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Sample records for human plasma carboxypeptidase

  1. Conversion of MM creatine kinase isoforms in human plasma by carboxypeptidase N.

    PubMed

    Abendschein, D R; Serota, H; Plummer, T H; Amiraian, K; Strauss, A W; Sobel, B E; Jaffe, A S

    1987-12-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the carboxypeptidase(s) (CPase) in plasma mediating sequential conversion of the tissue isoform of the MM isoenzyme of creatine kinase (MM3 CK) to MM2 and MM1 isoforms and to elucidate relationships between CPase activity measured in plasma and observed rates of isoform conversion in vitro. Purified MM3 was incubated at 37 degrees C in plasma from normal subjects and patients with acute myocardial infarction. Isoforms were quantified by chromatofocusing. Preincubation with antiserum to CPase N prevented conversion of added MM3 to MM2 and MM1. Isoform conversion rates in the absence of antibody were proportional to plasma CPase N activity assayed spectrophotometrically by hydrolysis of furylacryloyl-L-alanyl-L-lysine substrate (r = 0.89, n = 8). Plasma CPase N activity varied by nearly 300% among individuals, but average activity was similar in samples from normal subjects (267 +/- 45 [SD] U/L, n = 18), those from outpatients with angina (289 +/- 43 U/L, n = 9), and those obtained at hospital admission from patients with acute infarction (Q wave: 279 +/- 70 U/L, n = 16; non-Q wave: 272 +/- 61 U/L, n = 14) or unstable angina (280 +/- 71 U/L, n = 11). In patients with Q wave infarction, CPase N activity increased by 43% +/- 25% between 48 hours and 72 hours (P less than 0.005 compared with admission) with a concomitant change in the rate of conversion of isoforms. Thus, the rate of conversion of isoforms in individual subjects can be estimated by assay of CPase N activity in plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Isolation and characterization of human membrane carboxypeptidase (HMCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Skidgel, R.A.; Davis, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors detected a membrane-bound carboxypeptidase in human placenta and other tissues which cleaves C-terminal Lys or Arg of peptides such as Lys/sup 6/-Met/sup 5/-enkephalin. The enzyme was solubilized from placental microvilli with 0.8% CHAPS and purified 427-fold by ion-exchange chromatography, Sepharose-arginine affinity chromatography, chromatofocusing and gel filtration on HPLC. HMCP had a mol. wt. of 67,000 in SDS-PAGE and 65,300 in gel filtration and a pH optimum of 7.0. HMCP cleaved Bz-Gly-argininic acid the fastest (90 ..mu..mol/min/mg) followed by Bz-Ala-Lys (41), Bz-Phe-Lys (26), Bz-Gly-Arg (1.7) and Bz-Gly-Lys (1.6). Activity was stimulated by CoCl/sub 2/ and inhibited by cadmium acet., o-phenanthroline and 2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid but not by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, aprotinin or p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate. The enzyme was stable for 1 hr at room temp. at pH 4.25, but lost 31% activity at pH 4.0. HMCP did not react with antiserum to human plasma carboxypeptidase N in Western blotting. This study shows that human placental microvilli contain a membrane carboxypeptidase, that differs from other carboxypeptidases, and cleaves C-terminal basic amino acids from peptides. This enzyme could be involved in regulating the level of peptide hormones in the placenta and other tissues.

  3. Cloning of cDNAs that encode human mast cell carboxypeptidase A, and comparison of the protein with mouse mast cell carboxypeptidase A and rat pancreatic carboxypeptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.S.; Gurley, D.S.; Stevens, R.L.; Austen, K.F.; Serafin, W.E. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA ); Sugarbaker, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Human skin and lung mast cells and rodent peritoneal cells contain a carboxypeptidase in their secretory granules. The authors have screened human lung cDNA libraries with a mouse mast cell carboxypeptidase A (MC-CPA) cDNA probe to isolate a near-full-length cDNA that encodes human MC-CPA. The 5{prime} end of the human MC-CPA transcript was defined by direct mRNA sequencing and by isolation and partial sequencing of the human MC-CPA gene. Human MC-CPA is predicted to be translated as a 417 amino acid preproenzyme which includes a 15 amino acid signal peptide and a 94-amino acid activation peptide. The mature human MC-CPA enzyme has a predicted size of 36.1 kDa, a net positive charge of 16 at neutral pH, and 86% amino acid sequence identity with mouse MC-CPA. DNA blot analyses showed that human MC-CPA mRNA is transcribed from a single locus in the human genome. Comparison of the human MC-CPA with mouse MC-CPA and with three rat pancreatic carboxypeptidases shows that these enzymes are encoded by distinct but homologous genes.

  4. Cloning, functional expression, and chromosomal localization of the human and mouse gp180-carboxypeptidase D-like enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Murakami, K; Kido, Y; Ohnishi, S; Yazaki, Y; Harada, F; Kuroki, K

    1998-07-30

    We previously reported that a host cell glycoprotein, gp180, binds duck hepatitis B virus particles, and is encoded by a member of the carboxypeptidase gene family (Kuroki, K., Eng, F., Ishikawa, T., Turck, C., Harada, F., Ganem, D., 1995. gp180, a host cell glycoprotein that binds duck hepatitis B virus particles, is encoded by a member of the carboxypeptidase gene family. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 15022-15028). After that report, carboxypeptidase D (CPD) was subsequently purified from bovine pituitary and characterized as a novel carboxypeptidase E (CPE)-like enzyme, with many characteristics in common with duck gp180 (Song, L., Fricker, L.D., 1995. Purification and characterization of carboxypeptidase D, a novel carboxypeptidase E-like enzyme, from bovine pituitary. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 25007-25013). CPD is now supposed to play an important role in a secretory pathway. To clarify the function of gp180 further, we have isolated and analyzed human and mouse homologues of duck gp180. cDNA clones derived from human HepG2 cells and mouse livers have been isolated on the basis of homology to the duck gp180. The suggested open reading frames of the human and mouse cDNA encode 1380 and 1377 amino acid proteins, respectively and have three carboxypeptidase homologous domains (A, B, and C). Domains A and B have completely conserved the residues known to have the enzymatic activity of carboxypeptidase, but domain C in each cDNA does not. Northern blotting revealed a ubiquitous tissue distribution of human gp180 mRNA with several transcript species. Expression of human gp180 cDNA in transfected 293Tcells exhibited carboxypeptidase activity upon radiometric assay. The human and mouse homologues of duck gp180 have many characteristics in common with bovine CPD. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization reveals that the gene encoding human gp180 is located in region 17q11.2.

  5. Heparin binding carboxypeptidase E protein exhibits antibacterial activity in human semen.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sudhuman; Gill, Kamaldeep; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2014-03-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) cleaves basic amino acid residues at the C-terminal end and involves in the biosynthesis of numerous peptide hormones and neurotransmitters. It was purified from human seminal plasma by ion exchange, heparin affinity and gel filtration chromatography followed by identification through SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis, which was further confirmed by western blotting. CPE was characterized as glycoprotein by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and treating with deglycosylating enzyme N-glycosidase F. The interaction of CPE with heparin was illustrated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and in silico interaction analysis. The association constant (KA) and dissociation constant (KD) of CPE with heparin was determined by SPR and found to be 1.06 × 10(5)M and 9.46 × 10(-6)M, respectively. It was detected in human spermatozoa also by western blotting using mouse anti-CPE primary antibody. 20-100 μg/ml concentration of CPE was observed as highly effective in killing Escherichia coli by colony forming unit (CFU) assay. We suggest that CPE might act not only in the innate immunity of male reproductive tract but also regulate sperm fertilization process by interacting heparin.

  6. Amyloid Formation by Human Carboxypeptidase D Transthyretin-like Domain under Physiological Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Graña-Montes, Ricardo; Fernandez-Mendez, Marc; Ruyra, Angels; Roher, Nerea; Aviles, Francesc X.; Lorenzo, Julia; Ventura, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Protein aggregation is linked to a growing list of diseases, but it is also an intrinsic property of polypeptides, because the formation of functional globular proteins comes at the expense of an inherent aggregation propensity. Certain proteins can access aggregation-prone states from native-like conformations without the need to cross the energy barrier for unfolding. This is the case of transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric protein whose dissociation into its monomers initiates the aggregation cascade. Domains with structural homology to TTR exist in a number of proteins, including the M14B subfamily carboxypeptidases. We show here that the monomeric transthyretin-like domain of human carboxypeptidase D aggregates under close to physiological conditions into amyloid structures, with the population of folded but aggregation-prone states being controlled by the conformational stability of the domain. We thus confirm that the TTR fold keeps a generic residual aggregation propensity upon folding, resulting from the presence of preformed amyloidogenic β-strands in the native state. These structural elements should serve for functional/structural purposes, because they have not been purged out by evolution, but at the same time they put proteins like carboxypeptidase D at risk of aggregation in biological environments and thus can potentially lead to deposition diseases. PMID:25294878

  7. Plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase is a negative regulator in liver cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hye; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Jun, Soo Young; Ahn, Jun-Ho; Min, Ju-Sik; Yoon, Ji-Yong; Choi, Min-Hyuk; Jeon, Su-Jin; Lim, Jung Hwa; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Dae-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Factor, Valentina M.; Lee, Yun-Han; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death. In the metastatic process, EMT is a unique phenotypic change that plays an important role in cell invasion and changes in cell morphology. Despite the clinical significance, the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis is still poorly understood. Here we report a novel mechanism by which secreted plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase(PGCP) negatively involves Wnt/β-catenin signaling by DKK4 regulation in liver cancer metastasis. Pathway analysis of the RNA sequencing data showed that PGCP knockdown in liver cancer cell lines enriched the functions of cell migration, motility and mesenchymal cell differentiation. Depletion of PGCP promoted cell migration and invasion via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway components such as phospho-LRP6 and β-catenin. Also, addition of DKK4 antagonized the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade in a thyroxine (T4)-dependent manner. In an in vivo study, metastatic nodules were observed in the lungs of the mice after injection of shPGCP stable cell lines. Our findings suggest that PGCP negatively associates with Wnt/β-catenin signaling during metastasis. Targeting this regulation may represent a novel and effective therapeutic option for liver cancer by preventing metastatic activity of primary tumor cells. PMID:27806330

  8. Crystal Structure of Novel Metallocarboxypeptidase Inhibitor from Marine Mollusk Nerita versicolor in Complex with Human Carboxypeptidase A4*

    PubMed Central

    Covaleda, Giovanni; Alonso del Rivero, Maday; Chávez, María A.; Avilés, Francesc X.; Reverter, David

    2012-01-01

    NvCI is a novel exogenous proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases from the marine snail Nerita versicolor. The complex between human carboxypeptidase A4 and NvCI has been crystallized and determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The NvCI structure defines a distinctive protein fold basically composed of a two-stranded antiparallel β-sheet connected by three loops and the inhibitory C-terminal tail and stabilized by three disulfide bridges. NvCI is a tight-binding inhibitor that interacts with the active site of the enzyme in a substrate-like manner. NvCI displays an extended and novel interface with human carboxypeptidase A4, responsible for inhibitory constants in the picomolar range for some members of the M14A subfamily of carboxypeptidases. This makes NvCI the strongest inhibitor reported so far for this family. The structural homology displayed by the C-terminal tails of different carboxypeptidase inhibitors represents a relevant example of convergent evolution. PMID:22294694

  9. Separation and characterization of trypsin and carboxypeptidase B-digested products of Met-Lys-human proinsulin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z H; Du, X; Tang, J G

    1999-02-01

    Met-Lys-human proinsulin could be converted into insulin in vitro with the treatment of trypsin and carboxypeptidase B (CPB). Under less effective conditions, the enzymatic reaction does not proceed perfectly, and two main bands have been identified by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. These two main products were thus separated and purified by DEAE-Sephadex A25 chromatography in a Tris-isopropanol system with an NaCl gradient. The isopropanol and NaCl were removed by a second DEAE-Sephadex column. Native-PAGE, mass spectrometric, and amino acid composition analyses indicate that one fraction of these two major products contains human insulin and desB30-insulin and that the other fraction is a mixture of human insulin analogs, which have one more basic amino acid than human insulin owing to the unsuitable amount of proteases, especially the lack of CPB. Furthermore, both receptor binding assay and radioimmunoassay have been utilized for the activity determination, and both fractions display almost full biological activity with porcine insulin as the standard. Present results provide further evidence for the quality control of recombinant human insulin production.

  10. A Novel Single Nucleotide T980C Polymorphism in the Human Carboxypeptidase E Gene Results in Loss of Neuroprotective Function

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Lin; Cheng, Yong; Cawley, Niamh X.; Murthy, Saravana R. K.; Loh, Y. Peng

    2017-01-01

    Report of a human with a homozygous truncating null mutation of the Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) gene with endocrinological and neurological deficits prompted us to search for other mutations in the human CPE gene that might be linked to disease. We searched an EST database and identified from a small population of patients, a novel T to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CPE gene at bp980 of exon 4, herein called TC-CPE. This introduces a tryptophan to arginine (W235R) mutation in the catalytic domain of human CPE protein. Over-expression of TC-CPE in N2A cells, a neuroendocrine cell line, showed that it was synthesized, but was found in lesser amounts compared to over-expressed WT-CPE in these cells. Furthermore, TC-CPE was secreted poorly from these N2A cells. The levels of TC-CPE were significantly increased after the N2A cells were treated with MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor), suggesting that TC-CPE was targeted to proteasomes for degradation in N2A cells. In addition, TC-CPE induced ER stress as demonstrated by the increased expression of CHOP in N2A cells. Double labeling of CPE and calnexin (and ER marker) suggested the accumulation of TC-CPE in the ER, and the accumulation appears to be enhanced by the treatment of MG132 in the cells. Moreover, the secreted levels of TC-CPE were not affected by the treatment of MG132 in the cells. Over-expression studies revealed that while N2A cells transfected with WT-CPE showed reduced cytotoxicity when challenged with H2O2 compared to cells expressing an empty vector, cells transfected with TC-CPE had no effect. Furthermore, WT-CPE condition medium showed protective effect against oxidative stress, but not TC-CPE condition medium. Although co-expression of WT-CPE and TC-CPE in N2A cells resulted in the reduction in secretion of WT-CPE, co-expression of WT-CPE and TC-CPE did not significantly affect the protective effect of WT-CPE. Taken together, we have identified a novel SNP in the CPE gene which results in the

  11. Characterization of the Substrate Specificity of Human Carboxypeptidase A4 and Implications for a Role in Extracellular Peptide Processing*

    PubMed Central

    Tanco, Sebastian; Zhang, Xin; Morano, Cain; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; Lorenzo, Julia; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    CPA4 (carboxypeptidase A4) is a member of the metallocarboxypeptidase family. CPA4 was originally found in a screen of mRNAs up-regulated by sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of cancer cells. Further studies suggested a relation between CPA4 and prostate cancer aggressiveness. In the present study, we determined that CPA4 is secreted from cells as a soluble proenzyme (pro-CPA4) that can be activated by endoproteases, such as trypsin. Three complementary approaches were used to study the substrate specificity of CPA4; kinetic analysis was performed using a new series of chromogenic substrates and some biologically relevant peptides, the cleavage of synthetic peptides was tested individually, and the cleavage of a mixture of >100 mouse brain peptides was examined using a quantitative peptidomics mass spectrometry-based approach. CPA4 was able to cleave hydrophobic C-terminal residues with a preference for Phe, Leu, Ile, Met, Tyr, and Val. However, not all peptides with C-terminal hydrophobic residues were cleaved, indicating the importance of additional residues within the peptide. Aliphatic, aromatic, and basic residues in the P1 position have a positive influence on the cleavage specificity. In contrast, acidic residues, Pro, and Gly have a negative influence in the P1 position. Some of the peptides identified as CPA4 substrates (such as neurotensin, granins, and opioid peptides) have been previously shown to function in cell proliferation and differentiation, potentially explaining the link between CPA4 and cancer aggressiveness. Taken together, these studies suggest that CPA4 functions in neuropeptide processing and regulation in the extracellular environment. PMID:20385563

  12. Mouse glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) has a similar enzyme activity and inhibition profile but a different tissue distribution to human GCPII.

    PubMed

    Knedlík, Tomáš; Vorlová, Barbora; Navrátil, Václav; Tykvart, Jan; Sedlák, František; Vaculín, Šimon; Franěk, Miloslav; Šácha, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) or folate hydrolase, is a metallopeptidase expressed predominantly in the human brain and prostate. GCPII expression is considerably increased in prostate carcinoma, and the enzyme also participates in glutamate excitotoxicity in the brain. Therefore, GCPII represents an important diagnostic marker of prostate cancer progression and a putative target for the treatment of both prostate cancer and neuronal disorders associated with glutamate excitotoxicity. For the development of novel therapeutics, mouse models are widely used. However, although mouse GCPII activity has been characterized, a detailed comparison of the enzymatic activity and tissue distribution of the mouse and human GCPII orthologs remains lacking. In this study, we prepared extracellular mouse GCPII and compared it with human GCPII. We found that mouse GCPII possesses lower catalytic efficiency but similar substrate specificity compared with the human protein. Using a panel of GCPII inhibitors, we discovered that inhibition constants are generally similar for mouse and human GCPII. Furthermore, we observed highest expression of GCPII protein in the mouse kidney, brain, and salivary glands. Importantly, we did not detect GCPII in the mouse prostate. Our data suggest that the differences in enzymatic activity and inhibition profile are rather small; therefore, mouse GCPII can approximate human GCPII in drug development and testing. On the other hand, significant differences in GCPII tissue expression must be taken into account when developing novel GCPII-based anticancer and therapeutic methods, including targeted anticancer drug delivery systems, and when using mice as a model organism.

  13. Efficient and versatile one-step affinity purification of in vivo biotinylated proteins: Expression, characterization and structure analysis of recombinant human glutamate carboxypeptidase II

    SciTech Connect

    Tykvart, J.; Sacha, P.; Barinka, C.; Knedlik, T.; Starkova, J.; Lubkowski, J.; Konvalinka, J.

    2012-02-07

    Affinity purification is a useful approach for purification of recombinant proteins. Eukaryotic expression systems have become more frequently used at the expense of prokaryotic systems since they afford recombinant eukaryotic proteins with post-translational modifications similar or identical to the native ones. Here, we present a one-step affinity purification set-up suitable for the purification of secreted proteins. The set-up is based on the interaction between biotin and mutated streptavidin. Drosophila Schneider 2 cells are chosen as the expression host, and a biotin acceptor peptide is used as an affinity tag. This tag is biotinylated by Escherichia coli biotin-protein ligase in vivo. We determined that localization of the ligase within the ER led to the most effective in vivo biotinylation of the secreted proteins. We optimized a protocol for large-scale expression and purification of AviTEV-tagged recombinant human glutamate carboxypeptidase II (Avi-GCPII) with milligram yields per liter of culture. We also determined the 3D structure of Avi-GCPII by X-ray crystallography and compared the enzymatic characteristics of the protein to those of its non-tagged variant. These experiments confirmed that AviTEV tag does not affect the biophysical properties of its fused partner. Purification approach, developed here, provides not only a sufficient amount of highly homogenous protein but also specifically and effectively biotinylates a target protein and thus enables its subsequent visualization or immobilization.

  14. A human carboxypeptidase E/NF-α1 gene mutation in an Alzheimer's disease patient leads to dementia and depression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y; Cawley, N X; Yanik, T; Murthy, S R K; Liu, C; Kasikci, F; Abebe, D; Loh, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common dementia among the aging population, often also suffer from depression. This comorbidity is poorly understood. Although most forms of AD are not genetically inherited, we have identified a new human mutation in the carboxypeptidase E (CPE)/neurotrophic factor-α1 (NF-α1) gene from an AD patient that caused memory deficit and depressive-like behavior in transgenic mice. This mutation consists of three adenosine inserts, introducing nine amino acids, including two glutamines into the mutant protein, herein called CPE-QQ. Expression of CPE-QQ in Neuro2a cells demonstrated that it was not secreted, but accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum and was subsequently degraded by proteasomes. Expression of CPE-QQ in rat hippocampal neurons resulted in cell death, through increased ER stress and decreased expression of pro-survival protein, BCL-2. Transgenic mice expressing CPE-QQ did not show any difference in the processing enzyme activity of CPE compared with wild-type mice. However, the transgenic mice exhibited poor memory, depressive-like behavior, severely decreased dendrites in the hippocampal CA3 region and medial prefrontal cortex indicative of neurodegeneration, hyperphosphorylation of tau at Ser396, and diminished neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus at 50 weeks old. All these pathologies are associated with AD and the latter with depression and were observed in 50-week-old mice. Interestingly, the younger CPE-QQ mice (11 weeks old) did not show deficits in dendrite outgrowth and neurogenesis. This study has uncovered a human CPE/NF-α1 gene mutation that could lead to comorbidity of dementia and depression, emphasizing the importance of this gene in cognitive function. PMID:27922637

  15. A tale of two carboxypeptidases.

    PubMed

    Low, Malcolm J

    2009-11-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) neurons play a central role in energy homeostasis. Despite the complexity of Pomc posttranslational processing, regulation of Pomc gene expression often takes center stage. Complementary papers that zero in on distinct carboxypeptidases (Plum et al., 2009; Wallingford et al., 2009) now refocus the spotlight on regulated peptide cleavage.

  16. Human Plasma Protein C

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which exists in bovine plasma as a precursor of a serine protease. In this study, protein C was isolated to homogeneity from human plasma by barium citrate adsorption and elution, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, dextran sulfate agarose chromatography, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human protein C (Mr = 62,000) contains 23% carbohydrate and is composed of a light chain (Mr = 21,000) and a heavy chain (Mr = 41,000) held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain has an amino-terminal sequence of Ala-Asn-Ser-Phe-Leu- and the heavy chain has an aminoterminal sequence of Asp-Pro-Glu-Asp-Gln. The residues that are identical to bovine protein C are underlined. Incubation of human protein C with human α-thrombin at an enzyme to substrate weight ratio of 1:50 resulted in the formation of activated protein C, an enzyme with serine amidase activity. In the activation reaction, the apparent molecular weight of the heavy chain decreased from 41,000 to 40,000 as determined by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. No apparent change in the molecular weight of the light chain was observed in the activation process. The heavy chain of human activated protein C also contains the active-site serine residue as evidenced by its ability to react with radiolabeled diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Human activated protein C markedly prolongs the kaolin-cephalin clotting time of human plasma, but not that of bovine plasma. The amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of human activated protein C were completely obviated by prior incubation of the enzyme with diisopropyl fluorophosphate. These results indicate that human protein C, like its bovine counterpart, exists in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease by limited proteolysis with attendant anticoagulant activity. Images PMID:468991

  17. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy with the T268G mutant of human carboxypeptidase A1: in vitro and in vivo studies with prodrugs of methotrexate and the thymidylate synthase inhibitors GW1031 and GW1843.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, L A; Mullin, R J; Laethem, R; Blumenkopf, T A; Cory, M; Miller, J F; Keith, B R; Humphreys, J; Smith, G K

    1999-01-01

    Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) is a technique to increase antitumor selectivity in cancer chemotherapy. Our approach to this technology has been to design a mutant of human carboxypeptidase A (hCPA1-T268G) which is capable of hydrolyzing in vivo stable prodrugs of MTX and targeting this enzyme to tumors on an Ep-CAM1-specific antibody, ING1. Through the use of this >99% human enzyme which is capable of catalyzing a completely nonhuman reaction, we hope to increase ADEPT selectivity while decreasing overall immunogenicity of the enzyme-antibody conjugate. In the current report, prodrugs of the thymidylate synthase inhibitors GW1031 and GW1843 and the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor methotrexate were studied for their wild-type and mutant hCPA enzyme hydrolysis, their in vivo stability, and their use in therapy. Prodrugs with high kcat/Km ratios for mutated versus wild-type hCPA1 were examined in vitro for their stability in human pancreatic juice, and in vivo for their stability in mouse plasma and tissues. In addition, targeting and in vivo enzyme activity studies were performed with an ING1 antibody conjugate of the mutant enzyme (ING1-hCPA1-T268G). Finally, in vivo therapy studies were performed with LS174T tumors to demonstrate proof of principle. Results indicate that prodrugs can be synthesized that are selective and efficient substrates of hCPA1-T268G and not substrates of the endogenous CPA activities; this leads to excellent in vivo stability for these compounds. In vivo conjugate targeting studies showed that the antibody-enzyme conjugate was targeted to the tumor and enzyme was initially active in vivo at the site. Unfortunately therapeutic studies did not demonstrate tumor reduction. Experiments to determine reasons for the lack of antitumor activity showed that the enzyme activity decreased as a result of enzyme instability. The results offer encouragement for additional novel mutant enzyme improvements and additional in vivo studies

  18. Carboxypeptidase S- and carboxypeptidase Y-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D H; Ehmann, C

    1981-08-01

    A new carboxypeptidase (carboxypeptidase S) was found in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking carboxypeptidase Y (D. H. Wolf and U. Weiser, Eur. J. Biochem. 73:553-556, 1977). Mutants devoid of carboxypeptidase S activity were isolated from a mutant strain that was also deficient in carboxypeptidase Y. Four mutants were analyzed in detail and fell into one complementation group. The defect segregated 2:2 in meiotic tetrads. Gene dosage experiments indicated that the mutation might reside in the structural gene of carboxypeptidase S. The absence of both enzymes, carboxypeptidases Y and S, did not affect mitotic growth. Ascopore formation was only slightly affected by the absence of both carboxypeptidases. Protein degradation under conditions of nutrient deprivation and under sporulation conditions showed no obvious alteration in the absence of carboxypeptidases Y and S. When a proteinase B mutation, which led to the absence of proteinase B activity and resulted in the partial reduction of sporulation, was introduced into a mutant lacking both carboxypeptidases, the ability of diploid cells to sporulate was nearly completely lost. Mutants lacking both carboxypeptidases were unable to grow on the dipeptide benzyloxycarbonylglycyl-l-leucine as a sole nitrogen source, which indicates an additional function for carboxypeptidases Y and S in supplying nutrients from exogenous peptides. Catabolite inactivation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and inactivation of nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent, glutamate dehydrogenase, events which have been proposed to involve proteolysis in vivo, were not dependent on the presence of carboxypeptidase Y and S. In a mutant lacking both carboxypeptidases, four new proteolytic enzymes with carboxypeptidase activity were detected.

  19. Characterization of proinsulin-insulin intermediates in human plasma.

    PubMed Central

    de Haën, C; Little, S A; May, J M; Williams, R H

    1978-01-01

    This work addressed the problem of heterogeneity of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) in human plasma. Subjects with normal glucose tolerance were given 75g of an oral glucose solution, followed in 30 min by an intravenous infusion of 30g of arginine over 30 min. At the end of the infusion blood was withdrawn for analysis. IRI was extracted from plasma of individual subject by immunosorbent columns and was fractionated by gel filtration, disc gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Human IRI components were identified by molecular size, immunoreactivity with a human proinsulin antibody, sensitivity to trypsin, and by comparison of electrophoretic mobility and isoelectric point with porcine pancreatic products, after suitable correction for electric charge and molecular weight differences. The pattern of IRI heterogeneity was the same among six healthy subjects. Heterogeneity of proinsulin-size IRI in circulation was more marked than that of insulin-size material. Proinsulin and desdipeptide proinsulin were present in approximately equal amounts accompanied by minor amounts of split proinsulin and monodesamido-desdipeptide proinsulin. Insulin-size IRI contained over 80% insulin. Minor amounts of monodesamidoinsulin and diarginylinsulin were observed in some cases. The types of IRI components observed in plasma are evidence in support of a physiologic role of trypsin-and carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin. Moreover, this study provides a base line for investigation of abnormalities in proinsulin-to-insulin conversion that may be associated with certain pathologic states. PMID:359597

  20. Design of highly potent urea-based, exosite-binding inhibitors selective for glutamate carboxypeptidase II.

    PubMed

    Tykvart, Jan; Schimer, Jiří; Jančařík, Andrej; Bařinková, Jitka; Navrátil, Václav; Starková, Jana; Šrámková, Karolína; Konvalinka, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Šácha, Pavel

    2015-05-28

    We present here a structure-aided design of inhibitors targeting the active site as well as exosites of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), a prostate cancer marker, preparing potent and selective inhibitors that are more than 1000-fold more active toward GCPII than its closest human homologue, glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII). Additionally, we demonstrate that the prepared inhibitor conjugate can be used for sensitive and selective imaging of GCPII in mammalian cells.

  1. Inhibition of intrinsic proteolytic activities moderates preanalytical variability and instability of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jizu; Kim, Changki; Gelfand, Craig A

    2007-05-01

    Human plasma and serum proteins are subject to intrinsic proteolytic degradation both during and after blood collection. By monitoring peptides, we investigated the stability of plasma and serum samples and the effects of anticoagulants and protease inhibitors on the plasma samples. Serum and plasma were subjected to time-course incubation, and the peptides (750-3200 Da) were extracted and analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS. Peptides of interest were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses. Our observations indicate that plasma peptides are significantly different from serum peptides. Intrinsic proteases cause these differences between plasma and serum samples, as well as the differences among three plasma samples using either EDTA, sodium citrate, or heparin as the anticoagulant, which accounts for partial inhibitory effects on plasma proteolytic activities. Proteases and peptidases, including both aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, also cause time-dependent, sequential generation and digestion of the peptides in serum and all three plasmas, specifically during early sample collection and processing. Protease inhibitors within an EDTA-plasma-collection device inhibit both intrinsic plasma peptidases and proteases and moderate the time-dependent changes of the plasma peptides, including bradykinin, and complement C4- and C3- derived peptides. Our results suggest that mixing protease inhibitors immediately with blood during blood collection provides enhanced stabilization of the plasma proteome.

  2. Proinsulin cleaved by furin is processed to chromatographically mature insulin by carboxypeptidases in nonneuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, T; Yanagita, M; Takeuchi, T

    1996-01-01

    Proinsulin is converted to mature insulin by two reactions, cleavage by the prohormone convertases PC2 and PC3, and removal of basic residues by carboxypeptidase H. These reactions are performed in the secretory granules of pancreatic beta cells. When we replaced the processing sites of proinsulin with furin-cleavable sites, the three nonneuroendocrine cell lines Hep G2, CHO, and NIH/3T3 produced insulin with the same size as synthetic human insulin. Although the three cell lines expressed different quantities of carboxypeptidase H mRNA, the cytosol fractions of the cells exhibited similar levels of carboxypeptidase activity, suggesting that additional carboxypeptidases were active. The insulins resulting from the three cell lines were eluted as a single peak on a cation-exchange chromatography column, indicating that proinsulin can be maturated to insulin even in nonneuroendocrine cells.

  3. Insect midgut carboxypeptidases with emphasis on S10 hemipteran and M14 lepidopteran carboxypeptidases.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C; Rebola, K G O; Cardoso, C; Bragatto, I; Ribeiro, A F; Terra, W R

    2015-04-01

    We compared the whole complement of midgut carboxypeptidases from 10 insects pertaining to five orders based on transcriptomes obtained by deep sequencing and biochemical data. Most of the carboxypeptidases were metallocarboxypeptidases from family M14, with carboxypeptidase A (CPA) predominating over carboxypeptidase B (CPB). They were found in all of the insects studied except for the hemipterans and a bruchid beetle. M14 carboxypeptidases were expressed only in the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera). The most expressed CPA from this insect (SfCPA) was cloned, sequenced and expressed as a recombinant enzyme. This enzyme was used to generate antibodies used to demonstrate that SfCPA is secreted by an exocytic route. Serine carboxypeptidases from family S10 were found in all of the insects studied here. In S. frugiperda, they are expressed in all tissues besides the midgut, in accordance with their presumed lysosomal role. In the hemipteran Dysdercus peruvianus, S10 carboxypeptidases are expressed only in midgut, suggesting that they are digestive enzymes. This was confirmed by enzyme assays of midgut contents. Furthermore, the substrate specificity of D. peruvianus S10 carboxypeptidases are predicted to be one CPC (preferring hydrophobic residues) and one CPD (preferring basic residues), thus able to hydrolyse the peptides formed by their digestive cathepsin D and cathepsin L, respectively. The role of S10 carboxypeptidases in bruchid beetles are suggested to be the same as in hemipterans. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Streptococcus pyogenes in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Malmström, Johan; Karlsson, Christofer; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Ossola, Reto; Weisser, Hendrik; Quandt, Andreas; Hansson, Karin; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars; Björck, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a major bacterial pathogen and a potent inducer of inflammation causing plasma leakage at the site of infection. A combination of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategies were used to measure how the intracellular proteome homeostasis of S. pyogenes is influenced by the presence of human plasma, identifying and quantifying 842 proteins. In plasma the bacterium modifies its production of 213 proteins, and the most pronounced change was the complete down-regulation of proteins required for fatty acid biosynthesis. Fatty acids are transported by albumin (HSA) in plasma. S. pyogenes expresses HSA-binding surface proteins, and HSA carrying fatty acids reduced the amount of fatty acid biosynthesis proteins to the same extent as plasma. The results clarify the function of HSA-binding proteins in S. pyogenes and underline the power of the quantitative mass spectrometry strategy used here to investigate bacterial adaptation to a given environment. PMID:22117078

  5. Dynamical structure of carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Makinen, M W; Troyer, J M; van der Werff, H; Berendsen, H J; van Gunsteren, W F

    1989-05-05

    Structural fluctuations of the apoenzyme form of carboxypeptidase A (EC 3.4.12.2) have been evaluated on the basis of molecular dynamics. The Konnert-Hendrickson refined coordinates of 2437 non-hydrogen atoms of the 307 amino acid residues derived from the X-ray structure of the holoenzyme served as the molecular model together with 548 calculated polar hydrogen atoms and 25 buried solvent molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out at 277 K, and the averaged structural properties of the protein were evaluated for the terminal 20 picosecond portion of a 48 picosecond trajectory. The average atomic displacement from the initial X-ray structure was 2.49 A for all atoms and 1.79 A for C alpha atoms. The average root-mean-square (r.m.s.) fluctuation of all atoms was 0.67 A as compared to 0.54 A evaluated from the X-ray-defined temperature factors. Corresponding r.m.s. fluctuations for backbone atoms were 0.56 A by molecular dynamics and 0.49 A by X-ray. On the basis of these molecular dynamics studies of the isolated molecule, it is shown that amino acid residues corresponding to intermolecular contact sites of the crystalline enzyme are associated with high amplitude motion. All eight segments of alpha-helix and eight regions of beta-strand were well preserved except for unwinding of the five C-terminal residues of the alpha-helix 112-122 that form part of an intermolecular contact in the crystal. Four regions of beta-strand and one alpha-helix with residues adjacent to or in the active site constitute a core of constant secondary structure and are shown not to change in relative orientation to each other during the course of the trajectory. The absence of the zinc ion does not markedly influence the stereochemical relationships of active site residues in the dynamically averaged protein. The extent of motional fluctuations of each of the subsites of substrate recognition in the active site has been evaluated. Active site residues responsible for

  6. A proposed role for Leishmania major carboxypeptidase in peptide catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Isaza, Clara E.; Zhong, Xuejun; Rosas, Lucia E.; White, James D.; Chen, Rita P.-Y.; Liang, George F.-C.; Chan, Sunney I.; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Chan, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease caused by Leishmania, eukaryotic parasites transmitted to humans by sand flies. Towards the development of new chemotherapeutic targets for this disease, biochemical and in vivo expression studies were performed on one of two M32 carboxypeptidases present within the Leishmania major (LmaCP1) genome. Enzymatic studies reveal that like previously studied M32 carboxypeptidases, LmaCP1 cleaves substrates with a variety of C-terminal amino acids - the primary exception being those having C-terminal acidic residues. Cleavage assays with a series of FRET-based peptides suggest that LmaCP1 exhibits a substrate length restriction, preferring peptides shorter than 9–12 amino acids. The in vivo expression of LmaCP1 was analyzed for each major stage of the L. major life cycle. These studies reveal that LmaCP1 expression occurs only in procyclic promastigotes – the stage of life where the organism resides in the abdominal midgut of the insect. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:18539138

  7. Prolyl carboxypeptidase mRNA expression in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-13

    Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), a serine protease, is widely expressed in the body including liver, lung, kidney and brain, with a variety of known substrates such as plasma prekallikrein, bradykinin, angiotensins II and III, and α-MSH, suggesting its role in the processing of tissue-specific substrates. In the brain, PRCP has been shown to inactivate hypothalamic α-MSH, thus modulating melanocortin signaling in the control of energy metabolism. While its expression pattern has been reported in the hypothalamus, little is known on the distribution of PRCP throughout the mouse brain. This study was undertaken to determine PRCP expression in the mouse brain. Radioactive in situ hybridization was performed to determine endogenous PRCP mRNA expression. In addition, using a gene-trap mouse model for PRCP deletion, X-gal staining was performed to further determine PRCP distribution. Results from both approaches showed that PRCP gene is broadly expressed in the brain.

  8. Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes of rats with mammary gland cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Arias de Saavedra, J M; Sánchez, R; Pérez, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2005-02-01

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase is an omega-peptidase that hydrolyses N-terminal pyroglutamyl residues from biologically active peptides such as gonadotropin-releasing and thyrotrophin-releasing hormones. We previously described a decrease in both rat and human pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity with breast cancer, suggesting that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may be an important local intracrine, autocrine and/or paracrine hormonal factor in the pathogenesis of breast cancer while playing a role in the tumoral process. However, the other susceptible substrate of pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, may also be modified with breast cancer, supporting an association between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. The present work analyses soluble and membrane-bound pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes in N-methyl nitrosourea-induced breast cancer in rats. Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone regulation through pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity. We propose that pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity dysregulation at various local and systemic levels may participate in the initiation, promotion and progression of breast cancer induced in rat by N-methyl nitrosourea through the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Since pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity also acts on thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, the dysregulation of this enzyme's activity could indirectly affect hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis function, and thus potentially represent a link between the diseases of thyroid and breast cancer.

  9. δ-Thiolactones as prodrugs of thiol-based glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Dana V; Majer, Pavel; Ni, Chiyou; Slusher, C Ethan; Rais, Rana; Wu, Ying; Wozniak, Krystyna M; Alt, Jesse; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S; Tsukamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-09

    δ-Thiolactones derived from thiol-based glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors were evaluated as prodrugs. In rat liver microsomes, 2-(3-mercaptopropyl)pentanedioic acid (2-MPPA, 1) was gradually produced from 3-(2-oxotetrahydrothiopyran-3-yl)propionic acid (5), a thiolactone derived from 1. Compound 1 was detected in plasma at concentrations well above its IC50 for GCPII following oral administration of 5 in rats. Consistent with the oral plasma pharmacokinetics, thiolactone 5 exhibited efficacy in a rat model of neuropathic pain following oral administration.

  10. New roles of carboxypeptidase E in endocrine and neural function and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Niamh X; Wetsel, William C; Murthy, Saravana R K; Park, Joshua J; Pacak, Karel; Loh, Y Peng

    2012-04-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) or carboxypeptidase H was first discovered in 1982 as an enkephalin-convertase that cleaved a C-terminal basic residue from enkephalin precursors to generate enkephalin. Since then, CPE has been shown to be a multifunctional protein that subserves many essential nonenzymatic roles in the endocrine and nervous systems. Here, we review the phylogeny, structure, and function of CPE in hormone and neuropeptide sorting and vesicle transport for secretion, alternative splicing of the CPE transcript, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans. With this and the analysis of mutant and knockout mice, the data collectively support important roles for CPE in the modulation of metabolic and glucose homeostasis, bone remodeling, obesity, fertility, neuroprotection, stress, sexual behavior, mood and emotional responses, learning, and memory. Recently, a splice variant form of CPE has been found to be an inducer of tumor growth and metastasis and a prognostic biomarker for metastasis in endocrine and nonendocrine tumors.

  11. New Roles of Carboxypeptidase E in Endocrine and Neural Function and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Niamh X.; Wetsel, William C.; Murthy, Saravana R. K.; Park, Joshua J.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) or carboxypeptidase H was first discovered in 1982 as an enkephalin-convertase that cleaved a C-terminal basic residue from enkephalin precursors to generate enkephalin. Since then, CPE has been shown to be a multifunctional protein that subserves many essential nonenzymatic roles in the endocrine and nervous systems. Here, we review the phylogeny, structure, and function of CPE in hormone and neuropeptide sorting and vesicle transport for secretion, alternative splicing of the CPE transcript, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans. With this and the analysis of mutant and knockout mice, the data collectively support important roles for CPE in the modulation of metabolic and glucose homeostasis, bone remodeling, obesity, fertility, neuroprotection, stress, sexual behavior, mood and emotional responses, learning, and memory. Recently, a splice variant form of CPE has been found to be an inducer of tumor growth and metastasis and a prognostic biomarker for metastasis in endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. PMID:22402194

  12. Interaction of cobalt ions with carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Moratal, J M; Castells, J; Donaire, A; Salgado, J; Jiménez, H R; Domingo, R

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of cobalt(II) with native and cobalt(II)-substituted carboxypeptidase has been investigated, at pH 7.5, by electronic absorption and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The reaction of the cobalt(II) uptake by the metalloenzyme [MCPA] (M = Zn or Co) occurs very slowly and a bimetallic complex, [MCPA(Co)], is formed. On the basis of the 1H NOE experiments, the isotropically shifted proton resonances were assigned as belonging to a coordinated histidine residue. 1H NMR titrations of [ZnCPA(Co)] with zinc(II) show that the zinc ion does not compete with cobalt for binding to the noncatalytic site. The temperature dependence of the isotropic shifts, molar absorbance, and longitudinal relaxation time values are indicative of a five-coordinated geometry for the cobalt ion. The identification of the noncatalytic cobalt binding site is also discussed.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects of thrombomodulin alfa through carboxypeptidase B2 in the presence of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Tawara, Shunsuke; Sakai, Takumi; Matsuzaki, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) alfa, a recombinant human soluble TM, enhances activation of pro-carboxypeptidase B2 (pro-CPB2) by thrombin. Activated pro-CPB2 (CPB2) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic activities. Therefore, TM alfa may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects through CPB2. However, these effects of TM alfa have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TM alfa on inactivation of complement component C5a as an anti-inflammatory effect and prolongation of clot lysis time as an anti-fibrinolytic effect via CPB2 in vitro. CPB2 activity and tissue factor-induced thrombin generation was examined by a chromogenic assay. C5a inactivation was evaluated by C-terminal cleavage of C5a and inhibition of C5a-induced human neutrophil migration. Clot lysis time prolongation was examined by a tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced clot lysis assay. CPB2 activity in human plasma was increased by TM alfa and thrombin in a concentration-dependent manner. TM alfa inhibited tissue factor-induced thrombin generation and enhanced pro-CPB2 activation in human plasma simultaneously. The mass spectrum of C5a treated with TM alfa, thrombin, and pro-CPB2 was decreased at 156m/z, indicating that TM alfa enhanced the processing of C5a to C-terminal-cleaved C5a, an inactive form of C5a. C5a-induced human neutrophil migration was decreased after C5a treatment with TM alfa, thrombin, and pro-CPB2. TM alfa prolonged the clot lysis time in human plasma, and this effect was completely abolished by addition of a CPB2 inhibitor. TM alfa exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects through CPB2 in the presence of thrombin in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical characterization of a novel carboxypeptidase inhibitor from a variety of Andean potatoes.

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Cotabarren, Juliana; Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Fernandez-Alvarez, Roberto; Tort, Olivia; Tanco, Sebastián; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; Lorenzo, Julia; Obregón, Walter D

    2015-12-01

    Natural protease inhibitors of metallocarboxypeptidases are rarely reported. In this work, the cloning, expression and characterization of a proteinaceous inhibitor of the A/B-type metallocarboxypeptidases, naturally occurring in tubers of Solanum tuberosum, subsp. andigenum cv. Imilla morada, are described. The obtained cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 80 residues, which displayed the features of metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor precursors from the Potato Carboxypeptidase Inhibitor (PCI) family. The mature polypeptide (39 residues) was named imaPCI and in comparison with the prototype molecule of the family (PCI from S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum), its sequence showed one difference at its N-terminus and another three located at the secondary binding site, a region described to contribute to the stabilization of the complex inhibitor-target enzyme. In order to gain insights into the relevance of the secondary binding site in nature, a recombinant form of imaPCI (rimaPCI) having only differences at the secondary binding site with respect to recombinant PCI (rPCI) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The rimaPCI exhibited a molecular mass of 4234.8Da by MALDI-TOF/MS. It displayed potent inhibitory activity towards A/B-type carboxypeptidases (with a Ki in the nanomolar range), albeit 2-4-fold lower inhibitory capacity compared to its counterpart rPCI. This result is in agreement with our bioinformatic analysis, which showed that the main interaction established between the secondary binding site of rPCI and the bovine carboxypeptidase A is likely lost in the case of rimaPCI. These observations reinforce the importance of the secondary binding site of PCI-family members on inhibitory effects towards A/B-type metallocarboxypeptidases. Furthermore, as a simple proof of concept of its applicability in biotechnology and biomedicine, the ability of rimaPCI to protect human epidermal growth factor from C-terminal cleavage and inactivation by carboxypeptidases A and B

  15. Structure and Function of REP34 Implicates Carboxypeptidase Activity in Francisella tularensis Host Cell Invasion*

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Geoffrey K.; El-Etr, Sahar; Corzett, Michele H.; Hunter, Mark S.; Belhocine, Kamila; Monack, Denise M.; Frank, Matthias; Segelke, Brent W.; Rasley, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of tularemia, or rabbit fever. Although F. tularensis is a recognized biothreat agent with broad and expanding geographical range, its mechanism of infection and environmental persistence remain poorly understood. Previously, we identified seven F. tularensis proteins that induce a rapid encystment phenotype (REP) in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Encystment is essential to the pathogen's long term intracellular survival in the amoeba. Here, we characterize the cellular and molecular function of REP34, a REP protein with a mass of 34 kDa. A REP34 knock-out strain of F. tularensis has a reduced ability to both induce encystment in A. castellanii and invade human macrophages. We determined the crystal structure of REP34 to 2.05-Å resolution and demonstrate robust carboxypeptidase B-like activity for the enzyme. REP34 is a zinc-containing monomeric protein with close structural homology to the metallocarboxypeptidase family of peptidases. REP34 possesses a novel topology and substrate binding pocket that deviates from the canonical funnelin structure of carboxypeptidases, putatively resulting in a catalytic role for a conserved tyrosine and distinct S1′ recognition site. Taken together, these results identify REP34 as an active carboxypeptidase, implicate the enzyme as a potential key F. tularensis effector protein, and may help elucidate a mechanistic understanding of F. tularensis infection of phagocytic cells. PMID:25231992

  16. IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON HUMAN PLASMA LIPOPROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Aladjem, Frederick; Lieberman, Miriam; Gofman, John W.

    1957-01-01

    Low density human plasma lipoproteins Sf 17+, Sf 13, and Sf 6, high density lipoproteins 2 and 3, and a lipoprotein-free plasma protein fraction were isolated from human plasma by ultracentrifugal methods. It was found that human plasma lipoproteins are immunochemically distinct from the non-lipoprotein containing plasma protein fraction. Lipoprotein fractions of a given hydrated density, isolated from different individuals, were found to be immunochemically indistinguishable by qualitative absorption tests. Qualitative antigenic differences were shown to exist between low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins. Quantitative precipitin reactions showed that low density lipoproteins Sf 6 and Sf 13 were immunochemically very similar. However, they differed with respect to the amount of antigen nitrogen required for maximum precipitation. Agar diffusion analyses were performed; the results suggest heterogeneity of lipoproteins by this criterion. PMID:13385406

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Carboxypeptidase Genes in Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Junhong; Li, Yi; Liu, Hua-Wei; Li, Jifu; Dong, Zhaoming; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically-important insect that can secrete silk. Carboxypeptidases have been found in various metazoan species and play important roles in physiological and biochemical reactions. Here, we analyzed the silkworm genome database and characterized 48 carboxypeptidases, including 34 metal carboxypeptidases (BmMCP1–BmMCP34) and 14 serine carboxypeptidases (BmSCP1–BmSCP14), to better understand their diverse functions. Compared to other insects, our results indicated that carboxypeptidases from silkworm have more family members. These silkworm carboxypeptidases could be divided into four families: Peptidase_M2 carboxypeptidases, Peptidase_M14 carboxypeptidases, Peptidase_S10 carboxypeptidases and Peptidase_S28 carboxypeptidases. Microarray analysis showed that the carboxypeptidases had distinct expression patterns, whereas quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the expression level of 13 carboxypeptidases significantly decreased after starvation and restored after re-feeding. Overall, our study provides new insights into the functional and evolutionary features of silkworm carboxypeptidases. PMID:27483237

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Carboxypeptidase Genes in Silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Ye, Junhong; Li, Yi; Liu, Hua-Wei; Li, Jifu; Dong, Zhaoming; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-07-28

    The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically-important insect that can secrete silk. Carboxypeptidases have been found in various metazoan species and play important roles in physiological and biochemical reactions. Here, we analyzed the silkworm genome database and characterized 48 carboxypeptidases, including 34 metal carboxypeptidases (BmMCP1-BmMCP34) and 14 serine carboxypeptidases (BmSCP1-BmSCP14), to better understand their diverse functions. Compared to other insects, our results indicated that carboxypeptidases from silkworm have more family members. These silkworm carboxypeptidases could be divided into four families: Peptidase_M2 carboxypeptidases, Peptidase_M14 carboxypeptidases, Peptidase_S10 carboxypeptidases and Peptidase_S28 carboxypeptidases. Microarray analysis showed that the carboxypeptidases had distinct expression patterns, whereas quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the expression level of 13 carboxypeptidases significantly decreased after starvation and restored after re-feeding. Overall, our study provides new insights into the functional and evolutionary features of silkworm carboxypeptidases.

  19. Excess zinc ions are a competitive inhibitor for carboxypeptidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, J.; Ando, S.; Kidani, Y.

    1987-10-06

    The mechanism for inhibition of enzyme activity by excess zinc ions has been studied by kinetic and equilibrium dialysis methods at pH 8.2, I = 0.5 M. With carboxypeptidase A (bovine pancreas), peptide (carbobenzoxyglycyl-L-phenylalanine and hippuryl-L-phenylalanine) and ester (hippuryl-L-phenyl lactate) substrates were inhibited competitively by excess zinc ions. The K/sub i/ values for excess zinc ions with carboxypeptidase A at pH 8.2 are all similar. The apparent constant for dissociation of excess zinc ions from carboxypeptidase A was also obtained by equilibrium dialysis at pH 8.2 and was 2.4 x 10/sup -5/ M, very close to the K/sub i/ values above. With arsanilazotyrosine-248 carboxypeptidase A ((Azo-CPD)Zn)), hippuryl-L-phenylalanine, carbobenzoxyglycyl-L-phenylalanine, and hippuryl-L-phenyl lactate were also inhibited with a competitive pattern by excess zinc ions, and the K/sub i/ values were (3.0-3.5) x 10/sup -5/ M. The apparent constant for dissociation of excess zinc ions from arsanilazotyrosine-248 carboxypeptidase A, which was obtained from absorption changes at 510 nm, was 3.2 x 10/sup -5/ M and is similar to the K/sub i/ values for ((Azo-CPD)Zn). The apparent dissociation and inhibition constants, which were obtained by inhibition of enzyme activity and spectrophotometric and equilibrium dialysis methods with native carboxypeptidase A and arsanilazotyrosine-248 carboxypeptidase A, were almost the same. This agreement between the apparent dissociation and inhibition constants indicates that the zinc binding to the enzymes directly relates to the inhibition of enzyme activity by excess zinc ions. Excess zinc ions were competitive inhibitors for both peptide and ester substrates. This behavior is believed to arise by the excess zinc ions fixing the enzyme in a conformation to which the substrates cannot bind.

  20. Tissue distribution of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) with a focus on the central and peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, P; Slusher, B; Cavaletti, G

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II, also known as prostate specific membrane antigen or folate hydrolase I, is a type II transmembrane 750 amino acid membrane-bound glycoprotein, with a molecular weight in the human form of approximately 100 kDa and a demonstrated metallopeptidase activity. At the synaptic level it hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartylglutamate to N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Its localization in the animal and human nervous system has only recently been clearly established, since many of the older studies gave conflicting results, likely due to the use of poorly characterized antibodies lacking epitope mapping and proper controls (i.e. immunohistochemistry complemented by western blot analysis and enzyme activity determination). In this chapter, we will review the available literature describing the animal and human distribution of glutamate carboxypeptidase in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  1. Measurement of Human Blood and Plasma Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Szalkay, H. G. H.

    1987-01-01

    Report reviews techniques for measuring blood-plasma volume in humans. Common technique of using radioactive iodine isotope to label plasma albumin involves unwarranted risks from low-level radiation. Report emphasizes techniques using Evans-blue-dye (T-1824) labeling of albumin, hematocrit or hemoglobin/hematocrit measurements, or blood densitometry. In Evans-blue-dye technique, plasma volume determined from decrease in dye concentration occurring after small amount of dye solution injected into circulatory system. Subjection of Evans blue dye to test for carcinogenicity gave negative results.

  2. Hemagglutinin activity of human plasma fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Vuento, M

    1979-09-01

    Purified human plasma fibronectin at concentrations of about 30 microgram/ml was found to agglutinate trypsin-treated erythrocytes from certain species. The hemagglutination reaction was inhibited by specific antibodies to fibronectin, by relatively low concentrations of polyamines and by higher concentrations of basic amino acids and nonacetylated amino sugars. The divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate did not affect the reaction. None of the neutral amino acids, neutral sugars or polyanions tested was inhibitory. The results imply that plasma fibronectin is capable of interacting with cell surfaces and support the idea of a similarity between cellular and plasma fibronectins.

  3. Plasma Acetone Metabolism in the Fasting Human

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, G. A.; Haff, A. C.; Skutches, C. L.; Paul, P.; Holroyde, C. P.; Owen, O. E.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism of acetone was studied in lean and obese humans during starvation ketosis. Acetone concentrations in plasma, urine, and breath; and rates of endogenous production, elimination in breath and urine, and in vivo metabolism were determined. There was a direct relationship between plasma acetone turnover (20-77 μmol/m2 per min) and concentration (0.19-1.68 mM). Breath and urinary excretion of acetone accounted for a 2-30% of the endogenous production rate, and in vivo metabolism accounted for the remainder. Plasma acetone oxidation accounted for ≅60% of the production rate in 3-d fasted subjects and about 25% of the production rate in 21-d fasted subjects. About 1-2% of the total CO2 production was derived from plasma acetone oxidation and was not related to the plasma concentration or production rate. Radioactivity from [14C]acetone was not detected in plasma free fatty acids, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, or other anionic compounds, but was present in plasma glucose, lipids, and proteins. If glucose synthesis from acetone is possible in humans, this process could account for 11% of the glucose production rate and 59% of the acetone production rate in 21-d fasted subjects. During maximum acetonemia, acetone production from acetoacetate could account for 37% of the anticipated acetoacetate production, which implies that a significant fraction of the latter compound does not undergo immediate terminal oxidation. PMID:438326

  4. The isolation of human plasma prekallikrein

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, D. J.; Mason, Brenda

    1970-01-01

    1. The isolation of human plasma prekallikrein was achieved by fractionating human plasma on diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE) in the presence of heparin. 2. Heparin was shown to inhibit the activation of prekallikrein during the isolation procedure. 3. The isolated prekallikrein fraction had some kallikrein activity which could be inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) without affecting the ability of prekallikrein to be activated. 4. The prekallikrein obtained was functionally pure in that it had no kallikrein inhibiting or activating activity. It was not physico-chemically pure, the major contaminant being the immunoglobulin IgG. PMID:5445687

  5. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L

    PubMed Central

    Mikola, Leena

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20°C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent. PMID:16664910

  6. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Mikola, L

    1986-07-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20 degrees C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent.

  7. Pancreastatin molecular forms in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, N; Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Shimazoe, T; Kono, A; Iwamoto, N; Matsuoka, Y

    1994-01-01

    Circulating molecular forms with pancreastatin (PST)-like immunoreactivity in plasma from normal subjects were examined. An immunoreactive form corresponding to a human PST-like sequence [human chromogranin-A-(250-301)] (hPST-52) and a larger form (mol wt 15-21 kDa) were detected by gel filtration of plasma from normal subjects. On high performance liquid chromatography, predominant immunoreactive forms coeluted with the three larger forms which were purified from the xenograft of human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line QGP-1N cells and with synthetic hPST-52. The fraction containing larger forms purified from xenograft of QGP-1N cells had biological activity equivalent to that of hPST-52 on the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion. These results suggest that the larger molecular forms as well as hPST-52 may be physiologically important circulating forms of PST in human.

  8. A digestive prolyl carboxypeptidase in Tenebrio molitor larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) was purified from the anterior midgut of larvae of a stored product pest, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA of PRCP was cloned, and the predicted protein was identical to the proteomic sequences of the purified enzyme. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was studied, and ...

  9. Deletion of Carboxypeptidase N Delays Onset of Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Darley, M. M.; Ramos, T.N.; Wetsel, R.A.; Barnum, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Complement contributes to inflammation during pathogen infections, however less is known regarding its role during malaria and, the severest form of the disease, cerebral malaria. Recent studies have shown that deletion of the complement anaphylatoxins receptors, C3aR and C5aR, does alter disease susceptibility in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). This does not however, preclude C3a- and C5a-mediated contributions to inflammation in ECM and raises the possibility that carboxypeptidase regulation of anaphylatoxin activity rapidly over rides their functions. To address this question we performed ECM using carboxypeptidase N-deficient (CPN−/−) mice. Unexpectedly, we found that CPN−/− mice survived longer than wild type mice but were fully susceptible to ECM. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration was not reduced at the peak of disease in CPN−/− mice and there was no corresponding reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Our results indicate that carboxypeptidases contribute to the pathogenesis of ECM and that, studies examining the contribution of other carboxypeptidase families and family members may provide greater insight into the role these enzymes play in malaria. PMID:22708514

  10. Deletion of carboxypeptidase N delays onset of experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Darley, M M; Ramos, T N; Wetsel, R A; Barnum, S R

    2012-01-01

    Complement contributes to inflammation during pathogen infections; however, less is known regarding its role during malaria and in the severest form of the disease, cerebral malaria. Recent studies have shown that deletion of the complement anaphylatoxins receptors, C3aR and C5aR, does not alter disease susceptibility in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). This does not, however, preclude C3a- and C5a-mediated contributions to inflammation in ECM and raises the possibility that carboxypeptidase regulation of anaphylatoxin activity rapidly over rides their functions. To address this question, we performed ECM using carboxypeptidase N-deficient (CPN(-/-)) mice. Unexpectedly, we found that CPN(-/-) mice survived longer than wild-type mice, but they were fully susceptible to ECM. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration was not reduced at the peak of disease in CPN(-/-) mice, and there was no corresponding reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Our results indicate that carboxypeptidases contribute to the pathogenesis of ECM and that studies examining the contribution of other carboxypeptidase families and family members may provide greater insight into the role these enzymes play in malaria. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Novel internally quenched fluorogenic substrates for angiotensin I-converting enzyme and carboxypeptidase Y.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Saori; Ono, Hiroki; Gotoh, Takeshi; Yoshizawa-Kumagaye, Kumiko; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2011-12-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) is one of the most important enzymes in the renin-angiotensin system, a major blood pressure control system in mammals. We synthesized novel internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) substrates for ACE based on the cleavage site of an angiotensin I, introducing N-methyl anthranic acid (Nma) and N(ε)-2,4-dinitrophenyl-lysine (Lys(Dnp))at the N- and C-terminal regions. Kinetic parameters of the synthesized IQF substrates Nma-Phe-His-Lys(Dnp) and Nma-His-Pro-Phe-Lys(Dnp)-Pro were compared with those of a common peptide substrate for ACE, hippuryl (Hip)-His-Leu. The k(cat)/K(m) values of Nma-Phe-His-Lys(Dnp), Nma-His-Pro-Phe-Lys(Dnp)-Pro, and Hip-His-Leu were 5.12, 1.90, and 0.80 µM(-1) s(-1) for rabbit lung ACE, and 16.0, 7.36, and 0.30 µM(-1) s(-1) for recombinant human (rh)-ACE, respectively. These results indicate that Nma-Phe-His-Lys(Dnp) is an excellent substrate for rh-ACE. Carboxypeptidase Y also hydrolyzed Nma-Phe-His-Lys(Dnp) efficiently with K(m), k(cat), and k(cat)/K(m) values of 60.2 µM, 105 s(-1), and 1.74 µM(-1) s(-1), respectively. On the other hand, carboxypeptidase B did not hydrolyze IQF substrates. The newly developed IQF substrate, Nma-Phe-His-Lys(Dnp), is a valuable tool for ACE and carboxypeptidase studies.

  12. A carboxypeptidase inhibitor from the medical leech Hirudo medicinalis. Isolation, sequence analysis, cDNA cloning, recombinant expression, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Reverter, D; Vendrell, J; Canals, F; Horstmann, J; Avilés, F X; Fritz, H; Sommerhoff, C P

    1998-12-04

    A novel metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor was isolated from the medical leech Hirudo medicinalis. Amino acid sequence analysis provided a nearly complete primary structure. which was subsequently verified and completed by cDNA cloning using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction/rapid amplification of cDNA end techniques. The inhibitor, called LCI (leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor), is a cysteine-rich polypeptide composed of 66 amino acid residues. It does not show sequence similarity to any other protein except at its C-terminal end. In this region, the inhibitor shares the amino acid sequence -Thr-Cys-X-Pro-Tyr-Val-X with Solanacea carboxypeptidase inhibitors, suggesting a similar mechanism of inhibition where the C-terminal tail of the inhibitor interacts with the active center of metallocarboxypeptidases in a substrate-like manner. This hypothesis is supported by the hydrolytic release of the C-terminal glutamic acid residue of LCI after binding to the enzyme. Heterologous overexpression of LCI in Escherichia coli, either into the medium or as an intracellular thioredoxin fusion protein, yields a protein with full inhibitory activity. Both in the natural and recombinant forms, LCI is a tightly binding, competitive inhibitor of different types of pancreatic-like carboxypeptidases, with equilibrium dissociation constants Ki of 0.2-0.4 x 10(-9) M for the complexes with the pancreatic enzymes A1, A2, and B and plasma carboxypeptidase B. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis indicate that recombinant LCI is a compactly folded globular protein, stable to a wide range of pH and denaturing conditions.

  13. 21 CFR 640.90 - Plasma Protein Fraction (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). 640.90 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.90 Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  14. 21 CFR 640.90 - Plasma Protein Fraction (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). 640.90 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.90 Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  15. 21 CFR 640.90 - Plasma Protein Fraction (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). 640.90 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.90 Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  16. 21 CFR 640.90 - Plasma Protein Fraction (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). 640.90 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.90 Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  17. 21 CFR 640.90 - Plasma Protein Fraction (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). 640.90 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.90 Plasma Protein Fraction (Human). (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  18. Thermal diffusivity of human serum and plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayén-Mondragón, R.; Yánez-Limón, J. M.; Palomares, P.; Sosa, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.

    2005-06-01

    Using a thermal lens experimental set up, the thermal diffusivity of human serum and plasma were measured. Several samples were studied and the results are reported as the average, including the standard deviation. The samples of serum and plasma were obtained in healthy adult donors from the Guanajuato State Blood Transfusion Center, Mexico; the donors were clinically tested and they were free of hepatitis, AIDS and other infectious diseases. The parameters reported were obtained using the thermal lens aberrant model with the lasers arranged in the mismatched mode.

  19. Human seminal plasma allergy in India.

    PubMed

    Shah, A; Sethi, S; Agarwal, M K

    1988-01-01

    Human seminal plasma allergy (HSPA) in women has been documented in the West. We describe here the first case of HSPA reported in India. An 18-year-old married woman presented with a 2-year history of episodic wheezing dyspnea. She had always had local postcoital symptoms since her first intercourse. Systemic symptoms developed subsequently. Despite more than 2 years of unprotected coitus, the patient had not conceived. The intradermal tests with seminal plasma antigen prepared from her husband's semen and from a healthy volunteer were markedly positive in the patient. Similar tests on her husband were negative. HSPA, especially the local forms, may be difficult to identify in our social conditions.

  20. Comparative Human Salivary and Plasma Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Loo, J.A.; Yan, W.; Ramachandran, P.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The protein compositions, or the proteomes, found in human salivary and plasma fluids are compared. From recent experimental work by many laboratories, a catalogue of 2290 proteins found in whole saliva has been compiled. This list of salivary proteins is compared with the 2698 proteins found in plasma. Approximately 27% of the whole-saliva proteins are found in plasma. However, despite this apparent low degree of overlap, the distribution found across Gene Ontological categories, such as molecular function, biological processes, and cellular components, shows significant similarities. Moreover, nearly 40% of the proteins that have been suggested to be candidate markers for diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke can be found in whole saliva. These comparisons and correlations should encourage researchers to consider the use of saliva to discover new protein markers of disease and as a diagnostic non-proximal fluid to detect early signs of disease throughout the body. PMID:20739693

  1. Response of the digestive system of Helicoverpa zea to ingestion of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and characterization of an uninhibited carboxypeptidase B.

    PubMed

    Bayés, Alex; de la Vega, Mónica Rodríguez; Vendrell, Josep; Aviles, Francesc X; Jongsma, Maarten A; Beekwilder, Jules

    2006-08-01

    Carboxypeptidase activity participates in the protein digestion process in the gut of lepidopteran insects, supplying free amino-acids to developing larvae. To study the role of different carboxypeptidases in lepidopteran protein digestion, the effect of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) on the digestive system of larvae of the pest insect Helicoverpa zea was investigated, and compared to that of Soybean Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor. Analysis of carboxypeptidase activity in the guts showed that ingested PCI remained active in the gut, and completely inhibited the activity of carboxypeptidases A and O. Interestingly, carboxypeptidase B activity was not affected by PCI. All previously described enzymes from the same family, both from insect or mammalian origin, have been found to be very sensitive to PCI. Analysis of several lepidopteran species showed the presence of carboxypeptidase B activity resistant to PCI in most of them. The H. zea carboxypeptidase B enzyme (CPBHz) was purified from gut content by affinity chromatography. N-terminal sequence information was used to isolate its corresponding full-length cDNA, and recombinant expression of the zymogen of CPBHz in Pichia pastoris was achieved. The substrate specificity of recombinant CPBHz was tested using peptides. Unlike other CPB enzymes, the enzyme appeared to be highly selective for C-terminal lysine residues. Inhibition by PCI appeared to be pH-dependent.

  2. Inhibitors of Kallikrein in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, David J.

    1972-01-01

    Human plasma was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration to determine which method would give the greatest number of clearly separable kallikrein inhibitory peaks. With G-200 gel filtration three peaks could be separated which were demonstrated to contain α2-macroglobulin, C1̄ inactivator, and α1-antitrypsin. No other kallikrein inhibitors could be identified. The fractions containing C1̄ inactivator and α2-macroglobulin appeared to be more effective against kallikrein than that containing α1-antitrypsin. A patient with hereditary angioneurotic edema was shown to have an abnormal C1̄ inactivator protein capable of interfering with kallikrein's biologic, but not its esterolytic activity. Heat-treated human plasma, a commonly used source of kininogen for experiments with kallikrein, was shown to have kallikrein inhibitory activity. PMID:4113391

  3. Involvement of human plasma angiotensin I-converting enzyme in the degradation of the haemoregulatory peptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline.

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, K J; Saez-Servent, N; Papet, M P; Wdzieczak-Bakala, J; Morgat, J L; Thierry, J; Voelter, W; Lenfant, M

    1993-01-01

    The degradation of N-Ac-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP), a negative regulator controlling the proliferation of the haematopoietic stem cell, by enzymes present in human plasma, has been investigated. Radiolabelled AcSD[4-3H]KP ([3H]AcSDKP, 1 mM) was completely metabolized in human plasma with a half-life of 80 min, leading exclusively to the formation of radiolabelled lysine. The cleavage of AcSDKP was insensitive to classical proteinase inhibitors including leupeptin, but sensitive to metalloprotease inhibitors. The degradation was completely blocked by specific inhibitors of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE; kininase II; peptidyldipeptide hydrolase, EC 3.4.15.1), showing that the first step of the hydrolysis was indeed due to ACE. In dialysed plasma, the hydrolysis proceeded at only 17% of the maximal rate, whereas addition of 20 mM NaCl led to the recovery of the initial rate observed with normal plasma. Hydrolysis of AcSDKP by commercial rabbit lung ACE generated the C-terminal dipeptide Lys-Pro. Thus, ACE cleaves AcSDKP by a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity. In fact the formation of Lys-Pro was observed when AcSDKP was incubated in human plasma in the presence of HgCl2. These results suggest that ACE is involved in the first limiting step of AcSDKP degradation in human plasma. The second step seems to be under the control of a leupeptin- and E-64-insensitive, HgCl2-sensitive plasmatic enzyme. PMID:8257427

  4. Structure and function of carboxypeptidase A alpha in supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J S; Gehring, H; Vallee, B L

    1980-01-01

    The spectral and enzymatic characteristics of chromophoric derivatives of carboxypeptidase A alpha (EC 3.4.17.1) have been examined at subzero temperatures in supercooled water-in-oil emulsions. Substrate and temperature dependencies of enzyme kinetics indicated the existence of a solution-like enzyme phase that greatly extends the temperature range (greater than 60 degrees C) over which the activity of this enzyme can be measured. The emulsion spectra were virtually identical to those of solutions over a wide range of temperatures. Subzero temperatures (less than -10 degrees C) may induce changes of enzyme conformation but not of geometry at the site of the metal atom, nor do they adversely affect activity at any of the temperatures studied. Both structure and function of carboxypeptidase A alpha can be examined in supercooled water under identical reaction conditions.

  5. Structure and function of carboxypeptidase A alpha in supercooled water.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J S; Gehring, H; Vallee, B L

    1980-01-01

    The spectral and enzymatic characteristics of chromophoric derivatives of carboxypeptidase A alpha (EC 3.4.17.1) have been examined at subzero temperatures in supercooled water-in-oil emulsions. Substrate and temperature dependencies of enzyme kinetics indicated the existence of a solution-like enzyme phase that greatly extends the temperature range (greater than 60 degrees C) over which the activity of this enzyme can be measured. The emulsion spectra were virtually identical to those of solutions over a wide range of temperatures. Subzero temperatures (less than -10 degrees C) may induce changes of enzyme conformation but not of geometry at the site of the metal atom, nor do they adversely affect activity at any of the temperatures studied. Both structure and function of carboxypeptidase A alpha can be examined in supercooled water under identical reaction conditions. PMID:6928608

  6. Evolution of serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases in the monocots

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T

    2010-01-01

    The serine carboxypeptidases are a large family of proteases. in higher plants some members of this family have diversified and adopted new functions as acyltransferases required for the synthesis of natural products. we recently reported the first serine carboxypeptidase-like (scpl) acyltransferase enzyme to be characterized from monocotyledonous plants.1 This enzyme, AsSCPL1, is required for acylation of antimicrobial terpenes (avenacins) that are produced in the roots of oat (Avena spp.) and that provide protection against soil-borne pathogens. The SCPL acyltransferase enzyme family has undergone substantial expansion following the divergence of monocots and dicots. Here we discuss the evolution of this SCPL enzyme family in monocots, their contribution to metabolic diversity, and the roles of these enzymes in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:20173416

  7. HPLC determination of tolperisone in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung-Woo; Park, Young-Seo; Sohn, Uy-Dong; Myung, Chang-Sun; Ryu, Byung-Kwon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2006-04-01

    A simple high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of tolperisone in human plasma. Tolperisone and internal standard (chlorphenesin) were isolated from 1 mL of plasma using 8 mL of dichlormethane. The organic phase was collected and evaporated under nitrogen gas. The residue was then reconstituted with 300 mL aliquot of mobile phase and a 100 mL aliquot was injected onto the C18 reverse-phased column. The mobile phase, 45% methanol containing 1% glacial acetic acid and 0.05% 1-hexanesulfonic acid was run at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The column effluent was monitored using UV detector at 260 nm. The retention times for tolperisone and the internal standard were approximately 7.1 and 8.4 min, respectively. The standard curve was linear with minimal intra-day and inter-day variability. The quantification limit of tolperisone in human plasma was 10 ng/ mL. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of pharmacokinetic profile of tolperisone in Koreans. The Tmax of tolperisone in Koreans (0.94 +/- 0.42 h) was not significantly differ from that reported in Europeans (0.5-1 h), but the mean half-life in Koreans (1.14 +/- 0.27 h) was shorter than that in Europeans (2.56 +/- 0.2 h). The proposed HPLC method is simple, accurate, reproducible and suitable for pharmacokinetic study of tolperisone.

  8. Human plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Jauhiainen, M.; Stevenson, K.J.; Dolphin, P.J.

    1988-05-15

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a plasma enzyme which catalyzes the transacylation of the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of lecithin to cholesterol forming lysolecithin and cholesteryl ester. The substrates for and products of this reaction are present within the plasma lipoproteins upon which the enzyme acts to form the majority of cholesteryl ester in human plasma. The authors proposed a covalent catalytic mechanism of action for LCAT in which serine and histidine residues mediate lecithin cleavage and two cysteine residues cholesterol esterification. With the aid of sulfhydryl reactive trivalent organoarsenical compounds which are specific for vicinal thiols they have probed the geometry of the catalytic site. They conclude that the two catalytic cysteine residues of LCAT (Cys/sup 31/ and Cys /sup 184/) are vicinal with a calculated distance between their sulfur atoms of 3.50-3.62 A. The additional residue alkylated by teh bifunctional reagent is within the catalytic site and may represent a previously identified catalytic serine or histidine residue.

  9. Atrial natriuretic factor in human plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkowska, J.; Bonan, R.; Roy, D.; Bourassa, M.; Garcia, R.; Thibault, G.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M.

    1986-08-29

    A reproducible and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to measure ANF in human plasma. Immunoreactive ANF was extracted from plasma with Sep-Pak cartridges, using 0.2% ammonium acetate (pH 4) with acetonitrile. The sensitivity of the assay was 3.9 pg/ml. The coefficient of variance for inter-assay and intra-assay was 16.8% and 6.8%, respectively. In normal healthy subjects (n = 67), ANF content was 11.9 +/- 1.3 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM). Significantly-higher ANF concentrations were found in proximal coronary sinus blood, being 6 to 37 times greater than in the peripheral circulation. Comparison of the prior extraction method with direct RIA revealed a good correlation (r = 91) in samples containing higher than 100 pg/ml ANF. No correlation was observed with lower values. The elution profiles of reverse-phase HPLC of peripheral and coronary sinus plasma extracts were similar but somewhat complex, with the main immunoreactive peak corresponding to a low-molecular-weight peptide.

  10. Characterization of the human blood plasma proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Kim, Jeongkwon; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Fang, Ruihua; Tolic, Nikola; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-10-15

    We describe methods for broad characterization of the human plasma proteome. The combination of stepwise IgG and albumin protein depletion by affinity chromatography and ultrahigh-efficiency capillary liquid chromatography separations coupled to ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry enabled identification of 2392 proteins from a single plasma sample with an estimated confidence level of >94%, and an additional 2198 proteins with an estimated confidence level of 80%. The relative abundances of the identified proteins span a range of over eight orders of magnitude in concentration (<30 pg/mL to {approx}30 mg/mL), facilitated by the attomole-level sensitivity of the analysis methods. More than 80% of the observed proteins demonstrate interactions with IgG and/or albumin. The results from this study provide a basis for a wide range of plasma proteomics studies, including broad quantitation of relative abundances in comparative studies for the identification of novel protein disease markers, as well as further studies of protein-protein interactions.

  11. Fundamentals of gas phase plasmas for treatment of human tissue.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Mark J; Babaeva, Natalia Yu

    2011-01-01

    The use of gas phase plasmas for treating human tissue is at the intersection of two disciplines - plasma physics and engineering, and medicine. In this paper, a primer will be provided for the medical practitioner on the fundamentals of generating gas phase plasmas at atmospheric pressure in air for the treatment of human tissue. The mechanisms for gas phase plasmas interacting with tissue and biological fluids will also be discussed using results from computer modeling.

  12. Effects of orchidectomy and testosterone replacement on mouse pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in the HPA axis.

    PubMed

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J

    2004-03-01

    Pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase, also known as pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase, removes pyroglutamyl terminal residues from biologically active peptides such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of orchidectomy and testosterone replacement on soluble (pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I) and membrane-bound (pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type II) activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Forty male mice (Balb/C) were distributed into five groups: sham-operated controls, orchidectomized, and orchidectomized treated with increasing doses of testosterone in each group (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg). In the hypothalamus, orchidectomy increased pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I, whereas the highest dose of testosterone returned this activity to control levels. In the pituitary, neither pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I nor type II activities changed after orchidectomy, although both activities increased after administration of testosterone in both cases. On the other hand, orchidectomy increased pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I and type II activities in adrenal glands, while testosterone replacement returned it to control levels. These results suggest that testosterone differentially modulates pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I and type II activities, and therefore also their endogenous substrate regulation. Thus, the influence of sex hormones in the physiology of the HPA axis through the modulation of the Pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I and type II activities is of great importance on stress and neuropathology associated with HPA dysfunction

  13. Structural characterization of P1'-diversified urea-based inhibitors of glutamate carboxypeptidase II.

    PubMed

    Pavlicek, Jiri; Ptacek, Jakub; Cerny, Jiri; Byun, Youngjoo; Skultetyova, Lubica; Pomper, Martin G; Lubkowski, Jacek; Barinka, Cyril

    2014-05-15

    Urea-based inhibitors of human glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) have advanced into clinical trials for imaging metastatic prostate cancer. In parallel efforts, agents with increased lipophilicity have been designed and evaluated for targeting GCPII residing within the neuraxis. Here we report the structural and computational characterization of six complexes between GCPII and P1'-diversified urea-based inhibitors that have the C-terminal glutamate replaced by more hydrophobic moieties. The X-ray structures are complemented by quantum mechanics calculations that provide a quantitative insight into the GCPII/inhibitor interactions. These data can be used for the rational design of novel glutamate-free GCPII inhibitors with tailored physicochemical properties.

  14. Purification of glycocalicin from human plasma.

    PubMed

    HadjKacem, Basma; Mkaouar, Héla; Ben Amor, Ikram; Gargouri, Jalel; Gargouri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Glycocalicin (GC) is a large extracellular proteolytic fragment of glycoprotein Ib, a membrane platelet component playing an essential role in the physiological processes of platelet adhesion and aggregation. GC contains the binding sites for thrombin and von Willebrand factor. GC circulates normally in vivo in significant concentrations and the plasma level of this protein reflects a complex function of factors including platelet count or platelet turnover. It can therefore serve as a good indicator for many diseases like hypoplastic thrombocytopenia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. For this reason, several purification assays have been previously described. In this work, we describe a novel analytical method for GC purification from human platelets based on preparative HPLC gel filtration followed by immuno-affinity chromatography on NHS activated column conjugated with specific antibody. Pure GC was obtained from tiny amount of starting material. Our protocol of GC purification is simple, fast and provides a pure end product.

  15. Structural insight into the evolutionary and pharmacologic homology of glutamate carboxypeptidases II and III

    SciTech Connect

    Hlouchova, Klara; Barinka, Cyril; Konvalinka, Jan; Lubkowski, Jacek

    2009-10-23

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII) is a metalloenzyme that belongs to the transferrin receptor/glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII; EC 3.4.17.21) superfamily. GCPIII has been studied mainly because of its evolutionary relationship to GCPII, an enzyme involved in a variety of neuropathologies and malignancies, such as glutamatergic neurotoxicity and prostate cancer. Given the potential functional and pharmacological overlap between GCPIII and GCPII, studies addressing the structural and physiological properties of GCPIII are crucial for obtaining a deeper understanding of the GCPII/GCPIII system. In the present study, we report high-resolution crystal structures of the human GCPIII ectodomain in a 'pseudo-unliganded' state and in a complex with: (a) L-glutamate (a product of hydrolysis); (b) a phosphapeptide transition state mimetic, namely (2S,3'S)-{l_brace}[(3'-amino-3'-carboxy-propyl)-hydroxyphosphinoyl]methyl{r_brace}-pentanedioic acid; and (c) quisqualic acid, a glutamate biostere. Our data reveal the overall fold and quaternary arrangement of the GCPIII molecule, define the architecture of the GCPIII substrate-binding cavity, and offer an experimental evidence for the presence of Zn{sup 2+} ions in the bimetallic active site. Furthermore, the structures allow us to detail interactions between the enzyme and its ligands and to characterize the functional flexibility of GCPIII, which is essential for substrate recognition. A comparison of these GCPIII structures with the equivalent GCPII complexes reveals differences in the organization of specificity pockets, in surface charge distribution, and in the occupancy of the co-catalytic zinc sites. The data presented here provide information that should prove to be essential for the structurally-aided design of GCPIII-specific inhibitors and might comprise guidelines for future comparative GCPII/GCPIII studies.

  16. Diverse human extracellular RNAs are widely detected in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Jane E.; Gerstein, Mark; Mick, Eric; Rozowsky, Joel; Levy, Daniel; Kitchen, Robert; Das, Saumya; Shah, Ravi; Danielson, Kirsty; Beaulieu, Lea; Navarro, Fabio C. P.; Wang, Yaoyu; Galeev, Timur R.; Holman, Alex; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Murthy, Venkatesh; Tanriverdi, Selim E.; Koupenova, Milka; Mikhalev, Ekaterina; Tanriverdi, Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    There is growing appreciation for the importance of non-protein-coding genes in development and disease. Although much is known about microRNAs, limitations in bioinformatic analyses of RNA sequencing have precluded broad assessment of other forms of small-RNAs in humans. By analysing sequencing data from plasma-derived RNA from 40 individuals, here we identified over a thousand human extracellular RNAs including microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA), and small nucleolar RNAs. Using a targeted quantitative PCR with reverse transcription approach in an additional 2,763 individuals, we characterized almost 500 of the most abundant extracellular transcripts including microRNAs, piRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. The presence in plasma of many non-microRNA small-RNAs was confirmed in an independent cohort. We present comprehensive data to demonstrate the broad and consistent detection of diverse classes of circulating non-cellular small-RNAs from a large population. PMID:27112789

  17. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) genetic variants as determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia: implications in stroke susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Divyya, Shree; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Kaul, Subhash; Anusha, Vuppala; Subbarao, Sreedhar Amere; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-01

    The rationale of this case-control study is to ascertain whether glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) variants serve as determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia and contribute to the etiology of stroke. Hyperhomocysteinemia was observed in stroke cases compared to controls (14.09 +/- 7.62 micromol/L vs. 8.71 +/- 4.35, P < 0.0001). GCPII sequencing revealed two known variants (R190W and H475Y) and six novel variants (V108A, P160S, Y176H, G206R, G245S and D520E). Among the haplotypes of GCPII, all wild-haplotype H0 showed independent association with stroke risk (OR: 9.89, 95% CI: 4.13-23.68), while H2 representing P160S variant showed reduced risk (OR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). When compared to subjects with H2 haplotype, H0 haplotype showed elevated homocysteine levels (18.26 +/- 4.31 micromol/L vs. 13.66 +/- 3.72 micromol/L, P = 0.002) and reduced plasma folate levels (7.09 +/- 1.19 ng/ml vs. 8.21 +/- 1.14 ng/ml, P = 0.007). Using GCPII genetic variants, dietary folate and gender as predictor variables and homocysteine as outcome variable, a multiple linear regression model was developed. This model explained 36% variability in plasma homocysteine levels. To conclude, GCPII haplotypes influenced susceptibility to stroke by influencing homocysteine levels.

  18. Paradoxical role of C1561T glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) genetic polymorphism in altering disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Divyya, Shree; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Addlagatta, Anthony; Murthy, P V L N; Reddy, Ch Ram; Digumarti, Raghunadha Rao; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Kumar, Ajit; Rammurti, S; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2012-04-15

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is predominantly expressed in brain, intestinal mucosa and prostate cancer in the form of three splice variants i.e. N-acetylated-α-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase), folyl poly-γ-glutamate carboxypeptidase (FGCP) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) respectively. Its inhibition was found to confer protection against certain neurological disorders and cancer. Despite the pivotal role of this enzyme, the most common polymorphism i.e. H475Y has not been explored comprehensively in all its splice variants. In this study, we have determined the role of this variant in different disease conditions such as breast and prostate cancers, autism, coronary artery disease (CAD) and miscarriages (N=1561). Genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP and dideoxy sequencing. Plasma folate levels were estimated by Axysm folate kit. GCPII expression was studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In silico model was developed using PYMOL. We observed the protective role of H475Y variant in cancers [breast cancer; OR (95% CI): 0.81 (0.55-1.19), prostate cancer: OR (95% CI): 0.00 (0.00-0.66)], and in autism (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.21-1.03), whereas inflated risk was observed in CAD (OR (95% CI): 1.69 (1.20-2.37) and miscarriages [Maternal OR (95% CI): 3.26 (2.11-5.04); Paternal OR(95% CI): 1.99 (1.23-3.21)]. Further, this variant was found to impair the intestinal folate absorption in subjects with dietary folate intake in the lowest tertile (CC vs. CT in lowest tertile; 7.56±0.85ng/ml vs. 2.73±045ng/ml, p=0.005). In silico model of GCPII showed steric hindrance with H475Y resulting in stereochemical alteration of catalytic site, thus interfering with ligand binding. Statistically significant association was not observed between dietary folate levels and GCPII expression. However, a positive correlation was seen between plasma folate levels and GCPII expression (r=0.70, p<0.05). To conclude, our data suggests that GCPII H475Y variant shows inverse

  19. Stability of Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus Load in VACUTAINER PPT Plasma Preparation Tubes during Overnight Shipment

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; Rainen, Lynne; Herman, Steve; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda

    2000-01-01

    VACUTAINER PPT plasma preparation tubes were evaluated to determine the effects of various handling and shipping conditions on plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load determinations. Plasmas obtained from PPT tubes stored and shipped under nine different conditions were compared to conventional EDTA tube plasmas stored at −70°C within 2 h after phlebotomy. Compared to viral loads in frozen EDTA plasma, those in PPT tube plasma that was frozen immediately and either separated or shipped in situ were not significantly different. Viral loads in PPT tube plasma after storage for 6 h at either room temperature or 4°C, followed by shipment at ambient temperature or on wet or dry ice, were not significantly different from baseline viral loads in EDTA or PPT plasma. The results of this study indicate that the HIV load in PPT tube plasma is equivalent to that in standard EDTA plasma. Plasma viral load is not affected by storage or shipment temperature when plasma is collected in PPT tubes. Furthermore, plasmas can be shipped in spun PPT tubes, and the tubes provide a safer and more convenient method for sample collection and transport than regular EDTA tubes. PMID:10618109

  20. Stability of plasma human immunodeficiency virus load in VACUTAINER PPT plasma preparation tubes during overnight shipment.

    PubMed

    Holodniy, M; Rainen, L; Herman, S; Yen-Lieberman, B

    2000-01-01

    VACUTAINER PPT plasma preparation tubes were evaluated to determine the effects of various handling and shipping conditions on plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load determinations. Plasmas obtained from PPT tubes stored and shipped under nine different conditions were compared to conventional EDTA tube plasmas stored at -70 degrees C within 2 h after phlebotomy. Compared to viral loads in frozen EDTA plasma, those in PPT tube plasma that was frozen immediately and either separated or shipped in situ were not significantly different. Viral loads in PPT tube plasma after storage for 6 h at either room temperature or 4 degrees C, followed by shipment at ambient temperature or on wet or dry ice, were not significantly different from baseline viral loads in EDTA or PPT plasma. The results of this study indicate that the HIV load in PPT tube plasma is equivalent to that in standard EDTA plasma. Plasma viral load is not affected by storage or shipment temperature when plasma is collected in PPT tubes. Furthermore, plasmas can be shipped in spun PPT tubes, and the tubes provide a safer and more convenient method for sample collection and transport than regular EDTA tubes.

  1. Association of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) haplotypes with breast and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Divyya, Shree; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Addlagatta, Anthony; Murthy, P V L N; Reddy, Ch Ram; Digumarti, Raghunadha Rao; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Subbarao, Sreedhar Amere; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2013-03-01

    In view of the pivotal role of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) in carcinogenesis, its expression as prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and folate hydrolase (FOLH1) may be influenced by its haplotypes, contributing to the etiology of prostate and breast cancer. To test this hypothesis, breast and prostate cancer cases and controls were subjected to whole gene screening of GCPII and correlated with plasma folate levels and PSMA expression. The impact of variants on a 3-dimensional structure of GCPII was explored by in silico studies. Six novel variations i.e. V108A, P160S, Y176H, D191V, G206R and G245S; and two known variations i.e. R190W and H475Y were identified in GCPII. All-wild haplotype and a haplotype harbouring D191V showed association with breast cancer risk while haplotypes harbouring V108A and P160S reduced the risk. Haplotypes with V108A and G245S variants showed increased risk for prostate cancer due to high PSMA expression while P160S conferred protection against prostate cancer. In silico studies suggests that P160S and R190W variants result in relaxed substrate binding facilitating either rapid catalysis or exchange of substrates and products in the active site which was substantiated by high plasma folate levels associated with these variants. On the contrary, D191V was associated with very low plasma folate levels despite having a high PSMA expression. This is the first comprehensive study examining variations in GCPII in relation to breast and prostate cancer risk. Changes in the plasma folate levels and changes in PSMA expression are associated with breast and prostate cancer risk respectively.

  2. Preparation, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of mutant carboxypeptidase T containing the primary specificity pocket of carboxypeptidase B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akparov, V. Kh.; Grishin, A. M.; Timofeev, V. I.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2010-09-01

    Recombinant G215S, A251G, T257A, D260G, T262D mutant carboxypeptidase T from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris containing mutations in the primary specificity pocket was prepared and crystallized. Single crystals with a size of up to 0.3 mm were grown and investigated by X-ray diffraction. Recombinant mutant carboxypeptidase T containing the primary specificity subsite compositionally identical to that of pancreatic carboxypeptidase B crystallizes in the same space group as the natural enzyme. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P6322; the unit-cell parameters are a = b = 157.867 Å, c = 104.304 Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°. X-ray diffraction data suitable for determining the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution were collected from one crystal.

  3. Preparation, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of mutant carboxypeptidase T containing the primary specificity pocket of carboxypeptidase B

    SciTech Connect

    Akparov, V. Kh. Grishin, A. M.; Timofeev, V. I. Kuranova, I. P.

    2010-09-15

    Recombinant G215S, A251G, T257A, D260G, T262D mutant carboxypeptidase T from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris containing mutations in the primary specificity pocket was prepared and crystallized. Single crystals with a size of up to 0.3 mm were grown and investigated by X-ray diffraction. Recombinant mutant carboxypeptidase T containing the primary specificity subsite compositionally identical to that of pancreatic carboxypeptidase B crystallizes in the same space group as the natural enzyme. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P6{sub 3}22; the unit-cell parameters are a = b = 157.867 A, c = 104.304 A, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 deg., {gamma} = 120 deg. X-ray diffraction data suitable for determining the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution were collected from one crystal.

  4. Treatment of accidental intrathecal methotrexate overdose with intrathecal carboxypeptidase G2.

    PubMed

    Widemann, Brigitte C; Balis, Frank M; Shalabi, Aiman; Boron, Matthew; O'Brien, Michelle; Cole, Diane E; Jayaprakash, Nalini; Ivy, Percy; Castle, Valerie; Muraszko, Karin; Moertel, Christopher L; Trueworthy, Robert; Hermann, Robert C; Moussa, Ali; Hinton, Stuart; Reaman, Gregory; Poplack, David; Adamson, Peter C

    2004-10-20

    The bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPDG2) rapidly hydrolyzes methotrexate to inactive metabolites. We administered recombinant CPDG2 (2000 U) intrathecally to seven cancer patients 3 to 9 hours after they had received an accidental overdose of intrathecal methotrexate (median dose = 364 mg; range = 155-600 mg). Four of the seven patients had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exchange to remove methotrexate before CPDG2 administration. Immediate symptoms of the methotrexate overdoses included seizures (n = 5), coma (n = 2), and cardiopulmonary compromise (n = 2). Before CPDG2 administration, the median concentrations of methotrexate in CSF were 264 microM (range = 97-510 microM) among patients who had CSF exchange and 8050 microM (range = 2439-16 500 microM) among patients who did not. After intrathecal CPDG2 administration, methotrexate concentrations in CSF declined by more than 98%. All patients recovered completely from the intrathecal methotrexate overdose except for two patients who had memory impairments. Antibodies to CPDG2 were not detected in plasma after treatment with intrathecal CPDG2. Intrathecal CPDG2 is well tolerated, rapidly decreases CSF methotrexate concentrations, and appears to be efficacious for treating accidental intrathecal methotrexate overdoses.

  5. Potent cough suppression by physiologically active substance in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Norio; Ito, Yushi; Ogawa, Sachie K; Maeda, Megumi; Wakita, Masahito; Takahama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Kamei, Shintaro; Hamamoto, Takayoshi; Umehashi, Misako; Maeda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma contains wide variety of bioactive proteins that have proved essential in therapeutic discovery. However many human plasma proteins remain orphans with unknown biological functions. Evidences suggest that some plasma components target the respiratory system. In the present study we adapted heparin affinity chromatography to fractionate human plasma for functional bioassay. Fractions from pooled human plasma yielded particular plasma fractions with strong cough suppressing effects. Purification yielded a fraction that was finally identified as an activated blood coagulation factor fXIa using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS). The fraction almost completely suppressed coughs induced by either chemical or mechanical stimulation applied to larynx or bifurcation of guinea-pig trachea. Cough suppressing effect of the fraction and commercially available fXIa were one million times stronger than codeine and codeine only partially suppressed the mechanically triggered coughing in animal model. Recent reviews highlighted prominent shortcomings of current available antitussives, including narcotic opioids such as codeine and their unpleasant or intolerable side effects. Therefore, safer and more effective cough suppressants would be welcome, and present findings indicate that fXIa in human plasma as a very promising, new therapeutic candidate for effective antitussive action.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOCHEMILUMINESCENCE OF HUMAN BLOOD PLASMA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cysteine and propyl gallate into an irradiated solution of plasma leads to an increase in the constant of rate of drop of luminescence. Addition of eosine yellowish increases the intensity of luminexcence by 10 times.

  7. Helical Shape of Helicobacter pylori Requires an Atypical Glutamine as a Zinc Ligand in the Carboxypeptidase Csd4*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Anson C. K.; Blair, Kris M.; Liu, Yanjie; Frirdich, Emilisa; Gaynor, Erin C.; Tanner, Martin E.; Salama, Nina R.; Murphy, Michael E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan modifying carboxypeptidases (CPs) are important determinants of bacterial cell shape. Here, we report crystal structures of Csd4, a three-domain protein from the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. The catalytic zinc in Csd4 is coordinated by a rare His-Glu-Gln configuration that is conserved among most Csd4 homologs, which form a distinct subfamily of CPs. Substitution of the glutamine to histidine, the residue found in prototypical zinc carboxypeptidases, resulted in decreased enzyme activity and inhibition by phosphate. Expression of the histidine variant at the native locus in a H. pylori csd4 deletion strain did not restore the wild-type helical morphology. Biochemical assays show that Csd4 can cleave a tripeptide peptidoglycan substrate analog to release m-DAP. Structures of Csd4 with this substrate analog or product bound at the active site reveal determinants of peptidoglycan specificity and the mechanism to cleave an isopeptide bond to release m-DAP. Our data suggest that Csd4 is the archetype of a new CP subfamily with a domain scheme that differs from this large family of peptide-cleaving enzymes. PMID:25505267

  8. Isolation of biologically-active exosomes from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Muller, Laurent; Hong, Chang-Sook; Stolz, Donna B; Watkins, Simon C; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of exosomes present in human plasma on immune cells have not been examined in detail. Immunological studies with plasma-derived exosomes require their isolation by procedures involving ultracentrifugation. These procedures were largely developed using supernatants of cultured cells. To test biologic activities of plasma-derived exosomes, methods are necessary that ensure adequate recovery of exosome fractions free of contaminating larger vesicles, cell fragments and protein/nucleic acid aggregates. Here, an optimized method for exosome isolation from human plasma/serum specimens of normal controls (NC) or cancer patients and its advantages and pitfalls are described. To remove undesirable plasma-contaminating components, ultrafiltration of differentially-centrifuged plasma/serum followed by size-exclusion chromatography prior to ultracentrifugation facilitated the removal of contaminants. Plasma or serum was equally acceptable as a source of exosomes based on the recovered protein levels (in μg protein/mL plasma) and TEM image quality. Centrifugation on sucrose density gradients led to large exosome losses. Fresh plasma was the best source of morphologically-intact exosomes, while the use of frozen/thawed plasma decreased exosome purity but not their biologic activity. Treatments of frozen plasma with DNAse, RNAse or hyaluronidase did not improve exosome purity and are not recommended. Cancer patients' plasma consistently yielded more isolated exosomes than did NCs' plasma. Cancer patients' exosomes also mediated higher immune suppression as evidenced by decreased CD69 expression on responder CD4+ T effector cells. Thus, the described procedure yields biologically-active, morphologically-intact exosomes that have reasonably good purity without large protein losses and can be used for immunological, biomarker and other studies.

  9. Accumulation of Paprika Carotenoids in Human Plasma and Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Azusa; Ichihara, Takashi; Takaha, Takeshi; Kuriki, Takashi; Nihei, Hideko; Kawamoto, Kazuhisa; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Maoka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation (incorporation) of paprika carotenoid in human plasma and erythrocytes was investigated. A paprika carotenoid supplement (14 mg/day) was ingested for 4 weeks by 5 young healthy volunteers (3 men and 2 women). After 2 weeks of carotenoid ingestion, the carotenoid levels in plasma and erythrocytes increased by 1.2-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. Characteristic carotenoids found in paprika (capsanthin, cucurbitaxanthin A, and cryptocapsin) were detected in both plasma and erythrocytes. An oxidative metabolite of capsanthin (capsanthone) was also found in both plasma and erythrocytes.

  10. Rheology of human blood plasma: viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior.

    PubMed

    Brust, M; Schaefer, C; Doerr, R; Pan, L; Garcia, M; Arratia, P E; Wagner, C

    2013-02-15

    We investigate the rheological characteristics of human blood plasma in shear and elongational flows. While we can confirm a Newtonian behavior in shear flow within experimental resolution, we find a viscoelastic behavior of blood plasma in the pure extensional flow of a capillary breakup rheometer. The influence of the viscoelasticity of blood plasma on capillary blood flow is tested in a microfluidic device with a contraction-expansion geometry. Differential pressure measurements revealed that the plasma has a pronounced flow resistance compared to that of pure water. Supplementary measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity of the plasma might even lead to viscoelastic instabilities under certain conditions. Our findings show that the viscoelastic properties of plasma should not be ignored in future studies on blood flow.

  11. Tonic inhibition of chemotaxis in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, Stephen E.; de Boisfleury Chevance, Anne; van Damme, Jo; Serhan, Charles N.

    2008-01-01

    We found exaggerated chemotaxis in plasma treated with EDTA and thought that the EDTA might itself be inhibiting a tonic inhibitor(s) of chemotaxis. Our plasma fractionations suggested that evidence should be sought for a lipid moiety carrying this activity, and on spectrometry (LC-MS-MS together with GC-MS analyses), the biologically active but not the inactive fraction contained oleic and arachidonic acids. Because fatty acids are largely protein bound, we flooded plasma preparations with delipidated albumin, reasoning that it would bind enough fatty acids, including inhibitory ones, to counter their tonic inhibition. Indeed, we observed dramatic increases in chemotaxis. Hence, adding delipidated albumin to plasma has a similar effect to that of adding EDTA—amplification of the chemotactic response. Oleic acid in physiologic concentrations diminishes the magnifying effects of both EDTA and of delipidated albumin, and in fact diminishes the chemotactic response even without the presence of the amplifiers of chemotaxis. In contrast, arachidonic acid amplifies further the effect of EDTA but not of delipidated albumin, and this augmentation appears to be caused by an EDTA-dependent enrichment of the chemotactic gradient with leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We conclude that oleic acid, the blood levels of which vary among individuals, is at least one tonic inhibitor of chemotaxis in plasma. PMID:18997012

  12. Purification of selenoprotein P from human plasma using immunoaffinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Aakesson, B.; Bellew, T.; Burk, R.F. )

    1991-03-11

    Selenoprotein P was purified from rat plasma using immunoaffinity chromatography. The same approach was used with human plasma. HepG2 cells were labeled with {sup 75}Se. The labeled medium, containing proteins secreted by the cells, was added to human plasma and the {sup 75}Se was used as a marker for {gt}1,000-fold purification of the major {sup 75}Se-containing protein. This material was used to produce 2 monoclonal antibodies. In a competitive assay, human plasma, but not plasma from 5 other species, inhibited binding of {sup 75}Se by these 2 antibodies. The antibodies were coupled to agarose and columns were made. Human plasma was processed in 2 steps. Step 1 was an antibody column and step 2 was a heparin-agarose column. SDS-PAGE demonstrated bands at 61 and 55 kDa. Both bands stained with PAS. Amino acid analysis of carboxymethylated material indicated that selenocysteine was {gt}1% of the total amino acids. N-terminal sequencing revealed a strong similarity to rat selenoprotein P. Immunodepleted human plasma and control plasma were chromatographed on Sephacryl S200 and selenium was measured in the eluted fractions. Immunodepletion removed one-third of the selenium. The elution pattern of control plasma revealed a broad peak of selenium just ahead of and including the albumin peak. Most of this peak was absent from the immunodepleted serum and a graph of the difference between the 2 chromatograms was a single peak of selenium well separated from the albumin peak.

  13. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a carboxypeptidase-encoding gene from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, S; Toietta, G; Zecca, L; Vanoni, M; Tortora, P

    1995-01-01

    Mammalian metallocarboxypeptidases play key roles in major biological processes, such as digestive-protein degradation and specific proteolytic processing. A Sulfolobus solfataricus gene (cpsA) encoding a recently described zinc carboxypeptidase with an unusually broad substrate specificity was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Despite the lack of overall sequence homology with known carboxypeptidases, seven homology blocks, including the Zn-coordinating and catalytic residues, were identified by multiple alignment with carboxypeptidases A, B, and T. S. solfataricus carboxypeptidase expressed in E. coli was found to be enzymatically active, and both its substrate specificity and thermostability were comparable to those of the purified S. solfataricus enzyme. PMID:7559343

  14. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a carboxypeptidase-encoding gene from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Colombo, S; Toietta, G; Zecca, L; Vanoni, M; Tortora, P

    1995-10-01

    Mammalian metallocarboxypeptidases play key roles in major biological processes, such as digestive-protein degradation and specific proteolytic processing. A Sulfolobus solfataricus gene (cpsA) encoding a recently described zinc carboxypeptidase with an unusually broad substrate specificity was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Despite the lack of overall sequence homology with known carboxypeptidases, seven homology blocks, including the Zn-coordinating and catalytic residues, were identified by multiple alignment with carboxypeptidases A, B, and T. S. solfataricus carboxypeptidase expressed in E. coli was found to be enzymatically active, and both its substrate specificity and thermostability were comparable to those of the purified S. solfataricus enzyme.

  15. Metabolic Signatures of Exercise in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gregory D.; Farrell, Laurie; Wood, Malissa J.; Martinovic, Maryann; Arany, Zoltan; Rowe, Glenn C; Souza, Amanda; Cheng, Susan; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Yang, Elaine; Shi, Xu; Deo, Rahul; Roth, Frederick P.; Asnani, Aarti; Rhee, Eugene P.; Systrom, David M.; Semigran, Marc J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Carr, Steven A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Clish, Clary B.; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise provides numerous salutary effects, but our understanding of how these occur is limited. To gain a clearer picture of exercise-induced metabolic responses, we have developed comprehensive plasma metabolite signatures by using mass spectrometry to measure over 200 metabolites before and after exercise. We identified plasma indicators of glycogenolysis (glucose-6-phosphate), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle span 2 expansion (succinate, malate, and fumarate), and lipolysis (glycerol), as well as modulators of insulin sensitivity (niacinamide) and fatty acid oxidation (pantothenic acid). Metabolites that were highly correlated with fitness parameters were found in subjects undergoing acute exercise testing, marathon running, and in 302 subjects from a longitudinal cohort study. Exercise-induced increases in glycerol were strongly related to fitness levels in normal individuals and were attenuated in subjects with myocardial ischemia. A combination of metabolites that increased in plasma in response to exercise (glycerol, niacinamide, glucose-6-phosphate, pantothenate, and succinate) upregulated the expression of nur77, a transcriptional regulator of glucose utilization and lipid metabolism genes in skeletal muscle. Plasma metabolic profiles obtained during exercise provide signatures of exercise performance and cardiovascular disease susceptibility, in addition to highlighting molecular pathways that may modulate the salutary effects of exercise. PMID:20505214

  16. Characterization of a novel, cytokine-inducible carboxypeptidase D isoform in haematopoietic tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    CPD-N is a cytokine-inducible CPD (carboxypeptidase-D) isoform identified in rat Nb2 T-lymphoma cells. The prototypic CPD (180 kDa) has three CP domains, whereas CPD-N (160 kDa) has an incomplete N-terminal domain I but intact domains II and III. CPD processes polypeptides in the TGN (trans-Golgi network) but the Nb2 CPD-N is nuclear. The present study identified a cryptic exon 1′, downstream of exon 1 of the rat CPD gene, as an alternative transcription start site that encodes the N-terminus of CPD-N. Western-blot analysis showed exclusive synthesis of the 160 kDa CPD-N in rat Nb2 and Nb2-Sp lymphoma cells. Several haematopoietic cell lines including human K562 myeloma, Jurkat T-lymphoma and murine CTLL-2 cytotoxic T-cells express a 160 kDa CPD-immunoreactive protein, whereas mEL4 T-lymphoma cells express the 180 kDa CPD. The CPD-immunoreactive protein in hK562 cells is also nuclear and cytokine-inducible. In contrast, MCF-7 breast cancer cells express only the 180 kDa CPD, which is mainly in the TGN. CPD/CPD-N assays using substrate dansyl-L-alanyl-L-arginine show approx. 98% of CPD-N activity in the Nb2 nucleus, whereas MCF-7 CPD activity is enriched in the post-nuclear 10000 g pellet. The Km for CPD-N and CPD are 132±30 and 63±9 μM respectively. Specific activity/Km ratios show that dansyl-L-alanyl-L-arginine is a better substrate for CPD-N than for CPD. CPD-N has an optimal pH of 5.6 (due to domain II), whereas CPD has activity peaks at pH 5.6 (domain II) and pH 6.5–7.0 (domain I). CPD and CPD-N are inhibited non-competitively by zinc chelator 1,10-phenanthroline and competitively by peptidomimetic inhibitor DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid. The Nb2 CPD-N co-immunoprecipitated with phosphatase PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A) and α4 phosphoprotein. In summary, a cytokine-inducible CPD-N is selectively expressed in several haematopoietic tumour cells. Nuclear CPD-N is enzymatically active and interacts with known partners

  17. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II does not process amyloid-β peptide.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, František; Šácha, Pavel; Blechová, Miroslava; Březinová, Anna; Šafařík, Martin; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Konvalinka, Jan

    2013-07-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is thought to be a major causative mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ accumulation could be caused by dysregulated processing of amyloid precursor protein, yielding excessive amounts of Aβ, and/or by inefficient proteolytic degradation of the peptide itself. Several proteases have been described as Aβ degradation enzymes, most notably metalloendopeptidases, aspartic endopeptidases, and some exopeptidases. Recently a report suggested that another metallopeptidase, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), can also cleave Aβ. GCPII is a zinc exopeptidase that cleaves glutamate from N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate in the central nervous system and from pteroylpoly-γ-glutamate in the jejunum. GCPII has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target for disorders caused by glutamate neurotoxicity. However, an Aβ-degrading activity of GCPII would compromise potential pharmaceutical use of GCPII inhibitors, because the enzyme inhibition might lead to increased Aβ levels and consequently to Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we analyzed the reported Aβ-degrading activity of GCPII using highly purified recombinant enzyme and synthetic Aβ. We did not detect any Aβ degradation activity of GCPII or its homologue even under prolonged incubation at a high enzyme to substrate ratio. These results are in good agreement with the current detailed structural understanding of the substrate specificity and enzyme-ligand interactions of GCPII.

  18. A digestive prolyl carboxypeptidase in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    PubMed

    Goptar, Irina A; Shagin, Dmitry A; Shagina, Irina A; Mudrik, Elena S; Smirnova, Yulia A; Zhuzhikov, Dmitry P; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Oppert, Brenda; Filippova, Irina Yu; Elpidina, Elena N

    2013-06-01

    Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) is a lysosomal proline specific serine peptidase that also plays a vital role in the regulation of physiological processes in mammals. In this report, we isolate and characterize the first PRCP in an insect. PRCP was purified from the anterior midgut of larvae of a stored product pest, Tenebrio molitor, using a three-step chromatography strategy, and it was determined that the purified enzyme was a dimer. The cDNA of PRCP was cloned and sequenced, and the predicted protein was identical to the proteomic sequences of the purified enzyme. The substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. The T. molitor PRCP participates in the hydrolysis of the insect's major dietary proteins, gliadins, and is the first PRCP to be ascribed a digestive function. Our collective data suggest that the evolutionary enrichment of the digestive peptidase complex in insects with an area of acidic to neutral pH in the midgut is a result of the incorporation of lysosomal peptidases, including PRCP. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Role of Cytosolic Carboxypeptidase 5 in Neuronal Survival and Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Yuan; Wei, Peng; Morgan, James I.

    2017-01-01

    Proteins may undergo a type of posttranslational modification – polyglutamylation, where a glutamate residue is enzymatically linked to the γ-carboxyl group of a glutamate in the primary sequence of proteins and additional glutamates are then sequentially added via α-carboxyl–linkages to the growing glutamate side chain. Nna1 (a.k.a. CCP1) defines the 6-member cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) family that metabolizes polyglutamate side chain and its loss results in neurodegeneration and male infertility. Whereas most CCPs catalyze hydrolysis of α-carboxyl-linked glutamates, CCP5 uniquely metabolizes the γ-carboxyl linked, branch point glutamate. Using purified recombinant mouse CCP5, we confirmed that it metabolized γ-carboxyl-linked glutamate of synthetic substrates and tubulin. Despite this unique feature and its indispensible functions in lower species, we found that unlike Nna1, CCP5 is not essential for neuronal survival in mouse. CCP5 deficiency does cause male infertility. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is distinct from that of Nna1 loss. Instead, it is phenotypically reminiscent of the infertility of olt mice. Our findings suggest that Nna1 and CCP5 do not work coordinately in the same pathway in either the nervous system or spermatogenesis. This is the first study addressing the function of CCP5 in mammals. PMID:28128286

  20. Prolactin- and testosterone-induced carboxypeptidase-D correlates with increased nitrotyrosines and Ki67 in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynn N; Merrimen, Jennifer; Bell, David G; Rendon, Ricardo; Too, Catherine K L

    2015-11-01

    Carboxypeptidase-D (CPD) cleaves C-terminal arginine for conversion to nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Prolactin (PRL) and androgens stimulate CPD gene transcription and expression, which increases intracellular production of NO to promote viability of prostate cancer (PCa) cells in vitro. The current study evaluated whether hormonal upregulation of CPD and NO promote PCa cell viabilty in vivo, by correlating changes in expression of CPD and nitrotyrosine residues (products of NO action) with proliferation marker Ki67 and associated proteins during PCa development and progression. Fresh prostate tissues, obtained from 40 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or PCa, were flash-frozen at the time of surgery and used for RT-qPCR analysis of CPD, androgen receptor (AR), PRL receptor (PRLR), eNOS, and Ki67 levels. Archival paraffin-embedded tissues from 113 men with BPH or PCa were used for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of CPD, nitrotyrosines, phospho-Stat5 (for activated PRLR), AR, eNOS/iNOS, and Ki67. RT-qPCR and IHC analyses showed strong AR and PRLR expression in benign and malignant prostates. CPD mRNA levels increased ∼threefold in PCa compared to BPH, which corresponded to a twofold increase in Ki67 mRNA levels. IHC analysis showed a progressive increase in CPD from 11.4 ± 2.1% in benign to 21.8 ± 3.2% in low-grade (P = 0.007), 40.7 ± 4.0% in high-grade (P < 0.0001) and 50.0 ± 9.5% in castration-recurrent PCa (P < 0.0001). Immunostaining for nitrotyrosines and Ki67 mirrored these increases during PCa progression. CPD, nitrotyrosines, and Ki67 tended to co-localize, as did phospho-Stat5. CPD, nitrotyrosine, and Ki67 levels were higher in PCa than in benign and tended to co-localize, along with phospho-Stat5. The strong correlation in expression of these proteins in benign and malignant prostate tissues, combined with abundant AR and PRLR, supports in vitro evidence that the CPD-Arg-NO pathway is

  1. Radioimmunoassay and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide in human plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yandle, T.G.; Espiner, E.A.; Nicholls, M.G.; Duff, H.

    1986-07-01

    A RIA for alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide (alpha hANP) in plasma was developed and used to study the immunoreactive components secreted by the heart and circulating in peripheral venous plasma. The assay used (125I)diiodotyrosyl-alpha hANP, purified by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and a C-terminal-specific antiserum purchased from Peninsula Laboratories. Serial dilution curves of coronary sinus plasma samples were parallel with the standard curve, but significant nonparallelism was found in peripheral plasma samples of low immunoreactivity. When plasma was extracted using C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges, serial dilution curves from both coronary sinus and peripheral plasma samples were parallel to the standard curve. Although values for plasma samples assayed before and after extraction agreed closely (r = 0.99; n = 76), immunoreactive ANP in unextracted plasma was consistently greater (70-79 pmol/liter) than in extracts of plasma, suggesting non-specific interference by a component in plasma when assayed without extraction. Mean plasma immunoreactive ANP in 19 normal subjects consuming a normal salt intake was 14 +/- 1 (+/- SE) pmol/liter. In 5 normal men, increasing dietary sodium intake from 10 to 200 mmol sodium/day was associated with a 2-fold increment in ANP levels, and similar changes accompanied acute sodium loading using iv saline. Elevated values were found in patients with congestive heart failure (mean, 58 pmol/liter; range, 0-200; n = 9), chronic renal failure (mean, 118 pmol/liter; range, 30-290; n = 8), and primary aldosteronism (range, 32-90 pmol/liter; n = 3). HPLC and gel chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material found in coronary sinus plasma extracts showed that a large amount of the material eluted in the position of alpha hANP.

  2. Determination of naproxen in human plasma by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Bilal; Sahin, Huseyin; Erdem, Ali Fuat

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a GC-MS method for the determination of naproxen in human plasma. Naproxen and internal standard ibuprofen were extracted from plasma using a liquid-liquid extraction method. Derivatization was carried out using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The calibration curve was linear between the concentration range of 0.10-5.0 μg/mL. Intra- and interday precision values for naproxen in plasma were <5.14, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 4.67%. The extraction recoveries of naproxen from human plasma were between 93.0 and 98.9%. The LOD and LOQ of naproxen were 0.03 and 0.10 μg/mL, respectively. Also, this assay was applied to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of naproxen in six healthy Turkish volunteers who had been given 220 mg naproxen. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Utilizing human blood plasma for proteomic biomarker discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Qian, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-08-01

    Application of proteomic biomarker discovery efforts towards human plasma entails both incredible clinical potential as well as significant challenges to overcome the intrinsic characteristics of plasma. The dynamic range of proteins within plasma, coupled with the likely presence of potential biomarkers in the more difficult to detect lower abundance range has driven the development of various methodologies and strategies to maximize the possible detective dynamic range within this biofluid. Discussed is the array of the available approaches currently used by our laboratory and others to utilized human plasma as a viable medium for biomarker discovery efforts. Various separation, depletion, enrichment, and quantitative efforts have resulted in a measurable improvement in the detectability of the low abundance fraction of proteins but more advances are needed to bridge the gap between the current range of detection and what remains unobservable to fully maximize the potential of this sample.

  4. Serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in N-methyl-nitrosourea induced rat breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2003-08-01

    Pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase (Pcp) (E.C. 3.4.19.3) is an omega peptidase widely distributed in animal fluids and tissues and hydrolyses N-terminal pyroglutamic residues from biologically active peptides such as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Previous results obtained by us showed a decrease in human breast cancer Pcp activity, suggesting that this enzyme activity or its putative substrates may play a major role in breast cancer pathogenesis. The aim of the present work is to analyse serum Pcp activity in N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU) induced rat mammary tumours using pyroglutamyl-beta-naphthylamide as substrate. Serum Pcp activity was significantly lower in NMU-treated rats than in controls. Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between Pcp activity and the number and size of tumours and the body weight of the animals. Since NMU-induced carcinomas are mainly oestrogen-dependent, the decrease observed in Pcp activity may reflect an increase in circulating levels of GnRH that lead to an increase in gonadal steroid hormones production responsible, at least in part, for the initiation and promotion of the disease.

  5. Activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B in serum and urine in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Appelros, S; Thim, L; Borgstrom, A

    1998-01-01

    Background—The pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis involves activation of the pancreatic proenzymes. Levels of the trypsinogen activation peptide in urine in acute pancreatitis has been shown to correlate with the severity of disease. However, this peptide is unstable in urine and, because of its low molecular mass, difficult to measure. Procarboxypeptidase B has a larger activation peptide which could be more suitable for analysis in serum and urine. 
Aims—To study the presence of the activation peptide from procarboxypeptidase B (CAPAP) in serum and urine in acute pancreatitis. 
Patients—Urine and serum samples were obtained within 48 hours of admittance from 40 patients with acute pancreatitis. Severity was classified retrospectively according to levels of C-reactive protein and clinical course. Thirty four patients with abdominal pain from other causes were studied as controls. 
Methods—CAPAP was purified from human pancreatic juice. Specific antibodies were obtained and a radioimmunoassay was developed. 
Results—Levels of CAPAP in serum and urine in acute pancreatitis correlate with the severity of the attack. CAPAP is very stable, and urine contains only CAPAP whereas, in serum, cross reacting procarboxypeptidase B is found together with CAPAP. 
Conclusions—CAPAP could be a valuable tool in the diagnosis and early determination of severity in acute pancreatitis. 

 Keywords: carboxypeptidase B; activation peptide; acute pancreatitis PMID:9505893

  6. A radioimmunoassay for bone Gla protein (BGP) in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J S; Mølholm Hansen, J E; Christiansen, C

    1987-03-01

    To study the value of bone Gla protein (BGP) as a biochemical marker of normal bone physiology and metabolic bone disorders, we have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of BGP in human plasma. Antibodies were generated in rabbits immunized with purified calf BGP conjugated to thyroglobulin. Human plasma BGP reacted identically with the calf BGP standard, thus demonstrating the suitability of the assay to measure plasma BGP levels in man. The RIA is sensitive, accurate, and technically simple. Plasma BGP levels were determined in normal subjects (N = 35) and in patients with hypothyroidism (N = 10), hyperthyroidism (N = 22) and chronic renal failure (N = 35). The mean (+/- 1 SEM) concentration of plasma BGP in normal subjects was 1.27 +/- 0.07 nmol/l. Plasma BGP was significantly increased in patients with hyperthyroidism, 4.04 +/- 0.78 nmol/l (P less than 0.001) and chronic renal failure, 10.17 +/- 2.47 nmol/l (P less than 0.001). Low concentrations were found in patients with hypothyroidism, 0.74 +/- 0.11 nmol/l (P less than 0.01). Our studies indicate that plasma BGP provides a useful technique in the diagnosis of patients with bone disease.

  7. Structure of the LdcB LD-carboxypeptidase reveals the molecular basis of peptidoglycan recognition.

    PubMed

    Hoyland, Christopher N; Aldridge, Christine; Cleverley, Robert M; Duchêne, Marie-Clémence; Minasov, George; Onopriyenko, Olena; Sidiq, Karzan; Stogios, Peter J; Anderson, Wayne F; Daniel, Richard A; Savchenko, Alexei; Vollmer, Waldemar; Lewis, Richard J

    2014-07-08

    Peptidoglycan surrounds the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell against osmolysis. The biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, made of glycan strands crosslinked by short peptides, is the target of antibiotics like β-lactams and glycopeptides. Nascent peptidoglycan contains pentapeptides that are trimmed by carboxypeptidases to tetra- and tripeptides. The well-characterized DD-carboxypeptidases hydrolyze the terminal D-alanine from the stem pentapeptide to produce a tetrapeptide. However, few LD-carboxypeptidases that produce tripeptides have been identified, and nothing is known about substrate specificity in these enzymes. We report biochemical properties and crystal structures of the LD-carboxypeptidases LdcB from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus subtilis. The enzymes are active against bacterial cell wall tetrapeptides and adopt a zinc-carboxypeptidase fold characteristic of the LAS superfamily. We have also solved the structure of S. pneumoniae LdcB with a product mimic, elucidating the residues essential for peptidoglycan recognition and the conformational changes that occur on ligand binding.

  8. Structural insights into the broad substrate specificity of carboxypeptidase T from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akparov, Valery Kh; Timofeev, Vladimir I; Khaliullin, Ilyas G; Švedas, Vytas; Chestukhina, Galina G; Kuranova, Inna P

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structures of carboxypeptidase T (CpT) complexes with phenylalanine and arginine substrate analogs - benzylsuccinic acid and (2-guanidinoethylmercapto)succinic acid - were determined by the molecular replacement method at resolutions of 1.57 Å and 1.62 Å to clarify the broad substrate specificity profile of the enzyme. The conservative Leu211 and Leu254 residues (also present in both carboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase B) were shown to be structural determinants for recognition of hydrophobic substrates, whereas Asp263 was for recognition of positively charged substrates. Mutations of these determinants modify the substrate profile: the CpT variant Leu211Gln acquires carboxypeptidase B-like properties, and the CpT variant Asp263Asn the carboxypeptidase A-like selectivity. The Pro248-Asp258 loop interacting with Leu254 and Tyr255 was shown to be responsible for recognition of the substrate's C-terminal residue. Substrate binding at the S1' subsite leads to the ligand-dependent shift of this loop, and Leu254 side chain movement induces the conformation rearrangement of the Glu277 residue crucial for catalysis. This is a novel insight into the substrate selectivity of metallocarboxypeptidases that demonstrates the importance of interactions between the S1' subsite and the catalytic center.

  9. Statistical Analysis of Variation in the Human Plasma Proteome

    DOE PAGES

    Corzett, Todd H.; Fodor, Imola K.; Choi, Megan W.; ...

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the variation in the human plasma proteome is an essential prerequisite for disease-specific biomarker detection. We report here on the longitudinal and individual variation in human plasma characterized by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) using plasma samples from eleven healthy subjects collected three times over a two week period. Fixed-effects modeling was used to remove dye and gel variability. Mixed-effects modeling was then used to quantitate the sources of proteomic variation. The subject-to-subject variation represented the largest variance component, while the time-within-subject variation was comparable to the experimental variation found in a previous technical variability study where onemore » human plasma sample was processed eight times in parallel and each was then analyzed by 2-D DIGE in triplicate. Here, 21 protein spots had larger than 50% CV, suggesting that these proteins may not be appropriate as biomarkers and should be carefully scrutinized in future studies. Seventy-eight protein spots showing differential protein levels between different individuals or individual collections were identified by mass spectrometry and further characterized using hierarchical clustering. The results present a first step toward understanding the complexity of longitudinal and individual variation in the human plasma proteome, and provide a baseline for improved biomarker discovery.« less

  10. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to predict Fub for environmentally relevant chemicals via machine learning techniques. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed with k nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF) machine learning algorithms from a training set of 1045 pharmaceuticals. The models were then evaluated with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (200 compounds) and environmentally relevant ToxCast chemicals (406 total, in two groups of 238 and 168 compounds). The selection of a minimal feature set of 10-15 2D molecular descriptors allowed for both informative feature interpretation and practical applicability domain assessment via a bounded box of descriptor ranges and principal component analysis. The diverse pharmaceutical and environmental chemical sets exhibit similarities in terms of chemical space (99-82% overlap), as well as comparable bias and variance in constructed learning curves. All the models exhibit significant predictability with mean absolute errors (MAE) in the range of 0.10-0.18 Fub. The models performed best for highly bound chemicals (MAE 0.07-0.12), neutrals (MAE 0

  11. Characterization of human plasma proteome dynamics using deuterium oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ding; Liem, David A; Lau, Edward; Ng, Dominic CM; Bleakley, Brian J; Cadeiras, Martin; Deng, Mario C; Lam, Maggie PY; Ping, Peipei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High-throughput quantification of human protein turnover via in vivo administration of deuterium oxide (2H2O) is a powerful new approach to examine potential disease mechanisms. Its immediate clinical translation is contingent upon characterizations of the safety and hemodynamic effects of in vivo administration of 2H2O to human subjects. Experimental design We recruited 10 healthy human subjects with a broad demographic variety to evaluate the safety, feasibility, efficacy, and reproducibility of 2H2O intake for studying protein dynamics. We designed a protocol where each subject orally consumed weight-adjusted doses of 70% 2H2O daily for 14 days to enrich body water and proteins with deuterium. Plasma proteome dynamics was measured using a high-resolution MS method we recently developed. Results This protocol was successfully applied in 10 human subjects to characterize the endogenous turnover rates of 542 human plasma proteins, the largest such human dataset to-date. Throughout the study, we did not detect physiological effects or signs of discomfort from 2H2O consumption. Conclusions and clinical relevance Our investigation supports the utility of a 2H2O intake protocol that is safe, accessible, and effective for clinical investigations of large-scale human protein turnover dynamics. This workflow shows promising clinical translational value for examining plasma protein dynamics in human diseases. PMID:24946186

  12. Sensitive radiometric assay for enkephalin convertase and other carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, G.; Fricker, L.D.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-01-09

    A sensitive radiometric assay for carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes has been developed using enkephalin convertase, an enkephalin synthesizing carboxypeptidase. The assay is based on the differential solubility of /sup 3/H-labeled substrate and product in chloroform. The substrates /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Arg or /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Leu-Arg are poorly soluble in chloroform due to the charged arginine. The products of carboxypeptidase B-like activity on these substrates, /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala or /sup 3/H-benzoyl Phe-Leu partition quantitatively into chloroform, allowing rapid separation of product from substrate. This assay is approximately 100 times more sensitive than a similar fluorometric assay utilizing dansyl-Phe-Ala-Arg as a substrate.

  13. An extraovarian protein accumulated in mosquito oocytes is a carboxypeptidase activated in embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Wenlong Cho; Deitsch, K.W.; Raikhel, A.S. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors report a phenomenon previously unknown for oviparous animals; in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes a serine carboxypeptidase is synthesized extraovarially and then internalized by oocytes. The cDNA encoding mosquito vitellogenic carboxypeptidase (VCP) was cloned and sequenced. The VCP cDNA hybridizes to a 1.5-kilobase mRNA present only in the fat body of vitellogenic females. The deduced amino acid sequence of VCP shares significant homology with members of the serine carboxypeptidase family. Binding assays using a serine protease inhibitor, ({sup 3}H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate, showed that VCP is activated in eggs at the onset of embryonic development. Activation of VCP is associated with the reduction in its size from 53 kDa (inactive proenzyme) to 48 kDa (active enzyme). The active, 48-kDa, form of VCP is maximally present at the middle of embryonic development and disappears by the end.

  14. Complexation of pyrene and anthracene with human blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saletskii, A. M.; Mel'Nikov, A. G.; Pravdin, A. B.; Kochubei, V. I.; Meln'ikov, G. V.

    2008-05-01

    We have studied the interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pyrene and anthracene) with human serum albumin (HSA) and human blood plasma. We have shown that the increase in the fluorescence intensity and the decrease in the polarity index of pyrene on going from an aqueous solution to a pH 7.4 buffer solution of HSA suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are localized in the hydrophobic microphase of the proteins. The increase in the fluorescence intensity for anthracene and pyrene, and also the decrease in the polarity index of pyrene on going from HSA to blood plasma is connected with the fact that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can bind both to plasma proteins and to plasma lipids. When sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is added to the blood plasma in a concentration greater than the critical micelle concentration, we observe an increase in the fluorescence intensity and the polarity index of pyrene. We hypothesize that this is connected with localization of pyrene near the interface between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic phases of the protein-SDS system. We have established that SDS leads to a change in the structure of blood plasma proteins and promotes escape of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the protein globules.

  15. Determination of thiamine in human plasma and its pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Weber, W; Kewitz, H

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive assay for thiamine suitable for clinical use has been developed. It is based on precolumn oxidation of thiamine to thiochrome followed by HPLC-separation and fluorescence detection. The assay is applicable to various biological materials, including human plasma. The minimum amount detectable was 5 fmol, minimum plasma concentration 0.5 nmol/l and minimum sample volume 0.3 ml plasma. Each chromatographic run took 3 min. Inter- and intra-assay relative standard deviations (RSD) were 8.3% and 6.3%, respectively, at a stock plasma concentration of 10.8 nmol/l. At 38.8 nmol/l, interassay RSD was reduced to 3.4%. The recovery of 5 nmol/l added thiamine was 102 (SD +/- 17)%, that of 30 nmol/l was 94 +/- 5%. Plasma levels in 91 volunteers ranged from 6.6 to 43 nmol/l, showing a log normal distribution with a median of 11.6 nmol/l. Thiamine kinetics were studied in plasma and urine from 8 men after intravenous and oral doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg thiamine hydrochloride. In all individuals, nonlinear renal elimination kinetics were demonstrated by plotting the fractional amount of thiamine excreted unchanged in urine against the corresponding area under the plasma concentration-time curve.

  16. Human parvovirus PARV4 in plasma pools of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y-Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, X; Wang, Z; Lv, M-M; Yan, Q-P; Zhang, J-G

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is present in blood and blood products. As the presence and levels of PARV4 in Chinese source plasma pools have never been determined, we implemented real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the presence of PARV4 in source plasma pools in China. Results showed that 26·15% (51/195) of lots tested positive for PARV4. The amounts of DNA ranged from 2·83 × 10(3) copies/ml to 2·35×10(7) copies/ml plasma. The high level of PARV4 in plasma pools may pose a potential risk to recipients. Further studies on the pathogenesis of PARV4 are urgently required.

  17. Lipid hydroperoxides in human plasma after ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Asano, Migiwa; Nushida, Hideyuki; Adachi, Junko; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Kanako; Kuse, Azumi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of oxidative stress that is present when healthy humans consume moderate amounts of ethanol. Blood was collected from healthy volunteers before, 1 h, and 3 h after drinking 400 ml of Japanese rice wine at the rate of 100 ml per 5 min. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype and the concentrations of blood ethanol, total lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and cholesterol hydroperoxides were determined. The plasma LOOH was found to have significantly increased 1h after drinking. Cholesterol hydroperoxides were not detected in plasma, either before or after drinking. There was no relationship between the LOOH and the ethanol concentration. We showed that one-shot of moderate ethanol consumption temporarily increases the plasma LOOH in healthy volunteers but excessive plasma LOOH compounds were eliminated within a short time.

  18. [Chromatographic separation of activated proteases from human plasma].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, B; Taucher, M; Kühne, H; Scheuch, D W

    1988-01-01

    After separation of aceton and dextran sulfate activated human plasma by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose three esterolytically and amidolytically active fractions, respectively, were obtained, which were assigned to the following species: plasma kallikrein (PK), PK.alpha-macroglobulin.HMW-Kininogen. Their percentage in the whole activity is variable. The proportion of free PK is low (0.11). For characterization of the products we studied inhibition by different polyvalent inhibitors. The Michaelis constant (Km) with p-toluene-sulfonyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAME) were determined. For simulation of in vivo conditions dextran sulfate activated plasma was inactivated at 37 degrees C. The residual activity and the spontaneous activity in plasma from patients with shock are produced by different active protease inhibitor complexes.

  19. Determination of carbocysteine from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Maynard, W R; Bruce, R B; Fox, G G

    1978-12-01

    A fast and accurate GLC procedure for determining carbocysteine, using a sulfur photometric detector, is described. Interferences from nonsulfur constituents are eliminated. The method is linear from 2 to 15 micrograms. Results from the application of this method to a bioavailability study in humans are given.

  20. Identification of a penicillin-sensitive carboxypeptidase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Hiro; Kuroita, Toshihiro; Tamura, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    2003-07-01

    Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidases catalyzing the terminal stages of bacterial cell wall assembly. We identified a Dictyostelium discoideum gene that encodes a protein of 522 amino acids showing similarity to Escherichia coli PBP4. The D. discoideum protein conserves three consensus sequences (SXXK, SXN and KTG) that are responsible for the catalytic activities of PBPs. The gene product prepared in the cell-free translation system showed carboxypeptidase activity but the activity was not detected in the presence of penicillin G. These results demonstrate that the D. discoideum gene encodes a eukaryotic form of penicillin-sensitive carboxypeptidase.

  1. Binding of perfluorooctanoic acid to rat and human plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Han, Xing; Snow, Timothy A; Kemper, Raymond A; Jepson, Gary W

    2003-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a commercially important organic fluorochemical and is considered to have a long half-life in human blood. In this paper, PFOA binding to rat and human plasma proteins was investigated. On the basis of results from size-exclusion chromatography and ligand blotting, most PFOA was in protein-bound form in male and female rat plasma, and the primary PFOA binding protein in plasma was serum albumin. PFOA binding to rat serum albumin (RSA) in the gas phase was observed by electrospray ionization MS. (19)F NMR experiments revealed that binding to RSA caused peak broadening and chemical shift changes of PFOA resonances, and on the basis of this observation, the dissociation constant was determined to be approximately 0.3 mM. The dissociation constants for PFOA binding to RSA and human serum albumin (HSA) and the numbers of PFOA binding sites on RSA and HSA were also determined by a separation method using microdesalting columns. No significant difference was found between PFOA binding to RSA and PFOA binding to HSA. The dissociation constants for binding of PFOA to RSA or HSA and the numbers of PFOA binding sites were in the range of 0.3-0.4 mM and 6-9, respectively. On the basis of these binding parameters and the estimated plasma concentration of serum albumin, greater than 90% of PFOA would be bound to serum albumin in both rat and human blood.

  2. Chemotactic response of Helicobacter pylori to human plasma and bile.

    PubMed

    Worku, Mulugeta L; Karim, Q Najma; Spencer, John; Sidebotham, Ramon L

    2004-08-01

    To clarify further the role of chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori colonization, the in vitro bacterium response to human plasma and bile (secretions containing chemoeffector compounds that are present in the gastric mucus layer) was examined. Human plasma, after dilution to 1 % (v/v) with buffer, was found to be a chemoattractant for the motile bacillus. Human gall-bladder bile, after dilution to 2 % (v/v) with buffer, was found to be a chemorepellent, but did not cause the motility of the bacillus to be diminished after prolonged exposure. The basis of the chemoattractant effect of plasma was explored by examining how urea and 12 amino acids found in plasma affected the taxis of H. pylori. Urea and the amino acids histidine, glutamine, glycine and arginine were the strongest chemoattractants. Other amino acids were chemoattractants, with the exceptions of aspartic and glutamic acids, which were chemorepellents. The basis of the chemorepellent effect of bile was explored by examining how the six most abundant conjugated bile acids in human bile affected the taxis of H. pylori. All the bile acids were chemorepellents, with the greatest effects being demonstrated by taurocholic and taurodeoxycholic acids. The implications of these findings for H. pylori colonization of gastric epithelium are discussed.

  3. Design of composite inhibitors targeting glutamate carboxypeptidase II: the importance of effector functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Novakova, Zora; Cerny, Jiri; Choy, Cindy J.; Nedrow, Jessie; Choi, Joeseph K.; Lubkowski, Jacek; Berkman, Clifford E.; Barinka, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors targeting human glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) typically consist of a P1’ glutamate-derived binding module, which warrants the high-affinity and specificity, linked to an effector function that is positioned within the entrance funnel of the enzyme. Here we present a comprehensive structural and computational study aimed at dissecting the importance of the effector function for GCPII binding and affinity. To this end we determined crystal structures of human GCPII in complex with a series of phosphoramidate-based inhibitors harboring effector functions of diverse physicochemical characteristics. Our data shows that higher binding affinities of phosphoramidates, when compared to matching phosphonates, are linked to the presence of additional hydrogen bonds between Glu424 and Gly518 of the enzyme and the amide group of the phosphoramidate. While the positioning of the P1’ glutamate-derived module within the S1’ pocket of GCPII is invariant, interaction interfaces between effector functions and residues lining the entrance funnel are highly varied, with the positively charged arginine patch defined by Arg463, Arg534, Arg536, being the only ‘hot-spot’ common to several studied complexes. This variability stems in part from the fact that the effector/GCPII interfaces generally encompass isolated areas of non-polar residues within the entrance funnel and resulting van der Waals contacts lack the directionality typical for hydrogen-bonding interactions. Presented data unravel a complexity of binding modes of inhibitors within non-prime site(s) of GCPII and can be exploited for the design of novel GCPII-specific compounds. PMID:26460595

  4. Molecular interactions of graphene oxide with human blood plasma proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenry, Affa Affb Affc; Loh, Kian Ping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between graphene oxide (GO) and human blood plasma proteins. To gain an insight into the bio-physico-chemical activity of GO in biological and biomedical applications, we performed a series of biophysical assays to quantify the molecular interactions between GO with different lateral size distributions and the three essential human blood plasma proteins. We elucidate the various aspects of the GO-protein interactions, particularly, the adsorption, binding kinetics and equilibrium, and conformational stability, through determination of quantitative parameters, such as GO-protein association constants, binding cooperativity, and the binding-driven protein structural changes. We demonstrate that the molecular interactions between GO and plasma proteins are significantly dependent on the lateral size distribution and mean lateral sizes of the GO nanosheets and their subtle variations may markedly influence the GO-protein interactions. Consequently, we propose the existence of size-dependent molecular interactions between GO nanosheets and plasma proteins, and importantly, the presence of specific critical mean lateral sizes of GO nanosheets in achieving very high association and fluorescence quenching efficiency of the plasma proteins. We anticipate that this work will provide a basis for the design of graphene-based and other related nanomaterials for a plethora of biological and biomedical applications.

  5. Site specific modification of the human plasma proteome by methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Kimzey, Michael J; Kinsky, Owen R; Yassine, Hussein N; Tsaprailis, George; Stump, Craig S; Monks, Terrence J; Lau, Serrine S

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence identifies dicarbonyl stress from reactive glucose metabolites, such as methylglyoxal (MG), as a major pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes. MG covalently modifies arginine residues, yet the site specificity of this modification has not been thoroughly investigated. Sites of MG adduction in the plasma proteome were identified using LC-MS/MS analysis in vitro following incubation of plasma proteins with MG. Treatment of plasma proteins with MG yielded 14 putative MG hotspots from five plasma proteins (albumin [nine hotspots], serotransferrin, haptoglobin [2 hotspots], hemopexin, and Ig lambda-2 chain C regions). The search results revealed two versions of MG-arginine modification, dihydroxyimidazolidine (R+72) and hydroimidazolone (R+54) adducts. One of the sites identified was R257 in human serum albumin, which is a critical residue located in drug binding site I. This site was validated as a target for MG modification by a fluorescent probe displacement assay, which revealed significant drug dissociation at 300 μM MG from a prodan-HSA complex (75 μM). Moreover, twelve human plasma samples (six male, six female, with two type 2 diabetic subjects from both genders) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) tandem mass spectrometry and revealed the presence of the MG-modified albumin R257 peptide. These data provide insights into the nature of the site-specificity of MG modification of arginine, which may be useful for therapeutic treatments that aim to prevent MG-mediated adverse responses in patients.

  6. The Cell Shape-determining Csd6 Protein from Helicobacter pylori Constitutes a New Family of l,d-Carboxypeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun Sook; Im, Ha Na; An, Doo Ri; Yoon, Ji Young; Jang, Jun Young; Mobashery, Shahriar; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Yoo, Jakyung; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Kim, Cheolhee; Lee, Nam Ki; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Bang, Geul; Han, Byung Woo; Lee, Byung Il; Yoon, Hye Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric cancer. Its high motility in the viscous gastric mucosa facilitates colonization of the human stomach and depends on the helical cell shape and the flagella. In H. pylori, Csd6 is one of the cell shape-determining proteins that play key roles in alteration of cross-linking or by trimming of peptidoglycan muropeptides. Csd6 is also involved in deglycosylation of the flagellar protein FlaA. To better understand its function, biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterizations were carried out. We show that Csd6 has a three-domain architecture and exists as a dimer in solution. The N-terminal domain plays a key role in dimerization. The middle catalytic domain resembles those of l,d-transpeptidases, but its pocket-shaped active site is uniquely defined by the four loops I to IV, among which loops I and III show the most distinct variations from the known l,d-transpeptidases. Mass analyses confirm that Csd6 functions only as an l,d-carboxypeptidase and not as an l,d-transpeptidase. The d-Ala-complexed structure suggests possible binding modes of both the substrate and product to the catalytic domain. The C-terminal nuclear transport factor 2-like domain possesses a deep pocket for possible binding of pseudaminic acid, and in silico docking supports its role in deglycosylation of flagellin. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that H. pylori Csd6 and its homologs constitute a new family of l,d-carboxypeptidase. This work provides insights into the function of Csd6 in regulating the helical cell shape and motility of H. pylori. PMID:26306031

  7. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pornthanakasem, Wichai; Shotelersuk, Kanjana; Termrungruanglert, Wichai; Voravud, Narin; Niruthisard, Somchai; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2001-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a crucial etiological factor for cervical cancer (CC) development. From a diagnostic view-point, the consistent presence of HPV in CC allows the viral DNA to be used as a genetic marker. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence, physical status and clinical significant of HPV DNA in circulation of CC patients. Results Whereas 6 out of 50 (12%) HPV positive CC patients revealed plasma HPV DNA, it was detected in none of 20 normal controls or 13 HPV negative CC cases. The plasma DNA exhibited an HPV type identical to the HPV in the primary tumors and the DNA from both sources was integrated into host genome. Interestingly, several findings suggested an association between plasma HPV DNA and metastasis. First, three of the HPV DNA positive cases were CC patients with clinical stage IVB or recurrence with distance metastases (P = 0.001, RR = 15.67). Second, the amount of plasma HPV DNA from metastatic patients to be three times more than three other patients without metastases. Finally, the later cases had tendency to develop recurrence distant metastases within one year after complete treatment when compared with other HPV associated CC patients with the same stage but without the present of plasma HPV DNA. Conclusions The plasma HPV DNA originated from the CC, was associated with metastasis and could be used as a marker representing the circulating free CC DNA. PMID:11244579

  8. Identification of non‐reported bupropion metabolites in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Connarn, Jamie N.; Luo, Ruijuan; Windak, Jim; Zhang, Xinyuan; Babiskin, Andrew; Kelly, Marisa; Harrington, Gloria; Ellingrod, Vicki L.; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bupropion and its three active metabolites exhibit clinical efficacy in the treatment of major depression, seasonal depression and smoking cessation. The pharmacokinetics of bupropion in humans is highly variable. It is not known if there are any non‐reported metabolites formed in humans in addition to the three known active metabolites. This paper reports newly identified and non‐reported metabolites of bupropion in human plasma samples. Human subjects were dosed with a single oral dose of 75 mg of an immediate release bupropion HCl tablet. Plasma samples were collected and analysed by LC–MS/MS at 0, 6 and 24 h. Two non‐reported metabolites (M1 and M3) were identified with mass‐to‐charge (m/z) ratios of 276 (M1, hydration of bupropion) and 258 (M3, hydroxylation of threo/erythrohydrobupropion) from human plasma in addition to the known hydroxybupropion, threo/erythrohydrobupropion and the glucuronidation products of the major metabolites (M2 and M4–M7). These new metabolites may provide new insight and broaden the understanding of bupropion's variability in clinical pharmacokinetics. © 2016 The Authors Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27723114

  9. Identification of non-reported bupropion metabolites in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Connarn, Jamie N; Luo, Ruijuan; Windak, Jim; Zhang, Xinyuan; Babiskin, Andrew; Kelly, Marisa; Harrington, Gloria; Ellingrod, Vicki L; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin; Sun, Duxin

    2016-12-01

    Bupropion and its three active metabolites exhibit clinical efficacy in the treatment of major depression, seasonal depression and smoking cessation. The pharmacokinetics of bupropion in humans is highly variable. It is not known if there are any non-reported metabolites formed in humans in addition to the three known active metabolites. This paper reports newly identified and non-reported metabolites of bupropion in human plasma samples. Human subjects were dosed with a single oral dose of 75 mg of an immediate release bupropion HCl tablet. Plasma samples were collected and analysed by LC-MS/MS at 0, 6 and 24 h. Two non-reported metabolites (M1 and M3) were identified with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 276 (M1, hydration of bupropion) and 258 (M3, hydroxylation of threo/erythrohydrobupropion) from human plasma in addition to the known hydroxybupropion, threo/erythrohydrobupropion and the glucuronidation products of the major metabolites (M2 and M4-M7). These new metabolites may provide new insight and broaden the understanding of bupropion's variability in clinical pharmacokinetics. © 2016 The Authors Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Life in the "old bag" yet: structure of peptidoglycan L,D-carboxypeptidases.

    PubMed

    Cadby, Ian T; Lovering, Andrew L

    2014-07-08

    In this issue of Structure, Hoyland and colleagues describe the structure of a peptidoglycan L,D-carboxypeptidase in both substrate-bound and apoenzyme forms. These studies reveal the basis for enzyme specificity and assist greatly in a field where form and function overlap.

  11. ENZYMATIC CLEANING OF BERKEFELD CANDLES USED IN THE FILTRATION OF HUMAN BLOOD PLASMA.

    PubMed

    Witlin, B

    1943-08-13

    Berkefeld candles clogged by human blood plasma were cleared by enzymatic action. Candles incubated in acidulated aqueous pepsin solution, thoroughly rinsed in water, dried and sterilized were capable of efficiently filtering 8 to 10 liters of human blood plasma.

  12. [Changes of prostaglandin D2,carboxypeptidase A3 and platelet activating factor in guinea pig in anaphylactic shock].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Xiang-jie; Yan, Xue-bin; Gao, Cai-rong

    2012-06-01

    To detect the changes of leukotriene E4(LTE4), prostaglandin D2(PGD2), carboxypeptidase A3(CPA3) and platelet activating factor (PAF) in guinea pigs died from anaphylactic shock. Guinea pigs were used for establishing anaphylactic shock models. The levels of LTE4, PGD2 and CPA3, and PAF were detected in urine, plasma, and brain tissues with ELISA kit, respectively. The significant biomarkers were selected comparing with control group. The changes of PGD2, CPA3 and PAF in the guinea pigs at time zero, 12 and 24 hours after death were observed and compared respectively. The effect of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) to PAF in guinea pig brain was examined and compared. There were no statistically differences of LTE4 levels in urine observed between experimental group and control group. The levels of CPA3, PGD2 and PAF in the experimental group were significantly higher than that in the control group at 0 h. The levels of PAF at 12 and 24 hours after anaphylactic shock were significantly higher than that in the control group. The levels of PAF decreased significantly after pretreatment with PAF-AH. LTE4 in urine cannot be selected as a biomarker to determine the anaphylactic shock. PGD2 and CPA3 in plasma, and PAF in brain tissue may be used as biomarkers to determine the anaphylactic shock. PAF-AH may be potentially useful for clinical treatment of anaphylactic shock.

  13. The insulin-secretory-granule carboxypeptidase H. Purification and demonstration of involvement in proinsulin processing.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, H W; Hutton, J C

    1987-01-01

    A carboxypeptidase B-like enzyme was detected in the soluble fraction of purified insulin secretory granules, and implicated in insulin biosynthesis. To investigate the role of this activity further, we purified the enzyme from rat insulinoma tissue by gel-filtration chromatography and affinity elution from p-aminobenzoyl-arginine. A yield of 42%, with a purification factor of 674 over the homogenate, was achieved. Analysis of the purified carboxypeptidase by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under either reducing or non-reducing conditions showed it to be a monomeric protein of apparent Mr 55,000. The preparation was also homogeneous by high-performance gel-filtration chromatography. The enzyme bound to concanavalin A, showing it to be a glycoprotein. Amino acid analysis or chemical deglycosylation and SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated a protein Mr of 50,000, suggesting a carbohydrate content of approx. 9% by weight. The purified enzyme was able to remove basic amino acids from the C-terminus of proinsulin tryptic peptides to generate insulin, but did not further degrade the mature hormone. It was inhibited by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline and guanidinoethylmercaptosuccinic acid, and stimulated 5-fold by CoCl2. The pH optimum of the conversion of diarginyl-insulin into insulin was in the range 5-6, with little activity above pH 6.5. Activity was also expressed towards a dansylated tripeptide substrate (dansyl-phenylalanyl-leucyl-arginine; Km = 17.5 microM), and had a pH optimum of 5.5. These properties are indistinguishable from those of the activity located in secretory granules, and are compatible with the intragranular environment. The insulin-secretory-granule carboxypeptidase shared several properties of carboxypeptidase H from bovine adrenal medulla and pituitary. We propose that the carboxypeptidase that we purified is the pancreatic isoenzyme of carboxypeptidase H (crino carboxypeptidase B; EC 3.4.17.10), and is involved in the biosynthesis

  14. Advanced Plasma Propulsion for Human Missions to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented.

  15. [Radioimmunoassay for human plasma 8-arginine-vasopressin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Conte-Devolx, B; Rougon-Rapuzzi, G; Millet, Y

    1977-01-01

    The authors have developed a radioimmunoassay for human plasma vasopressin (AVP) which permits the estimation of antidiuretic hormon (ADH) levels as low as 0,8 pg/ml. The average plasma level of AVP after overnight water restriction was found to be 14,3 pg/ml (sd = 4,4 pg/ml) in normal subjects. They provoked a hypersecretion of ADH by the intravenous injection of 1-2 mg of nicotine. In 11 volunteer normal subjects this stimulation by nicotine provoked ADH hypersecretion which reached a maximum between 2nd and 15th minutes after injection. In 3 cases of diabetes insipidus, nicotine injection did not induce ADH hypersecretion; in 1 case of potomania this response was weak; in 2 cases of syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, AVP plasma levels were elevated and the response after nicotine stimulation was exaggerated.

  16. PIXE analysis of human spermatozoa isolated from seminal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Uda, M.

    1990-04-01

    PIXE has been applied to the multielemental and microanalysis of human spermatozoa. This is the first attempt to determine the chemical compositions of the motile spermatozoa free from contaminations of seminal plasma without loss of component elements during washing. The spermatozoa were isolated from semen by letting them swim into a kind of physiological saline, Tyrode's solution. Relative concentrations of P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn and Br in motile spermatozoa were determined by the use of the chlorine K X-ray peak intensity for evaluating the amount of Tyrode's solution contained in the sample targets. The concentrations of calcium and iron in spermatozoa were considerably higher than in seminal plasma. The concentrations of P, K, Zn and Br in spermatozoa were not so different from those in seminal plasma.

  17. Biotechnology: alternatives to human plasma-derived therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T J

    2000-12-01

    Proteins derived from human plasma have become critically important therapeutic products since their introduction in the 1940s. In the last 20 years, the tools of molecular biology have provided alternatives to the administration of the natural products. Recombinant analogues of Factor VIII and Factor IX are commercially available, and recombinant forms of other plasma proteins are under development. Genetic engineering also provides the opportunity to modify a natural protein to improve the efficiency with which it can be produced in vitro, or to change its therapeutic profile. More efficient production systems, such as transgenic plants or animals, may yield less costly therapies and a wider availability of products that are now in limited supply. Finally, gene therapy offers the prospect of permanently correcting conditions arising from deficiencies in any one of several plasma proteins, freeing individuals from the need to undergo periodic treatments with exogenous proteins. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  18. Advanced plasma propulsion for human missions to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2000-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented. .

  19. Regulation of carboxypeptidase E. Effect of pH, temperature and Co2+ on kinetic parameters of substrate hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, D; Das, B; Fricker, L D

    1992-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E is a member of the carboxypeptidase A and B gene family, with many of the putative active-site and substrate-binding residues conserved between these enzymes. However, the pH optimum of carboxypeptidase E is substantially lower than that of carboxypeptidases A and B. To evaluate whether the difference in the pH optima of these carboxypeptidases reflects fundamental differences in the ionization behaviour of active-site residues, the influence of pH on carboxypeptidase E activity was examined. The V(max) for hydrolysis of dansyl-Phe-Ala-Arg is pH-independent between 5 and 7, but decreases at pH values below 5. The pKa for the group the protonation of which leads to the loss of activity is approximately 4.8, and the slope of the V(max.)/pH profile suggests that only a single ionizable group is involved. In contrast, Km and V(max.)/Km are dramatically influenced by pH over the range 5-7, with multiple ionizable groups detected in this pH range. The pKa of the group the protonation of which decreases the V(max.) of substrate hydrolysis is lower (4.5) for carboxypeptidase E which had been reconstituted with Co2+. The enthalpy of ionization of the group observed in the V(max.) profile for carboxypeptidase E is approx. 28.9 kJ/mol. These results are compatible with the active-site model of the homologous carboxypeptidase A: in this model the ionization of a metal-bound water molecule is responsible for the observed decrease in V(max.). PMID:1637350

  20. Sperm-immobilizing monoclonal antibody to human seminal plasma antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Shigeta, M; Watanabe, T; Maruyama, S; Koyama, K; Isojima, S

    1980-01-01

    Rat spleen cells immunized to human azoospermic semen (a mixture of seminal plasma components) and mouse myeloma cells (P3/X63 Ag8U1; P3U1) (Marguilies et al., 1976) were successfully fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG 1500) and 19 of 89 fused cell cultures were found to produce sperm-immobilizing antibody. The cells that produced antibody indicating the highest sperm-immobilizing activity were distributed into wells for further recloning and 10 clones producing sperm-immobilizing antibody were established. The clone (1C4) producing the highest antibody titre was found to produce a large amount of IgG in culture supernatants and to contain a mixture of rat and mouse chromosomes. It was proved by immunodiffusion test that the monoclonal antibody was produced to the human seminal plasma antigen No. 7 which is common to human milk protein. Using this hybridoma which produced a large amount of monoclonal sperm-immobilizing antibody, a new method could be developed for purifying human seminal plasma antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography with bound antibody from the hybridoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6783353

  1. The primary inhibitor of plasmin in human plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Müllertz, S; Clemmensen, I

    1976-01-01

    A complex between plasmin and an inhibitor was isolated by affinity chromatography from urokinase-activated human plasma. The complex did not react with antibodies against any of the known proteinase inhibitors in plasma. A rabbit antiserum against the complex was produced. It contained antibodies agianst plasminogen+plasmin and an alpha2 protein. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis the alpha2 protein was shown to form a complex with plasmin, when generated by urokinase in plasma, and with purified plasmin. The alpha2 protein was eluted by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration with KD approx. 0.35, different from the other inhibitors of plasmin in plasma, and corresponding to an apparent relative molecular mass (Mr) of about 75000. By sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the Mr of the complex was found to be approx. 130000. After reduction of the complex two main bands of protein were observed, with Mr, about 72000 and 66000, probably representing an acyl-enzyme complex of plasmin-light chain and inhibitor-heavy chain, and a plasmin-heavy chain. A weak band with Mr 9000 was possibly an inhibitor-light chain. The inhibitor was partially purified and used to titrate purified plasmin of known active-site concentration. The inhibitor bound plasmin rapidly and strongly. Assuming an equimolar combining ratio, the concentration of active inhibitor in normal human plasma was estimated to be 1.1 mumol/1. A fraction about 0.3 of the antigenic inhibitor protein appeared to be functionally inactive. In plasma, plasmin is primarily bound to the inhibitor. Only after its saturation does lysis of fibrinogen and fibrin occur and a complex between plasmin and alpha2 macroglobulin appear. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PMID:137718

  2. Reaction Mechanism of Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II Revealed by Mutagenesis, X-ray Crystallography, and Computational Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Klusak, Vojtech; Barinka, Cyril; Plechanovova, Anna; Mlcochova, Petra; Konvalinka, Jan; Rulisek, Lubomir; Lubkowski, Jacek

    2009-05-29

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII, EC 3.4.17.21) is a zinc-dependent exopeptidase and an important therapeutic target for neurodegeneration and prostate cancer. The hydrolysis of N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamate (N-Ac-Asp-Glu), the natural dipeptidic substrate of the GCPII, is intimately involved in cellular signaling within the mammalian nervous system, but the exact mechanism of this reaction has not yet been determined. To investigate peptide hydrolysis by GCPII in detail, we constructed a mutant of human GCPII [GCPII(E424A)], in which Glu424, a putative proton shuttle residue, is substituted with alanine. Kinetic analysis of GCPII(E424A) using N-Ac-Asp-Glu as substrate revealed a complete loss of catalytic activity, suggesting the direct involvement of Glu424 in peptide hydrolysis. Additionally, we determined the crystal structure of GCPII(E424A) in complex with N-Ac-Asp-Glu at 1.70 {angstrom} resolution. The presence of the intact substrate in the GCPII(E424A) binding cavity substantiates our kinetic data and allows a detailed analysis of GCPII/N-Ac-Asp-Glu interactions. The experimental data are complemented by the combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM) which enabled us to characterize the transition states, including the associated reaction barriers, and provided detailed information concerning the GCPII reaction mechanism. The best estimate of the reaction barrier was calculated to be {Delta}G {approx} 22({+-}5) kcal{center_dot}mol{sup -1}, which is in a good agreement with the experimentally observed reaction rate constant (k{sub cat} {approx} 1 s{sup -1}). Combined together, our results provide a detailed and consistent picture of the reaction mechanism of this highly interesting enzyme at the atomic level.

  3. Mice, double deficient in lysosomal serine carboxypeptidases Scpep1 and Cathepsin A develop the hyperproliferative vesicular corneal dystrophy and hypertrophic skin thickenings

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuefang; Wang, Yanting; Lübke, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Vasoactive and mitogenic peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role in physiology of the ocular tissues by regulating the growth of corneal epithelial cells and maintaining the hemodynamics of intraocular fluids. We have previously established that ET-1 can be degraded in vivo by two lysosomal/secreted serine carboxypeptidases, Cathepsin A (CathA) and Serine Carboxypeptidase 1 (Scpep1) and that gene-targeted CathAS190A /Scpep1-/- mice, deficient in CathA and Scpep1 have a prolonged half-life of circulating ET-1 associated with systemic hypertension. In the current work we report that starting from 6 months of age, ~43% of CathAS190A /Scpep1-/- mice developed corneal clouding that eventually caused vision impairment. Histological evaluation of these mice demonstrated a selective fibrotic thickening and vacuolization of the corneas, resembling human hyperproliferative vesicular corneal stromal dystrophy and coexisting with a peculiar thickening of the skin epidermis. Moreover, we found that cultured corneal epithelial cells, skin fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells derived from CathA/Scpep1-deficient mice, demonstrated a significantly higher proliferative response to treatment with exogenous ET-1, as compared with cells from wild type mice. We also detected increased activation level of ERK1/2 and AKT kinases involved in cell proliferation in the ET-1-treated cultured cells from CathA/Scpep1 deficient mice. Together, results from our experimental model suggest that; in normal tissues the tandem of serine carboxypeptidases, Scpep1 and CathA likely constitutes an important part of the physiological mechanism responsible for the balanced elimination of heightened levels of ET-1 that otherwise would accumulate in tissues and consequently contribute to development of the hyper-proliferative corneal dystrophy and abnormal skin thickening. PMID:28234994

  4. Structural basis for the recognition of muramyltripeptide by Helicobacter pylori Csd4, a d,l-carboxypeptidase controlling the helical cell shape

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun Sook; Kim, Jieun; Im, Ha Na; An, Doo Ri; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Mobashery, Shahriar; Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Lee, Byung Il; Suh, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes a variety of gastrointestinal diseases, including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Its colonization of the gastric mucosa of the human stomach is a prerequisite for survival in the stomach. Colonization depends on its motility, which is facilitated by the helical shape of the bacterium. In H. pylori, cross-linking relaxation or trimming of peptidoglycan muropeptides affects the helical cell shape. Csd4 has been identified as one of the cell shape-determining peptidoglycan hydrolases in H. pylori. It is a Zn2+-dependent d,l-carboxypeptidase that cleaves the bond between the γ-d-Glu and the mDAP of the non-cross-linked muramyl­tripeptide (muramyl-l-Ala-γ-d-Glu-mDAP) of the peptidoglycan to produce the muramyldipeptide (muramyl-l-Ala-γ-d-Glu) and mDAP. Here, the crystal structure of H. pylori Csd4 (HP1075 in strain 26695) is reported in three different states: the ligand-unbound form, the substrate-bound form and the product-bound form. H. pylori Csd4 consists of three domains: an N-terminal d,l-carboxypeptidase domain with a typical carboxy­peptidase fold, a central β-barrel domain with a novel fold and a C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. The d,l-carboxypeptidase domain recognizes the substrate by interacting primarily with the terminal mDAP moiety of the muramyltripeptide. It undergoes a significant structural change upon binding either mDAP or the mDAP-containing muramyl­tripeptide. It it also shown that Csd5, another cell-shape determinant in H. pylori, is capable of interacting not only with H. pylori Csd4 but also with the dipeptide product of the reaction catalyzed by Csd4. PMID:25372672

  5. An iron stable isotope comparison between human erythrocytes and plasma.

    PubMed

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Oelze, Marcus; Schmid, Dietmar G; van Zuilen, Kirsten; Gschwind, Hans-Peter; Slade, Alan J; Stitah, Sylvie; Kaufmann, Daniel; Swart, Piet

    2014-11-01

    We present precise iron stable isotope ratios measured by multicollector-ICP mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) of human red blood cells (erythrocytes) and blood plasma from 12 healthy male adults taken during a clinical study. The accurate determination of stable isotope ratios in plasma first required substantial method development work, as minor iron amounts in plasma had to be separated from a large organic matrix prior to mass-spectrometric analysis to avoid spectroscopic interferences and shifts in the mass spectrometer's mass-bias. The (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratio in erythrocytes, expressed as permil difference from the "IRMM-014" iron reference standard (δ(56/54)Fe), ranges from -3.1‰ to -2.2‰, a range typical for male Caucasian adults. The individual subject erythrocyte iron isotope composition can be regarded as uniform over the 21 days investigated, as variations (±0.059 to ±0.15‰) are mostly within the analytical precision of reference materials. In plasma, δ(56/54)Fe values measured in two different laboratories range from -3.0‰ to -2.0‰, and are on average 0.24‰ higher than those in erythrocytes. However, this difference is barely resolvable within one standard deviation of the differences (0.22‰). Taking into account the possible contamination due to hemolysis (iron concentrations are only 0.4 to 2 ppm in plasma compared to approx. 480 ppm in erythrocytes), we model the pure plasma δ(56/54)Fe to be on average 0.4‰ higher than that in erythrocytes. Hence, the plasma iron isotope signature lies between that of the liver and that of erythrocytes. This difference can be explained by redox processes involved during cycling of iron between transferrin and ferritin.

  6. Structure of the complex of carboxypeptidase B and N-sulfamoyl-L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Akparov, Valery; Sokolenko, Nikolay; Timofeev, Vladimir; Kuranova, Inna

    2015-10-01

    Porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (EC 3.4.23.6) was complexed with a stable transition-state analogue, N-sulfamoyl-L-arginine, in which an S atom imitates the sp(3)-hybridized carbon in the scissile-bond surrogate. Crystals were grown in a form belonging to the same space group, P41212, as the uncomplexed enzyme. X-ray data were collected to a resolution of 1.25 Å. The molecule was refined and the positions of non-H atoms of the inhibitor and water molecules were defined using difference Fourier maps. The enzyme-inhibitor complex and 329 water molecules were further refined to a crystallographic R factor of 0.159. The differences in conformation between the complexed and uncomplexed forms of carboxypeptidase B are shown. The inhibitor is bound in a curved conformation in the active-site cleft, and the sulfamide group is bound to the Zn ion in an asymmetric bidentate fashion. The complex is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the N1/N2 guanidine group of the inhibitor and the Asp255 carboxyl of the enzyme. The side-chain CH2 groups of the inhibitor are in van der Waals contact with Leu203 and Ile247 in the enzyme. This study provides useful clues concerning how the transition state of arginine may bind to carboxypeptidase B and therefore provides an insight into the structural basis of carboxypeptidase B selectivity, which is useful for the rational design of a carboxypeptidase with improved selectivity for industrial recombinant pro-insulin processing.

  7. Multiple fatty acid binding to albumin in human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, R; Andersen, S; Vorum, H; Nielsen, S U; Pedersen, A O

    1990-04-30

    Binding equilibria of long-chain fatty acids to human serum albumin, in serum or plasma, were studied by a dialysis exchange rate technique. Palmitate was added to citrated plasma in vitro and it was observed that between six and ten palmitate molecules were bound to albumin with nearly equal affinity. Observations in vivo gave similar results in the following series: (a) in two volunteers with increased fatty acid concentrations after fasting, exercise, and a cold shower: (b) in three male volunteers in whom high concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, up to 4.6 mM, were induced by intravenous administration of a preparation of lecithin/glycocholate mixed micelles, and (c) in 81 patients with diabetes mellitus, type I. The binding pattern of palmitate in serum or plasma is essentially different from that observed with palmitate added to buffered solutions of pure albumin when two molecules are tightly bound and about four additional molecules with lower affinity. The differences may partly be explained by the presence of chloride ions in blood plasma, reducing the affinity for binding of the first two fatty acid molecules, and partly by facilitated binding of several molecules of mixed fatty acids, as found in plasma.

  8. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure by...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure by...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure by...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure by...

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of human seminal plasma hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lee-Wong, Mary; Collins, Jennifer S; Nozad, Cyrus; Resnick, David J

    2008-02-01

    Human seminal plasma hypersensitivity is a rare disorder that is often misdiagnosed. While this disorder is well described in the allergy and immunology literature, few cases exist in the gynecologic literature. A young woman presented to our allergy clinic with recurrent vaginal burning, swelling, and itching occurring approximately 10 minutes postcoitally. Semen allergy was suspected. Using her partner's semen, intradermal testing produced 1.6-cm wheal and 6.0-cm flare. The patient underwent intravaginal desensitization, and she and her partner were instructed to have intercourse every 48 hours to maintain desensitization. At 5-month follow-up, they were practicing coitus interruptus with success. Human seminal plasma hypersensitivity may mimic chronic vaginitis. The intravaginal graded challenge, a form of immunotherapy used by allergists, remains a mainstay in treatment, but is only effective if maintained correctly.

  14. Electrochemical determination of methylglyoxal as a biomarker in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra; Wen, Jiali; Chen, Aicheng

    2013-04-15

    A novel electrochemical approach for the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal as a biomarker in human plasma has been developed. An electrochemical sensor employing a single walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for the sensitive detection of methylglyoxal is delineated for the first time using square wave voltammetry. This modified electrode exhibits potent and sustained electron-mediating behavior and a well-defined reduction peak in response to methylglyoxal was observed. Under optimized experimental conditions, a wide linear dynamic range, from 0.1 to 100 μM, and high sensitivity of 76.3 nA μM⁻¹ were achieved for the detection of methylglyoxal. The interfering effect of common coexisting metabolites in human whole blood has also been investigated. The developed assay was shown to be specific and sensitive for the analysis of plasma levels of methylglyoxal in healthy volunteer and diabetic patients.

  15. The human plasma membrane peripherome: visualization and analysis of interactions.

    PubMed

    Nastou, Katerina C; Tsaousis, Georgios N; Kremizas, Kimon E; Litou, Zoi I; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2014-01-01

    A major part of membrane function is conducted by proteins, both integral and peripheral. Peripheral membrane proteins temporarily adhere to biological membranes, either to the lipid bilayer or to integral membrane proteins with noncovalent interactions. The aim of this study was to construct and analyze the interactions of the human plasma membrane peripheral proteins (peripherome hereinafter). For this purpose, we collected a dataset of peripheral proteins of the human plasma membrane. We also collected a dataset of experimentally verified interactions for these proteins. The interaction network created from this dataset has been visualized using Cytoscape. We grouped the proteins based on their subcellular location and clustered them using the MCL algorithm in order to detect functional modules. Moreover, functional and graph theory based analyses have been performed to assess biological features of the network. Interaction data with drug molecules show that ~10% of peripheral membrane proteins are targets for approved drugs, suggesting their potential implications in disease. In conclusion, we reveal novel features and properties regarding the protein-protein interaction network created by peripheral proteins of the human plasma membrane.

  16. Predicting human plasma protein binding of drugs using plasma protein interaction QSAR analysis (PPI-QSAR).

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Chen, Zhuxi; Xu, Xuejun; Sui, Xiaofan; Guo, Tao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jiwen

    2011-09-01

    A novel method, named as the plasma protein-interaction QSAR analysis (PPI-QSAR) was used to construct the QSAR models for human plasma protein binding. The intra-molecular descriptors of drugs and inter-molecular interaction descriptors resulted from the docking simulation between drug molecules and human serum albumin were included as independent variables in this method. A structure-based in silico model for a data set of 65 antibiotic drugs was constructed by the multiple linear regression method and validated by the residual analysis, the normal Probability-Probability plot and Williams plot. The R(2) and Q(2) values of the entire data set were 0.87 and 0.77, respectively, for the training set were 0.86 and 0.72, respectively. The results indicated that the fitted model is robust, stable and satisfies all the prerequisites of the regression models. Combining intra-molecular descriptors with inter-molecular interaction descriptors between drug molecules and human serum albumin, the drug plasma protein binding could be modeled and predicted by the PPI-QSAR method successfully.

  17. Plasma kinetics of procarbazine and azo-procarbazine in humans.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Rainer; Baumann, Frank; Regenthal, Ralf; Matthias, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The plasma kinetics of procarbazine (PCB) and its major metabolite azo-procarbazine (azo-PCB) were systematically investigated in humans for the first time. Eight therapy-refractory tumor patients with normal liver and renal function were given a single oral dose of 300 mg PCB hydrochloride as a drinking solution under fasting conditions. With the exception of the single i.v. administration of 10 mg ondansetron hydrochloride immediately before the administration of PCB, the patients were free of any co-medication 4 weeks before and during the study. PCB and azo-PCB were determined by a specially developed HPLC-UV method. PCB was absorbed very rapidly. Mean maximum plasma concentration was 12.5 min. A high elimination rate of PCB from plasma was found. The mean apparent oral systemic clearance and the plasma elimination half-life were estimated at 35.8 l/min and 9.2 min, respectively. Considerable amounts of azo-PCB are found in the plasma of the eight tumor patients. The mean Cmax and AUC ratios of azo-PCB/PCB were estimated at 5.5 and 45.2. Azo-PCB is formed very rapidly from PCB, but eliminated much more slowly from plasma than PCB. Considerable interindividual differences in the conversion rate of azo-PCB to its further metabolites were observed which should have consequences for the individual tumor therapeutic efficiency of PCB. No toxic side-effects or symptoms such as nausea or vomiting were observed during the entire study.

  18. Great apes show highly selective plasma carotenoids and have physiologically high plasma retinyl esters compared to humans.

    PubMed

    García, Ada L; Raila, Jens; Koebnick, Corinna; Eulenberger, Klaus; Schweigert, Florian J

    2006-10-01

    Great apes are the closest living relatives of humans. Physiological similarities between great apes and humans provide clues to identify which biological features in humans are primitive or derived from great apes. Vitamin A (VA) and carotenoid metabolism have been only partially studied in great apes, and comparisons between great apes and humans are not available. We aimed to investigate VA and carotenoid intake and plasma concentrations in great apes living in captivity, and to compare them to healthy humans. Dietary intakes of humans (n = 20) and, among the great apes, chimpanzees (n = 15) and orangutans (n = 5) were calculated. Plasma retinol (ROH), retinol-binding protein (RBP), retinyl esters, and major carotenoids were analyzed. The great ape diet was higher in VA than in humans, due to high intake of provitamin A carotenoids. Plasma ROH concentrations in great apes were similar to those in humans, but retinyl esters were higher in great apes than in humans. Differences in plasma carotenoid concentrations were observed between great apes and humans. Lutein was the main carotenoid in great apes, while beta-carotene was the main carotenoid for humans. RBP concentrations did not differ between great apes and humans. The molar ratio of ROH to RBP was close to 1.0 in both great apes and humans. In conclusion, great apes show homeostatic ROH regulation, with high but physiological retinyl esters circulating in plasma. Furthermore, great apes show great selectivity in their plasmatic carotenoid concentration, which is not explained by dietary intake.

  19. The human plasma proteome: history, character, and diagnostic prospects.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N Leigh; Anderson, Norman G

    2002-11-01

    The human plasma proteome holds the promise of a revolution in disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring provided that major challenges in proteomics and related disciplines can be addressed. Plasma is not only the primary clinical specimen but also represents the largest and deepest version of the human proteome present in any sample: in addition to the classical "plasma proteins," it contains all tissue proteins (as leakage markers) plus very numerous distinct immunoglobulin sequences, and it has an extraordinary dynamic range in that more than 10 orders of magnitude in concentration separate albumin and the rarest proteins now measured clinically. Although the restricted dynamic range of conventional proteomic technology (two-dimensional gels and mass spectrometry) has limited its contribution to the list of 289 proteins (tabulated here) that have been reported in plasma to date, very recent advances in multidimensional survey techniques promise at least double this number in the near future. Abundant scientific evidence, from proteomics and other disciplines, suggests that among these are proteins whose abundances and structures change in ways indicative of many, if not most, human diseases. Nevertheless, only a handful of proteins are currently used in routine clinical diagnosis, and the rate of introduction of new protein tests approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has paradoxically declined over the last decade to less than one new protein diagnostic marker per year. We speculate on the reasons behind this large discrepancy between the expectations arising from proteomics and the realities of clinical diagnostics and suggest approaches by which protein-disease associations may be more effectively translated into diagnostic tools in the future.

  20. Proliferation-promoting effect of platelet-rich plasma on human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Minakata, Tatsuya; Mitsui, Toshihito; Kushida, Satoshi; Notodihardjo, Frederik Zefanya; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    This study evaluated changes in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 release from platelets by platelet-rich plasma activation, and the proliferation potential of activated platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma on human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma was prepared using a double-spin method, with the number of platelets counted in each preparation stage. Platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma were activated with autologous thrombin and calcium chloride, and levels of platelet-released PDGF-AB and TGF-beta1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cells were cultured for 1, 4, or 7 days in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 5% whole blood plasma, nonactivated platelet-rich plasma, nonactivated platelet-poor plasma, activated platelet-rich plasma, or activated platelet-poor plasma. In parallel, these cells were cultured for 1, 4, or 7 days in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 1%, 5%, 10%, or 20% activated platelet-rich plasma. The cultured human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts were assayed for proliferation. Platelet-rich plasma contained approximately 7.9 times as many platelets as whole blood, and its activation was associated with the release of large amounts of PDGF-AB and TGF-beta1. Adding activated platelet-rich or platelet-poor plasma significantly promoted the proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Adding 5% activated platelet-rich plasma to the medium maximally promoted cell proliferation, but activated platelet-rich plasma at 20% did not promote it. Platelet-rich plasma can enhance the proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. These results support clinical platelet-rich plasma application for cell-based, soft-tissue engineering and wound healing.

  1. Vesicular and Extra-Vesicular RNAs of Human Blood Plasma.

    PubMed

    Savelyeva, Anna V; Baryakin, Dmitriy N; Chikova, Elena D; Kuligina, Elena V; Richter, Vladimir A; Semenov, Dmitriy V

    2016-01-01

    Human blood contains a great variety of membrane-covered RNA carrying vesicles which are spherical or tubular particles enclosed by a phospholipid bilayer. Circulating vesicles are thought to mediate cell-to-cell communication and their RNA cargo can act as regulatory molecules. In this work, we separated blood plasma of healthy donors by centrifugation and determined that vesicles precipitated at 16,000 g were enriched with CD41a, marker of platelets. At 160,000 g, the pellets were enriched with CD3 marker of T cells. To characterize the RNA-content of the blood plasma sub fractions, we performed high throughput sequencing of the RNA pelleted within vesicles at 16,000 g and 160,000 g as well as RNA remaining in the vesicle-free supernatant. We found that blood plasma sub fractions contain not only extensive set of microRNAs but also fragments of other cellular RNAs: rRNAs, tRNAs, mRNAs, lncRNAs, small RNAs including RNAs encoded by mtDNAs. Our data indicate that a variety of blood plasma RNAs circulating within vesicles as well as of extra-vesicular RNAs are comparable to the variety of cellular RNA species.

  2. Inhibition of plasma vasopressin after drinking in dehydrated humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of nonosmotic and nonvolumetric factors on vasopressin secretion in dehydrated humans has been investigated experimentally, before and after drinking. The subjects of the experiment were five adult men and three adult women weighing 69-77 kg. In order to determine the influence of nonosmotic and nonvolumetric factors on vasopressin secretion, measurements were obtained of the following blood hematological indices: serum Na(+) content; serum K(+) content; osmolality; and hemoglobin. Measurements of hematocrit, plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), aldosterone, and renin activity were also obtained. It is found that dehydration increased mean serum Na(+) content, osmolality,and AVP. No significant changes were observed in renin activity, hemoglobin, hematocrit, or plasma volume, while plasma aldosterone increased from 11.1 ng/dl after dehydration to 15.6 ng/dl between 30 and 60 min after drinking. A rapid fall of AVP content following rehydration occurred in the absence of changes in the primary regulators of AVP osmolality and plasma volume, with no change in blood pressure. On the basis of the experimental results, it is suggested that oropharyngeal factors may be the mechanism, for the observed decrease in AVP following rehydration.

  3. Epilepsy and the concentrations of plasma amino acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Huxtable, R J; Laird, H; Lippincott, S E; Walson, P

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the correlation between the presence of epilepsy in humans, and plasma amino acid levels. Subjects were divided into those having pure generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal group), those having generalized tonic-clonic seizures plus other types of epilepsy (mixed group), and those suffering from epilepsies other than grand mal (no grand mal group). Compared to non-epileptic controls, the grand mal group had significantly higher fasting plasma levels of aspartate (100% increase) and glutamate (380% increase) but significant decreases were seen with phenylalanine (?23%), lysine (?27%), and tryptophan (?30%). The no grand mal group showed similar changes except for lysine. The mixed group showed elevations in glutamate, but decreases only in cysteine and methionine. In response to a high protein meal, plasma levels of alanine, cysteine and methionine rose significantly less for the no grand mal group compared to the control group. Increases in aspartate and glutamate concentrations strongly correlated with the prescription of phenytoin. However, the concentrations of these amino acids were not significantly correlated with the actual plasma levels of phenytoin.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of factor V in human plasma and platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, P.B.; Eide, L.L.; Bowie, E.J.W.; Mann, K.G.

    1982-07-01

    Homogeneous, single-chain human factor V was used to develop a double antibody competition radioimmunoassay to measure factor V concentrations in plasma and platelets. Standard curves were constructed that allow for the detection of as little as 20 ng factor V/ml of plasma. Normal factor V concentrations range from 4 to 14 ..mu..g/ml of plasma with an average value of 7.0 +/- 2.0 ..mu..g/ml (n = 64). No correlation was observed between antigen levels and age or sex. The radioimmunoassay data are consistent with factor V clotting assays, providing freshly drawn plasma is used in the bioassay. Radioimmunoassay of washed platelets indicate that 0.63-1.93 ..mu..g of factor V is present per 2.5 X 10/sup 8/ platelets (6412-14128 molecules of factor V per platelet). When normalized to individual hematocrits and platelet count, the data indicated that platelets contribute approximately 18%-25% of the factor V found in whole blood. In addition, two individuals with functionally deficient factor V were examined and found to be deficient in both antigen and activity.

  5. Plasma proteomic alterations in non-human primates and humans after chronic alcohol self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Willard M.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Guidone, Elizabeth; Krystal, John H.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective diagnostics of excessive alcohol use are valuable tools in the identification and monitoring of subjects with alcohol use disorders. A number of potential biomarkers of alcohol intake have been proposed, but none have reached widespread clinical usage, often due to limited diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In order to identify novel potential biomarkers, we performed proteomic biomarker target discovery in plasma samples from non-human primates that chronically self-administer high levels of ethanol. 2-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to quantify plasma proteins from within subject samples collected before exposure to ethanol and after three months of excessive ethanol self-administration. Highly abundant plasma proteins were depleted from plasma samples to increase proteomic coverage. Altered plasma levels of SAA4, RBP, ITIH4, clusterin, and fibronectin, identified by 2D-DIGE analysis, were confirmed in unmanipulated, whole plasma from these animals by immunoblotting. Examination of these target plasma proteins in human subjects with excessive alcohol consumption (and control subjects) revealed increased levels of SAA4 and clusterin and decreased levels of fibronectin compared to controls. These proteins not only serve as targets for further development as biomarker candidates or components of biomarker panels, but also add to the growing understanding of dysregulated immune function and lipoprotein metabolism with chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:21303580

  6. Plasma proteomic alterations in non-human primates and humans after chronic alcohol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Willard M; Vanguilder, Heather D; Guidone, Elizabeth; Krystal, John H; Grant, Kathleen A; Vrana, Kent E

    2011-08-01

    Objective diagnostics of excessive alcohol use are valuable tools in the identification and monitoring of subjects with alcohol use disorders. A number of potential biomarkers of alcohol intake have been proposed, but none have reached widespread clinical usage, often due to limited diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In order to identify novel potential biomarkers, we performed proteomic biomarker target discovery in plasma samples from non-human primates that chronically self-administer high levels of ethanol. Two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to quantify plasma proteins from within-subject samples collected before exposure to ethanol and after 3 months of excessive ethanol self-administration. Highly abundant plasma proteins were depleted from plasma samples to increase proteomic coverage. Altered plasma levels of serum amyloid A4 (SAA4), retinol-binding protein, inter-alpha inhibitor H4, clusterin, and fibronectin, identified by 2D-DIGE analysis, were confirmed in unmanipulated, whole plasma from these animals by immunoblotting. Examination of these target plasma proteins in human subjects with excessive alcohol consumption (and control subjects) revealed increased levels of SAA4 and clusterin and decreased levels of fibronectin compared to controls. These proteins not only serve as targets for further development as biomarker candidates or components of biomarker panels, but also add to the growing understanding of dysregulated immune function and lipoprotein metabolism with chronic, excessive alcohol consumption.

  7. A plasma metabolomic signature discloses human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Quiles, José Luís; Ramírez-Tortosa, Mari-Carmen; Sol, Joaquim; Ruiz-Sanjuan, Maria; Fernandez, Mónica; de la Torre Cabrera, Capilla; Ramírez-Tortosa, Cesar; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Sánchez-Rovira, Pedro; Pamplona, Reinald

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Metabolomics is the comprehensive global study of metabolites in biological samples. In this retrospective pilot study we explored whether serum metabolomic profile can discriminate the presence of human breast cancer irrespective of the cancer subtype. Methods Plasma samples were analyzed from healthy women (n = 20) and patients with breast cancer after diagnosis (n = 91) using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform. Multivariate statistics and a Random Forest (RF) classifier were used to create a metabolomics panel for the diagnosis of human breast cancer. Results Metabolomics correctly distinguished between breast cancer patients and healthy control subjects. In the RF supervised class prediction analysis comparing breast cancer and healthy control groups, RF accurately classified 100% both samples of the breast cancer patients and healthy controls. So, the class error for both group in and the out-of-bag error were 0. We also found 1269 metabolites with different concentration in plasma from healthy controls and cancer patients; and basing on exact mass, retention time and isotopic distribution we identified 35 metabolites. These metabolites mostly support cell growth by providing energy and building stones for the synthesis of essential biomolecules, and function as signal transduction molecules. The collective results of RF, significance testing, and false discovery rate analysis identified several metabolites that were strongly associated with breast cancer. Conclusions In breast cancer a metabolomics signature of cancer exists and can be detected in patient plasma irrespectively of the breast cancer type. PMID:28076849

  8. A plasma metabolomic signature discloses human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Collado, Ricardo; Quiles, José Luís; Ramírez-Tortosa, Mari-Carmen; Sol, Joaquim; Ruiz-Sanjuan, Maria; Fernandez, Mónica; de la Torre Cabrera, Capilla; Ramírez-Tortosa, Cesar; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Sánchez-Rovira, Pedro; Pamplona, Reinald

    2017-03-21

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive global study of metabolites in biological samples. In this retrospective pilot study we explored whether serum metabolomic profile can discriminate the presence of human breast cancer irrespective of the cancer subtype. Plasma samples were analyzed from healthy women (n = 20) and patients with breast cancer after diagnosis (n = 91) using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform. Multivariate statistics and a Random Forest (RF) classifier were used to create a metabolomics panel for the diagnosis of human breast cancer. Metabolomics correctly distinguished between breast cancer patients and healthy control subjects. In the RF supervised class prediction analysis comparing breast cancer and healthy control groups, RF accurately classified 100% both samples of the breast cancer patients and healthy controls. So, the class error for both group in and the out-of-bag error were 0. We also found 1269 metabolites with different concentration in plasma from healthy controls and cancer patients; and basing on exact mass, retention time and isotopic distribution we identified 35 metabolites. These metabolites mostly support cell growth by providing energy and building stones for the synthesis of essential biomolecules, and function as signal transduction molecules. The collective results of RF, significance testing, and false discovery rate analysis identified several metabolites that were strongly associated with breast cancer. In breast cancer a metabolomics signature of cancer exists and can be detected in patient plasma irrespectively of the breast cancer type.

  9. Aggregation of biopharmaceuticals in human plasma and human serum: implications for drug research and development.

    PubMed

    Arvinte, Tudor; Palais, Caroline; Green-Trexler, Erin; Gregory, Sonia; Mach, Henryk; Narasimhan, Chakravarthy; Shameem, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methods based on light microscopy, 90° light-scattering and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) allowed the characterization of aggregation that can occur when antibodies are mixed with human plasma. Light microscopy showed that aggregates formed when human plasma was mixed with 5% dextrose solutions of Herceptin(®) (trastuzumab) or Avastin(®) (bevacizumab) but not Remicade(®) (infliximab). The aggregates in the plasma-Herceptin(®)-5% dextrose solution were globular, size range 0.5-9 μm, with a mean diameter of 4 μm. The aggregates in the plasma-Avastin(®)-5% dextrose samples had a mean size of 2 μm. No aggregation was observed when 0.9% NaCl solutions of Herceptin(®), Avastin(®) and Remicade(®) were mixed with human plasma. 90° light-scattering measurements showed that aggregates were still present 2.5 h after mixing Herceptin(®) or Avastin(®) with 5% dextrose-plasma solution. A SPR method was utilized to qualitatively describe the extent of interactions of surface-bound antibodies with undiluted human serum. Increased binding was observed in the case of Erbitux(®) (cetuximab), whereas no binding was measured for Humira(®) (adalimumab). The binding of sera components to 13 monoclonal antibodies was measured and correlated with known serum binding properties of the antibodies. The data presented in this paper provide analytical methods to study the intrinsic and buffer-dependent aggregation tendencies of therapeutic proteins when mixed with human plasma and serum.

  10. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  11. Effects of water immersion on plasma catecholamines in normal humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Johnson, G.; Denunzio, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in order to determine whether water immersion to the neck (NI) alters plasma catecholamines in normal humans. Eight normal subjects were studied during a seated control study (C) and during 4 hr of NI, and the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) as determined by radioenzymatic assay were measured hourly. Results show that despite the induction of a marked natriuresis and diuresis indicating significant central hypervolemia, NI failed to alter plasma NE or E levels compared with those of either C or the corresponding prestudy 1.5 hr. In addition, the diuresis and natriuresis was found to vary independently of NE. These results indicate that the response of the sympathetic nervous system to acute volume alteration may differ from the reported response to chronic volume expansion.

  12. Determination of actarit from human plasma for bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Loya, P; Saraf, M N

    2010-11-01

    An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (245 nm) was developed for the determination of actarit in human plasma. Coumarin was used as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a C8 column using a mobile phase of methanol: 1% acetic acid (50-50, v/v) with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-4.0 μg/ml (r(2) > 0.99) and the lower limit of quantification was 0.1 μg/ml. The method was validated for sensitivity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. The method was used to determine the concentration-time profiles of actarit in the plasma following oral administration of 100 mg actarit tablets.

  13. Oxidation of polymines by diamine oxidase from human seminal plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Hölttä, E; Pulkkinen, P; Elfving, K; Jänne, J

    1975-01-01

    1. Diamine oxidase [amine-oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating)(pyridoxal-containing), EC 1.4.3.6] was purified from human seminal plasma more than 1,700-fold. The enzyme appeared to be homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at two different pH values. 2. The general properties of the enzyme were comparable with those described for other diamine oxidases from different mammalian sources. The molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated to be about 182,000. 3. The enzyme had highest affinity for diamines, but polyamines spermidine and spermine were also degraded at concentrations that can be considered physiological in human semen. 3. The possible degradation of spermine by diamine oxidase in human semen in vivo may give rise to the formation of cytotoxic aldehydes that conceivably can influence the motility and survival of the spermatozoa. PMID:239684

  14. The Complex Exogenous RNA Spectra in Human Plasma: An Interface with Human Gut Biota?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Li, Hong; Yuan, Yue; Etheridge, Alton; Zhou, Yong; Huang, David; Wilmes, Paul; Galas, David

    2012-01-01

    Human plasma has long been a rich source for biomarker discovery. It has recently become clear that plasma RNA molecules, such as microRNA, in addition to proteins are common and can serve as biomarkers. Surveying human plasma for microRNA biomarkers using next generation sequencing technology, we observed that a significant fraction of the circulating RNA appear to originate from exogenous species. With careful analysis of sequence error statistics and other controls, we demonstrated that there is a wide range of RNA from many different organisms, including bacteria and fungi as well as from other species. These RNAs may be associated with protein, lipid or other molecules protecting them from RNase activity in plasma. Some of these RNAs are detected in intracellular complexes and may be able to influence cellular activities under in vitro conditions. These findings raise the possibility that plasma RNAs of exogenous origin may serve as signaling molecules mediating for example the human-microbiome interaction and may affect and/or indicate the state of human health. PMID:23251414

  15. Augmentation of human monocyte opsonin-independent phagocytosis by fragments of human plasma fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Czop, J K; Kadish, J L; Austen, K F

    1981-06-01

    Human plasma fibronectin isolated by gelatin-affinity chromatography increases in a dose-dependent fashion the number of human monocytes that ingest particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway in a fully synthetic medium. The fibronectin effect is selective for these particulate activators, does not extend to particles whose ingestion is dependent upon opsonization with IgG, and is not observed with pretreatment of the monocytes. Affinity chromatography with monoclonal antibody to plasma fibronectin of 440,000 daltons reveals that only 12-53% of the protein in a phagocytically active gelatin-affinity-purified fibronectin preparations is bound to the antibody. The protein eluted after affinity chromatography with monoclonal antibody of active preparations, which represented 10-43% of the protein applied, exhibits a 2- to 10-fold increment of activity per microgram of protein above the starting gelatin-affinity-purified material. Thus, the activity that augments the percent of human monocytes ingesting particulate activators of the alternative pathway is antigenically defined as plasma fibronectin. Preparations containing only intact 440,000-dalton fibronectin are also bound to and eluted from the monoclonal antibody, but they fail to augment phagocytosis. When inactive 440,000-dalton plasma fibronectin is subjected to limited trypsin cleavage, phagocytosis-enhancing activity develops that is bound to and elutes from the affinity column prepared with monoclonal antibody, thereby indicating that the enhancing activity of plasma fibronectin resides in cleavage fragments.

  16. Obese carboxypeptidase E knockout mice exhibit multiple defects in peptide hormone processing contributing to low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Niamh X.; Yanik, Tulin; Woronowicz, Alicja; Chang, Weizhong; Marini, Joan C.

    2010-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) is a prohormone/proneuropeptide processing enzyme, and mice bearing CPE mutations exhibit an obese and diabetic phenotype. Studies on CPE knockout (KO) mice revealed poor prohormone processing, resulting in deficiencies in peptide hormones/neuropeptides such as insulin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Here, we show that CPE KO mice, an obese animal model, have low bone mineral density (BMD) accompanied by elevated plasma CTX-1 (carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks), and osteocalcin, indicators of increased bone turnover. Receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression was elevated ∼2-fold relative to osteoprotegerin in the femur of KO animals, suggesting increased osteoclastic activity in the KO mice. In the hypothalamus, mature CART, a peptide involved in eating behavior and implicated in bone metabolism, was undetectable. The melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems in the hypothalamus have also been implicated in bone remodeling, since MC4R KO and NPY KO mice have increased BMD. However, reduction of α-MSH, the primary ligand of MC4R by up to 94% and the lack of detectable NPY in the hypothalamus of CPE KO do not recapitulate the single-gene KO phenotypes. This study highlights the complex physiological interplay between peptides involved in energy metabolism and bone formation and furthermore suggests the possibility that patients, bearing CPE and CART mutations leading to inactive forms of these molecules, may be at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. PMID:20460579

  17. Sialylated Lewis × Antigen Bearing Glycoproteins in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Wonryeon; Jung, Kwanyoung; Regnier, Fred E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that antibodies targeting Lewis × (Lex) antigen are a valuable tool in the isolation and identification of glycoproteins in plasma. A focus of this study was to determine whether sialylated Lewis × (sLex) antigen carrying glycoproteins occur in human plasma and whether an antibody targeting this antigen could be used to isolate and identify glycoproteins bearing this antigen. An additional objective was to determine the degree to which proteins conjugated to Lex and sLex antigens are similar in structure. A specific anti-sLex antibody (anti-sLexAb), CHO-131, immobilized in an immunoaffinity column was used to select a set of specific sLex bearing proteins from human plasma, after which they were identified by either of two analytical strategies. One approach was to further resolve the affinity selected proteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC), tryptic digest the RPC fractions, and identify peptide fragments by MALDI-MS/MS. The second was to tryptic digest the affinity selected protein fraction, further resolve the tryptic fragments by RPC, and identify peptides from RPC fractions by MALDI-MS/MS. Histidine-rich glycoprotein, plasminogen, apolipoprotein A-I, vitronectin, proteoglycan-4, clusterin, Ig gamma-2 chain C region, Ig mu chain C region, and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 were found to change three folds or more in association with breast cancer. Fifty percent of the glycoproteins carrying either sLex antigen from CHO-131 selection, Lex antigen from selection with TG-1 antibody, or both were found to be changed three folds or more in concentration in breast cancer plasma relative to controls. PMID:20858014

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate replacement improves the human plasma fatty acid profile in plasma of obese women.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Santos, C; Larqué, E; Granero, E; Hernández-Morante, J J; Garaulet, M

    2011-12-11

    DHEA-S treatment is used as an anti-aging and anti-obesity hormone therapy in adults; however, it mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. The objective of the present work was to analyze the effect of a replacement therapy, which included a daily single oral dose of DHEA-S for three months, on the composition of human plasma fatty acids (FAs) in obese women. In the first study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted involving 61 postmenopausal women, who were assigned to receive 100mg/day of DHEA-S (n = 41) or placebo (n = 20) orally for 3 months. In a second study, the effect of DHEA-S treatment on postmenopausal obese women (n = 41) was compared to that in premenopausal obese women (n = 20). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Plasma FAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. DHEA-S treatment produced significant changes in plasma FAs of both post- and premenopausal women with a reduction of total saturated FAs (SFA) as well as an increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Particularly, in premenopausal women the DHEA-S treatment also increased the plasma n-3 PUFA percentage. Regarding estimation of desaturase activity, our data showed that Δ6-desaturase was significantly decreased in postmenopausal women after DHEA-S treatment, whereas Δ5-desaturase was increased in the premenopausal group. In conclusion, DHEA-S treatment in obese women modifies plasma FA composition towards a potentially better metabolic profile, mainly by decreasing SFA and increasing n-6 PUFA in both postmenopausal and premenopausal women.

  19. Validated HPLC method for determination of caffeine level in human plasma using synthetic plasma: application to bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Syed N; Hammami, Muhammad M

    2011-04-01

    Several high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been described for the determination of caffeine in human plasma. However, none have been cross validated using synthetic plasma. The present study describes a simple and reliable HPLC method for the determination of the caffeine level in human plasma. Synthetic plasma was used to construct calibration curves and quality control samples to avoid interference by caffeine commonly present in donor's human plasma. After deproteination of plasma samples with perchloric acid, caffeine and antipyrine (internal standard, IS) were separated on a Waters Atlantis C18 column using a mobile phase of 15 mM potassium phosphate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (83:17, v/v), and monitored by photodiode array detector, with the wavelength set at 274 nm. The relationship between caffeine concentrations and peak area ratio (caffeine-IS) was linear over the range of 0.05-20 μg/mL. Inter-run coefficient of variation was ≤ 5.4% and ≤ 6.0% and bias was ≤ 3% and ≤ 7% using human and synthetic plasma, respectively. Mean extraction recovery from human plasma of caffeine and the IS was 91% and 86%, respectively. Caffeine in human plasma was stable for at least 24 h at room temperature or 12 weeks at -20 °C, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The method was successfully applied to monitor caffeine levels in healthy volunteers with correction of caffeine levels using the mean ratio of the slopes of the calibration's curves constructed using human and synthetic plasma.

  20. Effects of Single Administration of Bupropion on Carboxypeptidase E Activity in Structures of Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Kruchinina, A D; Gamzin, S S; Tengin, M T

    2016-10-01

    Depression is associated with changes in the levels of some neurotransmitters in various brain structures. Being the key enzyme of peptide processing, carboxypeptidase E regulates their levels in various structures of the nervous system. Single injection of bupropion induced long-lasting changes in carboxypeptidase E activity in all brain structures. The decrease in enzyme activity observed in 12 and 24 h after bupropion injection confirmed the inhibiting effect of the drug on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Activation of the enzyme in the medulla oblongata, hypothalamus, and hippocampus observed in 72 h after bupropion administration probably leads to enhanced synthesis and secretion of regulatory peptides (reduced during stress and depression) and stimulation of neurogenesis. Changes in enzyme activity can be a mechanism regulating the level of bioactive peptides involved in the pathogenesis of depression.

  1. Crystal structure of a novel carboxypeptidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Joseph W; Hao, Bing; Ramakrishnan, Vijay; Cheng, Timothy; Chan, Sunney I; Chan, Michael K

    2002-02-01

    The structure of Pyrococcus furiosus carboxypeptidase (PfuCP) has been determined to 2.2 A resolution using multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) methods. PfuCP represents the first structure of the new M32 family of carboxypeptidases. The overall structure is comprised of a homodimer. Each subunit is mostly helical with its most pronounced feature being a deep substrate binding groove. The active site lies at the bottom of this groove and contains an HEXXH motif that coordinates the metal ion required for catalysis. Surprisingly, the structure is similar to the recently reported rat neurolysin. Comparison of these structures as well as sequence analyses with other homologous proteins reveal several conserved residues. The roles for these conserved residues in the catalytic mechanism are inferred based on modeling and their location.

  2. Novel Carboxypeptidase A6 (CPA6) Mutations Identified in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic and Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sapio, Matthew R.; Vessaz, Monique; Thomas, Pierre; Genton, Pierre; Fricker, Lloyd D.; Salzmann, Annick

    2015-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase A6 (CPA6) is a peptidase that removes C-terminal hydrophobic amino acids from peptides and proteins. The CPA6 gene is expressed in the brains of humans and animals, with high levels of expression during development. It is translated with a prodomain (as proCPA6), which is removed before secretion. The active form of CPA6 binds tightly to the extracellular matrix (ECM) where it is thought to function in the processing of peptides and proteins. Mutations in the CPA6 gene have been identified in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and febrile seizures. In the present study, we screened for CPA6 mutations in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and identified two novel missense mutations: Arg36His and Asn271Ser. Patients harboring these mutations also presented with generalized epilepsy. Neither of the novel mutations was found in a control population. Asn271 is highly conserved in CPA6 and other related metallocarboxypeptidases. Arg36 is present in the prodomain and is not highly conserved. To assess structural consequences of the amino acid substitutions, both mutants were modeled within the predicted structure of the enzyme. To examine the effects of these mutations on enzyme expression and activity, we expressed the mutated enzymes in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. These analyses revealed that Asn271Ser abolished enzymatic activity, while Arg36His led to a ~50% reduction in CPA6 levels in the ECM. Pulse-chase using radio-labeled amino acids was performed to follow secretion. Newly-synthesized CPA6 appeared in the ECM with peak levels between 2-8 hours. There was no major difference in time course between wild-type and mutant forms, although the amount of radiolabeled CPA6 in the ECM was lower for the mutants. Our experiments demonstrate that these mutations in CPA6 are deleterious and provide further evidence for the involvement of CPA6 mutations in the predisposition for several types of epilepsy. PMID:25875328

  3. Determination of fluoxetine in human plasma using reserved phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Misztal, G; Hopkała, H

    1997-11-01

    A rapid, simple, accurate method for the determination of fluoxetine in human plasma is presented. Liquid-liquid extraction of fluoxetine was carried out using diethyl ether. Chlorprothixene was applied as an internal standard. The samples were chromatographed on a LiChrosorb RP-18 (10 microns) column and the mobile phase was acetonitrile/phosphate buffer pH 2.70 (9:1). The detection was carried at 254 nm. A linear quantitative response curve was generated over a concentration range of 100-600 ng/ml. Overall extraction efficiency of the extraction procedure was found to be 86 to 91% with a correlation coefficient of 0.992.

  4. Purification and characterization of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the extreme thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Colombo, S; D'Auria, S; Fusi, P; Zecca, L; Raia, C A; Tortora, P

    1992-06-01

    A carboxypeptidase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus. Molecular masses assessed by SDS/PAGE and gel filtration were 42 kDa and 170 kDa, respectively, which points to a tetrameric structure for the molecule. An isoelectric point of 5.9 was also determined. The enzyme was proven to be a metalloprotease, as shown by the inhibitory effects exerted by EDTA and o-phenanthroline; furthermore, dialysis against EDTA led to a complete loss of activity, which could be restored by addition of Zn2+ in the micromolar range, and, to a lesser extent, by Co2+. The enzyme was endowed with a broad substrate specificity, as shown by its ability to release basic, acidic and aromatic amino acids from the respective benzoylglycylated and benzyloxycarbonylated amino acids. An esterase activity of the carboxypeptidase was also demonstrated on different esterified amino acids and dipeptides blocked at the N-terminus. The enzyme displayed broad pH optima ranging over 5.5-7.0, or 5.5-9.0, when using an acidic or a basic benzyloxycarbonylated amino acid, respectively. With regard to thermostability, it was proven to be completely stable on incubation for 15 min at 85 degrees C. Furthermore, thanks to its relatively low activation energy, i.e. 31.0 kJ/mol, it was still significantly active at room temperature. At 40 degrees C, the enzyme could withstand 0.1% SDS and different organic solvents: particularly ethanol up to 99%. Amino acid and N-terminal sequence analyses did not evidence any similarity to carboxypeptidases A nor thermolysin. A weak similarity was only found with bovine carboxypeptidase B.

  5. Changes of human plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity after intravenous administration of theophylline.

    PubMed

    Aunis, D; Mandel, P; Miras-Portugal, M T; Coquillat, G; Rohmer, F; Warter, J M

    1975-03-01

    The intravenous administration of theophylline to ten healthy human subjects produced either an increase of circulating plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase or no change. The rise of plasma enzyme activity may reflect the increased peripheral catecholamine release induced by theophylline.

  6. Application of standard addition for the determination of carboxypeptidase activity in Actinomucor elegans bran koji.

    PubMed

    Fu, J; Li, L; Yang, X Q; Zhu, M J

    2011-01-01

    Leucine carboxypeptidase (EC 3.4.16) activity in Actinomucor elegans bran koji was investigated via absorbance at 507 nm after stained by Cd-nihydrin solution, with calibration curve A, which was made by a set of known concentration standard leucine, calibration B, which was made by three sets of known concentration standard leucine solutions with the addition of three concentrations inactive crude enzyme extract, and calibration C, which was made by three sets of known concentration standard leucine solutions with the addition of three concentrations crude enzyme extract. The results indicated that application of pure amino acid standard curve was not a suitable way to determine carboxypeptidase in complicate mixture, and it probably led to overestimated carboxypeptidase activity. It was found that addition of crude exact into pure amino acid standard curve had a significant difference from pure amino acid standard curve method (p < 0.05). There was no significant enzyme activity difference (p > 0.05) between addition of active crude exact and addition of inactive crude kind, when the proper dilute multiple was used. It was concluded that the addition of crude enzyme extract to the calibration was needed to eliminate the interference of free amino acids and related compounds presented in crude enzyme extract.

  7. New validated method for piracetam HPLC determination in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Curticapean, Augustin; Imre, Silvia

    2007-01-10

    The new method for HPLC determination of piracetam in human plasma was developed and validated by a new approach. The simple determination by UV detection was performed on supernatant, obtained from plasma, after proteins precipitation with perchloric acid. The chromatographic separation of piracetam under a gradient elution was achieved at room temperature with a RP-18 LiChroSpher 100 column and aqueous mobile phase containing acetonitrile and methanol. The quantitative determination of piracetam was performed at 200 nm with a lower limit of quantification LLQ=2 microg/ml. For this limit, the calculated values of the coefficient of variation and difference between mean and the nominal concentration are CV%=9.7 and bias%=0.9 for the intra-day assay, and CV%=19.1 and bias%=-7.45 for the between-days assay. For precision, the range was CV%=1.8/11.6 in the intra-day and between-days assay, and for accuracy, the range was bias%=2.3/14.9 in the intra-day and between-days assay. In addition, the stability of piracetam in different conditions was verified. Piracetam proved to be stable in plasma during 4 weeks at -20 degrees C and for 36 h at 20 degrees C in the supernatant after protein precipitation. The new proposed method was used for a bioequivalence study of two medicines containing 800 mg piracetam.

  8. Simultaneous detection of carotenoids and vitamin E in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sommerburg, O; Zang, L Y; van Kuijk, F J

    1997-08-01

    A simplified method for analysis of the antioxidants carotenoids and vitamin E in human plasma is presented. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography with a single column, a flow-rate gradient, and detection at 450 and 290 nm with a diode array detector. It gives good separation of the vitamin E isomers and the major carotenoids in plasma, with a 25 min analysis time. It was found that hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol esters is required to obtain good recovery of non-polar carotenoids such as lycopene, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene. Two methods were used for hydrolysis of the non-polar lipids, saponification with ethanolic KOH and digestion with an enzyme mixture of lipase and cholesterol esterase. It was found that the enzymatic digestion gave the best recoveries, better than 94% for all of the antioxidants, and preserved several carotenoids. A plasma pool is used for day to day calibration of the method, which eliminates the need for stock solutions of carotenoids that are stable for only a month due to oxidative breakdown and their tendency to crystallize when stored at -20 degrees C in organic solvents.

  9. Decreased plasma isoleucine concentrations after upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Dejong, C H; Meijerink, W J; van Berlo, C L; Deutz, N E; Soeters, P B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decrease in arterial isoleucine values after intragastric blood administration in pigs has been observed. This contrasted with increased values of most other amino acids, ammonia, and urea. After an isonitrogenous control meal in these pigs all amino acids including isoleucine increased, and urea increased to a lesser extent, suggesting a relation between the arterial isoleucine decrease and uraemia after gastrointestinal haemorrhage. METHODS: To extend these findings to humans, plasma amino acids were determined after gastrointestinal haemorrhage in patients with peptic ulcers (n = 9) or oesophageal varices induced by liver cirrhosis (n = 4) and compared with preoperative patients (n = 106). RESULTS: After gastrointestinal haemorrhage, isoleucine decreased in all patients by more than 60% and normalised within 48 hours. Most other amino acids increased and also normalised within 48 hours. Uraemia occurred in both groups, hyperammonaemia was seen in patients with liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous findings in animals and healthy volunteers that plasma isoleucine decreases after simulated upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. This supports the hypothesis that the absence of isoleucine in blood protein causes decreased plasma isoleucine values after gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and may be a contributory factor to uraemia and hyperammonaemia in patients with normal and impaired liver function, respectively. Intravenous isoleucine administration after gastrointestinal haemorrhage could be beneficial and will be the subject of further research. PMID:8881800

  10. Plasma oxytocin increases in the human sexual response.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, M S; Humbert, R; Dixen, J; Palmisano, G; Greenleaf, W; Davidson, J M

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma oxytocin (OT) levels change during human sexual responses and, if so, to demonstrate the temporal pattern of change. Plasma OT levels were measured by RIA before, during, and after private self-stimulation to orgasm in normal men (n = 9) and women (n = 13). Blood samples were collected continuously through indwelling venous catheters. The subjects pressed a signal to indicate the start and finish of orgasm/ejaculation. Objective assessment of sexual arousal and orgasm was obtained by measuring blood-pulse amplitude and electromyographic activity, recorded continuously throughout testing from an anal device containing a photoplethysmograph and electromyograph electrodes connected to a polygraph located in an adjacent room. These measures allowed collection of data from men and women of changes in blood flow and muscle activity in the lower pelvic/pubic area. Plasma OT levels increased during sexual arousal in both women and men and were significantly higher during orgasm/ejaculation than during prior baseline testing. We suggest that the temporal pattern of secretion could be related to smooth muscle contractions of the reproductive system during orgasm.

  11. Appearance of Human Plasma Cells Following Differentiation of Human B Cells in NOD/SCID Mouse Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; He, Xiao-Song; Ansari, Aftab A.; Ishibashi, Miyuki; Miyakawa, Hiroshi; Shultz, Leonard D.; Ikehara, Susumu; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Relatively little is known for the differentiation and maturation process of human B cells to plasma cells. This is particularly important in reconstitution work involving transfer of autoantibodies. To address this issue, we transplanted human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) directly into the spleen of irradiated NOD/SCID mice depleted of natural killer cell activity. Within 6 weeks, naïve B cells differentiated into memory B cells and, importantly, the numbers of human CD138+ plasma cells in spleen increased by 100 fold after transplantation. Plasma cell numbers correlated with the detection of human IgM and IgG in serum, indicating that human B cells had differentiated into mature plasma cells in the murine spleen. In addition to CD19+ plasma cells, a distinct CD19- plasma cell population was detected, suggesting that downregulation of CD19 associated with maturation of plasma cells occurred. When purified human B cells were transplanted, those findings were not observed. Our results indicate that differentiation and maturation of human B cells and plasma cells can be investigated by transplantation of human PBMC into the spleen of NOD/SCID mice. The model will be useful for studying the differentiation of human B cells and generation of plasma cells. PMID:14768952

  12. A phagocytosis-enhancing factor in human plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Gigli, I; Wintroub, B U; Goetzl, E J

    1976-01-01

    A phagocytosis-enhancing factor (PEF) with the capacity to stimulate the ingestion of sensitized sheep erythrocytes by human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocytes has been isolated from human plasma by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and filtration on Sephadex G-150 and Sephadex G-100. PEF is a protein of approximately 70,000 molecular weight which is susceptible to inactivation by heating at 60 degrees or by tryptic digestion. PEF promotes phagocytosis of erythrocytes sensitized with intact 7S antibody or bearing the C3b complement fragment, but not of unsensitized erythrocytes or erythrocytes sensitized with 19S antibody. The specificity of PEF interaction with target erythrocytes and the persistence of its stimulatory effect after the target cells are washed suggest that it promotes phagocytosis by an action on the erythrocytes. PMID:1027715

  13. Zinc reduces epithelial barrier compromise induced by human seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, James M.; Diguilio, Katherine M.; Valenzano, Mary C.; Deis, Rachael; Thomas, Sunil; Zurbach, E. Peter; Abdulhaqq, Shaheed; Montaner, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Human semen has the potential to modulate the epithelial mucosal tissues it contacts, as seminal plasma (SP) is recognized to contain both pro- and anti-barrier components, yet its effects on epithelial barrier function are largely unknown. We addressed the role of human SP when exposed to the basal-lateral epithelial surface, a situation that would occur clinically with prior mechanical or disease-related injury of the human epithelial mucosal cell layers in contact with semen. The action of SP on claudins-2, -4, -5, and -7 expression, as well as on a target epithelium whose basolateral surface has been made accessible to SP, showed upregulation of claudins-4 and -5 in CACO-2 human epithelial cell layers, despite broad variance in SP-induced modulation of transepithelial electrical resistance and mannitol permeability. Upregulation of claudin-2 by SP also exhibited such variance by SP sample. We characterize individual effects on CACO-2 barrier function of nine factors known to be present abundantly in seminal plasma (zinc, EGF, citrate, spermine, fructose, urea, TGF, histone, inflammatory cytokines) to establish that zinc, spermine and fructose had significant potential to raise CACO-2 transepithelial resistance, whereas inflammatory cytokines and EGF decreased this measure of barrier function. The role of zinc as a dominant factor in determining higher levels of transepithelial resistance and lower levels of paracellular leak were confirmed by zinc chelation and exogenous zinc addition. As expected, SP presentation to the basolateral cell surface also caused a very dramatic yet transient elevation of pErk levels. Results suggest that increased zinc content in SP can compete against the barrier-compromising effect of negative modulators in SP when SP gains access to that epithelium’s basolateral surface. Prophylactic elevation of zinc in an epithelial cell layer prior to contact by SP may help to protect an epithelial barrier from invasion by SP-containing STD

  14. [Experimental estimation of proteome size for cells and human plasma].

    PubMed

    Naryzhny, S N; Zgoda, V G; Maynskova, M A; Ronzhina, N L; Belyakova, N V; Legina, O K; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    Huge range of concentrations of different protein and insufficient sensitivity of methods for detection of proteins at a single molecule level does not yet allow obtaining the whole image of human proteome. In our investigations, we tried to evaluate the size of different proteomes (cells and plasma). The approach used is based on detection of protein spots in 2-DE after staining by protein dyes with different sensitivities. The function representing the dependence of the number of protein spots on sensitivity of protein dyes was generated. Next, by extrapolation of this function curve to theoretical point of the maximum sensitivity (detection of a single smallest polypeptide) it was calculated that a single human cell (HepG2) may contain minimum 70,000 proteoforms, and plasma--1.5 mln. Utilization of this approach to other, smaller proteomes showed the competency of this extrapolation. For instance, the size of mycoplas ma (Acholeplasma laidlawii) was estimated in 1100 proteoforms, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)--40,000, E. coli--6200, P. furiosus--3400. In hepatocytes, the amount of proteoforms was the same as in HepG2--70,000. Significance of obtained data is in possibilities to estimating the proteome organization and planning next steps in its study.

  15. Quantitative determination of propranolol by ultraviolet HPLC in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Salman, S A B; Sulaiman, S A; Ismail, Z; Gan, S H

    2010-03-01

    Many previous published methods for the quantitative determination of propranolol (PRN) in human plasma have poor recoveries and were not validated according to the FDA guideline. The aim of this study is to develop a simple HPLC method for detecting PRN in human plasma and to validate it so that it can be applied to a clinical study. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a mixture of a mobile phase consisting of 160 ml water, 180 ml methanol, 70 ml acetonitrile, 2.5 ml acetic acid, and 125 microl triethylamine (v/v). The pH of the whole mixture was adjusted to 3.4. A flow rate of 0.5 ml/min was employed throughout with a 15 microl injection volume. Detection was done using a UV detector at 291 nm. The validated method was linear for concentrations ranging from 15-180 ng/ ml with a good separation and specificity for both PRN and its internal standard, oxprenolol (OXP), with excellent recoveries, precision, and accuracies. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 and 10 ng/ml, respectively. The stability studies demonstrated that PRN is stable in the autosampler vials and also up to 3.5 months. To the authors' knowledge, the recovery, that ranged between 97.9-102.7%, is the highest among all previously reported methods that used HPLC with UV detection. The developed and validated method for PRN analysis is excellent and applicable to a clinical study.

  16. Spectrofluorometric determination of methocarbamol in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Walash, Mohamed; Belal, Fathalla; Eid, Manal; EL Abass, Samah Abo

    2011-03-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorometric method for determination of methocarbamol in pharmaceutical formulations and spiked human plasma has been developed. The proposed method is based on the measurement of the native fluorescence of methocarbamol in methanol at 313 nm after excitation at 277 nm. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.05-2.0 μg/mL, with good correlation (r=0.9999), limit of detection of 0.007 μg/ mL and a lower limit of quantification of 0.022 μg/ mL. The described method was successfully applied for the determination of methocarbamol in its tablets without interference from co-formulated drugs, such as aspirin, diclofenac, paracetamol and ibuprofen, The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official method (USP 30).The high sensitivity of the method allowed the determination of the studied drug in spiked human plasma with average percentage recovery of 99.42 ± 3.84.

  17. Turnover of human and monkey plasma kininogens in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, T; Wing, D A; Pierce, J V; Pettit, G W

    1979-01-01

    The normal metabolic turnover of plasma kininogens was studied by measuring the disappearance of intravenously administered radiolabeled human and monkey plasma kininogens from the circulation of healthy adult rhesus monkeys. Curves obtained by plotting log radioactivity against time could be expressed as double exponential equations, with the first term representing diffusion, and the second, catabolism. No significant difference between the turnovers of human and monkey kininogens was observed. The difference between the t1/2 of high molecular weight kininogen (25.95 +/- 1.60 h) (mean +/- SEM) and that of low molecular weight kininogen (18.94 +/- 1.93 h) was only marginally significant (P less than 0.05). In contrast, a highly significant (P less than 0.001) difference in their mean catabolic rates (1.12 +/- 0.08 d-1 for high molecular weight kininogen vs. 2.07 +/- 0.09 d-1 for low molecular weight kininogen) was observed. These differences between the two kininogens were attributed to differences in their distribution between the intra- and extravascular pools. Studies of kininogen turnover will be useful in elucidating the in vivo functions of the various kininogens in health as well as during clinical illness. PMID:105015

  18. Carboxypeptidase D is the only enzyme responsible for antibody C-terminal lysine cleavage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhilan; Zhang, Henry; Haley, Benjamin; Macchi, Frank; Yang, Feng; Misaghi, Shahram; Elich, Joseph; Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneity of C-terminal lysine levels often observed in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is believed to result from the proteolysis by endogenous carboxypeptidase(s) during cell culture production. Identifying the responsible carboxypeptidase(s) for C-terminal lysine cleavage in CHO cells would provide valuable insights for antibody production cell culture processes development and optimization. In this study, five carboxypeptidases, CpD, CpM, CpN, CpB, and CpE, were studied for message RNA (mRNA) expression by qRT-PCR analysis in two most commonly used blank hosts (DUXB-11 derived DHFR-deficient DP12 host and DHFR-positive CHOK1 host), used for therapeutic antibody production, as well an antibody-expressing cell line derived from each host. Our results showed that CpD had the highest mRNA expression. When CpD mRNA levels were reduced by RNAi (RNA interference) technology, C-terminal lysine levels increased, whereas there was no obvious change in C-terminal lysine levels when a different carboxypeptidase mRNA level was knocked down suggesting that carboxypeptidase D is the main contributor for C-terminal lysine processing. Most importantly, when CpD expression was knocked out by CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology, C-terminal lysine cleavage was completely abolished in CpD knockout cells based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that CpD is the only endogenous carboxypeptidase that cleaves antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine in CHO cells. Hence, our work showed for the first time that the cleavage of antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine is solely mediated by the carboxypeptidase D in CHO cells and our finding provides one solution to eliminating C-terminal lysine heterogeneity for therapeutic antibody production by knocking out CpD gene expression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2100-2106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Oleaster oil positively modulates plasma lipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Belarbi, Meriem; Bendimerad, Soraya; Sour, Souad; Soualem, Zoubida; Baghdad, Choukri; Hmimed, Sara; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco

    2011-08-24

    The olive tree had been domesticated during the early Neolithic in the Near East, and more than 1000 different cultivars have been identified to date. However, examples of wild olive trees (Olea europaea oleaster) can still be found in the Mediterranean basin. Evidence of oleaster use for oil production can be found in historical and sacred texts, such as the Odyssey, the Holey Koran, and the Holey Bible. While the nutritional and healthful properties of olive oil are actively being explored, there are no data on the human actions of oleaster oil. Therefore, we investigated the effect of prolonged, i.e., 1 month, consumption of oleaster oil on the lipid profile of a 40 healthy Algerian subjects (aged 27.9 ± 3.85 years), as compared to nonconsumers from the same area. Plasma urea, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations and glycemia did not significantly differ, at the end of the study, between controls and oleaster-oil-supplemented subjects. Conversely, we recorded significant decreases of plasma triglyceride concentration (-24.8%; p < 0.05), total cholesterol (-12.13%; p < 0.05), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (-24.39%; p < 0.05) in oleaster-oil-treated subjects. Concomitantly, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were significantly increased (17.94%; p < 0.05) by oleaster oil administration. In conclusion, we show that oil obtained from feral olive trees, i.e., oleasters, improves the plasma lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  20. Proteomic profiling of human plasma for cancer biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao; Ma, Linguang; Huang, Canhua; Li, Qifu; Nice, Edouard C

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, substantial advances have been made in both the early diagnosis and accurate prognosis of many cancers because of the impressive development of novel proteomic strategies. However, it remains difficult to standardize proteomic approaches. In addition, the heterogeneity of proteins in distinct tissues results in incomplete population of the whole proteome, which inevitably limits its clinical practice. As one of the most complex proteomes in the human body, the plasma proteome contains secreted proteins originating from multiple organs and tissues, making it a favorable matrix for comprehensive biomarker discovery. Here, we will discuss the roles of plasma proteome profiling in cancer biomarker discovery and validation, and highlight both the inherent advantages and disadvantages. Although several hurdles lay ahead, further advances in this technology will greatly increase our understanding of cancer biology, reveal new biomarkers and biomarker panels, and open a new avenue for more efficient early diagnosis and surveillance of cancer, leading toward personalized medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A sensitive radioimmunoassay for fludrocortisone in human plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsky, V. P.; Workman, R. J.; Nicholson, W. E.; Vernikos, J.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fludrocortisone has been a mainstay of therapy for orthostatic hypotension for many years. Clinical experience suggests that there exists a substantial interindividual variation in responsiveness to the drug. To assess this, we have developed an assay that permits measurement of the low concentrations of fludrocortisone found in human plasma. Fludrocortisone was detected by radioimmunoassay. A polyclonal rabbit antibody, raised against dexamethasone which cross-reacts strongly with fludrocortisone, was reacted with either standard or unknown samples in the presence of [125I]fludrocortisone-3-TyrNH2 (synthesized by coupling tyrosine amide to fludrocortisone-3-oxime and iodinating with chloramine T oxidation). The ED10, ED50, and ED80 were 0.34, 5.0, and 30 ng/mL of plasma, respectively. The cross reactivity with other 9-fluorinated steroids was found as follows: dexamethasone, 340%; betamethasone, 230%; and triamicinolone, 8%. To preclude an erroneous result, subjects who were pregnant or receiving any steroid medication were excluded from the study. The percent cross-reactivity with the main naturally occurring steroids was as follows: 11-desoxycortisol 3.2%, cortisol 1.1%, DOC 0.3%, pregnenolone 0.1%, corticosterone 0.06%, progesterone 0.05%, and aldosterone < 0.05%. The only compound with potential for interference, because of its high level in the circulation in the early morning, was cortisol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  2. A sensitive radioimmunoassay for fludrocortisone in human plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsky, V. P.; Workman, R. J.; Nicholson, W. E.; Vernikos, J.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fludrocortisone has been a mainstay of therapy for orthostatic hypotension for many years. Clinical experience suggests that there exists a substantial interindividual variation in responsiveness to the drug. To assess this, we have developed an assay that permits measurement of the low concentrations of fludrocortisone found in human plasma. Fludrocortisone was detected by radioimmunoassay. A polyclonal rabbit antibody, raised against dexamethasone which cross-reacts strongly with fludrocortisone, was reacted with either standard or unknown samples in the presence of [125I]fludrocortisone-3-TyrNH2 (synthesized by coupling tyrosine amide to fludrocortisone-3-oxime and iodinating with chloramine T oxidation). The ED10, ED50, and ED80 were 0.34, 5.0, and 30 ng/mL of plasma, respectively. The cross reactivity with other 9-fluorinated steroids was found as follows: dexamethasone, 340%; betamethasone, 230%; and triamicinolone, 8%. To preclude an erroneous result, subjects who were pregnant or receiving any steroid medication were excluded from the study. The percent cross-reactivity with the main naturally occurring steroids was as follows: 11-desoxycortisol 3.2%, cortisol 1.1%, DOC 0.3%, pregnenolone 0.1%, corticosterone 0.06%, progesterone 0.05%, and aldosterone < 0.05%. The only compound with potential for interference, because of its high level in the circulation in the early morning, was cortisol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  3. A high molecular weight antifertility factor from human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Reddy, J M; Stark, R A; Zaneveld, L J

    1979-11-01

    The presence of a high molecular weight antifertility factor in human seminal plasma was established. The factor can be precipitated by centrifugation at 104 000 g. Its activity is maximal when the protein concentration reaches 150 micrograms/10(5) spermatozoa using the mouse in-vitro fertilization assay as the test system. The factor is heat labile but its activity is not affected by dialysis. It prevents the penetration of the spermatozoa through the layers surrounding the egg but has no effect on the fusion of the spermatozoa with the vitelline membrane. The factor is only partly removed from spermatozoa by washing but is completely dispersed when the spermatozoa are incubated in capacitation medium. The pellet that is precipitated from the seminal plasma does not contain any particles or vesicles. However, it is significantly contaminated with low molecular weight material. This material includes the acrosin inhibitor which is present in large enough quantities to hinder fertilization. Washing the pellet twice with H2O removes these low molecular weight compounds, as indicated by the absence of the acrosin inhibitor, but has no effect on the antifertility properties of the pellet. Therefore, before further study or purification of the factor, it is essential that the pellet is washed such low molecular weight material. The washed pellet consists of at least 7 components as judged by disc gel electrophoresis.

  4. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Soy Isoflavone Extracts in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Martínez-Riera, Roser; de la Torre, Rafael; Pizarro, Nieves

    2015-08-12

    The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein produce several biological activities related to health benefits. A number of isoflavone extracts are commercially available, but there is little information concerning the specific isoflavone content of these products or differences in their bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. This study describes the development and validation of an analytical method to detect and quantify daidzein, genistein, and equol in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was applied in a crossover, randomized, bioavailability study. Twelve healthy volunteers were administered the same total isoflavones dose from two isoflavone supplement preparations (Super-Absorbable Soy Isoflavones (Life Extension, USA) and Fitoladius (Merck, Spain)). The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-24/dose and Cmax/dose) of the isoflavones from the two preparations differed significantly. Such differences in bioavailability and kinetics may have relevant effects on the health benefits derived from their intake.

  5. Hyperglycemia may determine fibrinopeptide A plasma level increase in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Marchi, E; Torella, R

    1989-12-01

    The effects of hyperglycemia on plasma fibrinopeptide A (FPA) levels in normal subjects are reported. An increase of FPA concentration parallel to sustained hyperglycemia was observed; when the glycemia returned to basal values, FPA showed values in normal range. Heparin infusion was able to significantly decrease the hyperglycemia-induced augment of FPA levels. Isovolumic-isotonic NaCl solution infusion produced a slight (NS) increase in FPA levels; however, mild hyperglycemia, achieved by glucagon, was also able to produce a significant increase in FPA concentration. These data demonstrate the direct role of hyperglycemia in conditioning FPA level, and suggest that hyperglycemia, by itself, is a sufficient stimulus to produce thrombin activation in humans.

  6. Tea catechin supplementation increases antioxidant capacity and prevents phospholipid hydroperoxidation in plasma of humans.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Ninomiya, M; Okubo, T; Aoi, N; Juneja, L R; Kim, M; Yamanaka, K; Miyazawa, T

    1999-10-01

    The effect of green tea catechin supplementation on antioxidant capacity of human plasma was investigated. Eighteen healthy male volunteers who orally ingested green tea extract (254 mg of total catechins/subject) showed 267 pmol of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) per milliliter of plasma at 60 min after administration. The plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) levels attenuated from 73.7 pmol/mL in the control to 44.6 pmol/mL in catechin-treated subjects, being correlated inversely with the increase in plasma EGCg level. The results suggested that drinking green tea contributes to prevent cardiovascular disease by increasing plasma antioxidant capacity in humans.

  7. Phosphorylation of human plasma alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (human fetuin) in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Haglund , A C; Ek, B; Ek, P

    2001-01-01

    A fraction of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid (alpha2-HS) glycoprotein (human fetuin) isolated from plasma was phosphorylated at serine-120 and serine-312 as shown by MS and peptide fragment sequencing after tryptic digestion. Serine-312-containing peptides were phosphorylated to 77% as determined from relative peak heights in the mass spectrum, which together with the phosphorylation of serine-120 implies a molar degree of phosphorylation of at least 1. Approximately 20% of the circulating fetuin plasma pool was phosphorylated to approx. 1 mol of phosphate/mol of protein. The remainder did not contain phosphate, resulting in an average phosphorylation degree for the protein in plasma of approx. 0.2 mol/mol. The isolated alpha2-HS glycoprotein was a heterodimer in which the entire C-terminal part of the connecting peptide including threonine-321 was present, but traces of C-terminally trimmed connecting peptide fragments were also found. The short B-chain was O-glycosylated to approx. 40%, whereas the N-glycosylation of asparagine-138 and asparagine-158 seemed to be 100%. This finding, for the first time, that circulating human plasma fetuin is partly phosphorylated, implies that the effects of phosphorylated alpha2-HS glycoprotein on insulin signal transduction seen in different cell systems could be relevant to its physiological function in vivo. PMID:11439093

  8. The Human Plasma Proteome Draft of 2017: Building on the Human Plasma PeptideAtlas from Mass Spectrometry and Complementary Assays.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Jochen M; Omenn, Gilbert S; Sun, Zhi; Campbell, David S; Baker, Mark S; Overall, Christopher M; Aebersold, Ruedi; Moritz, Robert L; Deutsch, Eric W

    2017-09-22

    Human blood plasma provides a highly accessible window to the proteome of any individual in health and disease. Since its inception in 2002, the Human Proteome Organization's Human Plasma Proteome Project (HPPP) has been promoting advances in the study and understanding of the full protein complement of human plasma and on determining the abundance and modifications of its components. In 2017, we review the history of the HPPP and the advances of human plasma proteomics in general, including several recent achievements. We then present the latest 2017-04 build of Human Plasma PeptideAtlas, which yields ~43 million peptide-spectrum matches and 122,730 distinct peptide sequences from 178 individual experiments at a 1% protein-level FDR globally across all experiments. Applying the latest Human Proteome Project Data Interpretation Guidelines, we catalog 3509 proteins that have at least two non-nested uniquely-mapping peptides of 9 amino acids or more and >1300 additional proteins with ambiguous evidence. We apply the same two-peptide guideline to historical PeptideAtlas builds going back to 2006 and examine the progress made in the past ten years in plasma proteome coverage. We also compare the distribution of proteins in historical PeptideAtlas builds in various RNA-abundance and cellular localization categories. We then discuss advances in plasma proteomics based on targeted mass spectrometry as well as affinity assays, which during early 2017 target ~2000 proteins. Finally we describe considerations about sample handling and study design, concluding with an outlook for future advances in deciphering the human plasma proteome.

  9. Truncating Homozygous Mutation of Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) in a Morbidly Obese Female with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Intellectual Disability and Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Jessica L.; Zekavati, Anna; Sosinsky, Alona; Yiorkas, Andrianos M.; Holder, Susan; Klaber, Robert E.; Bridges, Nicola; van Haelst, Mieke M.; le Roux, Carel W.; Walley, Andrew J.; Walters, Robin G.; Mueller, Michael; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E is a peptide processing enzyme, involved in cleaving numerous peptide precursors, including neuropeptides and hormones involved in appetite control and glucose metabolism. Exome sequencing of a morbidly obese female from a consanguineous family revealed homozygosity for a truncating mutation of the CPE gene (c.76_98del; p.E26RfsX68). Analysis detected no CPE expression in whole blood-derived RNA from the proband, consistent with nonsense-mediated decay. The morbid obesity, intellectual disability, abnormal glucose homeostasis and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism seen in this individual recapitulates phenotypes in the previously described fat/fat and Cpe knockout mouse models, evidencing the importance of this peptide/hormone-processing enzyme in regulating body weight, metabolism, and brain and reproductive function in humans. PMID:26120850

  10. Structural basis of the resistance of an insect carboxypeptidase to plant protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bayés, Alex; Comellas-Bigler, Mireia; Rodríguez de la Vega, Monica; Maskos, Klaus; Bode, Wolfram; Aviles, Francesc X; Jongsma, Maarten A; Beekwilder, Jules; Vendrell, Josep

    2005-11-15

    Corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), also called tomato fruitworm, is a common pest of many Solanaceous plants. This insect is known to adapt to the ingestion of plant serine protease inhibitors by using digestive proteases that are insensitive to inhibition. We have now identified a B-type carboxypeptidase of H. zea (CPBHz) insensitive to potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) in corn earworm. To elucidate the structural features leading to the adaptation of the insect enzyme, the crystal structure of the recombinant CPBHz protein was determined by x-ray diffraction. CPBHz is a member of the A/B subfamily of metallocarboxypeptidases, which displays the characteristic metallocarboxypeptidase alpha/beta-hydrolase fold, and does not differ essentially from the previously described Helicoverpa armigera CPA, which is very sensitive to PCI. The data provide structural insight into several functional properties of CPBHz. The high selectivity shown by CPBHz for C-terminal lysine residues is due to residue changes in the S1' substrate specificity pocket that render it unable to accommodate the side chain of an arginine. The insensitivity of CPBHz to plant inhibitors is explained by the exceptional positioning of two of the main regions that stabilize other carboxypeptidase-PCI complexes, the beta8-alpha9 loop, and alpha7 together with the alpha7-alpha8 loop. The rearrangement of these two regions leads to a displacement of the active-site entrance that impairs the proper interaction with PCI. This report explains a crystal structure of an insect protease and its adaptation to defensive plant protease inhibitors.

  11. Hormonal Regulation of the Development of Protease and Carboxypeptidase Activities in Barley Aleurone Layers 1

    PubMed Central

    Hammerton, Rachel W.; Ho, Tuan-Hua David

    1986-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase and protease activities of hormone-treated barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Himalaya) aleurone layers were investigated using the substrates N-carbobenzoxy-Ala-Phe and hemoglobin. A differential effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on these activities was observed. The carboxypeptidase activity develops in the aleurone layers during imbibition without the addition of hormone, while the release of this enzyme to the incubation medium is enhanced by GA3. In contrast, GA3 is required for both the production of protease activity in the aleurone layer and its secretion. The time course for development of protease activity in response to GA3 is similar to that observed for α-amylase. Treating aleurone layers with both GA3 and abscisic acid prevents all the GA3 effects described above. Carboxypeptidase activity is maximal between pH 5 and 6, and is inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. We have observed three protease activities against hemoglobin which differ in charge but are all 37 kilodaltons in size on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. The activity of the proteases can be inhibited by sulfhydryl protease inhibitors, such as bromate and leupeptin, yet is enhanced by 2-fold with 2-mercaptoethanol. In addition, these enzymes appear to be active against the wheat and barley storage proteins, gliadin and hordein, respectively. On the basis of these characteristics and the time course of GA3 response, it is concluded that the proteases represent the GA3-induced, de novo synthesized proteases that are mainly responsible for the degradation of endosperm storage proteins. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16664686

  12. Carboxypeptidase B and other kininases of the rat coronary and mesenteric arterial bed perfusates.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eduardo B; Souza, Laura L; Sivieri, Disney O; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz B; Pereira, Hugo J V; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Sousa, Marcelo V; Salgado, Maria Cristina O

    2007-12-01

    We describe the enzymes that constitute the major bradykinin (BK)-processing pathways in the perfusates of mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) and coronary vessels isolated from Wistar normotensive rats (WNR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The contribution of particular proteases to BK degradation was revealed by the combined analysis of fragments generated during incubation of BK with representative perfusate samples and the effect of selective inhibitors on the respective reactions. Marked differences were seen among the perfusates studied; MAB secretes, per minute of perfusion, kininase activity capable of hydrolyzing approximately 300 pmol of BK/min, which is approximately 250-fold larger amount on a per unit time basis than that of its coronary counterpart. BK degradation in the coronary perfusate seems to be mediated by ANG I-converting enzyme, neutral endopeptidase 24.11-like enzyme, and a dl-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid-sensitive basic carboxypeptidase; coronary perfusate of WNR contains an additional BK-degrading enzyme whose specificity resembles that of neurolysin or thimet oligopeptidase. Diversely, a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme, responsible for nearly all of the kininase activity of MAB perfusates of WNR and spontaneously hypertensive rats, could be purified by a procedure that involved affinity chromatography over potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor-Sepharose column and shown to be structurally identical to rat pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB). Comparable levels of CPB mRNA expression were observed in pancreas, liver, mesentery, and kidney, but very low levels were detected in lung, heart, aorta, and carotid artery. In conclusion, distinct BK-processing pathways operate in the perfusates of rat MAB and coronary bed, with a substantial participation of a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme identical to pancreatic CPB.

  13. Purification and Properties of Two Proteolytic Enzymes with Carboxypeptidase Activity in Germinated Wheat 1

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Ken R.; Kruger, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Two proteolytic enzymes with carboxypeptidase activity have been isolated from a germinated wheat extract and partially characterized. Both enzymes rapidly released amino acids from hemoglobin and gluten and hydrolyzed carbobenzoxy-phenylalanylalanine. The enzymes were inhibited by diisopropylphosphofluoridate, but unaffected by salts, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and sulfhydryl reagents at lower concentrations, and had molecular weights of approximately 55,000 and 61,000. Analysis of the hydrolysis products of hemoglobin and gluten indicated that both enzymes had broad specificities, including the ability to release proline. Images PMID:16659708

  14. New anabaenopeptins, potent carboxypeptidase-A inhibitors from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

    PubMed

    Murakami, M; Suzuki, S; Itou, Y; Kodani, S; Ishida, K

    2000-09-01

    Anabaenopeptins I (1) and J (2), two new ureido bond-containing cyclic peptides, were isolated from the cultured cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (NIES-81) as potent carboxypeptidase-A (CPA) inhibitors. The gross structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic analysis, including the 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by spectral and chemical methods. Anabaenopeptins I and J inhibited CPA with IC(50) values of 5.2 and 7.6 ng/mL, respectively.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of porcine carboxypeptidase B

    SciTech Connect

    Akparov, V. Kh.; Timofeev, V. I. Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-05-15

    Crystals of porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B have been grown in microgravity by the capillary counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. The X-ray diffraction study showed that the crystals belong to sp. gr. P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = b = 79.58 Å, c = 100.51 Å; α = β = γ = 90.00°. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution was collected from one of the grown crystals at the SPring 8 synchrotron facility to 0.98 Å resolution.

  16. Crystal Structure of Human Plasma Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, U.; Bahnson, B

    2008-01-01

    Human plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase functions by reducing PAF levels as a general anti-inflammatory scavenger and is linked to anaphylactic shock, asthma, and allergic reactions. The enzyme has also been implicated in hydrolytic activities of other pro-inflammatory agents, such as sn-2 oxidatively fragmented phospholipids. This plasma enzyme is tightly bound to low and high density lipoprotein particles and is also referred to as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A{sub 2}. The crystal structure of this enzyme has been solved from x-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 1.5{angstrom}. It has a classic lipase {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold, and it contains a catalytic triad of Ser{sup 273}, His{sup 351}, and Asp{sup 296}. Two clusters of hydrophobic residues define the probable interface-binding region, and a prediction is given of how the enzyme is bound to lipoproteins. Additionally, an acidic patch of 10 carboxylate residues and a neighboring basic patch of three residues are suggested to play a role in high density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein partitioning. A crystal structure is also presented of PAF acetylhydrolase reacted with the organophosphate compound paraoxon via its active site Ser{sup 273}. The resulting diethyl phosphoryl complex was used to model the tetrahedral intermediate of the substrate PAF to the active site. The model of interface binding begins to explain the known specificity of lipoprotein-bound substrates and how the active site can be both close to the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface and at the same time be accessible to the aqueous phase.

  17. Human plasma kallikrein-kinin system: Physiological and biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, J.W.; Shariat-Madar, z

    2016-01-01

    The plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) plays a critical role in human physiology. The KKS encompasses coagulation factor XII (FXII), the complex of prekallikrein (PK) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK). The conversion of plasma to kallikrein by the activated FXII and in response to numerous different stimuli leads to the generation of bradykinin (BK) and activated HK (HKa, an antiangiogenic peptide). BK is a proinflammatory peptide, a pain mediator and potent vasodilator, leading to robust accumulation of fluid in the interstitium. Systemic production of BK, HKa with the interplay between BK bound-BK receptors and the soluble form of HKa are key to angiogenesis and hemodynamics. KKS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypertension, endotoxemia, and coagulopathy. In all these cases increased BK levels is the hallmark. In some cases, the persistent production of BK due to the deficiency of the blood protein C1-inhibitor, which controls FXII, is detrimental to the survival of the patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE). In others, the inability of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to degrade BK leads to elevated BK levels and edema in patients on ACE inhibitors. Thus, the mechanisms that interfere with BK liberation or degradation would lead to blood pressure dysfunction. In contrast, anti-kallikrein treatment could have adverse effects in hemodynamic changes induced by vasoconstrictor agents. Genetic models of kallikrein deficiency are needed to evaluate the quantitative role of kallikrein and to validate whether strategies designed to activate or inhibit kallikrein may be important for regulating whole-body BK sensitivity. PMID:19689262

  18. Molecular recognition-based detoxification of aluminum in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Demircelik, Ahmet H; Andac, Muge; Andac, Cenk A; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2009-01-01

    Molecular recognition-based Al(3+)-imprinted poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-glutamic acid) (PHEMAGA-Al(3+)) beads were prepared to be used in selective removal of Al(3+) out of human plasma overdosed with Al(3+) cations. The PHEMAGA-Al(3+) beads were synthesized by suspension polymerization in the presence of a template-monomer complex (MAGA-Al(3+)). The specific surface area of PHEMAGA-Al(3+) beads was found to be 55.6 m(2)/g on the average. The MAGA content in the PHEMAGA-Al(3+) beads were found to be 640 micgomol/g polymer. The template Al(3+) cations could be reversibly detached from the matrix to form PHEMAGA-Al(3+) using a 50 mM solution of EDTA. The Al(3+)-free PHEMAGA-Al(3+) beads were then exposed to a selective separation procedure of Al(3+) out of human plasma, which was implemented in a continuous system by packing the beads into a separation column (10 cm long with an inner diameter of 0.9 cm) equipped with a water jacket to control the temperature. The Al(3+) adsorption capacity of the PHEMAGA-Al(3+) beads decreased drastically from 0.76 mg/g polymer to 0.22 mg/g polymer as the flow rate was increased from 0.3 ml/min to 1.5 ml/min. The relative selectivity coefficients of the PHEMAGA-Al(3+) beads for Al(3+)/Fe(3+), Al(3+)/Cu(2+) and Al(3+)/Zn(2+) were found to be 4.49, 8.95 and 32.44 times greater than those of the non-imprinted PHEMAGA beads, respectively. FT-IR analyses on the synthesized PHEMAGA-Al(3+) beads reveals monodentate and bidentate binding modes of Al(3+) in complex with the carboxylate groups of the glutamate residues. Density functional theory computations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set suggests that structured water molecules play essential role in the stability of the monodentate binding mode in 1:1 PHEMAGA-Al(3+) complexes. The PHEMAGA-Al(3+) beads were recovered and reused many times, with no significant decrease in their adsorption capacities.

  19. Effect of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on human breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirpour, Shahriar; Nikkhah, Maryam; Pirouzmand, Somaye; Ghomi, Hamid Reza

    2012-10-01

    Nowadays, Non-thermal plasma enjoy a wide range of applications in biomedical fields such as Sterilization, Wound healing, Cancer treatment and etc. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. In this regard the effect of plasma on death of the cancer cells are explored experimentally. The plasma in this discharge is created by pulsed dc high voltage power supply with repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz which led to the inductively coupled plasma. The pure helium gas were used for formation of the plasma jet. MTT assay were used for quantification of death cells. The results showed that the cells death rate increase with plasma exposure time. This study confirm that plasma jet have significant effect on treatment of human breast cancer cells.

  20. Carboxypeptidase N-deficient mice present with polymorphic disease phenotypes on induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianzhen; Wetsel, Rick A; Ramos, Theresa N; Mueller-Ortiz, Stacey L; Schoeb, Trenton R; Barnum, Scott R

    2014-02-01

    Carboxypeptidase N (CPN) is a member of the carboxypeptidase family of enzymes that cleave carboxy-terminal lysine and arginine residues from a large number of biologically active peptides and proteins. These enzymes are best known for their roles in modulating the activity of kinins, complement anaphylatoxins and coagulation proteins. Although CPN makes important contributions to acute inflammatory events, little is known about its role in autoimmune disease. In this study we used CPN(-/-) mice in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis. Unexpectedly, we observed several EAE disease phenotypes in CPN(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice. The majority of CPN(-/-) mice died within five to seven days after disease induction, before displaying clinical signs of disease. The remaining mice presented with either mild EAE or did not develop EAE. In addition, CPN(-/-) mice injected with complete or incomplete Freund's adjuvant died within the same time frame and in similar numbers as those induced for EAE. Overall, the course of EAE in CPN(-/-) mice was significantly delayed and attenuated compared to wild type mice. Spinal cord histopathology in CPN(-/-) mice revealed meningeal, but not parenchymal leukocyte infiltration, and minimal demyelination. Our results indicate that CPN plays an important role in EAE development and progression and suggests that multiple CPN ligands contribute to the disease phenotypes we observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Carboxypeptidase N-Deficient Mice Present With Polymorphic Disease Phenotypes on Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xianzhen; Wetsel, Rick A; Ramos, Theresa N.; Mueller-Ortiz, Stacey L.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase N (CPN) is a member of the carboxypeptidase family of enzymes that cleave carboxy-terminal lysine and arginine residues from a large number of biologically active peptides and proteins. These enzymes are best known for their roles in modulating the activity of kinins, complement anaphylatoxins and coagulation proteins. Although CPN makes important contributions to acute inflammatory events, little is known about its role in autoimmune disease. In this study we used CPN−/− mice in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis. Unexpectedly, we observed several EAE disease phenotypes in CPN−/− mice compared to wild type mice. The majority of CPN−/− mice died within five to seven days after disease induction, before displaying clinical signs of disease. The remaining mice presented with either mild EAE or did not develop EAE. In addition, CPN−/− mice injected with complete or incomplete Freund's adjuvant died within the same time frame and in similar numbers as those induced for EAE. Overall, the course of EAE in CPN−/− mice was significantly delayed and attenuated compared to wild type mice. Spinal cord histopathology in CPN−/− mice revealed meningeal, but not parenchymal leukocyte infiltration, and minimal demyelination. Our results indicate that CPN plays an important role in EAE development and progression and suggests that multiple CPN ligands contribute to the disease phenotypes we observed. PMID:24028840

  2. The cytosolic carboxypeptidases CCP2 and CCP3 catalyze posttranslational removal of acidic amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Tort, Olivia; Tanco, Sebastián; Rocha, Cecilia; Bièche, Ivan; Seixas, Cecilia; Bosc, Christophe; Andrieux, Annie; Moutin, Marie-Jo; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; Lorenzo, Julia; Janke, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of carboxy-terminal tails of tubulin plays an important role in the regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Enzymes responsible for deglutamylating tubulin have been discovered within a novel family of mammalian cytosolic carboxypeptidases. The discovery of these enzymes also revealed the existence of a range of other substrates that are enzymatically deglutamylated. Only four of six mammalian cytosolic carboxypeptidases had been enzymatically characterized. Here we complete the functional characterization of this protein family by demonstrating that CCP2 and CCP3 are deglutamylases, with CCP3 being able to hydrolyze aspartic acids with similar efficiency. Deaspartylation is a novel posttranslational modification that could, in conjunction with deglutamylation, broaden the range of potential substrates that undergo carboxy-terminal processing. In addition, we show that CCP2 and CCP3 are highly regulated proteins confined to ciliated tissues. The characterization of two novel enzymes for carboxy-terminal protein modification provides novel insights into the broadness of this barely studied process. PMID:25103237

  3. 13C NMR studies of carboxylate inhibitor binding to cobalt(II) carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Bertini, I; Monnanni, R; Pellacani, G C; Sola, M; Vallee, B L; Auld, D S

    1988-01-01

    Both 13C NMR and electronic absorption spectral studies on cobalt(II) carboxypeptidase A in the presence of acetate and phenylacetate provide evidence for two binding sites for each of these agents. The transverse relaxation rate T2-1 for the 13C-enriched carboxyl groups of the inhibitors is significantly increased when bound to the paramagnetic cobalt carboxypeptidase as compared to the diamagnetic zinc enzyme. The acetate concentration dependence of T2p-1 shows two inflections indicative of sequential binding of two inhibitor molecules. The cobalt-13C distances, calculated by means of the Solomon equation, indicate that the second acetate molecule binds directly to the metal ion while the first acetate molecule binds to a protein group at a distance 0.5-0.8 nm for the metal ion, consistent with it binding to one or more of the arginyl residues (Arg-145, Arg-127, or Arg-71). In the case of phenylacetate, perturbation of the cobalt electronic absorption spectrum shows that binding occurs stepwise. 13C NMR distance measurements indicate that one of the two phenylacetates is bound to the metal in the EI2 complex. These binding sites may correspond to those identified previously by kinetic means (one of which is competitive, the other noncompetitive) with peptide binding. The studies further indicate that it should be possible to map the protein interactions of the carbonyl groups of both substrate and noncompetitive inhibitors during catalysis by means of 13C NMR studies with suitably labeled substrates and inhibitors.

  4. Binding of pyrimethamine to human plasma proteins and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rudy, A C; Poynor, W J

    1990-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for pyrimethamine in plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and buffer for the purpose of studying its plasma protein binding and RBC partitioning. Pyrimethamine (1000 ng/ml) was 94% bound to plasma proteins on average, depending on the pH of plasma. A comparison of the lower and upper range of plasma concentrations that would be achieved after a malaria prophylaxis dosing regimen (25 mg/week) showed that the fraction unbound was significantly lower at 120 ng/ml than at the upper plasma concentration of 360 ng/ml, 3.5 vs 4.9%, respectively. Nonlinear regression of the effect of albumin concentration (g/L) on plasma binding yielded the equation: fraction unbound = 1/[(0.421 * albumin concentration) + 1] (R2 = 0.99). There was no binding to normal levels of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG). The mean ratio of the concentration of pyrimethamine in RBCs to that in plasma (RBC:plasma ratio) was 0.42, while the mean RBC:buffer ratio was 5.2. Binding to hemolysate did not account for all of the RBC uptake, suggesting that binding to or partitioning into RBC membranes may be important. Because pyrimethamine binding depends on both albumin concentration and pyrimethamine concentration in the plasma, these studies predict greater free fractions of pyrimethamine associated with the higher doses given for toxoplasmosis (75 mg/day) and with the hypoalbuminemia associated with AIDS and malaria.

  5. Physical and chemical properties of human plasma alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, P K; Roberts, R C

    1978-01-01

    Alpha2-M (alpha2-macroglobulin) was purified from human plasma by two different procedures. As well as having no detectable impurities by the usual criteria for testing the homogeneity of protein preparations, these alpha2M preparations showed a single component, after reduction in urea, of 185000 daltons by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the alpha2M was found to be 718000 by sedimentation equilibrium experiments using the gravimetrically determined -v of 0.731 ml/g. The interaction of several proteinases with alpha2M was studied by using a novel discontinuous polyacrylamide-gel system, which showed clear separation of the enzyme-complexed alpha2M from the free alpha2M. These studies indicated that urokinase, as well as trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin and thrombin forms complexes with alphaM. The cleavage of the 185000-dalton subunit to a 85000-dalton species on interaction of trypsin with alpha2M was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis after reduction of the alpha2M-trypsin complex in urea. The amino acid composition, carbohydrate content, absorption coefficient at 280 nm, the specific refractive increment and the sedimentation coefficient for these alpha2M preparations were measured. The stability of the trypsin-binding activity of the alpha2M preparations was also studied under several storage situations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. PMID:80217

  6. Inactivation of human pathogenic dermatophytes by non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Vladimír; Soušková, Hana; Hubka, Vit; Švarcová, Michaela; Julák, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) was tested as an in vitro deactivation method on four human pathogenic dermatophytes belonging to all ecological groups including anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale, zoophilic Arthroderma benhamiae, and geophilic Microsporum gypseum. The identification of all strains was confirmed by sequencing of ITS rDNA region (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA). Dermatophyte spores were suspended in water or inoculated on agar plates and exposed to NTP generated by a positive or negative corona discharge, or cometary discharge. After 15 min of exposure to NTP a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores in water suspensions was observed in all species. Complete spore inactivation and thus decontamination was observed in anthropophilic species after 25 min of exposure. Similarly, a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores was observed after 10-15 min of exposure to NTP on the surface of agar plates with full inhibition after 25 min in all tested species except of M. gypseum. Although the sensitivity of dermatophytes to the action of NTP appears to be lower than that of bacteria and yeast, our results suggest that NTP has the potential to be used as an alternative treatment strategy for dermatophytosis and could be useful for surface decontamination in clinical practice.

  7. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by a pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Bae, S. H.; Leem, S. H.

    2010-07-01

    By using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage with repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz, we were able to induce apoptosis in cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The apoptotic changes in cells with plasma treatment were detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence staining assay. A significant portion of these cells was observed to exhibit the apoptotic fragmentation. Helium plasma with additive O2 gas was found to be effective in the induction of apoptosis. This plasma jet provides an effective mode of human breast cancer cell therapy.

  8. A Phospholipidomic Analysis of All Defined Human Plasma Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Monireh; Kulik, Willem; Hoek, Frans; Veerman, Enno C.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are performed. LC-ESI/MS, LC-ESI-MS/MS and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of different lipoprotein fractions collected from pooled plasma revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and sphingomyeline (SM) only on lipoproteins and phosphatidylcholine (PC), Lyso-PC on both lipoproteins and plasma lipoprotein free fraction (PLFF). Cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and Phosphatidylserine (PS) were observed neither in the lipoprotein fractions nor in PLFF. All three approaches led to the same results regarding phospholipids occurrence in plasma lipoproteins and PLFF. A high abundancy of PE and SM was observed in VLDL and LDL fractions respectively. This study provides for the first time the knowledge about the phospholipid composition of all defined plasma lipoproteins. PMID:22355656

  9. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo.

  10. Carboxypeptidase-D is elevated in prostate cancer and its anti-apoptotic activity is abolished by combined androgen and prolactin receptor targeting.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynn N; Merrimen, Jennifer; Bell, David G; Rendon, Ricardo; Goffin, Vincent; Too, Catherine K L

    2014-05-01

    Carboxypeptidase-D (CPD) cleaves C-terminal arginine for nitric oxide (NO) production. CPD and NO levels are upregulated by testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) to promote survival of prostate cancer (pCa) cells. This study evaluated CPD immunostaining and T/PRL regulation of CPD and NO levels in benign and malignant prostate tissues/cells to determine the role of CPD in pCa. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue microarrays (TMA) were used to determine CPD immunostaining in prostate specimens. QPCR and immunoblotting were used to quantify CPD mRNA/protein expression in prostate cells. NO production was measured using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate assay. CPD staining increased from 8.9 ± 3.8% (Mean ± SEM, n = 15) of benign epithelial cell area to 30.9 ± 2.9% (n = 30) of tumor cell area in one set of TMAs (P = 0.0008) and from 5.9 ± 0.9% (n = 45) of benign epithelial cell area to 18.8 ± 1.9% (n = 55) of tumor area in another (P < 0.0001). IHC of prostate tissues (≥50 mm(2)) confirmed increased CPD staining, from 13.1 ± 2.9% in benign (n = 16) to 29.5 ± 4.4% in pCa (n = 31, P = 0.0095). T and/or PRL increased CPD expression in several pCa but not benign cell lines. T and PRL acted synergistically to increase NO production, which was abolished only when receptor antagonists flutamide and Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL were used together. CPD immunostaining and T/PRL-stimulated CPD expression were higher in pCa than benign tissues/cells. Elevated CPD increased NO production, which was abolished when both AR and PRLR were inhibited. Our study implicates a critical role for the T/PRL-stimulated CPD-Arg-NO pathway in pCa progression, and suggests that AR+PRLR inhibition is a more effective treatment for pCa. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. High Throughput Sequencing of Extracellular RNA from Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Kirsty M.; Rubio, Renee; Abderazzaq, Fieda; Das, Saumya; Wang, Yaoyu E.

    2017-01-01

    The presence and relative stability of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in biofluids has led to an emerging recognition of their promise as ‘liquid biopsies’ for diseases. Most prior studies on discovery of exRNAs as disease-specific biomarkers have focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) using technologies such as qRT-PCR and microarrays. The recent application of next-generation sequencing to discovery of exRNA biomarkers has revealed the presence of potential novel miRNAs as well as other RNA species such as tRNAs, snoRNAs, piRNAs and lncRNAs in biofluids. At the same time, the use of RNA sequencing for biofluids poses unique challenges, including low amounts of input RNAs, the presence of exRNAs in different compartments with varying degrees of vulnerability to isolation techniques, and the high abundance of specific RNA species (thereby limiting the sensitivity of detection of less abundant species). Moreover, discovery in human diseases often relies on archival biospecimens of varying age and limiting amounts of samples. In this study, we have tested RNA isolation methods to optimize profiling exRNAs by RNA sequencing in individuals without any known diseases. Our findings are consistent with other recent studies that detect microRNAs and ribosomal RNAs as the major exRNA species in plasma. Similar to other recent studies, we found that the landscape of biofluid microRNA transcriptome is dominated by several abundant microRNAs that appear to comprise conserved extracellular miRNAs. There is reasonable correlation of sets of conserved miRNAs across biological replicates, and even across other data sets obtained at different investigative sites. Conversely, the detection of less abundant miRNAs is far more dependent on the exact methodology of RNA isolation and profiling. This study highlights the challenges in detecting and quantifying less abundant plasma miRNAs in health and disease using RNA sequencing platforms. PMID:28060806

  12. Spectral studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon interaction with human blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. G.; Pravdin, A. B.; Kochubey, V. I.; Melnikov, G. V.

    2006-08-01

    Analysis of fluorescence spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human blood plasma and human serum albumin solution allowed one to conclude that pyrene and also anthracene are predominantly distributed in the hydrophobic micro-phase of blood plasma proteins. In the solution of human blood plasma containing pyrene the nonmonotonic dependence of both the intensity of pyrene fluorescence and the index of polarity on the concentration of sodium dodecylsulfate added was observed. This should be connected with the reconstruction of the structure of protein globule under the surfactant action and cannot be explained only by the solubilization of pyrene in sodium dodecylsulfate micelles.

  13. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  14. The orally active glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibitor E2072 exhibits sustained nerve exposure and attenuates peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Krystyna M; Wu, Ying; Vornov, James J; Lapidus, Rena; Rais, Rana; Rojas, Camilo; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S

    2012-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathy from nerve trauma is a significant problem in the human population and often constitutes a dose-limiting toxicity in patients receiving chemotherapy. (3-2-Mercaptoethyl)biphenyl-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (E2072) is a potent (K(i) = 10 nM), selective, and orally available inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII). Here, we report that E2072 attenuates hyperalgesia and nerve conduction velocity deficits in preclinical rodent models of neuropathic pain and oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. In the chronic constrictive injury model, orally administered E2072 reversed pre-existing thermal hyperalgesia in rats in a dose-dependent fashion with a minimally effective dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day. It is noteworthy that multiple days of dosing of E2072 were required before analgesia was realized even though GCPII inhibitory exposures were achieved on the first day of dosing. In addition, analgesia was found to persist for up to 7 days after cessation of dosing, consistent with E2072's pharmacokinetic profile and sustained exposure. Furthermore, in a chronic oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy model (6 mg/kg i.p. oxaliplatin twice weekly for 4 weeks), female BALB/c mice receiving daily oral E2072 at 1.0 and 0.1 mg/kg displayed no deficits in either caudal or digital velocity compared with significant deficits observed in mice treated with oxaliplatin alone (12 ± 3 and 9 ± 2%, respectively). Similar findings were seen with oxaliplatin-induced digital and caudal amplitude deficits. It is noteworthy that E2072 showed no interference with the antineoplastic efficacy of oxaliplatin in mice bearing leukemia (L1210), even at doses 100 times its neuroprotective/analgesic dose, indicating a selective effect on neuropathy. These data support the therapeutic utility of GCPII inhibitors in neuropathy and neuropathic pain.

  15. Measurement of naphthoxylactic and naphtoxyacetic acid in human plasma following propranolol administration.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, F; Schneck, D; Hayes, A

    1979-02-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of naphthoxylactic acid and naphthoxyacetic acid, two acidic metabolites of propranolol, in human plasma is described. Preliminary data from hypertensive patients receiving chronic propranolol therapy and from normal volunteers who took a single 80 mg oral propranolol dose revealed that naphthoxylactic acid plasma levels were 4 to 20 times that of propranolol whereas naphthoxyacetic acid levels were equivalent to or less than the plasma concentrations of propranolol.

  16. Pyrogen reactions to human serum albumin during plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Pool, M; McLeod, B C

    1995-01-01

    Reactions to human serum albumin (HSA) in therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) are rare. Nevertheless, older literature describes possible adverse effects, including specific immune responses to albumin or other proteins, and reactions due to contaminating organisms or pyrogen. During an eight day period three patients in our unit had unusual reactions after infusion of 1.5-2 L of HSA. Patient 1 had trembling that persisted for 20 min. Patient 2 had shaking for 40 min despite calcium gluconate infusion, and fever to 100.8 degrees F. Patient 3 had severe rigors that subsided after 90 min when meperidine was finally given, and fever to 103.5 degrees F. Record reviews revealed that all three patients had received HSA from the same lot, and that only one other TPE patient had received HSA from that lot. Neither our pharmacy nor the manufacturer was aware of other reactions associated with that lot. Material from a bottle only partially infused to patient 3 was negative in culture and was negative for pyrogen when retested by the manufacturer. Nevertheless, because patients 1 and 2 had each had multiple previous uneventful TPEs and because all three patients tolerated subsequent TPEs without incident when another brand of HSA was used, we conclude that these patients had pyrogen reactions to the implicated HSA lot. This experience illustrates the value of cluster recognition in arousing suspicion of unusual reactions to HSA and the value of recorded lot numbers in pursuing such suspicions. Apheresis personnel should be aware of the potential for pyrogen reactions with HSA and should record lot numbers of all fluids infused during TPE.

  17. Surface properties of native human plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein models.

    PubMed Central

    Massey, J B; Pownall, H J

    1998-01-01

    Plasma lipoprotein surface properties are important but poorly understood determinants of lipoprotein catabolism. To elucidate the relation between surface properties and surface reactivity, the physical properties of surface monolayers of native lipoproteins and lipoprotein models were investigated by fluorescent probes of surface lipid fluidity, surface lateral diffusion, and interfacial polarity, and by their reactivity to Naja melanoleuca phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Native lipoproteins were human very low, low-, and subclass 3 high-density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, and HDL3); models were 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) or its ether analog in single-bilayer vesicles, large and small microemulsions of POPC and triolein, and reassembled HDL (apolipoprotein A-I plus phospholipid). Among lipoproteins, surface lipid fluidity increased in the order HDL3 < LDL < VLDL, varying inversely with their (protein + cholesterol)/phospholipid ratios. Models resembled VLDL in fluidity. Both lateral mobility in the surface monolayer and polarity of the interfacial region were lower in native lipoproteins than in models. Among native lipoproteins and models, increased fluidity in the surface monolayer was associated with increased reactivity to PLA2. Addition of cholesterol (up to 20 mol%) to models had little effect on PLA2 activity, whereas the addition of apolipoprotein C-III stimulated it. Single-bilayer vesicles, phospholipid-triolein microemulsions, and VLDL have surface monolayers that are quantitatively similar, and distinct from those of LDL and HDL3. Surface property and enzymatic reactivity differences between lipoproteins and models were associated with differences in surface monolayer protein and cholesterol contents. Thus differences in the surface properties that regulate lipolytic reactivity are a predictable function of surface composition. PMID:9533698

  18. Determinants of human plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) expression.

    PubMed

    Bierl, Charlene; Voetsch, Barbara; Jin, Richard C; Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2004-06-25

    Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) is a selenocysteine-containing protein with antioxidant properties. GPx-3 deficiency has been associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. The regulation of GPx-3 expression remains largely uncharacterized, however, and we studied its transcriptional and translational determinants in a cultured cell system. In transient transfections of a renal cell line (Caki-2), the published sequence cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter gene produced minimal activity (relative luminescence (RL) = 0.6 +/- 0.4). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to identify a novel transcription start site that is located 233 bp downstream (3') of the published site and that produced a >25-fold increase in transcriptional activity (RL = 16.8 +/- 1.9; p < 0.0001). Analysis of the novel GPx-3 promoter identified Sp-1- and hypoxia-inducible factor-1-binding sites, as well as the redox-sensitive metal response element and antioxidant response element. Hypoxia was identified as a strong transcriptional regulator of GPx-3 expression, in part through the presence of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1-binding site, leading to an almost 3-fold increase in expression levels after 24 h compared with normoxic conditions (normalized RL = 3.5 +/- 0.3 versus 1.2 +/- 0.1; p < 0.001). We also investigated the role of the translational cofactors tRNA(Sec), SECIS-binding protein-2, and SelD (selenophosphate synthetase D) in GPx-3 protein expression. tRNA(Sec) and SelD significantly enhanced GPx-3 expression, whereas SECIS-binding protein-2 showed a trend toward increased expression. These results demonstrate the presence of a novel functional transcription start site for the human GPx-3 gene with a promoter regulated by hypoxia, and identify unique translational determinants of GPx-3 expression.

  19. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C.; Joosten, Robbie P.; Hunter, William N.

    2014-02-01

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn{sup 2+}-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn{sup 2+}, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate.

  20. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  1. Very Short Mitochondrial DNA Fragments and Heteroplasmy in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruoyu; Nakahira, Kiichi; Guo, Xiaoxian; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Gu, Zhenglong

    2016-01-01

    Cell free DNA (cfDNA) has received increasing attention and has been studied in a broad range of clinical conditions. However, few studies have focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cell free form. We optimized DNA isolation and sequencing library preparation protocols to better retain short DNA fragments from plasma, and applied these optimized methods to plasma samples from patients with sepsis. Our methods can retain substantially shorter DNA, resulting in an average of 11.5 fold increase in short DNA fragments yield (DNA <100bp). We report that cf-mtDNA in plasma is highly enriched in short-size cfDNA (30~60 bp). Motivated by this unique size distribution, we size-selected short cfDNA, which further increased the mtDNA recovery rate by an average of 10.4 fold. We then detected mtDNA heteroplasmy in plasma from 3 patients. In one patient who previously received bone marrow transplantation, different minor allele frequencies were observed between plasma and leukocytes at heteroplasmic sites, consistent with mixed-tissue origin for cfDNA. For the other two patients, the heteroplasmy pattern is also different between plasma and leukocyte. Our study shed new lights into the architecture of the cfDNA, and mtDNA heteroplasmy identified in plasma provides new potential for biomarker discovery. PMID:27811968

  2. Changes of human plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity after intravenous administration of theophylline.

    PubMed Central

    Aunis, D; Mandel, P; Miras-Portugal, M T; Coquillat, G; Rohmer, F; Warter, J M

    1975-01-01

    The intravenous administration of theophylline to ten healthy human subjects produced either an increase of circulating plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase or no change. The rise of plasma enzyme activity may reflect the increased peripheral catecholamine release induced by theophylline. PMID:1137731

  3. Inactivation of Zika virus by solvent/detergent treatment of human plasma and other plasma-derived products and pasteurization of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, Denis; Müller, Sebastian; Pichotta, Alexander; Radomski, Kai Uwe; Volk, Andreas; Schmidt, Torben

    2017-03-01

    In 2016 the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) a "public health emergency of international concern." ZIKV is a blood-borne pathogen, which therefore causes concerns regarding the safety of human plasma-derived products due to potential contamination of the blood supply. This study investigated the effectiveness of viral inactivation steps used during the routine manufacturing of various plasma-derived products to reduce ZIKV infectivity. Human plasma and intermediates from the production of various plasma-derived products were spiked with ZIKV and subjected to virus inactivation using the identical techniques (either solvent/detergent [S/D] treatment or pasteurization) and conditions used for the actual production of the respective products. Samples were taken and the viral loads measured before and after inactivation. After S/D treatment of spiked intermediates of the plasma-derived products Octaplas(LG), Octagam, and Octanate, the viral loads were below the limit of detection in all cases. The mean log reduction factor (LRF) was at least 6.78 log for Octaplas(LG), at least 7.00 log for Octagam, and at least 6.18 log for Octanate after 60, 240, and 480 minutes of S/D treatment, respectively. For 25% human serum albumin (HSA), the mean LRF for ZIKV was at least 7.48 log after pasteurization at 60°C for 120 minutes. These results demonstrate that the commonly used virus inactivation processes utilized during the production of human plasma and plasma-derived products, namely, S/D treatment or pasteurization, are effective for inactivation of ZIKV. © 2016 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  4. Amino acid sequence of atrial natriuretic peptides in human coronary sinus plasma.

    PubMed

    Yandle, T; Crozier, I; Nicholls, G; Espiner, E; Carne, A; Brennan, S

    1987-07-31

    Two atrial natriuretic peptides were purified from pooled human coronary sinus plasma by Sep-Pak extraction, immunoaffinity chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were homologous with 99-126 human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) and 106-126 hANP, the latter being most probably linked to 99-105 ANP by the disulphide bond. The molar ratio of the peptides in plasma, as assessed by radioimmunoassay was 10:3.

  5. Yeast carboxypeptidase Y vacuolar targeting signal is defined by four propeptide amino acids

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The amino-terminal propeptide of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is necessary and sufficient for targeting this glycoprotein to the vacuole of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 16 amino acid stretch of the propeptide was subjected to region-directed mutagenesis using randomized oligonucleotides. Mutations altering any of four contiguous amino acids, Gln-Arg-Pro-Leu, resulted in secretion of the encoded CPY precursor (proCPY), demonstrating that these residues form the core of the vacuolar targeting signal. Cells that simultaneously synthesize both wild-type and sorting-defective forms of proCPY efficiently sort and deliver only the wild-type molecule to the vacuole. These results indicate that the PRC1 missorting mutations are cis-dominant, implying that the mutant forms of proCPY are secreted as a consequence of failing to interact with the sorting apparatus, rather than a general poisoning of the vacuolar protein targeting system. PMID:2199455

  6. Silencing of carboxypeptidase E inhibits cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shuli; Li, Xu; Li, Leiming; Wang, Liguo; Du, Zhangzhen; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Jiansong; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE), a prohormone processing enzyme, has been implicated in the progression of multiple malignancies. However, the biological role and molecular mechanisms of CPE in osteosarcoma remain elusive. In this study, we assessed the effects of CPE on cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, migration, and invasion in osteosarcoma. Our results showed that silencing of CPE significantly inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, decreased the expression levels of cell cycle protein, cyclin D1, and inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo. Additionally, CPE downregulation repressed the migratory and invasive capacities of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of CPE-ΔN (a splice variant of CPE) enhanced the cell growth, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. It is possible that both CPE forms are involved in the tumorigenesis and development of osteosarcoma, and therefore CPE may provide a promising biological target for osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:27274275

  7. Decreased synthesis of serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN) in familial SCPN deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.P.; Curd, J.G.; Hugli, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN) is the primary inactivator of the C3a, C4a, and C5a anaphylatoxins as well as an inactivator of bradykinin. Thus, SCPN deficiency potentially could result in significant pathophysiologic consequences. Previous studies identified a deficient subject afflicted with frequent episodes of angioedema, and other family members also had SCPN deficiency. To delineate this abnormality further, the fractional catabolic rate (FRC) and enzyme synthesis were determined in three members of the afflicted kindred as well as in five normal persons following the infusion of homogeneous /sup 125/I-SCPN. The mean FCR and synthesis rates for SCPN in the normal subjects were 1.3%/hr and 20,793 U/kg/hr, respectively. Reduced synthesis was concluded to be primarily responsible for the low SCPN levels in the afflicted kindred. The high FRC of SCPN discourages attempted maintenance therapy with infusions of enriched SCPN preparations.

  8. Inhibition of Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) activity as a treatment for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Kristen A.; Watkins, Crystal C.; Alt, Jesse; Rais, Rana; Stathis, Marigo; Grishkan, Inna; Crainiceau, Ciprian M.; Pomper, Martin G.; Rojas, Camilo; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Brandt, Jason; Barker, Peter B.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Kaplin, Adam I.

    2012-01-01

    Half of all patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience cognitive impairment, for which there is no pharmacological treatment. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we examined metabolic changes in the hippocampi of MS patients, compared the findings to performance on a neurocognitive test battery, and found that N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) concentration correlated with cognitive functioning. Specifically, MS patients with cognitive impairment had low hippocampal NAAG levels, whereas those with normal cognition demonstrated higher levels. We then evaluated glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors, known to increase brain NAAG levels, on cognition in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS. Whereas GCPII inhibitor administration did not affect physical disabilities, it increased brain NAAG levels and dramatically improved learning and memory test performance compared with vehicle-treated EAE mice. These data suggest that NAAG is a unique biomarker for cognitive function in MS and that inhibition of GCPII might be a unique therapeutic strategy for recovery of cognitive function. PMID:23169655

  9. Experience of using human albumin solution 4.5% in 1195 therapeutic plasma exchange procedures.

    PubMed

    Pusey, C; Dash, C; Garrett, M; Gascoigne, E; Gesinde, M; Gillanders, K; Wallington, T

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to document the incidence of adverse reactions (ADRs) in subjects undergoing therapeutic plasma exchange with human albumin 4.5% solution (Zenalb 4.5) and to explore whether there were any differences in tolerability with a change from UK to US plasma and a subsequent manufacturing modification. Zenalb 4.5 was initially manufactured from recovered plasma from UK blood donations and later from source plasma from US donors. The modification was a salt diafiltration step. A prospective survey was conducted at three UK aphaeresis units; data from 154 subjects undergoing 1195 plasma exchanges using Zenalb 4.5 were collected. Adverse events with at least a possible relationship to treatment were recorded. There were 20 ADRs per 1195 exchanges (1.7%), experienced by 14 subjects (9.1%). The most common reaction was rigours in 17 exchanges (1.4%) and 12 subjects (7.8%). ADRs occurred in 0.8% (2/250) of plasma exchanges with UK plasma, 0.2% (1/539) using US plasma/original manufacturing method, 4.3% (16/370) using US plasma/modified method and 12.5% (1/8) using US plasma/mixed original and modified methods. Data were incomplete for the remaining 28 exchanges, but no ADRs were reported. Moreover, 17 ADRs occurred over a 14-month period and involved 10 batches manufactured from US plasma (1 original, 9 by modified method). The incidence then returned to the previously lower level. There was no explanation for this cluster of events. Overall, there was no evidence that plasma source or manufacturing method affected tolerability and it was concluded that human albumin 4.5% solution (Zenalb 4.5) is well tolerated during plasma exchange therapy.

  10. Inhibition of platelet (/sup 3/H)- imipramine binding by human plasma protein fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Strijewski, A.; Chudzik, J.; Tang, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)-imipramine binding to platelet membranes by human plasma fractions and isolated plasma proteins was investigated. Several plasma proteins were found to contribute to the observed apparent inhibition and this contribution was assessed in terms of inhibitor units. Alpha/sub 1/ acid glycoprotein, high density and low density lipoprotein, IgG and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin were identified as effective non-specific inhibitors. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein was confirmed to be the most potent plasma protein inhibitor. Cohn fractions were evaluated for the presence of the postulated endocoid of (/sup 3/H)-imipramine binding site.

  11. AmpH, a Bifunctional dd-Endopeptidase and dd-Carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Leiza, Silvia M.; de Pedro, Miguel A.; Ayala, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs) are important for correct cell morphogenesis. These enzymes display dd-carboxypeptidase and/or dd-endopeptidase activities associated with maturation and remodeling of peptidoglycan (PG). AmpH has been classified as an AmpH-type class C LMM PBP, a group closely related to AmpC β-lactamases. AmpH has been associated with PG recycling, although its enzymatic activity remained uncharacterized until now. Construction and purification of His-tagged AmpH from E. coli permitted a detailed study of its enzymatic properties. The N-terminal export signal of AmpH is processed, but the protein remains membrane associated. The PBP nature of AmpH was demonstrated by its ability to bind the β-lactams Bocillin FL (a fluorescent penicillin) and cefmetazole. In vitro assays with AmpH and specific muropeptides demonstrated that AmpH is a bifunctional dd–endopeptidase and dd-carboxypeptidase. Indeed, the enzyme cleaved the cross-linked dimers tetrapentapeptide (D45) and tetratetrapeptide (D44) with efficiencies (kcat/Km) of 1,200 M−1 s−1 and 670 M−1 s−1, respectively, and removed the terminal d-alanine from muropeptides with a C-terminal d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptide. Both dd-peptidase activities were inhibited by 40 μM cefmetazole. AmpH also displayed a weak β-lactamase activity for nitrocefin of 1.4 × 10−3 nmol/μg protein/min, 1/1,000 the rate obtained for AmpC under the same conditions. AmpH was also active on purified sacculi, exhibiting the bifunctional character that was seen with pure muropeptides. The wide substrate spectrum of the dd-peptidase activities associated with AmpH supports a role for this protein in PG remodeling or recycling. PMID:22001512

  12. Structural basis of the resistance of an insect carboxypeptidase to plant protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bayés, Alex; Comellas-Bigler, Mireia; de la Vega, Monica Rodríguez; Maskos, Klaus; Bode, Wolfram; Aviles, Francesc X.; Jongsma, Maarten A.; Beekwilder, Jules; Vendrell, Josep

    2005-01-01

    Corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), also called tomato fruitworm, is a common pest of many Solanaceous plants. This insect is known to adapt to the ingestion of plant serine protease inhibitors by using digestive proteases that are insensitive to inhibition. We have now identified a B-type carboxypeptidase of H. zea (CPBHz) insensitive to potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) in corn earworm. To elucidate the structural features leading to the adaptation of the insect enzyme, the crystal structure of the recombinant CPBHz protein was determined by x-ray diffraction. CPBHz is a member of the A/B subfamily of metallocarboxypeptidases, which displays the characteristic metallocarboxypeptidase α/β-hydrolase fold, and does not differ essentially from the previously described Helicoverpa armigera CPA, which is very sensitive to PCI. The data provide structural insight into several functional properties of CPBHz. The high selectivity shown by CPBHz for C-terminal lysine residues is due to residue changes in the S1′ substrate specificity pocket that render it unable to accommodate the side chain of an arginine. The insensitivity of CPBHz to plant inhibitors is explained by the exceptional positioning of two of the main regions that stabilize other carboxypeptidase–PCI complexes, the β8-α9 loop, and α7 together with the α7-α8 loop. The rearrangement of these two regions leads to a displacement of the active-site entrance that impairs the proper interaction with PCI. This report explains a crystal structure of an insect protease and its adaptation to defensive plant protease inhibitors. PMID:16260742

  13. Carboxypeptidase Z (CPZ) links thyroid hormone and Wnt signaling pathways in growth plate chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Shao, Yvonne Y; Ballock, R Tracy

    2009-02-01

    Carboxypeptidase Z (CPZ) removes carboxyl-terminal basic amino acid residues, particularly arginine residues, from proteins. CPZ contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) similar to the CRD found in the frizzled family of Wnt receptors. We have previously shown that thyroid hormone regulates terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes through activation of Wnt-4 expression and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. The Wnt-4 protein contains a C-terminal arginine residue and binds to CPZ through the CRD. The objective of this study was to determine whether CPZ modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Our results show that CPZ and Wnt-4 mRNA are co-expressed throughout growth plate cartilage. In primary pellet cultures of rat growth plate chondrocytes, thyroid hormone increases both Wnt-4 and CPZ expression, as well as CPZ enzymatic activity. Knockdown of either Wnt-4 or CPZ mRNA levels using an RNA interference technique or blocking CPZ enzymatic activity with the carboxypeptidase inhibitor GEMSA reduces the thyroid hormone effect on both alkaline phosphatase activity and Col10a1 mRNA expression. Adenoviral overexpression of CPZ activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and promotes the terminal differentiation of growth plate cells. Overexpression of CPZ in growth plate chondrocytes also removes the C-terminal arginine residue from a synthetic peptide consisting of the carboxyl-terminal 16 amino acids of the Wnt-4 protein. Removal of the C-terminal arginine residue of Wnt-4 by site-directed mutagenesis enhances the positive effect of Wnt-4 on terminal differentiation. These data indicate that thyroid hormone may regulate terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes in part by modulating Wnt signaling pathways through the induction of CPZ and subsequent CPZ-enhanced activation of Wnt-4.

  14. pH-dependent properties of cobalt(II) carboxypeptidase A-inhibitor complexes.

    PubMed

    Auld, D S; Bertini, I; Donaire, A; Messori, L; Moratal, J M

    1992-04-21

    1H NMR spectroscopy of the isotropically shifted signals in cobalt carboxypeptidase, CoCPD, permits a direct and selective detection of protons belonging to the residues liganded to the metal. The chemical shift of these protons in the free enzyme and enzyme-inhibitor complexes with changing pH monitors the state of ionization of the ligands directly and of other residues in the active center indirectly. The 1H NMR spectrum of CoCPD at pH 6 shows three well-resolved isotropically shifted signals in the downfield region at 62 (a), 52 (c), and 45 (d) ppm which have been assigned to the NH proton of His-69 and to the C-4 H's of His-69 and His-196, respectively. Titration of signal a with pH is characterized by a pKa of 8.8 which is identical to that seen in prior electronic absorption and kinetic studies. The fact that the signal reflecting the NH of His-69 is still observed at pH 10 and no major shifts occur for the signals reflecting the C-4 H's indicates the alkaline pKa in carboxypeptidase A catalysis, pKEH, cannot be ascribed to ionization of the histidyl NH of either His-69 or His-196. Binding of L-Phe shifts this pKa to 7.7 while not greatly perturbing the downfield 1H NMR signals that reflect the ligation shell of the cobalt coordination sphere. These results indicate the pKa of 8.8 in CoCPD and the pKa of 7.7 in the CoCPD.L-Phe adduct reflect ionization of the same group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A expression in body fluid and gastrointestinal tract associated with drug-related fatal anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiang-Jie; Wang, Ying-Yuan; Zhang, Hao-Yue; Jin, Qian-Qian; Gao, Cai-Rong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in drug-related fatal anaphylaxis. METHODS: The expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in 15 autopsy cases of drug-related fatal anaphylaxis and 20 normal autopsy cases were detected. First, the expression of mast cell tryptase was determined in stomach, jejunum, lung, heart, and larynx by immunofluorescence. Different tissues were removed and fixed in paraformaldehyde solution, then paraffin sections were prepared for immunofluorescence. Using specific mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A antibodies, the expression of tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in gastroenterology tract and other tissues were observed using fluorescent microscopy. The postmortem serum and pericardial fluid were collected from drug-related fatal anaphylaxis and normal autopsy cases. The level of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid were measured using fluor enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (FEIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. The expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A was analyzed in drug-related fatal anaphylaxis cases and compared to normal autopsy cases. RESULTS: The expression of carboxypeptidase A was less in the gastroenterology tract and other tissues from anaphylaxis-related death cadavers than normal controls. Immunofluorescence revealed that tryptase expression was significantly increased in multiple organs, especially the gastrointestinal tract, from anaphylaxis-related death cadavers compared to normal autopsy cases (46.67 ± 11.11 vs 4.88 ± 1.56 in stomach, 48.89 ± 11.02 vs 5.21 ± 1.34 in jejunum, 33.72 ± 5.76 vs 1.30 ± 1.02 in lung, 40.08 ± 7.56 vs 1.67 ± 1.03 in larynx, 7.11 ± 5.67 vs 1.10 ± 0.77 in heart, P < 0.05). Tryptase levels, as measured with FEIA, were significantly increased in both sera (43.50 ± 0.48 μg/L vs 5.40 ± 0.36 μg/L, P < 0.05) and pericardial fluid (28.64 ± 0

  16. Mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A expression in body fluid and gastrointestinal tract associated with drug-related fatal anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiang-Jie; Wang, Ying-Yuan; Zhang, Hao-Yue; Jin, Qian-Qian; Gao, Cai-Rong

    2015-12-21

    To investigate the expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in drug-related fatal anaphylaxis. The expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in 15 autopsy cases of drug-related fatal anaphylaxis and 20 normal autopsy cases were detected. First, the expression of mast cell tryptase was determined in stomach, jejunum, lung, heart, and larynx by immunofluorescence. Different tissues were removed and fixed in paraformaldehyde solution, then paraffin sections were prepared for immunofluorescence. Using specific mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A antibodies, the expression of tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in gastroenterology tract and other tissues were observed using fluorescent microscopy. The postmortem serum and pericardial fluid were collected from drug-related fatal anaphylaxis and normal autopsy cases. The level of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid were measured using fluor enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (FEIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. The expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A was analyzed in drug-related fatal anaphylaxis cases and compared to normal autopsy cases. The expression of carboxypeptidase A was less in the gastroenterology tract and other tissues from anaphylaxis-related death cadavers than normal controls. Immunofluorescence revealed that tryptase expression was significantly increased in multiple organs, especially the gastrointestinal tract, from anaphylaxis-related death cadavers compared to normal autopsy cases (46.67 ± 11.11 vs 4.88 ± 1.56 in stomach, 48.89 ± 11.02 vs 5.21 ± 1.34 in jejunum, 33.72 ± 5.76 vs 1.30 ± 1.02 in lung, 40.08 ± 7.56 vs 1.67 ± 1.03 in larynx, 7.11 ± 5.67 vs 1.10 ± 0.77 in heart, P < 0.05). Tryptase levels, as measured with FEIA, were significantly increased in both sera (43.50 ± 0.48 μg/L vs 5.40 ± 0.36 μg/L, P < 0.05) and pericardial fluid (28.64 ± 0.32 μg/L vs 4.60 ± 0

  17. Analysis of non-thermal plasma-induced cell injury in human lung cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Sano, Kaori; Wada, Motoi; Mizuno, Kazue; Ono, Ryo; Yasuda, Hachiro; Takashima, Kazunori; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Recent progress of biomedical application of atmospheric pressure plasma shows that the biological effects are mainly due to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in liquid produced by the plasma exposure. To elucidate the cellular responses induced by exposure to the plasma, we focused on identification and quantification of reactive chemical species in plasma-exposed cell culture medium, and cell injury in mammalian cells after treatment of the plasma-exposed medium. In this study, we examined human lung cancer cell lines. The contribution of H2O2 to the cellular responses was considered. Here, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) sustained by a pulsed power supply in argon was used. After APPJ exposure to cell culture medium, RONS detection in liquid was conducted. It showed that OH radical, ONOO-, NO2-, NO3-, and H2O2 were produced in the plasma-exposed medium. Cellular responses of human lung cancer cell lines to the plasma-exposed medium in a concentration-dependence manner were also studied. It showed that the plasma-exposed medium and the H2O2 treatment gave similar reduction in viability and induction of apoptosis. This work was partly supported by MEXT KAKENHI Grant Number 24108005 and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26390096.

  18. Comparative proteomics evaluation of plasma exosome isolation techniques and assessment of the stability of exosomes in normal human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Hina; Adda, Christopher G; Liem, Michael; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mechler, Adam; Simpson, Richard J; Hulett, Mark D; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2013-11-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by a variety of cells and are detected in body fluids including blood. Recent studies have highlighted the critical application of exosomes as personalized targeted drug delivery vehicles and as reservoirs of disease biomarkers. While these research applications have created significant interest and can be translated into practice, the stability of exosomes needs to be assessed and exosome isolation protocols from blood plasma need to be optimized. To optimize methods to isolate exosomes from blood plasma, we performed a comparative evaluation of three exosome isolation techniques (differential centrifugation coupled with ultracentrifugation, epithelial cell adhesion molecule immunoaffinity pull-down, and OptiPrep(TM) density gradient separation) using normal human plasma. Based on MS, Western blotting and microscopy results, we found that the OptiPrep(TM) density gradient method was superior in isolating pure exosomal populations, devoid of highly abundant plasma proteins. In addition, we assessed the stability of exosomes in plasma over 90 days under various storage conditions. Western blotting analysis using the exosomal marker, TSG101, revealed that exosomes are stable for 90 days. Interestingly, in the context of cellular uptake, the isolated exosomes were able to fuse with target cells revealing that they were indeed biologically active.

  19. Inhibition of the Apparent Rate of Synthesis of the Vacuolar Glycoprotein Carboxypeptidase Y and Its Protein Antigen by Tunicamycin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hasilik, Andrej; Tanner, Widmar

    1976-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase Y from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 14% mannose, the only neutral sugar present. An antiserum can be raised in rabbits which reacts with both the protein and the sugar moieties of the enzyme. This antiserum also precipitates yeast invertase and yeast cell wall mannan. Thus carboxypeptidase Y, which is known to be localized in yeast vacuoles, is very probably a mannoprotein. Tunicamycin inhibits the apparent formation of carboxypeptidase Y to a similar extent as that of the externally localized mannoprotein, invertase. No accumulation of an inactive nonglycosylated or partly glycosylated carboxypeptidase Y occurs as determined by the immunoprecipitation technique. Tunicamycin also inhibits the apparent formation of proteinase A, whereas it does not affect the increase in the activities of a number of other enzymes. It is suggested that in the synthesis of glycoproteins there exists a regulatory link between the synthesis of their polypeptide chains and the reactions involved in their glycosylation. PMID:791099

  20. A comprehensive method for extraction and quantitative analysis of sterols and secosteroids from human plasma[S

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Smith, Daniel D.; Stiles, Ashlee R.; Russell, David W.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a method for the extraction and analysis of 62 sterols, oxysterols, and secosteroids from human plasma using a combination of HPLC-MS and GC-MS. Deuterated standards are added to 200 μl of human plasma. Bulk lipids are extracted with methanol:dichloromethane, the sample is hydrolyzed using a novel procedure, and sterols and secosteroids are isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Compounds are resolved on C18 core-shell HPLC columns and by GC. Sterols and oxysterols are measured using triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, and lathosterol is measured using GC-MS. Detection for each compound measured by HPLC-MS was ∪ 1 ng/ml of plasma. Extraction efficiency was between 85 and 110%; day-to-day variability showed a relative standard error of <10%. Numerous oxysterols were detected, including the side chain oxysterols 22-, 24-, 25-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, as well as ring-structure oxysterols 7α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol. Intermediates from the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway were also detected, including zymosterol, desmosterol, and lanosterol. This method also allowed the quantification of six secosteroids, including the 25-hydroxylated species of vitamins D2 and D3. Application of this method to plasma samples revealed that at least 50 samples could be extracted in a routine day. PMID:22517925

  1. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with HPV16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takako; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Yamasaki, Kentaro; Miura, Kiyonori; Katamine, Shigeru; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2010-05-01

    The squamous cell carcinoma antigen is considered the most accurate serologic tumor marker for uterine cervical carcinoma. However, serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels were found to correlate significantly with clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and chronic renal failure. The present study was conducted in patients with human papillomavirus 16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer to determine the plasma level of human papillomavirus 16 DNA and the diagnostic values of plasma human papillomavirus DNA in these patients. Forty-three human papillomavirus 16-positive patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma were recruited in this study. The diagnosis was cervical cancer in 20 patients, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 21, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 1 and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy in 3 patients. Before any treatment, blood samples were collected from all patients. For analysis of human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with cervical cancer, quantitative polymerase chain reaction fluorescent assay for human papillomavirus 16 was performed using human papillomavirus 16 primers and SYBR Green dye using the LightCycler 480 SW1.5 apparatus. Plasma human papillomavirus 16 DNA was detected in only 30.0% of the patients with human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer and in none of normal controls. The copy number of plasma human papillomavirus 16 DNA was higher in patients with invasive cancer than in those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3), micro-invasive cancer and in normal individuals. These results indicated that the plasma human papillomavirus DNA level could be potentially used as a marker of low-invasive cervical cancer tumors in patients with normal squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels before treatment.

  2. Bacterial Inactivation of Wound Infection in a Human Skin Model by Liquid-Phase Discharge Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul Y.; Kim, Yoon-Sun; Koo, Il Gyo; Jung, Jae Chul; Kim, Gon Jun; Choi, Myeong Yeol; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George J.

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigate disinfection of a reconstructed human skin model contaminated with biofilm-formative Staphylococcus aureus employing plasma discharge in liquid. Principal Findings We observed statistically significant 3.83-log10 (p<0.001) and 1.59-log10 (p<0.05) decreases in colony forming units of adherent S. aureus bacteria and 24 h S. aureus biofilm culture with plasma treatment. Plasma treatment was associated with minimal changes in histological morphology and tissue viability determined by means of MTT assay. Spectral analysis of the plasma discharge indicated the presence of highly reactive atomic oxygen radicals (777 nm and 844 nm) and OH bands in the UV region. The contribution of these and other plasma-generated agents and physical conditions to the reduction in bacterial load are discussed. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of liquid plasma treatment as a potential adjunct therapy for chronic wounds. PMID:21897870

  3. Relationship between plasma and saliva quinine levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Ogunbona, F A; Dixon, P A

    1996-02-01

    The relationship between saliva and plasma levels of quinine was studied in four healthy volunteers. After a single oral dose of quinine sulfate (600 mg) to the volunteers, quinine was determined in both saliva and plasma simultaneously over a 48-h period by an ion pair reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography method. The tmax (4.3 +/- 0.5 h) and elimination half-life (11.8 +/- 2.9 h) of quinine derived from saliva levels were comparable with those obtained from plasma levels (tmax = 2.8 +/- 0.2 h, t1/2 = 12.9 +/- 2.3 h). A significant correlation existed between the plasma and saliva concentrations of the drug (r = 0.93, n = 20, p < 0.001). The mean saliva/plasma quinine concentration ratio was 0.24 +/- 0.02. The results suggest that quinine is passively secreted into saliva and that saliva level determination may be useful as a noninvasive method in the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters and therapeutic drug monitoring of quinine.

  4. Peptidomic analysis of human blood specimens: comparison between plasma specimens and serum by differential peptide display.

    PubMed

    Tammen, Harald; Schulte, Imke; Hess, Rudiger; Menzel, Christoph; Kellmann, Markus; Mohring, Thomas; Schulz-Knappe, Peter

    2005-08-01

    The human Plasma Proteome Project pilot phase aims to analyze serum and plasma specimens to elucidate specimen characteristics by various proteomic techniques to ensure sufficient sample quality for the HUPO main phase. We used our proprietary peptidomics technologies to analyze the samples distributed by HUPO. Peptidomics summarizes technologies for visualization, quantitation, and identification of the low-molecular-weight proteome (<15 kDa), the "peptidome." We analyzed all four HUPO specimens (EDTA plasma, citrate plasma, heparin plasma, and serum) from African- and Asian-American donors and compared them to in-house collected Caucasian specimens. One main finding focuses on the most suitable method of plasma specimen collection. Gentle platelet removal from plasma samples is beneficial for improved specificity. Platelet contamination or activation of platelets by low temperature prior to their removal leads to distinct and multiple peptide signals in plasma samples. Two different specimen collection protocols for platelet-poor plasma are recommended. Further emphasis is placed on the differences between plasma and serum on a peptidomic level. A large number of peptides, many of them in rather high abundance, are only present in serum and not detectable in plasma. This ex vivo generation of multiple peptides hampers discovery efforts and is caused by a variety of factors: the release of platelet-derived peptides, other peptides derived from cellular components or the clot, enzymatic activities of coagulation cascades, and other proteases. We conclude that specimen collection is a crucial step for successful peptide biomarker discovery in human blood samples. For analysis of the low-molecular-weight proteome, we recommend the use of platelet-depleted EDTA or citrate plasma.

  5. Renal excretion of plasma soluble melanins by healthy human adults.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Z L; Nayak, U

    1993-01-01

    The soluble melanins of blood plasma form in vivo and in vitro from dopa, catecholamines, catechol, hydroquinone, homogentisic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, p-aminophenol, p-phenylenediamine and other structurally related end(ex)ogenous compounds by oxidative polymerization. The mean quantity of natural melanins in normal plasma is 1.61 +/- 0.10 (standard deviation) mg/ml, (n = 20) and in uraemic plasma 2.72 +/- 0.38 mg/ml, (n = 16). The plasma melanins (approximately 3%), are associated with proteins (approximately 85%), mucoproteins (approximately 0.25%), lipids (approximately 0.4%), as soluble lipofuscins, and probably are associated with proteins without lipids as soluble melanoproteins. Fluorescence, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies and the melanin isolation method show the presence of soluble melanins in the urine of healthy people. Soluble melanins can also be formed in vitro in the urine by oxidative polymerization of the precursors. In most of the urine samples we studied, melanins were present in larger amounts than the urinary proteins, indicating that the kidneys can selectively excrete the melanin components of the lipofuscins, and that the solubility of melanins does not depend upon combination with proteins. The quantities of purified melanins precipitated with 6 N HCl at 110 degrees C during 72 h from urine samples collected during 24 h periods ranged from 0.1460 g to 3.7627 g (mean 1.1303 +/- 1.1739 g, n = 8) and the plasma clearance rates ranged from 0.06 ml/min to 1.56 ml/min (mean 0.48 +/- 0.48 ml/min, n = 8). From the individual 24 h urine samples we obtained from 9 to 216 mg/dl of precipitated melanins while the individual plasma samples contained from 145 to 175 mg/dl.

  6. Age differences in plasma norepinephrine kinetics in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, R.C.; Featherstone, J.A.; Linares, O.A.; Halter, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    To determine if the increased plasma norepinephrine (NE) of older individuals is due to greater plasma NE appearance rate and/or decreased NE clearance, arterialized plasma NE kinetics were measured in 25 healthy young (27 +/- 6 yr, M +/- SD) and 18 healthy older volunteers (68 +/- 5 yr) using a tritium-labeled NE isotope dilution technique. Basal NE levels were 54% greater in the older participants (282 +/- 24 vs. 183 +/- 11 pg/ml, M +/- SEM, p less than .001). The mean plasma NE appearance rate was 32% higher (0.33 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.02 microgram/m2/min, p less than .016) and NE clearance was 19% lower (1.21 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.49 +/- 0.06 L/min/m2, p less than .006) in the older participants. There was a close correlation between NE appearance rate and NE levels (r = .76, p less than .001, N = 43), but only modest inverse correlation between NE clearance and NE levels (r = -.37, p less than .01, N = 43). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that NE appearance rate and clearance explained 80% of the variance in NE levels and that 57% of the variance was attributable to NE appearance, F (1,41) = 54.8, p less than .001, compared with only 14% by NE clearance, F (1, 41) = 6.5, p = .01. We conclude that the principal factor accounting for the higher plasma NE levels of older individuals is an increase in plasma NE appearance rate.

  7. Turnover of adenosine in plasma of human and dog blood

    SciTech Connect

    Moeser, G.H.S.; Schrader, J.; Deussen, A.

    1989-04-01

    To determine half-life and turnover of plasma adenosine, heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with radiolabeled adenosine in the physiological concentration range of 0.1-1 microM. Plasma levels of adenosine in vitro were 82 +/- 14 nM and were similar to those determined immediately after blood collection with a ''stopping solution.'' Dipyridamole (83 microM) and erythro-9(2-hydroxynon-3yl)-adenine (EHNA) (8 microM) did not measurably alter basal adenosine levels but completely blocked the uptake of added adenosine. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase with 100 microM alpha, beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (AOPCP) reduced plasma adenosine to 22 +/- 6 nM. For the determination of adenosine turnover, the decrease in specific radioactivity of added (/sup 3/H)adenosine was measured using a dipyridamole-containing stopping solution. Without altering basal adenosine levels, the half-life was estimated to be 0.6 s. Similar experiments were carried out with washed erythrocytes or in the presence of AOPCP, yielding half-lives of 0.7 and 0.9 s, respectively. When the initial adenosine concentration was 1 microM, its specific activity decreased by only 11% within 5 s, whereas total plasma adenosine exponentially decreased with a half-life of 1.5 s. Venous plasma concentrations were measured after relief of a 3-min forearm ischemia. Changes in plasma adenosine did not correlate well with changes in blood flow but were augmented in the presence of dipyridamole.

  8. In vitro assessment of the formation of ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Hans-Rudolf; Detampel, Pascal; Bühler, Theo; Büttler, André; Gygax, Benjamin; Huwyler, Jörg

    2011-06-01

    Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which has a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity. Ceftriaxone is highly soluble as a sodium salt, but far less soluble as a calcium salt. Incompatibility of ceftriaxone with calcium and the possible formation of precipitates have been stated in the product label from early on. It was the objective of the present in vitro study to further assess the risk of precipitation of calcium-ceftriaxone in human plasma. Analytical methods were developed (high-performance liquid chromatography and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy) to quantitate calcium and ceftriaxone in human plasma supernatants and human plasma precipitates. Using high concentrations of ceftriaxone (10 mmol/L) and calcium (4.2 mmol/L) did not result in any precipitation after 2 h incubation in human plasma at 37 °C. Under conditions of forced precipitation only, formation of precipitation was observed. The identity of the precipitated material was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We conclude that calcium-ceftriaxone in human plasma has an apparent kinetic solubility product constant of greater than 0.42 × 10(-4) (mol/L)(2), which exceeds the normal thermodynamic solubility product in water by a factor of 26. Under these conditions, the formation of plasma precipitates is unlikely.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase is rapidly and efficiently inactivated in human plasma by alpha 2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Kisselev, A F; von der Helm, K

    1994-10-01

    Human plasma impairs the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) proteinase to cleave the HIV-1 gag-polyprotein precursor. The inhibition is due to the entrapment of the proteinase by plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M). In methylamine-treated plasma, where alpha 2M is inactivated, HIV proteinase is not blocked. The interaction of alpha 2M and HIV-1 proteinase resulting in covalent complexes of proteinase and alpha 2M was demonstrated by immunoblotting with antiserum either to alpha 2M or to the HIV proteinase. We suggest if HIV-1 proteinase would be released in vivo from infected patients' cells, alpha 2M entrapment may prevent or minimize a conceivable cleavage of extracellular matrix or plasma proteins by the HIV-1 enzyme.

  10. Human traumatic brain injury alters plasma microRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Ward, Norman H; Hergenroeder, Georgene W; Dash, Pramod K

    2010-12-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) present in the serum/plasma are characteristically altered in many pathological conditions, and have been employed as diagnostic markers for specific diseases. We examined if plasma miRNA levels are altered in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to matched healthy volunteers, and explored their potential for use as diagnostic TBI biomarkers. The plasma miRNA profiles from severe TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8) and age-, gender-, and race-matched healthy volunteers were compared by microarray analysis. Of the 108 miRNAs identified in healthy volunteer plasma, 52 were altered after severe TBI, including 33 with decreased and 19 with increased relative abundance. An additional 8 miRNAs were detected only in the TBI plasma. We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine if plasma miRNAs could identify TBI patients within the first 24 h post-injury. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that miR-16, miR-92a, and miR-765 were good markers of severe TBI (0.89, 0.82, and 0.86 AUC values, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that combining these miRNAs markedly increased diagnostic accuracy (100% specificity and 100% sensitivity), compared to either healthy volunteers or orthopedic injury patients. In mild TBI patients (GCS score > 12), miR-765 levels were unchanged, while the plasma levels of miR-92a and miR-16 were significantly increased within the first 24 h of injury compared to healthy volunteers, and had AUC values of 0.78 and 0.82, respectively. Our results demonstrate that circulating miRNA levels are altered after TBI, providing a rich new source of potential molecular biomarkers. Plasma-derived miRNA biomarkers, used in combination with established clinical practices such as imaging, neurocognitive, and motor examinations, have the potential to improve TBI patient classification and possibly management.

  11. Potentiation of the anaphylatoxins in vivo using an inhibitor of serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN). I. Lethality and pathologic effects on pulmonary tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Huey, R.; Bloor, C. M.; Kawahara, M. S.; Hugli, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase N (EC 3.4.12.7) (SCPN) is a plasma enzyme that efficiently inactivates the anaphylatoxins C3a and C4a and significantly reduces C5a spasmogenic activity by removing the C-terminal arginyl residue from each of these factors. The arginine analog DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid (SCPN-INH) is a potent competitive inhibitor of SCPN with a Ki for this carboxypeptidase in serum of 2 x 10(-9) M. Therefore, we have used the SCPN inhibitor to potentiate biologic activity of the anaphylatoxins in vivo. Infusion via the carotid artery of about 40 mg of SCPN-INH into each of 8 adult guinea pigs inactivated the SCPN for at least 3 hours and caused no measurable toxic effects. When cobra venom factor (CVF) is infused into guinea pigs, it activates the alternative pathway of complement, thereby generating the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Ordinarily, infusion of CVF is nonlethal, because the generated anaphylatoxins are rapidly converted to C3a des Arg and C5a des Arg by SCPN. However, CVF (200 micrograms) plus SCPN-INH delivered intravenously in 5 animals induced a lethal reaction in less than 5 minutes. The authors conclude that the lethal effect is due largely to the anaphylatoxins. Histologic sections of the lungs from treated animals show dramatic structural changes consistent with peripheral small airway constriction, bronchial constriction, and vasoconstriction of small muscular arteries. Also, cell aggregates are present in blood vessels. Other histologic changes include severe congestion, pulmonary edema, and an interstitial infiltrate of mononuclear cells. Large doses of chlorpheniramine prevent this lethal reaction. Lethality is apparently attributable to asphyxia and is dependent on the level of CVF administered: eg, 100 micrograms CVF was not lethal in 4 animals given SCPN inhibitor, although signs of respiratory distress were observed. On histologic examination of lungs from guinea pigs given CVF and SCPN-INH, the features are

  12. Modulation of Human Plasma Fibronectin Levels Following Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    increased under conditions of pathology, such as in obesity (6). cancer (3). proteinuria (4). diabetic retinopathy (5). and preeclampsia (27). in the absence...Res. 1977: 22:709-716. 27. Stubbs. T.M.. Lazarchick. J.. and Horger. E.O. Plasma fibronectin levels in preeclampsia : A possible biochemical marker

  13. Separation of Albumin, Ceruloplasmin, and Transferrin from Human Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Grady; Frieden, Earl

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are provided for separating the principal metalloproteins (albumin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin) from plasma using column chromatographic techniques. The experiment can be completed in two separate three-hour laboratory periods during which column chromatography is illustrated and the effect of pH on charge and affinity of a protein…

  14. Plasma adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in human hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hamet, P; Kuchel, O; Fraysse, J; Genest, J

    1974-08-17

    In a previous study we observed an increase in urinary cyclic AMP in labile hypertension in the upright position and during isoproterenol infusion, in contrast to a decrease in control subjects. In the present study we measured the plasma level of cyclic AMP in control subjects and patients with various types of hypertension. We obtained the following results: (1) plasma cyclic AMP increases in response to upright posture in control subjects and hypertensive patients; (2) values of cyclic AMP in the recumbent and upright positions are comparable in control subjects and patients with essential hypertension, but are significantly higher in those with true renovascular hypertension due to bilateral renal artery stenosis; (3) propranolol inhibits the increase of plasma cyclic AMP in response to posture in control subjects, but has an opposite effect in labile hypertension where there is a further increase; (4) the rise in blood pressure in pheochromocytoma is associated with a considerable increase in plasma cyclic AMP.Present and previous data suggest that kidney handling of cyclic AMP is abnormal in hypertension, and that the specific defect may be related to the type of hypertension.

  15. Separation of Albumin, Ceruloplasmin, and Transferrin from Human Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Grady; Frieden, Earl

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are provided for separating the principal metalloproteins (albumin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin) from plasma using column chromatographic techniques. The experiment can be completed in two separate three-hour laboratory periods during which column chromatography is illustrated and the effect of pH on charge and affinity of a protein…

  16. Plasma membrane proteomics of human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dormeyer, Wilma; van Hoof, Dennis; Braam, Stefan R; Heck, Albert J R; Mummery, Christine L; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2008-07-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are of immense interest in regenerative medicine as they can self-renew indefinitely and can give rise to any adult cell type. Human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs) are the malignant counterparts of hESCs found in testis tumors. hESCs that have acquired chromosomal abnormalities in culture are essentially indistinguishable from hECC. Direct comparison of karyotypically normal hESCs with hECCs could lead to understanding differences between their mechanisms of growth control and contribute to implementing safe therapeutic use of stem cells without the development of germ cell cancer. While several comparisons of hECCs and hESCs have been reported, their cell surface proteomes are largely unknown, partly because plasma membrane proteomics is still a major challenge. Here, we present a strategy for the identification of plasma membrane proteins that has been optimized for application to the relatively small numbers of stem cells normally available, and that does not require tedious cell fractionation. The method led to the identification of 237 and 219 specific plasma membrane proteins in the hESC line HUES-7 and the hECC line NT2/D1, respectively. In addition to known stemness-associated cell surface markers like ALP, CD9, and CTNNB, a large number of receptors, transporters, signal transducers, and cell-cell adhesion proteins were identified. Our study revealed that several Hedgehog and Wnt pathway members are differentially expressed in hESCs and hECCs including NPC1, FZD2, FZD6, FZD7, LRP6, and SEMA4D, which play a pivotal role in stem cell self-renewal and cancer growth. Various proteins encoded on chromosome 12p, duplicated in testicular cancer, were uniquely identified in hECCs. These included GAPDH, LDHB, YARS2, CLSTN3, CSDA, LRP6, NDUFA9, and NOL1, which are known to be upregulated in testicular cancer. Distinct HLA molecules were revealed on the surface of hESCs and hECCs, despite their low abundance. Results were

  17. Microenvironment-dependent growth of pre-neoplastic and malignant plasma cells in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rituparna; Strowig, Till; Verma, Rakesh; Koduru, Srinivas; Hafemann, Anja; Hopf, Stephanie; Kocoglu, Mehmet H.; Borsotti, Chiara; Zhang, Lin; Branagan, Andrew; Eynon, Elizabeth; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2016-01-01

    Most human cancers including myeloma are preceded by a precursor state. There is an unmet need for in vivo models to study the interaction of human preneoplastic cells in the bone marrow microenvironment with non-malignant cells. Here, we genetically humanized mice to permit the growth of primary human pre-neoplastic and malignant plasma cells together with non-malignant cells in vivo [?]. Growth was largely restricted to the bone marrow, mirroring the pattern in patients. Xenografts captured the genomic complexity of parental tumors and revealed additional somatic changes. Moreover, xenografts from patients with preneoplastic gammopathy showed progressive growth, suggesting that the clinical stability of these lesions may in part be due to growth controls extrinsic to tumor cells. These data demonstrate a new approach to investigate the entire spectrum of human plasma cell neoplasia and illustrate the utility of humanized models for understanding the functional diversity of human tumors [?]. PMID:27723723

  18. Clotting factor VIII (FVIII) and thrombin generation in camel plasma: A comparative study with humans

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil M.; Al Momen, Abdul Karim M.; Alhaider, Abdulqader; Brooks, Marjory B.; Catalfamo, James L.; Al Haidary, Ahmed A.; Hussain, Mansour F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the highly elevated levels of clotting factor VIII (FVIII) in camel plasma. Whole blood was collected from healthy camels and factor VIII clotting activity (FVIII:C) assays were conducted using both the clotting and the chromogenic techniques. The anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA) produced the highest harvest of FVIII:C, the level of plasma factor VIII, compared to heparin:saline and heparin:CPDA anticoagulants. Camel FVIII can be concentrated 2 to 3 times in cryoprecipitate. There was a significant loss of camel FVIII when comparing levels of FVIII in camel plasma after 1 h of incubation at 37°C (533%), 40°C (364%), and 50°C (223%). Thrombin generation of camel plasma is comparable to that of human plasma. It was concluded that camel plasma contains very elevated levels of FVIII:C, approaching 8 times the levels in human plasma, and that these elevated levels could not be attributed to excessive thrombin generation. Unlike human FVIII:C, camel FVIII:C is remarkably heat stable. Taken together, these unique features of camel FVIII could be part of the physiological adaptation of hemostasis of the Arabian camel in order to survive in the hot desert environment. PMID:24082408

  19. Alternative pathways of thromboplastin-dependent activation of human factor X in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Marlar, R.A.; Griffin, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the interrelationships of the major coagulation pathways, the activation of 3H-labeled factor X in normal and various deficient human plasmas was evaluated when clotting was triggered by dilute rabbit or human thromboplastin. Various dilutions of thromboplastin and calcium were added to plasma samples containing 3H-factor X, and the time course of factor X activation was determined. At a 1/250 dilution of rabbit brain thromboplastin, the rate of factor X activation in plasmas deficient in factor VIII or factor IX was 10% of the activation rate of normal plasma or of factor XI deficient plasma. Reconstitution of the deficient plasmas with factors VIII or IX, respectively, reconstituted normal factor X activation. Similar results were obtained when various dilutions of human thromboplastin replaced the rabbit thromboplastin. From these plasma experiments, it is inferred that the dilute thromboplastin-dependent activation of factor X requires factors VII, IX, and VIII. An alternative extrinsic pathway that involves factors IX and VIII may be the physiologic extrinsic pathway and hence help to explain the consistent clinical observations of bleeding diatheses in patients deficient in factors IX or VIII.

  20. Macrocyclic lactones: distribution in plasma lipoproteins of several animal species including humans.

    PubMed

    Bassissi, Mohamad Firas; Alvinerie, Michel; Lespine, Anne

    2004-08-01

    We studied the in vitro distribution of macrocyclic lactones (MLs), lipophilic anthelmintic drugs, in the plasma of several animal species including humans. First, in vitro spiking of goat plasma was performed with ivermectin, moxidectin, abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin. In parallel, goats were treated with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin. Then, cow, sheep, rabbit, pig, and human plasma were spiked with moxidectin. Four fractions were separated using KBr density gradient ultracentrifugation: very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein-deficient fraction. Cholesterol was analyzed by enzymatic assay and MLs by high-performance liquid chromatography. An average of 96% of MLs was associated with lipoproteins. The five MLs studied distributed similarly into goat plasma fractions with a preferential association with HDL (80-90%). Ivermectin partitioning in goat plasma was similar after in vitro spiking and in vivo treatment. In species displaying various lipoprotein profiles, moxidectin was also mainly associated with HDL. However, in human plasma, moxidectin was associated with a lesser extent to HDL (70%) and more to LDL (22%) when compared to other animal species. A relation between the plasma cholesterol content and pharmacokinetics of the drug is suggested. Our finding will allow further exploration of intestinal lymphatic absorption and milk elimination of these compounds-mechanisms in which lipoproteins are involved. In addition, possible improvements of new drug delivery systems are suggested.

  1. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Francis, Sunday M; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-08-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy') is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its pro-social effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20IU or 40IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7pg/ml at approximately 90-120min, compared to 18.6pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40IU, but not 20IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0pg/ml, 30-60min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., 'High' and 'Like Drug'), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects.

  2. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Francis, Sunday M.; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ‘ecstasy’) is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its prosocial effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20 IU or 40 IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5 mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7 pg/ml at approximately 90–120 minutes, compared to 18.6 pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40 IU, but not 20 IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0 pg/ml, 30–60 min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., ‘High’ and ‘Like Drug’), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects. PMID:24882155

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to human butyrylcholinesterase reactive with butyrylcholinesterase in animal plasma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Hrabovska, Anna; Krejci, Eric; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2016-01-05

    Five mouse anti-human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) monoclonal antibodies bind tightly to native human BChE with nanomolar dissociation constants. Pairing analysis in the Octet system identified the monoclonal antibodies that bind to overlapping and independent epitopes on human BChE. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 4 monoclonal antibodies are deposited in GenBank. Our goal was to determine which of the 5 monoclonal antibodies recognize BChE in the plasma of animals. Binding of monoclonal antibodies 11D8, B2 18-5, B2 12-1, mAb2 and 3E8 to BChE in animal plasma was measured using antibody immobilized on Pansorbin cells and on Dynabeads Protein G. A third method visualized binding by the shift of BChE activity bands on nondenaturing gels stained for BChE activity. Gels were counterstained for carboxylesterase activity. The three methods agreed that B2 18-5 and mAb2 have broad species specificity, but the other monoclonal antibodies interacted only with human BChE, the exception being 3E8, which also bound chicken BChE. B2 18-5 and mAb2 recognized BChE in human, rhesus monkey, horse, cat, and tiger plasma. A weak response was found with rabbit BChE. Monoclonal mAb2, but not B2 18-5, bound pig and bovine BChE. Gels stained for carboxylesterase activity confirmed that plasma from humans, monkey, pig, chicken, and cow does not contain carboxylesterase, but plasma from horse, cat, tiger, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse, and rat has carboxylesterase. Rabbit plasma carboxylesterase hydrolyzes butyrylthiocholine. In conclusion monoclonal antibodies B2 18-5 and mAb2 can be used to immuno extract BChE from the plasma of humans, monkey and other animals.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to human butyrylcholinesterase reactive with butyrylcholinesterase in animal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Hrabovska, Anna; Krejci, Eric; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Five mouse anti-human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) monoclonal antibodies bind tightly to native human BChE with nanomolar dissociation constants. Pairing analysis in the Octet system identified the monoclonal antibodies that bind to overlapping and independent epitopes on human BChE. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 4 monoclonal antibodies are deposited in GenBank. Our goal was to determine which of the 5 monoclonal antibodies recognize BChE in the plasma of animals. Binding of monoclonal antibodies 11D8, B2 18-5, B2 12-1, mAb2 and 3E8 to BChE in animal plasma was measured using antibody immobilized on Pansorbin cells and on Dynabeads Protein G. A third method visualized binding by the shift of BChE activity bands on nondenaturing gels stained for BChE activity. Gels were counterstained for carboxylesterase activity. The three methods agreed that B2 18-5 and mAb2 have broad species specificity, but the other monoclonal antibodies interacted only with human BChE, the exception being 3E8, which also bound chicken BChE. B2 18-5 and mAb2 recognized BChE in human, rhesus monkey, horse, cat, and tiger plasma. A weak response was found with rabbit BChE. Monoclonal mAb2, but not B2 18-5, bound pig and bovine BChE. Gels stained for carboxylesterase activity confirmed that plasma from humans, monkey, pig, chicken, and cow does not contain carboxylesterase, but plasma from horse, cat, tiger, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse, and rat has carboxylesterase. Rabbit plasma carboxylesterase hydrolyzes butyrylthiocholine. In conclusion monoclonal antibodies B2 18-5 and mAb2 can be used to immunoextract BChE from the plasma of humans, monkey and other animals. PMID:26585590

  5. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a

  6. Helium Generated Cold Plasma Finely Regulates Activation of Human Fibroblast-Like Primary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be

  7. Human plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON1) arylesterase activity during aging: correlation with susceptibility of LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Mohammad Murtaza; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    The role of free radicals has long been proposed as a cause for the aging process. Oxidative stress is considered a major factor for altering many physiological processes and enzymatic activities during aging and is also known to play a major role in the development of several age-dependent diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an anti-atherosclerotic enzyme that mainly prevents accumulation of lipoperoxides and inhibits the lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). This study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant behavior of PON1 by measuring its arylesterase activity. The susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and the radical scavenging activity of plasma were also measured during aging in humans. Arylesterase activity of PON1 was measured in plasma of human subjects between 20 and 81 years of age of both genders. The susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and radical scavenging activity were measured in plasma. Decrease in plasma arylesterase activity of PON1, increase in susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and decrease in plasma radical scavenging activity were observed as a function of human age. The study provides evidence of a relationship between PON1 activity, LDL oxidation and free radical scavenging activity of plasma. The present results emphasize the dependency of PON1 activity to prevailing oxidative stress during human aging. Our findings assume significance in view of the possible categorization of PON1 as a longevity gene. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protection of Lassa Virus-Infected Guinea Pigs with Lassa-Immune Plasma of Guinea Pig, Primate, and Human Origin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, %Maryland Lassa virus-immune plasma has been used to treat human Lassa fever patients, however, criteria for plasma...21701. C ,83 Ali8 10 19 060 I 94 Jahrl, INTRODUCTION Lassa virus-immune plasma has been used to treat human Lassa fever since the disease was first...raising concerns related to immunologic enhancement of disease. For Lassa fever therapy. immune plasma has until now been selected on the basis of

  9. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.

  10. Association between Human Plasma Chondroitin Sulfate Isomers and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Zinellu, Elisabetta; Lepedda, Antonio Junior; Cigliano, Antonio; Pisanu, Salvatore; Zinellu, Angelo; Carru, Ciriaco; Bacciu, Pietro Paolo; Piredda, Franco; Guarino, Anna; Spirito, Rita; Formato, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have evidenced variations in plasma glycosaminoglycans content in physiological and pathological conditions. In normal human plasma GAGs are present mainly as undersulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible correlations between plasma CS level/structure and the presence/typology of carotid atherosclerotic lesion. Plasma CS was purified from 46 control subjects and 47 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy showing either a soft or a hard plaque. The concentration and structural characteristics of plasma CS were assessed by capillary electrophoresis of constituent unsaturated fluorophore-labeled disaccharides. Results showed that the concentration of total CS isomers was increased by 21.4% (P < 0.01) in plasma of patients, due to a significant increase of undersulfated CS. Consequently, in patients the plasma CS charge density was significantly reduced with respect to that of controls. After sorting for plaque typology, we found that patients with soft plaques and those with hard ones differently contribute to the observed changes. In plasma from patients with soft plaques, the increase in CS content was not associated with modifications of its sulfation pattern. On the contrary, the presence of hard plaques was associated with CS sulfation pattern modifications in presence of quite normal total CS isomers levels. These results suggest that the plasma CS content and structure could be related to the presence and the typology of atherosclerotic plaque and could provide a useful diagnostic tool, as well as information on the molecular mechanisms responsible for plaque instability. PMID:22216412

  11. Association between Human Plasma Chondroitin Sulfate Isomers and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Zinellu, Elisabetta; Lepedda, Antonio Junior; Cigliano, Antonio; Pisanu, Salvatore; Zinellu, Angelo; Carru, Ciriaco; Bacciu, Pietro Paolo; Piredda, Franco; Guarino, Anna; Spirito, Rita; Formato, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have evidenced variations in plasma glycosaminoglycans content in physiological and pathological conditions. In normal human plasma GAGs are present mainly as undersulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible correlations between plasma CS level/structure and the presence/typology of carotid atherosclerotic lesion. Plasma CS was purified from 46 control subjects and 47 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy showing either a soft or a hard plaque. The concentration and structural characteristics of plasma CS were assessed by capillary electrophoresis of constituent unsaturated fluorophore-labeled disaccharides. Results showed that the concentration of total CS isomers was increased by 21.4% (P < 0.01) in plasma of patients, due to a significant increase of undersulfated CS. Consequently, in patients the plasma CS charge density was significantly reduced with respect to that of controls. After sorting for plaque typology, we found that patients with soft plaques and those with hard ones differently contribute to the observed changes. In plasma from patients with soft plaques, the increase in CS content was not associated with modifications of its sulfation pattern. On the contrary, the presence of hard plaques was associated with CS sulfation pattern modifications in presence of quite normal total CS isomers levels. These results suggest that the plasma CS content and structure could be related to the presence and the typology of atherosclerotic plaque and could provide a useful diagnostic tool, as well as information on the molecular mechanisms responsible for plaque instability.

  12. Altering enzymatic activity: recruitment of carboxypeptidase activity into an RTEM beta-lactamase/penicillin-binding protein 5 chimera.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y H; Labgold, M R; Richards, J H

    1990-04-01

    The D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidases/transpeptidases (penicillin-binding proteins, PBPs) share considerable structural homology with class A beta-lactamases (EC 3.5.2.6), although these beta-lactamases have no observable D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase activity. With the objective of recruiting such activity into a beta-lactamase background, we have prepared a chimeric protein by inserting a 28-amino acid segment of PBP-5 of Escherichia coli in place of the corresponding region of the RTEM-1 beta-lactamase. The segment thus inserted encompasses two residues conserved in both families: Ser-70, which forms the acyl-enzyme intermediate during beta-lactam hydrolysis, and Lys-73, whose presence has been shown to be necessary for catalysis. This chimera involves changes of 18 residues and gives a protein that differs at 7% of the residues from the parent. Whereas RTEM beta-lactamase has no D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase activity, that of the chimera is significant and is, in fact, about 1% the activity of PBP-5 on diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala; in terms of free energy of activation, the chimera stabilizes the transition state for the reaction to within about 2.7 kcal/mol of the stabilization achieved by PBP-5. Furthermore, the chimera catalyzes hydrolysis exclusively at the carboxyl-terminal amide bond which is the site of cleavage by D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase. Though containing all those residues that are conserved throughout class A beta-lactamases and are thought to be essential for beta-lactamase activity, the chimera has considerably reduced activity (approximately 10(-5) on penams such as penicillins and ampicillins as substrates. As a catalyst, the chimera shows an induction period of approximately 30 min, reflecting a slow conformational rearrangement from an inactive precursor to the active enzyme.

  13. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB_REDO strategies

    PubMed Central

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C.; Joosten, Robbie P.; Hunter, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burk­holderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB_REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn2+-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn2+, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate. PMID:24531462

  14. Plasma Opioid Peptide Responses during Heat Acclimation in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    W . J ., L . E . ARMSTRONG, L . J . MARCHITELLI, R. W . HUBBARD AND N. LEVA. Plasma opioid peptide...edited by 16. Kelso, T. B., W . G. Herbert, F . C . Gwazdauskas, F . L . Gross D. T. Krieger. M. J . Browstein and J . B. Martin. New York: and J . L . Hess... E . Dziados. Effects of heat exposure on 14. Holaday, J . W ., E . Wie, H. H. Loh and C . H. Li. Endorphins the

  15. Transgenic mice expressing high plasma concentrations of human apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a).

    PubMed Central

    Linton, M F; Farese, R V; Chiesa, G; Grass, D S; Chin, P; Hammer, R E; Hobbs, H H; Young, S G

    1993-01-01

    The B apolipoproteins, apo-B48 and apo-B100, are key structural proteins in those classes of lipoproteins considered to be atherogenic [e.g., chylomicron remnants, beta-VLDL, LDL, oxidized LDL, and Lp(a)]. Here we describe the development of transgenic mice expressing high levels of human apo-B48 and apo-B100. A 79.5-kb human genomic DNA fragment containing the entire human apo-B gene was isolated from a P1 bacteriophage library and microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. 16 transgenic founders expressing human apo-B were generated, and the animals with the highest expression had plasma apo-B100 levels nearly as high as those of normolipidemic humans (approximately 50 mg/dl). The human apo-B100 in transgenic mouse plasma was present largely in lipoproteins of the LDL class as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis, chromatography on a Superose 6 column, and density gradient ultracentrifugation. When the human apo-B transgenic founders were crossed with transgenic mice expressing human apo(a), the offspring that expressed both transgenes had high plasma levels of human Lp(a). Both the human apo-B and Lp(a) transgenic mice will be valuable resources for studying apo-B metabolism and the role of apo-B and Lp(a) in atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8254057

  16. Characterization of the human plasma phosphoproteome using linear ion trap mass spectrometry and multiple search engines.

    PubMed

    Carrascal, Montserrat; Gay, Marina; Ovelleiro, David; Casas, Vanessa; Gelpí, Emilio; Abian, Joaquin

    2010-02-05

    Major plasma protein families play different roles in blood physiology and hemostasis and in immunodefense. Other proteins in plasma can be involved in signaling as chemical messengers or constitute biological markers of the status of distant tissues. In this respect, the plasma phosphoproteome holds potentially relevant information on the mechanisms modulating these processes through the regulation of protein activity. In this work we describe for the first time a collection of phosphopeptides identified in human plasma using immunoaffinity separation of the seven major serum protein families from other plasma proteins, SCX fractionation, and TiO(2) purification prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. One-hundred and twenty-seven phosphosites in 138 phosphopeptides mapping 70 phosphoproteins were identified with FDR < 1%. A high-confidence collection of phosphosites was obtained using a combined search with the OMSSA, SEQUEST, and Phenyx search engines.

  17. Microwave digestion preparation and ICP determination of boron in human plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Green, N. R.; Barnes, K. W.; Woodward, B.

    1993-01-01

    A microwave digestion procedure, followed by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Spectroscopy, is described for the determination of boron (B) in human plasma. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) currently does not certify the concentration of B in any substance. The NIST citrus leaves 1572 (CL) Standard Reference Material (SRM) and wheat flour 1567a (WF) were chosen to determine the efficacy of digestion. CL and WF values compare favorably to those obtained from an open-vessel, wet digestion followed by ICP, and by neutron activation and mass spectrometric measurements. Plasma samples were oxidized by doubled-distilled ultrapure HNO3 in 120 mL PFA Teflon vessels. An MDS-81D microwave digestion procedure allows for rapid and relatively precise determination of B in human plasma, while limiting handling hazards and sources of contamination.

  18. Microwave digestion preparation and ICP determination of boron in human plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Green, N. R.; Barnes, K. W.; Woodward, B.

    1993-01-01

    A microwave digestion procedure, followed by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Spectroscopy, is described for the determination of boron (B) in human plasma. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) currently does not certify the concentration of B in any substance. The NIST citrus leaves 1572 (CL) Standard Reference Material (SRM) and wheat flour 1567a (WF) were chosen to determine the efficacy of digestion. CL and WF values compare favorably to those obtained from an open-vessel, wet digestion followed by ICP, and by neutron activation and mass spectrometric measurements. Plasma samples were oxidized by doubled-distilled ultrapure HNO3 in 120 mL PFA Teflon vessels. An MDS-81D microwave digestion procedure allows for rapid and relatively precise determination of B in human plasma, while limiting handling hazards and sources of contamination.

  19. Proteomic profiling of human plasma exosomes identifies PPARgamma as an exosome-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Looze, Christopher; Yui, David; Leung, Lester; Ingham, Matthew; Kaler, Maryann; Yao, Xianglan; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Daniels, Mathew P; Levine, Stewart J

    2009-01-16

    Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from cells as a mechanism of cell-free intercellular communication. Only a limited number of proteins have been identified from the plasma exosome proteome. Here, we developed a multi-step fractionation scheme incorporating gel exclusion chromatography, rate zonal centrifugation through continuous sucrose gradients, and high-speed centrifugation to purify exosomes from human plasma. Exosome-associated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and 66 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, which included both cellular and extracellular proteins. Furthermore, we identified and characterized peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, as well as immune and inflammatory cell functions, as a novel component of plasma-derived exosomes. Given the important role of exosomes as intercellular messengers, the discovery of PPARgamma as a component of human plasma exosomes identifies a potential new pathway for the paracrine transfer of nuclear receptors.

  20. Microwave digestion preparation and ICP determination of boron in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, A A; Green, N R; Barnes, K W; Woodward, B

    1993-04-01

    A microwave digestion procedure, followed by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Spectroscopy, is described for the determination of boron (B) in human plasma. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) currently does not certify the concentration of B in any substance. The NIST citrus leaves 1572 (CL) Standard Reference Material (SRM) and wheat flour 1567a (WF) were chosen to determine the efficacy of digestion. CL and WF values compare favorably to those obtained from an open-vessel, wet digestion followed by ICP, and by neutron activation and mass spectrometric measurements. Plasma samples were oxidized by doubled-distilled ultrapure HNO3 in 120 mL PFA Teflon vessels. An MDS-81D microwave digestion procedure allows for rapid and relatively precise determination of B in human plasma, while limiting handling hazards and sources of contamination.

  1. Scavenging of hydroxyl radicals generated in human plasma following X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sano, Tomoaki

    2015-11-01

    There are various antioxidant materials that scavenge free radicals in human plasma. It is possible that the radical-scavenging function causes a radiation protective effect in humans. This study estimated the hydroxyl (OH) radical-scavenging activity induced by X-ray irradiation in human plasma. The test subjects included 111 volunteers (75 males and 36 females) ranging from 22 to 35 years old (average, 24.0). OH radicals generated in irradiated human plasma were measured by electron spin resonance (ESR). The relationships between the amount of the OH radical and chemical and biological parameters [total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides and hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies] were estimated in the plasma of the 111 volunteers by a multivariate analysis. The presence of HBs antibodies had the greatest influence on OH radical-scavenging activity. One volunteer who did not have the HBs antibody was given an inoculation of the hepatitis B vaccine. There was a remarkable decrease in the amount of OH radical generated from plasma after the HBs antibody was produced. The results indicate that the HBs antibody is an important factor for the scavenging of OH radicals initiated by X-ray irradiation in the human body.

  2. Carboxypeptidase-B from Bubalus bubalis pancreas: purification, properties and MALDI-TOF monitored activation of proinsulin.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Murtaza, Bibi Nazia; Ahmad, Habib

    2013-09-01

    Carboxypeptidase-B (E.C 3.4.17.2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptides and esters at C-terminus of arginine and lysine residues. Our study describes the large scale purification, N-terminal sequence analysis and physiochemical properties of pancreatic enzyme from river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The enzyme was purified up to 71 folds by anion-exchange chromatography with 21% final recovery. Purified enzyme displayed two bands on SDS-PAGE with molecular weights of 9 kDa and 26 kDa respectively, the N-terminal sequence of later was EFLDKLDFYV. The enzyme has shown optimum activity at pH 9.0 and 40◦C. The KM, Kcat and Kcat/KM values of purified carboxypeptidase-B with Hippuryl-L-Arg are 30μM, 72sec(-1) and 2.4x10(5) M(-1) sec(-1) respectively. A computer based model for the structure of enzyme was proposed by chromatographic studies of component fragments and N-terminal sequence. The enzyme purified in the present study was free of carboxypeptidase A and endoprotease contamination. It was efficiently used in the processing of recombinant buffalo proinsulin, in combination with trypsin. Activation of proinsulin was monitored by MALDI-TOF analysis of peptides before and after the action of enzymes.

  3. Molecular cloning of the Pseudomonas carboxypeptidase G2 gene and its expression in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N P; Atkinson, T; Sherwood, R F

    1983-01-01

    The gene coding for carboxypeptidase G2 was cloned from Pseudomonas sp. strain RS-16 into Escherichia coli W5445 by inserting Sau3A-generated DNA fragments into the BamHI site of pBR322. The plasmid isolated, pNM1, was restriction mapped, and the position of the gene on the 5.8-megadalton insert was pinpointed by subcloning. The expression of carboxypeptidase in E. coli was 100-fold lower than in the Pseudomonas sp. strain. When the cloned gene was subcloned into the Pseudomonas vector pKT230 and introduced into Pseudomonas putida 2440, a 30-fold increase in expression over that obtained in E. coli was observed. High expression (up to 5% soluble protein) was obtained in E. coli by subcloning a 3.1-megadalton Bg/II fragment into the BamHI site of pAT153. The increased expression was orientation dependent and is presumed to be due to transcriptional readthrough from the Tc promoter of the vector. Production of carboxypeptidase was shown to be induced (two-fold) by the presence of folic acid, and the mature protein was shown to be located in the periplasmic space of E. coli. Images PMID:6358192

  4. NtSCP1 from tobacco is an extracellular serine carboxypeptidase III that has an impact on cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Delannoy, Mélanie; Navarre, Catherine; Boutry, Marc

    2012-03-01

    The leaf extracellular space contains several peptidases, most of which are of unknown function. We isolated cDNAs for two extracellular serine carboxypeptidase III genes from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), NtSCP1 and NtSCP2, belonging to a phylogenetic clade not yet functionally characterized in plants. NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are orthologs derived from the two ancestors of tobacco. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower tissues. Expression analysis of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene fused to the NtSCP1 transcription promoter region confirmed this expression profile. Western blotting of NtSCP1 and expression of an NtSCP1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that the protein is located in the extracellular space of tobacco leaves and culture cells. Purified His-tagged NtSCP1 had carboxypeptidase activity in vitro. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing NtSCP1 showed a reduced flower length due to a decrease in cell size. Etiolated seedlings of these transgenic plants had shorter hypocotyls. These data provide support for a role of an extracellular type III carboxypeptidase in the control of cell elongation.

  5. Circulating TNFR1 Exosome-like Vesicles Partition with the LDL Fraction of Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Hawari, Feras I.; Shamburek, Robert D.; Adamik, Barbara; Kaler, Maryann; Islam, Aminul; Liao, Da-Wei; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Ingham, Matthew; Levine, Stewart J.

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular type I tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR1) are generated by two mechanisms, proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains and release of full-length TNFR1 in the membranes of exosome-like vesicles. Here, we assessed whether TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles circulate in human blood. Immunoelectron microscopy of human serum demonstrated TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles, with a diameter of 27- to 36-nm, while Western blots of human plasma showed a 48-kDa TNFR1, consistent with a membrane-associated receptor. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that the 48-kDa TNFR1 in human plasma co-segregated with LDL particles by size, but segregated independently by density, demonstrating that they are distinct from LDL particles. Furthermore, the 48-kDa exosome-associated TNFR1 in human plasma contained a reduced content of N-linked carbohydrates as compared to the 55-kDa membrane-associated TNFR1 from human vascular endothelial cells. Thus, a distinct population of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles circulate in human plasma and may modulate TNF-mediated inflammation. PMID:18078813

  6. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Andrew A.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A.; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  7. Prediction of human iron bioavailability using rapid c-ELISAs for human plasma hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Nicole U; Zeder, Christophe; Fort, Eloïse; Swinkels, Dorine W; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2017-07-26

    Hepcidin is the central systemic regulator of iron metabolism, but its quantification in biological fluids is challenging. Rapid, accurate and user-friendly methods are needed. Our aim was to assess the ability of hepcidin as measured by three different c-ELISA assays to predict iron bioavailability in humans. The three assays used were commercially available DRG and Peninsula assays and the c-ELISA method performed at Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (Hepcidinanalysis.com), validated by comparative measurements with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We analyzed plasma samples (n=37) selected to represent a broad range of hepcidin concentrations from a subgroup of healthy, iron-depleted women in a study assessing fractional absorption from iron supplements. In single regressions, all three c-ELISA assays were predictors of fractional iron absorption: R2=0.363 (DRG), R2=0.281 (Peninsula) and R2=0.327 (Hepcidinanalysis.com). In multiple regressions, models including hepcidin measured with either DRG-, Peninsula or Hepcidinanalysis.com explained 55.7%, 44.5% and 52.5% of variance in fractional absorption, and hepcidin was a strong predictor of fractional absorption irrespective of the hepcidin assays used. However, we found significant differences in absolute values for hepcidin between different methods. Both the DRG assay's (y=0.61x+0.87; R2=0.873) and the Peninsula assay's measurements (y=1.88x+0.62; R2=0.770) were correlated with Hepcidinanalysis.com. The biological variability in plasma hepcidin, (inter-sample CV) was 5-10-fold higher for both the Peninsula and DRG assay than the analytical variably (inter-run within-sample CV) suggesting substantial discriminatory power to distinguish biological hepcidin variation. Between methods, prediction of iron bioavailability in generally healthy iron depleted subjects appears comparable.

  8. Simultaneous extraction of. beta. -endorphin and leu- and met-enkephalins from human and rat plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Smith, P.M.; Kennedy, B.W. ); Voyles, N.R.; Recant, L. )

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable procedure is described to simultaneously concentrated and purify {beta}-endorphin, leu-and met-enkephalins from small volumes of human and rat plasma before radioimmunoassay is performed. It uses C{sub 18} Sep-Pak reverse phase cartridges. The effectiveness of different protease inhibitors in preventing degradation of opiates by plasma and different solvent systems for eluting opiates is also evaluated.

  9. A bioassay using intestinal organoids to measure CFTR modulators in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, R; Vijftigschild, L A W; Vonk, A M; Kruisselbrink, E; de Winter-de Groot, K M; Janssens, H M; van der Ent, C K; Beekman, J M

    2015-03-01

    Treatment efficacies of drugs depend on patient-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Here, we developed an assay to measure functional levels of the CFTR potentiator VX-770 in human plasma and observed that VX-770 in plasma from different donors induced variable CFTR function in intestinal organoids. This assay can help to understand variability in treatment response to CFTR potentiators by functionally modeling individual pharmacokinetics.

  10. PAI1: a novel PP1-interacting protein that mediates human plasma's anti-apoptotic effect in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; He, Guangchun; Chen, Chao; Yan, Shichao; Lu, Lu; Song, Liujiang; Vijayan, K Vinod; Li, Qinglong; Xiong, Li; Miao, Xiongying; Deng, Xiyun

    2017-03-11

    Activation of apoptotic signalling in endothelial cells contributes to the detrimental effects of a variety of pathological stimuli. In investigating the molecular events underlying the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma in cultured human endothelial cells, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel mechanism of apoptosis suppression by human plasma through an interaction between two previously unrelated proteins. Human plasma inhibited hypoxia-serum deprivation-induced apoptosis and stimulated BAD(S136) and Akt(S473) phosphorylation. Akt1 silencing reversed part (~52%) of the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms mediating the anti-apoptotic effect other than Akt signalling. Human plasma disrupted the interaction of BAD with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Mass spectrometry identified fourteen PP1-interacting proteins induced by human plasma. Notably, a group of serine protease inhibitors including plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, were involved. Silencing of PAI1 attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma. Furthermore, combined Akt1 and PAI1 silencing attenuated the majority of the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma. We conclude that human plasma protects against endothelial cell apoptosis through sustained BAD phosphorylation, which is achieved by, at least in part, a novel interaction between PP1 with PAI1.

  11. Identification of Central Nervous System Proteins in Human Blood Serum and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, Yu V; Petushkova, N A; Teryaeva, N B; Lisitsa, A V; Zgoda, V G; Belyaev, A Yu; Potapov, A A

    2015-11-01

    Mass-spectrometric identification of proteins in human blood plasma and serum was performed by comparing mass-spectra of fragmented peptides using Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB databases of amino acid sequences. After choosing the appropriate identification conditions we found that combination of spectrum search parameters are optimal for identification of CNS proteins. In the studied plasma and serum samples, 9 proteins involved into pathological processes in the nervous tissue were identified; 7 of them were identified in both plasma and serum.

  12. Fasting reduces plasma proprotein convertase, subtilisin/kexin type 9 and cholesterol biosynthesis in humans

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Jeffrey D.; Horton, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    Proprotein convertase, subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a key regulator of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) and cardiovascular risk, is produced in liver and secreted into plasma where it binds hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR), leading to their degradation. PCSK9 is transcriptionally activated by sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP)-2, a transcription factor that also activates all genes for cholesterol synthesis as well as the LDLR. Here we investigated the relationship between plasma PCSK9 levels and the lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio, a marker of cholesterol biosynthesis, in 18 healthy subjects during a 48 h fast. In all individuals, plasma PCSK9 levels declined steadily during the fasting period, reaching a nadir at 36 h that was ∼58% lower than levels measured in the fed state (P < 0.001). Similarly, the lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio declined in parallel with plasma PCSK9 concentrations during the fast, reaching a nadir at 36 h that was ∼28% lower than that measured in the fed state (P = 0.024). In summary, fasting has a marked effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations, which is mirrored by measures of cholesterol synthesis in humans. Inasmuch as cholesterol synthesis and PCSK9 are both regulated by SREBP-2, these results suggest that plasma PCSK9 levels may serve as a surrogate marker of hepatic SREBP-2 activity in humans. PMID:20716520

  13. Plasma fibronectin synthesis in normal and injured humans as determined by stable isotope incorporation.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C; Blumenstock, F A; Saba, T M; Feustel, P J; Kaplan, J E; Fortune, J B; Hough, L; Gray, V

    1989-01-01

    In humans, plasma fibronectin decreases early after operative injury, burn, or trauma, followed by a rapid restoration with a secondary decline typically observed if such patients become septic. We determined the rate of plasma fibronectin and plasma fibrinogen synthesis in normal subjects and injured patients using a stable isotope incorporation technique with [15N]glycine. During a constant 14-h infusion of [15N]glycine, the enrichment of [15N]glycine in both the free plasma glycine precursor pool as well as the urinary hippurate pool was determined; the latter used as an estimate of intracellular hepatic precursor enrichment. [15N]Glycine enrichment in both plasma fibronectin and fibrinogen was also quantified. The synthesis rate (Js/V) expressed in micrograms per milliliter of plasma per hour and the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) expressed as percentage of the plasma pool produced per day were determined. In normal subjects, the FSR for plasma fibronectin using 15N enrichment into urinary hippurate was 35.35 +/- 1.46%/d, whereas the Js/V was 4.45 +/- 0.19 micrograms/ml plasma per h. In normal subjects, the FSR for plasma fibronectin using 15N enrichment into free plasma glycine was 14.73 +/- 0.63%/d, whereas the Js/V was 1.98 +/- 0.09 micrograms/ml plasma per h. Early (2-3 d) after burn injury, fibronectin synthesis was increased (Js/V = 5.74 +/- 0.36; P less than 0.05), whereas later after injury, fibronectin synthesis began to decline (Js/V = 3.52 +/- 0.24; P less than 0.05) based on 15N enrichment of urinary hippurate. In contrast, the Js/V and FSR of plasma fibrinogen, a well-documented acute-phase plasma protein, revealed a sustained elevation (P less than 0.05) after injury in both the trauma and burn patients. Thus, plasma fibronectin synthesis is elevated early postinjury, which may contribute to the rapid restoration of its blood level. However, once fibronectin levels have normalized, the synthesis of plasma fibronectin appears to decline. PMID

  14. Epicatechin inhibits human plasma lipid peroxidation caused by haloperidol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2012-03-01

    Epicatechin belongs to flavonoids protecting cells against oxidative/nitrative stress. Oxidative/nitrative stress observed in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with various antipsychotics. The aim of our study was to establish the effects of epicatechin and antipsychotics action (the first generation antipsychotic (FGA)--haloperidol and the second generation antipsychotic (SGA)--amisulpride) on peroxidation of plasma lipids in vitro. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The properties of epicatechin were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) and quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). Amisulpride, contrary to haloperidol (after 1 and 24 h) does not significantly influence the increase of plasma TBARS level in comparison with control samples (P > 0.05). After incubation (1 and 24 h) of plasma with haloperidol in the presence of epicatechin we observed a significantly decreases the level of TBARS (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). In our other experiments, we found that epicatechin also decreased the amount of TBARS in human plasma treated with amisulpride. In conclusion, the presented results indicate that epicatechin-the major polyphenolic component of green tea reduced significantly human plasma lipid peroxidation caused by haloperidol. Moreover, epicatechin was found to be a more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol or quercetin.

  15. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which {sup 125}I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity.

  16. Vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator is quiescent in human plasma in the absence of fibrin unlike human tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Gardell, S J; Hare, T R; Bergum, P W; Cuca, G C; O'Neill-Palladino, L; Zavodny, S M

    1990-12-15

    The vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (Bat-PA) is a potent PA that exhibits remarkable selectivity toward fibrin-bound plasminogen (Gardell et al, J Biol Chem 256: 3568, 1989). Herein, we describe the activity of recombinant DNA-derived Bat-PA (rBat-PA) in a human plasma milieu. rBat-PA and recombinant human single-chain tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are similarly efficacious at lysing plasma clots. In stark contrast to rt-PA, the addition of 250 nmol/L rBat-PA to plasma in the absence of a clot failed to deplete plasminogen, alpha 2-antiplasmin and fibrinogen. The lytic activities exhibited by finger-domain minus Bat-PA (F- rBat-PA) and finger and epidermal growth factor-like domains minus Bat-PA (FG- rBat-PA) were less than rBat-PA, especially at low concentrations of PA; nevertheless, these truncated forms also possessed a strict requirement for a fibrin cofactor. The loss of PA activity following the addition of rBat-PA to plasma was slower than that observed when either rt-PA or two-chain rt-PA was added. The efficacy, fibrin selectivity, and decreased susceptibility to inactivation exhibited by rBat-PA in vitro in a human plasma milieu suggests that rBat-PA may be superior to rt-PA for the treatment of thrombotic complications.

  17. Isolation and identification of androstanediol glucuronide from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Rao, P N; Burdett, J E; Moore, P H; Horton, R

    1987-11-01

    [3H]Dihydrotestosterone (50 microCi) was infused into normal men and women for 8 h. It was previously shown that this was sufficient time for this material to reach a steady state. Venous plasma was obtained at 6 and 8 h, pooled, and the unconjugated steroids removed by ether extraction. The remaining plasma was adjusted to pH 4.9 and the steroid conjugate was extracted first with ethyl acetate and then with an ether-ethanol mixture. The extracts were combined and taken to dryness. Steroid sulfates were solvolyzed using dioxane, and the mixture partitioned between ether and 1% NaOH. The aqueous phase was acidified and added to an XAD-2 column, washed with water, and the glucuronide fraction eluted with methanol. The solvent was concentrated and the methanol extract was passed through a C18 Sep-Pak, filtered through an Acrodisc CR and then subjected to gradient high performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] (Nova-Pak C18, KH2PO4, pH 3, and methanol). The fractions containing steroid glucuronides were collected and esterified with diazomethane and then acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine. The glucuronide triacetyl methyl ester (GAME) derivatives were then run in a second HPLC system (3 Lichrosorb 5 mu columns, 4 mm x 25 cm) using a gradient of ethanol-heptane and heptane. We clearly established that this system separates 3 alpha-diol GAME conjugated at the 17 and 3 positions (44 vs 50 min) with authentic samples previously synthesized in our laboratory. We concluded that the pooled plasma contained only the 17-GAME conjugate. No significant activity of the 3-glucuronide was detected. The natural compound in circulation, therefore, is 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide.

  18. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in plasma of AIDS patients during acute visceral disease by DNA amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Spector, S A; Merrill, R; Wolf, D; Dankner, W M

    1992-01-01

    By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification procedure, 19 (83%) of 23 plasma specimens obtained from individuals with AIDS and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) visceral disease were found to be positive for plasma viremia as detected by PCR (PV-PCR), whereas 78% of cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes from the same samples were found to be positive. All 11 specimens prospectively obtained from individuals with acute HCMV disease were positive by PV-PCR. Plasma specimens from patients who received ganciclovir therapy rapidly became both culture and PV-PCR negative, and there was an excellent correlation between the two procedures. DNA detected by PV-PCR was unaffected by filtering plasma through a 0.2-microns-pore-size filter, although a conserved cellular gene, HLA-DQ alpha, was undetectable by PCR following filtration. HCMV DNA in plasma could be quantitated by PV-PCR by using endpoint serial dilutions, with detectable virus being present in 10(1) to 10(-2) microliters of plasma. A low titer of infectious virus could be detected in 2 of 11 plasma samples. The detection of HCMV DNA in plasma by PV-PCR promises to be a useful procedure for monitoring patients with AIDS suspected of having impending, acute, or recurrent HCMV visceral disease and suggests an additional route by which virus may disseminate in the immunocompromised host. Images PMID:1328287

  19. Biochemical quantification of sympathetic nervous activity in humans using radiotracer methodology: fallibility of plasma noradrenaline measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Esler, M.; Leonard, P.; O'Dea, K.; Jackman, G.; Jennings, G.; Korner, P.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed radiotracer techniques for studying noradrenaline kinetics, to assess better sympathetic nervous system function in humans. Tritiated l-noradrenaline was infused intravenously (0.35 microCi/m2/min) to plateau plasma concentration. Noradrenaline plasma clearance was calculated from plasma tritiated noradrenaline concentration at steady state, and the rate of spillover of noradrenaline to plasma derived from plasma noradrenaline specific radioactivity. Mean noradrenaline spillover at rest in 34 normal subjects was 0.33 micrograms/m2/min (range 0.17-0.61 micrograms/m2/min). Predictably, noradrenaline spillover was reduced in patients with subnormal sympathetic nervous system activity, 0.16 +/- 0.09 micrograms/m2/min in eight patients with idiopathic peripheral autonomic insufficiency, and 0.11 +/- 0.07 micrograms/m2/min (mean +/- SD) in six patients with essential hypertension treated with clonidine (0.45 mg daily). Noradrenaline line plasma clearance in normal subjects was 1.32 +/- 0.28 L/m2/min. Clearance fell with age, causing the previously described rise in plasma noradrenaline concentration with aging. Unexpected effects of drugs were encountered, for example chronic beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with essential hypertension reduced noradrenaline clearance. Plasma noradrenaline concentration measurements were not in agreement with noradrenaline release rate values, and do not reliably indicate sympathetic nervous system activity, in instances such as these where noradrenaline clearance is abnormal.

  20. In vitro study of thimerosal reactions in human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples.

    PubMed

    Trümpler, Stefan; Meermann, Björn; Nowak, Sascha; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe; Sperling, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Because of its bactericidal and fungicidal properties, thimerosal is used as a preservative in drugs and vaccines and is thus deliberately injected into the human body. In aqueous environment, it decomposes into thiosalicylic acid and the ethylmercury cation. This organomercury fragment is a potent neurotoxin and is suspected to have similar toxicity and bioavailability like the methylmercury cation. In this work, human whole blood and physiological simulation solutions were incubated with thimerosal to investigate its behaviour and binding partners in the blood stream. Inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for total mercury determination in different blood fractions, while liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provided information on the individual mercury species in plasma surrogate samples. Analogous behaviour of methylmercury and ethylmercury species in human blood was shown and an ethylmercury-glutathione adduct was identified.

  1. Determination of efavirenz in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Saras-Nacenta, M; López-Púa, Y; Lípez-Cortés, L F; Mallolas, J; Gatell, J M; Carné, X

    2001-11-05

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of the HIV infection. A simple, high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of efavirenz in human plasma. The method involved solid-phase extraction of the drug and the internal standard (L-737,354) from 300 microl of human plasma. The analysis was via UV detection at 250 nm using a reversed-phase C8 analytical column and a isocratic mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH 5.75)-acetonitrile that resolved the drug and internal standard from endogenous matrix components and potential coadministered drugs. Within- and between-day precisions were less than 8.6% for all quality control samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.1 microg/ml. Recovery of efavirenz from human plasma was greater than 83%. This validated assay is being used in pharmacokinetic studies with efavirenz.

  2. Validation of a HPLC/FLD Method for Quantification of Tocotrienols in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Che, Hui-Ling; Tan, Doryn Meam-Yee; Meganathan, Puvaneswari; Gan, Yee-Lin; Abdul Razak, Ghazali; Fu, Ju-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of tocotrienols in human plasma is critical when the attention towards tocotrienols on its distinctive properties is arising. We aim to develop a simple and practical normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify the amount of four tocotrienol homologues in human plasma. Using both the external and internal standards, tocotrienol homologues were quantified via a normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector maintained at the excitation wavelength of 295 nm and the emission wavelength of 325 nm. The four tocotrienol homologues were well separated within 30 minutes. A large interindividual variation between subjects was observed as the absorption of tocotrienols is dependent on food matrix and gut lipolysis. The accuracies of lower and upper limit of quantification ranged between 92% and 109% for intraday assays and 90% and 112% for interday assays. This method was successfully applied to quantify the total amount of four tocotrienol homologues in human plasma. PMID:26604927

  3. [Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in hydrogels of human blood plasma].

    PubMed

    Linero, Itali M; Doncel, Adriana; Chaparro, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells in clinical practice has increased considerably in the last decade because they play a supporting role in the processes of tissue repair and regeneration, becoming the main tool of cell therapy for the treatment of diseases functionally affecting bone and cartilage tissue . To evaluate in vitro the proliferative and osteogenic differentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue in a blood plasma hydrogel. Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from human adipose tissue explants and characterized by flow cytometry. Their multipotentiality was demonstrated by their ability to differentiate to adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation ability of the cells cultured in blood plasma hydrogels were also evaluated. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue growing in human blood plasma hydrogels showed a pattern of proliferation similar to that of the cells cultured in monolayer and also maintained their ability to differentiate to osteogenic lineage. Human blood plasma hydrogels are a suitable support for proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue and provides a substrate that is autologous, biocompatible, reabsorbable, easy to use, potentially injectable and economic, which could be used as a successful strategy for the management and clinical application of cell therapy in regenerative medicine.

  4. The regulation of plasma relaxin levels during human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Abbas, A A; Allman, A C; Nicolaides, K H; Lightman, S L

    1994-08-01

    The factors that determine the circulating levels of relaxin during pregnancy have been investigated by comparing the plasma levels of relaxin throughout pregnancy in women who became pregnant spontaneously (singleton, n = 240) or following superovulation (singleton and multifetal pregnancies (two to ten conceptuses), n = 83). Some of the women with multifetal pregnancies underwent selective fetal reduction to twin pregnancies. Relaxin levels were higher at 7-34 weeks of gestation in singleton pregnancies achieved following superovulation when compared with levels in spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies (p < 0.05-0.001). In samples obtained between 10 and 12 weeks of gestation (before fetal reduction for the multifetal pregnancies), plasma relaxin levels correlated with fetal number (r = 0.526, P = 0.0001). Reduction in fetal number to a twin pregnancy did not alter relaxin levels. These data suggest that the circulating levels of relaxin throughout pregnancy are determined during the cycle of conception by gonadotrophin stimulation, and within the first 10 weeks of pregnancy by the luteotrophic stimulus from the conceptus. Furthermore, once corpus luteum synthesis of relaxin is established, then reduction in the luteotrophic stimulus does not appear to affect it.

  5. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  6. Improvement of CXCR3 ligand CXCL11/I-TAC measurement in human plasma and serum.

    PubMed

    Cremasco, Viviana; Mantelli, Barbara; Lazzarin, Adriano; Biswas, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in cell trafficking dysregulation associated with several inflammatory conditions, including autoimmune and viral diseases. Downregulation of CXCR3, through binding with its ligand CXCL11 (I-TAC), represents a key mechanism in lymphocyte recruitment. Determination of circulating I-TAC can provide useful information in the investigation of inflammatory/infectious conditions. The existing commercial kit does not measure CXCL11/I-TAC in complex matrices, such as human plasma and serum, as reliably as in in vitro-generated cell culture supernatants. We here describe means which lead to an improvement of CXCL11/I-TAC measurement in human plasma and serum.

  7. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Human plasma as a dermal scaffold for the generation of a completely autologous bioengineered skin.

    PubMed

    Llames, Sara G; Del Rio, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando; García, Eva; García, Marta; Escamez, María José; Jorcano, Jose L; Holguín, Purificación; Meana, Alvaro

    2004-02-15

    Keratinocyte cultures have been used for the treatment of severe burn patients. Here, we describe a new cultured bioengineered skin based on (1) keratinocytes and fibroblasts obtained from a single skin biopsy and (2) a dermal matrix based on human plasma. A high expansion capacity achieved by keratinocytes grown on this plasma-based matrix is reported. In addition, the results of successful preclinical and clinical tests are presented. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were obtained by a double enzymatic digestion (trypsin and collagenase, respectively). In this setting, human fibroblasts are embedded in a clotted plasma-based matrix that serves as a three-dimensional scaffold. Human keratinocytes are seeded on the plasma-based scaffold to form the epidermal component of the skin construct. Regeneration performance of the plasma-based bioengineered skin was tested on immunodeficient mice as a preclinical approach. Finally, this skin equivalent was grafted on two severely burned patients. Keratinocytes seeded on the plasma-based scaffold grew to confluence, allowing a 1,000-fold cultured-area expansion after 24 to 26 days of culture. Experimental transplantation of human keratinocytes expanded on the engineered plasma scaffold yielded optimum epidermal architecture and phenotype, including the expression of structural intracellular proteins and basement-membrane components. In addition, we report here the successful engraftment and stable skin regeneration in two severely burned patients at 1 and 2 years follow-up. Our data demonstrate that this new dermal equivalent allows for (1) generation of large bioengineered skin surfaces, (2) restoration of both the epidermal and dermal skin compartments, and (3) functional epidermal stem-cell preservation.

  9. A D, D-carboxypeptidase is required for Vibrio cholerae halotolerance.

    PubMed

    Möll, Andrea; Dörr, Tobias; Alvarez, Laura; Davis, Brigid M; Cava, Felipe; Waldor, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    The biological roles of low molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins (LMW PBP) have been difficult to discern in Gram-negative organisms. In Escherichia coli, mutants lacking these proteins often have no phenotype, and cells lacking all seven LMW PBPs remain viable. In contrast, we report here that Vibrio cholerae lacking DacA-1, a PBP5 homologue, displays slow growth, aberrant morphology and altered peptidoglycan (PG) homeostasis in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, as well as a profound plating defect. DacA-1 alone among V. cholerae's LMW PBPs is critical for bacterial growth; mutants lacking the related protein DacA-2 and/or homologues of PBP4 or PBP7 displayed normal growth and morphology. Remarkably, the growth and morphology of the dacA-1 mutant were unimpaired in LB media containing reduced concentrations of NaCl (100 mM or less), and also within suckling mice, a model host for the study of cholera pathogenesis. Peptidoglycan from the dacA-1 mutant contained elevated pentapeptide levels in standard and low salt media, and comparative analyses suggest that DacA-1 is V. cholerae's principal DD-carboxypeptidase. The basis for the dacA-1 mutant's halosensitivity is unknown; nonetheless, the mutant's survival in biochemically uncharacterized environments (such as the suckling mouse intestine) can be used as a reporter of low Na(+) content. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A D, D-carboxypeptidase is required for Vibrio cholerae halotolerance

    PubMed Central

    Möll, Andrea; Dörr, Tobias; Alvarez, Laura; Davis, Brigid M.; Cava, Felipe; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The biological roles of low molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins (LMW PBP) have been difficult to discern in Gram-negative organisms. In E. coli, mutants lacking these proteins often have no phenotype, and cells lacking all 7 LMW PBPs remain viable. In contrast, we report here that Vibrio cholerae lacking DacA-1, a PBP5 homolog, displays slow growth, aberrant morphology, and altered peptidoglycan (PG) homeostasis in LB medium, as well as a profound plating defect. DacA-1 alone among V. cholerae's LMW PBPs is critical for bacterial growth; mutants lacking the related protein DacA-2 and/or homologs of PBP4 or PBP7 displayed normal growth and morphology. Remarkably, the growth and morphology of the dacA-1 mutant were unimpaired in LB media containing reduced concentrations of NaCl (100 mM or less), and also within suckling mice, a model host for the study of cholera pathogenesis. PG from the dacA-1 mutant contained elevated pentapeptide levels in standard and low salt media, and comparative analyses suggest that DacA-1 is V. cholerae's principal DD-carboxypeptidase. The basis for the dacA-1 mutant's halosensitivity is unknown; nonetheless, the mutant's survival in biochemically uncharacterized environments (such as the suckling mouse intestine) can be used as a reporter of low Na+ content. PMID:25631756

  11. Structure and function of a novel LD-carboxypeptidase a involved in peptidoglycan recycling.

    PubMed

    Das, Debanu; Hervé, Mireille; Elsliger, Marc-André; Kadam, Rameshwar U; Grant, Joanna C; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Knuth, Mark W; Klock, Heath E; Miller, Mitchell D; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Deacon, Ashley M; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Wilson, Ian A

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 50% of cell wall peptidoglycan in Gram-negative bacteria is recycled with each generation. The primary substrates used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and recycling in the cytoplasm are GlcNAc-MurNAc(anhydro)-tetrapeptide and its degradation product, the free tetrapeptide. This complex process involves ∼15 proteins, among which the cytoplasmic enzyme ld-carboxypeptidase A (LdcA) catabolizes the bond between the last two l- and d-amino acid residues in the tetrapeptide to form the tripeptide, which is then utilized as a substrate by murein peptide ligase (Mpl). LdcA has been proposed as an antibacterial target. The crystal structure of Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444 LdcA (NaLdcA) was determined at 1.89-Å resolution. The enzyme was biochemically characterized and its interactions with the substrate modeled, identifying residues potentially involved in substrate binding. Unaccounted electron density at the dimer interface in the crystal suggested a potential site for disrupting protein-protein interactions should a dimer be required to perform its function in bacteria. Our analysis extends the identification of functional residues to several other homologs, which include enzymes from bacteria that are involved in hydrocarbon degradation and destruction of coral reefs. The NaLdcA crystal structure provides an alternate system for investigating the structure-function relationships of LdcA and increases the structural coverage of the protagonists in bacterial cell wall recycling.

  12. Electrochemical detection of protein kinase activity based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion triggered signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Wang, Xinxu; Guo, Yunlong; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-04-15

    An effective assay method for monitoring protein kinase activity and screening inhibitors is greatly beneficial to kinase-related drug discovery, early diagnosis of diseases, and therapeutic effect evaluation. Herein, we develop a simple electrochemical method for detecting the activity of casein kinase II (CK2) based on phosphorylation against carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion triggered signal amplification, where CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation event protects the substrate peptide from the digestion of CPY, maintains the repulsive force of the substrate peptide towards the redox probe, and results in a weak electrochemical signal. Whereas, without phosphorylation, the substrate peptide is digested by CPY and a strong electrochemical signal is obtained. The detection feasibility is demonstrated for the assay of CK2 activity with low detection limit of 0.047unit/mL. Moreover, the biosensor was used for the analysis of kinase inhibition. Based on the electrochemical signal dependent inhibitor concentration, the IC50 value of ellagic acid was estimated to be 39.77nM. The proposed method is also successfully applied to analyze CK2 activity in cell lysates, proving the applicability in complex biological samples.

  13. The glutamate carboxypeptidase AMP1 mediates abscisic acid and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yiting; Wang, Zheng; Meng, Pei; Tian, Siqi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-07-01

    ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1) encodes a glutamate carboxypeptidase that plays an important role in shoot apical meristem development and phytohormone homeostasis. We isolated a new mutant allele of AMP1, amp1-20, from a screen for abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitive mutants and characterized the function of AMP1 in plant stress responses. amp1 mutants displayed ABA hypersensitivity, while overexpression of AMP1 caused ABA insensitivity. Moreover, endogenous ABA concentration was increased in amp1-20- and decreased in AMP1-overexpressing plants under stress conditions. Application of ABA reduced the AMP1 protein level in plants. Interestingly, amp1 mutants accumulated excess superoxide and displayed hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. The hypersensitivity of amp1 to ABA and oxidative stress was partially rescued by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging agent. Furthermore, amp1 was tolerant to freezing and drought stress. The ABA hypersensitivity and freezing tolerance of amp1 was dependent on ABA signaling. Moreover, amp1 had elevated soluble sugar content and showed hypersensitivity to high concentrations of sugar. By contrast, the contents of amino acids were changed in amp1 mutant compared to the wild-type. This study suggests that AMP1 modulates ABA, oxidative and abotic stress responses, and is involved in carbon and amino acid metabolism in Arabidopsis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Structure and Function of a Novel ld-Carboxypeptidase A Involved in Peptidoglycan Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debanu; Hervé, Mireille; Elsliger, Marc-André; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Knuth, Mark W.; Klock, Heath E.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Deacon, Ashley M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of cell wall peptidoglycan in Gram-negative bacteria is recycled with each generation. The primary substrates used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and recycling in the cytoplasm are GlcNAc-MurNAc(anhydro)-tetrapeptide and its degradation product, the free tetrapeptide. This complex process involves ∼15 proteins, among which the cytoplasmic enzyme ld-carboxypeptidase A (LdcA) catabolizes the bond between the last two l- and d-amino acid residues in the tetrapeptide to form the tripeptide, which is then utilized as a substrate by murein peptide ligase (Mpl). LdcA has been proposed as an antibacterial target. The crystal structure of Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444 LdcA (NaLdcA) was determined at 1.89-Å resolution. The enzyme was biochemically characterized and its interactions with the substrate modeled, identifying residues potentially involved in substrate binding. Unaccounted electron density at the dimer interface in the crystal suggested a potential site for disrupting protein-protein interactions should a dimer be required to perform its function in bacteria. Our analysis extends the identification of functional residues to several other homologs, which include enzymes from bacteria that are involved in hydrocarbon degradation and destruction of coral reefs. The NaLdcA crystal structure provides an alternate system for investigating the structure-function relationships of LdcA and increases the structural coverage of the protagonists in bacterial cell wall recycling. PMID:24123814

  15. The X-ray structure of carboxypeptidase A inhibited by a thiirane mechanism-based inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Daniel; Testero, Sebastian; Vendrell, Josep; Avilés, Francesc X; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of carboxypeptidase A, a zinc-dependent hydrolase, covalently modified by a mechanism-based thiirane inactivator, 2-benzyl-3,4-epithiobutanoic acid, has been solved to 1.38 A resolution. The interaction of the thiirane moiety of the inhibitor with the active site zinc ion promotes its covalent modification of Glu-270 with the attendant opening of the thiirane ring. The crystal structure determination at high resolution allowed for the clear visualization of the covalent ester bond to the glutamate side chain. The newly generated thiol from the inhibitor binds to the catalytic zinc ion in a monodentate manner, inducing a change in the zinc ion geometry and coordination, while its benzyl group fits into the S1' specificity pocket of the enzyme. The inhibitor molecule is distorted at the position of the carbon atom that is involved in the ester bond linkage on one side and the zinc coordination on the other. This particular type of thiirane-based metalloprotease inhibitor is for the first time analyzed in complex to the target protease at high resolution and may be used as a general model for zinc-dependent proteases.

  16. Serine carboxypeptidase 46 Regulates Grain Filling and Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyong; Tang, Liqun; Qiu, Jiehua; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Yifeng; Tong, Xiaohong; Wei, Xiangjin; Hou, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase (SCP) is one of the largest groups of enzymes catalyzing proteolysis for functional protein maturation. To date, little is known about the function of SCPs in rice. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the gene structure and expression profile of 59 rice SCPs. SCP46 is dominantly expressed in developing seeds, particularly in embryo, endosperm and aleurone layers, and could be induced by ABA. Functional characterization revealed that knock-down of SCP46 resulted in smaller grain size and enhanced seed germination. Furthermore, scp46 seed germination became less sensitive to the ABA inhibition than the Wild-type did; suggesting SCP46 is involved in ABA signaling. As indicated by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis, numerous grain filling and seed dormancy related genes, such as SP, VP1 and AGPs were down-regulated in scp46. Yeast-two-hybrid assay also showed that SCP46 interacts with another ABA-inducible protein DI19-1. Taken together, we suggested that SCP46 is a master regulator of grain filling and seed germination, possibly via participating in the ABA signaling. The results of this study shed novel light into the roles of SCPs in rice. PMID:27448032

  17. Binding of D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine to carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Christianson, D W; Mangani, S; Shoham, G; Lipscomb, W N

    1989-08-05

    The structures of the complexes of carboxypeptidase A with the amino acids D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine are reported as determined by x-ray crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.0 A. In each individual study one molecule of amino acids binds to the enzyme in the COOH-terminal hydrophobic pocket: the carboxylate of the bound ligand salt links with Arg-145, and the alpha-amino group salt links with Glu-270. The carboxylate of Glu-270 must break its hydrogen bond with the native zinc-bound water molecule in order to exploit the latter interaction. This result is in accord with spectroscopic studies which indicate that the binding of D or L amino acids (or analogues thereof) allows for more facile displacement of the metal-bound water by anions (Bicknell, R., Schaffer, A., Bertini, I., Luchinat, C., Vallee, B. L., and Auld, D. S. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 1050-1057). Additionally, we observe a significant movement of the zinc-bound water molecule (approximately 1 A) upon the binding of D-ligands. We propose that this unanticipated movement also contributes to anion sensitivity. The structural results of the current x-ray study correct predictions made in an early model building study regarding the binding of D-phenylalanine (Lipscomb, W. N., Hartsuck, J. A., Reeke, G. N., Jr., Quiocho, F. A., Bethge, P. H., Ludwig, M. L., Steitz, T. A., Muirhead, H., and Coppola, J. C. (1968) Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 21, 24-90).

  18. In silico approaches to identify the potential inhibitors of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Janaki Ramaiah, M; Stanley, Balraj Alex; Prasanna Lakshmi, S; Vishnu Priya, J; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-10-07

    To develop a potential inhibitor for glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) effective against all the eight common genetic variants reported, PyMOL molecular visualization system was used to generate models of variants using the crystal structure of GCPII i.e. 2OOT as a template. High-throughput virtual screening of 29 compounds revealed differential efficacy across the eight genetic variants (pIC50: 4.70 to 10.22). Pharmacophore analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies revealed a urea-based N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) analogue as more potent inhibitor, which was effective across all the genetic variants of GCPII as evidenced by glide scores (-4.32 to -7.08) and protein-ligand interaction plots (13 interactions in wild GCPII). This molecule satisfied Lipinski rule of five and rule of three for drug-likeliness. Being a NAAG-analogue, this molecule might confer neuroprotection by inhibiting glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase), a splice variant of GCPII.

  19. N-terminal truncated carboxypeptidase E expression is associated with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Meng, Dawei; Li, Li; Tian, Xin; Jia, Yunji; Wang, Hongyue; Yu, Huihui; Sun, Tiemin; Qu, Aibing; Shen, Hui; Bao, Jimin; Zhang, Guirong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality rates. To date, no suitable molecular diagnostic tool to predict disease recurrence and metastasis has been identified. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential of N-terminal truncated carboxypeptidase E (CPEΔN) to predict the recurrence and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. Western blotting revealed the co-expression of CPE and CPEΔN in the surgically collected pathological and pericarcinoma tissues tissues of 62.1% (59/95) lung adenocarcinoma patients. The full length CPE protein was predominantly expressed in pericarcinoma tissues and CPEΔN expression was identified in the pericarcinoma normal tissues of only 5.26% (5/95) patients. The 3-year postoperative recurrence and metastasis rates were significantly higher in patients with positive CPEΔN expression than in patients with negative CPEΔN expression (P=0.009). Furthermore, the overall survival rate of patients with predominant nuclear CPE expression was lower than that of patients with predominant cytoplasmic CPE expression (46.3 vs. 64.7%); however, no statistically significant difference was identified (P=0.125). Thus, the results of the current study indicated that CPEΔN may present a novel molecular biomarker for predicting recurrence and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma, which may aid with stratifying patients by risk and thus, may facilitate individualized therapy. PMID:28101219

  20. A Fluorometric Method of Measuring Carboxypeptidase Activities for Angiotensin II and Apelin-13

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pan; Wysocki, Jan; Serfozo, Peter; Ye, Minghao; Souma, Tomokazu; Batlle, Daniel; Jin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of the biologically potent octapeptide angiotensin Ang II-(1-8) is mediated by the activities of several peptidases. The conversion of Ang II to the septapeptide Ang-(1-7) is of particular interest as the latter also confers organ protection. The conversion is catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and other enzymes that selectively cleave the peptide bond between the proline and the phenylalanine at the carboxyl terminus of Ang II. The contribution of various enzyme activities that collectively lead to the formation of Ang-(1-7) from Ang II, in both normal conditions and in disease states, remains only partially understood. This is largely due to the lack of a reliable and sensitive method to detect these converting activities in complex samples, such as blood and tissues. Here, we report a fluorometric method to measure carboxypeptidase activities that cleave the proline-phenylalanine dipeptide bond in Ang II. This method is also suitable for measuring the conversion of apelin-13. The assay detects the release of phenylalanine amino acid in a reaction with the yeast enzyme of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). When used in cell and mouse organs, the assay can robustly measure endogenous Ang II and apelin-13-converting activities involved in the renin-angiotensin and the apelinergic systems, respectively. PMID:28378780

  1. Rapid-scanning cryospectroscopy of enzyme-substrate-inhibitor complexes of cobalt carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Auld, D S; Geoghegan, K; Galdes, A; Vallee, B L

    1986-09-09

    Rapid-scanning cryospectroscopy of cobalt(II)-substituted carboxypeptidase A serves to identify and characterize ternary enzyme-substrate-inhibitor (IES) complexes formed by the interaction between the enzyme, a peptide substrate, and a noncompetitive inhibitor. A cobalt absorption spectrum distinct from any induced by peptide or inhibitor alone signals formation of the IES complex. Tight-binding noncompetitive inhibitors containing an aromatic ring, e.g., beta-phenylpropionate, cause the IES complex to form much more slowly than simple binary complexes of the enzyme with either peptide or inhibitor. An inhibitor such as acetate, which binds more weakly and is less bulky, permits the IES complex to form relatively quickly. Remarkably, the cobalt spectra of the IES complexes match those previously found for the steady-state ester (depsipeptide) intermediates. Chemical quenching studies have demonstrated that in these ester intermediates the scissile bond is broken [Galdes, A., Auld, D. S., & Vallee, B. L. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 646-651]. This finding, in conjunction with the present studies, implies that a peptide and a noncompetitive inhibitor of its hydrolysis occupy the same binding loci as the hydrolytic products of a depsipeptide and further indicates that breakdown of an enzyme-biproduct complex is rate-determining for the turnover of depsipeptides.

  2. May modifications of human plasma proteins stimulated by homocysteine and its thiolactone induce changes of hemostatic function of plasma in vitro?

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Malinowska, Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Homocysteine (Hcys) may be implicated in different diseases, especially in cardiovascular illnesses. The most reactive form of Hcys is its cyclic thioester-homocysteine thiolactone (HTL), which is formed in plasma and represents up to 0.29% of plasma total Hcys. Recently, it has been observed that Hcys and HTL may modify plasma proteins, including albumin, hemoglobin or fibrinogen, but the role of this process is not yet well known. The aim of our study in vitro was to investigate the modifications of human plasma total proteins after incubation with the reduced form of Hcys in concentrations 10-100 micromol/l, and HTL in concentrations 1-0.1 micromol/l, which correspond to levels found in human plasma during hyperhomocysteinemia in vivo. The aim of our study was also to explain the effects of Hcys and HTL on coagulation activity of human plasma. We showed that in model system in vitro Hcys and HTL change the level of thiol, amino and carbonyl groups in plasma total proteins. Moreover, our studies reported that not only Hcys (10-100 micromol/l), but also HTL (at lower concentrations than Hcys) modulates the coagulation properties of human plasma.

  3. Exercise increases the level of plasma orexin A in humans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Giovanni; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Viggiano, Andrea; De Luca, Vincenzo; Monda, Vincenzo; Messina, Antonietta; Chieffi, Sergio; Galderisi, Umberto; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of exercise on the concentration of plasma orexin A, a peptide regulating several physiological functions. Blood samples were collected from participants (men, n=10; age: 24.4±2.93 years) 15, 0 min before the start of exercise, and 30, 45, 60 min after a cycle ergometer exercise at 75 W for 15 min. Also heart rate (HR), galvanic skin response (GSR), and rectal temperature were monitored. The exercise induced a significant increase (p<0.01) in plasmatic orexin A with a peak at 30 min after the exercise bout, in association with an increase of the other three monitored variables: HR (p<0.01), GSR (p<0.05), and rectal temperature (p<0.01). Our findings indicate that plasmatic orexin A is involved in the reaction to physical activity.

  4. Virucidal Effect of Cold Atmospheric Gaseous Plasma on Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; Williams, Paul; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M.; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A. A.; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Minimal food-processing methods are not effective against foodborne viruses, such as human norovirus (NV). It is important, therefore, to explore novel nonthermal technologies for decontamination of foods eaten fresh, minimally processed and ready-to-eat foods, and food contact surfaces. We studied the in vitro virucidal activity of cold atmospheric gaseous plasma (CGP) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of NV. Factors affecting the virucidal activity of CGP (a so-called radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet) were the plasma generation power, the exposure time and distance, the plasma feed gas mixture, and the virus suspension medium. Exposure to 2.5-W argon (Ar) plasma caused a 5.55 log10 unit reduction in the FCV titer within 120 s. The reduction in the virus titer increased with increasing exposure time and decreasing exposure distance. Of the four plasma gas mixtures studied (Ar, Ar plus 1% O2, Ar plus 1% dry air, and Ar plus 0.27% water), Ar plus 1% O2 plasma treatment had the highest virucidal effect: more than 6.0 log10 units of the virus after 15 s of exposure. The lowest virus reduction was observed with Ar plus 0.27% water plasma treatment (5 log10 unit reduction after 120 s). The highest reduction in titer was observed when the virus was suspended in distilled water. Changes in temperature and pH and formation of H2O2 were not responsible for the virucidal effect of plasma. The oxidation of viral capsid proteins by plasma-produced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the solution was thought to be responsible for the virucidal effect. In conclusion, CGP exhibits virucidal activity in vitro and has the potential to combat viral contamination in foods and on food preparation surfaces. PMID:25795667

  5. Virucidal effect of cold atmospheric gaseous plasma on feline calicivirus, a surrogate for human norovirus.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; Williams, Paul; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A A; Bruggeman, Peter J; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-06-01

    Minimal food-processing methods are not effective against foodborne viruses, such as human norovirus (NV). It is important, therefore, to explore novel nonthermal technologies for decontamination of foods eaten fresh, minimally processed and ready-to-eat foods, and food contact surfaces. We studied the in vitro virucidal activity of cold atmospheric gaseous plasma (CGP) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of NV. Factors affecting the virucidal activity of CGP (a so-called radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet) were the plasma generation power, the exposure time and distance, the plasma feed gas mixture, and the virus suspension medium. Exposure to 2.5-W argon (Ar) plasma caused a 5.55 log10 unit reduction in the FCV titer within 120 s. The reduction in the virus titer increased with increasing exposure time and decreasing exposure distance. Of the four plasma gas mixtures studied (Ar, Ar plus 1% O2, Ar plus 1% dry air, and Ar plus 0.27% water), Ar plus 1% O2 plasma treatment had the highest virucidal effect: more than 6.0 log10 units of the virus after 15 s of exposure. The lowest virus reduction was observed with Ar plus 0.27% water plasma treatment (5 log10 unit reduction after 120 s). The highest reduction in titer was observed when the virus was suspended in distilled water. Changes in temperature and pH and formation of H2O2 were not responsible for the virucidal effect of plasma. The oxidation of viral capsid proteins by plasma-produced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the solution was thought to be responsible for the virucidal effect. In conclusion, CGP exhibits virucidal activity in vitro and has the potential to combat viral contamination in foods and on food preparation surfaces.

  6. Plasma Metabolomics in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Frediani, Jennifer K.; Jones, Dean P.; Tukvadze, Nestan; Uppal, Karan; Sanikidze, Eka; Kipiani, Maia; Tran, ViLinh T.; Hebbar, Gautam; Walker, Douglas I.; Kempker, Russell R.; Kurani, Shaheen S.; Colas, Romain A.; Dalli, Jesmond; Tangpricha, Vin; Serhan, Charles N.; Blumberg, Henry M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to characterize metabolites during tuberculosis (TB) disease and identify new pathophysiologic pathways involved in infection as well as biomarkers of TB onset, progression and resolution. Such data may inform development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. Plasma samples from adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB disease and their matched, asymptomatic, sputum culture-negative household contacts were analyzed using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to identify metabolites. Statistical and bioinformatics methods were used to select accurate mass/charge (m/z) ions that were significantly different between the two groups at a false discovery rate (FDR) of q<0.05. Two-way hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to identify clusters of ions contributing to separation of cases and controls, and metabolomics databases were used to match these ions to known metabolites. Identity of specific D-series resolvins, glutamate and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-derived trehalose-6-mycolate was confirmed using LC-MS/MS analysis. Over 23,000 metabolites were detected in untargeted metabolomic analysis and 61 metabolites were significantly different between the two groups. HCA revealed 8 metabolite clusters containing metabolites largely upregulated in patients with TB disease, including anti-TB drugs, glutamate, choline derivatives, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived cell wall glycolipids (trehalose-6-mycolate and phosphatidylinositol) and pro-resolving lipid mediators of inflammation, known to stimulate resolution, efferocytosis and microbial killing. The resolvins were confirmed to be RvD1, aspirin-triggered RvD1, and RvD2. This study shows that high-resolution metabolomic analysis can differentiate patients with active TB disease from their asymptomatic household contacts. Specific metabolites upregulated in the plasma of patients with active TB disease, including Mtb-derived glycolipids and resolvins, have potential as biomarkers

  7. Unbound free fatty acid profiles in human plasma and the unexpected absence of unbound palmitoleate.

    PubMed

    Huber, Andrew H; Kleinfeld, Alan M

    2017-03-01

    We determined for the first time the profiles of the nine most abundant unbound FFAs (FFAus) in human plasma. Profiles were determined for a standard reference plasma of pooled healthy adults for which the Lipid MAPSMAPS Consortium had determined the total FFA profiles. Measurements were performed by using 20 different acrylodan-labeled fatty acid binding protein mutants (probes), which have complementary specificities for the nine FFAs that comprise more than 96% of long-chain plasma FFA. The acrylodan fluorescence emission for each probe changes upon binding a FFAu. The plasma concentrations of each of the nine FFAus were determined by combining the measured fluorescence ratios of the 20 probes. The total molar FFAu concentration accounted for <10(-5) of the total FFA concentration, and the mole fractions of the FFAu profiles were substantially different than the total FFA profiles. Myristic acid, for example, comprises 22% of the unbound versus 2.8% of the total. The most surprising difference is our finding of zero unbound cis-9-palmitoleic acid (POA), whereas the total POA was 7.2%. An unidentified plasma component appears to specifically prevent the release of POA. FFAus are the physiologically active FFAs, and plasma FFAu profiles may provide novel information about human health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Quantitation of carnosine in humans plasma after dietary consumption of beef.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Joon; Volpe, Stella L; Decker, Eric A

    2005-06-15

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide found in the muscle foods that has been postulated to be a bioactive food component. The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of carnosine in human plasma after ingestion of beef. Nine males and nine females were recruited for the study. Food devoid of meat products was given to the subjects so that they did not consume carnosine for 48 h prior to the test. Subjects fasted for 12 h and then had blood withdrawn prior to a meal containing 200 g of ground beef. Additional blood samples were collected over the following 24 h and carnosine concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cooked ground beef used in the study contained 52% water, 24% protein, 22% fat, and 124 mg of carnosine/100 g of beef. No plasma carnosine was detected in subjects before the consumption of the beef. Carnosine was detected in plasma 15 min after beef consumption. Plasma carnosine concentrations continued to increase with a maximum (32.7 mg of carnosine/L of plasma) being recorded 2.5 h after consumption. Carnosine concentrations then decreased until no carnosine could be detected at 5.5 h postconsumption. These results indicate that dietary carnosine is absorbed into human plasma after the consumption of beef. Since carnosine has several potential health benefits, evidence of its bioavailability suggests that it could be a bioactive food component.

  9. Effective ex vivo neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in plasma by recombinant immunoglobulin molecules.

    PubMed

    Gauduin, M C; Allaway, G P; Maddon, P J; Barbas, C F; Burton, D R; Koup, R A

    1996-04-01

    We tested the ability of human monoclonal antibodies (immunoglobulin G1b12 [IgG1b12] and 19b) and CD4-based molecules (CD4-IgG2 and soluble CD4 [sCD4]) to neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 directly from the plasma of seropositive donors in an ex vivo neutralization assay. IgG1b12 and CD4-IgG2, at concentrations from 1 to 25 micrograms/ml, were found to be effective at reducing the HIV-1 titer in most plasma samples. When viruses recovered from plasma samples were expanded to produce virus stocks, no correlation between the neutralization sensitivities to IgG1b12 and CD4-IgG2 of the in vitro passaged stocks and those of the ex vivo neutralizations performed directly on the plasma was observed. These differences could be due to changes in neutralization sensitivity that occur after one passage of the virus in vitro, or they could be related to the presence of complement or antibodies in the plasma. Furthermore, differences in expression of adhesion molecules on plasma-derived and phytohemagglutinin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived viruses could be involved. These studies suggest that IgG1b12 and CD4-IgG2 have broad and potent neutralizing activity in both in vitro and ex vivo neutralization assays and should be considered for use as potential immunoprophylactic or therapeutic agents.

  10. A filtration-based protocol to isolate human plasma membrane-derived vesicles and exosomes from blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Grant, Ryan; Ansa-Addo, Ephraim; Stratton, Dan; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Jorfi, Samireh; Kholia, Sharad; Krige, Lizelle; Lange, Sigrun; Inal, Jameel

    2011-08-31

    The methods of Plasma Membrane-derived Vesicle (PMV) isolation and quantification vary considerably in the literature and a new standard needs to be defined. This study describes a novel filtration method to isolate PMVs in plasma, which avoids high speed centrifugation, and to quantify them using a Becton Dickinson (BD) FACS Calibur™ flow cytometer, as annexin V-positive vesicles, larger than 0.2 μm in diameter. Essentially microvesicles (which comprise a mixture of PMVs and exosomes) from citrate plasma were sonicated to break up clumped exosomes, and filtered using Millipore 0.1 μm pore size Hydrophilic Durapore membranes in Swinnex 13 mm filter holders. Phosphatidylserine-positive PMVs detected with annexin V-PE were quantified using combined labelling and gating strategies in conjunction with Polysciences Polybead Microspheres (0.2 μm) and BDTrucount tubes. The PMV absolute count was calculated on the analysis template using the Trucount tube lot number information and expressed in PMV count/ml. Having estimated a normal reference range (0.51×10(5)-2.82×10(5) PMVs/ml) from a small sample of human donors, using the developed method, the effect of certain variables was investigated. Variations such as freezing of samples and gender status did not significantly alter the PMV absolute count, and with age plasma PMV levels were only marginally reduced. Smokers appeared to have reduced PMV levels. Nicotine, as for calpeptin was shown to dose-dependently (from 10 up to 50 μM) reduce levels of early apoptosis in THP-1 monocytes and to decrease the level of PMV release. Fasting individuals had 2-3 fold higher PMV absolute counts compared to non-fasting subjects.

  11. Plasma metabolites of dietary flavonoids after combination meal consumption with onion and tofu in humans.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Kumamoto, Shun; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Bando, Noriko; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Sekido, Keiko; Kato, Yoji; Terao, Junji

    2014-02-01

    The effect of food combination on metabolic profile in postprandial plasma has hardly been reported. We investigated the absorption and metabolism of quercetin and soy isoflavones in humans after combination meal consumption. Five healthy volunteers ingested sautéed onion and tofu, and the plasma metabolites of quercetin and isoflavones were analyzed. Quercetin and genistein were incubated with human intestinal Caco-2 cells and human hepatoma HepG2 cells to further analyze the influence of simultaneous supply to the small intestine and the liver. Glucuronosyl conjugates of quercetin and methylated quercetin were the major plasma metabolites in the case of onion intake. Plasma metabolites with the single serving of tofu were both glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of isoflavones. Interestingly, quercetin sulfate was only detected after the combined intake of sautéed onion and tofu, accompanied with a decrease in sulfated isoflavones. Besides, quercetin was shown as the preferential substance for phase II enzymes over genistein in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. These results indicate that, when flavonoids and isoflavonoids were ingested together, the metabolic conversions in the small intestine and/or the liver could be altered, resulting in the variation of the postprandial profiles of the plasma metabolites. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Metabolomics reveals increased isoleukotoxin diol (12,13-DHOME) in human plasma after acute Intralipid infusion.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Lawler, Nathan G; Nikolic, Sonja B; Peters, James M; Horne, James; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W; Sharman, James E

    2012-09-01

    Intralipid is a fat emulsion that is regularly infused into humans and animals. Despite its routine use, Intralipid infusion can cause serious adverse reactions, including immunosuppression. Intralipid is a complex mix of proteins, lipids, and other small molecules, and the effect of its infusion on the human plasma metabolome is unknown. We hypothesized that untargeted metabolomics of human plasma after an Intralipid infusion would reveal novel insights into its effects. We infused Intralipid and saline into 10 healthy men in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment and used GC/MS, LC/MS, and NMR to profile the small-molecule composition of their plasma before and after infusion. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 40 resulting plasma samples revealed that after Intralipid infusion, a less-well-characterized pathway of linoleic acid metabolism had resulted in the appearance of (9Z)-12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (12,13-DHOME, P < 10(-3)), a leukotoxin that has powerful physiological effects and is known to inhibit the neutrophil respiratory burst. Intralipid infusion caused increased plasma 12,13-DHOME. Given that 12,13-DHOME is known to directly affect neutrophil function, we conclude that untargeted metabolomics may have revealed a hitherto-unknown mechanism of intralipid-induced immunosuppression.

  13. Effect of resveratrol on hemostatic properties of human fibrinogen and plasma during model of hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Joanna; Olas, Beata

    2010-11-01

    Resveratrol (3,4', 5 - trihydroxystilben), a phenolic antioxidant synthesized in grapes and vegetables and presents in wine, has been supposed to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events. In this study the influence of resveratrol on the clot formation (using human plasma and purified fibrinogen) and the fibrin lysis during model of hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated. We induced this process using a reduced form of Hcys (at final dose of 0.1mM) and the most reactive form of Hcys - its cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone (HTL, 0.5μM). The aim of our study in vitro was to investigate the modifications of human plasma total proteins after incubation with Hcys, HTL and resveratrol. We observed that HTL, like its precursor, Hcys stimulated polymerization of fibrinogen. Our present results also demonstrated that Hcys (0.1mM) and HLT at lower doses than Hcys (0.5μM) reduced the fibrin lysis in human plasma. Moreover, Hcys and HTL change the level of thiol and amino groups in plasma total proteins. Our results indicate that resveratrol reduced the toxicity action of Hcys and HTL on hemostatic properties of fibrinogen or plasma, suggesting its possible protector role in hyperhomocysteinemia - induced cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Metabolomics reveals increased isoleukotoxin diol (12,13-DHOME) in human plasma after acute Intralipid infusion

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lindsay M.; Lawler, Nathan G.; Nikolic, Sonja B.; Peters, James M.; Horne, James; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W.; Sharman, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Intralipid is a fat emulsion that is regularly infused into humans and animals. Despite its routine use, Intralipid infusion can cause serious adverse reactions, including immunosuppression. Intralipid is a complex mix of proteins, lipids, and other small molecules, and the effect of its infusion on the human plasma metabolome is unknown. We hypothesized that untargeted metabolomics of human plasma after an Intralipid infusion would reveal novel insights into its effects. We infused Intralipid and saline into 10 healthy men in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment and used GC/MS, LC/MS, and NMR to profile the small-molecule composition of their plasma before and after infusion. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 40 resulting plasma samples revealed that after Intralipid infusion, a less-well-characterized pathway of linoleic acid metabolism had resulted in the appearance of (9Z)-12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (12,13-DHOME, P < 10−3), a leukotoxin that has powerful physiological effects and is known to inhibit the neutrophil respiratory burst. Intralipid infusion caused increased plasma 12,13-DHOME. Given that 12,13-DHOME is known to directly affect neutrophil function, we conclude that untargeted metabolomics may have revealed a hitherto-unknown mechanism of intralipid-induced immunosuppression. PMID:22715155

  15. Quantitative variability of 342 plasma proteins in a human twin population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yansheng; Buil, Alfonso; Collins, Ben C; Gillet, Ludovic CJ; Blum, Lorenz C; Cheng, Lin-Yang; Vitek, Olga; Mouritsen, Jeppe; Lachance, Genevieve; Spector, Tim D; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The degree and the origins of quantitative variability of most human plasma proteins are largely unknown. Because the twin study design provides a natural opportunity to estimate the relative contribution of heritability and environment to different traits in human population, we applied here the highly accurate and reproducible SWATH mass spectrometry technique to quantify 1,904 peptides defining 342 unique plasma proteins in 232 plasma samples collected longitudinally from pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins at intervals of 2–7 years, and proportioned the observed total quantitative variability to its root causes, genes, and environmental and longitudinal factors. The data indicate that different proteins show vastly different patterns of abundance variability among humans and that genetic control and longitudinal variation affect protein levels and biological processes to different degrees. The data further strongly suggest that the plasma concentrations of clinical biomarkers need to be calibrated against genetic and temporal factors. Moreover, we identified 13 cis-SNPs significantly influencing the level of specific plasma proteins. These results therefore have immediate implications for the effective design of blood-based biomarker studies. PMID:25652787

  16. Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletić, M.; Mojsilović, S.; Okić Đorđević, I.; Maletić, D.; Puač, N.; Lazović, S.; Malović, G.; Milenković, P.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Bugarski, D.

    2013-08-01

    Here we investigate the influences of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a non-thermal plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications.

  17. Non-thermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes by inducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    KIM, KI CHEON; PIAO, MEI JING; HEWAGE, SUSARA RUWAN KUMARA MADDUMA; HAN, XIA; KANG, KYOUNG AH; JO, JIN OH; MOK, YOUNG SUN; SHIN, JENNIFER H.; PARK, YEUNSOO; YOO, SUK JAE; HYUN, JIN WON

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) through the induction of oxidative stress. For this purpose, the cells were exposed to surface dielectric-barrier discharge plasma in 70% oxygen and 30% argon. We noted that cell viability was decreased following exposure of the cells to plasma in a time-dependent manner, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium was used to monitor superoxide anion production. Plasma induced the generation of ROS, including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, which is an antioxidant, prevented the decrease in cell viability caused by exposure to plasma. ROS generated by exposure to plasma resulted in damage to various cellular components, including lipid membrane peroxidation, DNA breaks and protein carbonylation, which was detected by measuring the levels of 8-isoprostane and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine assay, comet assay and protein carbonyl formation. These results suggest that plasma exerts cytotoxic effects by causing oxidative stress-induced damage to cellular components. PMID:26573561

  18. Non-thermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Cheon; Piao, Mei Jing; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Jo, Jin Oh; Mok, Young Sun; Shin, Jennifer H; Park, Yeunsoo; Yoo, Suk Jae; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) through the induction of oxidative stress. For this purpose, the cells were exposed to surface dielectric-barrier discharge plasma in 70% oxygen and 30% argon. We noted that cell viability was decreased following exposure of the cells to plasma in a time-dependent manner, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium was used to monitor superoxide anion production. Plasma induced the generation of ROS, including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, which is an antioxidant, prevented the decrease in cell viability caused by exposure to plasma. ROS generated by exposure to plasma resulted in damage to various cellular components, including lipid membrane peroxidation, DNA breaks and protein carbonylation, which was detected by measuring the levels of 8-isoprostane and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine assay, comet assay and protein carbonyl formation. These results suggest that plasma exerts cytotoxic effects by causing oxidative stress-induced damage to cellular components.

  19. On the suppression of plasma nonesterified fatty acids by insulin during enhanced intravascular lipolysis in humans.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, André C; Frisch, Frédérique; Cyr, Denis; Généreux, Philippe; Patterson, Bruce W; Giguère, Robert; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2005-11-01

    During the fasting state, insulin reduces nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance in the systemic circulation mostly by suppressing intracellular lipolysis in the adipose tissue. In the postprandial state, insulin may also control NEFA appearance through enhanced trapping into the adipose tissue of NEFA derived from intravascular triglyceride lipolysis. To determine the contribution of suppression of intracellular lipolysis in the modulation of plasma NEFA metabolism by insulin during enhanced intravascular triglyceride lipolysis, 10 healthy nonobese subjects underwent pancreatic clamps at fasting vs. high physiological insulin level with intravenous infusion of heparin plus Intralipid. Nicotinic acid was administered orally during the last 2 h of each 4-h clamp to inhibit intracellular lipolysis and assess insulin's effect on plasma NEFA metabolism independently of its effect on intracellular lipolysis. Stable isotope tracers of palmitate, acetate, and glycerol were used to assess plasma NEFA metabolism and total triglyceride lipolysis in each participant. The glycerol appearance rate was similar during fasting vs. high insulin level, but plasma NEFA levels were significantly lowered by insulin. Nicotinic acid significantly blunted the insulin-mediated suppression of plasma palmitate appearance and oxidation rates by approximately 60 and approximately 70%, respectively. In contrast, nicotinic acid did not affect the marked stimulation of palmitate clearance by insulin. Thus most of the insulin-mediated reduction of plasma NEFA appearance and oxidation can be explained by suppression of intracellular lipolysis during enhanced intravascular triglyceride lipolysis in healthy humans. Our results also suggest that insulin may affect plasma NEFA clearance independently of the suppression of intracellular lipolysis.

  20. LC-MS/MS analysis of carboxymethylated and carboxyethylated phosphatidylethanolamines in human erythrocytes and blood plasma[S

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Naoki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Fujita, Ikuko; Hashiura, Aya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    An amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is considered as a target for nonenzymatic glycation, and the potential involvement of lipid glycation in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications has generated interest. However, unlike an early glycation product of PE (Amadori-PE), the occurrence and roles of advanced glycation end products of PE (AGE-PE) in vivo have been unclear. Here, we developed an LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of AGE-PE [carboxymethyl-PE (CM-PE) and carboxyethyl-PE (CE-PE)]. Collision-induced dissociation of CM-PE and CE-PE produced characteristic ions, permitting neutral loss scanning (NLS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of AGE-PE. By NLS analysis, a series of AGE-PE molecular species was detected in human erythrocytes and blood plasma. In LC-MS/MS analysis, MRM enabled the separation and determination of the predominant AGE-PE species. Between healthy subjects and diabetic patients, no significant differences were observed in AGE-PE concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma, whereas Amadori-PE concentrations were higher in diabetic patients. These results provide direct evidence for the presence of AGE-PE in human blood, and indicated that, compared with Amadori-PE, AGE-PE is less likely to be accumulated in diabetic blood. The presently developed LC-MS/MS method appears to be a powerful tool for understanding in vivo lipid glycation and its pathophysiological consequence. PMID:20386060

  1. Quantitative bioanalysis of strontium in human serum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Somarouthu, Srikanth; Ohh, Jayoung; Shaked, Jonathan; Cunico, Robert L; Yakatan, Gerald; Corritori, Suzana; Tami, Joe; Foehr, Erik D

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A bioanalytical method using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to measure endogenous levels of strontium in human serum was developed and validated. Results & methodology: This article details the experimental procedures used for the method development and validation thus demonstrating the application of the inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method for quantification of strontium in human serum samples. The assay was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. Significant endogenous levels of strontium are present in human serum samples ranging from 19 to 96 ng/ml with a mean of 34.6 ± 15.2 ng/ml (SD). Discussion & conclusion: Calibration procedures and sample pretreatment were simplified for high throughput analysis. The validation demonstrates that the method was sensitive, selective for quantification of strontium (88Sr) and is suitable for routine clinical testing of strontium in human serum samples. PMID:28031925

  2. Analysis of free hydroxytyrosol in human plasma following the administration of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Antoni; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Olesti, Eulàlia; Pujadas, Mitona; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Khymenets, Olha; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, María-Isabel; Solá, Rosa; Motilva, María-José; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-03-11

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) from olive oil, a potent bioactive molecule with health benefits, has a poor bioavailability, its free form (free HT) being undetectable so far. This fact leads to the controversy whether attained HT concentrations after olive oil polyphenol ingestion are too low to explain the observed biological activities. Due to this, an analytical methodology to determine free HT in plasma is crucial for understanding HT biological activity. Plasma HT instability and low concentrations have been major limitations for its quantification in clinical studies. Here, we describe a method to detect and quantify free HT in human plasma by using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The method encompasses different steps of sample preparation including plasma stabilization, protein precipitation, selective derivatization with benzylamine, and purification by solid-phase extraction. A high sensitivity (LOD, 0.3ng/mL), specificity and stability of HT is achieved following these procedures. The method was validated and its applicability was demonstrated by analyzing human plasma samples after olive oil intake. A pharmacokinetic comparison was performed measuring free HT plasma concentrations following the intake of 25mL of ordinary olive oil (nearly undetectable concentrations) versus an extra-virgin olive oil (Cmax=4.40ng/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first time that an analytical procedure for quantifying free HT in plasma after olive oil dietary doses has been reported. The present methodology opens the door to a better understanding of the relationship between HT plasma concentrations and its beneficial health effects.

  3. Determination of loperamide in human plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; awad, Riad; awwad, Ahmad Abu

    2014-12-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50μl sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated.

  4. Effect of time exposure to high altitude on zinc and copper concentrations in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Rawal, S B; Singh, M V; Tyagi, A K; Roy, J; Dimri, G P; Selvamurthy, W

    1999-12-01

    Research has focused mainly on the relationship of zinc and copper contents and physical stresses like running, cycling, etc. It has also been reported that other forms of stresses change the concentration of these trace elements in humans. However,there are no reports on the effects of high altitude induced hypoxic stress on the plasma levels of these metals. Since hypoxia is one of the important stresses, we considered it appropriate to observe the changes in the levels of zinc and copper concentrations and in certain related zinc and copper enzymes and hormones in the plasma of human volunteers on acute induction to high altitude. From these findings, we intended to ascertain whether supplementation of these trace elements would be required for optimal health under such conditions. On acute induction to hypoxia, contents of these trace elements may change as the requirements of stressed organs and tissue may increase. Hence, further supplementation may be beneficial under hypoxic stress for better adaptability. Volunteers were divided into two groups: with and without zinc and copper salt supplementation. Blood samples were collected at sea level and on induction to acute hypoxia on days 3 and 10. Trace mineral contents and their related enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) and hormone (ceruloplasmin) levels were determined in plasma samples. Plasma zinc contents were significantly reduced upon induction to high altitude in the non-supplemented group, but not in the zinc-supplemented group. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly upon induction to the high altitude stress. The enzyme activity remained elevated up to day 10 of the stress. Plasma copper contents and ceruloplasmin activity did not change upon induction to high altitude. Under hypoxic stress, circulating levels of zinc and alkaline phosphatase in plasma changed appreciably as plasma zinc was transported into the organs and tissues. However, circulating levels of copper and ceruloplasmin in

  5. Direct measurement of human plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone by two-site immunoradiometric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Linton, E.A.; McLean, C.; Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, A.C.; Tilders, F.J.; Van der Veen, E.A.; Lowry, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A ''two-site'' immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) which allows the direct estimation of human CRH (hCRH) in plasma is described. Using this IRMA, basal levels of CRH in normal subjects ranged from 2-28 pg/mL (mean, 15 +/- 7 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 58). Values in men and women were similar. Plasma CRH values within this range were also found in patients with Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and Nelson's syndrome, with no correlation between plasma CRH and ACTH levels in these patients. Elevated plasma CRH levels were found in pregnant women near term (1462 +/- 752 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 55), and the dilution curve of this CRH-like immunoreactivity paralleled the IRMA standard curve. After its immunoadsorption from maternal plasma, this CRH-like material eluted on reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with a retention time identical to that of synthetic CRH and had equipotent bioactivity with the synthetic peptide in the perfused anterior pituitary cell bioassay. Circulating CRH was not detected in Wistar rats, even after adrenalectomy and subsequent ether stress. Synthetic hCRH was degraded by fresh human plasma relatively slowly; 65% of added CRH remained after 1 h of incubation at 37 C. Degradation was inhibited by heat treatment (54 C; 1 h), cold treatment (4 C; 4 h), or freezing and thawing. Loss of synthetic rat CRH occurred more rapidly when fresh rat plasma was used; only 20% of added CRH remained under the same conditions. The inability to measure CRH in peripheral rat plasma may be due to the presence of active CRH-degrading enzymes which fragment the CRH molecule into forms not recognized by the CRH IRMA.

  6. Effect of organo and inorganic lithium salt on human blood plasma glutathione- A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hashmat; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Hashmat, Farwa

    2016-03-01

    Investigation of toxicological effect of various metals is the field of interest for toxicological scientists since four to five decades and especially the toxicological effect of those drugs containing metals and there use is common because there is no other choice except to use these metal containing drugs. Inorganic as well as organic salts of lithium are commonly used in prophylaxis and treatments of many psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to see the difference between the effect of organic and inorganic salt of lithium commonly used in psychiatric disorders on the GSH of human blood plasma. It is the scientific fact that ionic dissociation of organic and inorganic salts of any metal is always quite different hence to prove this fact, the effect of lithium citrate (organic salt of lithium) and lithium carbonate (inorganic salt of lithium) was investigated on human blood plasma GSH to find the difference between the effect of two. Ellman's method was used for the quantification of glutathione contents in plasma. It was found that lithium citrate decrease plasma GSH contents less than lithium carbonate indicating that organic salts of lithium are safe than inorganic salts of lithium when are used in psychiatric disorders. Further to analyze the effect of organic and inorganic salt of lithium on blood plasma GSH with the increase in incubation time was also evaluated and was found that both concentration and time dependent effect of organic salt of lithium shows that this salt has decreased plasma GSH contents of human blood less than inorganic salt of lithium either by promoting oxidation of GSH into GSSG or by lithium glutathione complex formation. These results suggest the physicians that the use of organic lithium salts is much safer than inorganic salts of lithium in terms of depletion of blood plasma GSH contents.

  7. Fibrin glue from stored human plasma. An inexpensive and efficient method for local blood bank preparation.

    PubMed

    Spotnitz, W D; Mintz, P D; Avery, N; Bithell, T C; Kaul, S; Nolan, S P

    1987-08-01

    European surgeons have used fibrin glue extensively during thoracic, cardiovascular, and general surgical operations. Until now, however, it has been available only as a commercial preparation made from pooled human plasma, and it has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States because of a high associated risk of hepatitis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Methods of obtaining fibrinogen, an essential component of fibrin glue, from cryoprecipitate or fresh frozen plasma have been published recently. However, the cryoprecipitate method results in relatively low concentrations of fibrinogen, which can reduce glue effectiveness. The fresh frozen plasma method is more expensive and does not meet the standards of the American Association of Blood Banks for the "closed" system required for safe handling and management of blood component products. Both the cryoprecipitate and the fresh frozen plasma methods result in waste of unstable clotting factors. These factors are necessary to replace human plasma clotting deficiencies but are not necessary for the production of fibrin glue. The authors have developed an efficient, high-concentration blood bank method for producing and maintaining a local supply of a safer and less expensive but equally effective material derived from stored human plasma. This material is produced using approved blood bank techniques for a "closed" system in blood component production, thus reducing the risks of contamination and infection, and its fibrinogen concentration is higher than that of standard cryoprecipitate. The cost of 1 unit of this fibrin glue is comparable to that for 1 unit of cryoprecipitate and less than that for 1 unit of fresh frozen plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Identification of peptidase substrates in human plasma by FTMS based differential mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Nathan A.; Deyanova, Ekaterina G.; Geissler, Wayne; Wiener, Matthew C.; Sachs, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Kenny K.; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Sinha Roy, Ranabir; Settlage, Robert E.; Hendrickson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 2% of the human genome encodes for proteases. Unfortunately, however, the biological roles of most of these enzymes remain poorly defined, since the physiological substrates are typically unknown and are difficult to identify using traditional methods. We have developed a proteomics experiment based on FTMS profiling and differential mass spectrometry (dMS) to identify candidate endogenous substrates of proteases using fractionated human plasma as the candidate substrate pool. Here we report proof-of-concept experiments for identifying in vitro substrates of aminopeptidase P2, (APP2) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), a peptidase of therapeutic interest for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. For both proteases, previously validated peptide substrates spiked into the human plasma pool were identified. Of note, the differential mass spectrometry experiments also identified novel substrates for each peptidase in the subfraction of human plasma. Targeted MS/MS analysis of these peptides in the complex human plasma pool and manual confirmation of the amino acid sequences led to the identification of these substrates. The novel DPP-4 substrate EPLGRQLTSGP was chemically synthesized and cleavage kinetics were determined in an in vitro DPP-4 enzyme assay. The apparent second order rate constant (kcat/KM) for DPP-4-mediated cleavage was determined to be 2.3 x 105 M-1 s-1 confirming that this peptide is efficiently processed by the peptidase in vitro. Collectively, these results demonstrate that differential mass spectrometry has the potential to identify candidate endogenous substrates of target proteases from a human plasma pool. Importantly, knowledge of the endogenous substrates can provide useful insight into the biology of these enzymes and provides useful biomarkers for monitoring their activity in vivo.

  9. Affinity separation of human plasma gelsolin on Affi-Gel Blue.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Terabayashi, M; Egawa, T; Hayashi, E; Nakamura, H; Kishimoto, S

    1989-05-01

    Human plasma gelsolin was specifically eluted with 1 mM adenosine 5'-triphosphate from an Affi-Gel Blue column. Since the ionic strength of sodium chloride required to elute the protein from the dye column was much higher than that of 1 mM adenosine 5'-triphosphate, the binding of plasma gelsolin with the dye-ligand appeared to be biospecific. Taking advantage of this affinity interaction, we have developed a revised purification method of human plasma gelsolin. The purification included ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose chromatography, Affi-Gel Blue chromatography, and Phenyl-Sepharose chromatography. The method allowed a reproducible purification of the protein to apparent homogeneity, producing a 331-fold purification with a yield of 6%.

  10. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and chlorpheniramine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Celma, C; Allué, J A; Pruñonosa, J; Peraire, C; Obach, R

    2000-02-18

    An analytical method for the determination of paracetamol and chlorpheniramine in human plasma has been developed, validated and applied to the analysis of samples from a phase I clinical trial. The analytical method consists in the extraction of paracetamol and chlorpheniramine with diethyl ether, followed by the determination of both drugs by an LC-MS-MS method, using 2-acetamidophenol as internal standard. The intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy of this technique were good and the limit of quantitation was 0.5 microg/ml of plasma for paracetamol and 0.2 ng/ml for chlorpheniramine. The concentration working range was established between 0.5 microg/ml and 25 microg/ml for paracetamol and between 0.2 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml for chlorpheniramine. This method has been used for analyzing more than 1200 human plasma samples from a clinical study with 24 volunteers.

  11. Determination of albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Internally Calibrated Quantification of VEGF in Human Plasma by Fluorescence Immunoassays in Disposable Elastomeric Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lin, David H.; Taylor, Clive R.; Anderson, W. French; Scherer, Axel; Kartalov, Emil P.

    2009-01-01

    Herein we report on a proof of principle for the reproducible quantification of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in human plasma by fluorescence sandwich immunoassays using disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chips. The system requires 100 times less sample than typical clinical blood tests, while its current quantification limit is established at 4 pM. The in-built calibration method of spiking the plasma with known concentrations of commercially available antigen avoids common sources of error and improves the reliability of the test results. The demonstrated technique is important for immunoassay applications in fundamental scientific research and “point-of-care” (POC) biomedical diagnostics. In particular, the system is immediately applicable to microfluidic quantification of VEGF in human plasma in cancer studies. PMID:19748324

  13. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility.

  14. Identification of human plasma cells with a lamprey monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuiling; Liu, Yanling; Chan, Justin Tze Ho; Tong, Jiefei; Li, Zhihua; Shi, Mengyao; Davani, Dariush; Parsons, Marion; Khan, Srijit; Zhan, Wei; Kyu, Shuya; Grunebaum, Eyal; Campisi, Paolo; Propst, Evan J.; Jaye, David L.; Trudel, Suzanne; Moran, Michael F.; Ostrowski, Mario; Herrin, Brantley R.; Lee, F. Eun-Hyung; Sanz, Ignacio; Cooper, Max D.; Ehrhardt, Götz R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Ab-producing plasma cells (PCs) serve as key participants in countering pathogenic challenges as well as being contributors to autoimmune and malignant disorders. Thus far, only a limited number of PC–specific markers have been identified. The characterization of the unique variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) Abs that are made by evolutionarily distant jawless vertebrates prompted us to investigate whether VLR Abs could detect novel PC antigens that have not been recognized by conventional Abs. Here, we describe a monoclonal lamprey Ab, VLRB MM3, that was raised against primary multiple myeloma cells. VLRB MM3 recognizes a unique epitope of the CD38 ectoenzyme that is present on plasmablasts and PCs from healthy individuals and on most, but not all, multiple myelomas. Binding by the VLRB MM3 Ab coincides with CD38 dimerization and NAD glycohydrolase activity. Our data demonstrate that the lamprey VLRB MM3 Ab is a unique reagent for the identification of plasmablasts and PCs, with potential applications in the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of PC or autoimmune disorders. PMID:27152361

  15. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  16. Effects of Chemosignals from Sad Tears and Postprandial Plasma on Appetite and Food Intake in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (−28.6±3.3% vs. −14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation. PMID:22870321

  17. Plasma protein binding of an antisense oligonucleotide targeting human ICAM-1 (ISIS 2302).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tanya A; Geary, Richard S; Levin, Arthur A

    2006-01-01

    In vitro ultrafiltration was used to determine the plasma protein-binding characteristics of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (PS ODNs). Although there are binding data on multiple PS ODNs presented here, the focus of this research is on the protein-binding characteristics of ISIS 2302, a PS ODN targeting human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA, which is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. ISIS 2302 was shown to be highly bound (> 97%) across species (mouse, rat, monkey, human), with the mouse having the least degree of binding. ISIS 2302 was highly bound to albumin and, to a lesser, extent alpha2-macroglobulin and had negligible binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Ten shortened ODN metabolites (8, 10, and 12-19 nucleotides [nt] in length, truncated from the 3' end) were evaluated in human plasma. The degree of binding was reduced as the ODN metabolite length decreased. Three additional 20-nt (20-mer) PS ODNs (ISIS 3521, ISIS 2503, and ISIS 5132) of varying sequence but similar chemistry were evaluated. Although the tested PS ODNs were highly bound to plasma proteins, suggesting a commonality within the chemical class, these results suggested that the protein-binding characteristics in human plasma may be sequence dependent. Lastly, drug displacement studies with ISIS 2302 and other concomitant drugs with known protein-binding properties were conducted to provide information on potential drug interactions. Coadministered ISIS 2302 and other high-binding drugs evaluated in this study did not displace one another at supraclinical plasma concentrations and, thus, are not anticipated to cause any pharmacokinetic interaction in the clinic as a result of the displacement of binding to plasma proteins.

  18. Assessment of renal function by the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tai-Chih; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Hau; Lin, Matthew; Lin, Chun-Mao; Kuo, Hsien-Shou

    2012-01-01

    Water (H(2)O) is the most abundant and important molecule of life. Natural water contains small amount of heavy isotopes. Previously, few animal model studies have shown that the isotopic composition of body water could play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Here we study the stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen (δ(2)H) and oxygen (δ(18)O) in human blood plasma. The stable isotopic ratio is defined and determined by δ(sample) = [(R(sample)/R(STD))-1] * 1000, where R is the molar ratio of rare to abundant, for example, (18)O/(16)O. We observe that the δ(2)H and the δ(18)O in human blood plasma are associated with the human renal functions. The water isotope ratios of the δ(2)H and δ(18)O in human blood plasma of the control subjects are comparable to those of the diabetes subjects (with healthy kidney), but are statistically higher than those of the end stage renal disease subjects (p<0.001 for both ANOVA and Student's t-test). In addition, our data indicate the existence of the biological homeostasis of water isotopes in all subjects, except the end stage renal disease subjects under the haemodialysis treatment. Furthermore, the unexpected water contents (δ(2)H and δ(18)O) in blood plasma of body water may shed light on a novel assessment of renal functions.

  19. Cold plasma inactivation of human pathogens on foods and regulatory status update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of foods with human pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, norovirus, and other pathogens is an ongoing challenge for growers and processors. In recent years, cold plasma has emerged as a promising antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut...

  20. Assessment of Renal Function by the Stable Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in Human Blood Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tai-Chih; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Hau; Lin, Matthew; Lin, Chun-Mao; Kuo, Hsien-Shou

    2012-01-01

    Water (H2O) is the most abundant and important molecule of life. Natural water contains small amount of heavy isotopes. Previously, few animal model studies have shown that the isotopic composition of body water could play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Here we study the stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) in human blood plasma. The stable isotopic ratio is defined and determined by δsample = [(Rsample/RSTD)−1] * 1000, where R is the molar ratio of rare to abundant, for example, 18O/16O. We observe that the δ2H and the δ18O in human blood plasma are associated with the human renal functions. The water isotope ratios of the δ2H and δ18O in human blood plasma of the control subjects are comparable to those of the diabetes subjects (with healthy kidney), but are statistically higher than those of the end stage renal disease subjects (p<0.001 for both ANOVA and Student's t-test). In addition, our data indicate the existence of the biological homeostasis of water isotopes in all subjects, except the end stage renal disease subjects under the haemodialysis treatment. Furthermore, the unexpected water contents (δ2H and δ18O) in blood plasma of body water may shed light on a novel assessment of renal functions. PMID:22348150

  1. Cold plasma - a non-thermal processing technology to inactivate human pathogens on foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold plasma is a novel non-thermal food processing technology, suitable for application to fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Reductions of 3-5 logs have been achieved against human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and against phytopathogens and spoilage orga...

  2. Lack of association between human plasma oxytocin and interpersonal trust in a Prisoner's Dilemma paradigm.

    PubMed

    Christensen, James C; Shiyanov, Pavel A; Estepp, Justin R; Schlager, John J

    2014-01-01

    Expanding interest in oxytocin, particularly the role of endogenous oxytocin in human social behavior, has created a pressing need for replication of results and verification of assay methods. In this study, we sought to replicate and extend previous results correlating plasma oxytocin with trust and trustworthy behavior. As a necessary first step, the two most commonly used commercial assays were compared in human plasma via the addition of a known quantity of exogenous oxytocin, with and without sample extraction. Plasma sample extraction was found to be critical in obtaining repeatable concentrations of oxytocin. In the subsequent trust experiment, twelve samples in duplicate, from each of 82 participants, were collected over approximately six hours during the performance of a Prisoner's Dilemma task paradigm that stressed human interpersonal trust. We found no significant relationship between plasma oxytocin concentrations and trusting or trustworthy behavior. In light of these findings, previous published work that used oxytocin immunoassays without sample extraction should be reexamined and future research exploring links between endogenous human oxytocin and trust or social behavior should proceed with careful consideration of methods and appropriate biofluids for analysis.

  3. Determination of Febuxostat in Human Plasma Using RP-LC-UV Method.

    PubMed

    Younes, Kareem M; El-Kady, Ehab F; Elzanfaly, Eman S

    2016-07-01

    A simple and sensitive bioanalytical high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection was developed and validated for the quantification of febuxostat (FEB) in human plasma. Ketoprofen was used as an internal standard. The analytes were extracted from human plasma samples by precipitation with acetonitrile. The reconstituted samples were chromatographed on C18 Bondapack 10 µm, 250 × 4.6 mm, Waters Column (Ireland) by using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% aqueous phosphoric acid (pH 3) (52 : 48, v/v) as the mobile phase. The chromatographic separation was isocratically performed at room temperature at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 315 nm. The method exhibited a linear dynamic range over 0.05-5.00 µg/mL FEB in human plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 0.05 µg/mL. The results of the intra- and interday precision and accuracy studies were within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of FEB in human plasma samples for application in bioequivalence studies.

  4. Gamma-glutamyltransferase fractions in human plasma and bile: characteristic and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Irene; Fierabracci, Vanna; Corti, Alessandro; Aziz Elawadi, Hassan; Lorenzini, Evelina; Emdin, Michele; Paolicchi, Aldo; Franzini, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Total plasma gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity is a sensitive, non-specific marker of liver dysfunction. Four GGT fractions (b-, m-, s-, f-GGT) were described in plasma and their differential specificity in the diagnosis of liver diseases was suggested. Nevertheless fractional GGT properties have not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular nature of fractional GGT in both human plasma and bile. Plasma was obtained from healthy volunteers; whereas bile was collected from patients undergoing liver transplantation. Molecular weight (MW), density, distribution by centrifugal sedimentation and sensitivity to both detergent (deoxycholic acid) and protease (papain) were evaluated. A partial purification of b-GGT was obtained by ultracentrifugation. Plasma b-GGT fraction showed a MW of 2000 kDa and a density between 1.063-1.210 g/ml. Detergent converted b-GGT into s-GGT, whereas papain alone did not produce any effect. Plasma m-GGT and s-GGT showed a MW of 1,000 and 200 kDa, and densities between 1.006-1.063 g/ml and 1.063-1.210 g/ml respectively. Both fractions were unaffected by deoxycholic acid, while GGT activity was recovered into f-GGT peak after papain treatment. Plasma f-GGT showed a MW of 70 kDa and a density higher than 1.21 g/ml. We identified only two chromatographic peaks, in bile, showing similar characteristics as plasma b- and f-GGT fractions. These evidences, together with centrifugal sedimentation properties and immunogold electronic microscopy data, indicate that b-GGT is constituted of membrane microvesicles in both bile and plasma, m-GGT and s-GGT might be constituted of bile-acid micelles, while f-GGT represents the free-soluble form of the enzyme.

  5. Quantitation of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Plasma of Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Hongbin; Banh, Alice; Kwok, Shirley; Shi Xiaoli; Wu, Simon; Krakow, Trevor; Khong, Brian; Bavan, Brindha; Bala, Rajeev; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Colevas, Dimitrios; Pourmand, Nader; Koong, Albert C.; Kong, Christina S.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA can be detected in the plasma of patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) and to monitor its temporal change during radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We used polymerase chain reaction to detect HPV DNA in the culture media of HPV-positive SCC90 and VU147T cells and the plasma of SCC90 and HeLa tumor-bearing mice, non-tumor-bearing controls, and those with HPV-negative tumors. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify the plasma HPV DNA in 40 HPV-positive OPC, 24 HPV-negative head-and-neck cancer patients and 10 non-cancer volunteers. The tumor HPV status was confirmed by p16{sup INK4a} staining and HPV16/18 polymerase chain reaction or HPV in situ hybridization. A total of 14 patients had serial plasma samples for HPV DNA quantification during radiotherapy. Results: HPV DNA was detectable in the plasma samples of SCC90- and HeLa-bearing mice but not in the controls. It was detected in 65% of the pretreatment plasma samples from HPV-positive OPC patients using E6/7 quantitative polymerase chain reaction. None of the HPV-negative head-and-neck cancer patients or non-cancer controls had detectable HPV DNA. The pretreatment plasma HPV DNA copy number correlated significantly with the nodal metabolic tumor volume (assessed using {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography). The serial measurements in 14 patients showed a rapid decline in HPV DNA that had become undetectable at radiotherapy completion. In 3 patients, the HPV DNA level had increased to a discernable level at metastasis. Conclusions: Xenograft studies indicated that plasma HPV DNA is released from HPV-positive tumors. Circulating HPV DNA was detectable in most HPV-positive OPC patients. Thus, plasma HPV DNA might be a valuable tool for identifying relapse.

  6. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Fractions in Human Plasma and Bile: Characteristic and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fornaciari, Irene; Fierabracci, Vanna; Corti, Alessandro; Aziz Elawadi, Hassan; Lorenzini, Evelina; Emdin, Michele; Paolicchi, Aldo; Franzini, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Total plasma gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity is a sensitive, non-specific marker of liver dysfunction. Four GGT fractions (b-, m-, s-, f-GGT) were described in plasma and their differential specificity in the diagnosis of liver diseases was suggested. Nevertheless fractional GGT properties have not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular nature of fractional GGT in both human plasma and bile. Plasma was obtained from healthy volunteers; whereas bile was collected from patients undergoing liver transplantation. Molecular weight (MW), density, distribution by centrifugal sedimentation and sensitivity to both detergent (deoxycholic acid) and protease (papain) were evaluated. A partial purification of b-GGT was obtained by ultracentrifugation. Plasma b-GGT fraction showed a MW of 2000 kDa and a density between 1.063–1.210 g/ml. Detergent converted b-GGT into s-GGT, whereas papain alone did not produce any effect. Plasma m-GGT and s-GGT showed a MW of 1,000 and 200 kDa, and densities between 1.006-1.063 g/ml and 1.063–1.210 g/ml respectively. Both fractions were unaffected by deoxycholic acid, while GGT activity was recovered into f-GGT peak after papain treatment. Plasma f-GGT showed a MW of 70 kDa and a density higher than 1.21 g/ml. We identified only two chromatographic peaks, in bile, showing similar characteristics as plasma b- and f-GGT fractions. These evidences, together with centrifugal sedimentation properties and immunogold electronic microscopy data, indicate that b-GGT is constituted of membrane microvesicles in both bile and plasma, m-GGT and s-GGT might be constituted of bile-acid micelles, while f-GGT represents the free-soluble form of the enzyme. PMID:24533101

  7. Determination of colistin in human plasma, urine and other biological samples using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Wang, Jiping; Gerber, Jacobus P; Milne, Robert W

    2008-02-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantify colistin in human plasma and urine, and perfusate and urine from the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPK). Solid phase extraction (SPE) preceded chromatography on a Synergi Fusion-RP column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile, water and acetic acid (80/19/1) at 0.2mL/min. Ions were generated using electrospray ionization and detected in the positive-ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring was performed using precursor-product ion combinations. Calibration curves were linear from 0.028microg/mL (human plasma, IPK perfusate and urine)/0.056microg/mL (human urine) to 1.78microg/mL (all four media) for colistin A sulfate; corresponding values for colistin B sulfate were 0.016/0.032 to 1.01microg/mL. Accuracy and precision were within 10%. The LLOQ for colistin A sulfate was 0.028microg/mL in human plasma, IPK perfusate and urine and 0.056microg/mL in human urine; corresponding values for colistin B sulfate were 0.016 and 0.032microg/mL. The low sample volume, short analysis time and low LLOQ are ideal for pre-clinical and human pharmacokinetic studies of colistin.

  8. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  9. Detection of a lysosomal carboxypeptidase and a lysosomal dipeptidase in highly-purified dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I /cathepsin C/ and the elimination of their activities from preparations used to sequence peptides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, J. K.; Zeitman, B. B.; Ellis, S.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the properties of a carboxypeptidase, termed 'catheptic carboxypeptidase C,' and a dipeptidase, termed 'Ser-Met dipeptidase.' Both were found in highly purified DAP I from either beef spleen or rat liver. Methods are described for the removal or selective inactivation of these contaminating enzymes.

  10. A rapid LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of eszopiclone in human plasma: application to a human pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hotha, Kishore Kumar; Vijaya Bharathi, D; Jagadeesh, B; Ravindranath, L K; Jaya Veera, K N; Venkateswarulu, V

    2012-02-01

    A highly reproducible, specific and cost-effective LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous estimation of eszopiclone (ESZ) with 50 μL of human plasma using paroxetine as an internal standard (IS). The API-4000 LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the electrospray ionization technique. A simple liquid-liquid extraction process was used to extract ESZ and IS from human plasma. The total run time was 1.5 min and the elution of ESZ and IS occurred at 0.90 min; this was achieved with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid-methanol (15:85, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min on a Discover C(18) (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column. The developed method was validated in human plasma with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL for ESZ. A linear response function was established for the range of concentrations 0.10-120 ng/mL (r > 0.998) for ESZ. The intra- and inter-day precision values for ESZ were acceptable as per FDA guidelines. Eszopiclone was stable in the battery of stability studies, viz. bench-top, autosampler and freeze-thaw cycles. The developed assay method was applied to an oral bioequivalence study in humans.

  11. Stability of some atypical antipsychotics in human plasma, haemolysed whole blood, oral fluid, human serum and calf serum.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Danielle S; Partridge, Suzanne J; Handley, Simon A; Flanagan, Robert J

    2013-06-10

    Long-term stability data of atypical antipsychotics in different matrices are not widely available. The aim of this work was to assess the stability of amisulpride, aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole, clozapine and norclozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and sulpiride in human EDTA plasma, heparinised haemolysed human whole blood, oral fluid, human serum, and newborn calf serum stored in tightly capped plastic containers under a range of conditions. Measurements were performed by LC-MS/MS. Analyte instability was defined as a deviation of 15% or greater from the expected concentration. All analytes were stable following 3 freeze-thaw cycles in human plasma, and were stable in this matrix for at least 5 days at ambient temperature (olanzapine, 3 days); 4 weeks at 2-8°C (olanzapine, 2 weeks), and 2 years at -20°C (except for dehydroaripiprazole, olanzapine, and quetiapine, 1 year). In human serum, aripiprazole, dehydroaripiprazole, norclozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and sulpiride were unstable after 5 days at ambient temperature, 3 weeks at 2-8°C, and 9 months at -20°C. Olanzapine was unstable in whole blood and oral fluid under most conditions studied, although prior addition of ascorbic acid had a moderate stabilising effect. All other analytes were stable in whole blood and oral fluid for at least 2 days at ambient temperature, 1 week at 2-8°C, and 2 months at -20°C (clozapine and norclozapine, 1 month whole blood). These results confirm that plasma (EDTA anticoagulant) is the sample of choice for TDM of atypical antipsychotics. Delayed (more than 1 week) analysis of patient samples should be undertaken with caution, especially with serum and with haemolysed whole blood. With olanzapine, only plasma collected and stored appropriately is likely to give reliable quantitative results.

  12. The low photo-inactivation rate of bacteria in human plasma II. Inhibition of methylene blue bleaching in plasma and effective bacterial destruction by the addition of dilute acetic acid to human plasma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Cesario, Thomas C; Li, Runze; Er, Ali O; Rentzepis, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    Methylene blue (MB) and other photo-sensitizer molecules have been recognized as effective means for the inactivation of bacteria and other pathogens owing to their ability to photo-generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) including singlet oxygen. These reactive species react with the membrane of the bacteria causing their destruction. However, the efficiency of MB to destroy bacteria in plasma is very low because the MB 660 nm absorption band, that is responsible for the ROS generation, is bleached. The bleaching of MB, in plasma, is caused by the attachment of a hydrogen atom to the central ring nitrogen of MB, which destroys the ring conjugation and forms Leuco-MB which does not absorb in the 600 nm region. In this paper we show that addition of dilute acetic acid, ∼10(-4) M, to human plasma, prevents H-atom attachment to MB, allowing MB to absorb at 660 nm, generates singlet oxygen and thus inactivates bacteria. The mechanism proposed, for preventing MB bleaching in plasma, is based on the oxidation of cysteine to cystine, by reaction with added dilute acetic acid, thus eliminating the availability of the thiol hydrogen atom which attaches to the MB nitrogen. It is expected that the addition of acetic acid to plasma will be effective in the sterilization of plasma and killing of bacteria in wounds and burns.

  13. Pentoxifylline modulation of plasma membrane functions in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hand, W L; Butera, M L; King-Thompson, N L; Hand, D L

    1989-01-01

    Pentoxifylline is known to have major effects on cell membrane function in mammalian cells, including human leukocytes. The protective effects of this agent in animal models of infection and inflammation may be due to alterations in phagocyte (neutrophil and macrophage) function. However, the exact mechanism of action of pentoxifylline is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the drug on several membrane-associated activities in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and investigated possible mechanisms for the observed changes in neutrophil function. Pentoxifylline inhibited ingestion of microbial particles (Staphylococcus aureus and zymosan); decreased superoxide generation activated by zymosan, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, and concanavalin A (but not phorbol myristate acetate); and decreased uptake (transport) of adenosine stimulated by formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and zymosan. In contrast, pentoxifylline actually increased clindamycin uptake in zymosan-stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils. However, pentoxifylline had no effect on uptake of adenosine or clindamycin in unstimulated neutrophils. In comparison with known inhibitors of nucleoside transport (nitrobenzylthioinosine and dipyridamole), the results suggested that pentoxifylline does not bind to membrane nucleoside transport receptors. At concentrations which inhibit neutrophil function, pentoxifylline activity is not mediated through external membrane nucleoside regulatory sites. Thus, pentoxifylline affects the activation signal chain at a point beyond the membrane receptors. Whatever its precise mechanism of action, pentoxifylline has a striking modulatory effect on cell membrane-associated responses in stimulated leukocytes and may prove useful for control of injurious inflammatory states. PMID:2553608

  14. The thiol pool in human plasma: The central contribution of albumin to redox processes

    PubMed Central

    Turell, Lucía; Radi, Rafael; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The plasma compartment has particular features regarding the nature and concentration of low and high molecular weight thiols and oxidized derivatives. Plasma is relatively poor in thiol-based antioxidants; thiols are in lower concentrations than in cells and mostly oxidized. The different thiol-disulfide pairs are not in equilibrium and the steady-state concentrations of total thiols as well as reduced versus oxidized ratios are maintained by kinetic barriers, including the rates of reactions and transport processes. The single thiol of human serum albumin (HSA-SH) is the most abundant plasma thiol. It is an important target for oxidants and electrophiles due to its reactivity with a wide variety of species and its relatively high concentration. A relatively stable sulfenic (HSA-SO3H) acid can be formed in albumin exposed to oxidants. Plasma increases in mixed disulfides (HSA-SSR) or in sulfinic (HSA-SO2H) and sulfonic (HSA-SO3H) acids are associated with different pathologies and may constitute biomarkers of the antioxidant role of the albumin thiol. In this work we provide a critical review of the plasma thiol pool with a focus on human serum albumin. PMID:23747983

  15. Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Wong, Amy P; Gupta, Malancha; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-01

    This paper demonstrates that a hand-powered egg beater can be modified to serve as a centrifuge for separating plasma from human whole blood. Immunoassays used to diagnose infectious diseases often require plasma from whole blood, and obtaining plasma typically requires electrically-powered centrifuges, which are not widely available in resource-limited settings. Human whole blood was loaded into polyethylene (PE) tubing, and the tubing was attached to the paddle of an egg beater. Spinning the paddle pelleted the blood cells to the distal end of the PE tubing; the plasma remained as the supernatant. A cholesterol assay (run on patterned paper) demonstrated the suitability of this plasma for use in diagnostic assays. The physics of the system was also analyzed as a guide for the selection of other rotating systems for use in centrifugation. Egg beaters, polyethylene tubing, and paper are readily available devices and supplies that can facilitate the use of point-of-care diagnostics at sites far from centralized laboratory facilities.

  16. NMR spectroscopic approach reveals metabolic diversity of human blood plasma associated with protein-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuanyuan; Lan, Wenxian; Ji, Zhusheng; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Bin; Zhou, Xin; Li, Conggang; Liu, Maili

    2013-09-17

    Although blood plasma has been used to diagnose diseases and to evaluate physiological conditions, it is not easy to establish a global normal concentration range for the targeting components in the plasma due to the inherent metabolic diversity. We show here that NMR spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) may provide a useful method for quantitatively characterizing the metabolic diversity of human blood plasma. We analyzed 70 human blood plasma samples with and without addition of ibuprofen. By defining the PC score values as diversity index (I(div)) and the drug-induced PC score value change as interaction index (I(dist)), we find that the two indexes are highly correlated (P < 0.0001). Triglycerides, choline-containing phospholipids, lactate, and pyruvate are associated with both indexes (P < 0.0001), respectively. In addition, a significant amount of lactate and pyruvate are in the NMR "invisible" bound forms and can be replaced by ibuprofen. The diffusion and transverse relaxation time weighted NMR approaches gave rise to a better characterization of the diversity and the interaction than that of the one acquired using NOESYPR1D with 100 ms mixing time. These results might be useful for understanding the blood plasma-drug interaction and personalized therapy.

  17. HPTLC method for direct determination of gemifloxacin mesylate in human plasma.

    PubMed

    El-Koussi, W M; Atia, N N; Mahmoud, A M; El-Shabouri, S R

    2014-09-15

    Novel, simple and sensitive high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with fluorescence detection has been successfully developed and validated for determination of gemifloxacin mesylate (GFX) in plasma samples without prior pretreatment. Montelukast (MK) was used as internal standard. GFX and MK in plasma samples were separated using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of ethyl acetate:methanol:25% ammonia, (8:4.5:3, v/v/v). The emission intensity was measured using optical filter K400 after excitation at 342 nm. The Rf values for GFX and MK were 0.45±0.03 and 0.79±0.02, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, a linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (r=0.9965, n=6) was obtained in concentration range of 3-180 ng/band. The LOD and LOQ of the proposed method were 0.45 and 1.5 ng/band, respectively. The accuracy of the method was proved as the recovery % of GFX from spiked human plasma was 94.21-101.85%. The efficiency of the proposed method was confirmed by in-vivo application on human plasma in real patient samples. Moreover, the stability of GFX in plasma was carefully tested at different conditions and compared to others in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Total weak acid concentration and effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile buffers in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D

    2001-09-01

    The strong ion approach provides a quantitative physicochemical method for describing the mechanism for an acid-base disturbance. The approach requires species-specific values for the total concentration of plasma nonvolatile buffers (A(tot)) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma nonvolatile buffers (K(a)), but these values have not been determined for human plasma. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to calculate accurate A(tot) and K(a) values using data obtained from in vitro strong ion titration and CO(2) tonometry. The calculated values for A(tot) (24.1 mmol/l) and K(a) (1.05 x 10(-7)) were significantly (P < 0.05) different from the experimentally determined values for horse plasma and differed from the empirically assumed values for human plasma (A(tot) = 19.0 meq/l and K(a) = 3.0 x 10(-7)). The derivatives of pH with respect to the three independent variables [strong ion difference (SID), PCO(2), and A(tot)] of the strong ion approach were calculated as follows: dpH/dSID(+) = [1 + 10(pK(a)-pH)](2)/(2.303 x [SPCO(2)10(pH-pK'(1)[1 + 10(pK(a)-pH](2) + A(tot)10(pK(a)-PH

  19. Generation in Human Plasma of Misfolded, Aggregation-Prone Electronegative Low Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Giulia; Balogh, Gabor; Brunelli, Roberto; Costa, Graziella; De Spirito, Marco; Lenzi, Laura; Mei, Giampiero; Ursini, Fulvio; Parasassi, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Human plasma contains small amounts of a low density lipoprotein in which apoprotein is misfolded. Originally identified and isolated by means of anion-exchange chromatography, this component was subsequently described as electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL)(−), with increased concentrations associated with elevated cardiovascular disease risk. It has been recognized recently as the trigger of LDL amyloidogenesis, which produces aggregates similar to subendothelial droplets observed in vivo in early atherogenesis. Although LDL(−) has been produced in vitro through various manipulations, the mechanisms involved in its generation in vivo remain obscure. By using a more physiological model, we demonstrate spontaneous, sustained and noticeable production of LDL(−) during incubation of unprocessed human plasma at 37°C. In addition to a higher fraction of amyloidogenic LDL(−), LDL purified from incubated plasma contains an increased level of lysophospholipids and free fatty acids; analysis of LDL lipids packing shows their loosening. As a result, during plasma incubation, lipid destabilization and protein misfolding take place, and aggregation-prone particles are generated. All these phenomena can be prevented by inhibiting calcium-dependent secretory phospholipases A2. Our plasma incubation model, without removal of reaction products, effectively shows a lipid-protein interplay in LDL, where lipid destabilization after lipolysis threatens the apoprotein's structure, which misfolds and becomes aggregation-prone. PMID:19619478

  20. Enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of nicardipine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Uno, T; Ohkubo, T; Sugawara, K

    1997-09-26

    A sensitive method for the enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of nicardipine in human plasma is described. (+)-Nicardipine, (-)-nicardipine and (+)-barnidipine as an internal standard are detected by an ultraviolet detector at 254 nm. Racemic nicardipine in human plasma was extracted by a rapid and simple procedure based on C18 bonded-phase extraction. The extraction samples were purified and concentrated on a pre-column using a C1 stationary phase and the enantiomers of nicardipine are quantitatively separated by HPLC on a Sumichiral OA-4500 column, containing a chemically modified Pirkle-type stationary phase. Determination of (+)- and (-)-nicardipine was possible in a concentration range of 5-100 ng ml(-1) and the limit of detection in plasma was 2.5 ng ml(-1). The recoveries of (+)- and (-)-nicardipine added to plasma were 91.4-98.4% and 93.3-96.7%, respectively, with coefficients of variation of less than 9.0 and 9.4% respectively. The method was applied to low level monitoring of (+)- and (-)-nicardipine in plasma from healthy volunteers.

  1. Human plasma and human platelet-rich plasma as a substitute for fetal calf serum during long-term cultivation of mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Suchánková Kleplová, Tereza; Soukup, Tomáš; Řeháček, Vít; Suchánek, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), or fetal calf serum (FCS). The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT) (28.6 ± 4.6 hours), in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours); hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours), 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours) and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours) showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC's viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  2. Simultaneous determination of niacin, niacinamide and nicotinuric acid in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Pfuhl, P; Kärcher, U; Häring, N; Baumeister, A; Tawab, Mona Abdel; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M

    2005-01-04

    A sensitive, specific, accurate, and reproducible HPLC/MS-method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of niacin (NA) and its main metabolites niacinamide (NAM) and nicotinuric acid (NUR) in human plasma using chinolin-3-carboxylic acid as an internal standard was developed and validated according to international guidelines for method validation. All analytes and the internal standard were separated from acidified plasma by solid phase extraction. Afterwards the extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC/MS in the positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI) and selected ion monitoring (SIM). The total run time was 7 min between injections. The assay had a lower limit of quantification of 50.0 ng/mL for each analyte using 1 mL of plasma. The calibration curves were linear in the measured range between 50.0 and 750 ng/mL plasma. The overall precision and accuracy for all concentrations of quality controls and standards was better than 15%. No indications were found for possible instabilities of niacin, niacinamide and nicotinuric acid in plasma at -20 degrees C, in the extraction solvent or after repeated thawing/freezing cycles. In stabilities were observed in whole blood and in plasma at room temperature. The recovery of the extraction method ranged from 86 to 89% for the three analytes.

  3. Simultaneous determination of beta-blockers in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Hironobu; Lee, Xiao-Pen; Arima, Yoshiko; Hasegawa, Chika; Izawa, Hikaru; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Sato, Keizo

    2008-07-01

    A detailed procedure for the analysis of four beta-blockers, acebutolol, labetalol, metoprolol and propranolol, in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using an MSpak GF column, which enables direct injection of crude plasma samples, is presented. Protein and/or macromolecule matrix compounds were eluted first from the column, while the drugs were retained on the polymer stationary phase of the MSpak GF column. The analytes retained on the column were then eluted into an acetonitrile-rich mobile phase using a gradient separation technique. All drugs showed base peak ions due to [M + H]+ ions by LC-MS with positive ion electrospray ionization, and the product ions were produced from each [M + H]+ ion by LC-MS-MS. Quantification was performed by selected reaction monitoring. The recoveries of the four beta-blockers spiked into plasma were 73.5-89.9%. The regression equations for all compounds showed excellent linearity in the range 10-1000 ng/mL of plasma, with the exception of propranolol (10-800 ng/mL). The limits of detection and quantification for each drug were 1-3 and 10 ng/mL, respectively, of plasma. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation for all drugs in plasma were not greater than 10.9%.

  4. Increased FGF21 plasma levels in humans with sepsis and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Gariani, Karim; Drifte, Geneviève; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Pugin, Jérôme; Jornayvaz, François R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis. FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and in healthy controls. We measured FGF21 plasma concentrations in 22 patients with established sepsis, in 11 with SIRS, and in 12 healthy volunteers. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls. Also, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in those with noninfectious SIRS. FGF21 plasma levels measured at study entry correlated positively with the APACHE II score, but not with procalcitonin levels, nor with C-reactive protein, classical markers of sepsis. Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating levels of FGF21 are increased in patients presenting with sepsis and SIRS, and suggest a role for FGF21 in inflammation. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target.

  5. Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum extracts in the protection of human plasma components.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Malinowska, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Clovers (genus: Trifolium) have been used in traditional medicine by many cultures, but the biological activity of the most of these plants still remains unknown. The aim of our in vitro study was to assess the antioxidative action of phenolic extracts from aerial parts of Trifolium scabrum and Trifolium pallidum in human blood plasma, exposed to oxidative stress. In the present study we also demonstrate, for the first time the effects of the tested extracts on coagulative properties and fibrinolytic activity of blood plasma. The protective properties of the examined extracts (0.5-50 μg/ml) against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress were estimated by the measurements of 3-nitrotyrosine, thiol groups and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. The extracts considerably prevented the oxidative and nitrative damage to plasma proteins. Even the lowest doses of the Trifolium extracts (0.5 μg/ml) were able to markedly reduce 3-nitrotyrosine formation (by about 50%) and to increase the level of -SH groups (by about 30%), in comparison to the plasma exposed to ONOO(-) in the absence of the extracts. The protective action of all the used concentrations of the Trifolium extracts in the prevention of lipid peroxidation was also found. The tested extracts influenced neither the coagulative properties nor fibrinolytic activity of plasma. Moreover, the extracts were able to significantly reduce the inhibitory effect of ONOO(-) on fibrinolytic activity of plasma (assessed with the use of a chromogenic substrate for plasmin).

  6. Free and bound tryptophan in human plasma during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Tricklebank, M D; Pickard, F J; de Souza, S W

    1979-03-01

    The concentration of tryptophan and the degree of binding of the amino acid to protein were examined in human plasma during the perinatal period. Both total and unbound (free) tryptophan were higher in cord vein plasma than in the maternal circulation, the concentration gradient being approximately 1 : 2. The proportion of the total plasma tryptophan concentration that was not bound to protein was less in cord vein plasma than in the maternal circulation. After birth the proportion in infant plasma fell significantly. Both total and free tryptophan fell during the first 24 hours of postnatal life. Total tryptophan returned to the cord vein plasma level 6--8 days after birth whilst free tryptophan failed to increase during the period of the observations. In premature infants total and free tryptophan also declined in concentration 12--24 hours after birth, suggesting the phenomenon to be related to birth rather than to gestational age. Phenylalanine remained unchanged whilst tyrosine increased in concentration during the first 80 hours of postnatal life. Thus, the availability of tryptophan to the tissues appears to decline during the immediate postnatal period and the results suggest that the requirement for tryptophan during this time may exceed the supply from standard artifical milk preparations.

  7. Comparison of apoprotein B of low density lipoproteins of human interstitial fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Hong, J L; Pflug, J; Reichl, D

    1984-08-15

    Virtually all apoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins of the peripheral interstitial fluid of subjects with primary lymphoedema float in the ultracentrifugal field in the density interval 1.019-1.063 g/ml; in this respect they are similar to plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL). 2. Virtually all apo-B-containing lipoproteins of interstitial fluid migrate in the electrophoretic field with pre-beta mobility; in this respect they are similar to plasma very-low-density lipoproteins. 3. The apoB of lipoproteins of interstitial fluid does not differ in terms of Mr from apoB-100 of human plasma [Kane, Hardman & Paulus (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 2465-2469] as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 4. Both apoB of interstitial fluid and plasma are heterogenous in terms of their charge as determined by isoelectric focusing of their complexes with the nonionic detergent Nonidet P40. ApoB of plasma LDL focuses between pH5.9 and 6.65, and that of interstitial fluid LDL between pH 5.9 and 6.1. Thus the overall charge of apoB of interstitial fluid is more negative than that of its plasma LDL counterpart.

  8. Human recombinant arginase enzyme reduces plasma arginine in mouse models of arginase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Sun, Qin; Elsea, Sarah H; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Frankel, Arthur E; Stone, Everett; Alters, Susan E; Johnson, Dale E; Rowlinson, Scott W; Georgiou, George; Lee, Brendan H

    2015-11-15

    Arginase deficiency is caused by deficiency of arginase 1 (ARG1), a urea cycle enzyme that converts arginine to ornithine. Clinical features of arginase deficiency include elevated plasma arginine levels, spastic diplegia, intellectual disability, seizures and growth deficiency. Unlike other urea cycle disorders, recurrent hyperammonemia is typically less severe in this disorder. Normalization of plasma arginine levels is the consensus treatment goal, because elevations of arginine and its metabolites are suspected to contribute to the neurologic features. Using data from patients enrolled in a natural history study conducted by the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, we found that 97% of plasma arginine levels in subjects with arginase deficiency were above the normal range despite conventional treatment. Recently, arginine-degrading enzymes have been used to deplete arginine as a therapeutic strategy in cancer. We tested whether one of these enzymes, a pegylated human recombinant arginase 1 (AEB1102), reduces plasma arginine in murine models of arginase deficiency. In neonatal and adult mice with arginase deficiency, AEB1102 reduced the plasma arginine after single and repeated doses. However, survival did not improve likely, because this pegylated enzyme does not enter hepatocytes and does not improve hyperammonemia that accounts for lethality. Although murine models required dosing every 48 h, studies in cynomolgus monkeys indicate that less frequent dosing may be possible in patients. Given that elevated plasma arginine rather than hyperammonemia is the major treatment challenge, we propose that AEB1102 may have therapeutic potential as an arginine-reducing agent in patients with arginase deficiency.

  9. Determination of N-methylsuccinimide and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide in human urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, B A; Akesson, B

    1997-12-19

    A method for determination of N-methylsuccinimide (MSI) and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) in human urine and of MSI in human plasma was developed. MSI and 2-HMSI are metabolites of the widely used organic solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). MSI and 2-HMSI were purified from urine and plasma by C8 solid-phase extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the negative-ion chemical ionisation mode. The intra-day precisions in urine were 2-6% for MSI (50 and 400 ng/ml) and 3-5% for 2-HMSI (1000 and 8000 ng/ml). For MSI in plasma it was 2% (60 and 1200 ng/ml). The between-day precisions in urine were 3-4% for MSI (100 and 1000 ng/ml) and 2-4% for 2-HMSI (10,000 and 18,000 ng/ml) and 3-4% for MSI in plasma (100 and 900 ng/ml). The recoveries from urine were 109-117% for MSI (50 and 400 ng/ml) and 81-89% for 2-HMSI (1000 and 8000 ng/ml). The recovery of MSI from plasma was 91-101% (50 and 500 ng/ml). The detection limits for MSI were 3 ng/ml in urine and 1 ng/ml in plasma and that of 2-HMSI in urine was 200 ng/ml. The method is applicable for analysis of urine and plasma samples from workers exposed to NMP.

  10. The Redundancy of Peptidoglycan Carboxypeptidases Ensures Robust Cell Shape Maintenance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Katharina; Kannan, Suresh; Rao, Vincenzo A.; Biboy, Jacob; Vollmer, Daniela; Erickson, Stephen W.; Lewis, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential structural component of the bacterial cell wall and maintains the integrity and shape of the cell by forming a continuous layer around the cytoplasmic membrane. The thin PG layer of Escherichia coli resides in the periplasm, a unique compartment whose composition and pH can vary depending on the local environment of the cell. Hence, the growth of the PG layer must be sufficiently robust to allow cell growth and division under different conditions. We have analyzed the PG composition of 28 mutants lacking multiple PG enzymes (penicillin-binding proteins [PBPs]) after growth in acidic or near-neutral-pH media. Statistical analysis of the muropeptide profiles identified dd-carboxypeptidases (DD-CPases) that were more active in cells grown at acidic pH. In particular, the absence of the DD-CPase PBP6b caused a significant increase in the pentapeptide content of PG as well as morphological defects when the cells were grown at acidic pH. Other DD-CPases (PBP4, PBP4b, PBP5, PBP6a, PBP7, and AmpH) and the PG synthase PBP1B made a smaller or null contribution to the pentapeptide-trimming activity at acidic pH. We solved the crystal structure of PBP6b and also demonstrated that the enzyme is more stable and has a lower Km at acidic pH, explaining why PBP6b is more active at low pH. Hence, PBP6b is a specialized DD-CPase that contributes to cell shape maintenance at low pH, and E. coli appears to utilize redundant DD-CPases for normal growth under different conditions. PMID:27329754

  11. Structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a carboxypeptidase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, A; Zecca, L; Fusi, P; Colombo, S; Tedeschi, G; Tortora, P

    1993-01-01

    Investigations were performed on the structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus which had been purified previously and identified as a zinc metalloprotease [Colombo, D'Auria, Fusi, Zecca, Raia and Tortora (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 349-357]. Removal of Zn2+ by dialysis led to reversible activity loss, which was promptly restored by addition of 80 microM ZnCl2 to the assay mixture. For the first-order irreversible thermal inactivation the metal-depleted enzyme showed an activation energy value of 205.6 kJ.mol-1, which is considerably lower than that of the holoenzyme (494.4 kJ.mol-1). The values of activation free energies, enthalpies and entropies also dropped with metal removal. Thermal inactivation of the apoenzyme was very quick at 80 degrees C, whereas the holoenzyme was stable at the same temperature. These findings suggest a major stabilizing role for the bivalent cation. Chaotropic salts strongly destabilized the holoenzyme, showing that hydrophobic interactions are involved in maintaining the native conformation of the enzyme. However, the inactivation rate was also increased by sodium sulphate, acetate and chloride, which are not chaotropes, indicating that one or more salt bridges concur in stabilizing the active enzyme. Furthermore, at the extremes of the pH-stability curve, NaCl did not affect the inactivation rate, confirming the stabilizing role of intramolecular ionic bonds, as a pH-dependent decrease in stability is likely to occur from breaking of salt bridges involved in maintaining the native conformation of the protein. PMID:8240298

  12. Structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a carboxypeptidase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Villa, A; Zecca, L; Fusi, P; Colombo, S; Tedeschi, G; Tortora, P

    1993-11-01

    Investigations were performed on the structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus which had been purified previously and identified as a zinc metalloprotease [Colombo, D'Auria, Fusi, Zecca, Raia and Tortora (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 349-357]. Removal of Zn2+ by dialysis led to reversible activity loss, which was promptly restored by addition of 80 microM ZnCl2 to the assay mixture. For the first-order irreversible thermal inactivation the metal-depleted enzyme showed an activation energy value of 205.6 kJ.mol-1, which is considerably lower than that of the holoenzyme (494.4 kJ.mol-1). The values of activation free energies, enthalpies and entropies also dropped with metal removal. Thermal inactivation of the apoenzyme was very quick at 80 degrees C, whereas the holoenzyme was stable at the same temperature. These findings suggest a major stabilizing role for the bivalent cation. Chaotropic salts strongly destabilized the holoenzyme, showing that hydrophobic interactions are involved in maintaining the native conformation of the enzyme. However, the inactivation rate was also increased by sodium sulphate, acetate and chloride, which are not chaotropes, indicating that one or more salt bridges concur in stabilizing the active enzyme. Furthermore, at the extremes of the pH-stability curve, NaCl did not affect the inactivation rate, confirming the stabilizing role of intramolecular ionic bonds, as a pH-dependent decrease in stability is likely to occur from breaking of salt bridges involved in maintaining the native conformation of the protein.

  13. Loss of Prolyl Carboxypeptidase in Two-Kidney, One-Clip Goldblatt Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Leiva, Orly; Morris, Mariana; Elased, Khalid M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that angiotensin (Ang) II contributes to kidney disease progression. The protease prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) is highly expressed in the kidney and may be renoprotective by degrading Ang II to Ang-(1-7). The aim of the study was to investigate whether renal PRCP protein expression and activity are altered in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertensive mice. Left renal artery was constricted by using 0.12 mm silver clips. Blood pressure was measured using telemetry over the eleven weeks of study period and revealed an immediate increase in 2K1C animals during the first week of clip placement which was followed by a gradual decrease to baseline blood pressure. Similarly, urinary albumin excretion was significantly increased one week after 2K1C and returned to baseline levels during the following weeks. At 2 weeks and at the end of the study, renal pathologies were exacerbated in the 2K1C model as revealed by a significant increase in mesangial expansion and renal fibrosis. Renal PRCP expression and activity were significantly reduced in clipped kidneys. Immunofluorescence revealed the loss of renal tubular PRCP but not glomerular PRCP. In contrast, expression of prolyl endopeptidase, another enzyme capable of converting Ang II into Ang-(1-7), was not affected, while angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated in unclipped kidneys and renin was increased in clipped kidneys. Results suggest that PRCP is suppressed in 2K1C and that this downregulation may attenuate renoprotective effects via impaired Ang II degradation by PRCP. PMID:25706121

  14. The sorting of proglucagon to secretory granules is mediated by carboxypeptidase E and intrinsic sorting signals.

    PubMed

    McGirr, Rebecca; Guizzetti, Leonardo; Dhanvantari, Savita

    2013-05-01

    Proglucagon is expressed in pancreatic alpha cells, intestinal L cells and brainstem neurons. Tissue-specific processing of proglucagon yields the peptide hormones glucagon in the alpha cell and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2 in L cells. Both glucagon and GLP-1 are secreted in response to nutritional status and are critical for regulating glycaemia. The sorting of proglucagon to the dense-core secretory granules of the regulated secretory pathway is essential for the appropriate secretion of glucagon and GLP-1. We examined the roles of carboxypeptidase E (CPE), a prohormone sorting receptor, the processing enzymes PC1/3 and PC2 and putative intrinsic sorting signals in proglucagon sorting. In Neuro 2a cells that lacked CPE, PC1/3 and PC2, proglucagon co-localised with the Golgi marker p115 as determined by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of CPE, but not of PC1/3 or PC2, enhanced proglucagon sorting to granules. siRNA-mediated knockdown of CPE disrupted regulated secretion of glucagon from pancreatic-derived alphaTC1-6 cells, but not of GLP-1 from intestinal cell-derived GLUTag cells. Mutation of the PC cleavage site K70R71, the dibasic R17R18 site within glucagon or the alpha-helix of glucagon, all significantly affected the sub-cellular localisation of proglucagon. Protein modelling revealed that alpha helices corresponding to glucagon, GLP-1 and GLP-2, are arranged within a disordered structure, suggesting some flexibility in the sorting mechanism. We conclude that there are multiple mechanisms for sorting proglucagon to the regulated secretory pathway, including a role for CPE in pancreatic alpha cells, initial cleavage at K70R71 and multiple sorting signals.

  15. On the origin of the catalytic power of carboxypeptidase A and other metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Kilshtain, Alexandra Vardi; Warshel, Arieh

    2009-11-15

    Zinc metalloenzymes play a major role in key biological processes and carboxypeptidase-A (CPA) is a major prototype of such enzymes. The present work quantifies the energetics of the catalytic reaction of CPA and its mutants using the empirical valence bond (EVB) approach. The simulations allow us to quantify the origin of the catalytic power of this enzyme and to examine different mechanistic alternatives. The first step of the analysis used experimental information to determine the activation energy of each assumed mechanism of the reference reaction without the enzyme. The next step of the analysis involved EVB simulations of the reference reaction and then a calibration of the simulations by forcing them to reproduce the energetics of the reference reaction, in each assumed mechanism. The calibrated EVB was then used in systematic simulations of the catalytic reaction in the protein environment, without changing any parameter. The simulations reproduced the observed rate enhancement in two feasible general acid-general base mechanisms (GAGB-1 and GAGB-2), although the calculations with the GAGB-2 mechanism underestimated the catalytic effect in some treatments. We also reproduced the catalytic effect in the R127A mutant. The mutation calculations indicate that the GAGB-2 mechanism is significantly less likely than the GAGB-1 mechanism. It is also found, that the enzyme loses all its catalytic effect without the metal. This and earlier studies show that the catalytic effect of the metal is not some constant electrostatic effect, that can be assessed from gas phase studies, but a reflection of the dielectric effect of the specific environment.

  16. Determination of bupropion using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in pharmaceutical preparations, human plasma and human urine.

    PubMed

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Tuncel, Muzaffer

    2012-05-01

    A novel pre-column derivatization reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection is described for the determination of bupropion in pharmaceutical preparation, human plasma and human urine using mexiletine as internal standard. The proposed method is based on the reaction of 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) with bupropion to produce a fluorescent derivative. The derivative formed is monitored on a C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) column using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water 75:25 (v/v), at a flow-rate of 1.2 mL/min and detected fluorimetrically at λ(ex) = 458 and λ(em) = 533 nm. The assay was linear over the concentration ranges of 5-500 and 10-500 ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were calculated to be 0.24 and 0.72 ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively (inter-day results). The recoveries obtained for plasma and urine were 97.12% ± 0.45 and 96.00% ± 0.45, respectively. The method presents good performance in terms of precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits and robustness. The proposed method is applied to determine bupropion in commercially available tablets. The results were compared with an ultraviolet spectrophotometry method using t- and F-tests.

  17. Occurrence of D-aspartic acid in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa: possible role in reproduction.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Gemma; Ronsini, Salvatore; Guida, Francesco; Spinelli, Patrizia; D'Aniello, Antimo

    2005-11-01

    To determine D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa in fertile and infertile donors. Prospective observation study. Department of Pathophysiology for Human Reproduction, Hospital "S. Luca," Salerno, Italy, and Department of Neurobiology and Comparative Physiology, Zoological Station "A. Dohrn," Naples, Italy. Ten normospermic, 10 oligoasthenoteratospermic, and 10 azoospermic (nonobstructive) men. D-aspartic acid was determined by a specific enzymatic high-performance liquid chromatography method on purified seminal plasma and on isolated spermatozoa and by an immunohistochemical method using light and electronic microscopic techniques. Concentration of D-Asp in seminal plasma and in isolated spermatozoa; subcellular localization of D-Asp in the acrosome and nucleus. The concentration of D-Asp in seminal plasma and in spermatozoa was significantly reduced in oligoasthenoteratospermic donors. In the seminal fluid of normospermic donors, D-Asp occurs at a concentration of 80 +/- 12 nmol/mL semen (10.4 +/- 1.5 microg/mL), whereas 26 +/- 6 nmol/mL semen were found in oligoasthenoteratospermic donors, and 12 +/- 1.5 nmol/mL semen were found in azoospermic donors. In spermatozoa from normospermic donors, D-Asp occurred at a concentration of 130 +/-15 fmol per spermatozoa (17.0 +/- 1.96 ng per spermatozoa), vs. 60.5 +/- 5.0 fmol per spermatozoa from oligoasthenoteratospermic subjects. Other D-amino acids analyzed were not present in seminal plasma or in spermatozoa in a significant concentration compared with D-Asp. D-aspartic acid occurs in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa and is implicated in male fertility.

  18. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of /sup 3/H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown.

  19. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Nielsen, Mette Weidinger; Svendsen, Signe Goul; Lindhard, Anette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2011-12-01

    One of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib proteins, HLA-G, is believed to exert important immunoregulatory functions, especially during pregnancy. The presence of HLA protein in paternal seminal fluid has been suggested to have an influence on the risk of developing pre-eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA-G in hyperplastic prostatic tissue. In summary, several of the findings reported in this study suggest an immunoregulatory role of HLA-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

  20. Validated liquid chromatographic-fluorescence method for the quantitation of gemifloxacin in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadiya, Badraddin M H; Khady, Adnan A; Mostafa, Gamal A E

    2010-11-15

    A highly selective, sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated to quantify gemifloxacin in human plasma. The gemifloxacin and internal standard (ciprofloxacin) were extracted by ultrafiltration technique followed by injection into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase C(18) column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (20:80, v/v) using isocratic elution (at flow rate 1 mL min(-1)). The analytes were detected at 269 and 393 nm for excitation and emission, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear range of 25-5000 ng mL(-1) for gemifloxacin in human plasma. The lower limit of detection was 10 ng mL(-1). The method was statistically validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and selectivity following FDA guidelines. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation did not exceed 7.6% deviation of the nominal concentration. The recovery of gemifloxacin from plasma was greater than 97.0%. Stability of gemifloxacin in plasma was excellent with no evidence of degradation during sample processing (auto-sampler) and at least 3 months storage in a freezer at -70 °C. This validation method is applied for clinical study of the gemifloxacin in human volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Digitalis-like activity in human plasma: Relation to blood pressure and sodium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, A.; Yamada, K.; Ishii, M.; Sugimoto, T. )

    1990-10-01

    PURPOSE: On the assumption that renal tubular cells are more important as the target cells for a natriuretic factor than blood cells, we used a well-characterized cultured renal tubular cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), cells to monitor the circulating digitalis-like factor in human plasma and examine its role in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium balance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of plasma on binding of radioactive ouabain to monolayered MDCK cells in order to determine the level of a circulating digitalis-like factor. First, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding to MDCK cells in the presence of plasma from 71 outpatients (34 normotensive subjects and 37 hypertensive patients) after incubation for 4 hours. Second, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding after incubation of cells with plasma from 16 hospitalized subjects (eight normotensive subjects and eight hypertensive patients) receiving low and high sodium diets. RESULTS: In Study 1, ouabain binding was lower by 30% with plasma from hypertensive patients than with plasma from normotensive subjects (p less than 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between individual subject's systolic or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.34, p less than 0.01 or r = -0.29, p less than 0.01). In Study 2, ouabain binding was also significantly reduced by 25% in the presence of plasma from hypertensive subjects as compared with plasma from normotensive subjects irrespective of sodium intake (p less than 0.01). A significant negative correlation was also found for all subjects between either systolic, diastolic, or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.58, p less than 0.01, r = -0.51, p less than 0.01, or r = -0.55, p less than 0.01, respectively).

  2. Low plasma carnosinase activity promotes carnosinemia after carnosine ingestion in humans.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Inge; Taes, Youri; De Heer, Emile; Baelde, Hans; Zutinic, Ana; Yard, Benito; Sauerhöfer, Sibylle; Vanhee, Lander; Delanghe, Joris; Aldini, Giancarlo; Derave, Wim

    2012-06-15

    A polymorphism in the carnosine dipeptidase-1 gene (CNDP1), resulting in decreased plasma carnosinase activity, is associated with a reduced risk for diabetic nephropathy. Because carnosine, a natural scavenger/suppressor of ROS, advanced glycation end products, and reactive aldehydes, is readily degraded in blood by the highly active carnosinase enzyme, it has been postulated that low serum carnosinase activity might be advantageous to reduce diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to examine whether low carnosinase activity promotes circulating carnosine levels after carnosine supplementation in humans. Blood and urine were sampled in 25 healthy subjects after acute supplementation with 60 mg/kg body wt carnosine. Precooled EDTA-containing tubes were used for blood withdrawal, and plasma samples were immediately deproteinized and analyzed for carnosine and β-alanine by HPLC. CNDP1 genotype, baseline plasma carnosinase activity, and protein content were assessed. Upon carnosine ingestion, 8 of the 25 subjects (responders) displayed a measurable increase in plasma carnosine up to 1 h after supplementation. Subjects with no measurable increment in plasma carnosine (nonresponders) had ∼2-fold higher plasma carnosinase protein content and ∼1.5-fold higher activity compared with responders. Urinary carnosine recovery was 2.6-fold higher in responders versus nonresponders and was negatively dependent on both the activity and protein content of the plasma carnosinase enzyme. In conclusion, low plasma carnosinase activity promotes the presence of circulating carnosine upon an oral challenge. These data may further clarify the link among CNDP1 genotype, carnosinase, and diabetic nephropathy.

  3. A Sulfur Amino Acid–Free Meal Increases Plasma Lipids in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J.; Lee, Kichun S.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR (1H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (18–36 y, 5 males and 3 females) were equilibrated for 3 d to adequate SAA, fed chemically defined meals without SAA for 5 d (depletion), and then fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous meals containing 56 mg·kg−1·d−1 SAA for 4.5 d (repletion). On the first and last day of consuming the chemically defined meals, a morning meal containing 60% of the daily food intake was given and plasma samples were collected over an 8-h postprandial time course for characterization of metabolic changes by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. SAA-free food increased peak intensity in the plasma 1H-NMR spectra in the postprandial period. Orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed changes in signals associated with lipids, some amino acids, and lactate, with notable increases in plasma lipid signals (TG, unsaturated lipid, cholesterol). Conventional lipid analyses confirmed higher plasma TG and showed an increase in plasma concentration of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, apoC-III. The results show that plasma 1H-NMR spectra can provide useful macronutrient profiling following a meal challenge protocol and that a single meal with imbalanced SAA content alters postprandial lipid metabolism. PMID:21677075

  4. Carboxypeptidase-G2-based gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy: a new weapon in the GDEPT armoury.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Douglas; Ogilvie, Lesley; Springer, Caroline

    2007-11-01

    Gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT) aims to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects) of cancer chemotherapy. A gene encoding a 'suicide' enzyme is introduced into the tumour to convert a subsequently administered non-toxic prodrug into an active drug selectively in the tumour, but not in normal tissues. Significant effects can now be achieved in vitro and in targeted experimental models, and GDEPT therapies are entering the clinic. Our group has developed a GDEPT system that uses the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 to convert nitrogen mustard prodrugs into potent DNA crosslinking agents, and a clinical trial of this system is pending.

  5. Rapid determination of succinylcholine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Lagerwerf, A J; Vanlinthout, L E; Vree, T B

    1991-10-04

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorometric detection has been developed for the determination of succinylcholine in human plasma. Succinylcholine shows fluorescence at 282 nm with an excitation at 257 nm. The assay is sensitive, reproducible and linear for concentrations ranging from 100 ng/ml to 100 micrograms/ml of succinylcholine. In a pilot study the plasma concentration-time curve showed a triphasic elimination, with half-lives of 0.4, 1.2 and 8 min, respectively. In a clinical setting, drugs commonly administered during anaesthesia did not interfere with the assay. This method provides a simple and time-saving alternative to existing methods.

  6. Determination of talniflumate and niflumic acid in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonku; Kim, Kibum

    2009-04-01

    A simple and rapid quantification method was developed for determining both talniflumate and niflumic acid in human plasma. After simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the analytes were chromatographed on a reversed-phase C(18) column and detected by LC/MS/MS with electrospray ionization. The assay accuracy and precision were within the FDA guidance for the analytical method validation. This method was used to measure the plasma concentrations of both compounds from healthy subjects after a single oral dose of talniflumate, 740 mg.

  7. Targeted Disruption of the Gene Encoding the Murine Small Subunit of Carboxypeptidase N (CPN1) Causes Susceptibility to C5a Anaphylatoxin-Mediated Shock1

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Ortiz, Stacey L.; Wang, Dachun; Morales, John E.; Li, Li; Chang, Jui-Yoa; Wetsel, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase N (CPN) is a plasma zinc metalloprotease, which consists of two enzymatically active small subunits (CPN1) and two large subunits (CPN2) that protect the protein from degradation. Historically, CPN has been implicated as a major regulator of inflammation by its enzymatic cleavage of functionally important arginine and lysine amino acids from potent phlogistic molecules, such as the complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Because of no known complete CPN deficiencies, the biological impact of CPN in vivo has been difficult to evaluate. Here, we report the generation of a mouse with complete CPN deficiency by targeted disruption of the CPN1 gene. CPN1−/− mice were hypersensitive to lethal anaphylactic shock due to acute complement activation by cobra venom factor. This hypersensitivity was completely resolved in CPN1−/−/C5aR−/− but not in CPN1−/−/C3aR−/− mice. Moreover, CPN1−/− mice given C5a i.v., but not C3a, experienced 100% mortality. This C5a-induced mortality was reduced to 20% when CPN1−/− mice were treated with an antihistamine before C5a challenge. These studies describe for the first time a complete deficiency of CPN and demonstrate 1) that CPN plays a requisite role in regulating the lethal effects of anaphylatoxin-mediated shock, 2) that these lethal effects are mediated predominantly by C5a-induced histamine release, and 3) that C3a does not contribute significantly to shock following acute complement activation. PMID:19414808

  8. Flow Cytometry Assessment of In Vitro Generated CD138+ Human Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Itoua Maïga, Rayelle; Lemieux, Jennifer; Roy, Annie; Simard, Carl; Néron, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro CD40-CD154 interaction promotes human B lymphocytes differentiation into plasma cells. Currently, CD138 is the hallmark marker enabling the detection of human plasma cells, both in vitro and in vivo; its presence can be monitored by flow cytometry using a specific antibody. We have developed a culture system allowing for the differentiation of memory B lymphocytes. In order to detect the newly formed plasma cells, we have compared their staining using five anti-CD138 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). As a reference, we also tested human cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and bone marrow samples. The five anti-CD138 mAbs stained RPMI-8226 cells (>98%) with variable stain index (SI). The highest SI was obtained with B-A38 mAb while the lowest SI was obtained with DL-101 and 1D4 mAbs. However, the anti-CD138 mAbs were not showing equivalent CD138+ cells frequencies within the generated plasma cells. B-A38, B-B4, and MI-15 were similar (15–25%) while DL-101 mAb stained a higher proportion of CD138-positive cells (38–42%). DL-101 and B-A38 mAbs stained similar populations in bone marrow samples but differed in their capacity to bind to CD138high and CD138lo cell lines. In conclusion, such cellular fluctuations suggest heterogeneity in human plasma cell populations and/or in CD138 molecules. PMID:24689045

  9. Flow cytometry assessment of in vitro generated CD138+ human plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Itoua Maïga, Rayelle; Lemieux, Jennifer; Roy, Annie; Simard, Carl; Néron, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro CD40-CD154 interaction promotes human B lymphocytes differentiation into plasma cells. Currently, CD138 is the hallmark marker enabling the detection of human plasma cells, both in vitro and in vivo; its presence can be monitored by flow cytometry using a specific antibody. We have developed a culture system allowing for the differentiation of memory B lymphocytes. In order to detect the newly formed plasma cells, we have compared their staining using five anti-CD138 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). As a reference, we also tested human cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and bone marrow samples. The five anti-CD138 mAbs stained RPMI-8226 cells (>98%) with variable stain index (SI). The highest SI was obtained with B-A38 mAb while the lowest SI was obtained with DL-101 and 1D4 mAbs. However, the anti-CD138 mAbs were not showing equivalent CD138(+) cells frequencies within the generated plasma cells. B-A38, B-B4, and MI-15 were similar (15-25%) while DL-101 mAb stained a higher proportion of CD138-positive cells (38-42%). DL-101 and B-A38 mAbs stained similar populations in bone marrow samples but differed in their capacity to bind to CD138(high) and CD138(lo) cell lines. In conclusion, such cellular fluctuations suggest heterogeneity in human plasma cell populations and/or in CD138 molecules.

  10. Recovery discrepancies of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum versus herring and long-tailed duck plasma.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Norrgran, Jessica; Hovander, Lotta; Bergman, Ke; Asplund, Lillemor

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or as natural products. The OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols have come into focus over the last decade due to their abundance in biota and their potential adverse health effects. The present recovery study aims to validate a commonly used method (published by Hovander et al. 2000) for OH-PBDE analysis in human plasma. Further, the authors intended to determine the method's applicability to serum/plasma matrices from other species than humans. The investigated matrices were human plasma, cat serum, herring- and long-tailed duck plasma. The recovery study included nine OH-PBDEs, four polybromophenols and three methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Five replicates of each matrix were spiked with these compounds at two dose levels; a low dose (0.5 ng) and a high dose (5 ng) and were cleaned up according to the Hovander method. The recovery of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum were high and reproducible at both dose levels whereas the recovery for herring and long-tailed duck plasma were low and insufficient with great variability amongst OH-PBDE congeners at both dose levels. Our data show that the method can be fully applied to matrices like human plasma and cat serum but not for herring and long-tailed duck plasma without further method development. Hence care needs to be taken when applying the method onto other blood matrices without validation since the present study have demonstrated that the recoveries may differ amongst OH-PBDE congeners and specie.

  11. Identification of genital tract markers in the human seminal plasma using an integrative genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Rolland, A D; Lavigne, R; Dauly, C; Calvel, P; Kervarrec, C; Freour, T; Evrard, B; Rioux-Leclercq, N; Auger, J; Pineau, C

    2013-01-01

    Can protein biomarkers of the male genital tract be identified in human seminal plasma? We identified potential biomarkers for each of the organs participating in the secretions of the human seminal plasma. The seminal plasma fulfills critical functions for fertility by providing spermatozoa with a protective milieu, promoting their final maturation and modulating the immune responsiveness of the female reproductive tract. It is also considered to be a promising source of biomarkers of male infertility and/or pathologies of the male genital tract. This study combines proteomic analyses of normal seminal plasma together with transcriptomic gene expression profiling of human healthy tissues. Non-liquefied seminal plasma proteins from a healthy donor were prefractionated using two sequential Proteominer™ libraries. Eight subproteome fractions were collected, trypsin digested and subjected to three successive mass spectrometry analyses for peptide characterization. The list of identified proteins was compared with and merged with other available data sets of the human seminal plasma proteome. The expression of corresponding genes was then investigated using tissue transcriptome profiles to determine where, along the male reproductive tract, these proteins were produced. Finally, tissue specificity of a selected subset of biomarker candidates was validated on human tissues. We first performed a proteomic analysis of the human seminal plasma and identified 699 proteins. By comparing our protein list with other previous proteomic data sets, we found that 2545 unique proteins have been described so far in the human seminal plasma. We then profiled their expression at the gene level and identified 83 testis, 42 epididymis, 7 seminal vesicle and 17 prostate candidate protein markers. For a subset of testis-specific candidates, i.e. TKTL1, LDHC and PGK2, we further validated their germ cell expression and demonstrated that such markers could distinguish between semen from

  12. Determination of carbocysteine in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry employing precolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Han, Ying; Xie, Zhiyong

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed to determine carbocysteine in human plasma using 2-pyridylacetic acid as the internal standard (IS). The method employed derivatization with 10 M hydrochloric acid/methanol, which significantly improved the ionization efficiency of carbocysteine. After methanol-induced protein precipitation of plasma samples, carbocysteine and the IS were derivatized and subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 20 ng/mL for a 0.2-mL plasma aliquot. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD), calculated from quality control (QC) samples, was less than 7%. The accuracy, determined using QC samples, was within +/- 1%. The method offered increased sensitivity, selectivity and speed of analysis over existing methods. The method was utilized to support clinical pharmacokinetic studies of carbocysteine in volunteers following oral administration.

  13. The minimizing of fluorescence background in Raman optical activity and Raman spectra of human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Tatarkovič, Michal; Synytsya, Alla; Šťovíčková, Lucie; Bunganič, Bohuš; Miškovičová, Michaela; Petruželka, Luboš; Setnička, Vladimír

    2015-02-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA) is inherently sensitive to the secondary structure of biomolecules, which makes it a method of interest for finding new approaches to clinical applications based on blood plasma analysis, for instance the diagnostics of several protein-misfolding diseases. Unfortunately, real blood plasma exhibits strong background fluorescence when excited at 532 nm; hence, measuring the ROA spectra appears to be impossible. Therefore, we established a suitable method using a combination of kinetic quenchers, filtering, photobleaching, and a mathematical correction of residual fluorescence. Our method reduced the background fluorescence approximately by 90%, which allowed speedup for each measurement by an average of 50%. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased, while the baseline distortion remained low. We assume that our method is suitable for the investigation of human blood plasma by ROA and may lead to the development of a new tool for clinical diagnostics.

  14. Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  15. Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  16. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, B. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  17. Determination of cyclonite (RDX) in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ozhan, Gül; Topuz, Sibel; Alpertunga, Buket

    2003-06-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed for the assay of cyclonite (RDX) in human plasma. The assay involves solid-phase extraction on Tox-clean RC SPE cartridges and isocratic reversed-phase chromatography with diode-array detection. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.01-2.0 microg/ml for plasma with a lower limit of detection of 0.005 microg/ml. Both the within-day and day-to-day reproducibilities and accuracies were less than 10.15 and 1.9%, respectively. The method was applied to evaluate RDX concentration in plasma samples obtained from soldiers exposed RDX.

  18. Plasma neuronal specific enolase: a potential stage diagnostic marker in human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Jeremy M.; Mitchell, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to determine the potential of neuronal specific enolase (NSE) as a stage diagnostic marker in human African trypanosomiasis. Methods Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were obtained from a cohort of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense-infected patients and non-infected controls. Neuronal specific enolase concentrations were measured by ELISA and analysed in relation to diagnosis and disease-stage data. Results Plasma NSE concentration was significantly increased in late-stage patients (median 21 ng/ml), compared to the control (median 11 ng/ml), but not in early-stage patients (median 5.3 ng/ml). Cerebrospinal fluid NSE concentration did not vary between stages. Conclusion Plasma NSE is a potential stage diagnostic in this cohort and merits further investigation. PMID:24789741

  19. Simultaneous Quantification of Antidiabetic Agents in Human Plasma by a UPLC–QToF-MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Fachi, Mariana Millan; Cerqueira, Letícia Bonancio; Leonart, Letícia Paula; de Francisco, Thais Martins Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, gliclazide, glimepiride, metformin, nateglinide, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and vildagliptin in human plasma was developed and validated, using isoniazid and sulfaquinoxaline as internal standards. Following plasma protein precipitation using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid, chromatographic separation was performed on a cyano column using gradient elution with water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% formic acid. Detection was performed in a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer, using electrospray ionization operated in the positive mode. Data from validation studies demonstrated that the new method is highly sensitive, selective, precise (RSD < 10%), accurate (RE < 12%), linear (r > 0.99), free of matrix and has no residual effects. The developed method was successfully applied to volunteers’ plasma samples. Hence, this method was demonstrated to be appropriate for clinical monitoring of antidiabetic agents. PMID:27930700

  20. Plasma prolactin changes during the administration of human menopausal gonadotropins in nonovulatory women.

    PubMed

    Kemmann, E; GEMZELL, C A; Beinert, W C; Beling, C B; Jones, J R

    1977-09-15

    Plasma prolactin concentrations were determined in 16 nonovulatory women during treatment with human meonpausal gonadotropins (hMG). In eight patients with initially normal prolactin levels of less than 20 ng. per milliliter, a significant rise was noted at the end of hMG administration, this is thought to be a response to increased endogenous estrogen concentrations. A similar rise in plasma prolactin levels was seen in some but not all of the eight patients with initially elevated "basal" prolactin concentrations. Three of these hyperprolactinemic patients had radiographic evidence of a pituitary lesion--either a pituitary adenoma or a "microadenoma"--but the variance in prolactin response could not be explained on this basis. The two groups of normo- and hyper-prolactinemic patients showed no significant difference in the required dosage and duration or hMG treatment, plasma estradiol-17 beta response, and ovulatory and pregnancy outcome.

  1. [Changes in Kinetics of Chemiluminescence of Plasma as a Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Humans].

    PubMed

    Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Proskurnina, E V; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pathogenetic factor of many diseases. The control of its level is important for early diagnosis and therapy adjustment. In this work, antioxidant status was estimated in blood plasma. In the system of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride-luminol a set of chemiluminescence kinetic curve parameters is proposed for oxidative stress level estimation (the latent period τ(lat) and the increasing of analytical signal ΔI(CL)). Uric acid and albumin were shown as the main components that responsible for changes in chemiluminescence kinetic curve of plasma. Serum albumin undergoes oxidative modification in dose-depend manner under the action of UV irradiation, it causes the enhancement of antioxidant properties. Changes in plasma chemiluminescence kinetics are proposed as a measure of oxidative stress in human body.

  2. Identification of novel circulating coffee metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Redeuil, Karine; Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice; Guy, Philippe; Rezzi, Serge; Dionisi, Fabiola; Williamson, Gary; Nagy, Kornél; Renouf, Mathieu

    2011-07-22

    This study reports a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the detection of polyphenol-derived metabolites in human plasma without enzymatic treatment after coffee consumption. Separation of available standards was achieved by reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography and detection was performed by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative electrospray ionization mode. This analytical method was then applied for the identification and relative quantification of circulating coffee metabolites. A total of 34 coffee metabolites (mainly reduced, sulfated and methylated forms of caffeic acid, coumaric acid, caffeoylquinic acid and caffeoylquinic acid lactone) were identified based on mass accuracy (<4 ppm for most metabolites), specific fragmentation pattern and co-chromatography (when standard available). Among them, 19 circulating coffee metabolites were identified for the first time in human plasma such as feruloylquinic acid lactone, sulfated and glucuronidated forms of feruloylquinic acid lactone and sulfated forms of coumaric acid. Phenolic acid derivatives such as dihydroferulic acid, dihydroferulic acid 4'-O-sulfate, caffeic acid 3'-O-sulfate, dimethoxycinnamic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid and coumaric acid O-sulfate appeared to be the main metabolites circulating in human plasma after coffee consumption. The described method is a sensitive and reliable approach for the identification of coffee metabolites in biological fluids. In future, this analytical method will give more confidence in compound identification to provide a more comprehensive assessment of coffee polyphenol bioavailability studies in humans.

  3. [Platelet-riched plasma promotes potential mineralizing capacity of human dental pulp cells in vivo].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-ning; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Yi-xiang

    2011-04-18

    To investigate the biocompatibility of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and human dental pulp cells (DPCs), and the effect of human platelet-rich plasma on the mineralization of human dental pulp cells in vivo. DPCs were isolated from healthy dental pulp, and identified by immunostaining of vimentin and cytokeratin. PRP was obtained from healthy volunteer donors by traditional two-step centrifugation. The forth passage of DPCs and PRP were mixed well and activated, and then transplanted subcutaneously in 5-week female nude mice. The groups which were implanted with PRP alone or DPCs alone were used as controls. The animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks and 8 weeks post-transplantation, and the histological and immunohistostaining examinations were used to evaluate the effect of PRP on the mineralization of DPCs. Immunostaining showed that DPCs were positive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratin. In vivo assay showed that the newly formed mineralized tissues were only found in PRP combined with DPCs group after 4 weeks and 8 weeks, while newly formed tissues were not observed in PRP alone or DPCs alone groups. HE staining showed the mineralized tissues were found in PRP+DPCs samples. Immunohistochemistry staining showed these mineralized tissues were positive for osteopontin(OPN), osteocalcin(OC) and collagen I (COLI). PRP had good biocompatibility with DPCs, and could induce the mineralization of DPCs. The study suggests that platelet-rich plasma can be used as a scaffold for pulp capping.

  4. Identification and characterization of human testis derived circular RNAs and their existence in seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei-Wei; Li, Hui-Min; Qing, Xing-Rong; Huang, Dong-Hui; Li, Hong-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as novel molecules of interest in gene regulation as other noncoding RNAs. Though they have been explored in some species and tissues, the expression and functions of circRNAs in human reproductive systems remain unknown. Here we revealed the expression profiles of circRNAs in human testis tissue using high-throughput sequencing. The conformation of these testis-derived circRNAs in seminal plasma was also investigated, aiming to provide a non-invasive liquid biopsy surrogate for testicular biopsy. We predicted >15,000 circRNAs in human testis, with most of them (10,792; 67%) new. In all the 5,928 circRNA forming genes, 1,017 are first reported by us to generate circRNAs. Interestingly, these genes are mostly related to spermatogenesis, sperm motility, fertilization, etc. The sequence feature, chromosome location, alternative splicing and other characteristics of the circRNAs in human testis were also explored. Moreover, we found that these testis-derived circRNAs could be stably detected in seminal plasma. Most of them were probably bound with proteins in seminal plasma and were very stable at room temperature. Our work has laid the foundations to decipher regulation mechanisms of circRNAs in spermatogenesis and to develop circRNAs as novel noninvasive biomarkers for male infertile diseases. PMID:27958373

  5. RNASET2 in human spermatozoa and seminal plasma: a novel relevant indicator for asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Chen, G; Lu, L; Sun, H; Guo, Q; Xue, K; Fan, Y; Ding, Z

    2013-01-01

    Adequate sperm motility is requisite for human fertilization, whereas the underlying causes or mechanisms of impaired sperm motility, asthenozoospermia, still remain largely unknown. RNASET2 (Ribonuclease T2) may be one of the effectors modulating human sperm motility. We determined if there is a correlation between RNASET2 expression levels in human semen from asthenozoospermia and fertile individuals. Thus, RNASET2 expression levels in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of healthy and asthenozoospermia individuals were evaluated using Western blot, laser scanning confocal microscope analysis, ELISA and flow cytometry. The results revealed that RNASET2 expression was identified in both human spermatozoa and seminal plasma. In spermatozoa from fertile individuals, it was localized to the acrosome, neck and the middle piece of tail regions. However, in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermia individuals (n = 67), RNASET2 staining was especially more frequent and evident in the neck and middle piece than that in fertile individuals (n = 59, p < 0.01). Similarly, higher RNASET2 expression was also apparent in seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia than in fertile individuals (p < 0.01). Moreover, purified RNASET2 had an inhibitory effect on sperm motility, especially on progressive motility (n = 23, p < 0.05). In conclusion, higher expression of RNASET2 in the semen of asthenozoospermia individuals may contribute to sperm motility impairment.

  6. Determination of tolperisone in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Ik; Park, Jung-In; Lee, Hye-In; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Bae, Jung-Woo; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-12-12

    We have developed and validated a simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography analytical method employing tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of tolperisone, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, in human plasma. After liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether, chromatographic separation of tolperisone was performed using a reversed-phase Luna C(18) column (2.0mm×50mm, 5μm particles) with a mobile phase of 10mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5) - methanol (12:88, v/v) and quantified by tandem mass detection in ESI positive ion mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 250μL/min and the retention times of tolperisone and the internal standard (IS, dibucaine) were both 0.6min. The calibration curves were linear over a range of 0.5-300ng/mL (r>0.999). The lower limit of quantification, using 200μL human plasma, was 0.5ng/mL. The mean accuracy and precision for intra- and inter-day validation of tolperisone were within acceptable limits. The LC-MS/MS method reported here showed improved sensitivity for quantification of tolperisone in human plasma compared with previously described analytical methods. Lastly, the validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in humans.

  7. Cytotoxicity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with chlorhexidine digluconate on primary cultured human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Shi, Qi; Qing, Ying; Yao, Yi-chen; Cao, Ying-guang

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and to evaluate the biosecurity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX as a new method of root canal treatment. Tissue samples taken from human gingiva were primarily cultured and passaged. Cells from passages 3-7 were used. HGFs were treated by modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX for 0 min (control group), 30 s, 1 min, 1.5 min, 3 min, 5 min, and 10 min, respectively, and then they were incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h. After that, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was applied to analyze the cytotoxicity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX on HGFs. There was no significant difference between the 0 h group treated with the modified nonequilibrium plasma for 1 min and the control group (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences between all the other treated groups and the control group (P<0.05). When treated for 1.5 min or shorter, the cell viability was obviously increased; while treated for 3 min or longer, it was obviously reduced. Moreover, when successively cultured for 0, 24, and 48 h, cell viability was decreased at first and then increased in the 3-min-treated and 5-min-treated groups. The modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX was of no influence on cell viability in 1.5 min treatment, and it could be safely used on root canal treatment.

  8. Evaluating the stability of colistin and colistin methanesulphonate in human plasma under different conditions of storage

    PubMed Central

    Dudhani, Rajesh V.; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the stability of colistin and colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) in human plasma under storage conditions typically used in clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) and PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) investigations. Methods Human plasma (pH adjusted to 7.4) containing colistin (2 mg/L) or CMS (2 or 30 mg/L) was stored at −20, −70 or −80°C for 6–12 months. At periodic intervals, the concentrations of colistin in colistin-spiked samples, and of CMS and formed colistin in CMS-spiked samples, were analysed (n = 3 replicates at each time) by HPLC. Results The time course of colistin concentrations in colistin-spiked plasma showed a substantially better stability at −80 and −70°C than at −20°C. With regard to CMS-spiked plasma of 2 and 30 mg/L stored at −80 and −70°C, no quantifiable colistin formed over a 4 month period. However, the plasma spiked to 2 mg/L stored at −20°C showed a substantial concentration of colistin (∼0.4 mg/L) within 2 months. At all three storage temperatures, the stability of CMS was substantially better for the plasma spiked to contain 30 mg/L as compared with 2 mg/L. Conclusions The results of our long-term stability study have significant implications for those involved in conducting clinical PK and PK/PD studies with CMS/colistin. PMID:20413406

  9. [The measurement of antioxidant activity in human plasma using cumene hydroperoxide].

    PubMed

    Sugita, O; Nakano, M; Matsuto, T; Miida, T; Okada, M

    1998-03-01

    We describe a new method using cumene hydroperoxide to determine antioxidant activity (AO) in human plasma. We used a kit (Determiner LPO: Kyowa Medex Co., LTD. Tokyo Japan) for the determination of lipid peroxides in plasma or serum. 30 microliters 1 of sample was mixed with 70 microliters 1 of cumene hydroperoxide (50 nmol/ml) and incubated at 30 degrees C for 120 min before analysis. Samples were mixed with 1.0 ml of reagent-I (Determiner LPO) and incubated at 30 degrees C for 5 min. Then 2.0 ml of reagent-II (Determiner LPO) was added and incubated at 30 degrees C for 10 min, at which time the absorbance at 675 nm was measured. AO were calculated using the following formula: AO nmol/ml = 35 nmol/ml-(Es-Eb)/(Estd-Eb) x 35 nmol/ml (Es = sample abs., Eb = blank abs., Estd = standard abs.). Within-run precision for plasma AO was 2.3%. AO in plasma samples stored for 4 h at 4 degrees C was decreased by 1 nmol/ml. After 3 h at room temperature, AO was decreased by the same amount. Because this method measured ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione peroxidase and quercetin as antioxidant compounds, we were able to measure antioxidant activity in human plasma. Our reference values were calculated from the volunteers group which consisted of 172 students and 82 soldiers. The reference intervals for plasma AO by this procedure were 15.4-20.9 nmol/ml.

  10. Plasma native and peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin responses to restraint stress in rats. Adaptation to repeated restraint.

    PubMed Central

    Pierzchala, K; Van Loon, G R

    1990-01-01

    Met-enkephalin and related proenkephalin A-derived peptides circulate in plasma at picomolar concentration as free, native pentapeptide and at nanomolar concentration in cryptic forms. We have optimized conditions for measurement of immunoreactive Met-enkephalin in plasma and for generation by trypsin and carboxypeptidase B of much greater amounts of total peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin in plasma of rats, dogs, and humans. Free Met-enkephalin (11 pM) is constituted by native pentapeptide and its sulfoxide. Characterization of plasma total Met-enkephalin derived by peptidic hydrolysis revealed a small amount (38 pM) of Met-enkephalin associated with peptides of molecular mass less than 30,000 D, and probably derived from proenkephalin A, but much larger amounts of Met-enkephalin associated with albumin (1.2 nM) and with a globulin-sized protein (2.8 nM). Thus, plasma protein precursors for peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin differ structurally and chemically from proenkephalin A. Met-enkephalin generated from plasma by peptidic hydrolysis showed naloxone-reversible bioactivity comparable to synthetic Met-enkephalin. Prolonged exposure of adult, male rats to restraint stress produced biphasic plasma responses, with peaks occurring at 30 s and 30 min in both free native and total peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin. Repeated daily exposure to this 30-min stress resulted in adaptive loss of responses of both forms to acute restraint. Initial plasma responses of Met-enkephalin paralleled those of epinephrine and norepinephrine, but subsequently showed divergence of response. In conclusion, Met-enkephalin circulates in several forms, some of which may be derived from proteins other than proenkephalin A, and plasma levels of both free native, and peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin are modulated physiologically. PMID:2312729

  11. LC-MS-MS simultaneous determination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe in human plasma.

    PubMed

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Elkady, Ehab F; El-Sherif, Zeinab Abdelaziz; Kadry, Ahmed M

    2014-09-01

    Atorvastatin and ezetimibe are lipid-lowering drugs prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. An LC-MS-MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin and ezetimibe in human plasma using pitavastatin as an internal standard. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for the purification and preconcentration of analytes from human plasma matrix. The chromatographic separation was achieved within 3.0 min by an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 0.2% formic acid in water-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v), flowing through Agilent Eclipse-plus C18, 100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 µm analytical column, at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). Multiple reaction monitoring transitions were measured in the positive ion mode for atorvastatin and internal standard, while ezetimibe was measured in negative ion mode. A detailed validation of the method was performed as per US-FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.2-30.0 ng mL(-1) with a mean correlation coefficient >0.999 for both drugs. In human plasma, atorvastatin and ezetimibe were stable for at least 36 days at -70 ± 5 °C and 6 h at ambient temperature. After extraction from plasma, the reconstituted samples of atorvastatin and ezetimibe were stable in an autosampler at ambient temperature for 6 h. Also, the cited drugs were stable in plasma samples upon subjecting to three freeze thaw cycles. The method is simple, specific, sensitive, precise, accurate and suitable for bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic studies of this combination.

  12. Cysteinylation and homocysteinylation of plasma protein thiols during ageing of healthy human beings

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, R; Giustarini, D; Milzani, A; Dalle-Donne, I

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative amount of S-thiolated proteins (i.e. S-homocysteinylated, S-cysteinylglycinylated, S-glutathionylated and S-cysteinylated proteins) to the total protein thiols (i.e. the sum of reduced protein sulphydryl groups (PSHs) and protein mixed disulphides with homocysteine [HcySH], cysteinylglycine, cysteine [CysSH] and glutathione) in the plasma of healthy individuals aged 20 to 93. After plasma separation, total protein thiols, S-thiolated proteins, as well as CysSH, cystine, HcySH and homocystine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence determination of the thiol-monobromobimane conjugate. Determination of plasma levels of protein thiols was performed by spectrophotometry with 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as a titrating agent. The present study demonstrates an age-dependent reduction in the amount of PSHs, and an age-dependent increase in cysteinylated and homocysteinylated plasma proteins in healthy human beings. This indicates that the efficiency of the reduced protein thiol pool as an antioxidant defence system decreases with age, possibly causing an increased risk of irreversible oxidation (i.e. further oxidation to sulphinic and sulphonic acids, which are usually not reducible by thiol reducing agents) of sulphydryl groups of plasma proteins. The drop in the plasma level of protein sulphydryl groups suggests depletion and/or impairment of the antioxidant capacity of plasma, likely related to an alteration of the delicate balance between the different redox forms of thiols. PMID:18624771

  13. Degradation of Human Fibrinogen by Plasma α2-Macroglobulin-Enzyme Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Harpel, Peter C.; Mosesson, Michael W.

    1973-01-01

    This study demonstrates that human plasma α2-macroglobulin preparations possess an enzymic activity that degrades fibrinogen, resulting in the formation of products whose structure resembles that of circulating fibrinogen catabolites. The sequence of degradation is similar to that observed in plasmin-catalyzed digests, in that Aα-chain fragmentation precedes that of Bβ-chain. The addition of plasminogen activators to plasma induced an increase in the N-α-tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester HCl esterase and fibrinogenolytic activity associated with α2-macroglobulin purified from this plasma, indicating that the enzymic activity of the complex was preserved and could be increased in the presence of other plasma enzyme inhibitors. Immunochemical studies demonstrated that an α2-macroglobulin-plasmin complex had formed in urokinase-treated plasma. This α2-macroglobulin preparation manifested an esterolytic profile like that of a complex prepared from plasmin and purified α2-macroglobulin. After complex formation with α2-macroglobulin in plasma, plasmin retained less than 0.1% of its fibrinogenolytic activity. That plasmin expressed its activity while bound to α2-macroglobulin was suggested by immunoprecipitation of this activity with α2-macroglobulin antibody and by the demonstration that pancreatic trypsin inhibitor did not effectively inhibit its fibrinogenolytic or esterolytic activity. These results raise the possibility that, in addition to its activity as a major plasma proteolytic enzyme inhibitor, α2-macroglobulin may modulate enzyme-substrate interactions, such as those resulting in the formation of circulating fibrinogen catabolites, by providing a mechanism for the preservation and protection of a portion of the enzymic activity in the presence of other circulating inhibitors. Images PMID:4269529

  14. Decrease of plasma and urinary oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen after consumption of watercress by human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Mohr, S N; Yang, C S

    1996-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the consumption of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), a cruciferous vegetable, on acetaminophen metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and its metabolites were studied in a crossover trial of human volunteers. A single oral dose of acetaminophen (1 gm) was given 10 hours after ingestion of watercress homogenates (50 gm). In comparison with acetaminophen only, the ingestion of watercress resulted in a significant reduction in the area under the plasma cysteine acetaminophen (Cys-acetaminophen) concentration-time curve and in the peak plasma Cys-acetaminophen concentration by 28% +/- 3% and by 21% +/- 4% (mean +/- SE; n = 7; p < 0.005), respectively. Correspondingly, the Cys-acetaminophen formation rate constant and Cys-acetaminophen formation fraction were decreased by 55% +/- 9% and 52% +/- 7% (p < 0.01), respectively. Consistent with the results obtained from the plasma, the total urinary excretion of Cys-acetaminophen in 24 hours was also reduced. A decrease of mercapturate acetaminophen, a Cys-acetaminophen metabolite, was also shown in the plasma and urine samples. However, the plasma pharmacokinetic processes and the urinary excretions of acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide, and acetaminophen sulfate were not altered significantly by the watercress treatment. These results suggest that the consumption of watercress causes a decrease in the levels of oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen, probably due to inhibition of oxidative metabolism of this drug.

  15. GMP-compliant radiosynthesis of [18F]altanserin and human plasma metabolite studies.

    PubMed

    Hasler, F; Kuznetsova, O F; Krasikova, R N; Cservenyak, T; Quednow, B B; Vollenweider, F X; Ametamey, S M; Westera, G

    2009-04-01

    [(18)F]altanserin is the preferred radiotracer for in-vivo labeling of serotonin 2A receptors by positron emission tomography (PET). We report a modified synthesis procedure suited for reliable production of multi-GBq amounts of [(18)F]altanserin useful for application in humans. We introduced thermal heating for drying of [(18)F]fluoride as well as for the reaction instead of microwave heating. We furthermore describe solid phase extraction and HPLC procedures for quantitative determination of [(18)F]altanserin and metabolites in plasma. The time course of arterial plasma activity with and without metabolite correction was determined. 90 min after bolus injection, 38.4% of total plasma activity derived from unchanged [(18)F]altanserin. Statistical comparison of kinetic profiles of [(18)F]altanserin metabolism in plasma samples collected in the course of two ongoing studies employing placebo, the serotonin releaser dexfenfluramine and the hallucinogen psilocybin, revealed the same tracer metabolism. We conclude that metabolite analysis for correction of individual plasma input functions used in tracer modeling is not necessary for [(18)F]altanserin studies involving psilocybin or dexfenfluramine treatment.

  16. Lipoprotein lipase activity and interactions studied in human plasma by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Reimund, Mart; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2017-01-01

    LPL hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Due to the complex regulation mechanism, it has been difficult to mimic the physiological conditions under which LPL acts in vitro. We demonstrate that isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), using human plasma as substrate, overcomes several limitations of previously used techniques. The high sensitivity of ITC allows continuous recording of the heat released during hydrolysis. Both initial rates and kinetics for complete hydrolysis of plasma lipids can be studied. The heat rate was shown to correspond to the release of fatty acids and was linearly related to the amount of added enzyme, either purified LPL or postheparin plasma. Addition of apoC-III reduced the initial rate of hydrolysis by LPL, but the inhibition became less prominent with time when the lipoproteins were triglyceride poor. Addition of angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)3 or ANGPTL4 caused reduction of the activity of LPL via a two-step mechanism. We conclude that ITC can be used for quantitative measurements of LPL activity and interactions under in vivo-like conditions, for comparisons of the properties of plasma samples from patients and control subjects as substrates for LPL, as well as for testing of drug candidates developed with the aim to affect the LPL system. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. High-throughput sequencing of human plasma RNA by using thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yidan; Yao, Jun; Wu, Douglas C.; Nottingham, Ryan M.; Mohr, Sabine; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized transcriptome profiling, gene expression analysis, and RNA-based diagnostics. Here, we developed a new RNA-seq method that exploits thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs) and used it to profile human plasma RNAs. TGIRTs have higher thermostability, processivity, and fidelity than conventional reverse transcriptases, plus a novel template-switching activity that can efficiently attach RNA-seq adapters to target RNA sequences without RNA ligation. The new TGIRT-seq method enabled construction of RNA-seq libraries from <1 ng of plasma RNA in <5 h. TGIRT-seq of RNA in 1-mL plasma samples from a healthy individual revealed RNA fragments mapping to a diverse population of protein-coding gene and long ncRNAs, which are enriched in intron and antisense sequences, as well as nearly all known classes of small ncRNAs, some of which have never before been seen in plasma. Surprisingly, many of the small ncRNA species were present as full-length transcripts, suggesting that they are protected from plasma RNases in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and/or exosomes. This TGIRT-seq method is readily adaptable for profiling of whole-cell, exosomal, and miRNAs, and for related procedures, such as HITS-CLIP and ribosome profiling. PMID:26554030

  18. Simultaneous determination of grepafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and theophylline in human plasma and urine by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Kamberi, M; Hajime, N; Kamberi, P; Uemura, N; Nakamura, K; Nakano, S

    1999-06-01

    A specific and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of grepafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and theophylline in human plasma and urine. This assay allows these drugs to elute and be resolved in a single chromatogram at 280 nm, using a linear gradient. The procedure involves liquid-liquid extraction. Separation was achieved on a C18 reversed-phase column. The quantification limits were 0.05 mg/L in plasma and 0.5 mg/L in urine for grepafloxacin and ciprofloxacin and 0.5 mg/L in plasma and urine for theophylline. Standard curves were linear (correlation coefficients >0.999) over the ranges 0.05 to 5 mg/L for grepafloxacin and ciprofloxacin in plasma, from 0.5 to 20 mg/L for theophylline in plasma, and from 0.5 to 500 mg/L for the three drugs in urine. The coefficients of variation for the three drugs were less than 10% for within- and between-day analyses. The recoveries averaged 94.5% for theophylline, 93% for ciprofloxacin, 93.7% for grepafloxacin, and 95.1% for the internal standard (IS). The assay can be used for pharmacokinetic studies of these drugs, to investigate the interaction of grepafloxacin and ciprofloxacin with theophylline, or for routine simultaneous monitoring of theophylline, grepafloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

  19. High-throughput sequencing of human plasma RNA by using thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yidan; Yao, Jun; Wu, Douglas C; Nottingham, Ryan M; Mohr, Sabine; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized transcriptome profiling, gene expression analysis, and RNA-based diagnostics. Here, we developed a new RNA-seq method that exploits thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs) and used it to profile human plasma RNAs. TGIRTs have higher thermostability, processivity, and fidelity than conventional reverse transcriptases, plus a novel template-switching activity that can efficiently attach RNA-seq adapters to target RNA sequences without RNA ligation. The new TGIRT-seq method enabled construction of RNA-seq libraries from <1 ng of plasma RNA in <5 h. TGIRT-seq of RNA in 1-mL plasma samples from a healthy individual revealed RNA fragments mapping to a diverse population of protein-coding gene and long ncRNAs, which are enriched in intron and antisense sequences, as well as nearly all known classes of small ncRNAs, some of which have never before been seen in plasma. Surprisingly, many of the small ncRNA species were present as full-length transcripts, suggesting that they are protected from plasma RNases in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and/or exosomes. This TGIRT-seq method is readily adaptable for profiling of whole-cell, exosomal, and miRNAs, and for related procedures, such as HITS-CLIP and ribosome profiling. © 2015 Qin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  20. Directing membrane chromatography to manufacture α1-antitrypsin from human plasma fraction IV.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinxin; Luo, Jianquan; Song, Weijie; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2015-12-04

    The surging demand for plasma proteins, mainly driven by the growing market and the development of new therapeutic indications, is promoting manufacturers to improve the throughput of plasma proteins. Due to the inherent convective mass transfer, membrane chromatography has been proved to be an efficient approach for extracting a small amount of target proteins from large-volume feed. In this study, α1-antitrypsin (AAT) was extracted from human plasma fraction IV by a two-step membrane chromatography. An anion-exchange membrane chromatography (AEMC) was used to capture the plasma proteins in bind/elute mode, and the obtained effluent was further polished by a hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC) in flow-through mode. Under optimal conditions, the recovery and purity of AAT achieved 87.0% and 0.58 AAT/protein (g/g) by AEMC, respectively. After the precise polishing by HIMC, the purity of AAT was 1.22 AAT/protein (g/g). The comparison results showed that membrane chromatography outperformed column chromatography in both steps because of its high throughput. This two-step membrane chromatography could obtain an AAT recovery of 83.3% and an activity recovery of 91.4%. The outcome of this work not only offers an alternative process for protein purification from plasma, but also provides guidelines for manufacturing product from a large-volume feed with multi-components by membrane chromatography.

  1. Absorption of dimethoxycinnamic acid derivatives in vitro and pharmacokinetic profile in human plasma following coffee consumption.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Tracy L; Gomez-Juaristi, Miren; Poquet, Laure; Redeuil, Karine; Nagy, Kornél; Renouf, Mathieu; Williamson, Gary

    2012-09-01

    This study reports the 24 h human plasma pharmacokinetics of 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (dimethoxycinnamic acid) after consumption of coffee, and the membrane transport characteristics of certain dimethoxycinnamic acid derivatives, as present in coffee. Eight healthy human volunteers consumed a low-polyphenol diet for 24 h before drinking 400 mL of commercially available coffee. Plasma samples were collected over 24 h and analyzed by HPLC-MS(2) . Investigation of the mechanism of absorption and metabolism was performed using an intestinal Caco-2 cell model. For the first time, we show that dimethoxycinnamic acid appears in plasma as the free aglycone. The time to reach the C(max) value of approximately 0.5 μM was rapid, T(max) = 30 min, and showed an additional peak at 2-4 h for several subjects. In contrast, smaller amounts of dimethoxy-dihydrocinnamic acid (C(max) ∼ 0.1 μM) peaked between 8 and 12 h after coffee intake. In the cell model, dimethoxycinnamic acid was preferentially transported in the free form by passive diffusion, and a small amount of dimethoxycinnamoylquinic acid hydrolysis was observed. These findings show that dimethoxycinnamic acid, previously identified in plasma after coffee consumption, was rapidly absorbed in the free form most likely by passive diffusion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  3. Microdevice for plasma separation from whole human blood using bio-physical and geometrical effects

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Kumar, Y. V. BalaVarun; Agrawal, Amit; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research work, we present a simple and efficient passive microfluidic device for plasma separation from pure blood. The microdevice has been fabricated using conventional photolithography technique on a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane, and has been extensively tested on whole blood and enhanced (upto 62%) hematocrit levels of human blood. The microdevice employs elevated dimensions of about 100 μm; such elevated dimensions ensure clog-free operation of the microdevice and is relatively easy to fabricate. We show that our microdevice achieves almost 100% separation efficiency on undiluted blood in the flow rate range of 0.3 to 0.5 ml/min. Detailed biological characterization of the plasma obtained from the microdevice is carried out by testing: proteins by ultra-violet spectrophotometric method, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone, and conducting random blood glucose test. Additionally, flow cytometry study has also been carried on the separated plasma. These tests attest to the high quality of plasma recovered. The microdevice developed in this work is an outcome of extensive experimental research on understanding the flow behavior and separation phenomenon of blood in microchannels. The microdevice is compact, economical and effective, and is particularly suited in continuous flow operations. PMID:27279146

  4. A comprehensive method for extraction and quantitative analysis of sterols and secosteroids from human plasma.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jeffrey G; Smith, Daniel D; Stiles, Ashlee R; Russell, David W

    2012-07-01

    We describe the development of a method for the extraction and analysis of 62 sterols, oxysterols, and secosteroids from human plasma using a combination of HPLC-MS and GC-MS. Deuterated standards are added to 200 μl of human plasma. Bulk lipids are extracted with methanol:dichloromethane, the sample is hydrolyzed using a novel procedure, and sterols and secosteroids are isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Compounds are resolved on C₁₈ core-shell HPLC columns and by GC. Sterols and oxysterols are measured using triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, and lathosterol is measured using GC-MS. Detection for each compound measured by HPLC-MS was ∪ 1 ng/ml of plasma. Extraction efficiency was between 85 and 110%; day-to-day variability showed a relative standard error of <10%. Nume