Science.gov

Sample records for human physiological body

  1. Human Body (Physiology), K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethlehem Area Schools, PA.

    The physiology of the human body is one of eight subject areas covered in the K-6 Science Program of the Bethlehem Area School District. This manual is a teacher's guide to activities for each grade level. "Awareness of Senses" is treated in Kindergarten, "Body Growth and Development" in grade 1, "The Senses and Their…

  2. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  3. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  4. Comparison of physiological effects of head-down tilting and immersion on the human body.

    PubMed

    Shulzhenko, E B; Panfilov, V E; Gogolev, K I; Aleksandrova, E A

    1979-10-01

    Among the methods simulating weightlessness, effects on the human body, head-down tilting and water immersion are very useful. The purpose of the present investigation was to carry out a comparative study of water balance and water-protein composition of the blood using the above two methods to simulate the physiological effects typical of an acute stage of weightlessness adaptation. The results of the 7-d head-down tilting and immersion experiments allow the following conclusions: More pronounced changes in water balance and water-protein composition of the blood during immersion seem to indicate that immersion produces a greater effect on the human body; The pattern of changes during immersion and tilting suggests that the adaptation period to immersion takes a longer time; These findings give evidence that immersion, compared with head-down tilting, reproduces more closely effects of acute adaptation to simulated weightlessness.

  5. A physiologically based biokinetic model for cesium in the human body.

    PubMed

    Leggett, R W; Williams, L R; Melo, D R; Lipsztein, J L

    2003-12-30

    A physiologically descriptive model of the biological behavior of cesium in the human body has been constructed around a detailed blood flow model. The rate of transfer from plasma into a tissue is determined by the blood perfusion rate and the tissue-specific extraction fraction of Cs during passage from arterial to venous plasma. Information on tissue-specific extraction of Cs is supplemented with information on the Cs analogues, K and Rb, and known patterns of discrimination between these metals by tissues. The rate of return from a tissue to plasma is estimated from the relative contents of Cs in plasma and the tissue at equilibrium as estimated from environmental studies. Transfers of Cs other than exchange between plasma and tissues (e.g. secretions into the gastrointestinal tract) are based on a combination of physiological considerations and empirical data on Cs or related elements. Model predictions are consistent with the sizable database on the time-dependent distribution and retention of radiocesium in the human body.

  6. Building an experimental model of the human body with non-physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Labuz, Joseph M; Moraes, Christopher; Mertz, David R; Leung, Brendan M; Takayama, Shuichi

    2017-03-01

    New advances in engineering and biomedical technology have enabled recent efforts to capture essential aspects of human physiology in microscale, in-vitro systems. The application of these advances to experimentally model complex processes in an integrated platform - commonly called a 'human-on-a-chip (HOC)' - requires that relevant compartments and parameters be sized correctly relative to each other and to the system as a whole. Empirical observation, theoretical treatments of resource distribution systems and natural experiments can all be used to inform rational design of such a system, but technical and fundamental challenges (e.g. small system blood volumes and context-dependent cell metabolism, respectively) pose substantial, unaddressed obstacles. Here, we put forth two fundamental principles for HOC design: inducing in-vivo-like cellular metabolic rates is necessary and may be accomplished in-vitro by limiting O2 availability and that the effects of increased blood volumes on drug concentration can be mitigated through pharmacokinetics-based treatments of solute distribution. Combining these principles with natural observation and engineering workarounds, we derive a complete set of design criteria for a practically realizable, physiologically faithful, five-organ millionth-scale (× 10(-6)) microfluidic model of the human body.

  7. The Virtual Physiological Human

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V.; Diaz, Vanessa; Hunter, Peter; Kohl, Peter; Viceconti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human is synonymous with a programme in computational biomedicine that aims to develop a framework of methods and technologies to investigate the human body as a whole. It is predicated on the transformational character of information technology, brought to bear on that most crucial of human concerns, our own health and well-being.

  8. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  9. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  10. Human physiology in space.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J

    1996-12-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  11. [Human physiology: kidney].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  12. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  13. Opportunities and constraints of presently used thermal manikins for thermo-physiological simulation of the human body.

    PubMed

    Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Bogdan, Anna; Havenith, George; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M

    2016-03-01

    Combining the strengths of an advanced mathematical model of human physiology and a thermal manikin is a new paradigm for simulating thermal behaviour of humans. However, the forerunners of such adaptive manikins showed some substantial limitations. This project aimed to determine the opportunities and constraints of the existing thermal manikins when dynamically controlled by a mathematical model of human thermal physiology. Four thermal manikins were selected and evaluated for their heat flux measurement uncertainty including lateral heat flows between manikin body parts and the response of each sector to the frequent change of the set-point temperature typical when using a physiological model for control. In general, all evaluated manikins are suitable for coupling with a physiological model with some recommendations for further improvement of manikin dynamic performance. The proposed methodology is useful to improve the performance of the adaptive manikins and help to provide a reliable and versatile tool for the broad research and development domain of clothing, automotive and building engineering.

  14. Opportunities and constraints of presently used thermal manikins for thermo-physiological simulation of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Bogdan, Anna; Havenith, George; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2016-03-01

    Combining the strengths of an advanced mathematical model of human physiology and a thermal manikin is a new paradigm for simulating thermal behaviour of humans. However, the forerunners of such adaptive manikins showed some substantial limitations. This project aimed to determine the opportunities and constraints of the existing thermal manikins when dynamically controlled by a mathematical model of human thermal physiology. Four thermal manikins were selected and evaluated for their heat flux measurement uncertainty including lateral heat flows between manikin body parts and the response of each sector to the frequent change of the set-point temperature typical when using a physiological model for control. In general, all evaluated manikins are suitable for coupling with a physiological model with some recommendations for further improvement of manikin dynamic performance. The proposed methodology is useful to improve the performance of the adaptive manikins and help to provide a reliable and versatile tool for the broad research and development domain of clothing, automotive and building engineering.

  15. MRI-based three-dimensional thermal physiological characterization of thyroid gland of human body.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; He, Zhi Zhu; Yang, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to present a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) based three-dimensional finite element modeling on the thermal manifestations relating to the pathophysiology of thyroid gland. An efficient approach for identifying the metabolic dysfunctions of thyroid has also been demonstrated through tracking the localized non-uniform thermal distribution or enhanced dynamic imaging. The temperature features over the skin surface and thyroid domain have been characterized using the numerical simulation and experimental measurement which will help better interpret the thermal physiological mechanisms of the thyroid under steady-state or water-cooling condition. Further, parametric simulations on the hypermetabolism symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thermal effects within thyroid domain caused by varying breathing airflow in the trachea and blood-flow in artery and vein were performed. It was disclosed that among all the parameters, the airflow volume has the largest effect on the total heat flux of thyroid surface. However, thermal contributions caused by varying the breathing frequency and blood-flow velocity are negligibly small. The present study suggests a generalized way for simulating the close to reality physiological behavior or process of human thyroid, which is of significance for disease diagnosis and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Heat exchange between human body and environment (theoretical bases of physiological measurement and evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Pezzagno, G

    1999-01-01

    In the first part of this report the theory of the heat exchange between human body and external environment is developed. In particular, the problems concerning energy expenditure and heat production [metabolic heat] during physical activity, the heat exchange between internal organs and body surface, and its elimination are considered. Proposal of heat exchange equations (in case of conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation transport) are made, and the involved parameters and constants are indicated. Some pages are devoted to heat exchange through the lung and to "perspiratio insensibilis". In the second part the problems concerning the wellbeing and the thermal discomfort are discussed. A description of some widely employed indices of thermal stress, strain and comfort concludes the report [P4SR index, HSI index, ITS index, TTL index, HR index, WBGT index, TE indices]. In the end, the Fanger equations of thermal comfort are presented and discussed.

  17. Mind and body: concepts of human cognition, physiology and false belief in children with autism or typical development.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Candida C

    2005-08-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(4), 579-600], most children with autism correctly understood the functions of the brain (84%) and the mind (64%). Their explanations were predominantly mentalistic. They outperformed typically developing preschoolers in understanding inner physiological (heart, lungs) and cognitive (brain, mind) systems, and scored as high as age-matched typical children. Yet, in line with much previous ToM research, most children with autism (60%) failed false belief, and their ToM performance was unrelated to their understanding of. human biology. Results were discussed in relation to neurobiological and social-experiential accounts of the ToM deficit in autism.

  18. [Design of the data recorder outside body based on FAT file system in a noninvasive measuring system for human GI physiological signals].

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwei; Yan, Guozheng; Huang, Biao; Wang, Wenxing

    2009-02-01

    A noninvasive measuring system for human GI physiological signals has been designed, and human GI physiological realtime parameters are acquired in the normal physiological state of human. In this paper is mainly discussed the design of "In-vitro data recorder" of a noninvasive measuring system for human GI physiological signals. By experiments, the portable "In-vitro data recorder" works normally and reliably; it can meet the needs of clinical application.

  19. Melatonin: Physiological effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Claustrat, B; Leston, J

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized and secreted principally by the pineal gland at night under normal light/dark conditions. The endogenous rhythm of secretion is generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei and entrained to the light/dark cycle. Light is able to either suppress or synchronize melatonin production according to the light schedule. The nycthohemeral rhythm of this hormone can be evaluated by repeated measurement of plasma or saliva melatonin or urine sulfatoxymelatonin, the main hepatic metabolite. The primary physiological function of melatonin, whose secretion adjusts to night length, is to convey information concerning the daily cycle of light and darkness to body structures. This information is used for the organisation of functions, which respond to changes in the photoperiod such as the seasonal rhythms. Seasonal rhythmicity of physiological functions in humans related to possible alteration of the melatonin message remains, however, of limited evidence in temperate areas under field conditions. Also, the daily melatonin secretion, which is a very robust biochemical signal of night, can be used for the organisation of circadian rhythms. Although functions of this hormone in humans are mainly based on correlations between clinical observations and melatonin secretion, there is some evidence that melatonin stabilises and strengthens coupling of circadian rhythms, especially of core temperature and sleep-wake rhythms. The circadian organisation of other physiological functions depend also on the melatonin signal, for instance immune, antioxidant defences, haemostasis and glucose regulation. The difference between physiological and pharmacological effects of melatonin is not always clear but is based upon consideration of dose and not of duration of the hormone message. It is admitted that a "physiological" dose provides plasma melatonin levels in the same order of magnitude as a nocturnal peak. Since the regulating system of melatonin secretion

  20. Body work in respiratory physiological examinations.

    PubMed

    Måseide, Per

    2011-02-01

    This article focuses on respiratory physiological examinations conducted in the respiratory physiological lab of a Norwegian hospital ward. The examinations were aimed at producing exact and objective measures of patients' respiratory functions or capacities. The quality of the examinations depended on correct use of technology and adequate body work by professionals and patients. The concept of 'body work' has several meanings. The professionals' body work was not direct hands-on work. Their contact with the patient was communicative and informed or guided by technical devices. Although the patient's objective body constituted the focus of examination, it necessitated an active and compliant patient. The concrete outcome of the examination was a textual artefact that in the examination situation counted as the accurate and objective representation of the patient's respiratory physiological status. These examinations represented a mutually constitutive process between various agents, bodies and bodily modes required for and aimed at by the examination; different articulations of body work were essential for these processes. The objective of the article is to examine the kinds of body work that are conducted, paying particular attention to the conceptions of bodies that are practically generated during these examinations.

  1. Corrosion Behaviour of Nitrogen-Implantation Ti-Ta-Nb Alloy in Physiological Solutions Simulating Real Conditions from Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Silviu Iulian; Vasilescu, Cora; Drob, Paula; Vasilescu, Ecaterina; Gordin, Doina Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    We applied a new nitrogen-implantation technique (trademark Hardion+) using a source of nitrogen ions, electron cyclotron resonance that assures higher energy and deeper implantation than the conventional techniques. The N-implantation surface of the new Ti-25Ta-25Nb alloy was analyzed as follows: for the phase identification by x-ray diffraction (XRD) in a glancing geometry (1°); for the hardness by the nano-indentation method; for the corrosion behaviour in Ringer solutions of different pH values (simulating the real conditions from the human body) by cyclic and linear polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the monitoring of the open circuit potentials and corresponding potential gradients. XRD pattern was indexed with face-centred cubic TiN compound partially substituted with TaN and NbN. The hardness increased about 2 times for the N-implantation alloy. The implantation layer had a protection effect, increasing the corrosion and passivation potentials and decreasing the tendency to passivation and passive current density, due to its compactness, reinforcement action. The corrosion current density and rate decreased by about 10 times and the polarization resistance increased by about 2 times, indicative of a more resistant nitride layer. The porosity was much reduced and the protection efficiency had values closed to 90%, namely the implantation treatment led to the formation of a dense, resistant layer. Impedance spectra showed that the capacitive behaviour of the N-implantation alloy was more insulating and protective. An electric equivalent circuit with two times constants was modelled.

  2. [Hormonal regulation of metabolism in the human body in microgravity and during simulation of its physiological effects].

    PubMed

    Larina, I M

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigations into the effects of space flight and simulation experiments of various length on the hormonal regulation of metabolism in the human body. Microgravity was shown to instigate shifts on different levels of the hormonal regulation and consequent adjustment of metabolism to this new environment. For instance, adaptation occurs on the level of basal secretory activity resulting in altered metabolism and formation of a pool of hormones. Metabolism readaptation to the Earth's gravity is dependent on polymorphic processes in the system of hormonal regulation developing in the course of time. Trends in the hormonal regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism during early adaptation point to inequality of contributions of the antidiuretic hormone, natriuretic peptide, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In the ground-based simulations responses of the hormonal regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism differ in intensity and types of hormones involved. Temperature variation can modify reactions of the comosis and volume regulating hormones at the beginning of adaptation. Physical-chemical regulation of calcium homeostasis in microgravity reveals itself by a rapid decline of the calcium-binding ability of blood buffers and, later on, degradation of the relative ability of extraplasmic structures to bind calcium. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the diurnal rhythm of the suprarenal steroidogenesis are indicative of modification of intensity of reactions of the main biosynthetic sequences. Countermeasures used by test-subjects in these investigations loosened significantly the aldosterone-secreting biosynthetic sequences but were favorable to the synthesis of testosterone and hydrocortisone. Some of the highly variable processes of hormonal regulation were mute to the diurnal rhythms in the pre-flight and preexperimental periods.

  3. Assessing prebaccalaureate human physiology courses.

    PubMed

    McCleary, V L

    1998-12-01

    Two surveys were conducted between 1994 and 1996. The purpose of the initial survey was to obtain demographic information about prebaccaulareate human physiology courses. Of the 117 responding physiology departments, 50% offered human physiology at the prebaccalaureate level to 14,185 students during the 1994-1995 academic year. The mean was 245 students per year (+/- 30 SE). Class size was limited by 44% of the respondents. Prebaccaluareate human physiology was offered as a separate course from anatomy by 93% of the departments. Sixty-one percent scheduled the course once a year. The purpose of the second survey was to determine how physiology departments evaluated prebaccalaureate physiology courses and faculty. All responding departments utilized student feedback; 38% of the departments included physiology chair review, 38% peer review, and 9% allied health faculty review. Twenty-eight percent of allied health programs evaluated the course. Results indicated that, whereas a significant number of undergraduate students are enrolled in prebaccaluareate physiology courses annually, those courses appear to lack formal, consistent formative evaluation.

  4. Mind and Body: Concepts of Human Cognition, Physiology and False Belief in Children with Autism or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 19(4),…

  5. Mind and Body: Concepts of Human Cognition, Physiology and False Belief in Children with Autism or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 19(4),…

  6. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  7. Integrating muscle cell biochemistry and whole-body physiology in humans:31P-MRS data from the InSight trial

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lindsay M.; Kemp, Graham J.; Dwyer, Renee M.; Walls, Justin T.; Fuller, Huddy; Smith, Steven R.; Earnest, Conrad P.

    2013-01-01

    We acquired 31P-MRS data from skeletal muscle of subjects of mixed gender and ethnicity, combined with a panel of physiological characteristics, and tested several long-standing hypotheses regarding relationships between muscle cell biochemistry and whole-body physiology with unusually high statistical power. We hypothesized that i) whole-body VO2max would correlate with muscle respiratory capacity, ii) resting muscle phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) would negatively correlate with delta efficiency and iii) muscle mitochondrial function would positively correlate with both resting VO2 and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Muscle respiratory capacity explained a quarter of the variation in VO2max (r2 = 26, p < .001, n = 87). There was an inverse correlation between muscle [PCr] and delta efficiency (r = −23, p = 046, n = 87). There was also a correlation between [PCr] recovery halftime and TDEE (r = −23, p = 035, n = 87). Our data not only provide insights into muscle cell chemistry and whole-body physiology but our mixed cohort means that our findings are broadly generalizable. PMID:23378914

  8. Physiologic regulation of body energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Both new and published data (rats, mice, and human beings) on three parameters - fat mass, fat-free body mass (FFBM), and total body mass in some cases - are evaluated. Steady state values of the parameters are analyzed for changes in response to specific perturbing agents and for their frequency distributions. Temporal sequences of values on individuals are examined for evidence of regulatory responses. The results lead to the hypothesis that the FFBM is regulated, but probably not as a unit, and that mass of fat is regulated with a high priority near the range extremes but with a much lower priority in the mid-range. Properties and advantages of such a mechanism are discussed.

  9. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  10. Magnetic human body communication.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques.

  11. Genetic strategies to understand physiological pathways regulating body weight.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Sadaf

    2014-10-01

    Body weight is a highly heritable trait across species. In humans, genetic variation plays a major role in determining the inter-individual differences in susceptibility or resistance to environmental factors which influence energy intake and expenditure. In this review, I discuss how genetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the central pathways that govern energy homeostasis. The study of individuals harboring highly penetrant genetic variants that disrupt the leptin-melanocortin pathway has informed our understanding of the physiological pathways involved in mammalian energy homeostasis.

  12. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  13. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  14. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  15. The human hair: from anatomy to physiology.

    PubMed

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio; Labanca, Mauro; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Trink, Anna; Guanziroli, Elena; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F

    2014-03-01

    Hair is a unique character of mammals and has several functions, from protection of the skin to sexual and social communication. In literature, there are various studies about hair that take into consideration different aspects within many fields of science, including biology, dermatology, cosmetics, forensic sciences, and medicine. We carried out a search of studies published in PubMed up to 2013. In this review, we summarized the principal anatomical and physiological aspects of the different types of human hair, and we considered the clinical significance of the different structures and the distribution of the hair in the human body. This review could be the basis for improvement and progression in the field of hair research. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    PubMed

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio.

  17. Gravitational Effects on Human Physiology.

    PubMed

    Atomi, Yoriko

    2015-01-01

    Physical working capacity decreases with age and also in microgravity. Regardless of age, increased physical activity can always improve the physical adaptability of the body, although the mechanisms of this adaptability are unknown. Physical exercise produces various mechanical stimuli in the body, and these stimuli may be essential for cell survival in organisms. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintaining cell shape and tension development, and in various molecular and/or cellular organelles involved in cellular trafficking. Both intra and extracellular stimuli send signals through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus and modulate gene expression via an intrinsic property, namely the "dynamic instability" of cytoskeletal proteins. αB-crystallin is an important chaperone for cytoskeletal proteins in muscle cells. Decreases in the levels of αB-crystallin are specifically associated with a marked decrease in muscle mass (atrophy) in a rat hindlimb suspension model that mimics muscle and bone atrophy that occurs in space and increases with passive stretch. Moreover, immunofluorescence data show complete co-localization of αB-crystallin and the tubulin/microtubule system in myoblast cells. This association was further confirmed in biochemical experiments carried out in vitro showing that αB-crystallin acts as a chaperone for heat-denatured tubulin and prevents microtubule disassembly induced by calcium. Physical activity induces the constitutive expression of αB-crystallin, which helps to maintain the homeostasis of cytoskeleton dynamics in response to gravitational forces. This relationship between chaperone expression levels and regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics observed in slow anti-gravitational muscles as well as in mammalian striated muscles, such as those in the heart, diaphragm and tongue, may have been especially essential for human evolution in particular. Elucidation of the intrinsic properties of the tubulin/microtubule and chaperone

  18. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  19. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  20. A dynamic model of human physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Melissa; Kaplan, Carolyn; Oran, Elaine; Boris, Jay

    2010-11-01

    To study the systems-level transport in the human body, we develop the Computational Man (CMAN): a set of one-dimensional unsteady elastic flow simulations created to model a variety of coupled physiological systems including the circulatory, respiratory, excretory, and lymphatic systems. The model systems are collapsed from three spatial dimensions and time to one spatial dimension and time by assuming axisymmetric vessel geometry and a parabolic velocity profile across the cylindrical vessels. To model the actions of a beating heart or expanding lungs, the flow is driven by user-defined changes to the equilibrium areas of the elastic vessels. The equations are then iteratively solved for pressure, area, and average velocity. The model is augmented with valves and contractions to resemble the biological structure of the different systems. CMAN will be used to track material transport throughout the human body for diagnostic and predictive purposes. Parameters will be adjustable to match those of individual patients. Validation of CMAN has used both higher-dimensional simulations of similar geometries and benchmark measurement from medical literature.

  1. Cosmic Rays Variations and Human Physiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2009-12-01

    It was obtained in our previous investigations that geomagnetic activity as an indirect indicator of solar activity correlates with some human physiological and psycho-physiological parameters. A lot of studies indicate that other parameters of space weather like cosmic rays Forbush decreases affect myocardial infarction, brain stroke, car accidents, etc. The purpose of that work was to study the effect of cosmic rays variations on human physiological status. It was established that the decrease in cosmic rays intensity was related to an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints in healthy volunteers.

  2. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens.

  3. HUMAN--A Comprehensive Physiological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Thomas G.; Randall, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes computer program (HUMAN) used to simulate physiological experiments on patient pathology. Program (available from authors, including versions for microcomputers) consists of dynamic interactions of over 150 physiological variables and integrating approximations of cardiovascular, renal, lung, temperature regulation, and some hormone…

  4. HUMAN--A Comprehensive Physiological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Thomas G.; Randall, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes computer program (HUMAN) used to simulate physiological experiments on patient pathology. Program (available from authors, including versions for microcomputers) consists of dynamic interactions of over 150 physiological variables and integrating approximations of cardiovascular, renal, lung, temperature regulation, and some hormone…

  5. Human Physiology and the Environment in Health and Disease: Readings from Scientific American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This anthology of articles is designed to supplement standard texts for courses in human physiology, environmental physiology, anatomy and physiology, pathobiology, general biology, and environmental medicine. It focuses on the influences of the external environment on the body, the physiological responses to environmental challenges, and the ways…

  6. Human Physiology and the Environment in Health and Disease: Readings from Scientific American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This anthology of articles is designed to supplement standard texts for courses in human physiology, environmental physiology, anatomy and physiology, pathobiology, general biology, and environmental medicine. It focuses on the influences of the external environment on the body, the physiological responses to environmental challenges, and the ways…

  7. [Immune response genes products in human physiology].

    PubMed

    Khaitov, R M; Alekseev, L P

    2012-09-01

    Current data on physiological role of human immune response genes' proteomic products (antigens) are discussed. The antigens are specified by a very high level of diversity that mediates a wide specter ofphysiological functions. They actually provide integrity and biological stability of human as species. These data reveal new ideas on many pathological processes as well as drafts new approaches for prophylaxis and treatment.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Whole Body, Tissue and Cellular Physiology in a Mouse Model of Fibrosing NASH with High Fidelity to the Human Condition.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anuradha; Abdullah, Tasduq Sheikh; Mounajjed, Taofic; Hartono, Stella P; McConico, Andrea; White, Thomas A; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Lanza, Ian R; Nair, Sreekumaran; Gores, Gregory J; Charlton, Michael

    2017-02-23

    The sequence of events that lead to inflammation and fibrosing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are incompletely understood. We investigated the chronology of whole body, tissue and cellular events that occur during the evolution of diet-induced NASH.

  9. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  10. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  11. True Believers? Religion, Physiology, and Perceived Body Weight in Texas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Andrea L; Acevedo, Gabriel A

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines relationships between body weight, religion, and gender while controlling for relevant covariates and body mass index (BMI), a measure of physical/biological body type. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Texas Adults (n = 1,504), we present results of ordered logistic regression models which indicate that religious factors work distinctly for men and women when controlling for BMI. While church attendance is associated with lower odds of overweight perceptions among women, it is religious salience that is associated with lower odds of self-reported excess weight in men. Implications for research which associates religious and physiological factors are discussed.

  12. Physiology--how the body detects pain stimuli.

    PubMed

    Swift, Amelia

    Pain is the body's way of telling us something is wrong. It has a sensory and emotional component. This three-part series focuses on acute pain, describing the physiology of a normal and well-behaved pain pathway and how this relates to commonly used pain-management strategies. This first article introduces the pain system and how the body detects a threatening (noxious) stimulus. Part two describes how that pain message is transmitted to the spinal cord and the brain, and the response of the brain to the stimulus. The third article discusses the assessment of pain.

  13. Effects of gender and body adiposity on physiological responses to physical work while wearing body armor.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Richard; Deuster, Patricia A; Talbot, Laura A

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of gender and body adiposity on physiological responses to the stress of wearing body armor. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 37 military personnel volunteered to undergo two experimental conditions, with body armor and without body armor. Female and male subjects with body armor, compared to those without body armor, had no significant differences in percentage increases in aerobic capacity, heart rate, or respiratory rate while walking at slow or moderate pace. However, women, as compared to men, had a significantly increased difference in the rating of perceived physical exertion between wearing and not wearing body armor at a slow pace. Fourteen subjects were not able to complete treadmill testing while wearing body armor because of volitional fatigue and/or limiting dyspnea. Body fat was the best single predictor of treadmill test completion.

  14. Biophoton emission of human body.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Popp, F A

    2003-05-01

    For the first time systematic measurements of the "ultraweak" photon emission of the human body (biophotons) have been performed by means of a photon detector device set up in darkness. About 200 persons have been investigated. In a particular case one person has been examined daily over several months. It turned out that this biophoton emission reflects, (i) the left-right symmetry of the human body; (ii) biological rhythms such as 14 days, 1 month, 3 months and 9 months; (iii) disease in terms of broken symmetry between left and right side; and (iv) light channels in the body, which regulate energy and information transfer between different parts. The results show that besides a deeper understanding of health, disease and body field, this method provides a new powerful tool of non-invasive medical diagnosis in terms of basic regulatory functions of the body.

  15. Phages in the Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference. PMID:28421059

  16. Phages in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference.

  17. Impact of human emotions on physiological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.

    2014-05-01

    Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.

  18. Predictors of success in undergraduate human physiology.

    PubMed

    McCleary, V L; Aasen, G; Slotnick, H B

    1999-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurable attributes in students' backgrounds are related to their successful completion of an undergraduate human physiology course. Demographic, general academic performance, and science achievement data were obtained from student records for students enrolled during the 1995-1996 academic year, and additional demographic data were obtained from students enrolled during the 1996-1998 academic years. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis explored the relationship fo these variables to the percentage of students passing the human physiology course. Predicted passing versus failing showed a sensitivity of 85.5% and specificity of 69.7%. Two independent validations of the logistical regression equation correctly predicted the performance of subsequent groups of students 75.9% and 77.6% of the time.

  19. Integrated Modeling Framework for Anthropometry and Physiology Virtual Body

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    crash dummies (HYBRID III and THOR) databases, generation of geometrical models for and a state of the art instrumented thorax for blast simulations...graphics. Early humans were represented as simple performance, de-mining, ballistic protection, and other articulated bodies made of segments and...cfdrc.com 2. ATB 1998, Articulated Total Body Model Version V Website: www.cfdrc.com Users Manual: Phone: 256-726-4857 Fax: 256-726-4806 8

  20. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-02-17

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. A long term model of circulation. [human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative approach to modeling human physiological function, with a view toward ultimate application to long duration space flight experiments, was undertaken. Data was obtained on the effect of weightlessness on certain aspects of human physiological function during 1-3 month periods. Modifications in the Guyton model are reviewed. Design considerations for bilateral interface models are discussed. Construction of a functioning whole body model was studied, as well as the testing of the model versus available data.

  2. Variability in human body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  3. Variability in human body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  4. [Wireless human body communication technology].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2014-12-01

    The Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a key part of the wearable monitoring technologies, which has many communication technologies to choose from, like Bluetooth, ZigBee, Ultra Wideband, and Wireless Human Body Communication (WHBC). As for the WHBC developed in recent years, it is worthy to be further studied. The WHBC has a strong momentum of growth and a natural advantage in the formation of WBAN. In this paper, we first briefly describe the technical background of WHBC, then introduce theoretical model of human-channel communication and digital transmission machine based on human channel. And finally we analyze various of the interference of the WHBC and show the AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping) technology which can effectively deal with the interference.

  5. What determines human body odour?

    PubMed

    Hamada, Kaoru; Haruyama, Sanehito; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kayo; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-05-01

    Human body odour and earwax type are genetically dependent on a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the ABCC11 gene. So far, it still remains to be clear how SNP in the ABCC11 gene is associated with human malodour. In a recent issue of Experimental Dermatology, Baumann et al. propose one of the underlying molecular pathways. Although one of the amino acid conjugated of the odorants, Cys-Gly-3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexanol (3M3SH), was not taken up by the transporter ABCC11, glutathione conjugate of 3MSH (SG-3MSH) was transported by ABCC11. Moreover, SG-3MSH was processed to 3M3SH by γ-glutamyl-transferase 1 (GGT1), which was abundantly expressed in apocrine sweat glands. These findings may pave a way for the pharmacogenetics of human body odour and the development of innovative deodorant products.

  6. Human body may produce bacteria.

    PubMed

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The human physiological impact of global deoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel; McKenna, Helen; Livina, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    There has been a clear decline in the volume of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere over the past 20 years. Although the magnitude of this decrease appears small compared to the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, it is difficult to predict how this process may evolve, due to the brevity of the collected records. A recently proposed model predicts a non-linear decay, which would result in an increasingly rapid fall-off in atmospheric oxygen concentration, with potentially devastating consequences for human health. We discuss the impact that global deoxygenation, over hundreds of generations, might have on human physiology. Exploring the changes between different native high-altitude populations provides a paradigm of how humans might tolerate worsening hypoxia over time. Using this model of atmospheric change, we predict that humans may continue to survive in an unprotected atmosphere for ~3600 years. Accordingly, without dramatic changes to the way in which we interact with our planet, humans may lose their dominance on Earth during the next few millennia.

  8. Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Magkos, Faidon; Brinkoetter, Mary; Sienkiewicz, Elizabeth; Dardeno, Tina A.; Kim, Sang-Yong; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R.; Koniaris, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Leptin, discovered through positional cloning 15 years ago, is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with pleiotropic effects in the physiology and pathophysiology of energy homeostasis, endocrinology, and metabolism. Studies in vitro and in animal models highlight the potential for leptin to regulate a number of physiological functions. Available evidence from human studies indicates that leptin has a mainly permissive role, with leptin administration being effective in states of leptin deficiency, less effective in states of leptin adequacy, and largely ineffective in states of leptin excess. Results from interventional studies in humans demonstrate that leptin administration in subjects with congenital complete leptin deficiency or subjects with partial leptin deficiency (subjects with lipoatrophy, congenital or related to HIV infection, and women with hypothalamic amenorrhea) reverses the energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. More specifically, in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, leptin helps restore abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axes including the gonadal, thyroid, growth hormone, and to a lesser extent adrenal axes. Furthermore, leptin results in resumption of menses in the majority of these subjects and, in the long term, may increase bone mineral content and density, especially at the lumbar spine. In patients with congenital or HIV-related lipoatrophy, leptin treatment is also associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, concomitant with reduced visceral and ectopic fat deposition. In contrast, leptin's effects are largely absent in the obese hyperleptinemic state, probably due to leptin resistance or tolerance. Hence, another emerging area of research pertains to the discovery and/or usefulness of leptin sensitizers. Results from ongoing studies are expected to further increase our understanding of the role of leptin and the potential clinical

  9. Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Mantzoros, Christos S; Magkos, Faidon; Brinkoetter, Mary; Sienkiewicz, Elizabeth; Dardeno, Tina A; Kim, Sang-Yong; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R; Koniaris, Anastasia

    2011-10-01

    Leptin, discovered through positional cloning 15 years ago, is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with pleiotropic effects in the physiology and pathophysiology of energy homeostasis, endocrinology, and metabolism. Studies in vitro and in animal models highlight the potential for leptin to regulate a number of physiological functions. Available evidence from human studies indicates that leptin has a mainly permissive role, with leptin administration being effective in states of leptin deficiency, less effective in states of leptin adequacy, and largely ineffective in states of leptin excess. Results from interventional studies in humans demonstrate that leptin administration in subjects with congenital complete leptin deficiency or subjects with partial leptin deficiency (subjects with lipoatrophy, congenital or related to HIV infection, and women with hypothalamic amenorrhea) reverses the energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. More specifically, in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, leptin helps restore abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axes including the gonadal, thyroid, growth hormone, and to a lesser extent adrenal axes. Furthermore, leptin results in resumption of menses in the majority of these subjects and, in the long term, may increase bone mineral content and density, especially at the lumbar spine. In patients with congenital or HIV-related lipoatrophy, leptin treatment is also associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, concomitant with reduced visceral and ectopic fat deposition. In contrast, leptin's effects are largely absent in the obese hyperleptinemic state, probably due to leptin resistance or tolerance. Hence, another emerging area of research pertains to the discovery and/or usefulness of leptin sensitizers. Results from ongoing studies are expected to further increase our understanding of the role of leptin and the potential clinical

  10. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  11. [Physiological features of skin ageing in human].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, I V; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K

    2013-01-01

    The issue deals with the actual problem of gerontology, notably physiological features of human skin ageing. In the present review the authors have considered the kinds of ageing, central factors, affected on the ageing process (ultraviolet radiation and oxidation stress), as well as the research guidelines of the ageing changes in the skin structure and fuctions: study of mechanical properties, microcirculation, pH and skin thickness. The special attention has been payed to the methods of assessment of skin blood flow, and to results of investigations of age features of peripheral microhemodynamics. The laser Doppler flowmetry technique - one of the modern, noninvasive and extensively used methods for the assessmant of skin blood flow microcirculation system has been expanded in the review. The main results of the study of the ageing changes of skin blood perfusion using this method has been also presented.

  12. The role of leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Janeckova, R

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on current knowledge of leptin biology and the role of leptin in various physiological and pathophysiological states. Leptin is involved in the regulation of body weight. Serum leptin can probably be considered as one of the best biological markers reflecting total body fat in both animals and humans. Obesity in man is accompanied by increased circulating leptin concentrations. Gender differences clearly exist. Leptin is not only correlated to a series of endocrine parameters such as insulin, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones, testosterone, but it also seems to be involved in mediating some endocrine mechanisms (onset of puberty, insulin secretion) and diseases (obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome). It has also been suggested that leptin can act as a growth factor in the fetus and the neonate.

  13. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    ScienceCinema

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2016-07-12

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  14. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2014-09-29

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  15. Leptin in Human Physiology and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Dardeno, Tina A.; Chou, Sharon H.; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Chamberland, John P.; Fiorenza, Christina G.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2010-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and reproductive, neuroendocrine, immune, and metabolic functions. In this review, we describe the role of leptin in human physiology and review evidence from recent “proof of concept” clinical trials using recombinant human leptin in subjects with congenital leptin deficiency, hypoleptinemia associated with energy-deficient states, and hyperleptinemia associated with garden-variety obesity. Since most obese individuals are largely leptin-tolerant or -resistant, therapeutic uses of leptin are currently limited to patients with complete or partial leptin deficiency, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. Leptin administration in these energy-deficient states may help restore associated neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune function and bone metabolism. Leptin treatment is currently available for individuals with congenital leptin deficiency and congenital lipoatrophy. The long-term efficacy and safety of leptin treatment in hypothalamic amenorrhea and acquired lipoatrophy are currently under investigation. Whether combination therapy with leptin and potential leptin sensitizers will prove effective in the treatment of garden-variety obesity and whether leptin may have a role in weight loss maintenance is being greatly anticipated. PMID:20600241

  16. Leptin in human physiology and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dardeno, Tina A; Chou, Sharon H; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Chamberland, John P; Fiorenza, Christina G; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2010-07-01

    Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and reproductive, neuroendocrine, immune, and metabolic functions. In this review, we describe the role of leptin in human physiology and review evidence from recent "proof of concept" clinical trials using recombinant human leptin in subjects with congenital leptin deficiency, hypoleptinemia associated with energy-deficient states, and hyperleptinemia associated with garden-variety obesity. Since most obese individuals are largely leptin-tolerant or -resistant, therapeutic uses of leptin are currently limited to patients with complete or partial leptin deficiency, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. Leptin administration in these energy-deficient states may help restore associated neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune function and bone metabolism. Leptin treatment is currently available for individuals with congenital leptin deficiency and congenital lipoatrophy. The long-term efficacy and safety of leptin treatment in hypothalamic amenorrhea and acquired lipoatrophy are currently under investigation. Whether combination therapy with leptin and potential leptin sensitizers will prove effective in the treatment of garden-variety obesity and whether leptin may have a role in weight loss maintenance is being greatly anticipated.

  17. Human males and females body thermoregulation: perfusion effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Saraswati; Gurung, D B; Saxena, V P

    2014-10-01

    Skin temperature is a common physiological parameter that reflects thermal responses. Blood perfusion is an important part of the physiological processes that the human body undergoes in order to maintain homeostasis. This study focuses on the effect of perfusion on the temperature distribution in human males and females body in different thermal environment. The study has been carried out for one dimensional steady cases using finite element method. The input parameter of the model is the blood perfusion or volumetric flow rate within the tissue. The appropriate physical and physiological parameters together with suitable boundary conditions that affect the heat regulations have been incorporated in the model. The study is to have a better understanding that how does thermoregulation change in human males and females skin layered due to perfusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological basis for human autonomic rhythms.

    PubMed

    Eckberg, D L

    2000-07-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressures, heart periods, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity have been studied intensively in recent years to explore otherwise obscure human neurophysiological mechanisms. The best-studied rhythms are those occurring at breathing frequencies. Published evidence indicates that respiratory fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and electrocardiographic R-R intervals result primarily from the action of a central 'gate' that opens during expiration and closes during inspiration. Parallel respiratory fluctuations of arterial pressures and R-R intervals are thought to be secondary to arterial baroreflex physiology: changes in systolic pressure provoke changes in the R-R interval. However, growing evidence suggests that these parallel oscillations result from the influence of respiration on sympathetic and vagal-cardiac motoneurones rather than from baroreflex physiology. There is a rapidly growing literature on the use of mathematical models of low- and high-frequency (respiratory) R-R interval fluctuations in characterizing instantaneous 'sympathovagal balance'. The case for this approach is based primarily on measurements made with patients in upright tilt. However, the strong linear relation between such measures as the ratio of low- to high-frequency R-R interval oscillations and the angle of the tilt reflects exclusively the reductions of the vagal (high-frequency) component. As the sympathetic component does not change in tilt, the low- to high-frequency R-R interval ratio provides no proof that sympathetic activity increases. Moreover, the validity of extrapolating from measurements performed during upright tilt to measurements during supine rest has not been established. Nonetheless, it is clear that measures of heart rate variability provide important prognostic information in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is not known whether reduced heart rate variability is merely a marker for the severity of disease or a

  19. Simulating human space physiology with bed rest.

    PubMed

    Jost, P D

    2008-08-01

    In a recent review on bed rest studies of the past 20 years, it was concluded that head-down bed rest has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for most physiological effects of spaceflight. Much of this research has been conducted to find countermeasures against the negative effects, which are associated with gravitational unloading. There have been partial successes in the prevention of, for example muscle wasting, cardio-vascular deconditioning, adverse metabolic changes, and bone demineralization. Reviews refer to bone-related measurements of the U.S. and Russian space programmes, as well as data from bed rest analogues, and conclude that in spite of the wealth of knowledge obtained thus far, many questions remain regarding bone loss, bone recovery, and the factors affecting these skeletal processes. Bed rest research has also direct relevance for medical science on Earth. Valuable data on physiology and early reversible pathological changes that are associated with a sedentary lifestyle on Earth can be obtained. A good example is the conclusion from a metabolic protocol implemented during the 2001/2002 90-day ESA/CNES/NASDA male bed rest study. The results of that experiment on fatty acid oxidation suggest that Mediterranean diets should be recommended in recumbent patients. Some other unexpected results obtained during the ESA/NASA/CNES/CSA 60-day female bed rest study WISE-2005 may well prompt the development of a treatment for certain cardiac diseases. A nutritional supplement that was designed to alleviate skeletal muscle atrophy turned out to preserve cardiac muscle mass. In order to optimise bed rest research, a systematic and standardised approach will be beneficial. During the last years, serious efforts have been made towards such standardisation on an international level. It is expected that results from future studies, combined with in-flight validation, will provide the answers to many biomedical problems that currently limit safe

  20. Physiological basis for human autonomic rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressures, heart periods, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity have been studied intensively in recent years to explore otherwise obscure human neurophysiological mechanisms. The best-studied rhythms are those occurring at breathing frequencies. Published evidence indicates that respiratory fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and electrocardiographic R-R intervals result primarily from the action of a central 'gate' that opens during expiration and closes during inspiration. Parallel respiratory fluctuations of arterial pressures and R-R intervals are thought to be secondary to arterial baroreflex physiology: changes in systolic pressure provoke changes in the R-R interval. However, growing evidence suggests that these parallel oscillations result from the influence of respiration on sympathetic and vagal-cardiac motoneurones rather than from baroreflex physiology. There is a rapidly growing literature on the use of mathematical models of low- and high-frequency (respiratory) R-R interval fluctuations in characterizing instantaneous 'sympathovagal balance'. The case for this approach is based primarily on measurements made with patients in upright tilt. However, the strong linear relation between such measures as the ratio of low- to high-frequency R-R interval oscillations and the angle of the tilt reflects exclusively the reductions of the vagal (high-frequency) component. As the sympathetic component does not change in tilt, the low- to high-frequency R-R interval ratio provides no proof that sympathetic activity increases. Moreover, the validity of extrapolating from measurements performed during upright tilt to measurements during supine rest has not been established. Nonetheless, it is clear that measures of heart rate variability provide important prognostic information in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is not known whether reduced heart rate variability is merely a marker for the severity of disease or a

  1. Physiological basis for human autonomic rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressures, heart periods, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity have been studied intensively in recent years to explore otherwise obscure human neurophysiological mechanisms. The best-studied rhythms are those occurring at breathing frequencies. Published evidence indicates that respiratory fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and electrocardiographic R-R intervals result primarily from the action of a central 'gate' that opens during expiration and closes during inspiration. Parallel respiratory fluctuations of arterial pressures and R-R intervals are thought to be secondary to arterial baroreflex physiology: changes in systolic pressure provoke changes in the R-R interval. However, growing evidence suggests that these parallel oscillations result from the influence of respiration on sympathetic and vagal-cardiac motoneurones rather than from baroreflex physiology. There is a rapidly growing literature on the use of mathematical models of low- and high-frequency (respiratory) R-R interval fluctuations in characterizing instantaneous 'sympathovagal balance'. The case for this approach is based primarily on measurements made with patients in upright tilt. However, the strong linear relation between such measures as the ratio of low- to high-frequency R-R interval oscillations and the angle of the tilt reflects exclusively the reductions of the vagal (high-frequency) component. As the sympathetic component does not change in tilt, the low- to high-frequency R-R interval ratio provides no proof that sympathetic activity increases. Moreover, the validity of extrapolating from measurements performed during upright tilt to measurements during supine rest has not been established. Nonetheless, it is clear that measures of heart rate variability provide important prognostic information in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is not known whether reduced heart rate variability is merely a marker for the severity of disease or a

  2. Evolutionary Medicine: The Ongoing Evolution of Human Physiology and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rühli, Frank; van Schaik, Katherine; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-11-01

    The field of evolutionary medicine uses evolutionary principles to understand changes in human anatomy and physiology that have occurred over time in response to environmental changes. Through this evolutionary-based approach, we can understand disease as a consequence of anatomical and physiological "trade-offs" that develop to facilitate survival and reproduction. We demonstrate how diachronic study of human anatomy and physiology is fundamental for an increased understanding of human health and disease.

  3. Space Cabin Landing Impact Vector Effects on Human Physiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-12-01

    December 1964 Journal Article 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Space Cabin Landing Impact Vector Effects on Human Physiology 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Landing Impact Vector Effects on Human Physiology COLONEL JOHN P. STAPP, USAF, MC, and MAJOR ELLIS R. TAYLOR, USAF, MC ABSTRACT stimulation of carotid...LANDING IMPACT VECTOR EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY -STAPP AND TAYLOR tion and pallor occurred on exposure to more than 30 facing seated and bottom

  4. The Virtual Physiological Human ToolKit.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cervenansky, Frederic; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Fenner, John; Friboulet, Denis; Giorgino, Toni; Manos, Steven; Martelli, Yves; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Zasada, Stefan; Lloyd, Sharon; McCormack, Keith; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-08-28

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is a major European e-Science initiative intended to support the development of patient-specific computer models and their application in personalized and predictive healthcare. The VPH Network of Excellence (VPH-NoE) project is tasked with facilitating interaction between the various VPH projects and addressing issues of common concern. A key deliverable is the 'VPH ToolKit'--a collection of tools, methodologies and services to support and enable VPH research, integrating and extending existing work across Europe towards greater interoperability and sustainability. Owing to the diverse nature of the field, a single monolithic 'toolkit' is incapable of addressing the needs of the VPH. Rather, the VPH ToolKit should be considered more as a 'toolbox' of relevant technologies, interacting around a common set of standards. The latter apply to the information used by tools, including any data and the VPH models themselves, and also to the naming and categorizing of entities and concepts involved. Furthermore, the technologies and methodologies available need to be widely disseminated, and relevant tools and services easily found by researchers. The VPH-NoE has thus created an online resource for the VPH community to meet this need. It consists of a database of tools, methods and services for VPH research, with a Web front-end. This has facilities for searching the database, for adding or updating entries, and for providing user feedback on entries. Anyone is welcome to contribute.

  5. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  6. Physiological concentrations of DHEA in human hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Cirimele, V; Ludes, B

    1999-10-01

    In 1974, steroids were added to the list of doping agents banned by the International Olympic Committee because of their effects on the performance of the athletes. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone naturally produced by the adrenal glands and by the ovaries. DHEA can be converted into other hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. In the United States, DHEA is classified as a nutritional supplement. This is not the case in France, where the drug is listed as a doping agent. As athletes can abuse DHEA to benefit from its conversion to testosterone, there is a need to establish the physiological range of DHEA concentrations in human hair. DHEA was investigated in hair obtained from 27 control subjects, including 15 males and 12 females aged 17-42 years. After decontamination with dichloromethane, 100 mg of hair was incubated in 1 M NaOH in presence of 1 ng of testosterone-d3. After neutralization, the extract was purified using solid-phase extraction with Isolute C18 columns and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with pentane. After silylation, DHEA was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results were linear in the range 1-20 pg/mg. Relative extraction recovery was 91.6% with a limit of detection of 0.5 pg/mg. Concentrations were in the range 1.2-6.7 pg/mg (mean value of 4.3 pg/mg) and 0.5 to 10.6 pg/mg (mean value of 5.3 pg/mg) for the males and females, respectively. Extensive chromatographic procedures (two purification steps by solid-phase and liquid-liquid extraction, combined with injection of 4 microL through the column in pulsed mode) were analytical prerequisites for successful identification of DHEA in hair because of the low target concentrations. This new technology may find useful applications in anabolic abuse control.

  7. Association Between Body Weight Growth and Selected Physiological Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnrix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2011-09-01

    Japanese quail is very popular research animal model. Its continued characterization for various norms is highly desirable for obtaining accurate and reliable results. This study was designed to assess various physiological parameters which are associated with body growth and development. Among various physiological parameters, blood constituents and hormones are commonly used as diagnostic tools in both physiological and pathological evaluations of humans and animals. Japanese quail hatchlings were housed in the temperature controlled brooders up to 3 weeks of age and then shifted to hanging cages in air conditioned room at ~74 F under 14L:10D lighting system and free access to feed and fresh water. Starting d8, a group of birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly and euthanized at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age. The birds were weighed and blood sampled from the brachial vein for measuring Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV). It was found that starting d36 all the three physiological parameters altered with approaching sexual maturity (d48-52): BGL decreased (252 vrs. 182 mg/dl, p<0.05), PCV% increased (43.6 vrs. 49.6%, p<0.05) and PP also increased (2.7 vrs. 3.2 gm/dl, p>0.05). Accordingly, BGL, PCV and PP values demonstrated significant potential to predict approaching sexual maturity in male Japanese quail.

  8. Association Between Body Weight Growth and Selected Physiological Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnrix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L.

    2014-01-01

    Japanese quail is very popular research animal model. Its continued characterization for various norms is highly desirable for obtaining accurate and reliable results. This study was designed to assess various physiological parameters which are associated with body growth and development. Among various physiological parameters, blood constituents and hormones are commonly used as diagnostic tools in both physiological and pathological evaluations of humans and animals. Japanese quail hatchlings were housed in the temperature controlled brooders up to 3 weeks of age and then shifted to hanging cages in air conditioned room at ~74 F under 14L:10D lighting system and free access to feed and fresh water. Starting d8, a group of birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly and euthanized at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age. The birds were weighed and blood sampled from the brachial vein for measuring Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV). It was found that starting d36 all the three physiological parameters altered with approaching sexual maturity (d48–52): BGL decreased (252 vrs. 182 mg/dl, p<0.05), PCV% increased (43.6 vrs. 49.6%, p<0.05) and PP also increased (2.7 vrs. 3.2 gm/dl, p>0.05). Accordingly, BGL, PCV and PP values demonstrated significant potential to predict approaching sexual maturity in male Japanese quail. PMID:25285100

  9. Advancements in remote physiological measurement and applications in human-computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuff, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Physiological signals are important for tracking health and emotional states. Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is a set of techniques for remotely recovering cardio-pulmonary signals from video of the human body. Advances in iPPG methods over the past decade combined with the ubiquity of digital cameras presents the possibility for many new, lowcost applications of physiological monitoring. This talk will highlight methods for recovering physiological signals, work characterizing the impact of video parameters and hardware on these measurements, and applications of this technology in human-computer interfaces.

  10. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education.

    PubMed

    Abram, Sean R; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Summers, Richard L; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    We have developed Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP), a mathematical model of integrative human physiology containing over 4,000 variables of biological interactions. This model provides a teaching environment that mimics clinical problems encountered in the practice of medicine. The model structure is based on documented physiological responses within peer-reviewed literature and serves as a dynamic compendium of physiological knowledge. The model is solved using a desktop, Windows-based program, allowing students to calculate time-dependent solutions and interactively alter over 750 parameters that modify physiological function. The model can be used to understand proposed mechanisms of physiological function and the interactions among physiological variables that may not be otherwise intuitively evident. In addition to open-ended or unstructured simulations, we have developed 30 physiological simulations, including heart failure, anemia, diabetes, and hemorrhage. Additional stimulations include 29 patients in which students are challenged to diagnose the pathophysiology based on their understanding of integrative physiology. In summary, QCP allows students to examine, integrate, and understand a host of physiological factors without causing harm to patients. This model is available as a free download for Windows computers at http://physiology.umc.edu/themodelingworkshop.

  11. A Human Body Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girondel, Vincent; Bonnaud, Laurent; Caplier, Alice

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition) from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  12. Human physiological responses to wooden indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Lian, Zhiwei; Wu, Yong

    2017-03-02

    Previous studies are mainly focused on non-wooden environments, whereas few are concerned with wooden ones. How wooden indoor environments impact the physiology of the occupants is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the distinct physiological responses to wooden and non-wooden indoor environments, assessed by physiological parameters tests including blood pressure, electrocardiogram measurements, electro-dermal activity, oxyhemoglobin saturation, skin temperature, and near distance vision. Twenty healthy adults participated in this experiment, and their physiological responses were evaluated in a 90minute investigation. The results illustrated that; less tension and fatigue were generated in the wooden rooms than in the non-wooden rooms when the participants did their work. In addition, the study also found that the wooden environments benefit the autonomic nervous system, respiratory system, and visual system. Moreover, wooden rooms play a valuable role in physiological regulation and ease function especially after a consecutive period of work. These results provide an experimental basis to support that wooden environment is beneficial to indoor occupants than the non-wooden indoor environment.

  13. Neural correlates of human body perception.

    PubMed

    Aleong, Rosanne; Paus, Tomás

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential sex differences in the neural response to human bodies using fMRI carried out in healthy young adults. We presented human bodies in a block-design experiment to identify body-responsive regions of the brain, namely, extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). In a separate event-related "adaptation" experiment, carried out in the same group of subjects, we presented sets of four human bodies of varying body size and shape. Varying levels of body morphing were introduced to assess the degree of morphing required for adaptation release. Analysis of BOLD signal in the block-design experiment revealed significant Sex x Hemisphere interactions in the EBA and the FBA responses to human bodies. Only women showed greater BOLD response to bodies in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere for both EBA and FBA. The BOLD response in right EBA was higher in women compared with men. In the adaptation experiment, greater right versus left hemisphere response for EBA and FBA was also identified among women but not men. These findings are particularly novel in that they address potential sex differences in the lateralization of EBA and FBA responses to human body images. Although previous studies have found some degree of right hemisphere dominance in body perception, our results suggest that such a functional lateralization may differ between men and women.

  14. A Method of Ground Simulation of Physiological Effects of Hypogravity on Humans.

    PubMed

    Baranov, M V; Katuntsev, V P; Shpakov, A V; Baranov, V M

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of ground simulation in humans of physiological effects induced by the stay on the surface of celestial bodies with hypogravity was developed and successfully tested. This method is based on the change of gravity force angle, which decreases the gravitational component of the blood hydrostatic pressure characteristic of human vertical posture on the Earth and the load-weight onto the locomotor apparatus to the lower values expected at celestial bodies with hypogravity. The methodological requirements for ground simulation of the physiological effects of lunar gravity on human body are specified and substantiated by theoretical calculations. The experimental study revealed redistribution of liquid media in the human organism, functional changes in the cardiorespiratory system, and a decrease in the load-weight applied to the locomotor apparatus.

  15. Electric Shock and the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses electricity's documented effects on the human body, including both the dangers to human health and the medical application of electrical stimulation to heart problems. Discusses the teaching of such physics topics to potential medical students. (TW)

  16. Body-Image, Physiological Reactivity and Avoidance Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of the Barrier index of body image in predicting conductance and heart rate reactivity, exploratory behavior, and avoidance behavior was...investigated. Results indicated how the body image schema operated in predicting exploratory behavior and avoidance responding. High Barrier Ss

  17. TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 is a physiological appetite and body weight regulator.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Johnen, Heiko; Kuffner, Tamara; Manadhar, Rakesh; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Lee-Ng, Ka Ki Michelle; Zhang, Hong Ping; Wu, Liyun; Marquis, Christopher Peter; Jiang, Lele; Husaini, Yasmin; Lin, Shu; Herzog, Herbert; Brown, David A; Sainsbury, Amanda; Breit, Samuel N

    2013-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/-)) weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/-) mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/-) mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.

  18. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  19. Normative aspects of the human body.

    PubMed

    Siep, Ludwig

    2003-04-01

    In cultural history the human body has been the object of a great variety of opposing valuations, ranging from "imago dei" to "the devil's tool". At present, the body is commonly regarded as a mere means to fulfill the wishes of its "owner". According to these wishes it can be technically improved in an unlimited way. Against this view the text argues for a conception of the human body as a valuable "common heritage". The "normal" human body as the result of natural and cultural history is an essential condition of the modern social and legal order. The consequences of its technical alteration should be the subject of public debates and common decisions.

  20. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  1. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  2. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  3. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  4. Possible heliogeophysical effects on human physiological state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla

    2009-03-01

    A group of 86 healthy volunteers was examined in periods of high solar and geomagnetic activity. In this study hourly Dst-index values and hourly data about intensity of cosmic rays were used. Results revealed statistically significant increments for the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and subjective psycho-physiological complaints of the group with geomagnetic activity increase and cosmic rays intensity decrease.

  5. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  6. Whole body fatigue and critical power: a physiological interpretation.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M L

    2000-03-01

    Critical power (CP) is a fundamental concept describing fatigue and exhaustion. The main physiological determinant of CP is the ability to utilise oxygen. This in turn is dependent primarily on diffusion distance. During exercise, many different tissue systems must increase their metabolic demand. It is argued that each tissue system, such as cardiac, respiratory and leg muscles, has their own CP. Cardiac muscle has the greatest CP relative to its maximum power because it has the shortest diffusion distances. Respiratory muscle also has a substantially higher relative CP than leg muscle. The higher relative CPs of cardiac and respiratory muscle are due in part to the homeostatic functions these tissues provide. This built in protective design can be disrupted in certain conditions such as hypoxia. During high intensity exercise, fatigue and ensuing exhaustion will occur if any contributing physiological system functions above its CP.

  7. An Investigative Laboratory Course in Human Physiology Using Computer Technology and Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65…

  8. An Investigative Laboratory Course in Human Physiology Using Computer Technology and Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65…

  9. Physiological Health Challenges for Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the next decades, manned space missions are expected to be aiming at the Lagrange points, near Earth asteroids, and Mars flyby and/or landing. The question is therefore: Are we ready to go? To answer this with a yes, we are currently using the International Space Station to develop an integrated human physiological countermeasure suite. The integrated countermeasure suite will most likely encounter: 1) Exercise devices for aerobic, dynamic and resistive exercise training; 2) sensory-motor computer training programs and anti-motion sickness medication for preparing EVAs and G-transitions; 3) lower limb bracelets for preventing and/or treating the VIIP (vision impairment and intracranial pressure) syndrome; 4) nutritional components for maintenance of bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system and preventing oxidative stress and damage and immune deficiencies (e. g. omega-3 fatty acids, PRO/K, anti-oxidants and less salt and iron); 5) bisphosphonates for preventing bone degradation.; 6) lower body compression garment and oral salt and fluid loading for landing on a planetary surface to combat orthostatic intolerance; 7) laboratory analysis equipment for individualized monitoring of biomarkers in blood, urine and saliva for estimation of health status in; 8) advanced ultrasound techniques for monitoring bone and cardiovascular health; and 9) computer modeling programs for individual health status assessments of efficiency and subsequent adjustments of countermeasures. In particular for future missions into deep space, we are concerned with the synergistic effects of weightlessness, radiation, operational constraints and other spaceflight environmental factors. Therefore, increased collaboration between physiological, behavioral, radiation and space vehicle design disciplines are strongly warranted. Another venue we are exploring in NASA's Human Research Program is the usefulness of artificial gravity for mitigating the health risks of long duration weightlessness.

  10. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins in human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Hagen, T; Vidal-Puig, A

    2002-02-01

    Uncoupling proteins are mitochondrial carrier proteins that catalyse a regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, diverting free energy from ATP synthesis by the mitochondrial F0F1-ATP synthase to the production of heat. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue, is the mediator of thermogenesis in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Using gene a knockout mouse model, UCP1 has been shown to be required for cold acclimation. Two homologues of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3, have been identified recently and show a much wider tissue distribution. UCP2 and UCP3 have been postulated to play a role in the regulation of cold acclimation, energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis in humans, who, in contrast to rodents, have very little brown fat in adult life. However, evidence is accumulating that thermogenesis and regulation of body weight may not be the physiological functions of UCP2 and UCP3. For instance, mice deficient for UCP2 or UCP3 are not cold-intolerant and do not develop obesity. Alternative functions were suggested, primarily based on findings in UCP2 and UCP3 gene knockout mice. Both UCP2- and UCP3-deficient mice were found to overproduce reactive oxygen species and UCP2-deficient mice to hypersecrete insulin. Thus, the UCP1 homologues may play a role in regulating mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and b-cell function. In this review, we discuss the role of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 in human physiology and disease, primarily based on findings from the various animal models that have been generated.

  11. Potential applications of gut microbiota to control human physiology.

    PubMed

    Umu, Ozgün Candan Onarman; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Svihus, Birger; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms living in our gut have been a black box to us for a long time. However, with the recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, it is now possible to assess virtually all microorganisms in our gut including non-culturable ones. With the use of powerful bioinformatics tools to deal with multivariate analyses of huge amounts of data from metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, we now start to gain some important insights into these tiny gut inhabitants. Our knowledge is increasing about who they are, to some extent, what they do and how they affect our health. Gut microbiota have a broad spectrum of possible effects on health, from preventing serious diseases, improving immune system and gut health to stimulating the brain centers responsible for appetite and food intake control. Further, we may be on the verge of being capable of manipulating the gut microbiota by diet control to possibly improve our health. Diets consisting of different components that are fermentable by microbiota are substrates for different kinds of microbes in the gut. Thus, diet control can be used to favor the growth of some selected gut inhabitants. Nowadays, the gut microbiota is taken into account as a separate organ in human body and their activities and metabolites in gut have many physiological and neurological effects. In this mini-review, we discuss the diversity of gut microbiota, the technologies used to assess them, factors that affect microbial composition and metabolites that affect human physiology, and their potential applications in satiety control via the gut-brain axis.

  12. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  13. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  14. Animal physiology. Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Dewar, Heidi; Hyde, John R

    2015-05-15

    Endothermy (the metabolic production and retention of heat to warm body temperature above ambient) enhances physiological function, and whole-body endothermy generally sets mammals and birds apart from other animals. Here, we describe a whole-body form of endothermy in a fish, the opah (Lampris guttatus), that produces heat through the constant "flapping" of wing-like pectoral fins and minimizes heat loss through a series of counter-current heat exchangers within its gills. Unlike other fish, opah distribute warmed blood throughout the body, including to the heart, enhancing physiological performance and buffering internal organ function while foraging in the cold, nutrient-rich waters below the ocean thermocline.

  15. [Human physiology: images and practices of the reflex].

    PubMed

    Wübben, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The essay examines the function of visualizations and practices in the formation of the reflex concept from Thomas Willis to Marshall Hall. It focuses on the specific form of reflex knowledge that images and practices can contain. In addition, the essay argues that it is through visual representations and experimental practices that technical knowledge is transferred to the field of human reflex physiology. When using technical metaphors in human physiology authors often seem to feel obliged to draw distinctions between humans, machines and animals. On closer scrutiny, these distinctions sometimes fail to establish firm borders between the human and the technical.

  16. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  17. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  18. Mathematical modeling of human brain physiological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Matthias; Faltermeier, Rupert; Brawanski, Alexander; Lang, Elmar W.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, a mathematical model of the basic physiological processes regulating the cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply was introduced [Jung , J. Math. Biol.JMBLAJ0303-681210.1007/s00285-005-0343-5 51, 491 (2005)]. Although this model correctly describes the interdependence of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP), it fails badly when it comes to explaining certain abnormal correlations seen in about 80% of the recordings of ABP together with ICP and the partial oxygen pressure (TiPO2) of the neuronal tissue, taken at an intensive care unit during neuromonitoring of patients with a severe brain trauma. Such recordings occasionally show segments, where the mean arterial blood pressure is correlated with the partial oxygen pressure in tissue but anticorrelated with the intracranial pressure. The origin of such abnormal correlations has not been fully understood yet. Here, two extensions to the previous approach are proposed which can reproduce such abnormal correlations in simulations quantitatively. Furthermore, as the simulations are based on a mathematical model, additional insight into the physiological mechanisms from which such abnormal correlations originate can be gained.

  19. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology. PMID:27227066

  20. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology.

  1. Human body surface area: a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hihara, Eiji

    2004-04-01

    Knowledge of the human body surface area has important applications in medical practice, garment design, and other engineering sizing. Therefore, it is not surprising that several expressions correlating body surface area with direct measurements of body mass and length have been reported in the literature. In the present study, based on the assumption that the exterior shape of the human body is the result of convex and concave deformations from a basic cylinder, we derive a theoretical equation minimizing body surface area (BSA) at a fixed volume (V): BSA=(9pi VL)(0.5), where L is the reference length of the body. Assuming a body density value of 1,000 kg.m(-3), the equation becomes BSA=(BM.BH/35.37)(0.5), where BSA is in square meters, BM is the body mass in kilograms, and BH is the body height in meters. BSA values calculated by means of this equation fall within +/-7% of the values obtained by means of the equations available in the literature, in the range of BSA from children to adults. It is also suggested that the above equation, which is obtained by minimizing the outer body surface at a fixed volume, implies a fundamental relation set by the geometrical constraints governing the growth and the development of the human body.

  2. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

    PubMed

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

  3. Research on human physiological parameters intelligent clothing based on distributed Fiber Bragg Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changyun; Shi, Boya; Li, Hongqiang

    2008-12-01

    A human physiological parameters intelligent clothing is researched with FBG sensor technology. In this paper, the principles and methods of measuring human physiological parameters including body temperature and heart rate in intelligent clothing with distributed FBG are studied, the mathematical models of human physiological parameters measurement are built; the processing method of body temperature and heart rate detection signals is presented; human physiological parameters detection module is designed, the interference signals are filtered out, and the measurement accuracy is improved; the integration of the intelligent clothing is given. The intelligent clothing can implement real-time measurement, processing, storage and output of body temperature and heart rate. It has accurate measurement, portability, low cost, real-time monitoring, and other advantages. The intelligent clothing can realize the non-contact monitoring between doctors and patients, timely find the diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases, and make patients get timely treatment. It has great significance and value for ensuring the health of the elders and the children with language dysfunction.

  4. Physiologic Responses of Able-Bodied and Paraplegic Males to Maximal Arm Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    A study compared physiologic responses of healthy paraplegic males to those of healthy, able-bodied males during maximal arm ergometry. Fifteen able-bodied, healthy adult males and 13 healthy adult male paraplegics followed an exercise program involving heart rate, increased exercise loads, and oxygen uptake. Results from an analysis of the data…

  5. Physiologic Responses of Able-Bodied and Paraplegic Males to Maximal Arm Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    A study compared physiologic responses of healthy paraplegic males to those of healthy, able-bodied males during maximal arm ergometry. Fifteen able-bodied, healthy adult males and 13 healthy adult male paraplegics followed an exercise program involving heart rate, increased exercise loads, and oxygen uptake. Results from an analysis of the data…

  6. New Window into the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  7. A bacteriophages journey through the human body.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jeremy J

    2017-09-01

    The human body is colonized by a diverse collective of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The smallest entity of this microbial conglomerate are the bacterial viruses. Bacteriophages, or phages for short, exert significant selective pressure on their bacterial hosts, undoubtedly influencing the human microbiome and its impact on our health and well-being. Phages colonize all niches of the body, including the skin, oral cavity, lungs, gut, and urinary tract. As such our bodies are frequently and continuously exposed to diverse collections of phages. Despite the prevalence of phages throughout our bodies, the extent of their interactions with human cells, organs, and immune system is still largely unknown. Phages physically interact with our mucosal surfaces, are capable of bypassing epithelial cell layers, disseminate throughout the body and may manipulate our immune system. Here, I establish the novel concept of an "intra-body phageome," which encompasses the collection of phages residing within the classically "sterile" regions of the body. This review will take a phage-centric view of the microbiota, human body, and immune system with the ultimate goal of inspiring a greater appreciation for both the indirect and direct interactions between bacteriophages and their mammalian hosts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Acinetobacter baumannii in human body louse.

    PubMed

    La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2004-09-01

    While we were isolating Bartonella quintana from body lice, 40 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were also isolated and genotyped. One clone was unique and the other was ampicillin susceptible. A. baumannii DNA was later detected in 21% of 622 lice collected worldwide. These findings show an A. baumannii epidemic in human body lice.

  9. Integrative Physiology: At the Crossroads of Nutrition, Microbiota, Animal Physiology, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Leulier, François; MacNeil, Lesley T; Lee, Won-Jae; Rawls, John F; Cani, Patrice D; Schwarzer, Martin; Zhao, Liping; Simpson, Stephen J

    2017-03-07

    Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health. Nutritional Geometry sits centrally in the proposed framework and offers means to define diet compositions that are optimal for individuals and populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological Determinants of Human Acute Hypoxia Tolerance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Ernsting , 1963; Lilienthal, Riley, Proemmel, & Franke, 1946) but not the causes of variation among individuals, per se. In this study, we tested the...hemoglobin oxygen saturation falls when human subjects breathe a gas mixture with reduced oxygen tension. Previous work by Ernsting (1963...Determination of PO2 from saturation. J Appl Physiol 67: 902, 1989. Ernsting J. The effect of brief profound hypoxia upon the arte- rial and venous

  11. Human Physiology in an Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, David R; Moon, Richard E; Krasney, John J; Held, Heather E; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-09-20

    Water covers over 70% of the earth, has varying depths and temperatures and contains much of the earth's resources. Head-out water immersion (HOWI) or submersion at various depths (diving) in water of thermoneutral (TN) temperature elicits profound cardiorespiratory, endocrine, and renal responses. The translocation of blood into the thorax and elevation of plasma volume by autotransfusion of fluid from cells to the vascular compartment lead to increased cardiac stroke volume and output and there is a hyperperfusion of some tissues. Pulmonary artery and capillary hydrostatic pressures increase causing a decline in vital capacity with the potential for pulmonary edema. Atrial stretch and increased arterial pressure cause reflex autonomic responses which result in endocrine changes that return plasma volume and arterial pressure to preimmersion levels. Plasma volume is regulated via a reflex diuresis and natriuresis. Hydrostatic pressure also leads to elastic loading of the chest, increasing work of breathing, energy cost, and thus blood flow to respiratory muscles. Decreases in water temperature in HOWI do not affect the cardiac output compared to TN; however, they influence heart rate and the distribution of muscle and fat blood flow. The reduced muscle blood flow results in a reduced maximal oxygen consumption. The properties of water determine the mechanical load and the physiological responses during exercise in water (e.g. swimming and water based activities). Increased hydrostatic pressure caused by submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, progressive bradycardia decreases cardiac output. During submersion, compressed gas must be breathed which introduces the potential for oxygen toxicity, narcosis due to nitrogen, and tissue and vascular gas bubbles during decompression and after may cause pain in joints and the nervous system.

  12. Estrogen receptor polymorphisms: significance to human physiology, disease and therapy.

    PubMed

    Figtree, Gemma A; Noonan, Jonathon E; Bhindi, Ravinay; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Other than its well-recognized effects on reproductive physiology, estrogen has important actions in a wide variety of other body systems with important examples including bone, blood vessels and the heart. These effects are seen in both females and males. Investigators have hypothesized those genetic variants in the genes coding for estrogen signaling proteins may cause variable sensitivity to the hormone and influence an individual's estrogen-sensitive phenotypes. The most obvious candidate genes are the estrogen receptors alpha and (ERalpha and beta). However, the regulation of these genes is complex and not well understood. Furthermore, their coding exons, and regulatory sequences are dispersed across large segments of the genome. A number of common polymorphisms have been identified in both ERalpha and ERbeta, with variable degrees of evidence of their direct biological significance and their association with human disease. The identification of genetic variations associated with altered estrogen response is of potential public health importance. Insights may be gained into the pathogenesis of estrogen sensitive diseases such as osteoporosis, breast cancer and cardiovascular disease contributing to the development and application of newer therapies for these disorders. Furthermore, genetic variants that alter sensitivity to estrogen may affect both therapeutic and harmful responses to exogenous estrogen administered in the form of the oral contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy. This clinical significance has led to the publication of a number of patents which will be reviewed.

  13. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  14. Physiological Role of Gut Microbiota for Maintaining Human Health.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by an extremely complex and abundant aggregation of microbes, collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. Recent studies have focused on the link between these microbes and our health. Diet contributes to shaping the gut microbial structure and influences metabolic functions of the host. Alteration of the microbial structure and function (dysbiosis) is associated with the pathogenesis of various disorders. Fermentation is the process by which anaerobic bacteria (Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes) break down indigestible carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate and butyrate), collaborating with species specialized in oligosaccharide fermentation (e.g. Bifidobacteria). Butyrate and propionate can regulate intestinal physiology and immune function, while acetate acts as a substrate for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. The gut microbiota regulates immune homeostasis via the induction of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells. In addition, butyrate has strong anti-inflammatory effects possibly through the inhibition of histone deacetylase activity. Metabolic products generated by the gut microbiota, such as SCFAs, GABA, tryptophan, serotonin and catecholamine, transmit a signal to resident cells in the gut. Advances made in the DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have revolutionized our understanding of the microbes in the gut. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Physiological comparison of rat muscle in body suspension and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrovski, J.

    1987-01-01

    Hind limb unloading is achieved with whole body suspension (WBS) and with tail suspension (TS). Comparable levels of muscle mass loss and decreases in protein levels result during one to three weeks of exposure to microgravity (microG), WBS, and TS. Losses are most apparent in soleus (S), intermediate in gastrocnemius (G) and least in extensor digigorum longus (EDL). Comparison of S and EDL type I and II fiber changes (numbers and area) after seven days of microG flight and WBS showed, in S, an increase in Type I and Type II fiber density and a decrease in area. Except for a decrease in Type I fiber density in EDL, all other parameters remained comparable. The general conclusions were that the S under microG and WBS responds in a similar manner. The EDL, for the most part, shows little change under both conditions.

  16. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Automated fudicial labeling on human body data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewark, Erick A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1998-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner generates a high- resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The acquisition of anthropometric data from this data set is important for the development of custom sizing for the apparel industry. Software for locating anthropometric landmarks from a cloud of more than 200,000 three-dimensional data points, captured from a human subject, is presented. The first phase of identification is to locate externally placed fudicials on the human body using luminance information captured at scan time. The fudicials are then autonomously labeled and categorized according to their general position and anthropometric significance in the scan. Once registration of the landmarks is complete, body measurements may be extracted for apparel sizing.

  18. Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Rikowski, A; Grammer, K

    1999-05-07

    Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies.

  19. The Virtual Physiological Human - a European initiative for in silico human modelling -.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Clapworthy, Gordon; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2008-12-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is an initiative, strongly supported by the European Commission (EC), that seeks to develop an integrated model of human physiology at multiple scales from the whole body through the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels to the genomic level. VPH had its beginnings in 2005 with informal discussions amongst like-minded scientists which led to the STEP project, a Coordination Action funded by the EC that began in early 2006. The STEP project greatly accelerated the progress of the VPH and proved to be a catalyst for wide-ranging discussions within Europe and for outreach activities designed to develop a broad international approach to the huge scientific and technological challenges involved in this area. This paper provides an overview of the VPH and the developments it has engendered in the rapidly expanding worldwide activities associated with the physiome. It then uses one particular project, the Living Human Project, to illustrate the type of advances that are taking place to further the aims of the VPH and similar initiatives worldwide.

  20. Functional Neuronal Processing of Human Body Odors

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Johan N.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2013-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. PMID:20831940

  1. Functional neuronal processing of human body odors.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Johan N; Olsson, Mats J

    2010-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  3. The body republic: social order and human body in Renaissance medical thought.

    PubMed

    Barona, J L

    1993-01-01

    The representation of the human body built by medicine had historical references and analogical relations with other compounds of the culture of each particular period. The organic model, the coordinated and hierarchical dependence of the body parts, its subordination to a prevailing element (the brain or the heart, depending on the authors and times) guided directly by a soul infused by God... These are some of the aspects which reflect the relation between the image of the body and the justification of the ideological and social order, as a natural one. Among the numerous sources of Renaissance medicine that could bring significant facts about this theme, the present work is based on anatomical treatises and books of natural philosophy like those written by Bernardino Montaña de Monserrate, Alonso de Fuentes, Realdo Colombo, Hieronimus Montaltus, Andrea Cesalpino and Miguel Sabuco, all of whom are good exponents of Renaissance anatomy and physiological thought.

  4. Anatomy and physiology of the female perineal body with relevance to obstetrical injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Patrick J; Graney, Daniel O

    2002-08-01

    The female perineal body is a mass of interlocking muscular, fascial, and fibrous components lying between the vagina and anorectum. The perineal body is also an integral attachment point for components of the urinary and fecal continence mechanisms, which are commonly damaged during vaginal childbirth. Repair of injuries to the perineal body caused by spontaneous tears or episiotomy are topics too often neglected in medical education. This review presents the anatomy and physiology of the female perineal body, as well as clinical considerations for pelvic reconstructive surgery.

  5. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  6. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  7. Development and Implementation of a PSI Course in Human Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, Maurine; Lawler, Michael

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) used in an allied health course in human physiology at the University of Texas. Distinguishing features of the PSI system of individualizing courses are mastery learning, self-pacing, and immediate feedback, with the instructor as class manager rather than lecturer. (MF)

  8. Human Physiology: Improving Students' Achievements through Intelligent Studyware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Yochim, Jerome M.

    1994-01-01

    A studyware comprising a set of interconnected modules on human physiology has been developed and used to improve undergraduate students' achievements. Study results show the scores of students who used the optional computer laboratory sessions were enhanced over those who did not use the studyware. Presents examples from the modules. (LZ)

  9. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems.

  11. Human plasma kallikrein-kinin system: Physiological and biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, J.W.; Shariat-Madar, z

    2016-01-01

    The plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) plays a critical role in human physiology. The KKS encompasses coagulation factor XII (FXII), the complex of prekallikrein (PK) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK). The conversion of plasma to kallikrein by the activated FXII and in response to numerous different stimuli leads to the generation of bradykinin (BK) and activated HK (HKa, an antiangiogenic peptide). BK is a proinflammatory peptide, a pain mediator and potent vasodilator, leading to robust accumulation of fluid in the interstitium. Systemic production of BK, HKa with the interplay between BK bound-BK receptors and the soluble form of HKa are key to angiogenesis and hemodynamics. KKS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypertension, endotoxemia, and coagulopathy. In all these cases increased BK levels is the hallmark. In some cases, the persistent production of BK due to the deficiency of the blood protein C1-inhibitor, which controls FXII, is detrimental to the survival of the patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE). In others, the inability of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to degrade BK leads to elevated BK levels and edema in patients on ACE inhibitors. Thus, the mechanisms that interfere with BK liberation or degradation would lead to blood pressure dysfunction. In contrast, anti-kallikrein treatment could have adverse effects in hemodynamic changes induced by vasoconstrictor agents. Genetic models of kallikrein deficiency are needed to evaluate the quantitative role of kallikrein and to validate whether strategies designed to activate or inhibit kallikrein may be important for regulating whole-body BK sensitivity. PMID:19689262

  12. Transmission of vertical whole body vibration to the human body.

    PubMed

    Kiiski, Juha; Heinonen, Ari; Järvinen, Teppo L; Kannus, Pekka; Sievänen, Harri

    2008-08-01

    According to experimental studies, low-amplitude high-frequency vibration is anabolic to bone tissue, whereas in clinical trials, the bone effects have varied. Given the potential of whole body vibration in bone training, this study aimed at exploring the transmission of vertical sinusoidal vibration to the human body over a wide range of applicable amplitudes (from 0.05 to 3 mm) and frequencies (from 10 to 90 Hz). Vibration-induced accelerations were assessed with skin-mounted triaxial accelerometers at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar spine in four males standing on a high-performance vibration platform. Peak vertical accelerations of the platform covered a range from 0.04 to 19 in units of G (Earth's gravitational constant). Substantial amplification of peak acceleration could occur between 10 and 40 Hz for the ankle, 10 and 25 Hz for the knee, 10 and 20 Hz for the hip, and at 10 Hz for the spine. Beyond these frequencies, the transmitted vibration power declined to 1/10th-1/1000 th of the power delivered by the platform. Transmission of vibration to the body is a complicated phenomenon because of nonlinearities in the human musculoskeletal system. These results may assist in estimating how the transmission of vibration-induced accelerations to body segments is modified by amplitude and frequency and how well the sinusoidal waveform is maintained. Although the attenuation of vertical vibration at higher frequencies is fortunate from the aspect of safety, amplitudes >0.5 mm may result in greater peak accelerations than imposed at the platform and thus pose a potential hazard for the fragile musculoskeletal system.

  13. EPM - The European Facility for human physiology research on ISS.

    PubMed

    Rieschel, Mats; Nasca, Rosario; Junk, Peter; Gerhard, Ingo

    2002-07-01

    The European Physiology Modules (EPM) Facility is one of the four major Space Station facilities being developed within the framework of ESA's Microgravity Facilities for Columbus (MFC) programme. In order to allow a wide spectrum of physiological studies in weightlessness conditions, the facility provides the infrastructure to accommodate a variable set of scientific equipment. The initial EPM configuration supports experiments in the fields of neuroscience, bone & muscle research, cardiovascular research and metabolism. The International Space Life Science Working Group (ISLSWG) has recommended co-locating EPM with the 2 NASA Human Research Facility racks.

  14. Dunbar's number: group size and brain physiology in humans reexamined.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Jan; Weston, Gavin; Lyon, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Popular academic ideas linking physiological adaptations to social behaviors are spreading disconcertingly into wider societal contexts. In this article, we note our skepticism with one particularly popular—in our view, problematic—supposed causal correlation between neocortex size and social group size. The resulting Dunbar's Number, as it has come to be called, has been statistically tested against observed group size in different primate species. Although there may be reason to doubt the Dunbar's Number hypothesis among nonhuman primate species, we restrict ourselves here to the application of such an explanatory hypothesis to human, culture-manipulating populations. Human information process management, we argue, cannot be understood as a simple product of brain physiology. Cross-cultural comparison of not only group size but also relationship-reckoning systems like kinship terminologies suggests that although neocortices are undoubtedly crucial to human behavior, they cannot be given such primacy in explaining complex group composition, formation, or management.

  15. [The solidarity of the human body].

    PubMed

    Bioy, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The legal and bioethical regulation of the uses of the elements of the human body can be described by means of the concept of solidarity. From the French example, we can so show that the State tries to frame solidarities which already exist, for example between people who share the same genome, in the family, or, on the contrary, tent to impose or to direct the sharing of the human biological resources (organs, tissues, gametes, stem cell...).

  16. [Adaptive effects of repeated immersion exposure on the human body].

    PubMed

    Shul'zhenko, E B; Kozlova, V G; Aleksandrova, E A; Kudrin, K A

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intermittent immersion on orthostatic tolerance, fluid-electrolyte metabolism and neuromuscular system was investigated. Control and experimental immersions were used. Experimental immersion was preceded by 12-hour exposure to immersion at night for three times. Experimental immersion was accompanied by reduced renal excretion of fluid, sodium and potassium and normalization of the muscle tone. After experimental immersion orthostatic tolerance approached the control level. The difference in the physiological effects of control and experimental immersions seem to be associated with the capacity of the human body to adapt to immersion, if it is applied intermittently.

  17. Evolutionary change in physiological phenotypes along the human lineage

    PubMed Central

    Vining, Alexander Q.; Nunn, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Research in evolutionary medicine provides many examples of how evolution has shaped human susceptibility to disease. Traits undergoing rapid evolutionary change may result in associated costs or reduce the energy available to other traits. We hypothesize that humans have experienced more such changes than other primates as a result of major evolutionary change along the human lineage. We investigated 41 physiological traits across 50 primate species to identify traits that have undergone marked evolutionary change along the human lineage. Methodology: We analysed the data using two Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods. One approach models trait covariation in non-human primates and predicts human phenotypes to identify whether humans are evolutionary outliers. The other approach models adaptive shifts under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution to assess whether inferred shifts are more common on the human branch than on other primate lineages. Results: We identified four traits with strong evidence for an evolutionary increase on the human lineage (amylase, haematocrit, phosphorus and monocytes) and one trait with strong evidence for decrease (neutrophilic bands). Humans exhibited more cases of distinct evolutionary change than other primates. Conclusions and Implications: Human physiology has undergone increased evolutionary change compared to other primates. Long distance running may have contributed to increases in haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, while dietary changes are likely related to increases in amylase. In accordance with the pathogen load hypothesis, human monocyte levels were increased, but many other immune-related measures were not. Determining the mechanisms underlying conspicuous evolutionary change in these traits may provide new insights into human disease. PMID:27615376

  18. Conjugated linoleic acids alter body composition differently according to physiological age in Moulard ducks.

    PubMed

    Fesler, J A; Peterson, D G

    2013-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to have remarkable yet inconsistent metabolic effects in mice, rats, hamsters, chickens, cattle, and humans. In particular, effects on lipogenesis vary with tissue, physiological state, and species. In this study we tested the hypothesis that CLA would differentially affect ducks of the same genetic background but of differing age. Growing (7 wk) and maintenance (11 wk) Moulard ducks were grouped by age and fed a standard diet supplemented with 5% soybean oil (control) or 5% CLA isomer mixture. Birds were slaughtered after 3 or 6 wk for assessment of body composition including adipose, liver, viscera, and empty carcass weight. Serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glucose concentrations were evaluated, and gene targets were cloned from the duck to use in quantifying mRNA abundance for genes involved in lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and lipid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, CPT-1) in liver tissue from maintenance birds. After 3 wk, the growing CLA group exhibited a 24% decrease in dissectible adipose tissue (P < 0.05), whereas maintenance birds showed no significant diet effect. After 6 wk, the growing CLA group exhibited a 20% increase in liver mass compared with the control (P < 0.05), but no diet effect on adipose tissue. Maintenance birds receiving dietary CLA had a 42% decrease in adipose tissue mass after 6 wk; increased serum NEFA, ACC, and CPT-1 mRNA after 3 and 6 wk (P < 0.05); and increased FAS mRNA after 3 wk of treatment (P < 0.05). These data indicate that CLA have potent effects on lipid metabolism in ducks, but these effects differ depending on physiological age.

  19. The physiological impact of body armor cooling devices in hot environments: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Carl; Lisman, Peter; Deuster, Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Heat-related illness is a primary threat to unit readiness, and individual body armor (IBA) cooling devices represent one potential solution. To quantify research findings of active and passive cooling devices designed to reduce physiological strain while wearing IBA during strenuous tasks using a systematic review approach. Literature searches were performed in multiple databases using the key words "physiological," "body armor," "military," "cooling," and "thermal." Two independent reviewers appraised methodological quality using a modified Downs and Black Quality Index. Physiological outcomes were tabulated and effect sizes were calculated when appropriate. The search yielded 733 citations, with nine articles fitting our inclusion criteria: six articles with active and three articles with passive cooling devices. Results reveal a moderate level of methodological quality. On average, all six active IBA cooling device studies compared to controls (IBA only) reported decreases in one or more measures of physiological strain-core and skin temperature, heart rate. Conversely, passive cooling device effects were negligible. Active cooling devices may decrease the physiological strain associated with wearing IBA in hot environments. Further development of optimal cooling strategies to reduce physiological strain during operations where IBA is required is warranted. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Emerging role of mitophagy in human diseases and physiology.

    PubMed

    Um, Jee-Hyun; Yun, Jeanho

    2017-04-03

    Mitophagy is a process of selective removal of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria using autophagic machineries. Mitophagy plays an essential role in mitochondria quality control and mitochondria homeostasis. Mitochondria dysfunctions and mitophagy defects in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, metabolic diseases indicate a close link between human disease and mitophagy activity. Furthermore, recent studies showing the involvement of mitophagy in differentiation and development, suggest that mitophagy may play a more active role in controlling cellular functions. The better understanding of mitophagy will provide insight about human disease and offering novel chance for treatment. This review mainly focuses on the recent implications of mitophagy in human diseases and normal physiology.

  1. Dietary boron: progress in establishing essential roles in human physiology.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Curtiss D

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes the progress made in establishing essential roles for boron in human physiology and assesses that progress in view of criteria for essentiality of elements. The evidence to date suggests that humans and at least some higher animals may use boron to support normal biological functions. These include roles in calcium metabolism, bone growth and maintenance, insulin metabolism, and completion of the life cycle. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood but the nature of boron biochemistry suggests further characterization of the cell signaling molecules capable of complexing with boron. Such characterization may provide insights into the biochemical function(s) of boron in humans.

  2. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  3. An Evaluation of Gestational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): Effects on Body Composition and Physiological Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor for induction of metabolic disorders. This study examined if exposure to PFOA during development could alter body composition and other physiological outcomes. Study 1: Pregnant CD-1 mice were gavaged with PFOA at 0,0.001,0.01,...

  4. An Evaluation of Gestational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): Effects on Body Composition and Physiological Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor for induction of metabolic disorders. This study examined if exposure to PFOA during development could alter body composition and other physiological outcomes. Study 1: Pregnant CD-1 mice were gavaged with PFOA at 0,0.001,0.01,...

  5. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    PubMed

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  6. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  7. Thermodynamics of Cooling a (Live) Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Presents a practical problem to students in a junior-level thermodynamics course in which a human body regulates its own internal temperature. This problem can be utilized as well (with modification) in an introductory physics course for life science majors. (HM)

  8. Thermodynamics of Cooling a (Live) Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Presents a practical problem to students in a junior-level thermodynamics course in which a human body regulates its own internal temperature. This problem can be utilized as well (with modification) in an introductory physics course for life science majors. (HM)

  9. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  10. A prototype for cartographic human body analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Elizabeth; Marcos, Adérito; Santos, Maribel Yasmina; Espregueira-Mendes, João

    2008-01-01

    A cartographic-oriented model uses algebraic map operations to perform spatial analysis of medical data relative to the human body. A prototype system uses 3D visualization techniques to deliver analysis results. A prototype implementation suggests the model might provide the basis for a medical application tool that introduces new information insight.

  11. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection

    PubMed Central

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

  12. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

  14. Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

  15. The physiology of the normal human breast: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Dixie; Gordon, Eva J; Casano, Ashley; Lahti, Sarah Michelle; Nguyen, Tinh; Preston, Alex; Tondre, Julie; Wu, Kuan; Yanase, Tiffany; Chan, Henry; Chia, David; Esfandiari, Mahtash; Himmel, Tiffany; Love, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    The physiology of the nonlactating human breast likely plays a key role in factors that contribute to the etiology of breast cancer and other breast conditions. Although there has been extensive research into the physiology of lactation, few reports explore the physiology of the resting mammary gland, including mechanisms by which compounds such as hormones, drugs, and potential carcinogens enter the breast ducts. The purpose of this study was to explore transport of exogenous drugs into ductal fluid in nonlactating women and determine if their concentrations in the fluid are similar to those observed in the breast milk of lactating women. We selected two compounds that have been well characterized during lactation, caffeine and cimetidine. Caffeine passively diffuses into breast milk, but cimetidine is actively transported and concentrated in breast milk. After ingestion of caffeine and cimetidine, 14 nonlactating subjects had blood drawn and underwent ductal lavage at five time points over 12 h to measure drug levels in the fluid and blood. The concentrations of both caffeine and cimetidine in lavage fluid were substantially less than those observed in breast milk. Our results support recent evidence that the cimetidine transporter is not expressed in the nonlactating mammary gland, and highlight intriguing differences in the physiology and molecular transport of the lactating and nonlactating breast. The findings of this exploratory study warrant further exploration into the physiology of the nonlactating mammary gland to elucidate factors involved in disease initiation and progression.

  16. Gamble and Darrow: pathfinders in body fluid physiology and fluid therapy for children, 1914-1964.

    PubMed

    Holliday, M A

    2000-12-01

    The development of body fluid physiology and fluid therapy in pediatrics has special importance in the history of medicine because this development introduced physiology into clinical practice. James Gamble and Dan Darrow were leaders in this enterprise. Gamble was part of the group John Howland attracted to Johns Hopkins to establish the first organized program for clinical investigators in pediatrics. This group initiated fluid therapy as effective treatment for diarrheal dehydration and, led by Gamble, developed the discipline of body fluid physiology. Gamble was the first to describe the nature of extracellular fluid (ECF) to clinicians, using the new terminology for characterizing electrolytes in solution. In doing so, he became the teacher of body fluid physiology to a generation of medical students. Inexplicably, in his later years he failed to adopt yet newer terminology defining cations, anions, and acid-base status. This failure compromised his legacy. Dan Darrow extended our understanding of how body fluids react to hyper- and hyponatremia and to potassium deficiency. He was the first to add potassium to parenteral fluid therapy. In doing so, he broadened clinicians' understanding of body fluids but changed the emphasis of fluid therapy from rapid ECF restoration to replacement of estimated deficits. Unfortunately, this change in concept, taught by his successors as deficit therapy, slowed the adoption of oral rehydration therapy for treating diarrheal dehydration. The lapses noted for each of these men, now seen in hindsight, pale in comparison to their contributions. Pediatrics, medicine, and surgery are all indebted to the research of each, which emphasized the value of basic physiology in clinical practice.

  17. Sleep and bodily functions: the physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Amici, R; Bastianini, S; Berteotti, C; Cerri, M; Del Vecchio, F; Lo Martire, V; Luppi, M; Perez, E; Silvani, A; Zamboni, G; Zoccoli, G

    2014-01-01

    Body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis may both rely on the complex integrative activity carried out by the hypothalamus. Thus, the three main wake-sleep (WS) states (i.e. wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) may be better understood if the different cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, which are under the integrated control of the autonomic and the endocrine systems, are studied during sleep monitoring. According to this view, many physiological events can be considered as an expression of the activity that physiological regulations should perform in order to cope with the need to fulfill body and sleep homeostasis. This review is aimed at making an assessment of data showing the existence of a physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis, starting from the spontaneous changes observed in the somatic and autonomic activity during sleep, through evidence showing the deep changes occurring in the central integration of bodily functions during the different WS states, to the changes in the WS states observed when body homeostasis is challenged by the external environment and when the return to normal ambient conditions allows sleep homeo- stasis to run without apparent physiological restrictions. The data summarized in this review suggest that an approach to the dichotomy between NREM and REM sleep based on physiological regulations may offer a framework within which observations that a traditional behavioral approach may overlook can be interpreted. The study of the interplay between body and sleep homeostasis appears, therefore, to be a way to understand the function of complex organisms beyond that of the specific regulations.

  18. [Microbiota and representations of the human body].

    PubMed

    Dodet, Betty

    2016-11-01

    Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation. These discoveries have profoundly altered our view of microbes, of health and disease, of self and non-self, as well as our representations of the body and its relationship with its ecosystem. Gut microbiota is now generally considered as an organ in its own right. A model of the "microbiotic person" thus arises, in which the human organism is defined as an ecosystem, a chimeric superorganism with a double genome, both human and microbial. Thought should be given to the way in which these new paradigms modify lay perceptions of the human body.

  19. Sunspot Dynamics Are Reflected in Human Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Sothern, Robert B.; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Quiton, Dinah Faith T.; Rietveld, Wop; Boon, Mathilde E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Periodic episodes of increased sunspot activity (solar electromagnetic storms) occur with 10–11 and 5–6 year periodicities and may be associated with measurable biological events. We investigated whether this sunspot periodicity characterized the incidence of Pap smear-determined cervical epithelial histopathologies and human physiologic functions. From January 1983 through December 2003, monthly averages were obtained for solar flux and sunspot numbers; six infectious, premalignant and malignant changes in the cervical epithelium from 1,182,421 consecutive, serially independent, screening Pap smears (59°9″N, 4°29″E); and six human physiologic functions of a healthy man (oral temperature, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and peak expiratory flow), which were measured ∼5 times daily during ∼34,500 self-measurement sessions (44°56″N, 93°8″W). After determining that sunspot numbers and solar flux, which were not annually rhythmic, occurred with a prominent 10-year and a less-prominent 5.75-year periodicity during this 21-year study span, each biological data set was analyzed with the same curve-fitting procedures. All six annually rhythmic Pap smear-detected infectious, premalignant and malignant cervical epithelial pathologies showed strong 10-year and weaker 5.75-year cycles, as did all six self-measured, annually rhythmic, physiologic functions. The phases (maxima) for the six histopathologic findings and five of six physiologic measurements were very near, or within, the first two quarters following the 10-year solar maxima. These findings add to the growing evidence that solar magnetic storm periodicities are mirrored by cyclic phase-locked rhythms of similar period length or lengths in human physiology and pathophysiology. Key Words: Cervical infections—Cervical premalignancy—Geo-solar magnetic interactions—Pap smear—Schwabe cycle—10-year rhythm. Astrobiology 11, 93–103. PMID:21391821

  20. Sunspot Dynamics Are Reflected in Human Physiology and Pathophysiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrushesky, William J. M.; Sothern, Robert B.; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Quiton, Dinah Faith T.; Rietveld, Wop; Boon, Mathilde E.

    2011-03-01

    Periodic episodes of increased sunspot activity (solar electromagnetic storms) occur with 10-11 and 5-6 year periodicities and may be associated with measurable biological events. We investigated whether this sunspot periodicity characterized the incidence of Pap smear-determined cervical epithelial histopathologies and human physiologic functions. From January 1983 through December 2003, monthly averages were obtained for solar flux and sunspot numbers; six infectious, premalignant and malignant changes in the cervical epithelium from 1,182,421 consecutive, serially independent, screening Pap smears (59°9"N, 4°29"E); and six human physiologic functions of a healthy man (oral temperature, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and peak expiratory flow), which were measured ∼5 times daily during ∼34,500 self-measurement sessions (44°56"N, 93°8"W). After determining that sunspot numbers and solar flux, which were not annually rhythmic, occurred with a prominent 10-year and a less-prominent 5.75-year periodicity during this 21-year study span, each biological data set was analyzed with the same curve-fitting procedures. All six annually rhythmic Pap smear-detected infectious, premalignant and malignant cervical epithelial pathologies showed strong 10-year and weaker 5.75-year cycles, as did all six self-measured, annually rhythmic, physiologic functions. The phases (maxima) for the six histopathologic findings and five of six physiologic measurements were very near, or within, the first two quarters following the 10-year solar maxima. These findings add to the growing evidence that solar magnetic storm periodicities are mirrored by cyclic phase-locked rhythms of similar period length or lengths in human physiology and pathophysiology.

  1. Sunspot dynamics are reflected in human physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Hrushesky, William J M; Sothern, Robert B; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Quiton, Dinah Faith T; Rietveld, Wop; Boon, Mathilde E

    2011-03-01

    Periodic episodes of increased sunspot activity (solar electromagnetic storms) occur with 10-11 and 5-6 year periodicities and may be associated with measurable biological events. We investigated whether this sunspot periodicity characterized the incidence of Pap smear-determined cervical epithelial histopathologies and human physiologic functions. From January 1983 through December 2003, monthly averages were obtained for solar flux and sunspot numbers; six infectious, premalignant and malignant changes in the cervical epithelium from 1,182,421 consecutive, serially independent, screening Pap smears (59°9″N, 4°29″E); and six human physiologic functions of a healthy man (oral temperature, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and peak expiratory flow), which were measured ∼5 times daily during ∼34,500 self-measurement sessions (44°56″N, 93°8″W). After determining that sunspot numbers and solar flux, which were not annually rhythmic, occurred with a prominent 10-year and a less-prominent 5.75-year periodicity during this 21-year study span, each biological data set was analyzed with the same curve-fitting procedures. All six annually rhythmic Pap smear-detected infectious, premalignant and malignant cervical epithelial pathologies showed strong 10-year and weaker 5.75-year cycles, as did all six self-measured, annually rhythmic, physiologic functions. The phases (maxima) for the six histopathologic findings and five of six physiologic measurements were very near, or within, the first two quarters following the 10-year solar maxima. These findings add to the growing evidence that solar magnetic storm periodicities are mirrored by cyclic phase-locked rhythms of similar period length or lengths in human physiology and pathophysiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  2. Selected human physiological responses during extreme heat: the Badwater Ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jacqueline S; Connolly, Declan A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine various physiological responses during an ultramarathon held in extreme heat. Our investigation was conducted at The Badwater Ultramarathon, a nonstop 217-km run across Death Valley, CA, USA. This study recruited 4 male athletes, average age of 43 (±SD) (±7.35), (range) 39-54 years. All 4 subjects successfully completed the race with a mean finish time of 36:20:23 hours (±SD) (±3:08:38) (range) 34:05:25-40:51:46 hours, and a mean running speed of 6.03 km·h(-1) (±SD) (±0.05), (range) 5.3-6.4 km·h(-1). The anthropometric variables measured were (mean, ±SD) mass 79.33 kg (±6.43), height 1.80 m (±0.09), body surface area 1.93 m2 (±0.16), body mass index 24.38 kg·m(-2) (±1.25), fat mass 13.88% (±2.29), and body water 62.08% (±1.56). Selected physiological variables measured were core body temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Rate of perceived intensity, rate of thermal sensation, and environmental factors were also monitored. Our study found (mean and ±SD) core body temperature 37.49° C (±0.88); skin temperature 31.13° C (±3.06); heart rate 106.79 b·min(-1) (±5.11); breathing rate 36.55 b·min(-1) (±0.60); blood pressure 128/86 mm Hg (±9.24/4.62); rate of perceived intensity 5.49 (±1.26); rate of thermal sensation 4.69 (±0.37); daytime high temperature of 46.6° C, and a mean temperature of 28.35° C. Our fastest finisher demonstrated a lower overall core body temperature (36.91° C) when compared with the group mean (37.49° C). In contrast to previous findings, our data show that the fastest finisher demonstrates a lower overall core body temperature. We conclude that it may be possible that a time threshold exists whereby success in longer duration events requires an ability to maintain a lower core body temperature vs. tolerating a higher core body temperature.

  3. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  4. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  5. Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

  6. Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

  7. Introduction to anatomy and physiology of human conception.

    PubMed

    Kably, A; Barroso, G

    2000-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological concepts of human reproduction currently in use have been developed over generations, following clinical and basic research guidelines that preceded modern technology. The application of new forms of research over recent decades, as in the case of molecular biology, has contributed to a more in-depth and accurate understanding of the interaction of each of the inter- and intracellular structures in the mechanics of human physiology. On the other hand the use of non-human primate models has provided invaluable information in the reproductive field. The information obtained through models and techniques that have changed over time has led to concepts that continue to have the same validity as when they were first described. The principal objective of this review is to develop an understanding of the physiological processes applied in the anatomical sphere, taking as a reference the fact that it is impossible to understand reproductive mechanics in terms of static phenomena, but rather they should be understood as dynamic and changing processes adaptable to the conditions of each individual's surroundings.

  8. The dynamics of human body weight change.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2008-03-28

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass.

  9. The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  10. Kinematic analysis of human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuhei; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Watanabe, Naoki; Yanagi, Shigeru

    1997-03-01

    The knowledge of analyzing a human motion can contribute to the treatment and the prevention of sports injuries or the investigation of welfare equipment. It is important to know the human motion by not only the medical field but the mechanical knowledge. The mechanical knowledge is expected to prevent the sports injuries or to design such as an artificial equipment. Here, we suggest a basic procedure to analyze a human motion from the view of the dynamical knowledge. Although the human body is composed of a lot of element and joint, if the slight movement on the joint such as dislocation and distortion is neglected, the human body can be replaced by a mechanical links system. On this assumption, we analyze an actual simple human motion. We take a picture of a simple arm motion from video cameras. And at the same time, we directly measure the vertical acceleration of the hand by an accelerometer. From the video image, we get the vertical acceleration of the hand with assuming the arm as two-links system. On the process of resolving the vertical acceleration of the hand, we introduce the Fourier series for filtering. Finally, we confirm the propriety of our suggested procedure by comparing the calculated acceleration of hand with the directly measured acceleration.

  11. Electronic imaging of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Yates, Randall E.; Whitestone, Jennifer J.

    1992-09-01

    The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical education, and anthropometry. The applications range from reconstructive surgery to computer-aided design (CAD) of protective equipment. Although these areas appear unrelated, they have a great deal of commonality. All the organizations working in this area are faced with the challenges of collecting, reducing, and formatting the data in an efficient and standard manner; storing this data in a computerized database to make it readily accessible; and developing software applications that can visualize, manipulate, and analyze the data. This working group is being established to encourage effective use of the resources of all the various groups and disciplines involved in electronic imaging of the human body surface by providing a forum for discussing progress and challenges with these types of data.

  12. Extracting Feature Points of the Human Body Using the Model of a 3D Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jeongeun; Ozawa, Shinji

    The purpose of this research is to recognize 3D shape features of a human body automatically using a 3D laser-scanning machine. In order to recognize the 3D shape features, we selected the 23 feature points of a body and modeled its 3D features. The set of 23 feature points consists of the motion axis of a joint, the main point for the bone structure of a human body. For extracting feature points of object model, we made 2.5D templates neighbor for each feature points were extracted according to the feature points of the standard model of human body. And the feature points were extracted by the template matching. The extracted feature points can be applied as body measurement, the 3D virtual fitting system for apparel etc.

  13. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  14. DigitalHuman (DH): An Integrative Mathematical Model ofHuman Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, Robert L.; Summers, Richard L.; lIescu, Radu; Esters, Joyee; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulation are important tools in discovering the key causal relationships governing physiological processes and improving medical intervention when physiological complexity is a central issue. We have developed a model of integrative human physiology called DigitalHuman (DH) consisting of -5000 variables modeling human physiology describing cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, endocrine, neural and metabolic physiology. Users can view time-dependent solutions and interactively introduce perturbations by altering numerical parameters to investigate new hypotheses. The variables, parameters and quantitative relationships as well as all other model details are described in XML text files. All aspects of the model, including the mathematical equations describing the physiological processes are written in XML open source, text-readable files. Model structure is based upon empirical data of physiological responses documented within the peer-reviewed literature. The model can be used to understand proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that may not be otherwise intUitively evident. Some of the current uses of this model include the analyses of renal control of blood pressure, the central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and the mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Additionally the open source aspect of the modeling environment allows any investigator to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and more importantly quantitative changes in clinically and experimentally observed responses. DigitalHuman provides scientists a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. This research was supported by.NIH HL 51971, NSF EPSCoR, and NASA

  15. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  16. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  17. How Do Humans Control Physiological Strain during Strenuous Endurance Exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Lucia, Alejandro; deKoning, Jos J.; Foster, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background Distance running performance is a viable model of human locomotion. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the physiologic strain during competitions ranging from 5–100 km, we evaluated heart rate (HR) records of competitive runners (n = 211). We found evidence that: 1) physiologic strain (% of maximum HR (%HRmax)) increased in proportional manner relative to distance completed, and was regulated by variations in running pace; 2) the %HRmax achieved decreased with relative distance; 3) slower runners had similar %HRmax response within a racing distance compared to faster runners, and despite differences in pace, the profile of %HRmax during a race was very similar in runners of differing ability; and 4) in cases where there was a discontinuity in the running performance, there was evidence that physiologic effort was maintained for some time even after the pace had decreased. Conclusions/Significance The overall results suggest that athletes are actively regulating their relative physiologic strain during competition, although there is evidence of poor regulation in the case of competitive failures. PMID:18698405

  18. Urate Handling in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, David; Liu, Sha; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2016-06-01

    Elevated serum urate concentration is the primary cause of gout. Understanding the processes that affect serum urate concentration is important for understanding the etiology of gout and thereby understanding treatment. Urate handing in the human body is a complex system including three major processes: production, renal elimination, and intestinal elimination. A change in any one of these can affect both the steady-state serum urate concentration as well as other urate processes. The remarkable complexity underlying urate regulation and its maintenance at high levels in humans suggests that this molecule could potentially play an interesting role other than as a mere waste product to be eliminated as rapidly as possible.

  19. [The microbiotics of the human body].

    PubMed

    Bik, E M

    2008-03-22

    --Our bodies are home to complex microbial communities. --In most samples, a greater microbial diversity is revealed by using culture-independent, molecular techniques than by conventional methods. --The composition of the human-associated microbiota differs in each individual, and at each anatomical site within an individual. --The intestinal colonization of newborn infants seems to be driven by environmental factors and random processes, rather than by the composition of the parent's microbial communities. --A set of fraternal twins showed almost identical microbial communities. --Investigating the composition of the human-associated microbiota will enable us to better understand the role of commensals in health and disease.

  20. Method and System for Physiologically Modulating Videogames and Simulations which Use Gesture and Body Image Sensing Control Input Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Stephens, Chad L. (Inventor); Habowski, Tyler (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Method for physiologically modulating videogames and simulations includes utilizing input from a motion-sensing video game system and input from a physiological signal acquisition device. The inputs from the physiological signal sensors are utilized to change the response of a user's avatar to inputs from the motion-sensing sensors. The motion-sensing system comprises a 3D sensor system having full-body 3D motion capture of a user's body. This arrangement encourages health-enhancing physiological self-regulation skills or therapeutic amplification of healthful physiological characteristics. The system provides increased motivation for users to utilize biofeedback as may be desired for treatment of various conditions.

  1. [An interactive three-dimensional model of the human body].

    PubMed

    Liem, S L

    2009-01-01

    Driven by advanced computer technology, it is now possible to show the human anatomy on a computer. On the internet, the Visible Body programme makes it possible to navigate in all directions through the anatomical structures of the human body, using mouse and keyboard. Visible Body is a wonderful tool to give insight in the human structures, body functions and organs.

  2. 'Systems biology' in human exercise physiology: is it something different from integrative physiology?

    PubMed

    Greenhaff, Paul L; Hargreaves, Mark

    2011-03-01

    On first impression the 'whole-istic approach to understanding biology' that has been used to describe Systems Biology bears a striking resemblance to what many of us know as Integrative Physiology. However, closer scrutiny reveals that at the present time Systems Biology is rooted in processes operating at a cellular level ('the study of an organism, viewed as an integrated and interacting network of genes, proteins and biochemical reactions which give rise to life ultimately responsible for an organism's form and functions'; http://www.systemsbiology.org), and appears to have evolved as a direct result of advances in high throughput molecular biology platforms (and associated bioinformatics) over the past decade. The Systems Biology approach is in many ways laudable, but it will be immediately apparent to most exercise or integrative physiologists that the challenge of understanding the whole-animal response to exercise as a network of integrated and interacting genes, proteins and biochemical reactions is unlikely to be realized in the near future. This short review will attempt to clarify conceptual inconsistencies between the fields of Systems Biology and Integrative Physiology in the context of exercise science, and will attempt to identify the challenges to whole-body physiologists wishing to harness the tools of Systems Biology.

  3. Assessment methods in human body composition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2008-09-01

    The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth.

  4. Assessment methods in human body composition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Recent findings Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. Summary There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth. PMID:18685451

  5. Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells

    PubMed Central

    Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S.; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

  6. Is Lutein a Physiologically Important Ligand for Transthyretin in Humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Liwei

    2003-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids accumulated in the macula of the human retina and are known as the macular pigments (MP). These pigments account for the yellow color of the macula and appear to play an important role in protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The uptake of lutein and zeaxanthin in human eyes is remarkably specific. It is likely that specific transport or binding proteins are involved. The objective is to determine whether transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in human plasma and could thus deliver lutein from the blood to the retina. In this study, they used a biosynthetic 13C-lutein tracer and gas chromatography-combustion interfaced-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) to gain the requisite sensitivity to detect the minute amounts of lutein expected as a physiological ligand for human transthyretin. The biosynthetic 13C-labeled lutein tracer was purified from algae. Healthy women (n = 4) each ingested 1 mg of 13C-labeled lutein daily for 3 days and a blood sample was collected 24 hours after the final dose. Plasma TTR was isolated by retinol-binding protein (RBP)-sepharose affinity chromatography and extracted with chloroform. The 13C/12C ratio in the TTR extract was measured by GCC-IRMS. There was no 13C-lutein enrichment in the pure TTR extract. This result indicated that lutein is not associated with TTR in human plasma after ingestion in physiological amounts. Some hydrophobic compounds with yellow color may bind to human TTR in the plasma. However, this association needs to be further proved by showing specificity. The study provides a new approach for carotenoid-binding protein studies using a stable isotope tracer method combined with the high precision of GCC-IRMS. The mechanism of selective transport, uptake, and accumulation of lutein in human macula remain to be determined.

  7. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  8. The physiology of blood loss and shock: New insights from a human laboratory model of hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Alicia M; Howard, Jeffrey T; Convertino, Victor A

    2017-04-01

    The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss. We provide data obtained from more than 250 human experiments to classify human subjects into two distinct groups: those who have a high tolerance and can compensate well for reduced central blood volume (e.g. hemorrhage) and those with low tolerance with poor capacity to compensate.We include the conceptual introduction of arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow oscillations, reflex-mediated autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, and respiration that function to protect adequate tissue oxygenation through adjustments in cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance. Finally, unique time course data are presented that describe mechanistic events associated with the rapid onset of hemodynamic failure (i.e. decompensatory shock). Impact Statement Hemorrhage is the leading cause of death in both civilian and military trauma. The work submitted in this review is important because it advances the understanding of mechanisms that contribute to the total integrated physiological compensations for inadequate tissue oxygenation (i.e. shock) that arise from hemorrhage. Unlike an animal model, we introduce the utilization of lower body negative pressure as a noninvasive model that allows for the study of progressive

  9. The physiology and biochemistry of total body immobilization in animals: A compendium of research. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorchak, K. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Major studies that describe the physiological and biochemical mechanisms which operate during total body restraint (confinement in cages for example) are presented. The metabolism and behavior of various animals used in medical research (dogs, monkeys, rats, fowl) was investigated and wherever possible a detailed annotation for each study is provided under the subheadings: (a) purposes, (b) procedures and methods, (c) results, and (d) conclusions. Selected references are also included.

  10. Human gut microbiome: the second genome of human body.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoli; Wang, Xin; Li, Lanjuan

    2010-08-01

    The human body is actually a super-organism that is composed of 10 times more microbial cells than our body cells. Metagenomic study of the human microbiome has demonstrated that there are 3.3 million unique genes in human gut, 150 times more genes than our own genome, and the bacterial diversity analysis showed that about 1000 bacterial species are living in our gut and a majority of them belongs to the divisions of Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes. In addition, most people share a core microbiota that comprises 50-100 bacterial species when the frequency of abundance at phylotype level is not considered, and a core microbiome harboring more than 6000 functional gene groups is present in the majority of human gut surveyed till now. Gut bacteria are not only critical for regulating gut metabolism, but also important for host immune system as revealed by animal studies.

  11. Post-human body and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maria Teresa; Di Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The article calls into question the very possibility of a post-human aesthetics, starting from the following premise: rather than post-human, it is more correct to speak of post-natural, indicating by this expression a reality produced through a new type of evolution, which does not simply change human nature, but de-natures it, radically transforming it into an artefact. This post-nature which aspires to be perfect, immortal, invulnerable, is entirely devoid of beauty. In fact, while there may be an aesthetic of the artificial and of the artefact if it is in relation to objects, there is, however, no aesthetic of the post-human body. This is because is configured as a non-body and does not have the characteristics for what is commonly intended as beauty (harmony between matter and form, a reflection of inner life, uniqueness). Also in this case, it is more correct to speak of post-beauty, which in its properties appears to be the mirror image of beauty and ultimately, represents its complete dissolution.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide in the human body.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, B; Clement, M V; Long, L H

    2000-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is widely regarded as a cytotoxic agent whose levels must be minimized by the action of antioxidant defence enzymes. In fact, H(2)O(2) is poorly reactive in the absence of transition metal ions. Exposure of certain human tissues to H(2)O(2) may be greater than is commonly supposed: substantial amounts of H(2)O(2) can be present in beverages commonly drunk (especially instant coffee), in freshly voided human urine, and in exhaled air. Levels of H(2)O(2) in the human body may be controlled not only by catabolism but also by excretion, and H(2)O(2) could play a role in the regulation of renal function and as an antibacterial agent in the urine. Urinary H(2)O(2) levels are influenced by diet, but under certain conditions might be a valuable biomarker of 'oxidative stress'.

  13. Resourcifying human bodies--Kant and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Michio

    2005-01-01

    This essay roughly sketches two major conceptions of autonomy in contemporary bioethics that promote the resourcification of human body parts: (1) a narrow conception of autonomy as self-determination; and (2) the conception of autonomy as dissociated from human dignity. In this paper I will argue that, on the one hand, these two conceptions are very different from that found in the modern European tradition of philosophical inquiry, because bioethics has concentrated on an external account of patient's self-determination and on dissociating dignity from internal human nature. However, on the other hand, they are consistent with more recent European philosophy. In this more recent tradition, human dignity has gradually been dissociated from contextual values, and human subjectivity has been dissociated from objectivity and absolutized as never to be objectified. In the concluding part, I will give a speculative sketch in which Kant's internal inquiry of maxim of ends, causality and end, and dignity as iirreplaceability is recombined with bioethics' externalized one and used to support an extended human resourcification.

  14. Physiological effects of light on the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanahan, T. L.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The physiology of the human circadian pacemaker and its influence and on the daily organization of sleep, endocrine and behavioral processes is an emerging interest in science and medicine. Understanding the development, organization and fundamental properties underlying the circadian timing system may provide insight for the application of circadian principles to the practice of clinical medicine, both diagnostically (interpretation of certain clinical tests are dependent on time of day) and therapeutically (certain pharmacological responses vary with the time of day). The light-dark cycle is the most powerful external influence acting upon the human circadian pacemaker. It has been shown that timed exposure to light can both synchronize and reset the phase of the circadian pacemaker in a predictable manner. The emergence of detectable circadian rhythmicity in the neonatal period is under investigation (as described elsewhere in this issue). Therefore, the pattern of light exposure provided in the neonatal intensive care setting has implications. One recent study identified differences in both amount of sleep time and weight gain in infants maintained in a neonatal intensive care environment that controlled the light-dark cycle. Unfortunately, neither circadian phase nor the time of day has been considered in most clinical investigations. Further studies with knowledge of principles characterizing the human circadian timing system, which governs a wide array of physiological processes, are required to integrate these findings with the practice of clinical medicine.

  15. Cellular properties and chemosensory responses of the human carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Pardal, Ricardo; Levitsky, Konstantin; Villadiego, Javier; Muñoz-Manchado, Ana Belén; Durán, Rocío; Bonilla-Henao, Victoria; Arias-Mayenco, Ignacio; Sobrino, Verónica; Ordóñez, Antonio; Oliver, María; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; López-Barneo, José

    2013-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the major peripheral arterial chemoreceptor in mammals that mediates the acute hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. The CB grows in response to sustained hypoxia and also participates in acclimatisation to chronic hypoxaemia. Knowledge of CB physiology at the cellular level has increased considerably in recent times thanks to studies performed on lower mammals, and rodents in particular. However, the functional characteristics of human CB cells remain practically unknown. Herein, we use tissue slices or enzymatically dispersed cells to determine the characteristics of human CB cells. The adult human CB parenchyma contains clusters of chemosensitive glomus (type I) and sustentacular (type II) cells as well as nestin-positive progenitor cells. This organ also expresses high levels of the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We found that GDNF production and the number of progenitor and glomus cells were preserved in the CBs of human subjects of advanced age. Moreover, glomus cells exhibited voltage-dependent Na+, Ca2+ and K+ currents that were qualitatively similar to those reported in lower mammals. These cells responded to hypoxia with an external Ca2+-dependent increase of cytosolic Ca2+ and quantal catecholamine secretion, as reported for other mammalian species. Interestingly, human glomus cells are also responsive to hypoglycaemia and together these two stimuli can potentiate each other's effects. The chemosensory responses of glomus cells are also preserved at an advanced age. These new data on the cellular and molecular physiology of the CB pave the way for future pathophysiological studies involving this organ in humans. PMID:24167224

  16. Human physiologic factors in respiratory uptake of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y S; Smith, T J; Kelsey, K T; Wypij, D

    2001-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a suspected human carcinogen, is used as the raw material in industries to make synthetic butyl rubber and plastics. Simulation models using experimental animal data have shown that physiologic factors play an important role in the kinetic behavior of BD. However, human data are limited. The aim of this inhalation study was to identify influential human physiologic factors in the respiratory uptake of BD. We recruited 133 healthy volunteers in Boston, Massachusetts, into this study and tested them under an approved human subjects protocol. Each subject was exposed to 2 ppm (4.42 mg/m3) BD for 20 min, followed by purified air for another 40 min. Five exhaled breath samples collected during exposure were used to determine the respiratory uptake of BD, which was defined as absorbed BD (micrograms) per kilogram of body weight during exposure. Although subjects were given identical administered doses (40 ppm x min), there was a wide range of uptake, 0.6-4.9 microg/kg. Of the studied physiologic factors, the blood:air partition coefficient and alveolar ventilation were most significant in determining the respiratory uptake (p < 0.001 for each). In addition, in the multiple regression analysis, females had significantly higher respiratory uptake of BD than males on a weight basis. For all subjects, increasing age and cigarette smoking led to significantly decreased respiratory uptake of BD. The results of this human study are consistent with previous kinetic simulations and animal studies. The findings also suggest that interindividual variation in human physiologic factors that affect the exposure-internal dose relationship should be considered while also exploring exposure-disease associations in future epidemiologic research. PMID:11673121

  17. Effect of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengzhi, Li; Yi, Li

    2005-09-01

    The influence of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body are investigated by using an integrated model of a clothed thermoregulatory human body. A modified 25-nodes model considering the sweat accumulation on the skin surface is applied to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The heat and moisture coupled transfer mechanisms, including water vapour diffusion, the moisture evaporation/condensation, the moisture sorbtion/desorption by fibres, liquid sweat transfer under capillary pressure, and latent heat absorption/release due to phase change, are considered in the clothing model. On comparing prediction results with the experimental data in the literature, the proposed model seems able to predict dynamic heat and moisture transfer between the human body and the clothing system. The human body's thermal responses and clothing temperature and moisture variations are compared for different clothing materials during transient periods. We concluded that the hygroscopicity of clothing materials influences the human thermoregulation process significantly during environmental transients.

  18. [The human body in Michelangelo's Moses].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    What grips us so powerfully to a work of art is the artist's intention, if he succeeds to express it in his work and we are able to understand it. Michelangelo's Moses established the essential structures of an animate organism and the embodiment of consciousness in the world. Since the body is an expressive unit, it is possible to reconstruct a highly feasible sequence of movements that might have preceded the moment caught in the statue. It is an expression of the highest ideal of mental and spiritual achievement through the controlled tension between action and restraint. The phenomenon of embodiment and feeling the body as own is the basis of concrete human existence.

  19. The elite cross-country skier provides unique insights into human exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, H-C

    2015-12-01

    Successful cross-country skiing, one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involves considerable physiological challenges posed by the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration, on hilly terrain, often at moderate altitude and in a cold environment. Over the years, this unique sport has helped physiologists gain novel insights into the limits of human performance and regulatory capacity. There is a long-standing tradition of researchers in this field working together with coaches and athletes to improve training routines, monitor progress, and refine skiing techniques. This review summarizes research on elite cross-country skiers, with special emphasis on the studies initiated by Professor Bengt Saltin. He often employed exercise as a means to learn more about the human body, successfully engaging elite endurance athletes to improve our understanding of the demands, characteristics, and specific effects associated with different types of exercise.

  20. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  1. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Three-Dimensional cryoEM Reconstruction of Native LDL Particles to 16Å Resolution at Physiological Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vibhor; Butcher, Sarah J.; Öörni, Katariina; Engelhardt, Peter; Heikkonen, Jukka; Kaski, Kimmo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kovanen, Petri T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, the major carriers of cholesterol in the human circulation, have a key role in cholesterol physiology and in the development of atherosclerosis. The most prominent structural components in LDL are the core-forming cholesteryl esters (CE) and the particle-encircling single copy of a huge, non-exchangeable protein, the apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100). The shape of native LDL particles and the conformation of native apoB-100 on the particles remain incompletely characterized at the physiological human body temperature (37°C). Methodology/Principal Findings To study native LDL particles, we applied cryo-electron microscopy to calculate 3D reconstructions of LDL particles in their hydrated state. Images of the particles vitrified at 6°C and 37°C resulted in reconstructions at ∼16 Å resolution at both temperatures. 3D variance map analysis revealed rigid and flexible domains of lipids and apoB-100 at both temperatures. The reconstructions showed less variability at 6°C than at 37°C, which reflected increased order of the core CE molecules, rather than decreased mobility of the apoB-100. Compact molecular packing of the core and order in a lipid-binding domain of apoB-100 were observed at 6°C, but not at 37°C. At 37°C we were able to highlight features in the LDL particles that are not clearly separable in 3D maps at 6°C. Segmentation of apoB-100 density, fitting of lipovitellin X-ray structure, and antibody mapping, jointly revealed the approximate locations of the individual domains of apoB-100 on the surface of native LDL particles. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides molecular background for further understanding of the link between structure and function of native LDL particles at physiological body temperature. PMID:21573056

  3. Three-dimensional cryoEM reconstruction of native LDL particles to 16Å resolution at physiological body temperature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vibhor; Butcher, Sarah J; Öörni, Katariina; Engelhardt, Peter; Heikkonen, Jukka; Kaski, Kimmo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kovanen, Petri T

    2011-05-09

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, the major carriers of cholesterol in the human circulation, have a key role in cholesterol physiology and in the development of atherosclerosis. The most prominent structural components in LDL are the core-forming cholesteryl esters (CE) and the particle-encircling single copy of a huge, non-exchangeable protein, the apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100). The shape of native LDL particles and the conformation of native apoB-100 on the particles remain incompletely characterized at the physiological human body temperature (37 °C). To study native LDL particles, we applied cryo-electron microscopy to calculate 3D reconstructions of LDL particles in their hydrated state. Images of the particles vitrified at 6 °C and 37 °C resulted in reconstructions at ~16 Å resolution at both temperatures. 3D variance map analysis revealed rigid and flexible domains of lipids and apoB-100 at both temperatures. The reconstructions showed less variability at 6 °C than at 37 °C, which reflected increased order of the core CE molecules, rather than decreased mobility of the apoB-100. Compact molecular packing of the core and order in a lipid-binding domain of apoB-100 were observed at 6 °C, but not at 37 °C. At 37 °C we were able to highlight features in the LDL particles that are not clearly separable in 3D maps at 6 °C. Segmentation of apoB-100 density, fitting of lipovitellin X-ray structure, and antibody mapping, jointly revealed the approximate locations of the individual domains of apoB-100 on the surface of native LDL particles. Our study provides molecular background for further understanding of the link between structure and function of native LDL particles at physiological body temperature.

  4. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  5. Physiological concentrations of leptin do not affect human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Vera M; Langereis, Jeroen D; van Aalst, Corneli W; van der Linden, Jan A; Ulfman, Laurien H; Koenderman, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine that is thought to be important in many inflammatory diseases, and is known to influence the function of several leukocyte types. However, no clear consensus is present regarding the responsiveness of neutrophils for this adipokine. In this study a 2D DIGE proteomics approach was used as an unbiased approach to identify leptin-induced effects on neutrophils. Additionally chemotaxis and survival experiments were performed to reproduce results from literature showing putative effects of leptin on these neutrophil responses. Leptin did not induce any significant changes in the proteome provided leptin was added at physiologically relevant concentrations (250 ng). Our leptin batches were biologically active as they induced proliferation in LeptinR expressing Ba/F3 cells. At high concentrations (25000 ng) leptin induced a change in neutrophil proteome. Seventeen differently regulated spots were identified of which twelve could be characterized by mass spectrometry. Two of these identified proteins, SerpinB1 and p40 phox, were chosen for further analysis but leptin-induced expression analyzed by western blot were highly variable. Additionally leptin also induced neutrophil survival at these high concentrations. No leptin-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils was detected at any concentration. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of leptin do not affect neutrophils. High leptin concentrations induced survival and changes in the neutrophils proteome, but this was most likely mediated by an indirect effect. However, it cannot be ruled out that the effects were mediated by a yet not-identified leptin receptor on human neutrophils.

  6. Flexible and wearable electronic silk fabrics for human physiological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Cuiping; Zhang, Huihui; Lu, Zhisong

    2017-09-01

    The development of textile-based devices for human physiological monitoring has attracted tremendous interest in recent years. However, flexible physiological sensing elements based on silk fabrics have not been realized. In this paper, ZnO nanorod arrays are grown in situ on reduced graphene oxide-coated silk fabrics via a facile electro-deposition method for the fabrication of silk-fabric-based mechanical sensing devices. The data show that well-aligned ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structures are synthesized on the conductive silk fabric surface. After magnetron sputtering of gold electrodes, silk-fabric-based devices are produced and applied to detect periodic bending and twisting. Based on the electric signals, the deformation and release processes can be easily differentiated. Human arterial pulse and respiration can also be real-time monitored to calculate the pulse rate and respiration frequency, respectively. Throat vibrations during coughing and singing are detected to demonstrate the voice recognition capability. This work may not only help develop silk-fabric-based mechanical sensing elements for potential applications in clinical diagnosis, daily healthcare monitoring and voice recognition, but also provide a versatile method for fabricating textile-based flexible electronic devices.

  7. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  8. Effects of room temperature on physiological and subjective responses during whole-body bathing, half-body bathing and showering.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Ni, Furong; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    The effects of bathroom thermal conditions on physiological and subjective responses were evaluated before, during, and after whole-body bath (W-bath), half-body bath (H-bath) and showering. The air temperature of the dressing room and bathroom was controlled at 10 degrees C, 17.5 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 min under nine conditions on separate days. The water temperature of the bathtub and shower was controlled at 40 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body weight loss and blood characteristics (hematocrit: Hct, hemoglobin: Hb) were evaluated. Also, thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort (TC) and thermal acceptability (TA) were recorded. BP decreased rapidly during W-bath and H-bath compared to showering. HR during W-bath was significantly higher than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.01). The double products due to W-bath during bathing were also greater than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.05). There were no distinct differences in Hct and Hb among the nine conditions. However, significant differences in body weight loss were observed among the bathing methods: W-bath > H-bath > showering (p < 0.001). W-bath showed the largest increase in Tre and Tsk, followed by H-bath, and showering. Significant differences in Tre after bathing among the room temperatures were found only at H-bath. The changes in Tre after bathing for H-bath at 25 degrees C were similar to those for W-bath at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C. TS and TC after bathing significantly differed for the three bathing methods at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C (TS: p < 0.01 TC: p < 0.001). Especially, for showering, the largest number of subjects felt "cold" and "uncomfortable". Even though all of the subjects could accept the 10 degrees C condition after W-bath, such conditions were intolerable to half of them after showering. These results suggested that the

  9. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  10. Human Factors Evaluation of the Hidalgo Equivital EQ-02 Physiological Status Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    Equivital™ EQ-02 physiological status monitoring ( PSM ) system. The usability and acceptability of this system has been tested previously and generally...under CBRNE- PPE provided utility and was comfortable to wear. Thermal strain; CBRNE; PPE; physiological status monitoring; PSM ; human factors; chem...real-time physiological monitoring. The Hidalgo, Ltd. (Cambridge, UK) Equivital™ EQ-02 physiological status monitoring ( PSM ) system is a typical

  11. Isomap transform for segmenting human body shapes.

    PubMed

    Cerveri, P; Sarro, K J; Marchente, M; Barros, R M L

    2011-09-01

    Segmentation of the 3D human body is a very challenging problem in applications exploiting volume capture data. Direct clustering in the Euclidean space is usually complex or even unsolvable. This paper presents an original method based on the Isomap (isometric feature mapping) transform of the volume data-set. The 3D articulated posture is mapped by Isomap in the pose of Da Vinci's Vitruvian man. The limbs are unrolled from each other and separated from the trunk and pelvis, and the topology of the human body shape is recovered. In such a configuration, Hoshen-Kopelman clustering applied to concentric spherical shells is used to automatically group points into the labelled principal curves. Shepard interpolation is utilised to back-map points of the principal curves into the original volume space. The experimental results performed on many different postures have proved the validity of the proposed method. Reliability of less than 2 cm and 3° in the location of the joint centres and direction axes of rotations has been obtained, respectively, which qualifies this procedure as a potential tool for markerless motion analysis.

  12. [How does music affect the human body?].

    PubMed

    Myskja, A; Lindbaek, M

    2000-04-10

    Music therapy has developed its practice and research approaches within a qualitative framework more related to humanistic traditions than to medical science. Music medicine has therefore developed as a separate discipline, endeavouring to incorporate the legitimate therapeutic use of music within a medical framework. This paper argues that more extensive communication and collaboration between the methods developed within the music therapy community, and research based on medical science, could lead to a better understanding of the place of music as a therapeutic tool, both as regards its efficacy and its limits. Research has shown that music may influence central physiological variables like blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, EEG measurements, body temperature and galvanic skin response. Music influences immune and endocrine function. The existing research literature shows growing knowledge of how music can ameliorate pain, anxiety, nausea, fatigue and depression. There is less research done on how music, and what type of music, is utilized and administered specifically for optimum effect in specific clinical situations.

  13. Effects of Exercise and Dietary Protein Levels on Body Composition in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    on urea elimination in starva- tion. Ztschr Biol 2:307, 1866. 3. ATWATER, W.O. The demands of the body for nourishment and dietary standards, Fifteenth...H.C., and J.C. WINTER. Efficiency of maize protein in adult human nutrition. J Biol Chem 35:301, 1918. 8. CHITTENDEN, R.H. Physiological economy in

  14. Measurements, modeling, control and simulation - as applied to the human left ventricle for purposeful physiological monitoring.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghista, D. N.; Rasmussen, D. N.; Linebarger, R. N.; Sandler, H.

    1971-01-01

    Interdisciplinary engineering research effort in studying the intact human left ventricle has been employed to physiologically monitor the heart and to obtain its 'state-of-health' characteristics. The left ventricle was selected for this purpose because it plays a key role in supplying energy to the body cells. The techniques for measurement of the left ventricular geometry are described; the geometry is effectively displayed to bring out the abnormalities in cardiac function. Methods of mathematical modeling, which make it possible to determine the performance of the intact left ventricular muscle, are also described. Finally, features of a control system for the left ventricle for predicting the effect of certain physiological stress situations on the ventricle performance are discussed.

  15. Trace elements in human body fluids and tissues.

    PubMed

    Versieck, J

    1985-01-01

    Published figures for trace element concentrations in body fluids and tissues of apparently healthy subjects are widely divergent. For a considerable time, the apparent disparities were readily ascribed to biological sources of variation such as age, sex, dietary habits, physiological conditions, environmental exposure, geographical circumstances, or similar influences. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this interpretation may be seriously questioned in numerous instances. First, values obtained in reference materials leave no doubt that some previous studies must have been subject to gross analytical inaccuracies. Second, it has now been thoroughly documented that inadequate sample collection and manipulation may drastically distort the intrinsic trace element content of biological matrices. This review scrutinizes data reported by a number of investigators. In an effort to settle the currently flourishing confusion, critically selected reference values are set forth for trace element levels in human blood plasma or serum, packed blood cells, urine, lung, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle tissue.

  16. Hypohydration and Human Performance: Impact of Environment and Physiological Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Body water losses of >2 % of body mass are defined as hypohydration and can occur from sweat loss and/or diuresis from both cold and altitude exposure. Hypohydration elicits intracellular and extracellular water loss proportionate to water and solute deficits. Iso-osmotic hypovolemia (from cold and high-altitude exposure) results in greater plasma loss for a given water deficit than hypertonic hypovolemia from sweat loss. Hypohydration does not impair submaximal intensity aerobic performance in cold-cool environments, sometimes impairs aerobic performance in temperate environments, and usually impairs aerobic performance in warm-hot environments. Hypohydration begins to impair aerobic performance when skin temperatures exceed 27 °C, and with each additional 1 °C elevation in skin temperature there is a further 1.5 % impairment. Hypohydration has an additive effect on impairing aerobic performance in warm-hot high-altitude environments. A commonality of absolute hypovolemia (from plasma volume loss) combined with relative hypovolemia (from tissue vasodilation) is present when aerobic performance is impaired. The decrement in aerobic exercise performance due to hypohydration is likely due to multiple physiological mechanisms, including cardiovascular strain acting as the 'lynchpin', elevated tissue temperatures, and metabolic changes which are all integrated through the CNS to reduce motor drive to skeletal muscles.

  17. Physiological and Biomechanical Responses to Running on Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmills in Healthy Populations.

    PubMed

    Farina, Kathryn A; Wright, Alexis A; Ford, Kevin R; Wirfel, Leah Anne; Smoliga, James M

    2017-02-01

    Lower body positive pressure treadmills (LBPPTs) aim to reduce musculoskeletal loading during running. As LBPPTs have become more commercially available, they have become integrated into athletic performance and clinical rehabilitation settings. Consequentially, published research examining the biomechanical and physiological responses to unweighted running has increased. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature in an attempt to provide researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive review of physiologic and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running. Through a generic search of PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus using a comprehensive list of search terms related to LBPPT, unweighting, and body weight support during running, we identified all peer-reviewed publications that included LBPPT running. Two reviewers independently evaluated the quality of studies using a modified Downs and Black checklist for non-randomized studies. A total of 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Peak and active vertical ground-reaction forces were consistently reduced with unweighting, but regional loading within the foot was also altered towards a forefoot strike. LBPPTs also provide some horizontal assistance. Neuromuscular activation is generally reduced with LBPPTs, but the stabilizer muscle groups may respond differently than the propulsive muscle groups. Submaximal heart rate and volume oxygen consumption are reduced with unweighting, but physiologic response remains generally unchanged at maximal intensities. The current literature suggests that LBPPTs are effective in allowing individuals to achieve a given metabolic stimulus with reduced musculoskeletal loading. However, LBPPTs not only reduce impact but also change neuromuscular activation and biomechanics in a complex manner. Thus, clinicians must account for the specific biomechanical and physiological alterations induced by LBPPTs when designing training programs and

  18. Interaction of 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine with human serum albumin under physiological and non-physiological condition: a biophysical investigation.

    PubMed

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Rabbani, Gulam; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2014-11-01

    Uridine analogs 5'dFUrd (a cytotoxic metabolite of a prodrug capecitabine that enzymatically converted into 5'dFUrd) commonly used in the treatment of advanced human cancers, especially gastrointestinal tract, ovary, colorectal, breast cancers etc. Drugs/metabolites are transported in the blood by transporter proteins like human serum albumin (HSA). Here we investigate the interaction of 5'dFUrd to HSA by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques at physiological (pH 7.4) and non-physiological (pH 9.0) conditions. The binding constant (Kb), enthalpy change (ΔH°), entropy change (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) were also calculated under both conditions. The secondary structure of HSA showed greater alteration in helicity at physiological pH. ITC measurement reveals that HSA have high binding affinity at physiological pH as compares to non-physiological conditions. The thermostability of HSA alone as well of the HSA-drug complex was found to be higher at physiological pH. The binding study was also explored through molecular docking studies which revealed that 5'dFUrd was bound to subdomain IIA of Sudlow's site I through multiple mode of interaction. These results suggest that 5'dFUrd have high binding affinity at physiological condition or "N" isoform so lower drug concentrations are required in compare to non-physiological or "B" isoform of HSA to completely occupied the binding site of the protein.

  19. Multi-body dynamics modelling of seated human body under exposure to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takuya; Nakai, Kazuma; Tamaoki, Gen

    2005-07-01

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spine such as chronic lumbago or low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column and to make up appropriate guidelines or counter plans. In ISO2631-1 or ISO2631-5 assessment of vibration effects to human in the view of adverse-health effect was already presented. However, it is necessary to carry out further research to understand the effect of vibration to human body to examine their validity and to prepare for the future revision. This paper shows the detail measurement of human response to vibration, and the modelling of the seated human body for the assessment of the vibration risk. The vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and to the head are measured during the exposure to vertical excitation. The modal paramters of seated subject are extracted in order to understand the dominant natural modes. For the evaluation of adverse-health effect the multi-body modelling of the spinal column is introduced. A simplified model having 10 DOFs is counstructed so that the transmissibilities of the model fit to those of experiment. The transient response analysis is illustrated when a half-sine input is applied. The relative displacements of vertebrae are evaluated, which can be a basis for the assessment of vibration risk. It is suggested that the multi-body dynamic model is used to evaluate the vibration effect to the spinal column for seated subjects.

  20. Engineering physiologically stiff and stratified human cartilage by fusing condensed mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, clinically sized and mechanically functional cartilage could be engineered from young animal chondrocytes, but not from adult human mesenchymal stem cells that are of primary clinical interest. The approaches developed for primary chondrocytes were not successful when used with human mesenchymal cells. The method discussed here was designed to employ a mechanism similar to pre-cartilaginous condensation and fusion of mesenchymal stem cells at a precisely defined time. The formation of cartilage was initiated by press-molding the mesenchymal bodies onto the surface of a bone substrate. By image-guided fabrication of the bone substrate and the molds, the osteochondral constructs were engineered in anatomically precise shapes and sizes. After 5 weeks of cultivation, the cartilage layer assumed physiologically stratified histomorphology, and contained lubricin at the surface, proteoglycans and type II collagen in the bulk phase, collagen type X at the interface with the bone substrate, and collagen type I within the bone phase. For the first time, the Young’s modulus and the friction coefficient of human cartilage engineered from mesenchymal stem cells reached physiological levels for adult human cartilage. We propose that this method can be effective for generating human osteochondral tissue constructs. PMID:25828645

  1. Engineering physiologically stiff and stratified human cartilage by fusing condensed mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-08-01

    For a long time, clinically sized and mechanically functional cartilage could be engineered from young animal chondrocytes, but not from adult human mesenchymal stem cells that are of primary clinical interest. The approaches developed for primary chondrocytes were not successful when used with human mesenchymal cells. The method discussed here was designed to employ a mechanism similar to pre-cartilaginous condensation and fusion of mesenchymal stem cells at a precisely defined time. The formation of cartilage was initiated by press-molding the mesenchymal bodies onto the surface of a bone substrate. By image-guided fabrication of the bone substrate and the molds, the osteochondral constructs were engineered in anatomically precise shapes and sizes. After 5 weeks of cultivation, the cartilage layer assumed physiologically stratified histomorphology, and contained lubricin at the surface, proteoglycans and type II collagen in the bulk phase, collagen type X at the interface with the bone substrate, and collagen type I within the bone phase. For the first time, the Young's modulus and the friction coefficient of human cartilage engineered from mesenchymal stem cells reached physiological levels for adult human cartilage. We propose that this method can be effective for generating human osteochondral tissue constructs.

  2. Physiological and Biomechanical Mechanisms of Distance Specific Human Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M A

    2017-08-01

    Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles. Middle distance running performance is characterized by intermediates of biomechanical and physiological parameters, with the possibility of unique combinations of each leading to high-level performance. The relatively fast velocities in mid-distance events require a high mechanical power output, though ground reaction forces are less than in sprinting. Elite mid-distance runners exhibit local muscle adaptations that, along with a large anaerobic capacity, provide the ability to generate a high power output. Aerobic capacity starts to become an important aspect of performance in middle distance events, especially as distance increases. In distance running events, V˙O2max is an important determinant of performance, but is relatively homogeneous in elite runners. V˙O2 and velocity at lactate threshold have been shown to be superior predictors of elite distance running performance. Ultramarathons are relatively new running events, as such, less is known about physiological and biomechanical parameters that underlie ultra-marathon performance. However, it is clear that performance in these events is related to aerobic capacity, fuel utilization, and fatigue resistance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in

  3. User Interactive Software for Analysis of Human Physiological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William; Taylor, Bruce C.; Acharya, Soumydipta

    2006-01-01

    Ambulatory physiological monitoring has been used to study human health and performance in space and in a variety of Earth-based environments (e.g., military aircraft, armored vehicles, small groups in isolation, and patients). Large, multi-channel data files are typically recorded in these environments, and these files often require the removal of contaminated data prior to processing and analyses. Physiological data processing can now be performed with user-friendly, interactive software developed by the Ames Psychophysiology Research Laboratory. This software, which runs on a Windows platform, contains various signal-processing routines for both time- and frequency- domain data analyses (e.g., peak detection, differentiation and integration, digital filtering, adaptive thresholds, Fast Fourier Transform power spectrum, auto-correlation, etc.). Data acquired with any ambulatory monitoring system that provides text or binary file format are easily imported to the processing software. The application provides a graphical user interface where one can manually select and correct data artifacts utilizing linear and zero interpolation and adding trigger points for missed peaks. Block and moving average routines are also provided for data reduction. Processed data in numeric and graphic format can be exported to Excel. This software, PostProc (for post-processing) requires the Dadisp engineering spreadsheet (DSP Development Corp), or equivalent, for implementation. Specific processing routines were written for electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electromyography, blood pressure, skin conductance level, impedance cardiography (cardiac output, stroke volume, thoracic fluid volume), temperature, and respiration

  4. Relationship between sociability toward humans and physiological stress in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoon-Joo; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2017-07-28

    Sociability is an essential trait for dogs to successfully interact with humans. In this study, the relationship between sociability and physiological stress was examined. Additionally, whether differences exist between companion dogs (C group) and shelter dogs (S group) was examined. Overall, healthy 37 dogs (C group=21 and S group=16) were examined. After 5 min of walking, the dog and the owner (or the chief manager) rested freely in the experimental location for 5 min. The behavioral test with 6 categories was conducted to evaluate sociability over 4 min. The establishment of two groups (H group=dogs with high sociability; L group=dogs with low sociability) was supported by the statistical results of the behavioral tests. Saliva was collected before (P1) and after the test period (P2), and salivary cortisol levels were determined and statistically analyzed. The cortisol concentrations at P2 and the differences in concentrations between P1 and P2 (P2-P1) in the groups with high sociability were significantly lower than those in the groups with low sociability. These results may demonstrate that sociable dogs adapt more comfortably to strangers and unfamiliar situations. Meanwhile, there were significant differences in hormonal results between the C and S groups. For this reason, their sociability should be evaluated using behavioral and physiological assessments before re-adoption to ensure their successful adaptation.

  5. Examination of Duct Physiology in the Human Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dixie; Gomberawalla, Ameer; Gordon, Eva J.; Tondre, Julie; Nejad, Mitra; Nguyen, Tinh; Pogoda, Janice M.; Rao, Jianyu; Chatterton, Robert; Henning, Susanne; Love, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human breast comprise several ductal systems, or lobes, which contain a small amount of fluid containing cells, hormones, proteins and metabolites. The complex physiology of these ducts is likely a contributing factor to the development of breast cancer, especially given that the vast majority of breast cancers begin in a single lobular unit. Methods We examined the levels of total protein, progesterone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and macrophages in ductal fluid samples obtained from 3 ducts each in 78 women, sampled twice over a 6 month period. Samples were processed for both cytological and molecular analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients and mixed models were utilized to identify significant data. Results We found that the levels of these ductal fluid components were generally uncorrelated among ducts within a single breast and over time, suggesting that each lobe within the breast has a distinct physiology. However, we also found that estradiol was more correlated in women who were nulliparous or produced nipple aspirate fluid. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the microenvironment of any given lobular unit is unique to that individual unit, findings that may provide clues about the initiation and development of ductal carcinomas. PMID:27073976

  6. Human physiological reaction to geomagnetic disturbances of solar origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Sv.; Stoilova, I.

    2002-12-01

    During the last two decades publications about the influence of geomagnetic activity on human health increase but there are not still strong evidences for this relationship. We performed measurements and observations of 86 working volunteers during the period of autumn and spring equinox. We examined systolic, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate. We also collected data for some personal health condition complaints. Four-way analyses of variance (MANOVA method) were employed and the influence of factors geomagnetic activity level, sequence of the days of measurements with respect to the increased geomagnetic activity, medicaments and sex was investigated. We also performed three-way analyses of variance and investigated influence of atmospheric pressure, medicaments and sex on the physiological parameters under consideration. Our investigations indicate that most of the persons examined irrespectively to their health status could be sensitive to the geomagnetic changes, which influence directly self-confidence and working ability.

  7. Integrating an Interprofessional Education Experience Into a Human Physiology Course.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott; Molina, Patricia E; McDonough, Kathleen H; Mercante, Donald E; Gunaldo, Tina P

    2017-09-01

    To obtain physician assistant (PA) student perceptions about an interprofessional education (IPE) training experience embedded in a multidisciplinary science course. An IPE training experience was integrated into a graduate human physiology course offered to PA, physical therapy, and graduate studies students. The focus of the activity related to the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) competency domains of (1) roles and responsibilities and (2) teams and teamwork. Effectiveness was assessed in pretraining and posttraining surveys, which included questions addressing student self-perceptions of IPEC competency domains, student assessment of the learning activity, and student reflection. We observed a statistically significant positive change in PA student perceptions of IPEC competency domains. Students also provided a positive evaluation of the IPE activity and communicated personal improvements in IPE perspectives. Incorporating planned IPE experiences into multidisciplinary health science courses represents an appropriate venue for PA students to learn and apply interprofessional competencies, which may benefit future interprofessional practice.

  8. Physiological and Biomechanical Considerations for a Human Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkey, A.

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness - ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk.

  9. Development of a Physiological Model for the Human Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitnitsky, Michael; Thangam, Siva

    2011-11-01

    The intervertebral disc in a human spine is a complex structure consisting of three distinct parts: the nucleus pulposus, the annulus fibrosus, and the cartilaginous end-plates. The Nucleus Pulposus is centrally located within the disc surrounded by annulus fibrosus. It consists of a loose network of fibers and cells in a proteoglycan gel, which merges indistinctly at its outer margin with the annulus fibrosus. A viscoelastic constitutive model is proposed for the nucleus pulposus of the human spine to facilitate the development of a flexible intervetebral device designed for application in the thoraco-lumbar region of the human spine during surgery. A novel experimental set up was designed to establish application limits of the design concept for different approaches in spinal surgery. Both static and fatigue mechanical tests based on the ASTM standards provided a basis for the comparison with some existing clinically successful spinal implants designed for similar applications. Also, these mechanical tests and in-vitro comparison with normal spine provided the application limits of this design in surgery to maintain physiologic functional performance at the affected spinal level. The model is used to investigate the effect of the various design parameters on the biomechanical environment of the spine segment.

  10. Physiological and biomechanical considerations for a human Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness--ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk.

  11. Nanogenerators for Human Body Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2017-07-01

    Humans generate remarkable quantities of energy while performing daily activities, but this energy usually dissipates into the environment. Here, we address recent progress in the development of nanogenerators (NGs): devices that are able to harvest such body-produced biomechanical and thermal energies by exploiting piezoelectric, triboelectric, and thermoelectric physical effects. In designing NGs, the end-user's comfort is a primary concern. Therefore, we focus on recently developed materials giving flexibility and stretchability to NGs. In addition, we summarize common fabrics for NG design. Finally, the mid-2020s market forecasts for these promising technologies highlight the potential for the commercialization of NGs because they may help contribute to the route of innovation for developing self-powered systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological Concentrations of Leptin Do Not Affect Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Vera M.; Langereis, Jeroen D.; van Aalst, Corneli W.; van der Linden, Jan A.; Ulfman, Laurien H.; Koenderman, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine that is thought to be important in many inflammatory diseases, and is known to influence the function of several leukocyte types. However, no clear consensus is present regarding the responsiveness of neutrophils for this adipokine. In this study a 2D DIGE proteomics approach was used as an unbiased approach to identify leptin-induced effects on neutrophils. Additionally chemotaxis and survival experiments were performed to reproduce results from literature showing putative effects of leptin on these neutrophil responses. Leptin did not induce any significant changes in the proteome provided leptin was added at physiologically relevant concentrations (250 ng). Our leptin batches were biologically active as they induced proliferation in LeptinR expressing Ba/F3 cells. At high concentrations (25000 ng) leptin induced a change in neutrophil proteome. Seventeen differently regulated spots were identified of which twelve could be characterized by mass spectrometry. Two of these identified proteins, SerpinB1 and p40 phox, were chosen for further analysis but leptin-induced expression analyzed by western blot were highly variable. Additionally leptin also induced neutrophil survival at these high concentrations. No leptin-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils was detected at any concentration. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of leptin do not affect neutrophils. High leptin concentrations induced survival and changes in the neutrophils proteome, but this was most likely mediated by an indirect effect. However, it cannot be ruled out that the effects were mediated by a yet not-identified leptin receptor on human neutrophils. PMID:24066032

  13. Prediction of the physiological response of humans wearing protective clothing using a thermophysiological human simulator.

    PubMed

    Psikuta, Agnes; Wang, Li-Chu; Rossi, René M

    2013-01-01

    Most standards and devices for determining clothing properties ignore the physiological state of the wearer and are inadequate to evaluate the transient thermal properties of clothing ensembles. This study evaluated the physiological burden of different types of protective clothing and environmental conditions using the recently developed single-sector thermo-physiological human simulator and compared its performance with a thermal cylinder (without the physiological control model) and with an advanced physiological model (with a simple clothing model). A single-sector physiological simulator developed to simulate the dynamic thermal and perceptual behavior of humans over a wide range of environmental and personal conditions was successfully validated in this study through tests with clothed individuals exposed to hot and cold conditions. In comparative tests on water vapor permeable and impermeable clothing samples, the simulator provided a much more complete picture of actual clothing performance, for example, in terms of moisture retention within the clothing and the additional cooling due to the "heat pipe" effect in impermeable clothing.

  14. Physiologic mechanisms of circulatory and body fluid losses in weightlessness identified by mathematical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Central volume expansion due to fluid shifts in weightlessness is believed to activate adaptive reflexes which ultimately result in a reduction of the total circulating blood volume. However, the flight data suggests that a central volume overdistention does not persist, in which case some other factor or factors must be responsible for body fluid losses. We used a computer simulation to test the hypothesis that factors other than central volume overdistention are involved in the loss of blood volume and other body fluid volumes observed in weightlessness and in weightless simulations. Additionally, the simulation was used to identify these factors. The results predict that atrial volumes and pressures return to their prebedrest baseline values within the first day of exposure to head down tilt (HDT) as the blood volume is reduced by an elevated urine formation. They indicate that the mechanisms for large and prolonged body fluid losses in weightlessness is red cell hemoconcentration that elevates blood viscosity and peripheral resistance, thereby lowering capillary pressure. This causes a prolonged alteration of the balance of Starling forces, depressing the extracellular fluid volume until the hematocrit is returned to normal through a reduction of the red cell mass, which also allows some restoration of the plasma volume. We conclude that the red cell mass becomes the physiologic driver for a large 'undershoot' of the body fluid volumes after the normalization of atrial volumes and pressures.

  15. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Binsl, Thomas W.; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

  16. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Johannes H G M; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K; de Graaf, Albert A; Binsl, Thomas W; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-11-13

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible.

  17. Relationships between some psychological assessments, body-build, and physiological stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, P. K.; Jones, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    A number of physiological responses to the psychological stress of an oral academic examination were observed, including heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, urinary 17-oxogenic steroid excretion, and plasma corticosteroid concentration. The results were related to body-build and to four psychological tests: Eysenck Personality Inventory, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, IPAT Anxiety Scale, and Stimulus-Response Inventory. No significant associations were found between the psychological test results and anticipatory physiological activity just before the examination began, including excretion of 17-oxogenic steroids. Respiration rate was not increased by anticipatory stress, unlike the other variables, which were significantly higher than control values taken under resting conditions three months later. The students of primarily linear physique had significantly higher plasma corticosteroid values than the predominantly muscular subjects at the time of the examination, as found previously. They also had significantly higher analogue measures of the degree of anxiety experienced at the examination (assessed both by the subject and by an observer). Therefore, linear subjects appear to experience more anxiety than muscular students in a similar situation of psychological stress. Both the IPAT Scale and S-R Inventory results were significantly higher for the linear group but there were no significant differences for the EPI and TMAS scores, as used in previous studies. The importance of constitutional factors associated with body-build in relation to at least some aspects of personality is strongly suggested by the findings. PMID:4753880

  18. Adiposity and human regional body temperature.

    PubMed

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2009-11-01

    Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) > or = 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18-25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography-measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 +/- 0.7 degrees C compared with 28.6 +/- 0.9 degrees C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography-measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C compared with 32.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in obesity. This trial was

  19. Adiposity and human regional body temperature123

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Design: Obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥ 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18–25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Results: Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography–measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 ± 0.7°C compared with 28.6 ± 0.9°C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography–measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 ± 0.2°C compared with 32.8 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in

  20. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  1. Neuroproteomic profiling of human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Häggmark, Anna; Schwenk, Jochen M; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of protein expression and abundance provides a possibility to extend the current knowledge on disease-associated processes and pathways. The human brain is a complex organ and dysfunction or damage can give rise to a variety of neurological diseases. Although many proteins potentially reflecting disease progress are originating from brain, the scarce availability of human tissue material has lead to utilization of body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood in disease-related research. Within the most common neurological disorders, much effort has been spent on studying the role of a few hallmark proteins in disease pathogenesis but despite extensive investigation, the signatures they provide seem insufficient to fully understand and predict disease progress. In order to expand the view the field of neuroproteomics has lately emerged alongside developing technologies, such as affinity proteomics and mass spectrometry, for multiplexed and high-throughput protein profiling. Here, we provide an overview of how such technologies have been applied to study neurological disease and we also discuss some important considerations concerning discovery of disease-associated profiles.

  2. A multi-tissue type genome-scale metabolic network for analysis of whole-body systems physiology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions provide a biologically meaningful mechanistic basis for the genotype-phenotype relationship. The global human metabolic network, termed Recon 1, has recently been reconstructed allowing the systems analysis of human metabolic physiology and pathology. Utilizing high-throughput data, Recon 1 has recently been tailored to different cells and tissues, including the liver, kidney, brain, and alveolar macrophage. These models have shown utility in the study of systems medicine. However, no integrated analysis between human tissues has been done. Results To describe tissue-specific functions, Recon 1 was tailored to describe metabolism in three human cells: adipocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes. These cell-specific networks were manually curated and validated based on known cellular metabolic functions. To study intercellular interactions, a novel multi-tissue type modeling approach was developed to integrate the metabolic functions for the three cell types, and subsequently used to simulate known integrated metabolic cycles. In addition, the multi-tissue model was used to study diabetes: a pathology with systemic properties. High-throughput data was integrated with the network to determine differential metabolic activity between obese and type II obese gastric bypass patients in a whole-body context. Conclusion The multi-tissue type modeling approach presented provides a platform to study integrated metabolic states. As more cell and tissue-specific models are released, it is critical to develop a framework in which to study their interdependencies. PMID:22041191

  3. Trace elements in human physiology and pathology: zinc and metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Tapiero, Haim; Tew, Kenneth D

    2003-11-01

    Zinc is one of the most abundant nutritionally essential elements in the human body. It is found in all body tissues with 85% of the whole body zinc in muscle and bone, 11% in the skin and the liver and the remaining in all the other tissues. In multicellular organisms, virtually all zinc is intracellular, 30-40% is located in the nucleus, 50% in the cytoplasm, organelles and specialized vesicles (for digestive enzymes or hormone storage) and the remainder in the cell membrane. Zinc intake ranges from 107 to 231 micromol/d depending on the source, and human zinc requirement is estimated at 15 mg/d. Zinc has been shown to be essential to the structure and function of a large number of macromolecules and for over 300 enzymic reactions. It has both catalytic and structural roles in enzymes, while in zinc finger motifs, it provides a scaffold that organizes protein sub-domains for the interaction with either DNA or other proteins. It is critical for the function of a number of metalloproteins, inducing members of oxido-reductase, hydrolase ligase, lyase family and has co-activating functions with copper in superoxide dismutase or phospholipase C. The zinc ion (Zn(++)) does not participate in redox reactions, which makes it a stable ion in a biological medium whose potential is in constant flux. Zinc ions are hydrophilic and do not cross cell membranes by passive diffusion. In general, transport has been described as having both saturable and non-saturable components, depending on the Zn(II) concentrations involved. Zinc ions exist primarily in the form of complexes with proteins and nucleic acids and participate in all aspects of intermediary metabolism, transmission and regulation of the expression of genetic information, storage, synthesis and action of peptide hormones and structural maintenance of chromatin and biomembranes.

  4. Neurobehavioral and physiologic effects of trifluoromethane in humans.

    PubMed

    Fagan, S C; Rahill, A A; Balakrishnan, G; Ewing, J R; Branch, C A; Brown, G G

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging shows promise in the measurement of human cerebral blood flow (CBF) in that nonradioactive indicators may be used. Our earlier investigations with trifluoromethane (FC-23) gas have shown that this compound can be used to safely and effectively measure CBF in anesthetized animal models. In this Phase I dose-escalation study we set out to determine the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) of FC-23 in normal healthy male volunteers and to assess its feasibility as an NMR indicator. Five subjects were exposed in a blinded fashion to escalating concentrations of FC-23 between 10% and 60%, randomly interleaved with exposures to both room air and 40% nitrous oxide. On each study day, the subjects breathed the test gas for eight pulses of 3 min each with 2-min clearance periods between the pulses. The subjects underwent intensive physiologic and neurobehavioral monitoring throughout the study period. The first subject experienced an anesthetic response to 60% FC-23, and the second subject experienced "discomfort" and requested discontinuation at the initiation of 40% FC-23. The MTC was subsequently determined to be 30% FC-23 (all subjects tolerated the gas), although a small (37.6 vs. 40.5) but statistically significant retention of carbon dioxide was found (p = .003). When one subject received 30% FC-23 during an NMR imaging study, a pronounced anesthetic effect with intolerable hyperacusis was demonstrated. Human studies of FC-23 have been discontinued in our laboratory.

  5. Differences between the physiologic and psychologic effects of aromatherapy body treatment.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hitomi; Tsujita, Junzo; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Takemura, Masanori; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2008-07-01

    The wide use of herbal plants and essential oils for the prevention and treatment of diseases dates back to ancient times. However, the scientific basis for the beneficial effects of such plants and oils has not been precisely clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aromatherapy body treatment on healthy subjects. We compared the physiologic and psychologic effects of aromatherapy body treatment (E), massage treatment with carrier oil alone (C), and rest in healthy adults. Seven (7) female and 6 male volunteers participated as subjects. Each subject underwent 3 trials, in which the Advanced Trail Making Test (ATMT) was given as a stress-inducing task before and after 1 of 3 treatments. The State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), the Visual Analog Scale, and the Face Scale were used to assess anxiety, feelings, and mood, respectively. After the treatments, the SAI score and the feelings of fatigue were decreased, the positive and comfortable feelings were increased, and mood improved significantly in C and E. Furthermore, significant declines in the feelings of mental and total fatigue were maintained even after the second ATMT in E. On the other hand, the cortisol concentration in the saliva did not show significant changes in any of the trials. Secretory immunoglobulin A levels in the saliva increased significantly after all treatments. We conclude that massage treatments, irrespective of the presence of essential oils, are more advantageous than rest in terms of psychologic or subjective evaluations but not in terms of physiologic or objective evaluations. Furthermore, as compared to massage alone, the aromatherapy body treatment provides a stronger and continuous relief from fatigue, especially fatigue of mental origin.

  6. Effects of Neuregulin 3 Genotype on Human Prefrontal Cortex Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tost, Heike; Callicott, Joseph H.; Rasetti, Roberta; Vakkalanka, Radhakrishna; Mattay, Venkata S.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    The neuregulin 3 gene (NRG3) plays pleiotropic roles in neurodevelopment and is a putative susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. Specifically, the T allele of NRG3 rs10748842 has been associated with illness risk, altered cognitive function, and the expression of a novel splice isoform in prefrontal cortex (PFC), but the neural system effects are unexplored. Here, we report an association between rs10748842 and PFC physiology as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging of human working memory performance, where a convincing link between increased genetic risk for schizophrenia and increased activation in some PFC areas has been established. In 410 control individuals (195 males, 215 females), we detected a highly significant effect of NRG3 genotype manifesting as an unanticipated increase in ventrolateral PFC activation in nonrisk-associated C allele carriers. An additional analysis including 78 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (64 males, 14 females) and 123 unaffected siblings (53 males, 70 females) revealed a whole-brain significant genotype by group interaction in right dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), manifesting as a relative activation increase in healthy controls and siblings (C > T/T) and as a hypoactivation in patients (T/T > C). These observed genotype-dependent effects in PFC were not explained by task performance and did not conform to established locales of prefrontal inefficiency linked to genetic risk for schizophrenia. Our data indicate a complex modulation of brain physiology by rs10748842, which does not fit the simple inefficiency model of risk association in DLPFC and suggests that other neurobiological mechanisms are involved. PMID:24431462

  7. The physiology and pathophysiology of human breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Peter; Lundgren, Claes E G

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief overview of physiological reactions, limitations, and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with human breath-hold diving. Breath-hold duration and ability to withstand compression at depth are the two main challenges that have been overcome to an amazing degree as evidenced by the current world records in breath-hold duration at 10:12 min and depth of 214 m. The quest for even further performance enhancements continues among competitive breath-hold divers, even if absolute physiological limits are being approached as indicated by findings of pulmonary edema and alveolar hemorrhage postdive. However, a remarkable, and so far poorly understood, variation in individual disposition for such problems exists. Mortality connected with breath-hold diving is primarily concentrated to less well-trained recreational divers and competitive spearfishermen who fall victim to hypoxia. Particularly vulnerable are probably also individuals with preexisting cardiac problems and possibly, essentially healthy divers who may have suffered severe alternobaric vertigo as a complication to inadequate pressure equilibration of the middle ears. The specific topics discussed include the diving response and its expression by the cardiovascular system, which exhibits hypertension, bradycardia, oxygen conservation, arrhythmias, and contraction of the spleen. The respiratory system is challenged by compression of the lungs with barotrauma of descent, intrapulmonary hemorrhage, edema, and the effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation. Various mechanisms associated with hypoxia and loss of consciousness are discussed, including hyperventilation, ascent blackout, fasting, and excessive postexercise O(2) consumption. The potential for high nitrogen pressure in the lungs to cause decompression sickness and N(2) narcosis is also illuminated.

  8. Human pathogens in plant biofilms: Formation, physiology, and detection.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Eduardo; Hoagland, Lori; Ku, Seockmo; Li, Xuan; Ladisch, Michael

    2017-01-09

    Fresh produce, viewed as an essential part of a healthy life style is usually consumed in the form of raw or minimally processed fruits and vegetables, and is a potentially important source of food-borne human pathogenic bacteria and viruses. These are passed on to the consumer since the bacteria can form biofilms or otherwise populate plant tissues, thereby using plants as vectors to infect animal hosts. The life cycle of the bacteria in plants differs from those in animals or humans and results in altered physiochemical and biological properties (e.g., physiology, immunity, native microflora, physical barriers, mobility, and temperature). Mechanisms by which healthy plants may become contaminated by microorganisms, develop biofilms, and then pass on their pathogenic burden to people are explored in the context of hollow fiber microfiltration by which plant-derived microorganisms may be recovered and rapidly concentrated to facilitate study of their properties. Enzymes, when added to macerated plant tissues, hydrolyze or alter macromolecules that would otherwise foul hollow-fiber microfiltration membranes. Hence, microfiltration may be used to quickly increase the concentration of microorganisms to detectable levels. This review discusses microbial colonization of vegetables, formation and properties of biofilms, and how hollow fiber microfiltration may be used to concentrate microbial targets to detectable levels. The use of added enzymes helps to disintegrate biofilms and minimize hollow fiber membrane fouling, thereby providing a new tool for more time effectively elucidating mechanisms by which biofilms develop and plant tissue becomes contaminated with human pathogens. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;9999: 1-16. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Warming reinforces nonconsumptive predator effects on prey growth, physiology, and body stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Lizanne; Van Dievel, Marie; Stoks, Robby

    2015-12-01

    While nonconsumptive effects of predators may strongly affect prey populations, little is known how future warming will modulate these effects. Such information would be especially relevant with regard to prey physiology and resulting changes in prey stoichiometry. We investigated in Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae the effects of a 4°C warming (20°C vs. 24°C) and predation risk on growth rate, physiology and body stoichiometry, for the first time including all key mechanisms suggested by the general stress paradigm (GSP) on how stressors shape changes in body stoichiometry. Growth rate and energy storage were higher at 24°C. Based on thermodynamic principles and the growth rate hypothesis, we could demonstrate predictable reductions in body C:P under warming and link these to the increase in P-rich RNA; the associated warming-induced decrease in C:N may be explained by the increased synthesis of N-rich proteins. Yet, under predation risk, growth rate instead decreased with warming and the warming-induced decreases in C:N and C:P disappeared. As predicted by the GSP, larvae increased body C:N and C:P at 24°C under predation risk. Notably, we did not detect the assumed GSP-mechanisms driving these changes: despite an increased metabolic rate there was neither an increase of C-rich biomolecules (instead fat and sugar contents decreased under predation risk), nor a decrease of N-rich proteins. We hypothesize that the higher C:N and N:P under predation risk are caused by a higher investment in morphological defense. This may also explain the stronger predator-induced increase in C:N under warming. The expected higher C:P under predation risk was only present under warming and matched the observed growth reduction and associated reduction in P-rich RNA. Our integrated mechanistic approach unraveled novel pathways of how warming and predation risk shape body stoichiometry. Key findings that (1) warming effects on elemental stoichiometry were predictable and

  10. Physiological signal based entity authentication for body area sensor networks and mobile healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shu-Di; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Shen, Lian-Feng

    2005-01-01

    With the evolution of m-Health, an increasing number of biomedical sensors will be worn on or implanted in an individual in the future for the monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. For the optimization of resources, it is therefore necessary to investigate how to interconnect these sensors in a wireless body area network, wherein security of private data transmission is always a major concern. This paper proposes a novel solution to tackle the problem of entity authentication in body area sensor network (BASN) for m-Health. Physiological signals detected by biomedical sensors have dual functions: (1) for a specific medical application, and (2) for sensors in the same BASN to recognize each other by biometrics. A feasibility study of proposed entity authentication scheme was carried out on 12 healthy individuals, each with 2 channels of photoplethysmogram (PPG) captured simultaneously at different parts of the body. The beat-to-beat heartbeat interval is used as a biometric characteristic to generate identity of the individual. The results of statistical analysis suggest that it is a possible biometric feature for the entity authentication of BASN.

  11. Physiological tolerance to uncompensated heat stress in soldiers: effects of various types of body cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Dalibor; Karkalić, Radovan; Zeba, Snjezana; Pavlović, Miroslav; Radaković, Sonja S

    2014-03-01

    In military services, emergency situations when soldiers are exposed to a combination of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) contamination combined with heat stress, are frequent and complex. In these specific conditions, usage of personal body cooling systems may be effective in reducing heat stress. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficiency of four various types of contemporary personal body cooling systems based on the "Phase Change Material" (PCM), and its effects on soldiers' subjective comfort and physiological performance during exertional heat stress in hot environments. Ten male soldiers were voluntarily subjected to exertional heat stress tests (EHSTs) consisted of walking on a treadmill (5.5 km/h) in hot conditions (40 degreesC) in climatic chamber, wearing NBC isolating impermeable protective suits. One of the tests was performed without any additional cooling solution (NOCOOL), and four tests were performed while using different types of cooling systems: three in a form of vests and one as underwear. Physiological strain was determined by the mean skin temperature (Tsk), tympanic temperature (Tty), and heart rate values (HR), while sweat rates (SwR) indicated changes in hydration status. In all the cases EHST induced physiological response manifested through increasing Tty, HR and SwR. Compared to NOCOOL tests, when using cooling vests, Tty and Tsk were significantly lower (on 35th min, for 0.44 +/- 0.03 and 0.49 +/- 0.05 degrees C, respectively; p < 0.05), as well as the average SwR (0.17 +/- 0.03 L/m2/h). When using underwear, the values of given parameters were not significantly different compared to NOCOOL tests. Using a body cooling system based on PCM in the form of vest under NBC protective clothes during physical activity in hot conditions, reduces sweating and alleviates heat stress manifested by increased core and skin temperatures and heart rate values. These effects directly improve heat tolerance, hydration

  12. An investigative laboratory course in human physiology using computer technology and collaborative writing.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A

    2004-12-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65 second-year students in sports medicine and biology at a small private comprehensive college. The course builds on skills and abilities first introduced in an introductory investigations course and introduces additional higher-level skills and more complex human experimental models. In four multiweek experimental modules, involving neuromuscular, reflex, and cardiovascular physiology, by use of computerized hardware/software with a variety of transducers, students carry out self-designed experiments with human subjects and perform data collection and analysis, collaborative writing, and peer editing. In assessments, including standard course evaluations and the Salgains Web-based evaluation, student responses to this approach are enthusiastic, and gains in their skills and abilities are evident in their comments and in improved performance.

  13. Facilitated early cortical processing of nude human bodies.

    PubMed

    Alho, Jussi; Salminen, Nelli; Sams, Mikko; Hietanen, Jari K; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging has identified specialized neural systems supporting human body perception. Responses to nude vs. clothed bodies within this system are amplified. However, it remains unresolved whether nude and clothed bodies are processed by same cerebral networks or whether processing of nude bodies recruits additional affective and arousal processing areas. We recorded simultaneous MEG and EEG while participants viewed photographs of clothed and nude bodies. Global field power revealed a peak ∼145ms after stimulus onset to both clothed and nude bodies, and ∼205ms exclusively to nude bodies. Nude-body-sensitive responses were centered first (100-200ms) in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas, and subsequently (200-300ms) in affective-motivational areas including insula and anterior cingulate cortex. We conclude that visibility of sexual features facilitates early cortical processing of human bodies, the purpose of which is presumably to trigger sexual behavior and ultimately ensure reproduction.

  14. Human pathogens in body and head lice.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Guidran, Jo; Kelly, Patrick J; Raoult, Didier

    2002-12-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, we investigated the prevalence of Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis in 841 body lice collected from various countries. We detected R. prowazekii in body lice from Burundi in 1997 and in lice from Burundi and Rwanda in 2001; B. quintana infections of body lice were widespread. We did not detect B. recurrentis in any lice.

  15. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  16. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  17. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  18. Genetic, molecular and physiological insights into human obesity.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2011-04-01

    Obesity and its associated co-morbidities represent one of the biggest public health challenges facing the western world today. Although environmental factors have driven the recent rise in the prevalence of obesity, the heritability of body weight is high and there is evidence that genetic variation plays a major role in determining the susceptibility to weight gain. Genetic approaches can be used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of weight and the development of obesity. The discovery that leptin, a hormone that is secreted by adipocytes, could regulate weight through effects on food intake and energy expenditure represented a major breakthrough in our understanding of the molecular components of the systems involved in energy homeostasis. I discuss how the identification of humans with mutations in the genes encoding leptin and its downstream targets has provided insights into the role of leptin responsive pathways in the regulation of body weight, neuroendocrine axes and immunity. © 2011 The Author. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Physiology of the upper segment, body, and lower segment of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry; Clavé, Pere; Farré, Ricard; Lecea, Begoña; Ruggieri, Michael R; Ouyang, Ann; Regan, Julie; McMahon, Barry P

    2013-10-01

    The following discussion on the physiology of the esophagus includes commentaries on the function of the muscularis mucosa and submucosa as a mechanical antireflux barrier in the esophagus; the different mechanisms of neurological control in the esophageal striated and smooth muscle; new insights from animal models into the neurotransmitters mediating lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, peristalsis in the esophageal body (EB), and motility of esophageal smooth muscle; differentiation between in vitro properties of the lower esophageal circular muscle, clasp muscle, and sling fibers; alterations in the relationship between pharyngeal contraction and relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in patients with dysphagia; the mechanical relationships between anterior hyoid movement, the extent of upper esophageal opening, and aspiration; the application of fluoroscopy and manometry with biomechanics to define the stages of UES opening; and nonpharmacological approaches to alter the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Physiology of the upper segment, body, and lower segment of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry; Clavé, Pere; Farré, Ricard; Lecea, Begoña; Ruggieri, Michael R.; Ouyang, Ann; Regan, Julie; McMahon, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    The following discussion on the physiology of the esophagus includes commentaries on the function of the muscularis mucosa and submucosa as a mechanical antireflux barrier in the esophagus; the different mechanisms of neurological control in the esophageal striated and smooth muscle; new insights from animal models into the neurotransmitters mediating lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, peristalsis in the esophageal body (EB), and motility of esophageal smooth muscle; differentiation between in vitro properties of the lower esophageal circular muscle, clasp muscle, and sling fibers; alterations in the relationship between pharyngeal contraction and relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in patients with dysphagia; the mechanical relationships between anterior hyoid movement, the extent of upper esophageal opening, and aspiration; the application of fluoroscopy and manometry with biomechanics to define the stages of UES opening; and nonpharmacological approaches to alter the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). PMID:24117648

  1. A physiologically based assessment of human exposure to radon released from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Donghan; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2004-02-01

    Most of the indoor radon comes directly from the soil beneath the foundation of a basement. Recently, radon from groundwater was found to make some contribution to the total inhalation risk associated with radon in indoor air. This study presents a realistic exposure assessment of a human to indoor radon released from groundwater. First, the prediction of indoor radon concentration released from groundwater was based on a three-compartment model that was developed to describe the transfer and distribution of the radon released from groundwater in a house through showers, washing clothes, and flushing toilets. Second, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for inhaled radon was developed and used to estimate tissue group concentrations in a human body. The PBPK model provides reasonable predictions of uptake, excretion, and distribution of retained radon among tissue groups in the body. Hence, the approach using the PBPK model combined with realistic indoor exposure scenarios predicts the radon concentrations in tissue groups in the body associated with the indoor radon pollution. The results obtained from the study will help increase the quantitative understanding of the risk assessment issues associated with the indoor radon released from the groundwater.

  2. Physiological characterization of human muscle acetylcholine receptors from ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Palma, Eleonora; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Conti, Luca; Deflorio, Cristina; Frasca, Vittorio; Manteca, Alessia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Roseti, Cristina; Torchia, Gregorio; Limatola, Cristina; Grassi, Francesca; Miledi, Ricardo

    2011-12-13

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to muscle paralysis. Research in transgenic mice suggests that the muscle actively contributes to the disease onset, but such studies are difficult to pursue in humans and in vitro models would represent a good starting point. In this work we show that tiny amounts of muscle from ALS or from control denervated muscle, obtained by needle biopsy, are amenable to functional characterization by two different technical approaches: "microtransplantation" of muscle membranes into Xenopus oocytes and culture of myogenic satellite cells. Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents and unitary events were characterized in oocytes and multinucleated myotubes. We found that ALS acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) retain their native physiological characteristics, being activated by ACh and nicotine and blocked by α-bungarotoxin (α-BuTX), d-tubocurarine (dTC), and galantamine. The reversal potential of ACh-evoked currents and the unitary channel behavior were also typical of normal muscle AChRs. Interestingly, in oocytes injected with muscle membranes derived from ALS patients, the AChRs showed a significant decrease in ACh affinity, compared with denervated controls. Finally, riluzole, the only drug currently used against ALS, reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the ACh-evoked currents, indicating that its action remains to be fully characterized. The two methods described here will be important tools for elucidating the role of muscle in ALS pathogenesis and for developing drugs to counter the effects of this disease.

  3. Effects of Weightlessness on Human Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The changes that occur in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. A number of questions remain to be answered. At a time when plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume are contracted and salt and water intake is unrestricted. ADH does not correct the volume deficit and serum sodium decreases. Change in secretion or activity of a natriuretic factor during spaceflight is one possible explanation. Recent identification of a polypeptide hormone produced in cardiac muscle cells which is natiuretic, is hypotensive, and has an inhibitory effect on renin and aldosterone secretion has renewed interest in the role of a natriuretic factor. The role of this atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in both long- and short-term variation in extracellular volumes and in the inability of the kidney to bring about an escape from the sodium-retaining state accompanying chronic cardiac dysfunction makes it reasonable to look for a role of ANF in the regulation of sodium during exposure to microgravity. Prostaglandin-E is another hormone that may antagonize the action of ADH. Assays of these hormones will be performed on samples from crew members in the future.

  4. HuPSON: the human physiology simulation ontology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large biomedical simulation initiatives, such as the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), are substantially dependent on controlled vocabularies to facilitate the exchange of information, of data and of models. Hindering these initiatives is a lack of a comprehensive ontology that covers the essential concepts of the simulation domain. Results We propose a first version of a newly constructed ontology, HuPSON, as a basis for shared semantics and interoperability of simulations, of models, of algorithms and of other resources in this domain. The ontology is based on the Basic Formal Ontology, and adheres to the MIREOT principles; the constructed ontology has been evaluated via structural features, competency questions and use case scenarios. The ontology is freely available at: http://www.scai.fraunhofer.de/en/business-research-areas/bioinformatics/downloads.html (owl files) and http://bishop.scai.fraunhofer.de/scaiview/ (browser). Conclusions HuPSON provides a framework for a) annotating simulation experiments, b) retrieving relevant information that are required for modelling, c) enabling interoperability of algorithmic approaches used in biomedical simulation, d) comparing simulation results and e) linking knowledge-based approaches to simulation-based approaches. It is meant to foster a more rapid uptake of semantic technologies in the modelling and simulation domain, with particular focus on the VPH domain. PMID:24267822

  5. HuPSON: the human physiology simulation ontology.

    PubMed

    Gündel, Michaela; Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Wang, Jiali; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bijun; de Bono, Bernard; Mevissen, Heinz-Theodor; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2013-11-22

    Large biomedical simulation initiatives, such as the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), are substantially dependent on controlled vocabularies to facilitate the exchange of information, of data and of models. Hindering these initiatives is a lack of a comprehensive ontology that covers the essential concepts of the simulation domain. We propose a first version of a newly constructed ontology, HuPSON, as a basis for shared semantics and interoperability of simulations, of models, of algorithms and of other resources in this domain. The ontology is based on the Basic Formal Ontology, and adheres to the MIREOT principles; the constructed ontology has been evaluated via structural features, competency questions and use case scenarios.The ontology is freely available at: http://www.scai.fraunhofer.de/en/business-research-areas/bioinformatics/downloads.html (owl files) and http://bishop.scai.fraunhofer.de/scaiview/ (browser). HuPSON provides a framework for a) annotating simulation experiments, b) retrieving relevant information that are required for modelling, c) enabling interoperability of algorithmic approaches used in biomedical simulation, d) comparing simulation results and e) linking knowledge-based approaches to simulation-based approaches. It is meant to foster a more rapid uptake of semantic technologies in the modelling and simulation domain, with particular focus on the VPH domain.

  6. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  7. Physiological Characterisation of Human iPS-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Fernandes, Hugo J.; Vowles, Jane; James, William S.; Cowley, Sally A.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2), representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz) and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models. PMID:24586273

  8. Functional Neuroimaging Insights into the Physiology of Human Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    -Vu TT; Schabus M; Desseilles M; Sterpenich V; Bonjean M; Maquet P. Functional neuroimaging insights into the physiology of human sleep. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1589-1603. PMID:21120121

  9. Form and function remixed: developmental physiology in the evolution of vertebrate body plans

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    The most widely accepted model of evolutionary change, the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, is based on the gradualism of Darwin and Wallace. They, in turn, developed their ideas in the context of 19th century concepts of how matter, including the tissues of animals and plants, could be reshaped and repatterned. A new physics of condensed, chemically, electrically and mechanically excitable materials formulated in the 20th century was, however, readily taken up by physiologists, who applied it to the understanding of dynamical, external condition-dependent and homeostatic properties of individual organisms. Nerve conduction, vascular and airway dynamics, and propagation of electrical excitations in heart and brain tissue all benefited from theories of biochemical oscillation, fluid dynamics, reaction–diffusion-based pattern instability and allied dissipative processes. When, in the late 20th century, the development of body and organ form was increasingly seen to involve dynamical, frequently non-linear processes similar to those that had become standard in physiology, a strong challenge to the evolutionary synthesis emerged. In particular, large-scale changes in organismal form now had a scientific basis other than gradualistic natural selection based on adaptive advantage. Moreover, heritable morphological changes were seen to be capable of occurring abruptly with little or no genetic change, with involvement of the external environment, and in preferred directions. This paper discusses three examples of morphological motifs of vertebrate bodies and organs, the somites, the skeletons of the paired limbs, and musculoskeletal novelties distinctive to birds, for which evolutionary origination and transformation can be understood on the basis of the physiological and biophysical determinants of their development. PMID:24817211

  10. The effect of body mass on physiological indicators in the performance of forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Martinić, Ivan; Segotić, Ksenija; Risović, Stjepan; Goglia, Vlado

    2006-06-01

    The paper presents the results of research into the effects of body mass (BM) on basic physiological indicators of work capability among forestry workers. The indicators included the maximum theoretical heart rate, the maximum heart rate in exertion tests, and the basal energy expenditure. The effects of the deviation of the actual from the ideal BM values were analysed on a sample of 8 workers. The variables included age, body height and mass. These were used to determine the maximum theoretical heart rate. The maximum heart rate was determined in an ergonomic laboratory in a programmed exertion test on a treadmill. Using standard formulae in work physiology, values of work capability indicators were calculated for the actual and ideal BM of each worker. The results, embracing individual and summary values and their absolute and relative ratios, showed that workers exceeded their ideal BM by an average of 9.9 kg. In all workers, the maximum theoretical heart rate was higher than that achieved in the exertion test. It was also found that even significant deviations of the ideal from the actual BM (the actual BM was more than 20% higher than the ideal BM) did not have any considerable effects on the maximum theoretical heart rate. The analysis of oxygen consumption showed that in relation to physical capability of the ideal BM and the maximal theoretical heart rate, physical capability of each worker was lower by an average of 11.5%. The highest reduction of physical capability was found in those workers with the least favourable ratio between the theoretical and the maximal tested heart rate. It was concluded that on average, the basal energy expenditure in each worker was higher by 7.45% due to the deviation of the actual from the ideal BM. At constant values of other factors, this means an equivalently lower capacity for daily physical performance.

  11. Body Posture Angle Affects the Physiological Indices of Patients With Liver Cirrhosis Ascites.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-chuan; Ho, Lun-hui; Lin, Mei-hsiang; Chiu, Hsiu-ling

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of different angles of lying positions on the physiological indices of patients with cirrhosis ascites. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis were ranked 9th among the top 10 causes of death. Ascites is the most common cirrhosis comorbidity. Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure, making it an important clinical nursing intervention significantly affecting patient recovery. This was a quasi-experimental study design. From a medical center in Taiwan, 252 patients with cirrhosis ascites were recruited. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups by bed angle: 15°, 30°, and 45°. Physiological indices were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes to determine any changes in heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygenation saturation. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and the generalized estimating equation for statistical analysis with significance set at α= 0.05. After controlling for confounding variables, the three groups differed significantly in heart rate at 20, 25, and 30 minutes, oxygenation saturations at 15 and 20 minutes, and respiration rate at 5 and 10 minutes (α< 0.05). Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure and is thus an important clinical nursing intervention that significantly affects the recovery of patients. When caring for patients with cirrhosis ascites, nurses should help patients to choose the most comfortable angle for them with no particular restrictions. Our results can be used to guide nurses in making a plan for health education and nursing that improves the quality of care for patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis patients with ascites.

  12. Macro And Microcosmus: Moon Influence On The Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchin, Giorgio

    Belief in the action of the macrocosmus, i.e., celestial bodies, on the microcosmus, i.e., on man, goes back to the dawn of human thinking. More specifically, lunar phases have been considered to act on behaviour and on physiological functions. This possible relationship has not only been taken for granted for many centuries in ancient medicine but also investigated in a number of modern published works, mainly on the issues of emergency activity; violent behaviour; car accidents; drug overdose; menses and birth; and mood disorders. Indeed, if the idea that the stars and planets may influence human health and behaviour can be traced so far in the past, it seems that not only the laymen but a high proportion of health professionals continue to hold this credence: recently, in New Orleans a questionnaire sent to 325 people indicated that 140 individuals (43%) held the opinion that lunar phenomena alter personal behaviour. Specifically, it came out that mental health professionals (social workers, clinical psychologists, nurses' aides) held this belief more strongly than other occupational groups (Vance, 1995). A short historical outline of some old beliefs and the results of contemporary research on this fascinating, time-honoured field, will be presented.

  13. The biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in the human body.

    PubMed

    Leggett, R W

    2008-01-25

    This paper reviews information on the biological behavior of inorganic cobalt in humans and laboratory animals and proposes a model of the systemic biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in adult humans. The model was developed as part of an effort to update the models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for addressing intakes of radionuclides by workers but is also applicable to environmental or medical exposures to inorganic forms of radiocobalt. The model can be used in conjunction with any respiratory, gastrointestinal, or wound model that provides predictions of the time-dependent feed of cobalt to blood. In contrast to the ICRP's current systemic model for cobalt, which is a simple open catenary system, the proposed model is constructed within a physiologically realistic framework that depicts recycling of cobalt between blood and tissues and transfer from blood to excretion pathways. Compared with the ICRP's current model, the proposed model yields similar predictions of whole-body retention but substantially different predictions of the systemic distribution of cobalt as a function of time after uptake to blood.

  14. Fermentation in the human large intestine: its physiologic consequences and the potential contribution of prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, George T; Macfarlane, Sandra

    2011-11-01

    The human large intestine harbors a complex microbiota containing many hundreds of different bacterial species. Although structure/function relationships between different components of the microbiota are unclear, this complex multicellular entity plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis in the body. Many of the physiologic properties of the microbiota can be attributed to fermentation and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, propionate, and butyrate. In healthy people, fermentation processes are largely controlled by the amounts and different types of substrate, particularly complex carbohydrates that are accessible to bacteria in the colonic ecosystem. However, other factors impact on bacterial metabolism in the large gut, including large bowel transit time, the availability of inorganic terminal electron acceptors, such as nitrate and sulfate, and gut pH. They all affect the types and levels of SCFA that can be formed by the microbiota. This is important because to a large extent, acetate, propionate, and butyrate have varying physiologic effects in different body tissues. Prebiotics such as galactooligosaccharides together with inulins and their fructooligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to modify the species composition of the colonic microbiota, and in various degrees, to manifest several health-promoting properties related to enhanced mineral absorption, laxation, potential anticancer properties, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammatory and other immune effects, including atopic disease. Many of these phenomena can be linked to their digestion and SCFA production by bacteria in the large gut.

  15. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market.

  16. Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbäck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E.; Saraf, Manish K.; Labbe, Sebastien M.; Hurren, Nicholas M.; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R.; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT+) men and five BAT-negative (BAT−) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5–8 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT+ group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. PMID:25056438

  17. Oxygen modulates growth of human cells at physiologic partial pressures

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the growth of human diploid fibroblasts (WI-38 and IMR90) as a function of initial seeding density and oxygen tension. Cells at young and mid-passage levels were subcultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 10% fetal bovine serum at 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 2 X 10(4) cells/cm2. Flasks were equilibrated before and after seeding with 1 of 10 gas mixtures containing the desired oxygen tension (9-591 mm Hg) and placed in incubators that measure and maintain a preset oxygen tension. The partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in media of all flasks was determined at harvest. Cells were shielded from light of wavelength less than 500 nm. Cell growth varied inversely with oxygen tension and seeding density. At 50 cells/cm2, growth was maximal at PO2 9 and 16 mm Hg. Growth was progressively inhibited as the oxygen tension was increased. The population doubling increase at 14 d was 8.6 for PO2 9 and 16 mm Hg, 5.8 for PO2 42 mm Hg, 3.8 for PO2 78 mm Hg, 3.8 for PO2 104 mm Hg, and 3 for PO2 138 mm Hg. As the seeding density was increased, the differences in growth at PO2 less than 140 mm Hg were progressively minimized, such that at seeding densities of 10(4) cells/cm2 there was little difference in the rate of exponential growth or the final saturation density of cells cultivated between PO2 9 and 96 mm Hg. At all seeding densities tested, growth was progressively inhibited when the PO2 was increased greater than 140 mm Hg. The seeding density dependence of oxygen's influence on cellular growth is not explained by oxygen consumption of higher density cultures. Oxygen acts directly on the cells and not by destroying some essential medium component. We have found that oxygen regulates the growth of human cells under pressures of oxygen physiologic to humans, and that oxygen toxicity contributes to the seeding density dependence of cellular growth commonly seen in cell culture. PMID:6736869

  18. Human body and head characteristics as a communication medium for Body Area Network.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Yonatan; Hun-Seok Kim; Yoo, Jerald

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the Body Channel Communication (BCC) under the environment set according to the IEEE 802.15.6 Body Area Network (BAN) standard is conducted to observe and characterize the human body as a communication medium. A thorough measurement of the human head as part of the human channel is also carried out. Human forehead, head to limb, and ear to ear channel is characterized. The channel gain of the human head follows the same bandpass profile of the human torso and limbs with the maximum channel gain occurring at 35MHz. The human body channel gain distribution histogram at given frequencies, while all the other parameters are held constant, exhibits a maximum variation of 2.2dB in the channel gain at the center frequency of the bandpass channel gain profile.

  19. Wearable carbon nanotube-based fabric sensors for monitoring human physiological performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.

    2017-05-01

    A target application of wearable sensors is to detect human motion and to monitor physical activity for improving athletic performance and for delivering better physical therapy. In addition, measuring human vital signals (e.g., respiration rate and body temperature) provides rich information that can be used to assess a subject’s physiological or psychological condition. This study aims to design a multifunctional, wearable, fabric-based sensing system. First, carbon nanotube (CNT)-based thin films were fabricated by spraying. Second, the thin films were integrated with stretchable fabrics to form the fabric sensors. Third, the strain and temperature sensing properties of sensors fabricated using different CNT concentrations were characterized. Furthermore, the sensors were demonstrated to detect human finger bending motions, so as to validate their practical strain sensing performance. Finally, to monitor human respiration, the fabric sensors were integrated with a chest band, which was directly worn by a human subject. Quantification of respiration rates were successfully achieved. Overall, the fabric sensors were characterized by advantages such as flexibility, ease of fabrication, lightweight, low-cost, noninvasiveness, and user comfort.

  20. Specialised structural descriptions for human body parts: Evidence from autotopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, L J; Coslett, H B

    2001-06-01

    Previous accounts of autotopagnosia (e.g., Ogden, 1985; Pick, 1908; Semenza, 1988) propose that the disorder is attributable to deficits in "mental images," visual body schema, or semantic representations. A recent account (Sirigu, Grafman, Bressler, & Sunderland, 1991b) posits deficits in visual structural descriptions of the human body and its parts, in the context of spared semantic and proprioceptivespatio-motor body representations, but provides no evidence bearing on the nature or format of the putatively damaged representation. We report data from a man with autotopagnosia consequent to lefthemisphere brain damage which bear directly on the nature of the representation impaired in the disorder. The subject, GL, is unable to localise body parts on himself or others, whether cued by verbal or visual input. In contrast, he uses body parts precisely in reaching and grasping tasks, correctly matches items of clothing to body parts, and localises the parts of animals and man-made objects without error. We also demonstrate that GL is unable to match pictured or real human body parts across shifts in orientation or changes in visual appearance, but can perform analogous matching tasks with animal body parts and man-made object parts. The data extend the account of Sirigu et al. (1991b) in suggesting that human body part localisation depends upon structural descriptions of human (but not animal) bodies that enable viewpoint-independent body part recognition and participate in the calculation of equivalence between the body parts of self and others across transformations in orientation.

  1. Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle; Sim, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Two studies investigated development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. Results indicated that 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes in line drawings, while 12- and 15-month-olds did not respond differentially. In condition using photographs, only 18-month-olds had reliable…

  2. Simulation of monoclonal antibody pharmacokinetics in humans using a minimal physiologically based model.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhong; Gardner, Iain; Dostalek, Miroslav; Jamei, Masoud

    2014-09-01

    Compared to small chemical molecules, monoclonal antibodies and Fc-containing derivatives (mAbs) have unique pharmacokinetic behaviour characterised by relatively poor cellular permeability, minimal renal filtration, binding to FcRn, target-mediated drug disposition, and disposition via lymph. A minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the pharmacokinetics of mAbs in humans was developed. Within the model, the body is divided into three physiological compartments; plasma, a single tissue compartment and lymph. The tissue compartment is further sub-divided into vascular, endothelial and interstitial spaces. The model simultaneously describes the levels of endogenous IgG and exogenous mAbs in each compartment and sub-compartment and, in particular, considers the competition of these two species for FcRn binding in the endothelial space. A Monte-Carlo sampling approach is used to simulate the concentrations of endogenous IgG and mAb in a human population. Existing targeted-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) models are coupled with the minimal PBPK model to provide a general platform for simulating the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic antibodies using primarily pre-clinical data inputs. The feasibility of utilising pre-clinical data to parameterise the model and to simulate the pharmacokinetics of adalimumab and an anti-ALK1 antibody (PF-03446962) in a population of individuals was investigated and results were compared to published clinical data.

  3. The EuroPhysiome, STEP and a roadmap for the virtual physiological human.

    PubMed

    Fenner, J W; Brook, B; Clapworthy, G; Coveney, P V; Feipel, V; Gregersen, H; Hose, D R; Kohl, P; Lawford, P; McCormack, K M; Pinney, D; Thomas, S R; Van Sint Jan, S; Waters, S; Viceconti, M

    2008-09-13

    Biomedical science and its allied disciplines are entering a new era in which computational methods and technologies are poised to play a prevalent role in supporting collaborative investigation of the human body. Within Europe, this has its focus in the virtual physiological human (VPH), which is an evolving entity that has emerged from the EuroPhysiome initiative and the strategy for the EuroPhysiome (STEP) consortium. The VPH is intended to be a solution to common infrastructure needs for physiome projects across the globe, providing a unifying architecture that facilitates integration and prediction, ultimately creating a framework capable of describing Homo sapiens in silico. The routine reliance of the biomedical industry, biomedical research and clinical practice on information technology (IT) highlights the importance of a tailor-made and robust IT infrastructure, but numerous challenges need to be addressed if the VPH is to become a mature technological reality. Appropriate investment will reap considerable rewards, since it is anticipated that the VPH will influence all sectors of society, with implications predominantly for improved healthcare, improved competitiveness in industry and greater understanding of (patho)physiological processes. This paper considers issues pertinent to the development of the VPH, highlighted by the work of the STEP consortium.

  4. [Carbon monoxide in human physiology--its role in the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Jasnos, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Sławomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter - nitric oxide (NO). Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  6. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  7. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  8. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  9. In vivo measurement of human body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.

    1974-01-01

    The time course of physiological changes that occur during the first 21 days of continuous bed rest was examined. The test involved a total of 14 men in the age range of 25 to 36 years. The subjects were divided into groups and tested on a staggered schedule. Results are presented.

  10. Using Stimulation of the Diving Reflex in Humans to Teach Integrative Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Julia K.; Denton, Kate M.; Evans, Roger G.; Hodgson, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    During underwater submersion, the body responds by conserving O[subscript 2] and prioritizing blood flow to the brain and heart. These physiological adjustments, which involve the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, are known as the diving response and provide an ideal example of integrative physiology. The diving reflex can be…

  11. Using Stimulation of the Diving Reflex in Humans to Teach Integrative Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Julia K.; Denton, Kate M.; Evans, Roger G.; Hodgson, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    During underwater submersion, the body responds by conserving O[subscript 2] and prioritizing blood flow to the brain and heart. These physiological adjustments, which involve the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, are known as the diving response and provide an ideal example of integrative physiology. The diving reflex can be…

  12. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  13. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  14. Physiological characterization of human muscle acetylcholine receptors from ALS patients

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Conti, Luca; Deflorio, Cristina; Frasca, Vittorio; Manteca, Alessia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Roseti, Cristina; Torchia, Gregorio; Limatola, Cristina; Grassi, Francesca; Miledi, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to muscle paralysis. Research in transgenic mice suggests that the muscle actively contributes to the disease onset, but such studies are difficult to pursue in humans and in vitro models would represent a good starting point. In this work we show that tiny amounts of muscle from ALS or from control denervated muscle, obtained by needle biopsy, are amenable to functional characterization by two different technical approaches: “microtransplantation” of muscle membranes into Xenopus oocytes and culture of myogenic satellite cells. Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents and unitary events were characterized in oocytes and multinucleated myotubes. We found that ALS acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) retain their native physiological characteristics, being activated by ACh and nicotine and blocked by α-bungarotoxin (α-BuTX), d-tubocurarine (dTC), and galantamine. The reversal potential of ACh-evoked currents and the unitary channel behavior were also typical of normal muscle AChRs. Interestingly, in oocytes injected with muscle membranes derived from ALS patients, the AChRs showed a significant decrease in ACh affinity, compared with denervated controls. Finally, riluzole, the only drug currently used against ALS, reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the ACh-evoked currents, indicating that its action remains to be fully characterized. The two methods described here will be important tools for elucidating the role of muscle in ALS pathogenesis and for developing drugs to counter the effects of this disease. PMID:22128328

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--a precursor steroid or an active hormone in human physiology.

    PubMed

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Kang, H Paco; Saad, Farid; Guay, Andre T

    2011-11-01

    The circulation of large amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated derivative (DHEA-S) suggests a physiological role in human physiology. In the central nervous system, DHEA is considered a neurosteroid with a wide range of functions. The goal of this review is to discuss metabolism, biochemical, and physiological mechanism of DHEA action and the potential role of DHEA in aging and in ameliorating a host of pathological conditions, associated with aging. We examined preclinical and clinical data reported in various studies from the available literature concerning the effects of DHEA in normal and pathological conditions. Data reported in the literature were analyzed, reviewed, and discussed. DHEA mediates its action via multiple signaling pathways involving specific membrane receptors and via transformation into androgen and estrogen derivatives (e.g., androgens, estrogens, 7α and 7β DHEA, and 7α and 7β epiandrosterone derivatives) acting through their specific receptors. These pathways include: nitric oxide synthase activation, modulation of γ-amino butyric acid receptors, N-methyl D-aspartate, receptors sigma receptors (Sigma-1), differential expression of inflammatory factors, adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen species, among others. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggested that low DHEA levels might be associated with ischemic heart disease, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, bone loss, inflammatory diseases, and sexual dysfunction. Most importantly, no significant adverse or negative side effects of DHEA were reported in clinical studies of men and women. DHEA modulates endothelial function, reduces inflammation, improves insulin sensitivity, blood flow, cellular immunity, body composition, bone metabolism, sexual function, and physical strength in frailty and provides neuroprotection, improves cognitive function, and memory enhancement. DHEA possesses pleiotropic effects and reduced levels of DHEA and DHEA-S may be

  16. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  17. Human physiological adaptation to extended Space Flight and its implications for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyna, F. A.; Shumate, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Current work evaluating short-term space flight physiological data on the homeostatic changes due to weightlessness is presented as a means of anticipating Space Station long-term effects. An integrated systems analysis of current data shows a vestibulo-sensory adaptation within days; a loss of body mass, fluids, and electrolytes, stabilizing in a month; and a loss in red cell mass over a month. But bone demineralization which did not level off is seen as the biggest concern. Computer algorithms have been developed to simulate the human adaptation to weightlessness. So far these paradigms have been backed up by flight data and it is hoped that they will provide valuable information for future Space Station design. A series of explanatory schematics is attached.

  18. Human physiological adaptation to extended Space Flight and its implications for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyna, F. A.; Shumate, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Current work evaluating short-term space flight physiological data on the homeostatic changes due to weightlessness is presented as a means of anticipating Space Station long-term effects. An integrated systems analysis of current data shows a vestibulo-sensory adaptation within days; a loss of body mass, fluids, and electrolytes, stabilizing in a month; and a loss in red cell mass over a month. But bone demineralization which did not level off is seen as the biggest concern. Computer algorithms have been developed to simulate the human adaptation to weightlessness. So far these paradigms have been backed up by flight data and it is hoped that they will provide valuable information for future Space Station design. A series of explanatory schematics is attached.

  19. Anatomical variations in human carotid bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Q; Heath, D; Smith, P

    1988-01-01

    The variations in anatomical structure and position of both carotid bodies were noted in 100 consecutive subjects who came to necropsy. Considerable variations in form were found. Although most carotid bodies (83% on the right and 86% on the left) were of the classic ovoid type, an appreciable minority was bilobed (9% on the right and 7% on the left) or double (7% on the right and 6% on the left); 1% were leaf shaped. All these anatomical variants have to be distinguished from the pathologically enlarged carotid body that may have a smooth or finely nodular surface. Anatomical variants (such as the bilobed) may themselves enlarge as a consequence of carotid body hyperplasia. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3209707

  20. Differences in the thermal physiology of adult Yarrow's spiny lizards (Sceloporus jarrovii) in relation to sex and body size

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Martin S; Lattanzio, Matthew S; Miles, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often assumed to reflect the phenotypic consequences of differential selection operating on each sex. Species that exhibit SSD may also show intersexual differences in other traits, including field-active body temperatures, preferred temperatures, and locomotor performance. For these traits, differences may be correlated with differences in body size or reflect sex-specific trait optima. Male and female Yarrow's spiny lizards, Sceloporus jarrovii, in a population in southeastern Arizona exhibit a difference in body temperature that is unrelated to variation in body size. The observed sexual variation in body temperature may reflect divergence in thermal physiology between the sexes. To test this hypothesis, we measured the preferred body temperatures of male and female lizards when recently fed and fasted. We also estimated the thermal sensitivity of stamina at seven body temperatures. Variation in these traits provided an opportunity to determine whether body size or sex-specific variation unrelated to size shaped their thermal physiology. Female lizards, but not males, preferred a lower body temperature when fasted, and this pattern was unrelated to body size. Larger individuals exhibited greater stamina, but we detected no significant effect of sex on the shape or height of the thermal performance curves. The thermal preference of males and females in a thermal gradient exceeded the optimal temperature for performance in both sexes. Our findings suggest that differences in thermal physiology are both sex- and size-based and that peak performance at low body temperatures may be adaptive given the reproductive cycles of this viviparous species. We consider the implications of our findings for the persistence of S. jarrovii and other montane ectotherms in the face of climate warming. PMID:25540684

  1. Effects of body temperature on post-anoxic oxidative stress from the perspective of postnatal physiological adaptive processes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kletkiewicz, H; Rogalska, J; Nowakowska, A; Wozniak, A; Mila-Kierzenkowska, C; Caputa, M

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia. Two-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 temperature groups: i. hypothermic at body temperature of 31°C, ii. maintaining physiological neonatal body temperature of 33°C, iii. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 37°C, and i.v. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 39°C. The temperature was controlled starting 15 minutes before and afterword during 10 minutes of anoxia as well as for 2 hours post-anoxia. Cerebral concentrations of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes had been determined post mortem: immediately after anoxia was finished and 3, 7, and 14 days later. There were no post-anoxic changes in the concentration of MDA, CD and in antioxidant enzymes activity in newborn rats kept at their physiological body temperature of 33°C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at body temperature elevated to 37°C or 39°C as well as under hypothermic conditions (31°C) intensified post-anoxic oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool. Overall, these findings suggest that elevated body temperature (hyperthermia or fever), as well as exceeding cooling beyond the physiological level of body temperature of newborn rats, may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the role of body temperature in anoxic insult in vivo.

  2. Variability of Tissue Mineral Density Can Determine Physiological Creep of Human Vertebral Cancellous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Shertok, Daniel; Tee, Boon Ching; Yeni, Yener N.

    2011-01-01

    Creep is a time-dependent viscoelastic deformation observed under a constant prolonged load. It has been indicated that progressive vertebral deformation due to creep may increase the risk of vertebral fracture in the long-term. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of creep with trabecular architecture and tissue mineral density (TMD) parameters in human vertebral cancellous bone at a physiological static strain level. Architecture and TMD parameters of cancellous bone were analyzed using microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT) in specimens cored out of human vertebrae. Then, creep and residual strains of the specimens were measured after a two-hour physiological compressive constant static loading and unloading cycle. Creep developed (3877±2158 με) resulting in substantial levels of non-recoverable post-creep residual strain (1797±1391 με). A strong positive linear correlation was found between creep and residual strain (r=0.94, p<0.001). The current results showed that smaller thickness, larger surface area, greater connectivity of trabeculae, less mean tissue mineral density (TMD, represented by gray levels) and higher variability of TMD are associated with increasing logarithmic creep rate. The TMD variability (GLCOV) was the strongest correlate of creep rate (r=0.79, p<0.001). This result suggests that TMD variability may be a useful parameter for estimating the long-term deformation of a whole vertebral body. The results further suggest that the changes in TMD variability resulting from bone remodeling are of importance and may provide an insight into the understanding of the mechanisms underlying progressive failure of vertebral bodies and development of a clinical fracture. PMID:21481880

  3. Variability of tissue mineral density can determine physiological creep of human vertebral cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Shertok, Daniel; Ching Tee, Boon; Yeni, Yener N

    2011-06-03

    Creep is a time-dependent viscoelastic deformation observed under a constant prolonged load. It has been indicated that progressive vertebral deformation due to creep may increase the risk of vertebral fracture in the long-term. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of creep with trabecular architecture and tissue mineral density (TMD) parameters in human vertebral cancellous bone at a physiological static strain level. Architecture and TMD parameters of cancellous bone were analyzed using microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT) in specimens cored out of human vertebrae. Then, creep and residual strains of the specimens were measured after a two-hour physiological compressive constant static loading and unloading cycle. Creep developed (3877 ± 2158 με) resulting in substantial levels of non-recoverable post-creep residual strain (1797 ± 1391 με). A strong positive linear correlation was found between creep and residual strain (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). The current results showed that smaller thickness, larger surface area, greater connectivity of trabeculae, less mean tissue mineral density (TMD, represented by gray levels) and higher variability of TMD are associated with increasing logarithmic creep rate. The TMD variability (GL(COV)) was the strongest correlate of creep rate (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). This result suggests that TMD variability may be a useful parameter for estimating the long-term deformation of a whole vertebral body. The results further suggest that the changes in TMD variability resulting from bone remodeling are of importance and may provide an insight into the understanding of the mechanisms underlying progressive failure of vertebral bodies and development of a clinical fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological and psychological correlates of attention-related body sensations (tingling and warmth).

    PubMed

    Tihanyi, B T; Köteles, F

    2017-09-01

    Body sensations play an essential role in the subjective evaluation of our physical health, illness, and healing. They are impacted by peripheral somatic and external processes, but they are also heavily modulated by mental processes, e.g., attention, motor control, and emotion. Body sensations, such as tingling, numbness, pulse, and warmth, can emerge due to simply focusing attention on a body part. It is however an open question, if these sensations are connected with actual peripheral changes or happen "only in the mind." Here, we first tested whether the intensity of such attention-related body sensations is related to autonomic and somatomotor physiological processes and to psychological traits. In this study, attention-related body sensations were not significantly connected to changes in physiology, except warmth sensation, which was linked to decrease in muscle tension. Overall intensity of tingling significantly correlated with body awareness and tendentiously with body-mind practice. This strengthened the hypothesis that attention-related body sensations are more the result of top-down functions, and the connection with peripheral processes is weak. Here, we suggested a novel protocol to examine the effect of manipulating attention on body sensations, which together with our results and discussion can inspire future researches.

  5. Molecular clocks and the human condition: approaching their characterization in human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, G A; Yang, G; Paschos, G K; Liang, X; Skarke, C

    2015-09-01

    Molecular clockworks knit together diverse biological networks and compelling evidence from model systems infers their importance in metabolism, immunological and cardiovascular function. Despite this and the diurnal variation in many aspects of human physiology and the phenotypic expression of disease, our understanding of the role and importance of clock function and dysfunction in humans is modest. There are tantalizing hints of connection across the translational divide and some correlative evidence of gene variation and human disease but most of what we know derives from forced desynchrony protocols in controlled environments. We now have the ability to monitor quantitatively ex vivo or in vivo the genome, metabolome, proteome and microbiome of humans in the wild. Combining this capability, with the power of mobile telephony and the evolution of remote sensing, affords a new opportunity for deep phenotyping, including the characterization of diurnal behaviour and the assessment of the impact of the clock on approved drug function.

  6. Physiological response of pilots to the load of lower body negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Hanousek, J; Dosel, P; Cmiral, J; Petricek, J

    1997-07-01

    The Czech Air-Force prepares an introduction of a new generation of aircraft with high maneuvering possibilities. The possibility of making full use of the aircraft flight properties assumes sufficient pilot's +Gz tolerance and also its improvement during the new flight training system. The optimal method to achieve this purpose is the human centrifuge utilization. For the Czech Republic, the building or the renting of a human centrifuge for the pilot's selection is unfortunately very expensive. In our institute we are interested in the analysis of the possibilities of the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) technique for the basic pilot's selection with low level of +Gz tolerance, using the examination of the orthostatic cardiovascular reactions of the pilot's organism.

  7. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  8. Human-on-a-chip design strategies and principles for physiologically based pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Advances in maintaining multiple human tissues on microfluidic platforms has led to a growing interest in the development of microphysiological systems for drug development studies. Determination of the proper design principles and scaling rules for body-on-a-chip systems is critical for their strategic incorporation into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model-aided drug development. While the need for a functional design considering organ-organ interactions has been considered, robust design criteria and steps to build such systems have not yet been defined mathematically. In this paper, we first discuss strategies for incorporating body-on-a-chip technology into the current PBPK modeling-based drug discovery to provide a conceptual model. We propose two types of platforms that can be involved in the different stages of PBPK modeling and drug development; these are μOrgans-on-a-chip and μHuman-on-a-chip. Then we establish the design principles for both types of systems and develop parametric design equations that can be used to determine dimensions and operating conditions. In addition, we discuss the availability of the critical parameters required to satisfy the design criteria, consider possible limitations for estimating such parameter values and propose strategies to address such limitations. This paper is intended to be a useful guide to the researchers focused on the design of microphysiological platforms for PBPK/PD based drug discovery.

  9. Human-on-a-chip design strategies and principles for physiologically based pharmocokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling

    PubMed Central

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shuler, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in maintaining multiple human tissues on microfluidic platforms has led to a growing interest in developing microphysiological systems for drug development studies. Determining the proper design principles and scaling rules for body-on-a-chip systems is critical for their strategic incorporation into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)/pharmacodynamic model (PD) -aided drug development. While the need for a functional design considering organ-organ interactions has been considered, robust design criteria and steps to build such systems have not yet been defined mathematically. In this paper, we first discuss strategies for incorporating body-on-a-chip technology into current PBPK modeling-based drug discovery to provide a conceptual model. We propose two types of platforms that can be involved in different stages of PBPK modeling and drug development; these are a μOrgans-on-a-chip and a μHuman-on-a-chip. Then we establish design principles for both types of systems and develop parametric design equations that can be used to determine dimensions and operating conditions. In addition, we discuss the availability of the critical parameters required to satisfy the design criteria, consider possible limitations on estimating such parameter values and propose strategies to address such limitations. This paper is intended to be a useful guide to the researchers focused on designing microphysiological platforms for PBPK/PD based drug discovery. PMID:25739725

  10. Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic-guided "body-on-a-chip" systems to predict mammalian response to drug and chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jong Hwan; Srinivasan, Balaji; Esch, Mandy Brigitte; McLamb, William T; Bernabini, Catia; Shuler, Michael L; Hickman, James J

    2014-09-01

    The continued development of in vitro systems that accurately emulate human response to drugs or chemical agents will impact drug development, our understanding of chemical toxicity, and enhance our ability to respond to threats from chemical or biological agents. A promising technology is to build microscale replicas of humans that capture essential elements of physiology, pharmacology, and/or toxicology (microphysiological systems). Here, we review progress on systems for microscale models of mammalian systems that include two or more integrated cellular components. These systems are described as a "body-on-a-chip", and utilize the concept of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in the design. These microscale systems can also be used as model systems to predict whole-body responses to drugs as well as study the mechanism of action of drugs using PBPK analysis. In this review, we provide examples of various approaches to construct such systems with a focus on their physiological usefulness and various approaches to measure responses (e.g. chemical, electrical, or mechanical force and cellular viability and morphology). While the goal is to predict human response, other mammalian cell types can be utilized with the same principle to predict animal response. These systems will be evaluated on their potential to be physiologically accurate, to provide effective and efficient platform for analytics with accessibility to a wide range of users, for ease of incorporation of analytics, functional for weeks to months, and the ability to replicate previously observed human responses. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  11. [Resuscitation of vital activity after cold arrest of respiration by physiological methods without rewarming the body].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K P

    2014-01-01

    The arrest of respiration during deep hypothermia means death, though at a low temperature the heart may rhythmically contract for 30-40 minutes more. The attempts of rewarming only shorten the time before the heart arrest. Calcium ions (Ca2+) are believed to accumulate in the nervous cells in cold. An excess of these ions inhibits the metabolism. Moreover it stimulates the cell proteases, which destroy the cell membranes. The aim of the study was to make the the attempts to develop the methods of stimulating the respiration and heart without rewarming the body. The work was carried out on wite rats 250-320g in weight. We introduced disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid into the animals. The second method of blocking the mechanisms of the cold death was artificial respiration. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid reacts with calcium ions, decreases their quantity in the blood, and, consequently, in a complex manner in the cell protoplasm. Artificial respiration not only increases the flow of oxygen into an organism but also decreases the lowest temperature threshold of the cold death of an organism. A decrease in the surviving threshold by 1.5-1.8 degrees C is very important from the point of view of reanimation of an organism since to preserve life in the critical period of reanimation each 0.5 degrees C are important. Prolongation of minimal frequency of heart contractions and maintaining a minimal arterial blood pressure in an overcooled organism given the body temperature of 11-12.5 degrees C is a special problem of great interest associated with many physiological and biological parameters.

  12. [A vertical vibration model of human body in supine position].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing-gong; Niu, Fu; Qi, Jian-cheng; Li, Ruo-xin

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To establish the models of head, abdomen, and chest of supine human body respectively under vertical vibration. Method. The mechanical impedance of 12 healthy volunteers aged 24-56 was measured under vertical white noise stimulus in the frequency range of 2-35 Hz. To explain these findings, the model of head was proposed, the models of abdomen and chest were computed by way of an optimization procedure. Result. The models of abdomen and chest are three-degree-of-freedom and the head is rigid. Conclusion. The mechanical impedance of the supine human body is linear and sole. The established models of head, abdomen and chest of supine human body when subjected to vertical vibration are useful for calculating and evaluating the comfort of supine human body under whole-body vibration.

  13. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  14. Human body segmentation via data-driven graph cut.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Lu, Huchuan; Shao, Xingqing

    2014-11-01

    Human body segmentation is a challenging and important problem in computer vision. Existing methods usually entail a time-consuming training phase for prior knowledge learning with complex shape matching for body segmentation. In this paper, we propose a data-driven method that integrates top-down body pose information and bottom-up low-level visual cues for segmenting humans in static images within the graph cut framework. The key idea of our approach is first to exploit human kinematics to search for body part candidates via dynamic programming for high-level evidence. Then, by using the body parts classifiers, obtaining bottom-up cues of human body distribution for low-level evidence. All the evidence collected from top-down and bottom-up procedures are integrated in a graph cut framework for human body segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative experiment results demonstrate the merits of the proposed method in segmenting human bodies with arbitrary poses from cluttered backgrounds.

  15. Bodily illusions in health and disease: physiological and clinical perspectives and the concept of a cortical 'body matrix'.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Illusions that induce a feeling of ownership over an artificial body or body-part have been used to explore the complex relationships that exist between the brain's representation of the body and the integrity of the body itself. Here we discuss recent findings in both healthy volunteers and clinical populations that highlight the robust relationship that exists between a person's sense of ownership over a body part, cortical processing of tactile input from that body part, and its physiological regulation. We propose that a network of multisensory and homeostatic brain areas may be responsible for maintaining a 'body-matrix'. That is, a dynamic neural representation that not only extends beyond the body surface to integrate both somatotopic and peripersonal sensory data, but also integrates body-centred spatial sensory data. The existence of such a 'body-matrix' allows our brain to adapt to even profound anatomical and configurational changes to our body. It also plays an important role in maintaining homeostatic control over the body. Its alteration can be seen to have both deleterious and beneficial effects in various clinical populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological Responses During the Lower Body Positive Pressure Supported Treadmill Test

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify changes in cardiopulmonary function using a lower body positive pressure supported (LBPPS) treadmill during the exercise tolerance test (ETT) in healthy subjects before applying the LBPPS treadmill in patients with gait problems. Methods We evaluated 30 healthy subjects who were able to walk independently. The ETT was performed using the Modified Bruce Protocol (stages 1–5) at four levels (0%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) of LBPPS. The time interval at each level of the LBPPS treadmill test was 20 minutes to recover to baseline status. We measured systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, peak heart rate (PHR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), metabolic equivalents (METs), and oxygen consumption rate (VO2) during each LBPPS condition. Results Systolic blood pressure increased as the LBPPS level was increased (40% to 80%). PHR, RPE, METs, and VO2 were negatively associated with the LBPPS condition, although they were not always significant different among the LBPPS levels. The equation from a random effect linear regression model was as follows: VO2 (mL/kg/min)=(2.75×stage)+(–0.14×LBPPS level)+11.9 (r2=0.69). Conclusion Detection of the changes in physiological parameters during a submaximal ETT using the LBPPS system may be helpful for applying the LBPPS treadmill in patients who cannot perform the ETT due to gait problems, even at submaximal intensity. PMID:27847722

  17. Coherence Between Emotional Experience and Physiology: Does Body Awareness Training Have an Impact?

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Jocelyn A.; Gyurak, Anett; Yuan, Joyce W.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Two fundamental issues in emotion theory and research concern: (a) the role of emotion in promoting response coherence across different emotion systems; and (b) the role of awareness of bodily sensations in the experience of emotion. The present study poses a question bridging the two domains; namely, whether training in Vipassana meditation or dance, both of which promote attention to certain kinds of bodily sensations, is associated with greater coherence between the subjective and physiological aspects of emotion. We used lag correlations to examine second-by-second coherence between subjective emotional experience and heart period within individuals across four different films. Participants were either: (a) experienced Vipassana meditators (attention to visceral sensations), (b) experienced dancers (attention to somatic sensations), and (c) controls with no meditation or dance experience. Results indicated a linear relationship in coherence, with meditators having highest levels, dancers having intermediary levels, and controls having lowest levels. We conclude that the coherence between subjective and cardiac aspects of emotion is greater in those who have specialized training that promotes greater body awareness. PMID:21058842

  18. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C.; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

  19. Physiological Plasticity of Neural-Crest-Derived Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Annese, Valentina; Navarro-Guerrero, Elena; Rodríguez-Prieto, Ismael; Pardal, Ricardo

    2017-04-18

    Adult stem cell plasticity, or the ability of somatic stem cells to cross boundaries and differentiate into unrelated cell types, has been a matter of debate in the last decade. Neural-crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) display a remarkable plasticity during development. Whether adult populations of NCSCs retain this plasticity is largely unknown. Herein, we describe that neural-crest-derived adult carotid body stem cells (CBSCs) are able to undergo endothelial differentiation in addition to their reported role in neurogenesis, contributing to both neurogenic and angiogenic processes taking place in the organ during acclimatization to hypoxia. Moreover, CBSC conversion into vascular cell types is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) dependent and sensitive to hypoxia-released vascular cytokines such as erythropoietin. Our data highlight a remarkable physiological plasticity in an adult population of tissue-specific stem cells and could have impact on the use of these cells for cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pelvic dimorphism in relation to body size and body size dimorphism in humans.

    PubMed

    Kurki, Helen K

    2011-12-01

    Many mammalian species display sexual dimorphism in the pelvis, where females possess larger dimensions of the obstetric (pelvic) canal than males. This is contrary to the general pattern of body size dimorphism, where males are larger than females. Pelvic dimorphism is often attributed to selection relating to parturition, or as a developmental consequence of secondary sexual differentiation (different allometric growth trajectories of each sex). Among anthropoid primates, species with higher body size dimorphism have higher pelvic dimorphism (in converse directions), which is consistent with an explanation of differential growth trajectories for pelvic dimorphism. This study investigates whether the pattern holds intraspecifically in humans by asking: Do human populations with high body size dimorphism also display high pelvic dimorphism? Previous research demonstrated that in some small-bodied populations, relative pelvic canal size can be larger than in large-bodied populations, while others have suggested that larger-bodied human populations display greater body size dimorphism. Eleven human skeletal samples (total N: male = 229, female = 208) were utilized, representing a range of body sizes and geographical regions. Skeletal measurements of the pelvis and femur were collected and indices of sexual dimorphism for the pelvis and femur were calculated for each sample [ln(M/F)]. Linear regression was used to examine the relationships between indices of pelvic and femoral size dimorphism, and between pelvic dimorphism and female femoral size. Contrary to expectations, the results suggest that pelvic dimorphism in humans is generally not correlated with body size dimorphism or female body size. These results indicate that divergent patterns of dimorphism exist for the pelvis and body size in humans. Implications for the evaluation of the evolution of pelvic dimorphism and rotational childbirth in Homo are considered.

  1. The Emotional and Attentional Impact of Exposure to One's Own Body in Bulimia Nervosa: A Physiological View

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Perakakis, Pandelis; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen; Vila, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is the most relevant body image disturbance in bulimia nervosa (BN). Research has shown that viewing one's own body evokes negative thoughts and emotions in individuals with BN. However, the psychophysiological mechanisms involved in this negative reaction have not yet been clearly established. Our aim was to examine the emotional and attentional processes that are activated when patients with BN view their own bodies. Method We examined the effects of viewing a video of one's own body on the physiological (eye-blink startle, cardiac defense, and skin conductance) and subjective (pleasure, arousal, and control ratings) responses elicited by a burst of 110 dB white noise of 500 ms duration. The participants were 30 women with BN and 30 healthy control women. The experimental task consisted of two consecutive and counterbalanced presentations of the auditory stimulus preceded, alternatively, by a video of the participant's own body versus no such video. Results The results showed that, when viewing their own bodies, women with BN experienced (a) greater inhibition of the startle reflex, (b) greater cardiac acceleration in the first component of the defense reaction, (c) greater skin conductance response, and (d) less subjective pleasure and control combined with greater arousal, compared with the control participants. Conclusion Our findings suggest that, for women with BN, peripheral-physiological responses to self-images are dominated by attentional processes, which provoke an immobility reaction caused by a dysfunctional negative response to their own body. PMID:25036222

  2. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  3. New dimensions in tissue engineering: possible models for human physiology.

    PubMed

    Baar, Keith

    2005-11-01

    Tissue engineering is a discipline of great promise. In some areas, such as the cornea, tissues engineered in the laboratory are already in clinical use. In other areas, where the tissue architecture is more complex, there are a number of obstacles to manoeuvre before clinically relevant tissues can be produced. However, even in areas where clinically relevant tissues are decades away, the tissues being produced at the moment provide powerful new models to aid the understanding of complex physiological processes. This article provides a personal view of the role of tissue engineering in advancing our understanding of physiology, with specific attention being paid to musculoskeletal tissues.

  4. [The beginnings of physiology of the human brain, from antiquity to the Renaissance].

    PubMed

    Saban, R

    1999-06-01

    For more than 3,000 years in Western civilizations, the knowledge of the human body gained very little ground at first, due to taboos. The body was regarded as sacred and Medicine only resorted to plants in order to heal. Hippocrates was not familiar with anatomy as the human body could not be dissected. He developed a theory of humors connected with the primary elements and opposing the dry and the moist. Even though he did not know the nervous system, he nonetheless pointed out that emotions stemmed from the brain and were caused ty particles (pneuma) emitted by the objects around us. Galien was one of the first to mention physiology but could only dissect animals to understand Man. He took up the theory of humors but did not reach any concrete results as he considered the brain as made up of faeces. Only in 1000 AD did Avicenne try to shape the cell theory with its three cells (the ventricles in today's parlance) in direct relation to the nerves, which he described but did not represent. Representation of the nerves was only be given in the mid-13th century by Khalifah in his ophtalmology treaty. Finally, during the Renaissance, when books started conveying both text and pictures, brain physiology emerged; Albert le Grand was its first expounder and his work was then taken up in a 1475 inculabulum in which 5 cells instead of 3 are described and represented. Leonardo da Vinci was the second one; at the end of the 15th century he dissected may corpses to understand human morphology. Unfortunately his work, which was conducted very rigorously from an anatomical point of view only surfaced at the end of the 19th century. He was the first to conduct the anatomical cross-dissection of the brain. Last came Magnus Hundt and Georg Reisch; in the early 16th century they still represented the three cells of Avicenne even though Reisch described more sophisticated connections between the organs of the senses.

  5. Study of electrical properties of meridian on human body surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Uematsu, Haruyuki; Otani, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the study of the subcutaneous electrical impedance on the human body surface. Measurements of the electrical impedance on five adult male subjects were carried out and analyzed for the possible detection of the acupuncture meridian lines of ancient Chinese medicine on the human body. The distribution of electrical impedance measured at 40 points over the volar side of the right upper limb of the subjects. The results show that electrical impedance varies at different locations of the human body surface, and the locations with lower electrical impedance coincide with the locations where the meridian is believed to exist.

  6. Globalization and the trade in human body parts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T

    1999-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, the number and variety of organ transplantations has increased enormously worldwide. Accompanying this increase has been the emergence of a market for human body parts. This paper argues that, while the trade in human body parts is conditioned by technological advances, it must be understood in the broader context of globalization, specifically the extension and intensification of a capitalist mode of exchange. In this regard, it is argued that the trade in human body parts mirrors the "normal" system of unequal exchanges that mark other forms of trade between the developed and undeveloped regions of the world.

  7. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary.

  8. Human Performance: Psychological and Physiological Sex Differences (A Selected Bibliography)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Norwegian I men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1965, _20, 425-431. 43. Heyward, V., & McCreary , L. Comparison of the relative endurance...inner space: A data-based reevaluatlon. American Journal of Qrthopsychiatry, 1979, 4_9, 100-108. 8. Carrigan, W. C., & Julian , J. W„ Sex and birth

  9. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design.

    PubMed

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Warland, Jon S; Gillespie, Terry J; Kenny, Natasha A

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  10. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  11. Selected physiologic compatibilities and incompatibilities between human and porcine organ systems.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Busch, Jamie; Awwad, Michel; Wagner, Robert; Wells, Kevin; Cooper, David K C

    2006-11-01

    The shortage of donor organs is a major barrier to clinical organ transplantation. Although xenotransplantation is considered one of the alternatives to human organ transplantation, there are immunologic and physiologic incompatibilities between humans and pigs. With the exception of coagulation, the major potential physiologic incompatibilities relating to function of the kidney, heart, liver, lungs, pancreatic islets, and hormones are reviewed. Some of these physiologic differences can be overcome by producing genetically altered pigs to improve compatibility with humans. The possibility of producing such pigs for organ transplantation is considered.

  12. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    PubMed

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  13. Behavioral and physiological regulation of body fatness: a cross-sectional study in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Rimbert, V; Montaurier, C; Bedu, M; Boirie, Y; Morio, B

    2006-02-01

    To identify the characteristics of physical activity that are the most correlated to total and truncal fatness and to physiological parameters involved in fat oxidation in elderly men. Cross-sectional study. A total of 25 healthy elderly men selected with a wide range of physical activity behavior (65.9 +/- 3.4 years). Total and truncal fat masses (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), time spent and energy expended (EE(day)) at specific activity intensities (<40, 40-60, >60% VO2max) during 1 week in free living conditions (using heart rate recording and individual calibrated equations), sport-exercising volume (V(sport), using Baecke questionnaire), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle fat oxidative capacity (OX(FA), using muscle biopsy), lipid oxidation and respiratory exchange ratio during exercise at 50% VO2max (using indirect calorimetry). V(sport) was the main determinant of total and truncal fatness, VO2max and OX(FA) (r = -0.69, P < 0.0001; r = -0.80, P < 0.0001; r = 0.70, P < 0.0001; r = 0.66, P<0.001, respectively). Among physical activity parameters measured over a week, total EE(day) was the main determinant of total fat mass. Furthermore, EE(day) at % VO2max > 60 was closely correlated to truncal fat mass, VO2max and OX(FA) (r = -0.58, P > 0.01; r = 0.55, P < 0.01; r = 0.49, P < 0.05, respectively). Finally, VO2max and OX(FA) were positively correlated to absolute fat oxidation and to the contribution of fat to energy production during moderate exercise. Sport-exercising volume is the main factor regulating total and truncal fat masses and physiological parameters involved in fat oxidation. With regard to the characteristics of physical activity, overall energy expended during the alert period plays a major role in the regulation of total body fatness. In addition, vigorous exercises may be beneficial for the regulation of abdominal fat depot partly through the stimulation of muscle fat oxidation during the effort.

  14. Effects of manufactured nanomaterials on fishes: a target organ and body systems physiology approach.

    PubMed

    Handy, R D; Al-Bairuty, G; Al-Jubory, A; Ramsden, C S; Boyle, D; Shaw, B J; Henry, T B

    2011-10-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (NM) are already used in consumer products and exposure modelling predicts releases of ng to low µg l(-1) levels of NMs into surface waters. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems, and therefore fishes, to manufactured NMs is inevitable. This review uses a physiological approach to describe the known effects of NMs on the body systems of fishes and to identify the internal target organs, as well as outline aspects of colloid chemistry relevant to fish biology. The acute toxicity data, suggest that the lethal concentration for many NMs is in the mg l(-1) range, and a number of sublethal effects have been reported at concentrations from c. 100 µg to 1 mg l(-1). Exposure to NMs in the water column can cause respiratory toxicity involving altered ventilation, mucus secretion and gill pathology. This may not lead, however, to overt haematological disturbances in the short term. The internal target organs include the liver, spleen and haematopoietic system, kidney, gut and brain; with toxic effects involving oxidative stress, ionoregulatory disturbances and organ pathologies. Some pathology appears to be novel for NMs, such as vascular injury in the brain of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with carbon nanotubes. A lack of analytical methods, however, has prevented the reporting of NM concentrations in fish tissues, and the precise uptake mechanisms across the gill or gut are yet to be elucidated. The few dietary exposure studies conducted show no effects on growth or food intake at 10-100 mg kg(-1) inclusions of NMs in the diet of O. mykiss, but there are biochemical disturbances. Early life stages are sensitive to NMs with reports of lethal toxicity and developmental defects. There are many data gaps, however, including how water quality alters physiological responses, effects on immunity and chronic exposure data at environmentally relevant concentrations. Overall, the data so far suggest that the manufactured NMs are not as toxic as some

  15. Sensing human physiological response using wearable carbon nanotube-based fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.; Koo, Helen S.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible and wearable sensors for human monitoring have received increased attention. Besides detecting motion and physical activity, measuring human vital signals (e.g., respiration rate and body temperature) provide rich data for assessing subjects' physiological or psychological condition. Instead of using conventional, bulky, sensing transducers, the objective of this study was to design and test a wearable, fabric-like sensing system. In particular, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-latex thin films of different MWCNT concentrations were first fabricated using spray coating. Freestanding MWCNT-latex films were then sandwiched between two layers of flexible fabric using iron-on adhesive to form the wearable sensor. Second, to characterize its strain sensing properties, the fabric sensors were subjected to uniaxial and cyclic tensile load tests, and they exhibited relatively stable electromechanical responses. Finally, the wearable sensors were placed on a human subject for monitoring simple motions and for validating their practical strain sensing performance. Overall, the wearable fabric sensor design exhibited advances such as flexibility, ease of fabrication, light weight, low cost, noninvasiveness, and user comfort.

  16. Wearable Physiological Monitoring for Human Thermal-Work Strain Optimization.

    PubMed

    Buller, Mark J; Welles, Alexander Pearson; Friedl, Karl E

    2017-08-10

    Safe performance limits of soldiers and athletes have typically relied on predictive work-rest models of ambient conditions, average work intensity, and characteristics of the population. Bioengineering advances in noninvasive sensor technologies including miniaturization, reduced cost, power requirements, and comfort now make it possible to produce individual predictions of safe thermal-work limits. These precision medicine assessments depend on the development of thoughtful algorithms based on physics and physiology. Both physiological telemetry and thermal-strain indices have been available for more than fifty years but greater computing power and better wearable sensors now make it possible to provide actionable information at the individual level. Core temperature can be practically estimated from time series heart rate data, and, using an adaptive physiological strain index, provides meaningful predictions of safe work limits that cannot be predicted from only core temperature or heart rate measurements. Early adopters of this technology include specialized occupations where individuals operate in complete encapsulation such as chemical protective suits. Emerging technologies that focus on heat flux measurements at the skin show even greater potential for estimating thermal-work strain using a parsimonious sensor set. Applications of these wearable technologies include many sports and military training venues where inexperienced individuals can learn effective work pacing strategies and train to safe personal limits. The same strategies can also provide a technologically-based performance edge for experienced workers and athletes faced with novel and non-intuitive physiological challenges, such as health care providers in full protective clothing treating Ebola patients in West Africa in 2014. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  17. In vivo measurement of human body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Price, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The female bed rest study has shown that, the response of women to prolonged recumbency of 2 to 3 weeks duration is very similar to that displayed by men. Some of the key findings in the women after 17 days of continuous recumbency are: (1) a decrease in plasma volume of 12-13 per cent; (2) a small decrease in total body water; (3) a decrease in total body potassium of 3 to 4 per cent; (4) a decrease in plasma potassium concentration of 4 to 5 per cent; (5) a decrease in total circulating plasma protein of 11 to 12 per cent; (6) a decrease in urinary norepinephrine excretion rate of 27 to 28 per cent; (7) a possible increase in urinary magnesium, calcium, and phosphate excretion rates; and (8) a possible increase in urinary citrate excretion rate.

  18. Estimation of human body built in Egyptians.

    PubMed

    El-Meligy, Manal M S; Abdel-Hady, Randa H; Abdel-Maaboud, Ragaa M; Mohamed, Zaghloul T

    2006-05-25

    Identification of an unknown body and prediction of growth from specific body measurements are very important tasks in the fields of physical anthropology and forensic medicine. Height and weight are two factors among others required to establish individuality of an unidentified body. In the present work, an attempt has been made to calculate the stature and weight from percutaneous tibial length and bimalleolar breadth. The study was carried out on 1000 living Egyptian individuals comprising 500 males and 500 females; their age was between 19 and 21 years. A significant positive correlation between stature and tibial length in both sexes was recorded. The coefficient of determination showed that 56% of variation in stature was due to tibial length and bimalleolar breadth in males, while in females the coefficient of determination was 23%. On the other hand, the coefficient of determination for weight showed that 11% of variability in weight was due to tibial length and bimalleolar breadth in males, while in females it was 5%. Linear regression analysis was done for all variables in all cases. The regression equation formulae are helpful in the estimation of stature and weight of the deceased from tibial length and bimalleolar breadth when leg or foot is the only portion available for autopsy examination.

  19. Standoff Human Identification Using Body Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Lochtefeld, Darrell; Webb, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The ability to identify individuals is a key component of maintaining safety and security in public spaces and around critical infrastructure. Monitoring an open space is challenging because individuals must be identified and re-identified from a standoff distance nonintrusively, making methods like fingerprinting and even facial recognition impractical. We propose using body shape features as a means for identification from standoff sensing, either complementing other identifiers or as an alternative. An important challenge in monitoring open spaces is reconstructing identifying features when only a partial observation is available, because of the view-angle limitations and occlusion or subject pose changes. To address this challenge, we investigated the minimum number of features required for a high probability of correct identification, and we developed models for predicting a key body feature—height—from a limited set of observed features. We found that any set of nine randomly selected body measurements was sufficient to correctly identify an individual in a dataset of 4426 subjects. For predicting height, anthropometric measures were investigated for correlation with height. Their correlation coefficients and associated linear models were reported. These results—a sufficient number of features for identification and height prediction from a single feature—contribute to developing systems for standoff identification when views of a subject are limited.

  20. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones. PMID:26999159

  1. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones.

  2. The role of VEGF pathways in human physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In pre-clinical models VEGF is a potent stimulant of both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Conversely, anti-VEGF regimens have successfully inhibited angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that VEGF would stimulate both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis in a human-ba...

  3. [Foods and drinks in a 19th century human physiology textbook].

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Francesco M

    2004-01-01

    The Author reports on the chapter of "Nutrition" in the Human Physiology textbook by P. Albertoni and A. Stefani published in the first half of the 19th century. This is one of the first textbooks that treats Physiology as an experimental science in contrast with the thinking of the previous century which was still dominated by Galen and Dioscorides.

  4. Gravity and observer's body orientation influence the visual perception of human body postures.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christophe; Bachofner, Christelle; Mercier, Manuel; Blanke, Olaf

    2009-05-04

    Since human behavior and perception have evolved within the Earth's gravitational field, humans possess an internal model of gravity. Although gravity is known to influence the visual perception of moving objects, the evidence is less clear concerning the visual perception of static objects. We investigated whether a visual judgment of the stability of human body postures (static postures of a human standing on a platform and tilted in the roll plane) may also be influenced by gravity and by the participant's orientation. Pictures of human body postures were presented in different orientations with respect to gravity and the participant's body. The participant's body was aligned to gravity (upright) or not (lying on one side). Participants performed stability judgments with respect to the platform, imagining that gravity operates in the direction indicated by the platform (that was or was not concordant with physical gravity). Such visual judgments were influenced by the picture's orientation with respect to physical gravity. When pictures were tilted by 90 degrees with respect to physical gravity, the human postures that were tilted toward physical gravity (down) were perceived as more unstable than similar postures tilted away from physical gravity (up). Stability judgments were also influenced by the picture's orientation with respect to the participant's body. This indicates that gravity and the participant's body position may influence the visual perception of static objects.

  5. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl(-) Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl(-) Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl(-) in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl(-) homeostasis via Cl(-) transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl(-) uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl(-) channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl(-) environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl(-) content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl(-) uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl(-) homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated

  6. Negative air ion effects on human performance and physiological condition.

    PubMed

    Buckalew, L W; Rizzuto, A P

    1984-08-01

    Beneficial effects of exposure to negative air ions have been suggested, to include improved performance, mood, attention, and physiological condition. Existing support is clouded by methodological problems of control and standardization in treatment and equipment. This study investigated effects of negative ions produced by a commercially marketed air purification device on grip magnitude, coding, motor dexterity, reaction time, tracking, pulse, blood pressure, and temperature. Two groups of 12 males were exposed to 6 continuous h of either negative or "normal" ion environments under a double blind condition. Repeated measures (0,3,6 h) on each variable were obtained. MANOVA applied to change scores revealed no differences between groups, and 0 vs. 3 and 0 vs. 6-h group differences showed no significant alteration in any measure. Negative ions generated by an air purification device were concluded to produce no general or specific alteration of cognitive or psychomotor performance or physiological condition.

  7. Translational applications of evaluating physiologic variability in human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Jeremy D; Mavroudis, Panteleimon D; Calvano, Steve E; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2013-08-01

    Dysregulation of the inflammatory response is a critical component of many clinically challenging disorders such as sepsis. Inflammation is a biological process designed to lead to healing and recovery, ultimately restoring homeostasis; however, the failure to fully achieve those beneficial results can leave a patient in a dangerous persistent inflammatory state. One of the primary challenges in developing novel therapies in this area is that inflammation is comprised of a complex network of interacting pathways. Here, we discuss our approaches towards addressing this problem through computational systems biology, with a particular focus on how the presence of biological rhythms and the disruption of these rhythms in inflammation may be applied in a translational context. By leveraging the information content embedded in physiologic variability, ranging in scale from oscillations in autonomic activity driving short-term heart rate variability to circadian rhythms in immunomodulatory hormones, there is significant potential to gain insight into the underlying physiology.

  8. Predicting physiological capacity of human load carriage - a review.

    PubMed

    Drain, Jace; Billing, Daniel; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Aisbett, Brad

    2016-01-01

    This review article aims to evaluate a proposed maximum acceptable work duration model for load carriage tasks. It is contended that this concept has particular relevance to physically demanding occupations such as military and firefighting. Personnel in these occupations are often required to perform very physically demanding tasks, over varying time periods, often involving load carriage. Previous research has investigated concepts related to physiological workload limits in occupational settings (e.g. industrial). Evidence suggests however, that existing (unloaded) workload guidelines are not appropriate for load carriage tasks. The utility of this model warrants further work to enable prediction of load carriage durations across a range of functional workloads for physically demanding occupations. If the maximum duration for which personnel can physiologically sustain a load carriage task could be accurately predicted, commanders and supervisors could better plan for and manage tasks to ensure operational imperatives were met whilst minimising health risks for their workers.

  9. Brain, body, and cognition: neural, physiological and self-report correlates of phobic and normative fear.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Hillary S; Larson, Christine L; Davidson, Richard J; Coan, James A

    2014-04-01

    The phobic fear response appears to resemble an intense form of normal threat responding that can be induced in a nonthreatening situation. However, normative and phobic fear are rarely contrasted directly, thus the degree to which these two types of fear elicit similar neural and bodily responses is not well understood. To examine biological correlates of normal and phobic fear, 21 snake phobic and 21 nonphobic controls saw videos of slithering snakes, attacking snakes and fish in an event-related fMRI design. Simultaneous eletrodermal, pupillary, and self-reported affective responses were collected. Nonphobic fear activated a network of threat-responsive brain regions and involved pupillary dilation, electrodermal response and self-reported affect selective to the attacking snakes. Phobic fear recruited a large array of brain regions including those active in normal fear plus additional structures and also engendered increased pupil dilation, electrodermal and self-reported responses that were greater to any snake versus fish. Importantly, phobics showed greater between- and within-subject concordance among neural, electrodermal, pupillary, and subjective report measures. These results suggest phobic responses recruit overlapping but more strongly activated and more extensive networks of brain activity as compared to normative fear, and are characterized by greater concordance among neural activation, peripheral physiology and self-report. It is yet unclear whether concordance is unique to psychopathology, or rather simply an indicator of the intense fear seen in the phobic response, but these results underscore the importance of synchrony between brain, body, and cognition during the phobic reaction.

  10. Brain, body, and cognition: Neural, physiological and self-report correlates of phobic and normative fear

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Hillary S.; Larson, Christine L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Coan, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The phobic fear response appears to resemble an intense form of normal threat responding that can be induced in a nonthreatening situation. However, normative and phobic fear are rarely contrasted directly, thus the degree to which these two types of fear elicit similar neural and bodily responses is not well understood. To examine biological correlates of normal and phobic fear, 21 snake phobic and 21 nonphobic controls saw videos of slithering snakes, attacking snakes and fish in an event-related fMRI design. Simultaneous eletrodermal, pupillary, and self-reported affective responses were collected. Nonphobic fear activated a network of threat-responsive brain regions and involved pupillary dilation, electrodermal response and self-reported affect selective to the attacking snakes. Phobic fear recruited a large array of brain regions including those active in normal fear plus additional structures and also engendered increased pupil dilation, electrodermal and self-reported responses that were greater to any snake versus fish. Importantly, phobics showed greater between- and within-subject concordance among neural, electrodermal, pupillary, and subjective report measures. These results suggest phobic responses recruit overlapping but more strongly activated and more extensive networks of brain activity as compared to normative fear, and are characterized by greater concordance among neural activation, peripheral physiology and self-report. It is yet unclear whether concordance is unique to psychopathology, or rather simply an indicator of the intense fear seen in the phobic response, but these results underscore the importance of synchrony between brain, body, and cognition during the phobic reaction. PMID:24561099

  11. Herbivory and Body Size: Allometries of Diet Quality and Gastrointestinal Physiology, and Implications for Herbivore Ecology and Dinosaur Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM. PMID:24204552

  12. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W H; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM.

  13. Geo-Effective Heliophysical Variations and Human Physiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2006-03-01

    A group of 86 volunteers was examined on each working day in autumn 2001 and in spring 2002. These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. There were 26 persons in the group on a drug treatment, mainly because of hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were registered. Pulse pressure was calculated. Data about subjective psycho-physiological complaints of the persons examined were also gathered. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analyzed. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were as follows: 1) geomagnetic activity estimated by H-component of the local geomagnetic field and divided into five levels; 2) gender - males and females; 3) presence of medication. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors' levels. The average arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure and the percentage of the persons in the group with subjective psycho-physiological complaints were found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity. The maximal increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10-11% and for pulse pressure 13.6%. Analyses revealed that females and persons on a medication were more sensitive to the increase of geomagnetic activity than respectively males and persons with no medication.

  14. Complexity analysis of human physiological signals based on case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Holloway, Philip; Ellis, Jason

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on methods for investigation of physiological time series based on complexity analysis. It is a part of a wider programme to determine non-invasive markers for healthy ageing. We consider two case studies investigated with actigraphy: (a) sleep and alternations with insomnia, and (b) ageing effects on mobility patterns. We illustrate, using these case studies, the application of fractal analysis to the investigation of regulation patterns and control, and change of physiological function. In the first case study, fractal analysis techniques were implemented to study the correlations present in sleep actigraphy for individuals suffering from acute insomnia in comparison with healthy controls. The aim was to investigate if complexity analysis can detect the onset of adverse health-related events. The subjects with acute insomnia displayed significantly higher levels of complexity, possibly a result of too much activity in the underlying regulatory systems. The second case study considered mobility patterns during night time and their variations with age. It showed that complexity metrics can identify change in physiological function with ageing. Both studies demonstrated that complexity analysis can be used to investigate markers of health, disease and healthy ageing.

  15. Overshoot Measured Physiologically and Psychophysically in the Same Human Ears

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE) was measured using stimulus waveforms similar to those used for behavioral overshoot. Behaviorally, the seven listeners were as much as 11 dB worse at detecting a brief tonal signal (4.0 kHz, 10 ms in duration) when it occurred soon after the onset of a wideband masking noise (0.1 – 6.0 kHz; 400 ms in duration) than when it was delayed by about 200 ms, and the nonlinear SFOAE measure exhibited a similar effect. When either lowpass (0.1 – 3.8 kHz) or bandpass noise (3.8 – 4.2 kHz) was used instead of the wideband noise, the physiological and behavioral measures again were similar. When a highpass noise (4.2 – 6.0 kHz) was used, the physiological and behavioral measures both showed no overshoot-like effect for five of the subjects. The physiological response to the tone decayed slowly after the termination of the noise, much like the time course of resetting for behavioral overshoot. One subject exhibited no overshoot behaviorally even though his cochlear responses were like those of the other subjects. Overall, the evidence suggests that some basic characteristics of overshoot are obligatory consequences of cochlear function, as modulated by the olivocochlear efferent system. PMID:20430072

  16. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  17. Clinical, Biomechanical, and Physiological Translational Interpretations of Human Resting Myofascial Tone or Tension

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Nair, Kalyani; Evans, Tyler; Ghandour, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Background Myofascial tissues generate integrated webs and networks of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and that control movement in the body. Passive [central nervous system (CNS)–independent] resting myofascial tension is present in the body and provides a low-level stabilizing component to help maintain balanced postures. This property was recently called “human resting myofascial tone” (HRMT). The HRMT model evolved from electromyography (EMG) research in the 1950s that showed lumbar muscles usually to be EMG-silent in relaxed gravity-neutral upright postures. Methods Biomechanical, clinical, and physiological studies were reviewed to interpret the passive stiffness properties of HRMT that help to stabilize various relaxed functions such as quiet balanced standing. Biomechanical analyses and experimental studies of the lumbar multifidus were reviewed to interpret its passive stiffness properties. The lumbar multifidus was illustrated as the major core stabilizing muscle of the spine, serving an important passive biomechanical role in the body. Results Research into muscle physiology suggests that passive resting tension (CNS-independent) is generated in sarcomeres by the molecular elasticity of low-level cycling cross-bridges between the actomyosin filaments. In turn, tension is complexly transmitted to intimately enveloping fascial matrix fibrils and other molecular elements in connective tissue, which, collectively, constitute the myofascial unit. Postural myofascial tonus varies with age and sex. Also, individuals in the population are proposed to vary in a polymorphism of postural HRMT. A few people are expected to have outlier degrees of innate postural hypotonicity or hypertonicity. Such biomechanical variations likely predispose to greater risk of related musculoskeletal disorders, a situation that deserves greater attention in clinical practice and research. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized to

  18. HumMod: A Modeling Environment for the Simulation of Integrative Human Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hester, Robert L; Brown, Alison J; Husband, Leland; Iliescu, Radu; Pruett, Drew; Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulations are important tools in discovering key causal relationships governing physiological processes. Simulations guide and improve outcomes of medical interventions involving complex physiology. We developed HumMod, a Windows-based model of integrative human physiology. HumMod consists of 5000 variables describing cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, neural, endocrine, skeletal muscle, and metabolic physiology. The model is constructed from empirical data obtained from peer-reviewed physiological literature. All model details, including variables, parameters, and quantitative relationships, are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML) files. The executable (HumMod.exe) parses the XML and displays the results of the physiological simulations. The XML description of physiology in HumMod's modeling environment allows investigators to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. Additional or revised XML content is parsed and incorporated into the model. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and quantitative changes in clinical and experimental responses. The model is useful in understanding proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that are not evident, allowing one to observe higher level emergent properties of the complex physiological systems. HumMod has many uses, for instance, analysis of renal control of blood pressure, central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Users simulate different physiological and pathophysiological situations by interactively altering numerical parameters and viewing time-dependent responses. HumMod provides a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. HumMod can be downloaded at http://hummod.org.

  19. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  20. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    PubMed

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  1. Three-dimensional surface anthropometry: Applications to the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Peter R. M.; Rioux, Marc

    1997-09-01

    Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body. By tradition this has been carried out taking the measurements from body surface landmarks, such as circumferences and breadths, using simple instruments like tape measures and calipers. Three-dimensional (3D) surface anthropometry enables us to extend the study to 3D geometry and morphology of mainly external human body tissues. It includes the acquisition, indexing, transmission, archiving, retrieval, interrogation and analysis of body size, shape, and surface together with their variability throughout growth and development to adulthood. While 3D surface anthropometry surveying is relatively new, anthropometric surveying using traditional tools, such as calipers and tape measures, is not. Recorded studies of the human form date back to ancient times. Since at least the 17th century 1 investigators have made attempts to measure the human body for physical properties such as weight, size, and centre of mass. Martin documented 'standard' body measurement methods in a handbook in 1928. 2 This paper reviews the past and current literature devoted to the applications of 3D anthropometry because true 3D scanning of the complete human body is fast becoming a reality. We attempt to take readers through different forms of technology which deal with simple forms of projected light to the more complex advanced forms of laser and video technology giving low and/or high resolution 3D data. Information is also given about image capture of size and shape of the whole as well as most component parts of the human body. In particular, the review describes with explanations a multitude of applications, for example, medical, product design, human engineering, anthropometry and ergonomics etc.

  2. Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Sho; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua

    This research studies the possibility of an intuitive interface for an electric wheelchair by using human body except hands. For this purpose, we focused on the human body motion which has relation to actions or behavior. This motion comes from the human stabilization function for holding expectable collapsing caused by voluntary motion. Thus this motion is considered as a kind of characteristics of human motion, and is linked to intentions unconsciously. Therefore, the interface which does not require conscious and complex motion is realized by applying this human body motion to the interface of electric wheelchair. In this paper, first, we did experiment to search a part which vividly shows the pressure change on the seat. As a result, it was confirmed that pressure change of the seat back vividly shows the human body motion. Next, we designed the prototype based on this evidence. Finally, experiment was conducted by using 10 subjects and SD method to evaluate feeling of operation. For this result, it was turned out that all subjects feel that proposed interface was intuitive, or to control at their direction. Therefore it was confirmed that human body motion interface has a possibility to be used for an interface of electric wheelchair.

  3. Human body composition: advances in models and methods.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Wang, Z; Baumgartner, R N; Ross, R

    1997-01-01

    The field of human body composition research is reaching a mature stage in its development: The three interconnected areas that define body composition research--models and their rules, methodology, and biological effects--are well-defined and are actively investigated by scientists in diverse disciplines from many different nations; and methods are available for measuring all major atomic, molecular, cellular, and tissue-system level body composition components in research, clinical, and epidemiological settings. This review summarizes main body composition research concepts, examines new component-measurement methodologies, and identifies potential areas of future research.

  4. The human cerebellum: a review of physiologic neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Minagar, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    The cerebellum resides in the posterior cranial fossa dorsal to the brainstem and has diverse connections to the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. It is anatomically and physiologically divided into distinct functional compartments and is composed of highly regular arrays of neuronal units, each sharing the same basic cerebellar microcircuitry. Its circuitry is critically involved in motor control and motor learning, and its role in nonmotor cognitive and affective functions is becoming increasingly recognized. This article describes the cerebellar gross and histologic neuroanatomy in relation to its function, and the relevance of cerebellar circuitry and firing patterns to motor learning.

  5. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain–machine interface research. PMID:26582986

  6. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain-machine interface research.

  7. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllosi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Bíró, Tamás

    2011-06-01

    The pilosebaceous unit of the human skin consists of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Within this "mini-organ", the sebaceous gland has been neglected by the researchers of the field for several decades. Actually, it was labeled as a reminiscence of human development ("a living fossil with a past but no future"), and was thought to solely act as a producer of sebum, a lipid-enriched oily substance which protects our skin (and hence the body) against various insults. However, due to emerging research activities of the past two decades, it has now become evident that the sebaceous gland is not only a "passive" cutaneous "relic" to establish the physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, but it rather functions as an "active" neuro-immuno-endocrine cutaneous organ. This review summarizes recent findings of sebaceous gland research by mainly focusing on newly discovered physiological functions, novel regulatory mechanisms, key events in the pathology of the gland, and future directions in both experimental and clinical dermatology.

  8. Alliances in Human Biology: The Harvard Committee on Industrial Physiology, 1929-1939.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Jason

    2015-08-01

    In 1929 the newly-reorganized Rockefeller Foundation funded the work of a cross-disciplinary group at Harvard University called the Committee on Industrial Physiology (CIP). The committee's research and pedagogical work was oriented towards different things for different members of the alliance. The CIP program included a research component in the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and Elton May's interpretation of the Hawthorne Studies; a pedagogical aspect as part of Wallace Donham's curriculum for Harvard Business School; and Lawrence Henderson's work with the Harvard Pareto Circle, his course Sociology 23, and the Harvard Society of Fellows. The key actors within the CIP alliance shared a concern with training men for elite careers in government service, business leadership, and academic prominence. But the first communications between the CIP and the Rockefeller Foundation did not emphasize training in human biology. Instead, the CIP presented itself as a coordinating body that would be able to organize all the varied work going on at Harvard that did not fit easily into one department, and it was on this basis that the CIP became legible to the President of Harvard, A. Lawrence Lowell, and to Rockefeller's Division of Social Sciences. The members of the CIP alliance used the term human biology for this project of research, training and institutional coordination.

  9. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  10. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  11. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  12. Virtual patients and sensitivity analysis of the Guyton model of blood pressure regulation: towards individualized models of whole-body physiology.

    PubMed

    Moss, Robert; Grosse, Thibault; Marchant, Ivanny; Lassau, Nathalie; Gueyffier, François; Thomas, S Randall

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models that integrate multi-scale physiological data can offer insight into physiological and pathophysiological function, and may eventually assist in individualized predictive medicine. We present a methodology for performing systematic analyses of multi-parameter interactions in such complex, multi-scale models. Human physiology models are often based on or inspired by Arthur Guyton's whole-body circulatory regulation model. Despite the significance of this model, it has not been the subject of a systematic and comprehensive sensitivity study. Therefore, we use this model as a case study for our methodology. Our analysis of the Guyton model reveals how the multitude of model parameters combine to affect the model dynamics, and how interesting combinations of parameters may be identified. It also includes a "virtual population" from which "virtual individuals" can be chosen, on the basis of exhibiting conditions similar to those of a real-world patient. This lays the groundwork for using the Guyton model for in silico exploration of pathophysiological states and treatment strategies. The results presented here illustrate several potential uses for the entire dataset of sensitivity results and the "virtual individuals" that we have generated, which are included in the supplementary material. More generally, the presented methodology is applicable to modern, more complex multi-scale physiological models.

  13. The role of adiponectin in human vascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Vaiopoulos, Aristeidis G; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2012-03-08

    Adiponectin (ApN) is an adipose tissue-derived hormone which is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including energy metabolism, inflammation, and vascular physiology via actions on a broad spectrum of target organs including liver, skeletal muscle, and vascular endothelium. Besides possessing insulin sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties ApN also exerts a pivotal role in vascular protection through activation of multiple intracellular signaling cascades. Enhancement of nitric oxide generation and attenuation of reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells along with reduced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration constitute some of ApN's vasoprotective actions. Additionally, recent data indicate that ApN has direct myocardio-protective effects. Decreased plasma ApN levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis and may serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker as well as a rational pharmaco-therapeutic target to treat these disorders. This review article summarizes recent work on the cardiovascular actions of ApN.

  14. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  15. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  16. Acute Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Methamphetamine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Carl L; Gunderson, Erik W; Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Thurmond, Andrew; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased dramatically in the past decade, yet only one published study has investigated its acute effects under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the current study examined the effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Eleven nontreatment-seeking methamphetamine abusers (two females, nine males) completed this four-session, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. During each session, one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg) was administered and methamphetamine plasma concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and psychomotor/cognitive performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Following drug administration, methamphetamine plasma concentrations systematically increased for 4 h postdrug administration then declined. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased cardiovascular measures and ‘positive’ subjective effects, with peaks occurring approximately 5–15 min after drug administration, when plasma levels were still ascending. In addition, cognitive performance on less complicated tasks was improved by all active methamphetamine doses, whereas performance on more complicated tasks was improved only by the intermediate doses (12 and 25 mg). These results show that intranasal methamphetamine produced predictable effects on multiple behavioral and physiological measures before peak plasma levels were observed. Of interest is the dissociation between methamphetamine plasma concentrations with cardiovascular measures and positive subjective effects, which might have important implications for potential toxicity after repeated doses. PMID:17851535

  17. Human motor adaptation in whole body motion

    PubMed Central

    Babič, Jan; Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The main role of the sensorimotor system of an organism is to increase the survival of the species. Therefore, to understand the adaptation and optimality mechanisms of motor control, it is necessary to study the sensorimotor system in terms of ecological fitness. We designed an experimental paradigm that exposed sensorimotor system to risk of injury. We studied human subjects performing uncon- strained squat-to-stand movements that were systematically subjected to non-trivial perturbation. We found that subjects adapted by actively compensating the perturbations, converging to movements that were different from their normal unperturbed squat-to-stand movements. Furthermore, the adapted movements had clear intrinsic inter-subject differences which could be explained by different adapta- tion strategies employed by the subjects. These results suggest that classical optimality measures of physical energy and task satisfaction should be seen as part of a hierarchical organization of optimality with safety being at the highest level. Therefore, in addition to physical energy and task fulfillment, the risk of injury and other possible costs such as neural computational overhead have to be considered when analyzing human movement. PMID:27608652

  18. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Oschman, James L.; Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance. PMID:22291721

  19. Earthing: health implications of reconnecting the human body to the Earth's surface electrons.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T; Oschman, James L; Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits-including better sleep and reduced pain-from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  20. Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body.

    PubMed

    Schwoebel, John; Coslett, H Branch

    2005-04-01

    Previous data from single-case and small group studies have suggested distinctions among structural, conceptual, and online sensorimotor representations of the human body. We developed a battery of tasks to further examine the prevalence and anatomic substrates of these body representations. The battery was administered to 70 stroke patients. Fifty-one percent of the patients were impaired relative to controls on at least one body representation measure. Further, principal components analysis of the patient data as well as direct comparisons of patient and control performance suggested a triple dissociation between measures of the 3 putative body representations. Consistent with previous distinctions between the "what" and "how" pathways, lesions of the left temporal lobe were most consistently associated with impaired performance on tasks assessing knowledge of the shape or lexical-semantic information about the body, whereas lesions of the dorsolateral frontal and parietal regions resulted in impaired performance on tasks requiring on-line coding of body posture.

  1. Sys-BodyFluid: a systematical database for human body fluid proteome research.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Jun; Peng, Mao; Li, Hong; Liu, Bo-Shu; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jia-Rui; Li, Yi-Xue; Zeng, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Recently, body fluids have widely become an important target for proteomic research and proteomic study has produced more and more body fluid related protein data. A database is needed to collect and analyze these proteome data. Thus, we developed this web-based body fluid proteome database Sys-BodyFluid. It contains eleven kinds of body fluid proteomes, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, seminal fluid, human milk and amniotic fluid. Over 10,000 proteins are presented in the Sys-BodyFluid. Sys-BodyFluid provides the detailed protein annotations, including protein description, Gene Ontology, domain information, protein sequence and involved pathways. These proteome data can be retrieved by using protein name, protein accession number and sequence similarity. In addition, users can query between these different body fluids to get the different proteins identification information. Sys-BodyFluid database can facilitate the body fluid proteomics and disease proteomics research as a reference database. It is available at http://www.biosino.org/bodyfluid/.

  2. Natural User Interface Sensors for Human Body Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, J.

    2012-08-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and observe human users they should be ideally suited to measure the human body. We describe the technology of a line of NUI sensors and assess their performance in terms of repeatability and accuracy. We demonstrate the implementation of a prototype scanner integrating several NUI sensors to achieve full body coverage. We present the results of the obtained surface model of a human body.

  3. Differentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Selected Physiological Responses during Prolonged Upper and Lower Body Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    AC and CY exercise for any of the diff RPE. Local RPE was generally higher than central RPE. Selected physiological responses accounted for more... physiological responses was much higher for arm crank than cycle exercise for W7 T-7 7’v* 7 7. 7 77 7 9 w2 all differentiated RPE contrasts (ABS and REL-AC...total accountable variance from these selected physiological responses was greater for arm crank (median R2 = 0.99) than cycle exercise (median R 2 = 0.75

  4. The Effect of Body Position on Physiological Factors that Contribute to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Simon A.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Turton, Anthony; Skuza, Elizabeth M.; Berger, Philip J.; Hamilton, Garun S.

    2015-01-01

    critical closing pressure), the ability of the airway to stiffen and dilate (active V0), and the awake functional residual capacity without improving loop gain or arousal threshold. Citation: Joosten SA, Edwards BA, Wellman A, Turton A, Skuza EM, Berger PJ, Hamilton GS. The effect of body position on physiological factors that contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1469–1478. PMID:25761982

  5. Physiologic and Functional Responses of MS Patients to Body Cooling Using Commercially Available Cooling Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Personal cooling systems are widely used in industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. Increasingly they are also used by heat sensitive multiple sclerosis (HSMS) patients to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. There are a variety of cooling systems commercially available to the MS community. However, little information is available regarding the comparative physiological changes produced by routine operation of these various systems. The objective of this study was to document and compare the patient response to two passive cooling vests and one active cooling garment. The Life Enhancement Technology, Inc. (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems (MCS) Change of Phase garment, and the Steele Vest were each used to cool 13 male and 13 female MS subjects (31 to 67 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approximately 22 C), were tested with one of the cooling garments. Oral, fight and left ear temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. An-n, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. Each subject was given a series of subjective and objective evaluation tests before and after cooling. The LET and Steele vests test groups had similar, significant (P less than 0.01) cooling effects on oral and ear canal temperature, which decreased approximately 0.4 C, and 0.3 C, respectively. Core temperature increased (N.S.) with all three vests during cooling. The LET vest produced the coldest (P less than 0.01) skin temperature. Overall, the LET vest provided the most improvement on subjective and objective performance measures. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all MS patients. Cooling with the LET active garment configuration resulted in the lowest body temperatures for the MS subjects; cooling with

  6. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Singularity now: using the ventricular assist device as a model for future human-robotic physiology

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Archer K.

    2016-01-01

    In our 21st century world, human-robotic interactions are far more complicated than Asimov predicted in 1942. The future of human-robotic interactions includes human-robotic machine hybrids with an integrated physiology, working together to achieve an enhanced level of baseline human physiological performance. This achievement can be described as a biological Singularity. I argue that this time of Singularity cannot be met by current biological technologies, and that human-robotic physiology must be integrated for the Singularity to occur. In order to conquer the challenges we face regarding human-robotic physiology, we first need to identify a working model in today’s world. Once identified, this model can form the basis for the study, creation, expansion, and optimization of human-robotic hybrid physiology. In this paper, I present and defend the line of argument that currently this kind of model (proposed to be named “IshBot”) can best be studied in ventricular assist devices – VAD. PMID:28913480

  8. [Hypothermia--mechanism of action and pathophysiological changes in the human body].

    PubMed

    Sosnowski, Przemysław; Mikrut, Kinga; Krauss, Hanna

    2015-01-16

    This review focuses on the physiological responses and pathophysiological changes induced by hypothermia. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain thermal homeostasis. The human body can be divided arbitrarily into two thermal compartments: a core compartment (trunk and head), with precisely regulated temperature around 37°C, and a peripheral compartment (skin and extremities) with less strictly controlled temperature, and lower than the core temperature. Thermoregulatory processes occur in three phases: afferent thermal sensing, central regulation, mainly by the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, and efferent response. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses including cutaneous vasoconstriction, shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis, and behavioral changes. Alterations of body temperature associated with impaired thermoregulation, decreased heat production or increased heat loss can lead to hypothermia. Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature below 35ºC, and may be classified according to the origin as accidental (e.g. caused by exposure to a cold environment, drugs, or illness) or intentional (i.e. therapeutic), or by the degree of hypothermia as mild, moderate or severe. Classification by temperature is not universal. Lowering of body temperature disrupts the physiological processes at the molecular, cellular and system level, but hypothermia induced prior to cardiosurgical or neurosurgical procedures, by the decrease in tissue oxygen demand, can reduce the risk of cerebral or cardiac ischemic damage. Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended as a clinical procedure in situations characterized by ischemia, such as cardiac arrest, stroke and brain injuries.

  9. Knowledge of the human body: a distinct semantic domain.

    PubMed

    Coslett, H Branch; Saffran, Eleanor M; Schwoebel, John

    2002-08-13

    Patients with selective deficits in the naming and comprehension of animals, plants, and artifacts have been reported. These descriptions of specific semantic category deficits have contributed substantially to the understanding of the architecture of semantic representations. This study sought to further understanding of the organization of the semantic system by demonstrating that another semantic category, knowledge of the human body, may be selectively preserved. The performance of a patient with semantic dementia was compared with the performance of healthy controls on a variety of tasks assessing distinct types of body representations, including the body schema, body image, and body structural description. Despite substantial deficits on tasks involving language and knowledge of the world generally, the patient performed normally on all tests of body knowledge except body part naming; even in this naming task, however, her performance with body parts was significantly better than on artifacts. The demonstration that body knowledge may be preserved despite substantial semantic deficits involving other types of semantic information argues that body knowledge is a distinct and dissociable semantic category. These data are interpreted as support for a model of semantics that proposes that knowledge is distributed across different cortical regions reflecting the manner in which the information was acquired.

  10. [Human orgasm from the physiological perspective--part I].

    PubMed

    Gałecki, Piotr; Depko, Andrzej; Jedrzejewska, Sylwia; Talarowska, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Physiological phenomenon of sexuality occurring in both sexes that brings physical and mental satisfaction, and often affects the quality of life is an orgasm. The ability to experience regular orgasms affects relationship with partner. The definition of orgasm is not an easy task. The way of experiencing it is subjective, and the possibility of observing significantly reduced. Contemporary works on the phenomenon of orgasm are concentrated on several aspects: biological perspective (neurophysiological and biochemical determinants of orgasm), psychological perspective and on the differences in its course in both sexes. In sexology are two models of sexual response: a linear model of sexual response (by W. Masters and V. Johnson, and H. S. Kaplan) and the circular model of sexual response (created by R. Basson). The ability to experiencing an orgasm is inherent in men. In women, that phenomenon is acquired, is the consequence of further experience.

  11. Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper.

    PubMed

    Tapiero, H; Townsend, D M; Tew, K D

    2003-11-01

    Copper is a trace element, important for the function of many cellular enzymes. Copper ions can adopt distinct redox states oxidized Cu(II) or reduced (I), allowing the metal to play a pivotal role in cell physiology as a catalytic cofactor in the redox chemistry of enzymes, mitochondrial respiration, iron absorption, free radical scavenging and elastin cross-linking. If present in excess, free copper ions can cause damage to cellular components and a delicate balance between the uptake and efflux of copper ions determines the amount of cellular copper. In biological systems, copper homeostasis has been characterized at the molecular level. It is coordinated by several proteins such as glutathione, metallothionein, Cu-transporting P-type ATPases, Menkes and Wilson proteins and by cytoplasmic transport proteins called copper chaperones to ensure that it is delivered to specific subcellular compartments and thereby to copper-requiring proteins.

  12. [The ambivalence of love: from physiologic need to disease of the soul and of the body].

    PubMed

    Menghi, Martino

    2005-01-01

    In this writing we intend to examine the Epicurean notion of love as Lucretius presents it, both in the light of the perspective open by Jackie Pigeaud in an article on the erotic dream in antiquity and in a comparision with the Stoic view. We will notice the curious relationship there is between Lucretius' notion of simulacra and Stoic conception of phantasiai, but also the fundamental difference there is in their respective perception with what follows concerning the responsibility of the individual in his action. A passage of Seneca will show us that man can be morally corrupted to such an extent as to be able to shape up by himself negative phantasiai. But the portrait we will try to make of Epicurean and Stoic theory of love will give us the opportunity to see its integration into the medical thought of Roman imperial age. The attention of the most eminent physicians of I-II century to the pathological issues both for the soul and for the body of an excessive erotic life, indeed, not only depends on the heritage of Aristotelian acquisitions in the field of biology and psychology, but also presents some interesting links with Epicurean and Stoic theory of love, coherently with the pretension of some of these physicians to become the tutors of both physic and moral health of humanity.

  13. Physiological and behavioral effects of tilt-induced body fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.; Tjernstrom, O.; Ivarsson, A.; Gulledge, W. L.; Poston, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the 'fluid shift theory' of space motion sickness. The primary purpose of the research was the development of procedures to assess individual differences in response to rostral body fluid shifts on earth. Experiment I examined inner ear fluid pressure changes during head-down tilt in intact human beings. Tilt produced reliable changes. Differences among subjects and between ears within the same subject were observed. Experiment II examined auditory threshold changes during tilt. Tilt elicited increased auditory thresholds, suggesting that sensory depression may result from increased inner ear fluid pressure. Additional observations on rotation magnitude estimation during head-down tilt, which indicate that rostral fluid shifts may depress semicircular canal activity, are briefly described. The results of this research suggest that the inner ear pressure and auditory threshold shift procedures could be used to assess individual differences among astronauts prior to space flight. Results from the terrestrial observations could be related to reported incidence/severity of motion sickness in space and used to evaluate the fluid shift theory of space motion sickness.

  14. Body size and lower limb posture during walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hora, Martin; Soumar, Libor; Pontzer, Herman; Sládek, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion capture system and pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear model and commonality analysis to assess the independent effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and velocity. In addition, we used inverse dynamics to model the effect of size and posture on net joint moments. At early stance, body mass has a negative effect on knee flexion (p < 0.01), whereas lower limb length has a negative effect on hip flexion (p < 0.05). Body mass uniquely explains 15.8% of the variance in knee flexion, whereas lower limb length uniquely explains 5.4% of the variance in hip flexion. Both of the detected relationships between body size and posture are consistent with the moment moderating postural adjustments predicted by our model. At late stance, no significant relationship between body size and posture was detected. Humans of greater body size reduce the flexion of the hip and knee at early stance, which results in the moderation of net moments at these joints. PMID:28192522

  15. The commerce of human body parts: an Eastern Orthodox response.

    PubMed

    Reardon, P H

    2000-08-01

    The Orthodox Church teaches that the bodies of those in Christ are to be regarded as sanctified by the hearing of the Word and faithful participation in the Sacraments, most particularly the Holy Eucharist; because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit the consecrated bodies of Christians do not belong to them but to Christ; with respect to the indwelling Holy Spirit there is no difference between the bodies of Christians before and after death; whether before or after death, the Christian body is also to receive the same veneration; and notwithstanding the physical corruptions that the body endures by reason of death, there remains a strict continuity between the body in which the Christian dies and the body in which the Christian will rise again. That is to say, it is the very same reality that is sown in corruption and will be raised in incorruption. Given such consideration, the notion of "selling" and integral part of a human being is simply outside the realm of rational comprehension. Indeed, it is profoundly repugnant to those Orthodox Christian sentiments that are formed and nourished by the Church's sacramental teaching and liturgical worship. One does not sell or purchase that which has been consecrated in those solemn ways that the Church consecrates the human body.

  16. Body size and lower limb posture during walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Hora, Martin; Soumar, Libor; Pontzer, Herman; Sládek, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion capture system and pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear model and commonality analysis to assess the independent effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and velocity. In addition, we used inverse dynamics to model the effect of size and posture on net joint moments. At early stance, body mass has a negative effect on knee flexion (p < 0.01), whereas lower limb length has a negative effect on hip flexion (p < 0.05). Body mass uniquely explains 15.8% of the variance in knee flexion, whereas lower limb length uniquely explains 5.4% of the variance in hip flexion. Both of the detected relationships between body size and posture are consistent with the moment moderating postural adjustments predicted by our model. At late stance, no significant relationship between body size and posture was detected. Humans of greater body size reduce the flexion of the hip and knee at early stance, which results in the moderation of net moments at these joints.

  17. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J

    2013-09-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies.

  18. Potent cough suppression by physiologically active substance in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Norio; Ito, Yushi; Ogawa, Sachie K; Maeda, Megumi; Wakita, Masahito; Takahama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Kamei, Shintaro; Hamamoto, Takayoshi; Umehashi, Misako; Maeda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma contains wide variety of bioactive proteins that have proved essential in therapeutic discovery. However many human plasma proteins remain orphans with unknown biological functions. Evidences suggest that some plasma components target the respiratory system. In the present study we adapted heparin affinity chromatography to fractionate human plasma for functional bioassay. Fractions from pooled human plasma yielded particular plasma fractions with strong cough suppressing effects. Purification yielded a fraction that was finally identified as an activated blood coagulation factor fXIa using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS). The fraction almost completely suppressed coughs induced by either chemical or mechanical stimulation applied to larynx or bifurcation of guinea-pig trachea. Cough suppressing effect of the fraction and commercially available fXIa were one million times stronger than codeine and codeine only partially suppressed the mechanically triggered coughing in animal model. Recent reviews highlighted prominent shortcomings of current available antitussives, including narcotic opioids such as codeine and their unpleasant or intolerable side effects. Therefore, safer and more effective cough suppressants would be welcome, and present findings indicate that fXIa in human plasma as a very promising, new therapeutic candidate for effective antitussive action.

  19. Characterizing the normal proteome of human ciliary body

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ciliary body is the circumferential muscular tissue located just behind the iris in the anterior chamber of the eye. It plays a pivotal role in the production of aqueous humor, maintenance of the lens zonules and accommodation by changing the shape of the crystalline lens. The ciliary body is the major target of drugs against glaucoma as its inhibition leads to a drop in intraocular pressure. A molecular study of the ciliary body could provide a better understanding about the pathophysiological processes that occur in glaucoma. Thus far, no large-scale proteomic investigation has been reported for the human ciliary body. Results In this study, we have carried out an in-depth LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of normal human ciliary body and have identified 2,815 proteins. We identified a number of proteins that were previously not described in the ciliary body including importin 5 (IPO5), atlastin-2 (ATL2), B-cell receptor associated protein 29 (BCAP29), basigin (BSG), calpain-1 (CAPN1), copine 6 (CPNE6), fibulin 1 (FBLN1) and galectin 1 (LGALS1). We compared the plasma proteome with the ciliary body proteome and found that the large majority of proteins in the ciliary body were also detectable in the plasma while 896 proteins were unique to the ciliary body. We also classified proteins using pathway enrichment analysis and found most of proteins associated with ubiquitin pathway, EIF2 signaling, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Conclusions More than 95% of the identified proteins have not been previously described in the ciliary body proteome. This is the largest catalogue of proteins reported thus far in the ciliary body that should provide new insights into our understanding of the factors involved in maintaining the secretion of aqueous humor. The identification of these proteins will aid in understanding various eye diseases of the anterior segment such as glaucoma and presbyopia. PMID:23914977

  20. The effects of food shortage during larval development on adult body size, body mass, physiology and developmental time in a tropical damselfly.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Cortés, J Guillermo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition--phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) "rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) "poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species.

  1. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    In, Julie G; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human 'mini-guts' has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5(+) intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt-villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host-pathogen interactions.

  2. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host–pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    In, Julie G.; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K.; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human ‘mini-guts’ has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5+ intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt–villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host pathogen interactions. PMID:27677718

  3. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter III, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural “technological” solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier

  4. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter, Robert

    2016-04-16

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural "technological" solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for

  5. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  6. Validation of human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for vinyl acetate against human nasal dosimetry data.

    PubMed

    Hinderliter, P M; Thrall, K D; Corley, R A; Bloemen, L J; Bogdanffy, M S

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into the nasopharyngeal region sampled both 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13C1,13C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  7. Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  8. Insulin-like peptide genes in honey bee fat body respond differently to manipulation of social behavioral physiology

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Kari-Anne; Ihle, Kate E.; Frederick, Katy; Fondrk, M. Kim; Smedal, Bente; Hartfelder, Klaus; Amdam, Gro V.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Nutrient sensitive insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have profound effects on invertebrate metabolism, nutrient storage, fertility and aging. Many insects transcribe ILPs in specialized neurosecretory cells at changing levels correlated with life history. However, the major site of insect metabolism and nutrient storage is not the brain, but rather the fat body, where functions of ILP expression are rarely studied and poorly understood. Fat body is analogous to mammalian liver and adipose tissue, with nutrient stores that often correlate with behavior. We used the honey bee (Apis mellifera), an insect with complex behavior, to test whether ILP genes in fat body respond to experimentally induced changes of behavioral physiology. Honey bee fat body influences endocrine state and behavior by secreting the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vg), which suppresses lipophilic juvenile hormone and social foraging behavior. In a two-factorial experiment, we used RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated vg gene knockdown and amino acid nutrient enrichment of hemolymph (blood) to perturb this regulatory module. We document factor-specific changes in fat body ilp1 and ilp2 mRNA, the bee's ILP-encoding genes, and confirm that our protocol affects social behavior. We show that ilp1 and ilp2 are regulated independently and differently and diverge in their specific expression-localization between fat body oenocyte and trophocyte cells. Insect ilp functions may be better understood by broadening research to account for expression in fat body and not only brain. PMID:21490257

  9. Insulin-like peptide genes in honey bee fat body respond differently to manipulation of social behavioral physiology.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Kari-Anne; Ihle, Kate E; Frederick, Katy; Fondrk, M Kim; Smedal, Bente; Hartfelder, Klaus; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient sensitive insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have profound effects on invertebrate metabolism, nutrient storage, fertility and aging. Many insects transcribe ILPs in specialized neurosecretory cells at changing levels correlated with life history. However, the major site of insect metabolism and nutrient storage is not the brain, but rather the fat body, where functions of ILP expression are rarely studied and poorly understood. Fat body is analogous to mammalian liver and adipose tissue, with nutrient stores that often correlate with behavior. We used the honey bee (Apis mellifera), an insect with complex behavior, to test whether ILP genes in fat body respond to experimentally induced changes of behavioral physiology. Honey bee fat body influences endocrine state and behavior by secreting the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vg), which suppresses lipophilic juvenile hormone and social foraging behavior. In a two-factorial experiment, we used RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated vg gene knockdown and amino acid nutrient enrichment of hemolymph (blood) to perturb this regulatory module. We document factor-specific changes in fat body ilp1 and ilp2 mRNA, the bee's ILP-encoding genes, and confirm that our protocol affects social behavior. We show that ilp1 and ilp2 are regulated independently and differently and diverge in their specific expression-localization between fat body oenocyte and trophocyte cells. Insect ilp functions may be better understood by broadening research to account for expression in fat body and not only brain.

  10. Segmentation of human upper body movement using multiple IMU sensors.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takashi; Lin, Jonathan Feng-Shun; Kulic, Dana; Venture, Gentiane

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the segmentation of human body movements measured by inertial measurement unit sensors. Using the angular velocity and linear acceleration measurements directly, without converting to joint angles, we perform segmentation by formulating the problem as a classification problem, and training a classifier to differentiate between motion end-point and within-motion points. The proposed approach is validated with experiments measuring the upper body movement during reaching tasks, demonstrating classification accuracy of over 85.8%.

  11. Motion capture based identification of the human body inertial parameters.

    PubMed

    Venture, Gentiane; Ayusawa, Ko; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Identification of body inertia, masses and center of mass is an important data to simulate, monitor and understand dynamics of motion, to personalize rehabilitation programs. This paper proposes an original method to identify the inertial parameters of the human body, making use of motion capture data and contact forces measurements. It allows in-vivo painless estimation and monitoring of the inertial parameters. The method is described and then obtained experimental results are presented and discussed.

  12. Matters of Taste: Bridging Molecular Physiology and the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple…

  13. Matters of Taste: Bridging Molecular Physiology and the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple…

  14. Human pathogens in plant biofilms: Formation, physiology, and detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh produce, viewed as an essential part of a healthy life style is usually consumed in the form of raw or minimally processed fruits and vegetables, and is a potentially important source of food-borne human pathogenic bacteria and viruses. These are passed on to the consumer since the bacteria ca...

  15. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURES TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans can be exposed by inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an oxygenated fuel additive, from contaminated water sources. The purpose of this research was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing in human...

  16. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURES TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans can be exposed by inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an oxygenated fuel additive, from contaminated water sources. The purpose of this research was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing in human...

  17. Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesari, Whitney A.; Caruso, Dominique M.; Zyka, Enela L.; Schroff, Stuart T.; Evans, Charles H., Jr.; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K.

    2006-01-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design,…

  18. Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesari, Whitney A.; Caruso, Dominique M.; Zyka, Enela L.; Schroff, Stuart T.; Evans, Charles H., Jr.; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K.

    2006-01-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design,…

  19. Gender recognition from unconstrained and articulated human body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  20. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition. PMID:24977203

  1. Identification of rheological properties of human body surface tissue.

    PubMed

    Benevicius, Vincas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Marozas, Vaidotas

    2014-04-11

    According to World Health Organization obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. It has tripled since the 1980s and the numbers of those affected continue to rise at an alarming rate, especially among children. There are number of devices that act as a prevention measure to boost person's motivation for physical activity and its levels. The placement of these devices is not restricted thus the measurement errors that appear because of the body rheology, clothes, etc. cannot be eliminated. The main objective of this work is to introduce a tool that can be applied directly to process measured accelerations so human body surface tissue induced errors can be reduced. Both the modeling and experimental techniques are proposed to identify body tissue rheological properties and prelate them to body mass index. Multi-level computational model composed from measurement device model and human body surface tissue rheological model is developed. Human body surface tissue induced inaccuracies can increase the magnitude of measured accelerations up to 34% when accelerations of the magnitude of up to 27 m/s(2) are measured. Although the timeframe of those disruptions are short - up to 0.2 s - they still result in increased overall measurement error.

  2. More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, Renee

    2010-01-01

    A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

  3. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition.

  4. Biostereometric Data Processing In ERGODATA: Choice Of Human Body Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J. C.; Mollard, R.; Sauvignon, M.; Amphoux, M.

    1983-07-01

    The definition of human body models was elaborated with anthropometric data from ERGODATA. The first model reduces the human body into a series of points and lines. The second model is well adapted to represent volumes of each segmentary element. The third is an original model built from the conventional anatomical points. Each segment is defined in space by a tri-angular plane located with its 3-D coordinates. This new model can answer all the processing possibilities in the field of computer-aided design (C.A.D.) in ergonomy but also biomechanics and orthopaedics.

  5. Stereovision for dynamic analysis of human body movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugarra Gonzalez, C. F.; Dusza, Jacek J.; Grabowski, Pawel; Lerma Caballero, Marc; Carrilero López, Vicente

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a new Stereovision Laboratory. It was designed and constructed by the authors of the paper in the University of Valencia. It consists of four cameras with its special equipment, a moving track, hardware and software for calculation and visualization. The tests carried out on the measurement stand lead to obtain the set of data describing the movement of human body. The stored data serves to analyze static and dynamic behavior of some parts of human body like arms, legs or vertebral column. Special software was design in order to do visual inspection of the movement and to select a proper data.

  6. Analysis of Human Body Bipedal Stability for Neuromotor Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baritz, Mihaela; Cristea, Luciana; Rogozea, Liliana; Cotoros, Diana; Repanovici, Angela

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of different biomechanical aspects of balance and equilibrium is presented in the first part of the paper. We analyzed the posture, balance and stability of human body for a normal person and for a person with loco-motor or neuro-motor disabilities (in the second part). In the third part of the paper we presented the methodology and the experimental setup used to record the human body behavior in postural stability for persons with neuro-motors disabilities. The results and the conclusions are presented in the final part of the paper and also in the future work meant to establish the computer analysis for rehabilitation neuromotor disabilities.

  7. High Level Impulse Sounds and Human Hearing: Standards, Physiology, Quantification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    1976; Dancer , 2004). 3.1.2.2 Warned and Unwarned Response of the Ear The role of the AR in protecting hearing against impulse sounds has been...1974; Dancer , 2004). Price (2007a) refers to human reaction to unexpected and expected sounds as the unwarned response and warned response. The...Henderson et al., 2001; Maison and Liberman, 2000). This system has been referred to by Dancer (2004) as the inner ear acoustic reflex. Although

  8. Neuroanatomy and physiology of colorectal function and defaecation: from basic science to human clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Brookes, S J; Dinning, P G; Gladman, M A

    2009-12-01

    Colorectal physiology is complex and involves programmed, coordinated interaction between muscular and neuronal elements. Whilst a detailed understanding remains elusive, novel information has emerged from recent basic science and human clinical studies concerning normal sensorimotor mechanisms and the organization and function of the key elements involved in the control of motility. This chapter summarizes these observations to provide a contemporary review of the neuroanatomy and physiology of colorectal function and defaecation.

  9. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    PubMed

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  10. Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanjiao; Gao, Hongyu; Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie A; La Rosa, Patricio S; Wylie, Kristine M; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Warner, Barb; Tarr, Phillip I; Nelson, David E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Holland, Martin J; Burr, Sarah E; Shannon, William D; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M

    2013-01-14

    Characterizing the biogeography of the microbiome of healthy humans is essential for understanding microbial associated diseases. Previous studies mainly focused on a single body habitat from a limited set of subjects. Here, we analyzed one of the largest microbiome datasets to date and generated a biogeographical map that annotates the biodiversity, spatial relationships, and temporal stability of 22 habitats from 279 healthy humans. We identified 929 genera from more than 24 million 16S rRNA gene sequences of 22 habitats, and we provide a baseline of inter-subject variation for healthy adults. The oral habitat has the most stable microbiota with the highest alpha diversity, while the skin and vaginal microbiota are less stable and show lower alpha diversity. The level of biodiversity in one habitat is independent of the biodiversity of other habitats in the same individual. The abundances of a given genus at a body site in which it dominates do not correlate with the abundances at body sites where it is not dominant. Additionally, we observed the human microbiota exhibit both cosmopolitan and endemic features. Finally, comparing datasets of different projects revealed a project-based clustering pattern, emphasizing the significance of standardization of metagenomic studies. The data presented here extend the definition of the human microbiome by providing a more complete and accurate picture of human microbiome biogeography, addressing questions best answered by a large dataset of subjects and body sites that are deeply sampled by sequencing.

  11. Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Characterizing the biogeography of the microbiome of healthy humans is essential for understanding microbial associated diseases. Previous studies mainly focused on a single body habitat from a limited set of subjects. Here, we analyzed one of the largest microbiome datasets to date and generated a biogeographical map that annotates the biodiversity, spatial relationships, and temporal stability of 22 habitats from 279 healthy humans. Results We identified 929 genera from more than 24 million 16S rRNA gene sequences of 22 habitats, and we provide a baseline of inter-subject variation for healthy adults. The oral habitat has the most stable microbiota with the highest alpha diversity, while the skin and vaginal microbiota are less stable and show lower alpha diversity. The level of biodiversity in one habitat is independent of the biodiversity of other habitats in the same individual. The abundances of a given genus at a body site in which it dominates do not correlate with the abundances at body sites where it is not dominant. Additionally, we observed the human microbiota exhibit both cosmopolitan and endemic features. Finally, comparing datasets of different projects revealed a project-based clustering pattern, emphasizing the significance of standardization of metagenomic studies. Conclusions The data presented here extend the definition of the human microbiome by providing a more complete and accurate picture of human microbiome biogeography, addressing questions best answered by a large dataset of subjects and body sites that are deeply sampled by sequencing. PMID:23316946

  12. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  13. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies.

  14. Effects of lighting on human physiology and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated and published in the biomedical literature that light in the environment can regulate human biology and behavior. In addition, light is now routinely utilized as a therapeutic tool for various clinical disorders. Studies also suggest that light can be used to improve the health and productivity of shift workers. Finally, the data are beginning to look very promising for the fact that light may be used to improve the health and performance of day workers in addition to shift workers.

  15. [Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes in the human body].

    PubMed

    Siniak, Iu E; Grigor'ev, A I; Skuratov, V M; Ivanova, S M; Pokrovskiĭ, B G

    2006-01-01

    Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes was studied in 9 human subjects in a chamber with normal air pressure imitating a space cabin. Mass-spectrometry of isotopes in blood, urine, saliva, and potable water evidenced increases in the contents of heavy H isotope (deuterium) in the body liquids as compared with water. These results support one of the theories according to which the human organism eliminates heavy stable isotopes of biogenous chemical elements.

  16. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    PubMed

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  17. Adipose circadian rhythms: translating cellular and animal studies to human physiology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jonathan D

    2012-02-05

    Emerging links between circadian rhythms and metabolism promise much for the understanding of metabolic physiology and pathophysiology, in which white adipose tissue (WAT) plays a prominent role. Many WAT endocrine molecules, termed adipokines, display rhythmic plasma concentration. Moreover, similar to most other tissues, WAT exhibits widespread 24-h variation in gene expression, with approximately 20% of the murine adipose transcriptome estimated to undergo daily variation. A major limitation to human chronobiology research is the availability of physiologically defined peripheral tissues. To date most analyses of in vivo human peripheral clocks has been limited to blood leucocytes. However, subcutaneous adipose tissue represents a novel opportunity to study peripheral molecular rhythms that are of clearly defined metabolic relevance. This review summarises basic concepts of circadian and metabolic physiology before then comparing alternative protocols used to analyse the rhythmic properties of human adipose tissue.

  18. Human and animal sounds influence recognition of body language.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; Grèzes, Julie; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-11-25

    In naturalistic settings emotional events have multiple correlates and are simultaneously perceived by several sensory systems. Recent studies have shown that recognition of facial expressions is biased towards the emotion expressed by a simultaneously presented emotional expression in the voice even if attention is directed to the face only. So far, no study examined whether this phenomenon also applies to whole body expressions, although there is no obvious reason why this crossmodal influence would be specific for faces. Here we investigated whether perception of emotions expressed in whole body movements is influenced by affective information provided by human and by animal vocalizations. Participants were instructed to attend to the action displayed by the body and to categorize the expressed emotion. The results indicate that recognition of body language is biased towards the emotion expressed by the simultaneously presented auditory information, whether it consist of human or of animal sounds. Our results show that a crossmodal influence from auditory to visual emotional information obtains for whole body video images with the facial expression blanked and includes human as well as animal sounds.

  19. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    PubMed

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  20. Physiology and biochemistry of human subjects during entrapment.

    PubMed

    Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Giotaki, Z K; Kolostoumbis, D; Papageorgiou, C; Zorba, E; Spiliopoulou, C; Amann, A; Statheropoulos, M

    2013-03-01

    A classification of various categories of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings after earthquakes, technical failures or explosions is proposed. Type and degree of injury at the moment of building collapse and duration of entrapment are the two basic parameters in this classification. The aim is to provide sources and types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be used for establishing a new method for locating entrapped victims based on human chemical signatures. Potential target compounds, among others, are ammonia, acetone, isoprene, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and trimethylamine. In this context, the possible neuroendocrine, metabolic and physical responses of potential victims during the different types of entrapment are correlated with the sources of VOCs such as expired air, urine, blood and sweat. The proposed classification scheme was developed as part of an integrated research project which investigates the use of combined audio, video and chemical methods for the early location of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings.

  1. Unique gel-coupled acoustic sensor array monitors human voice and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. The Army Research Laboratory's gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin that facilitate the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repel ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. Acoustic signal processing detects physiological events such as heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. Acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Although the physiological sounds have high SNR, the acoustic sensor also responds to motion-induced artifacts that sometimes obscure meaningful physiology. A noise-canceling sensor array configuration helps remove motion noise by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and 2 additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. The motion noise detected on all 4 sensors will be dissimilar and out of phase, yet the physiology on all 4 sensors is covariant. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist will indicate systolic blood pressure. Data from a firefighter experiment will be presented.

  2. How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Jacquet, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Dieting makes you fat - the title of a book published in 1983 - embodies the notion that dieting to control body weight predisposes the individual to acquire even more body fat. While this notion is controversial, its debate underscores the large gap that exists in our understanding of basic physiological laws that govern the regulation of human body composition. A striking example is the key role attributed to adipokines as feedback signals between adipose tissue depletion and compensatory increases in food intake. Yet, the relative importance of fat depletion per se as a determinant of post-dieting hyperphagia is unknown. On the other hand, the question of whether the depletion of lean tissues can provide feedback signals on the hunger-appetite drive is rarely invoked, despite evidence that food intake during growth is dominated by the impetus for lean tissue deposition, amidst proposals for the existence of protein-static mechanisms for the regulation of growth and maintenance of lean body mass. In fact, a feedback loop between fat depletion and food intake cannot explain why human subjects recovering from starvation continue to overeat well after body fat has been restored to pre-starvation values, thereby contributing to 'fat overshooting'. In addressing the plausibility and mechanistic basis by which dieting may predispose to increased fatness, this paper integrates the results derived from re-analysis of classic longitudinal studies of human starvation and refeeding. These suggest that feedback signals from both fat and lean tissues contribute to recovering body weight through effects on energy intake and thermogenesis, and that a faster rate of fat recovery relative to lean tissue recovery is a central outcome of body composition autoregulation that drives fat overshooting. A main implication of these findings is that the risk of becoming fatter in response to dieting is greater in lean than in obese individuals.

  3. Acoustic Sensor for Voice with Embedded Physiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    1.0 BACKGROUND ARL has developed a new method to measure human physiology and monitor health and performance parameters. This consists of an...conforms to the human body, and enhances the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of human physiology to that of ambient noise. An acoustic sensor of this type

  4. The menagerie of human lipocalins: a natural protein scaffold for molecular recognition of physiological compounds.

    PubMed

    Schiefner, André; Skerra, Arne

    2015-04-21

    all higher organisms, physiologically important members of this family have long been known in the human body, for example with the plasma retinol-binding protein that serves for the transport of vitamin A. This prototypic human lipocalin was the first for which a crystal structure was solved. Notably, several other lipocalins were discovered and assigned to this protein class before the term itself became familiar, which explains their diverse names in the scientific literature. To date, up to 15 distinct members of the lipocalin family have been characterized in humans, and during the last two decades the three-dimensional structures of a dozen major subtypes have been elucidated. This Account presents a comprehensive overview of the human lipocalins, revealing common structural principles but also deviations that explain individual functional features. Taking advantage of modern methods for combinatorial protein design, lipocalins have also been employed as scaffolds for the construction of artifical binding proteins with novel ligand specificities, so-called Anticalins, hence opening perspectives as a new class of biopharmaceuticals for medical therapy.

  5. Nuclear body formation and PML body remodeling by the human cytomegalovirus protein UL35

    SciTech Connect

    Salsman, Jayme; Wang Xueqi; Frappier, Lori

    2011-06-05

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL35 gene encodes two proteins, UL35 and UL35a. Expression of UL35 in transfected cells results in the formation of UL35 nuclear bodies that associate with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. PML forms the basis for PML nuclear bodies that are important for suppressing viral lytic gene expression. Given the important relationship between PML and viral infection, we have further investigated the association of UL35 with PML bodies. We demonstrate that UL35 bodies form independently of PML and subsequently recruit PML, Sp100 and Daxx. In contrast, UL35a did not form bodies; however, it could bind UL35 and inhibit the formation of UL35 bodies. The HCMV tegument protein pp71 promoted the formation of UL35 bodies and the cytoplasmic localization of UL35a. Similarly, UL35a shifted pp71 to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the interplay between UL35, UL35a and pp71 affects their subcellular localization and likely their functions throughout infection.

  6. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  7. A low power wearable transceiver for human body communication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Lian-Kang; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a low power transceiver designed for wearable medical healthcare system. Based on a novel energy-efficient wideband wireless communication scheme that uses human body as a transmission medium, the transceiver can achieve a maximum 15 Mbps data rate with total receiver sensitivity of -30 dBm. The chip measures only 0.56 mm(2) and was fabricated in the SMIC 0.18um 1P6M RF CMOS process. The RX consumes 5mW and TX dissipates 1mW with delivering power up to 10uW, which is suitable for the body area network short range application. Real-time medical information collecting through the human body is fully simulated. Architecture of the chip together with the detail characterizes from its wireless analog front-end are presented.

  8. Noninvasive measurement system for human respiratory condition and body temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Eiji; Sekiguchi, Sadamu; Nishimatsu, Toyonori

    1995-06-01

    A special chromel (C) and alumel wire (A) thermopile has been developed which can measure the human respiratory condition and body temperature without directly contacting a sensor to the human body. The measurement system enables high speed, real time, noninvasive, and simultaneous measurement of respiratory rates and body temperature with the same sensor. The special CA thermopile, with each sensing junction of approximately 25 μm, was constructed by using spot welded thermopile junctions. The thermoelectric power of 17 pairs of special CA thermopile is 0.7 mV/ °C. The special CA thermopile provides high sensitivity and fine frequency characteristics, of which the gain is flat to approximately 10 Hz.

  9. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  10. Sex differences in chronometric mental rotation with human bodies.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Jansen, Petra

    2016-11-01

    The present experiment investigated sex differences across stimulus types in a chronometric mental rotation task. The working hypothesis was that human bodies as stimuli would reduce the magnitude of sex differences compared to cubes as stimuli, from the embodied cognition perspective. One hundred and twenty participants, 60 men and 60 women solved chronometric mental rotation items with Shepard-Metzler cube figures, head-cubes, and human bodies, all designed so that they were similar in shape. Two figures of a given stimulus type were presented on the screen and participants had to judge if both items were mirrored or non-mirrored. Results showed better mental rotation performance with human bodies than with other types of stimuli for both sexes, although the effect of stimulus type was more pronounced in men than in women. Furthermore, regardless of stimulus type, men were more accurate than women. Altogether, the results suggest that sex differences are not reduced when human bodies are used as stimuli in a chronometric task. Implications for accounts of sex differences in mental rotations are discussed.

  11. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  12. Young Scientists Explore the Human Body. Book 11 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities specifically focus on the human body and encourage a positive self-concept. The theme of the first section is air--the breath of…

  13. Biostereometric Analysis Of Spine Curvatures On Living Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J.-C.; Ignazi, G.; Prudent, J.

    1986-07-01

    An analysis of the external and internal curvatures of spine was carried out on a sample of nine males from biostereometric measurements for different imposed postures. The results concerning the modifications of the external shape of the curves are used for the 3-D human body modeling in C.A.D. applications.

  14. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  15. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  16. THE SRI CHAKRA AS A SYMBOL OF THE HUMAN BODY

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sri Chakra is the celebrated Yantra used in the worship of the primordial energy. The Chakra is conceived as a symbol of the human body. Some salient features of this symbolism are discussed in this article. An attempt has also been made to provide a short introduction to the Bhavanopanishad Prayogavidhi devised by Bhaskararaya, the doyen of Sri charka worshippers. PMID:22556608

  17. Of Human Bodies in Scientific Communication and Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, SungWon; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    How do students become enculturated and come to enact culture in ways that are new to them? This study probes the dialectical processes of enculturation, the central aspect of which is the role of human bodies in communication. For students, as for any individual, culture exists in terms of action possibilities that presuppose their…

  18. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  19. Of Human Bodies in Scientific Communication and Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, SungWon; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    How do students become enculturated and come to enact culture in ways that are new to them? This study probes the dialectical processes of enculturation, the central aspect of which is the role of human bodies in communication. For students, as for any individual, culture exists in terms of action possibilities that presuppose their…

  20. Young Scientists Explore the Human Body. Book 11 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities specifically focus on the human body and encourage a positive self-concept. The theme of the first section is air--the breath of…

  1. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  2. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications.

  3. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  4. Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language. PMID:23638065

  5. [Mechanism of heat transfer in various regions of human body].

    PubMed

    Luchakov, Iu I; Nozdrachev, A D

    2009-01-01

    The processes of heat transfer in a human body were studied with the use of a mathematical model. It has been shown that only conductive or only convective heat transfer may occur in different body areas. The rate of blood-mediated heat transfer in the presence of blood circulation is many times higher than heat transfer due to temperature gradient; therefore, the convective process prevails over the conductive process. The body core contains a variety of blood vessels, and the bulk of blood concentrates there in the norm. Hence, heat transfer in it is mainly convective. In surface tissues, where the rate of blood circulation is lower and the vasculature has certain specific features, heat transfer is mainly conductive. Hence, the core and surface tissues are absolutely different body zones in terms of heat transfer.

  6. Combined volatolomics for monitoring of human body chemistry.

    PubMed

    Broza, Yoav Y; Zuri, Liat; Haick, Hossam

    2014-04-09

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for non-invasive, fast and potentially inexpensive diagnostics. Here, we present a new methodology for profiling the body chemistry by using the volatile fraction of molecules in various body fluids. Using mass spectrometry and cross-reactive nanomaterial-based sensors array, we demonstrate that simultaneous VOC detection from breath and skin would provide complementary, non-correlated information of the body's volatile metabolites profile. Eventually with further wide population validation studies, such a methodology could provide more accurate monitoring of pathological changes compared to the information provided by a single body fluid. The qualitative and quantitative methods presented here offers a variety of options for novel mapping of the metabolic properties of complex organisms, including humans.

  7. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  8. Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for individual human body segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dear, R. J.; Arens, Edward; Hui, Zhang; Oguro, Masayuki

    Human thermal physiological and comfort models will soon be able to simulate both transient and spatial inhomogeneities in the thermal environment. With this increasing detail comes the need for anatomically specific convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for the human body. The present study used an articulated thermal manikin with 16 body segments (head, chest, back, upper arms, forearms, hands, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs, feet) to generate radiative heat transfer coefficients as well as natural- and forced-mode convective coefficients. The tests were conducted across a range of wind speeds from still air to 5.0 m/s, representing atmospheric conditions typical of both indoors and outdoors. Both standing and seated postures were investigated, as were eight different wind azimuth angles. The radiative heat transfer coefficient measured for the whole-body was 4.5 W/m2 per K for both the seated and standing cases, closely matching the generally accepted whole-body value of 4.7 W/m2 per K. Similarly, the whole-body natural convection coefficient for the manikin fell within the mid-range of previously published values at 3.4 and 3.3 W/m2 per K when standing and seated respectively. In the forced convective regime, heat transfer coefficients were higher for hands, feet and peripheral limbs compared to the central torso region. Wind direction had little effect on convective heat transfers from individual body segments. A general-purpose forced convection equation suitable for application to both seated and standing postures indoors was hc=10.3v0.6 for the whole-body. Similar equations were generated for individual body segments in both seated and standing postures.

  9. Dealing with noise and physiological artifacts in human EEG recordings: empirical mode methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Khramova, Marina V.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2017-04-01

    In the paper we propose the new method for removing noise and physiological artifacts in human EEG recordings based on empirical mode decomposition (Hilbert-Huang transform). As physiological artifacts we consider specific oscillatory patterns that cause problems during EEG analysis and can be detected with additional signals recorded simultaneously with EEG (ECG, EMG, EOG, etc.) We introduce the algorithm of the proposed method with steps including empirical mode decomposition of EEG signal, choosing of empirical modes with artifacts, removing these empirical modes and reconstructing of initial EEG signal. We show the efficiency of the method on the example of filtration of human EEG signal from eye-moving artifacts.

  10. Selenoproteins and Their Impact on Human Health Through Diverse Physiological Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Moghadaszadeh, Behzad; Beggs, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, the importance of selenium in human health has been the subject of numerous studies. It is believed that the physiological effects of selenium occur mainly through the function of selenoproteins, which incorporate selenium in the form of one or more selenocysteine residues. Recent advances in understanding the complex regulation of selenoprotein synthesis and functional characterization of several members of the selenoprotein family have contributed to an improved comprehension of the role(s) of selenium in human health and the great diversity of physiological pathways influenced by this trace element. PMID:16990451

  11. Physiological responses of juvenile rainbow trout to fasting and swimming activity: Effects on body composition and condition indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The physiological traits that allow fish to survive periods of limited food resources are poorly understood. We assessed changes in proximate body composition, relative organ mass, blood metabolites, and relative weight (Wr) of sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (154-182 mm total length) over 147 d of fasting. Fasting caused measurable responses that were augmented when fish were swimming. Lipids and plasma triacylglycerides declined over time. Proteins were catabolized simultaneously with lipid reserves, but ammonia concentrations in plasma did not increase. The liver somatic index (LSI) did not change substantially over 105 d, suggesting that gluconeogenesis maintained blood glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen reserves for a substantial period of fasting. The gut somatic index (GSI) and Wr declined linearly during fasting, but the LSI did not decline until after 105 d of fasting. Consequently, the use of different body condition indices could lead to different conclusions about the condition of juvenile rainbow trout. Swimming activity caused fish to have lower lipid and protein reserves than those of sedentary fish. No mortalities were observed among sedentary fish, but mortalities occurred among actively swimming fish after 97 d of fasting when 3.2% or less lipid remained in their bodies. Body condition indices did not account for differences in proximate body composition between sedentary and actively swimming fish and were relatively poor predictors of lipid content and risk of mortality. The probability of mortality was most accurately predicted by percent lipid content. Therefore, we suggest that fisheries scientists consider using percent lipid content when evaluating the physiological status and risk of mortality due to starvation among juvenile rainbow trout.

  12. [Mechanisms of natural variability at adaptation of human physiological systems to conditions of space flight].

    PubMed

    Larina, I M; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Grigor'ev, A I

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the physiological data using the principle of invariant relationships, to reveal the mechanisms of adaptive variability. It was used physical-chemical, biochemical, and hormonal blood parameters of cosmonauts who have committed short-term and long space flights. These results suggest that application of the methods of fractal geometry to quantitative estimates of homeostasis allows to allocate the processes depending on the increase/decrease of adaptive variability and fix the state of stability or instability of certain physiological regulatory subsystems, due to mobility and to reduce the level of stability which remains stable internal structure of relationships throughout the body.

  13. Association between Berg Balance, Physiological Profile Assessment and Physical Activity, Physical Function and Body Composition: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Smee, D J; Berry, H L; Waddington, G; Anson, J

    2016-01-01

    Falls are of great concern to older adults and costly to the health system. In addition the relationship between falls risk and falls risk predictor characteristics is complex. This study aimed to explore the relationship between two objective fall-risk measures tools, the Physiological Profile Assessment and the Berg Balance Scale and to determine how an individual's sex, level of physical function, health-related and body composition characteristics impact these objective falls risk measures. A cross-sectional, observational study. 245 community-dwelling older adults (M age=68.12 years, SD=6.21; 69.8% female). Participants were assessed for falls-risk (Physiological Profile Assessment and the Berg Balance Scale), physical activity, physical functional and body composition characteristics. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine bivariate relationships and hierarchical multiple linear regression modelling was used to estimate the contribution of each predictor in explaining variance in falls-risk. In females, there was a weak association between the two objective falls-risk measures (r =-0.17 p <0.05). The number of falls in the previous 12 months explained 6% of variance in Physiological Profile Assessment scores, with bone density of the lumbar spine contributing a further 1%. In males and females, variance in the Berg Balance Scale showed that age (25%) and physical function (16% for females, 28% for males) contributed significantly to the explaining variance in the falls-risk measure. Sex differences are apparent and as such males and females should be assessed (and potentially treated) differently with regards to falls risk. Results indicate that both falls risk assessment tools measure aspects of balance but are not interchangeable. The Berg Balance Scale may be more discriminative in older, less functioning adults and the Physiological Profile Assessment is more useful in assessing falls risk in females.

  14. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  15. Gradual inversion affects the processing of human body shapes.

    PubMed

    Minnebusch, Denise A; Keune, Philipp M; Suchan, Boris; Daum, Irene

    2010-02-01

    Inversion (rotation around 180 degrees ) impairs body recognition and affects early electrophysiological responses (especially the N170). However, the relationship between electrophysiological responses and behavior is as yet unclear. Furthermore, the presence of the head seems to have an impact on body recognition performances as well as on related electrophysiological responses. The present study aimed to investigate the course of behavioral and electrophysiological body inversion effects depending upon the degree of deviation from the upright position (0 degrees , 360 degrees ) to the inverted position (180 degrees ). Body stimuli were presented either with heads (masked face) or without heads in a delayed matching task. For human bodies presented with and without heads, there was a quadratic relationship between the angle of rotation and the behavioral performance as well as the N170 amplitude, with maximum performance disruption at 180 degrees deviation from the upright stimulus. The data indicate that configural body processing occurs during the structural encoding of body stimuli. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in human exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential dose received by an individual during defined exposure situations can be determined using personal dosimeters or estimated by combining information on exposure scenarios with the environmental concentration (C.) of chemicals. With the latter approach, not only the potential dose but also the internal dose (i.e., amount of chemical that has been absorbed and available for interaction with receptors) and biologically-effective dose (i.e., amount of chemical that actually reaches the cellular sites where interaction with macromolecules occur) can be estimated if C. is provided as an input to PBPK models. These models are mathematical representations of the interrelationships among the critical determinants of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of chemicals in biota. Since the compartments in this model correspond to biologically relevant tissues or tissue groups, the amount of chemical reaching specific target organ(s) can be estimated. Further, the PBPK models permit the use of biological monitoring data such as urinary levels of metabolites, hemoglobin adduct levels, and alveolar air concentrations, to reconstruct the exposure levels and scenarios for specific subgroups of populations. These models are also useful in providing estimates of target tissue dose in humans simultaneously exposed to chemicals in various media (air, water, soil, food) by different routes (oral, dermal, inhalation). Several examples of exposure assessment for volatile organic chemicals using PBPK models for mammals will be presented, and the strategies for development of these models for other classes of chemicals highlighted.

  17. Cholesterol sulfate in human physiology: what's it all about?

    PubMed

    Strott, Charles A; Higashi, Yuko

    2003-07-01

    Cholesterol sulfate is quantitatively the most important known sterol sulfate in human plasma, where it is present in a concentration that overlaps that of the other abundant circulating steroid sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate. Although these sulfolipids have similar production and metabolic clearance rates, they arise from distinct sources and are metabolized by different pathways. While the function of DHEA sulfate remains an enigma, cholesterol sulfate has emerged as an important regulatory molecule. Cholesterol sulfate is a component of cell membranes where it has a stabilizing role, e.g., protecting erythrocytes from osmotic lysis and regulating sperm capacitation. It is present in platelet membranes where it supports platelet adhesion. Cholesterol sulfate can regulate the activity of serine proteases, e.g., those involved in blood clotting, fibrinolysis, and epidermal cell adhesion. As a result of its ability to regulate the activity of selective protein kinase C isoforms and modulate the specificity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, cholesterol sulfate is involved in signal transduction. Cholesterol sulfate functions in keratinocyte differentiation, inducing genes that encode for key components involved in development of the barrier. The accumulating evidence demonstrating a regulatory function for cholesterol sulfate appears solid; the challenge now is to work out the molecular mechanisms whereby this interesting molecule carries out its various roles.

  18. Synchronization Analysis of Language and Physiology in Human Dyads.

    PubMed

    Orsucci, Franco F; Musmeci, Nicolò; Aas, Benjamin; Schiepek, Günter; Reda, Mario A; Canestri, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; de Felice, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    We studied the synchronization dynamics of a therapist and patient during a psychotherapy session. This investigation was developed in order to explore a new possible perspective and methodology for studying the expression of emotions. More specifically, literature concerning synchronization of in-session non-verbal variables emphasises its positive correlation with empathy and therapeutic outcomes. We compared the dynamics of galvanic skin response (GSR) and linguistic prosody, chosen as indicators of emotional expression in different domains. We studied their synchronization through complementary methodologies: Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Markov Transition Matrix (MTM) and Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA). We investigated the nonlinearity of GSR in terms of self-similarity and power-law, as emerged in autocorrelation functions and signal variations. We considered time-lagged correlations as a measure of dynamical systems' memory. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of a deeper study of all variables related to the psychotherapeutic process and their synchronization in order to extend our knowledge of general human dynamics.

  19. Matters of taste: bridging molecular physiology and the humanities.

    PubMed

    Rangachari, P K; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple evaluation procedures were used: problem summaries and problem-solving exercises (tripartite problem-solving exercise) for the problem-based learning component and group tasks and individual exercises for the cultural issues. Self-selected groups chose specific tasks from a prescribed list of options (setting up a journal in molecular gastronomy, developing an electronic tongue, designing a restaurant for synesthetes, organizing a farmers' market, marketing a culinary tour, framing hedonic scales, exploring changing tastes through works of art or recipe books, and crafting beers for space travel). Individual tasks were selected from a menu of options (book reviews, film reviews, conversations, creative writing, and oral exams). A few guest lecturers (wine making, cultural anthropology, film analysis, and nutritional epidemiology) added more flavor. The course was rated highly for its learning value (8.5 ± 1.2, n = 62) and helped students relate biological mechanisms to cultural issues (9.0 ± 0.9, n = 62).

  20. State of the body in disorders of diurnal physiological rhythms and long-term hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razin, S. N.; Rychko, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    In order to study the effects of hypokinesia and circadian rhythm restructuring on the morphological and functional status of the hypothalamo-hypophysic-adrenal system, young male Wistar rats were placed in small cages for varying periods. The animals were decapitated and preparations were made from sections of the brain and adrenals and numerous destructive changes were noted in the investigated regions of the brain, indicating that the condition of these areas is directly affected by disruption of established rhythms in physiological processes.