. Adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transduction caused G1 cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and resultant growth inhibition in MIA PaCa-2 cells; the cell number 2 days after infection was 50% of preinfection value, and 13% of the cells were dead. Moreover, the transduction resulted in complete depression of telomerase activity through down-regulation of hTERT mRNA expression. In contrast, p21WAF1 gene transduction only arrested cell growth and cell cycle at G1 phase, and VP-16 treatment inhibited cell growth with G2-M arrest and apoptosis; after treatment, the cell number was 73% of pretreatment, and 12% of the cells were dead. Neither p21WAF1 gene transduction nor VP-16 treatment caused telomerase inhibition. Similar results were obtained in two other pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and AsPC-1. Thus, our results demonstrate that the p53 gene transduction directly inhibits telomerase activity, independent of its effects on cell growth arrest, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis.

  14. Individual variation in p53 and Cip1 expression profiles in normal human fibroblast strains following exposure to high-let radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, T.R.; Johnson, N.F.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    Exposure to {alpha}-particles emitted by radon progeny appears to be the second-leading cause of lung cancer mortality. However, individual susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of {alpha}-particles remains poorly characterized. Variation in susceptibility to cancer produced by certian classes of DNA-damaging chemicals is suspected to involve differences in metabolic activation and detoxication. Susceptibility to {alpha}-particle-induced cancer may involve variations in capacity or opportunity to repair DNA damage. Subtle variations in DNA repair capacity would more likely explain radon-related lung cancer susceptibility. The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates as a cellular response to DNA damage from ionizing radiation and regulates arrest in the G{sub 1} portion of the cell cycle. Arrest in G{sub 1} portion of the cell cycle. While upstream regulation of p53 protein stability is poorly understood, variations in the ability to accumulate p53 following DNA damage represent potential variations in lung cancer susceptibility related to radon progeny. Further, transcription of the cell-cycle regulatory gene Cip1 is regulated by p53 and increases following ionizing radiation. Therefore, variations in the expression of Cip1 following {alpha}-particle exposure may also be a susceptibility factor in radon-related lung cancers. The purpose of the present investigation was to measure p53 and Cip1 protein induction following {alpha}-particle exposure of fibroblast lines from nine individuals to determine if there were significant variations. The expression of Cip1 protein indicates the differences in response are biologically relevant.

  15. The Human ARF Cell Cycle Regulatory Gene Promoter Is a CpG Island Which Can Be Silenced by DNA Methylation and Down-Regulated by Wild-Type p53

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Keith D.; Jones, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The INK4a/ARF locus encodes two proteins involved in tumor suppression in a manner virtually unique in mammalian cells. Distinct first exons, driven from separate promoters, splice onto a common exon 2 and 3 but utilize different reading frames to produce two completely distinct proteins, both of which play roles in cell cycle control. INK4a, a critical element of the retinoblastoma gene pathway, binds to and inhibits the activities of CDK4 and CDK6, while ARF, a critical element of the p53 pathway, increases the level of functional p53 via interaction with MDM2. Here we clone and characterize the promoter of the human ARF gene and show that it is a CpG island characteristic of a housekeeping gene which contains numerous Sp1 sites. Both ARF and INK4a are coordinately expressed in cells except when their promoter regions become de novo methylated. In one of these situations, ARF transcription could be reactivated by treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, and the reactivation kinetics of ARF and INK4a were found to differ slightly in a cell line in which both genes were silenced by methylation. The ARF promoter was also found to be highly responsive to E2F1 expression, in keeping with previous results at the RNA level. Lastly, transcription from the ARF promoter was down-regulated by wild-type p53 expression, and the magnitude of the effect correlated with the status of the endogenous p53 gene. This finding points to the existence of an autoregulatory feedback loop between p53, MDM2, and ARF, aimed at keeping p53 levels in check. PMID:9774662

  16. Targeted point mutations of p53 lead to dominant-negative inhibition of wild-type p53 function.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annemieke; Flores, Elsa R; Miranda, Barbara; Hsieh, Harn-Mei; van Oostrom, Conny Th M; Sage, Julien; Jacks, Tyler

    2002-03-05

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers, and germ-line p53 mutations cause a familial predisposition for cancer. Germ-line or sporadic p53 mutations are usually missense and typically affect the central DNA-binding domain of the protein. Because p53 functions as a tetrameric transcription factor, mutant p53 is thought to inhibit the function of wild-type p53 protein. Here, we studied the possible dominant-negative inhibition of wild-type p53 protein by two different, frequently occurring point mutations. The R270H and P275S mutations were targeted into the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells to allow the analysis of the effects of the mutant proteins expressed in normal cells at single-copy levels. In embryonic stem cells, the presence of a heterozygous point-mutated allele resulted in delayed transcriptional activation of several p53 downstream target genes on exposure to gamma irradiation. Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was severely affected in the mutant embryonic stem cells compared with wild-type cells. Heterozygous mutant thymocytes had a severe defect in p53-dependent apoptotic pathways after treatment with gamma irradiation or doxorubicin, whereas p53-independent apoptotic pathways were intact. Together these data demonstrate that physiological expression of point-mutated p53 can strongly limit overall cellular p53 function, supporting the dominant-negative action of such mutants. Also, cells heterozygous for such mutations may be compromised in terms of tumor suppression and response to chemotherapeutic agents.

  17. p53 facilitates pRb cleavage in IL-3-deprived cells: novel pro-apoptotic activity of p53.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, E; Oren, M

    1998-01-01

    In the interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent lymphoid cell line DA-1, functional p53 is required for efficient apoptosis in response to IL-3 withdrawal. Activation of p53 in these cells, by either DNA damage or p53 overexpression, results in a vital growth arrest in the presence of IL-3 and in accelerated apoptosis in its absence. Thus, IL-3 can control the choice between p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Here we report that the cross-talk between p53 and IL-3 involves joint control of pRb cleavage and degradation. Depletion of IL-3 results in caspase-mediated pRb cleavage, occurring preferentially within cells which express functional p53. Moreover, pRb can be cleaved efficiently by extracts prepared from DA-1 cells but not from their derivatives which lack p53 function. Inactivation of pRb through expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncogene overrides the effect of IL-3 in a p53-dependent manner. Our data suggest a novel role for p53 in the regulation of cell death and a novel mechanism for the cooperation between p53 and survival factor deprivation. Thus, p53 makes cells permissive to pRb cleavage, probably by controlling the potential activity of a pRb-cleaving caspase, whereas IL-3 withdrawal provides signals that turn on this potential activity and lead to the actual cleavage and subsequent degradation of pRb. Elimination of a presumptive anti-apoptotic effect of pRb may then facilitate conversion of p53-mediated growth arrest into apoptosis. PMID:9649429

  18. Comparisons of IL-8, ROS and p53 responses in human lung epithelial cells exposed to two extracts of PM2.5 collected from an e-waste recycling area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fangxing; Jin, Shiwei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan

    2011-04-01

    To identify the different effects of organic-soluble and water-soluble pollutants adsorbed on PM2.5 (PM: particulate matter) released from e-waste (electrical/electronic waste) on inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, interleukin-8 (IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 protein levels were determined and compared in human lung epithelial A549 cells exposed to extracts of PM2.5 collected from two sampling sites in an e-waste recycling area in China. It is found that both extracts induced increases of IL-8 release, ROS production and p53 protein expression. The differences between the organic-soluble and water-soluble extracts were determined as of significance for ROS production (p < 0.05) and p53 protein expression (p < 0.01). The ROS production and p53 protein expression induced by the organic-soluble extracts were found to be greater than those induced by the water-soluble extracts, for both sampling sites. The results indicated that PM2.5 collected from the e-waste recycling areas could lead to inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the organic-soluble extracts had higher potential to induce such adverse effects on human health.

  19. Shallot and licorice constituent isoliquiritigenin arrests cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis through the induction of ATM/p53 and initiation of the mitochondrial system in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Chia, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Ping-Jye; Huang, Su-Er; Huang, Soon-Cen; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2009-07-01

    This study is the first to investigate the anticancer effect of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. The results reveal that ISL inhibits HeLa cells by blocking cell cycle progression in the G2/M phase and inducing apoptosis. Blockade of cell cycle is associated with increased activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM). Activation of ATM by ISL phosphorylated p53 at Serine15, resulting in increased stability of p53 by decreasing p53 and murine double minute-2 (MDM2) interaction. In addition, ISL-mediated G2/M phase arrest was also associated with decreases in the amounts of cyclin B, cyclin A, cdc2, and cdc25C, and increases in the phosphorylation of Chk2, cdc25C, and cdc2. The specific ATM inhibitor caffeine significantly decreased ISL-mediated G2/M arrest by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p53 (Serine15) and Chk2. ISL induced apoptotic cell death is associated with changes in the expression of Bax and Bak, decreasing levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), and subsequently triggering mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, pretreatment of cells with caspase-9 inhibitor blocked ISL-induced apoptosis, indicating that caspase-9 activation is involved in ISL-mediated HeLa cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that ISL may be a promising chemopreventive agent against human uterine cervical cancer.

  20. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation.

  1. Novel Pactamycin Analogs Induce p53 Dependent Cell-Cycle Arrest at S-Phase in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Gunjan; Liang, Xiaobo; Kulesz-Martin, Molly F.; Mahmud, Taifo; Indra, Arup Kumar; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali

    2015-01-01

    Pactamycin, although putatively touted as a potent antitumor agent, has never been used as an anticancer drug due to its high cytotoxicity. In this study, we characterized the effects of two novel biosynthetically engineered analogs of pactamycin, de-6MSA-7-demethyl-7-deoxypactamycin (TM-025) and 7-demethyl-7-deoxypactamycin (TM-026), in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines SCC25 and SCC104. Both TM-025 and TM-026 exert growth inhibitory effects on HNSCC cells by inhibiting cell proliferation. Interestingly, unlike their parent compound pactamycin, the analogs do not inhibit synthesis of nascent protein in a cell-based assay. Furthermore, they do not induce apoptosis or autophagy in a dose- or a time-dependent manner, but induce mild senescence in the tested cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that both analogs significantly induce cell cycle arrest of the HNSCC cells at S-phase resulting in reduced accumulation of G2/M-phase cells. The pactamycin analogs induce expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including master regulator p53, its downstream target p21Cip1/WAF1, p27kip21, p19, cyclin E, total and phospho Cdc2 (Tyr15) and Cdc25C. Besides, the analogs mildly reduce cyclin D1 expression without affecting expression of cyclin B, Cdk2 and Cdk4. Specific inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α reduces the percentage of cells accumulated in S-phase, suggesting contribution of p53 to S-phase increase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Pactamycin analogs TM-025 and TM-026 induce senescence and inhibit proliferation of HNSCC cells via accumulation in S-phase through possible contribution of p53. The two PCT analogs can be widely used as research tools for cell cycle inhibition studies in proliferating cancer cells with specific mechanisms of action. PMID:25938491

  2. p53 isoform Δ113p53/Δ133p53 promotes DNA double-strand break repair to protect cell from death and senescence in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lu; Gong, Hongjian; Pan, Xiao; Chang, Changqing; Ou, Zhao; Ye, Shengfan; Yin, Le; Yang, Lina; Tao, Ting; Zhang, Zhenhai; Liu, Cong; Lane, David P; Peng, Jinrong; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The inhibitory role of p53 in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair seems contradictory to its tumor-suppressing property. The p53 isoform Δ113p53/Δ133p53 is a p53 target gene that antagonizes p53 apoptotic activity. However, information on its functions in DNA damage repair is lacking. Here we report that Δ113p53 expression is strongly induced by γ-irradiation, but not by UV-irradiation or heat shock treatment. Strikingly, Δ113p53 promotes DNA DSB repair pathways, including homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining and single-strand annealing. To study the biological significance of Δ113p53 in promoting DNA DSB repair, we generated a zebrafish Δ113p53(M/M) mutant via the transcription activator-like effector nuclease technique and found that the mutant is more sensitive to γ-irradiation. The human ortholog, Δ133p53, is also only induced by γ-irradiation and functions to promote DNA DSB repair. Δ133p53-knockdown cells were arrested at the G2 phase at the later stage in response to γ-irradiation due to a high level of unrepaired DNA DSBs, which finally led to cell senescence. Furthermore, Δ113p53/Δ133p53 promotes DNA DSB repair via upregulating the transcription of repair genes rad51, lig4 and rad52 by binding to a novel type of p53-responsive element in their promoters. Our results demonstrate that Δ113p53/Δ133p53 is an evolutionally conserved pro-survival factor for DNA damage stress by preventing apoptosis and promoting DNA DSB repair to inhibit cell senescence. Our data also suggest that the induction of Δ133p53 expression in normal cells or tissues provides an important tolerance marker for cancer patients to radiotherapy.

  3. Nano-SiO2 induces apoptosis via activation of p53 and Bax mediated by oxidative stress in human hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yiyi; Liu, Jianwen; Xu, Jianhe; Sun, Lijuan; Chen, Mingcang; Lan, Minbo

    2010-04-01

    Nanoparticles such as nano-SiO(2) are increasingly used in food, cosmetics, diagnosis, imaging and drug delivery. However, toxicological data of nano-SiO(2) on hepatic cells in vitro and their detailed molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. In order to assess toxicity of nano-SiO(2), L-02 cells were exposed to 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/ml of SiO(2) colloids (21, 48 and 86 nm) for 12, 24, 36 and 48h. Lactate dehydrogenase released from damaged cells were quantified, cellular ultrastructural organization was observed, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and glutathione were measured. Apoptosis induced by 21 nm SiO(2) was characterized by annexin V-FITC/PI staining and DNA ladder assay. Furthermore, apoptosis related proteins such as p53, Bax and Bcl-2 were analyzed by using western blot analysis. Our data indicated that nano-SiO(2) caused cytotoxicity in size, dose and time dependent manners. Oxidative stress and apoptosis were induced by exposure to 21 nm SiO(2). Moreover, the expression of p53 and Bax was increased in time and dose dependent patterns, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 was not significantly changed. In conclusion, ROS-mediated oxidative stress, the activation of p53 and up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio are involved in mechanistic pathways of 21 nm SiO(2) induced apoptosis in L-02 cells.

  4. Different regulation of limb development by p63 transcript variants

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Manabu; Taniguchi, Yuki; Mori, Daisuke; Yano, Fumiko; Ohba, Shinsuke; Chung, Ung-il; Shimogori, Tomomi; Mills, Alea A.; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-01-01

    The apical ectodermal ridge (AER), located at the distal end of each limb bud, is a key signaling center which controls outgrowth and patterning of the proximal-distal axis of the limb through secretion of various molecules. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), particularly Fgf8 and Fgf4, are representative molecules produced by AER cells, and essential to maintain the AER and cell proliferation in the underlying mesenchyme, meanwhile Jag2-Notch pathway negatively regulates the AER and limb development. p63, a transcription factor of the p53 family, is expressed in the AER and indispensable for limb formation. However, the underlying mechanisms and specific roles of p63 variants are unknown. Here, we quantified the expression of p63 variants in mouse limbs from embryonic day (E) 10.5 to E12.5, and found that ΔNp63γ was strongly expressed in limbs at all stages, while TAp63γ expression was rapidly increased in the later stages. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of limb bud cells from reporter mouse embryos at E11.5 revealed that all variants were abundantly expressed in AER cells, and their expression was very low in mesenchymal cells. We then generated AER-specific p63 knockout mice by mating mice with a null and a flox allele of p63, and Msx2-Cre mice (Msx2-Cre;p63Δ/fl). Msx2-Cre;p63Δ/fl neonates showed limb malformation that was more obvious in distal elements. Expression of various AER-related genes was decreased in Msx2-Cre;p63Δ/fl limb buds and embryoid bodies formed by p63-knockdown induced pluripotent stem cells. Promoter analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated Fgf8 and Fgf4 as transcriptional targets of ΔNp63γ, and Jag2 as that of TAp63γ. Furthermore, TAp63γ overexpression exacerbated the phenotype of Msx2-Cre;p63Δ/fl mice. These data indicate that ΔNp63 and TAp63 control limb development through transcriptional regulation of different target molecules with different roles in the AER. Our findings contribute to

  5. Regulation of p53 Activity by Reversible-Acetylation in Prostate Tumor Suppression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    localization of HDAC1. A. The subcellular localization of endogenous HDAC1 was determined in p300 expressing H1299 cells by immunostaining with an antibody...p53 following transfection into p53 (-/-) H1299 cells. Cells were transfected with p53wt alone (a, g, m), p53wt and myc-p300 (b, d, h, j, n, p), p53wt...signal that promotes p53 export to the cytoplasm. Materials and Methods Cell lines and transfection - H1299 human cells, p53(-/-), MDM2(-/-) mouse

  6. Distinct tumor protein p53 mutants in breast cancer subgroups.

    PubMed

    Dumay, Anne; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Wittmer, Evelyne; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Bertheau, Philippe; Espié, Marc; Plassa, Louis-François; Cottu, Paul; Marty, Michel; André, Fabrice; Sotiriou, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos; de Thé, Hugues

    2013-03-01

    Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is mutated in approximately 30% of breast cancers, but this frequency fluctuates widely between subclasses. We investigated the p53 mutation status in 572 breast tumors, classified into luminal, basal and molecular apocrine subgroups. As expected, the lowest mutation frequency was observed in luminal (26%), and the highest in basal (88%) tumors. Luminal tumors showed significantly higher frequency of substitutions (82 vs. 65%), notably A/T to G/C transitions (31 vs. 15%), whereas molecular apocrine and basal tumors presented much higher frequencies of complex mutations (deletions/insertions) (36 and 33%, respectively, vs. 18%). Accordingly, missense mutations were significantly more frequent in luminal tumors (75 vs. 54%), whereas basal tumors displayed significantly increased rates of TP53 truncations (43 vs. 25%), resulting in loss of function and/or expression. Interestingly, as basal tumors, molecular apocrine tumors presented with a high rate of complex mutations, but paradoxically, these were not associated with increased frequency of p53 truncation. As in luminal tumors, this could reflect a selective pressure for p53 gain of function, possibly through P63/P73 inactivation. Collectively, these observations point not only to different mechanisms of TP53 alterations, but also to different functional consequences in the different breast cancer subtypes.

  7. Mutant p53 in cancer: Accumulation, gain-of-function and therapy.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xuetian; Zhao, Yuhan; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Min; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei

    2017-04-05

    Tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer, and over half of human cancers contain p53 mutations. Majority of p53 mutations in cancer are missense mutations, leading to the expression of full-length mutant p53 protein. While the critical role of wild type p53 in tumor suppression has been firmly established, mounting evidence has demonstrated that many tumor-associated mutant p53 proteins not only lose tumor suppressive function of wild type p53, but also gain new activities to promote tumorigenesis independently of wild type p53, termed gain-of-function. Mutant p53 protein often accumulates to very high levels in tumors, contributing to malignant progression. Recently, mutant p53 has become an attractive target for cancer therapy. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying mutant p53 protein accumulation and gain-of-function will accelerate the development of targeted therapies for human cancer harboring mutant p53. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the studies on mutant p53 protein accumulation and gain-of-function as well as targeted therapies for mutant p53 in human cancer.

  8. p53 in the DNA damage repair process

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ashley B.; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The cells in the human body are continuously challenged by a variety of genotoxic attacks. Erroneous repair of the DNA can lead to mutations and chromosomal aberrations that can alter the functions of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, thus causing cancer development. As a central tumor suppressor, p53 guards the genome by orchestrating a variety of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms. Already early in metazoan evolution, p53 started controlling the apoptotic demise of genomically compromised cells. p53 plays a prominent role as a facilitator of DNA repair by halting the cell cycle to allow time for the repair machineries to restore genome stability. In addition, p53 took on diverse roles to also directly impact the activity of various DNA repair systems. It thus appears as if p53 is multitasking in protecting from cancer development by maintaining genome stability. PMID:27048304

  9. Trichodermin induces c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent apoptosis caused by mitotic arrest and DNA damage in human p53-mutated pancreatic cancer cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ming-Hsien; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Yeh, Yen-Hsiu; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Po-Chuan; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Yung-Wei; Hsiao, Michael; Wang, Shih-Wei; Hua, Kuo-Tai

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy, which generally responds poorly to chemotherapy. In this study, trichodermin, an endophytic fungal metabolite from Nalanthamala psidii, was identified as a potent and selective antitumor agent in human pancreatic cancer. Trichodermin exhibited antiproliferative effects against pancreatic cancer cells, especially p53-mutated cells (MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3) rather than normal pancreatic epithelial cells. We found that trichodermin induced caspase-dependent and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis. Trichodermin also increased apoptosis through mitotic arrest by activating Cdc2/cyclin B1 complex activity. Moreover, trichodermin promoted the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and inhibition of JNK by its inhibitor, shRNA, or siRNA significantly reversed trichodermin-mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis. Trichodermin triggered DNA damage stress to activate p53 function for executing apoptosis in p53-mutated cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that trichodermin with efficacy similar to gemcitabine, profoundly suppressed tumor growth through inducing intratumoral DNA damage and JNK activation in orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. Based on these findings, trichodermin is a potential therapeutic agent worthy of further development into a clinical trial candidate for treating cancer, especially the mutant p53 pancreatic cancer.

  10. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53Δ31, a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop. PMID:27033104

  11. Expression of P53 protein after exposure to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A. M.; Salvador, C.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Ostrosky, P.; Brandan, M. E.

    2001-10-01

    One of the most important tumor suppressor genes is p53 gene, which is involved in apoptotic cell death, cell differentiation and cell cycle arrest. The expression of p53 gene can be evaluated by determining the presence of P53 protein in cells using Western Blot assay with a chemiluminescent method. This technique has shown variabilities that are due to biological factors. Film developing process can influence the quality of the p53 bands obtained. We irradiated tumor cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes with 137Cs and 60Co gamma rays to standardize irradiation conditions, to compare ionizing radiation with actinomycin D and to reduce the observed variability of P53 protein induction levels. We found that increasing radiation doses increase P53 protein induction while it decreases viability. We also conclude that ionizing radiation could serve as a positive control for Western Blot analysis of protein P53. In addition, our results show that the developing process may play an important role in the quality of P53 protein bands and data interpretation.

  12. p53 Acetylation: Regulation and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sara M.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of p53 are critical in modulating its tumor suppressive functions. Ubiquitylation, for example, plays a major role in dictating p53 stability, subcellular localization and transcriptional vs. non-transcriptional activities. Less is known about p53 acetylation. It has been shown to govern p53 transcriptional activity, selection of growth inhibitory vs. apoptotic gene targets, and biological outcomes in response to diverse cellular insults. Yet recent in vivo evidence from mouse models questions the importance of p53 acetylation (at least at certain sites) as well as canonical p53 functions (cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis) to tumor suppression. This review discusses the cumulative findings regarding p53 acetylation, with a focus on the acetyltransferases that modify p53 and the mechanisms regulating their activity. We also evaluate what is known regarding the influence of other post-translational modifications of p53 on its acetylation, and conclude with the current outlook on how p53 acetylation affects tumor suppression. Due to redundancies in p53 control and growing understanding that individual modifications largely fine-tune p53 activity rather than switch it on or off, many questions still remain about the physiological importance of p53 acetylation to its role in preventing cancer. PMID:25545885

  13. Genotoxic stress-induced expression of p53 and apoptosis in leukemic clam hemocytes with cytoplasmically sequestered p53.

    PubMed

    Böttger, Stefanie; Jerszyk, Emily; Low, Ben; Walker, Charles

    2008-02-01

    In nature, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, develops a fatal blood cancer in which a highly conserved homologue for wild-type human p53 protein is rendered nonfunctional by cytoplasmic sequestration. In untreated leukemic clam hemocytes, p53 is complexed throughout the cytoplasm with overexpressed variants for both clam homologues (full-length variant, 1,200-fold and truncated variant, 620-fold above normal clam hemocytes) of human mortalin, an Hsp70 family protein. In vitro treatment with etoposide only and in vivo treatment with either etoposide or mitoxantrone induces DNA damage, elevates expression (600-fold) and promotes nuclear translocation of p53, and results in apoptosis of leukemic clam hemocytes. Pretreatment with wheat germ agglutinin followed by etoposide treatment induces DNA damage and elevates p53 expression (893-fold) but does not overcome cytoplasmic sequestration of p53 or induce apoptosis. We show that leukemic clam hemocytes have an intact p53 pathway, and that maintenance of this tumor phenotype requires nuclear absence of p53, resulting from its localization in the cytoplasm of leukemic clam hemocytes. The effects of these topoisomerase II poisons may result as mortalin-based cytoplasmic tethering is overwhelmed by de novo expression of p53 protein after DNA damage induced by genotoxic stress. Soft shell clam leukemia provides excellent in vivo and in vitro models for developing genotoxic and nongenotoxic cancer therapies for reactivating p53 transcription in human and other animal cancers displaying mortalin-based cytoplasmic sequestration of the p53 tumor suppressor, such as colorectal cancers and primary and secondary glioblastomas, though not apparently leukemias or lymphomas.

  14. Benzyl Isothiocyanate potentiates p53 signaling and antitumor effects against breast cancer through activation of p53-LKB1 and p73-LKB1 axes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bei; Nagalingam, Arumugam; Kuppusamy, Panjamurthy; Muniraj, Nethaji; Langford, Peter; Győrffy, Balázs; Saxena, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Dipali

    2017-01-01

    Functional reactivation of p53 pathway, although arduous, can potentially provide a broad-based strategy for cancer therapy owing to frequent p53 inactivation in human cancer. Using a phosphoprotein-screening array, we found that Benzyl Isothiocynate, (BITC) increases p53 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells and reveal an important role of ERK and PRAS40/MDM2 in BITC-mediated p53 activation. We show that BITC rescues and activates p53-signaling network and inhibits growth of p53-mutant cells. Mechanistically, BITC induces p73 expression in p53-mutant cells, disrupts the interaction of p73 and mutant-p53, thereby releasing p73 from sequestration and allowing it to be transcriptionally active. Furthermore, BITC-induced p53 and p73 axes converge on tumor-suppressor LKB1 which is transcriptionally upregulated by p53 and p73 in p53-wild-type and p53-mutant cells respectively; and in a feed-forward mechanism, LKB1 tethers with p53 and p73 to get recruited to p53-responsive promoters. Analyses of BITC-treated xenografts using LKB1-null cells corroborate in vitro mechanistic findings and establish LKB1 as the key node whereby BITC potentiates as well as rescues p53-pathway in p53-wild-type as well as p53-mutant cells. These data provide first in vitro and in vivo evidence of the integral role of previously unrecognized crosstalk between BITC, p53/LKB1 and p73/LKB1 axes in breast tumor growth-inhibition. PMID:28071670

  15. The Epigenetic Regulator HDAC1 Modulates Transcription of a Core Cardiogenic Program in Human Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Through a p53-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph B; Zhao, John; Keith, Matthew C L; Amraotkar, Alok R; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Hong, Kyung U; Bolli, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) regulation is an essential process in myogenic differentiation. Inhibitors targeting the activity of specific HDAC family members have been shown to enhance the cardiogenic differentiation capacity of discrete progenitor cell types; a key property of donor cell populations contributing to their afforded benefits in cardiac cell therapy applications. The influence of HDAC inhibition on cardiac-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (CMC) transdifferentiation or the role of specific HDAC family members in dictating cardiovascular cell lineage specification has not been investigated. In the current study, the consequences of HDAC inhibition on patient-derived CMC proliferation, cardiogenic program activation, and cardiovascular differentiation/cell lineage specification were investigated using pharmacologic and genetic targeting approaches. Here, CMCs exposed to the pan-HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate exhibited induction of a cardiogenic transcriptional program and heightened expression of myocyte and endothelial lineage-specific markers when coaxed to differentiate in vitro. Further, shRNA knockdown screens revealed CMCs depleted of HDAC1 to promote the induction of a cardiogenic transcriptional program characterized by enhanced expression of cardiomyogenic- and vasculogenic-specific markers, a finding which depended on and correlated with enhanced acetylation and stabilization of p53. Cardiogenic gene activation and elevated p53 expression levels observed in HDAC1-depleted CMCs were associated with improved aptitude to assume a cardiomyogenic/vasculogenic cell-like fate in vitro. These results suggest that HDAC1 depletion-induced p53 expression alters CMC cell fate decisions and identify HDAC1 as a potential exploitable target to facilitate CMC-mediated myocardial repair in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Stem Cells 2016;34:2916-2929.

  16. A p53-independent apoptotic mechanism of adenoviral mutant E1A was involved in its selective antitumor activity for human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Cheng, Qian; Zhao, Jingjing; Ge, Yan; Zhu, Qi; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qi; Li, Liantao; Liu, Junjie; Zheng, Junnian

    2016-01-01

    The conserved regions (CR) of adenoviral E1A had been shown to be necessary for disruption of pRb-E2F transcription factor complexes and induction of the S phase. Here we constructed a mutant adenoviral E1A with Rb-binding ability absent (E1A 30-60aa and 120-127aa deletion, mE1A) and investigated its antitumor capacities in vitro and in vivo. The mE1A suppressed the viability of tumor cells as efficiently as the wild type E1A, and there was no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Although the mE1A arrested tumor cell cycle with the same manner as E1A, the former played a different role on cell cycle regulation compared with E1A in normal cells, which might contribute to its selective antitumor activity. E1A and mE1A had accumulated inactive p53, decreased the expression of mdm2, Cdkn1a (also named p21), increased p21's nuclear distribution and induced tumor cell apoptosis in a p53-indenpent manner. Further, E1A or mE1A significantly suppressed tumor growth in subcutaneous hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft models. Especially, tumor-bearing mice treated with mE1A had higher survival rate than those treated with E1A. Our data demonstrated that mutant adenoviral E1A significantly induced tumor cell apoptosis in a p53-indenpednt manner and had selective tumor suppressing ability. The observations of adenoviral E1A mutant had provided a novel mechanism for E1A's complex activities during infection. PMID:27340782

  17. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch controls the protein stability of p63.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mario; Aqeilan, Rami I; Neale, Michael; Candi, Eleonora; Salomoni, Paolo; Knight, Richard A; Croce, Carlo M; Melino, Gerry

    2006-08-22

    p63, a member of the p53 family of transcription factors, plays an important role in epithelial development, regulating both cell cycle and apoptosis. Even though p63 activity is regulated mainly at the posttranslational level, the control of p63 protein stability is far from being fully understood. Here, we show that the Hect (homologous to the E6-associated protein C terminus)-containing Nedd4-like ubiquitin protein ligase Itch binds, ubiquitylates, and promotes the degradation of p63. The physical interaction occurs at the border between the PY and the SAM (sterile alpha motif) domains; a single Y504F mutation significantly affects p63 degradation. Itch and p63 are coexpressed in the epidermis and in primary keratinocytes where Itch controls the p63 protein steady-state level. Accordingly, p63 protein levels are significantly increased in Itch knockout keratinocytes. These data suggest that Itch has a fundamental role in the mechanism that controls endogenous p63 protein levels and therefore contributes to regulation of p63 in physiological conditions.

  18. Sensitivity to PRIMA-1MET is associated with decreased MGMT in human glioblastoma cells and glioblastoma stem cells irrespective of p53 status.

    PubMed

    Patyka, Mariia; Sharifi, Zeinab; Petrecca, Kevin; Mansure, Jose; Jean-Claude, Bertrand; Sabri, Siham

    2016-09-13

    Alterations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene occur in ~30% of primary glioblastoma (GBM) with a high frequency of missense mutations associated with the acquisition of oncogenic "gain-of-function" (GOF) mutant (mut)p53 activities. PRIMA-1MET/APR-246, emerged as a promising compound to rescue wild-type (wt)p53 function in different cancer types. Previous studies suggested the role of wtp53 in the negative regulation of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a major determinant in resistance to therapy in GBM treatment. The potential role of MGMT in expression of p53 and the efficacy of PRIMA-1MET with respect to TP53 status and expression of MGMT in GBM remain unknown. We investigated response to PRIMA-1MET of wtp53/MGMT-negative (U87MG, A172), mutp53/MGMT-positive U138, LN-18, T98/Empty vector (T98/EV) and its isogenic MGMT/shRNA gene knockdown counterpart (T98/shRNA). We show that MGMT silencing decreased expression of mutp53/GOF in T98/shRNA. PRIMA-1MET further cleared T98/shRNA cells of mutp53, decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential, abrogated the G2 checkpoint control, increased susceptibility to apoptotic cell death, expression of GADD45A and sustained expression of phosphorylated Erk1/2. PRIMA-1MET increased expression of p21 protein in U87MG and A172 and promoted senescence in U87MG cell line. Importantly, PRIMA-1MET decreased relative cell numbers, disrupted the structure of neurospheres of patient-derived GBM stem cells (GSCs) and enabled activation of wtp53 with decreased expression of MGMT in MGMT-positive GSCs or decreased expression of mutp53. Our findings highlight the cell-context dependent effects of PRIMA-1MET irrespective of p53 status and suggest the role of MGMT as a potential molecular target of PRIMA-1MET in MGMT-positive GSCs.

  19. Sensitivity to PRIMA-1MET is associated with decreased MGMT in human glioblastoma cells and glioblastoma stem cells irrespective of p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Patyka, Mariia; Sharifi, Zeinab; Petrecca, Kevin; Mansure, Jose; Jean-Claude, Bertrand; Sabri, Siham

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene occur in ~30% of primary glioblastoma (GBM) with a high frequency of missense mutations associated with the acquisition of oncogenic “gain-of-function” (GOF) mutant (mut)p53 activities. PRIMA-1MET/APR-246, emerged as a promising compound to rescue wild-type (wt)p53 function in different cancer types. Previous studies suggested the role of wtp53 in the negative regulation of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a major determinant in resistance to therapy in GBM treatment. The potential role of MGMT in expression of p53 and the efficacy of PRIMA-1MET with respect to TP53 status and expression of MGMT in GBM remain unknown. We investigated response to PRIMA-1MET of wtp53/MGMT-negative (U87MG, A172), mutp53/MGMT-positive U138, LN-18, T98/Empty vector (T98/EV) and its isogenic MGMT/shRNA gene knockdown counterpart (T98/shRNA). We show that MGMT silencing decreased expression of mutp53/GOF in T98/shRNA. PRIMA-1MET further cleared T98/shRNA cells of mutp53, decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential, abrogated the G2 checkpoint control, increased susceptibility to apoptotic cell death, expression of GADD45A and sustained expression of phosphorylated Erk1/2. PRIMA-1MET increased expression of p21 protein in U87MG and A172 and promoted senescence in U87MG cell line. Importantly, PRIMA-1MET decreased relative cell numbers, disrupted the structure of neurospheres of patient-derived GBM stem cells (GSCs) and enabled activation of wtp53 with decreased expression of MGMT in MGMT-positive GSCs or decreased expression of mutp53. Our findings highlight the cell-context dependent effects of PRIMA-1MET irrespective of p53 status and suggest the role of MGMT as a potential molecular target of PRIMA-1MET in MGMT-positive GSCs. PMID:27533246

  20. Conditional ablation of p63 indicates that it is essential for embryonic development of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cancino, Gonzalo I; Fatt, Michael P; Miller, Freda D; Kaplan, David R

    2015-01-01

    p63 is a member of the p53 family that regulates the survival of neural precursors in the adult brain. However, the relative importance of p63 in the developing brain is still unclear, since embryonic p63(-/-) mice display no apparent deficits in neural development. Here, we have used a more definitive conditional knockout mouse approach to address this issue, crossing p63(fl/fl) mice to mice carrying a nestin-CreERT2 transgene that drives inducible recombination in neural precursors following tamoxifen treatment. Inducible ablation of p63 following tamoxifen treatment of mice on embryonic day 12 resulted in highly perturbed forebrain morphology including a thinner cortex and enlarged lateral ventricles 3 d later. While the normal cortical layers were still present following acute p63 ablation, cortical precursors and neurons were both reduced in number due to widespread cellular apoptosis. This apoptosis was cell-autonomous, since it also occurred when p63 was inducibly ablated in primary cultured cortical precursors. Finally, we demonstrate increased expression of the mRNA encoding another p53 family member, ΔNp73, in cortical precursors of p63(-/-) but not tamoxifen-treated p63(fl/fl);R26YFP(fl/fl);nestin-CreERT2(+/Ø) embryos. Since ΔNp73 promotes cell survival, then this compensatory increase likely explains the lack of an embryonic brain phenotype in p63(-/-) mice. Thus, p63 plays a key prosurvival role in the developing mammalian brain.

  1. The isolation of an RNA aptamer targeting to p53 protein with single amino acid mutation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Rashid, Farooq; Shah, Abdullah; Awan, Hassaan M; Wu, Mingming; Liu, An; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Tao; Luo, Zhaofeng; Shan, Ge

    2015-08-11

    p53, known as a tumor suppressor, is a DNA binding protein that regulates cell cycle, activates DNA repair proteins, and triggers apoptosis in multicellular animals. More than 50% of human cancers contain a mutation or deletion of the p53 gene, and p53R175 is one of the hot spots of p53 mutation. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded oligonucleotides that are able to bind various targets, and they are typically isolated from an experimental procedure called systematic evolution of ligand exponential enrichment (SELEX). Using a previously unidentified strategy of contrast screening with SELEX, we have isolated an RNA aptamer targeting p53R175H. This RNA aptamer (p53R175H-APT) has a significantly stronger affinity to p53R175H than to the wild-type p53 in both in vitro and in vivo assays. p53R175H-APT decreased the growth rate, weakened the migration capability, and triggered apoptosis in human lung cancer cells harboring p53R175H. Further analysis actually indicated that p53R175H-APT might partially rescue or correct the p53R175H to function more like the wild-type p53. In situ injections of p53R175H-APT to the tumor xenografts confirmed the effects of this RNA aptamer on p53R175H mutation in mice.

  2. The isolation of an RNA aptamer targeting to p53 protein with single amino acid mutation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Rashid, Farooq; Shah, Abdullah; Awan, Hassaan M.; Wu, Mingming; Liu, An; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Tao; Luo, Zhaofeng; Shan, Ge

    2015-01-01

    p53, known as a tumor suppressor, is a DNA binding protein that regulates cell cycle, activates DNA repair proteins, and triggers apoptosis in multicellular animals. More than 50% of human cancers contain a mutation or deletion of the p53 gene, and p53R175 is one of the hot spots of p53 mutation. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded oligonucleotides that are able to bind various targets, and they are typically isolated from an experimental procedure called systematic evolution of ligand exponential enrichment (SELEX). Using a previously unidentified strategy of contrast screening with SELEX, we have isolated an RNA aptamer targeting p53R175H. This RNA aptamer (p53R175H-APT) has a significantly stronger affinity to p53R175H than to the wild-type p53 in both in vitro and in vivo assays. p53R175H-APT decreased the growth rate, weakened the migration capability, and triggered apoptosis in human lung cancer cells harboring p53R175H. Further analysis actually indicated that p53R175H-APT might partially rescue or correct the p53R175H to function more like the wild-type p53. In situ injections of p53R175H-APT to the tumor xenografts confirmed the effects of this RNA aptamer on p53R175H mutation in mice. PMID:26216949

  3. Gleditsia sinensis thorn extract inhibits human colon cancer cells: the role of ERK1/2, G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Jung; Park, Keerang; Ha, Sang-Do; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2010-12-01

    The thorns of Gleditsia sinensis are used as a medicinal herb in China and Korea. However, the mechanisms responsible for the antitumor effects of the water extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns (WEGS) remain unknown. HCT116 cells treated with the WEGS at a dose of 800 μg/mL (IC₅₀) showed a significant decrease in cell growth and an increase in cell cycle arrest during the G2/M-phase. G2/M-phase arrest was correlated with increased p53 levels and down-regulation of the check-point proteins, cyclinB1, Cdc2 and Cdc25c. In addition, treatment with WEGS induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 MAP kinase and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases). Moreover, inhibition of ERK by treatment of cells with the ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059 blocked WEGS-mediated p53 expression. Similarly, blockage of ERK function in the WEGS-treated cells reversed cell-growth inhibition and decreased c