Science.gov

Sample records for human projected area

  1. Human projected area factors for detailed direct and diffuse solar radiation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kubaha, K; Fiala, D; Toftum, J; Taki, A H

    2004-11-01

    Projected area factors for individual segments of the standing and sedentary human body were modelled for both direct and diffuse solar radiation using detailed 3D geometry and radiation models. The local projected area factors with respect to direct short-wave radiation are a function of the solar azimuth angle (alpha) between 0 degrees < alpha<360 degrees and the solar altitude (beta) angles between -90 degrees < beta<+90 degrees . In case of diffuse solar radiation from the isotropic sky the local human projected area factors were modelled as a function of the ground albedo (rho) ranging between 0< rho<1. The model was validated against available experimental data and showed good general agreement with projected area factors measured for both the human body as a whole and for local quantities. Scientists can use the equations to predict the inhomogeneous irradiation and absorption of direct and diffuse solar radiation and UV-radiation at surfaces of the human body. In conjunction with detailed multi-node models of human thermoregulation the equations can be used to predict the physiological implications of solar radiation and outdoor weather conditions on humans.

  2. Human Services in Rural Alaska: Highlights from the Evaluation of the Rural Areas Social Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Frances Lomas

    The Social and Rehabilitation Service granted the Alaska Division of Public Welfare funds to train and employ qualified Native village people as paraprofessionals who could provide the social services needed while living right in the village. The Rural Areas Social Services Project (RASS), a demonstration and training project aimed at bringing…

  3. Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Block, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dally, W.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Joyce, G.; Kimble, H. J.; Lewis, N.; Max, C.; Prince, T.; Schwitters, R.; Weinberger, P.; Woodin, W. H.

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  4. The human genome project.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, M V

    1993-01-01

    The Human Genome Project in the United States is now well underway. Its programmatic direction was largely set by a National Research Council report issued in 1988. The broad framework supplied by this report has survived almost unchanged despite an upheaval in the technology of genome analysis. This upheaval has primarily affected physical and genetic mapping, the two dominant activities in the present phase of the project. Advances in mapping techniques have allowed good progress toward the specific goals of the project and are also providing strong corollary benefits throughout biomedical research. Actual DNA sequencing of the genomes of the human and model organisms is still at an early stage. There has been little progress in the intrinsic efficiency of DNA-sequence determination. However, refinements in experimental protocols, instrumentation, and project management have made it practical to acquire sequence data on an enlarged scale. It is also increasingly apparent that DNA-sequence data provide a potent means of relating knowledge gained from the study of model organisms to human biology. There is as yet little indication that the infusion of technology from outside biology into the Human Genome Project has been effectively stimulated. Opportunities in this area remain large, posing substantial technical and policy challenges. PMID:8506271

  5. Project analysis and integration area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Project Analysis and Integration Area (PA&I) is to support the planning, analysis, integration, and decision making activities of the Flat-plate Solar Array FSA) Project. Accordingly, PA&I supports the Project by developing and documenting Project plans based, in part, on the technical and economic assessments performed by PA&I of the various technical options. Goals for module technical performance and costs, derived from National Photovoltaics Program goals, are established by PA&I for each of the major technical activities in the Project. Assessments of progress toward achievement of goals are made to guide decision making within the Project.

  6. Functional Corticospinal Projections from Human Supplementary Motor Area Revealed by Corticomuscular Coherence during Precise Grip Force Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sophie; Entakli, Jonathan; Bonnard, Mireille; Berton, Eric; De Graaf, Jozina B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area (SMA) are functional during precise force control with the precision grip (thumb-index opposition). Since beta band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is well-accepted to reflect efferent corticospinal transmission, we analyzed the beta band CMC obtained with simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) signals. Subjects performed a bimanual precise visuomotor force tracking task by applying isometric low grip forces with their right hand precision grip on a custom device with strain gauges. Concurrently, they held the device with their left hand precision grip, producing similar grip forces but without any precision constraints, to relieve the right hand. Some subjects also participated in a unimanual control condition in which they performed the task with only the right hand precision grip while the device was held by a mechanical grip. We analyzed whole scalp topographies of beta band CMC between 64 EEG channels and 4 EMG intrinsic hand muscles, 2 for each hand. To compare the different topographies, we performed non-parametric statistical tests based on spatio-spectral clustering. For the right hand, we obtained significant beta band CMC over the contralateral M1 region as well as over the SMA region during static force contraction periods. For the left hand, however, beta band CMC was only found over the contralateral M1. By comparing unimanual and bimanual conditions for right hand muscles, no significant difference was found on beta band CMC over M1 and SMA. We conclude that the beta band CMC found over SMA for right hand muscles results from the precision constraints and not from the bimanual aspect of the task. The result of the present study strongly suggests that the corticospinal projections from human SMA become functional when high precision force control is required. PMID:23555945

  7. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  8. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  9. The Human Variome Project Beijing meeting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy D; Robinson, Helen M; Cotton, Richard G H

    2012-04-01

    The Human Variome Project Beijing Meeting, a joint meeting of the Human Variome Project Consortium and the Human Variome Project Chinese Node, was held in Beijing, 8th-12th of December, 2011. The aim of the Human Variome Project is to ensure that all information on genetic variation can be collected, curated, interpreted and shared freely and openly. The meeting officially welcomed the Human Variome Project Chinese Node as a partner of the Human Variome Project and focused on those areas where collaborations between China and the global Human Variome Project Consortium are required to develop and extend the coverage of international gene/disease specific databases.

  10. BLUECOM+ project: Connecting Humans and Systems at Ocean Remote Areas using Cost-effective Broadband Communications field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Pedro; Terrinha, Pedro; Magalhães, Vitor; Santos, Joana; Duarte, Débora; Campos, Rui

    2017-04-01

    The BLUECOM + project (Connecting Humans and Systems at Remote Ocean Areas using Cost-effective Broadband Communications) aims at developing an innovative communications solution that will enable broadband, cost-effective Internet access in remote ocean areas (ideally beyond 100 km from shore), using standard wireless access technologies - e.g., Wi-Fi and LTE. BLUECOM+ is an EEA Grants PT02 project developed by INESC TEC (Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering, Technology and Science), IPMA (Portuguese Institute for the Sea and the Atmosphere), and MARLO (Transport and Logistics Consultants). The BLUECOM+ key idea and innovation lies on deploying a long-term communications infrastructure, which will extend broadband communications from shore to remote ocean areas by leveraging (1) Helikites - a combination of a helium balloon and kite - that can be tethered to existing or new land and ocean platforms, (2) long range line of sight wireless communications using TV white spaces, and (3) multi-hop relaying techniques to further increase range. At this stage the communications protocols were defined and tested in lab conditions and two sea trials for demonstration of the system were carried out in July/2016 and September/2016 using research vessels. Results of the cruises: 1st cruise corresponded to the first sea-trials of the project. Single-hop communications were established between a land base station deployed at Cabo Espichel lighthouse and the Sea Station deployed in a Helikite launched from the vessel and flying at an altitude of 120m. Successful communications between the two stations were established at a maximum distance of 40km with a data rate in excess of 1Mbit/s. 2nd cruise corresponded to the second sea-trials. During this trial single-hop and two-hop land-sea communications were tested. For two-hop communications tests two Helikites were launched at 120m from two vessels. The first was launched from a vessel closer to shore; the other was

  11. The human genome project

    SciTech Connect

    Yager, T.D.; Zewert, T.E.; Hood, L.E. )

    1994-04-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a coordinated worldwide effort to precisely map the human genome and the genomes of selected model organisms. The first explicit proposal for this project dates from 1985 although its foundations (both conceptual and technological) can be traced back many years in genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. The HGP has matured rapidly and is producing results of great significance.

  12. The Human Toxome Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Toxome project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011--‐ 2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating, and sharing molecular Pathways of Toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the respo...

  13. The Human Toxome Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Toxome project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011--‐ 2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating, and sharing molecular Pathways of Toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the respo...

  14. [Projective identification in human relations].

    PubMed

    Göka, Erol; Yüksel, Fatih Volkan; Göral, F Sevinç

    2006-01-01

    Melanie Klein, one of the pioneers of Object Relations Theory, first defined "projective identification", which is regarded as one of the most efficacious psychoanalytic concepts after the discovery of the "unconscious". Examination of the literature on "projective identification" shows that there are various perspectives and theories suggesting different uses of this concept. Some clinicians argue that projective identification is a primitive defense mechanism observed in severe psychopathologies like psychotic disorder and borderline personality disorder, where the intra-psychic structure has been damaged severely. Others suggest it to be an indispensable part of the transference and counter-transference between the therapist and the patient during psychotherapy and it can be used as a treatment material in the therapy by a skillful therapist. The latter group expands the use of the concept through normal daily relationships by stating that projective identification is one type of communication and part of the main human relation mechanism operating in all close relationships. Therefore, they suggest that projective identification has benign forms experienced in human relations as well as malign forms seen in psychopathologies. Thus, discussions about the definition of the concept appear complex. In order to clarify and overcome the complexity of the concept, Melanie Klein's and other most important subsequent approaches are discussed in this review article. Thereby, the article aims to explain its important function in understanding the psychopathologies, psychotherapeutic relationships and different areas of normal human relations.

  15. Human Relations Education Project. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Board of Education, NY.

    This project did the planning and pilot phases of an effort to improve the teaching of human relations in grades K-12 of public and private schools in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area. In the pilot phase, the project furnished on-the-job training for approximately 70 schools. The training was given by teams of human relations…

  16. The Human Toxome Project

    PubMed Central

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Andersen, Melvin E.; Baghdikian, Christina; Boekelheide, Kim; Crofton, Kevin M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Kleensang, Andre; Li, Henghong; Livi, Carolina; Maertens, Alexandra; McMullen, Patrick D.; Rosenberg, Michael; Thomas, Russell; Vantangoli, Marguerite; Yager, James D.; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Human Toxome Project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011–2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating and sharing molecular pathways of toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the responses of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are being phenotyped by transcriptomics and mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics. The bioinformatics tools for PoT deduction represent a core deliverable. A number of challenges for quality and standardization of cell systems, omics technologies and bioinformatics are being addressed. In parallel, concepts for annotation, validation and sharing of PoT information, as well as their link to adverse outcomes, are being developed. A reasonably comprehensive public database of PoT, the Human Toxome Knowledge-base, could become a point of reference for toxicological research and regulatory test strategies. PMID:25742299

  17. Project for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Peay State Univ., Clarksville, TN.

    The history of the Project for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT), a university based national curriculum assessment project, is described in this report. The project performs surveys of academic curricula by content area, collects examination items from the faculty of participating departments, and constructs, distributes, and scores…

  18. The Human Variome Project.

    PubMed

    Burn, John; Watson, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The practical realization of genomics has meant a growing realization that variant interpretation is a major barrier to practical use of DNA sequence data. The late Professor Dick Cotton devoted his life to innovation in molecular genetics and was a prime mover in the international response to the need to understand the "variome." His leadership resulted in the launch first of the Human Genetic Variation Society and then, in 2006, an international agreement to launch the Human Variome Project (HVP), aimed at data integration enabled by standards and infrastructure of the databases of variants being identified in families with a range of inherited disorders. The project attracted a network of affiliates across 81 countries and earned formal recognition by UNESCO, which now hosts its biennial meetings. It has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the World Health Organization. Future progress will depend on longer term secure funding and integration with the efforts of the genomics community where the rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled variant capture on a previously unimaginable scale. Efforts are underway to integrate the efforts of HVP with those of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health to provide a lasting legacy of Dick Cotton's vision.

  19. The Human Genome Diversity Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli-Sforza, L.

    1994-12-31

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD Project) is an international anthropology project that seeks to study the genetic richness of the entire human species. This kind of genetic information can add a unique thread to the tapestry knowledge of humanity. Culture, environment, history, and other factors are often more important, but humanity`s genetic heritage, when analyzed with recent technology, brings another type of evidence for understanding species` past and present. The Project will deepen the understanding of this genetic richness and show both humanity`s diversity and its deep and underlying unity. The HGD Project is still largely in its planning stages, seeking the best ways to reach its goals. The continuing discussions of the Project, throughout the world, should improve the plans for the Project and their implementation. The Project is as global as humanity itself; its implementation will require the kinds of partnerships among different nations and cultures that make the involvement of UNESCO and other international organizations particularly appropriate. The author will briefly discuss the Project`s history, describe the Project, set out the core principles of the Project, and demonstrate how the Project will help combat the scourge of racism.

  20. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  1. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  2. Visible Human Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... videos - requires RealPlayer. A sampler of images and animations from the Project. Belarusian translation of The Visible ... Applications for viewing images Sources of images and animations Products Mirror Sites Tools Media Productions Related Projects ...

  3. Ashland Area Support Substation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power Light Company's (PP L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  4. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Angie; Bertjens, Steve; Lieurance, Mike; Berguson, Bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  5. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  6. DSN human factors project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the factors influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those factors which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented factors were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.

  7. Bridging Disciplines with the Riparian Area Management Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockerill, Kristan M.; Titus, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Faculty at Columbia University's Earth Semester created the interdisciplinary Riparian Area Management Project to help students integrate information and skills from life sciences, geosciences, social sciences, and humanities focused coursework. Structured as a "consulting" contract, students were required to make a policy recommendation…

  8. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest..., Colorado River Storage Project Manager, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social.... Thomas Hackett, Rates Team Lead, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social...

  9. Projecting global datasets to achieve equal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Cox, J.D.; Beard, T.; Ruhl, S.; Bearden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish global modeling in the raster domain, but recent research has indicated that the transformation of large areas through map projection equations leads to errors. This research attempts to gauge the extent of map projection and resampling effects on the tabulation of categorical areas by comparing the results of three datasets for seven common projections. The datasets, Global Land Cover, Holdridge Life Zones, and Global Vegetation, were compiled at resolutions of 30 arc-second, 1/2 degree, and 1 degree, respectively. These datasets were projected globally from spherical coordinates to plane representations. Results indicate significant problems in the implementation of global projection transformations in commercial software, as well as differences in areal accuracy across projections. The level of raster resolution directly affects the accuracy of areal tabulations, with higher resolution yielding higher accuracy. If the raster resolution is high enough for individual pixels to approximate points, the areal error tends to zero. The 30-arc-second cells appear to approximate this condition.

  10. CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL SCHOOL, AS PROPOSED BY THE PROJECT, ARE LISTED. FIVE AREAS OF SCHOOL OPERATION ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--(1) MULTIPLE CLASSES, INCLUDING SUPERVISED CORRESPONDENCE COURSES, (2) FLEXIBLE SCHEDULES, (3) USE OF SCHOOL AIDES, (4) USES OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION, AND (5) SHARED SERVICES AND TALENTED YOUTH. A MAP LOCATING THE…

  11. Area Prostriata in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Mikellidou, Kyriaki; Kurzawski, Jan W; Frijia, Francesca; Montanaro, Domenico; Greco, Vincenzo; Burr, David C; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2017-10-09

    Area prostriata is a cortical area at the fundus of the calcarine sulcus, described anatomically in humans [1-5] and other primates [6-9]. It is lightly myelinated and lacks the clearly defined six-layer structure evident throughout the cerebral cortex, with a thinner layer 4 and thicker layer 2 [10], characteristic of limbic cortex [11]. In the marmoset and rhesus monkey, area prostriata has cortical connections with MT+ [12], the cingulate motor cortex [8], the auditory cortex [13], the orbitofrontal cortex, and the frontal polar cortices [14]. Here we use functional magnetic resonance together with a wide-field projection system to study its functional properties in humans. With population receptive field mapping [15], we show that area prostriata has a complete representation of the visual field, clearly distinct from the adjacent area V1. As in the marmoset, the caudal-dorsal border of human prostriata-abutting V1-represents the far peripheral visual field, with eccentricities decreasing toward its rostral boundary. Area prostriata responds strongly to very fast motion, greater than 500°/s. The functional properties of area prostriata suggest that it may serve to alert the brain quickly to fast visual events, particularly in the peripheral visual field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Selected Exemplary Projects in the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.

    As a result of an earlier project conducted by the Council of Chief State School Officer's Project on Humanities and the Schools, 76 programs in the humanities were identified for their efforts to improve the teaching of humanities between 1972 and 1983. From these projects, 20 exemplary projects were selected for inclusion in this catalog. The…

  13. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. . Environmental Div.)

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  14. 78 FR 79444 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Final 2025 Power Marketing Initiative. SUMMARY: Western Area Power Administration (Western), Rocky Mountain Region, a Federal power marketing agency of the...

  15. The NIH Human Microbiome Project.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane; Garges, Susan; Giovanni, Maria; McInnes, Pamela; Wang, Lu; Schloss, Jeffery A; Bonazzi, Vivien; McEwen, Jean E; Wetterstrand, Kris A; Deal, Carolyn; Baker, Carl C; Di Francesco, Valentina; Howcroft, T Kevin; Karp, Robert W; Lunsford, R Dwayne; Wellington, Christopher R; Belachew, Tsegahiwot; Wright, Michael; Giblin, Christina; David, Hagit; Mills, Melody; Salomon, Rachelle; Mullins, Christopher; Akolkar, Beena; Begg, Lisa; Davis, Cindy; Grandison, Lindsey; Humble, Michael; Khalsa, Jag; Little, A Roger; Peavy, Hannah; Pontzer, Carol; Portnoy, Matthew; Sayre, Michael H; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Zakhari, Samir; Read, Jennifer; Watson, Bracie; Guyer, Mark

    2009-12-01

    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP), funded as an initiative of the NIH Roadmap for Biomedical Research (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov), is a multi-component community resource. The goals of the HMP are: (1) to take advantage of new, high-throughput technologies to characterize the human microbiome more fully by studying samples from multiple body sites from each of at least 250 "normal" volunteers; (2) to determine whether there are associations between changes in the microbiome and health/disease by studying several different medical conditions; and (3) to provide both a standardized data resource and new technological approaches to enable such studies to be undertaken broadly in the scientific community. The ethical, legal, and social implications of such research are being systematically studied as well. The ultimate objective of the HMP is to demonstrate that there are opportunities to improve human health through monitoring or manipulation of the human microbiome. The history and implementation of this new program are described here.

  16. The NIH Human Microbiome Project

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jane; Garges, Susan; Giovanni, Maria; McInnes, Pamela; Wang, Lu; Schloss, Jeffery A.; Bonazzi, Vivien; McEwen, Jean E.; Wetterstrand, Kris A.; Deal, Carolyn; Baker, Carl C.; Di Francesco, Valentina; Howcroft, T. Kevin; Karp, Robert W.; Lunsford, R. Dwayne; Wellington, Christopher R.; Belachew, Tsegahiwot; Wright, Michael; Giblin, Christina; David, Hagit; Mills, Melody; Salomon, Rachelle; Mullins, Christopher; Akolkar, Beena; Begg, Lisa; Davis, Cindy; Grandison, Lindsey; Humble, Michael; Khalsa, Jag; Little, A. Roger; Peavy, Hannah; Pontzer, Carol; Portnoy, Matthew; Sayre, Michael H.; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Zakhari, Samir; Read, Jennifer; Watson, Bracie; Guyer, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP), funded as an initiative of the NIH Roadmap for Biomedical Research (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov), is a multi-component community resource. The goals of the HMP are: (1) to take advantage of new, high-throughput technologies to characterize the human microbiome more fully by studying samples from multiple body sites from each of at least 250 “normal” volunteers; (2) to determine whether there are associations between changes in the microbiome and health/disease by studying several different medical conditions; and (3) to provide both a standardized data resource and new technological approaches to enable such studies to be undertaken broadly in the scientific community. The ethical, legal, and social implications of such research are being systematically studied as well. The ultimate objective of the HMP is to demonstrate that there are opportunities to improve human health through monitoring or manipulation of the human microbiome. The history and implementation of this new program are described here. PMID:19819907

  17. All about the Human Genome Project (HGP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genome Resources Access to the full human sequence All About The Human Genome Project (HGP) The Human ... an international research effort to sequence and map all of the genes - together known as the genome - ...

  18. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East

  19. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017,...

  20. The Human Connectome Project's neuroimaging approach.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Matthew F; Smith, Stephen M; Marcus, Daniel S; Andersson, Jesper L R; Auerbach, Edward J; Behrens, Timothy E J; Coalson, Timothy S; Harms, Michael P; Jenkinson, Mark; Moeller, Steen; Robinson, Emma C; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Xu, Junqian; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-26

    Noninvasive human neuroimaging has yielded many discoveries about the brain. Numerous methodological advances have also occurred, though inertia has slowed their adoption. This paper presents an integrated approach to data acquisition, analysis and sharing that builds upon recent advances, particularly from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The 'HCP-style' paradigm has seven core tenets: (i) collect multimodal imaging data from many subjects; (ii) acquire data at high spatial and temporal resolution; (iii) preprocess data to minimize distortions, blurring and temporal artifacts; (iv) represent data using the natural geometry of cortical and subcortical structures; (v) accurately align corresponding brain areas across subjects and studies; (vi) analyze data using neurobiologically accurate brain parcellations; and (vii) share published data via user-friendly databases. We illustrate the HCP-style paradigm using existing HCP data sets and provide guidance for future research. Widespread adoption of this paradigm should accelerate progress in understanding the brain in health and disease.

  1. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  2. Spatial augmented reality based high accuracy human face projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Jinghui; Li, Yufeng; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the imaging principles and the technical difficulties of spatial augmented reality based human face projection. A novel geometry correction method is proposed to realize fast, high-accuracy face model projection. Using a depth camera to reconstruct the projected object, the relative position from the rendered model to the projector can be accessed and the initial projection image is generated. Then the projected image is distorted by using Bezier interpolation to guarantee that the projected texture matches with the object surface. The proposed method is under a simple process flow and can achieve high perception registration of virtual and real object. In addition, this method has a good performance in the condition that the reconstructed model is not exactly same with the rendered virtual model which extends its application area in the spatial augmented reality based human face projection.

  3. Project Approach: Celebrating Human Dimensions of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Mary Jane

    This paper presents reflections on the power of project work as it enhances the character development and self-awareness of the young child. Examples from projects illustrate the development of these human values based on project investigations of 4- and 5-year-old children from Hong Kong International School. The first set of investigations…

  4. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Various software for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6°) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package. PMID:27873959

  5. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

    2008-12-03

    Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6°) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  6. Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

    2011-04-29

    To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site Characterization

  7. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  8. Standardizing immunophenotyping for the Human Immunology Project.

    PubMed

    Maecker, Holden T; McCoy, J Philip; Nussenblatt, Robert

    2012-02-17

    The heterogeneity in the healthy human immune system, and the immunological changes that portend various diseases, have been only partially described. Their comprehensive elucidation has been termed the 'Human Immunology Project'. The accurate measurement of variations in the human immune system requires precise and standardized assays to distinguish true biological changes from technical artefacts. Thus, to be successful, the Human Immunology Project will require standardized assays for immunophenotyping humans in health and disease. A major tool in this effort is flow cytometry, which remains highly variable with regard to sample handling, reagents, instrument setup and data analysis. In this Review, we outline the current state of standardization of flow cytometry assays and summarize the steps that are required to enable the Human Immunology Project.

  9. Epidemiology of fascioliasis in human endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Mas-Coma, S

    2005-09-01

    Considered a secondary zoonotic disease until the mid-1990s, human fascioliasis is at present emerging or re-emerging in many countries, including increases of prevalence and intensity and geographical expansion. Research in recent years has justified the inclusion of fascioliasis in the list of important human parasitic diseases. At present, fascioliasis is a vector-borne disease presenting the widest known latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Fasciola hepatica has succeeded in expanding from its European original geographical area to colonize five continents, despite theoretical restrictions related to its biology and in turn dependent upon environmental and human activities. Among the different epidemiological situations, human hypo- to hyperendemic areas, including epidemics, are noteworthy. A global analysis of the distribution of human cases shows that the expected correlation between animal and human fascioliasis only appears at a basic level. Areas presenting very high human prevalences and intensities, especially in children and females, have been recently described. In hypo- to hyperendemic areas of Central and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, human fascioliasis presents a range of epidemiological characteristics related to a wide diversity of environments. Thus far well-known epidemiological patterns of fascioliasis may not always explain the transmission characteristics in any given area and control measures should consider the results of ecoepidemiological studies undertaken in the zones concerned.

  10. Human mast cell transcriptome project.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Nakajima, T; Matsumoto, K

    2001-05-01

    After draft reading of the human genome sequence, systemic analysis of the transcriptome (the whole transcripts present in a cell) is progressing especially in commonly available cell types. Until recently, human mast cells were not commonly available. We have succeeded to generate a substantial number of human mast cells from umbilical cord blood and from adult peripheral blood progenitors. Then, we have examined messenger RNA selectively transcribed in these mast cells using high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays. Many unexpected but important transcripts were selectively expressed in human mast cells. We discuss the results obtained from transcriptome screening by introducing our data regarding mast-cell-specific genes.

  11. Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

    Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

  12. Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

    Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

  13. South Carolina: Charleston County Area Project Impact Environmental Education Program (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Charleston County Area Project Impact is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. The project is under the direction of the Charleston County Building Services Department, in Charleston, S.C.

  14. JSC Human Life Sciences Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes articles entitled: (1) E029 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Exposure to Microgravity; (2) E030 - Extended Studies of Pulmonary Function in Weightlessness; (3) E074 - Direct Measurement of the Initial Bone Response to Spaceflight in Humans; (4) E401 - The Effects of Microgravity on Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties; (5) E407 - Effects of Microgravity on the Biochemical and Bioenergetic Characteristics of Human Skeletal Muscle; (6) E410 - Torso Rotation Experiment; (7) E920 - Effect of Weightlessness on Human Single Muscle Fiber Function; (8) E948 - Human Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Performance in Space; (9) E963 - Microgravity Effects on Standardized Cognitive Performance Measures; and (10) E971 - Measurement of Energy Expenditures During Spaceflight Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method

  15. Projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Müller-Preuss, P; Jürgens, U

    1976-02-13

    In 5 squirrel monkeys the anatomical projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area were studied by the autoradiographic tracing technique. The 'cingular' vocalization area lies around the sulcus cinguli at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum; its electrical stimulation yields purring and cackling calls. The following efferent connections were found: corticocortical fibers could be traced into the orbital cortex (areas 10 and 11), dorsomedial frontal cortex (areas 9, 8 and 6), limbic cortex (areas 25, 24 and 23), Broca's area (area 44), frontal operculum (area 50), insula (areas 13 and 14), and auditory association cortex (area 22). Subcortical terminal fields within the telencephalon were found in the nucleus caudatus, putamen, claustrum, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, preoptic region and nucleus centralis and basolateralis amygdalae. Fibers reached most of these structures along different trajectories. In the diencephalon terminal fields lay in the dorsal hypothalamus, the subthalamus, lateral habenular nucleus, and the following thalamic nuclei: nucleus reticularis, ventralis anterior, centralis medialis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, submedius, medialis dorsalis and centrum medianum. In the midbrain, the periaqueductal gray was the only projection area, extending into the parabrachial nuclei at the pontomesencephalic transition. The most caudal terminal field was found in the medial pontine gray. No terminals were detected in the nucleus ambiguus, nucleus n. hypoglossi or in any other cranial motor nucleus involved in phonation processes. A comparison of this projection system with the whole of structures producing vocalization when electrically stimulated yielded only partial overlap. Not all vocalization areas lie within the 'cingular' projection system, and inversely, not the whole projection system yielded vocalization. Overlap took place in the anterior limbic cortex, preoptic region, central amygdaloid nucleus

  16. Scientific Goals of the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    The Human Genome Project, an effort to sequence all the DNA of a human cell, is needed to better understand the behavior of chromosomes during cell division, with the ultimate goal of understanding the specific genes contributing to specific diseases and disabilities. (MSE)

  17. Scientific Goals of the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    The Human Genome Project, an effort to sequence all the DNA of a human cell, is needed to better understand the behavior of chromosomes during cell division, with the ultimate goal of understanding the specific genes contributing to specific diseases and disabilities. (MSE)

  18. Ashland Area Support Substation Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power & Light Company`s (PP&L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP&L`s Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP&L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW`s) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP&L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  19. Implications of the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kitcher, P.

    1998-11-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

  20. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  1. First concept for a tropical area monitoring project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The first concept of a tropical area monitoring project is presented. The project would develop an operational system capable of monitoring land areas by machine processing of satellite data. LANDSAT images would be processed within a controlled isolable unit to detect changes in forest cover, rangeland, soil integrity, and other factors important to conservation of tropical ecology. An introductory developmental effort is described to demonstrate the use of LANDSAT data in this application. The independent unit, which functions as a user organization within the development project, assures that the technology will be transferable to a user organization through well defined, easily monitored interfaces with the rest of the world.

  2. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; as part of testing, we'll need to develop an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible tool that can withstand the pressure and temperature extremes of space, as well as collect, separate, and store multiple samples; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  3. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  4. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    DOE PAGES

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; ...

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some partsmore » of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.« less

  5. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; Harrison, Laura; Funk, Chris; Lombardozzi, Danica; Goodale, Christine

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.

  6. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  7. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  8. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  9. Think Big! The Human Condition Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    How can educators provide children with a genuine experience of carrying out an extended scientific investigation? And can teachers change the perception of what it means to be a scientist? These were key questions that lay behind "The Human Condition" project, an initiative funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust to explore a new…

  10. The Human Genome Project and Biology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    Highlights the importance of the Human Genome Project in educating the public about genetics. Discusses four challenges that science educators must address: teaching for conceptual understanding, the nature of science, the personal and social impact of science and technology, and the principles of technology. Contains 45 references. (JRH)

  11. Think Big! The Human Condition Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    How can educators provide children with a genuine experience of carrying out an extended scientific investigation? And can teachers change the perception of what it means to be a scientist? These were key questions that lay behind "The Human Condition" project, an initiative funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust to explore a new…

  12. The Human Genome Project and Biology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    Highlights the importance of the Human Genome Project in educating the public about genetics. Discusses four challenges that science educators must address: teaching for conceptual understanding, the nature of science, the personal and social impact of science and technology, and the principles of technology. Contains 45 references. (JRH)

  13. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns.

    PubMed

    Garver, K L; Garver, B

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Human Genome project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the U.S. and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided.

  14. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, K. L.; Garver, B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Human Genome project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the U.S. and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided. PMID:8279465

  15. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Garver, K.L.; Garver, B. )

    1994-01-01

    The US Human Genome Project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the US and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided. 142 refs.

  16. Encoding of human action in Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Patrik; Cantagallo, Anna; Craighero, Laila; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Roy, Alice C; Pozzo, Thierry; Calzolari, Ferdinando; Granieri, Enrico; Fadiga, Luciano

    2009-07-01

    Broca's area has been considered, for over a century, as the brain centre responsible for speech production. Modern neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence have suggested a wider functional role is played by this area. In addition to the evidence that it is involved in syntactical analysis, mathematical calculation and music processing, it has recently been shown that Broca's area may play some role in language comprehension and, more generally, in understanding actions of other individuals. As shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging, Broca's area is one of the cortical areas activated by hand/mouth action observation and it has been proposed that it may form a crucial node of a human mirror-neuron system. If, on the one hand, neuroimaging studies use a correlational approach which cannot offer a final proof for such claims, available neuropsychological data fail to offer a conclusive demonstration for two main reasons: (i) they use tasks taxing both language and action systems; and (ii) they rarely consider the possibility that Broca's aphasics may also be affected by some form of apraxia. We administered a novel action comprehension test--with almost no linguistic requirements--on selected frontal aphasic patients lacking apraxic symptoms. Patients, as well as matched controls, were shown short movies of human actions or of physical events. Their task consisted of ordering, in a temporal sequence, four pictures taken from each movie and randomly presented on the computer screen. Patient's performance showed a specific dissociation in their ability to re-order pictures of human actions (impaired) with respect to physical events (spared). Our study provides a demonstration that frontal aphasics, not affected by apraxia, are specifically impaired in their capability to correctly encode observed human actions.

  17. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  18. Human genome project and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Norman, Brenda J; Miller, Sheila D

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is one of the most common genetic blood disorders in the United States that affects 1 in every 375 African Americans. Sickle cell disease is an inherited condition caused by abnormal hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The Human Genome Project has provided valuable insight and extensive research advances in the understanding of the human genome and sickle cell disease. Significant progress in genetic knowledge has led to an increase in the ability for researchers to map and sequence genes for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sickle cell disease and other chronic illnesses. This article explores some of the recent knowledge and advances about sickle cell disease and the Human Genome Project.

  19. Protected areas as frontiers for human migration.

    PubMed

    Zommers, Zinta; MacDonald, David W

    2012-06-01

    Causes of human population growth near protected areas have been much debated. We conducted 821 interviews in 16 villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Masindi district, Uganda, to explore the causes of human migration to protected areas and to identify differences in forest use between migrant and nonmigrant communities. We asked subjects for information about birthplace, migration, household assets, household activities, and forest use. Interview subjects were categorized as nonmigrants (born in one of the interview villages), socioeconomic migrants (chose to emigrate for economic or social reasons) from within Masindi district (i.e., local migrants) and from outside the Masindi district (i.e., regional migrants), or forced migrants (i.e., refugees or internally displaced individuals who emigrated as a result of conflict, human rights abuses, or natural disaster). Only 198 respondents were born in interview villages, indicating high rates of migration between 1998 and 2008. Migrants were drawn to Budongo Forest because they thought land was available (268 individuals) or had family in the area (161 individuals). A greater number of regional migrants settled in villages near Lake Albert than did forced and local migrants. Migration category was also associated with differences in sources of livelihood. Of forced migrants 40.5% earned wages through labor, whereas 25.5% of local and 14.5% of regional migrants engaged in wage labor. Migrant groups appeared to have different effects on the environment. Of respondents that hunted, 72.7% were regional migrants. Principal component analyses indicated households of regional migrants were more likely to be associated with deforestation. Our results revealed gaps in current models of human population growth around protected areas. By highlighting the importance of social networks and livelihood choices, our results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of causes of migration and of the environmental effects of

  20. Human body surface area: a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hihara, Eiji

    2004-04-01

    Knowledge of the human body surface area has important applications in medical practice, garment design, and other engineering sizing. Therefore, it is not surprising that several expressions correlating body surface area with direct measurements of body mass and length have been reported in the literature. In the present study, based on the assumption that the exterior shape of the human body is the result of convex and concave deformations from a basic cylinder, we derive a theoretical equation minimizing body surface area (BSA) at a fixed volume (V): BSA=(9pi VL)(0.5), where L is the reference length of the body. Assuming a body density value of 1,000 kg.m(-3), the equation becomes BSA=(BM.BH/35.37)(0.5), where BSA is in square meters, BM is the body mass in kilograms, and BH is the body height in meters. BSA values calculated by means of this equation fall within +/-7% of the values obtained by means of the equations available in the literature, in the range of BSA from children to adults. It is also suggested that the above equation, which is obtained by minimizing the outer body surface at a fixed volume, implies a fundamental relation set by the geometrical constraints governing the growth and the development of the human body.

  1. Cornell OEO Project: An Exploration in Urban Extension Activity. Supplementary Report No. 1: The Project Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Lynn; Harding, Margaret

    The site of the Cornell-OEO project in South Brooklyn is described in terms of physical characteristics, ethnic composition, family composition, age of residents, income, and other qualities. Two large housing projects in the area are described. The charging character of the neighborhoods and its impact on the residents is outlined. Tables and…

  2. ADP Analysis project for the Human Resources Management Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tureman, Robert L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The ADP (Automated Data Processing) Analysis Project was conducted for the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) of NASA's Langley Research Center. The three major areas of work in the project were computer support, automated inventory analysis, and an ADP study for the Division. The goal of the computer support work was to determine automation needs of Division personnel and help them solve computing problems. The goal of automated inventory analysis was to find a way to analyze installed software and usage on a Macintosh. Finally, the ADP functional systems study for the Division was designed to assess future HRMD needs concerning ADP organization and activities.

  3. The human genome project: Cracking the genetic code of life

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents a description of the human genome project and a good orientation to the science and opinions in the field. Also included is a chronology of discovery from the physical and chemical organization of cells through to genes and how the chronology exempliefies the transformation of thought and attitudes in Western society. Both the interested layman and the scientist who may be contemplating a new research area are targeted.

  4. Overview to northwest of entire project area, from the communications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview to northwest of entire project area, from the communications tower. At farthest left is warehouse A-141. Warehouse A-199 and magazine A-210 are just left of center, and the fresh water tanks are in the right distance. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Magazine, Corbett Road, southwest end of Kieper Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Underground Test Area Subproject Project Management Plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-03

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the manner in which the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) will manage the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides the basic guidance for implementation and the organizational structure for meeting the UGTA objectives.

  6. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-03-28

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

  7. Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce Literacy Project 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce, PA.

    The Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce, using a grant from the Pennsylvania Department of Education, developed a model program to demonstrate the effectiveness of a business-based network to improve the literacy level of the local work force. The project involved increasing business member awareness of literacy needs, creating linkages among…

  8. Nashville Area Employment and Training Needs. Vocational Education Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    A survey involving 1,142 Nashville, Tennessee, area businesses was conducted to assess current employment interest and future labor demands for entry-level jobs. Major objectives of the project component, part of a three-pronged effort to improve vocational education, were (1) to provide for greater involvement by business and industry in…

  9. Subcortical Projections of Area V2 in the Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.; Galkin, Thelma W.; Desimone, Robert; Gattass, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the subcortical efferent connections of visual area V2, we injected tritiated amino acids under electrophysiological control into 15 V2 sites in 14 macaques. The injection sites included the fovea representation as well as representations ranging from central to far peripheral eccentricities in both the upper and lower visual fields. The results indicated that V2 projects topographically to different portions of the inferior and lateral pulvinar and to the superficial and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus. Within the pulvinar, the V2 projections terminated in fields P1, P2, and P4, with the strongest projection being in P2. Central visual field injections in V2 labeled projection zones in P1 and P2, whereas peripheral field injections labeled P1, P2, and P4. No projections were found in P3. Both central and peripheral field injections in V2 projected topographically to the superficial and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus. Projections from V2 to the pulvinar and the superior colliculus constituted cortical–subcortical loops through which circuits serving spatial attention are activated. PMID:24456395

  10. Human Genome Project and cystic fibrosis--a symbiotic relationship.

    PubMed

    Tolstoi, L G; Smith, C L

    1999-11-01

    When Watson and Crick determined the structure of DNA in 1953, a biological revolution began. One result of this revolution is the Human Genome Project. The primary goal of this international project is to obtain the complete nucleotide sequence of the human genome by the year 2005. Although molecular biologists and geneticists are most enthusiastic about the Human Genome Project, all areas of clinical medicine and fields of biology will be affected. Cystic fibrosis is the most common, inherited, lethal disease of white persons. In 1989, researchers located the cystic fibrosis gene on the long arm of chromosome 7 by a technique known as positional cloning. The most common mutation (a 3-base pair deletion) of the cystic fibrosis gene occurs in 70% of patients with cystic fibrosis. The knowledge gained from genetic research on cystic fibrosis will help researchers develop new therapies (e.g., gene) and improve standard therapies (e.g., pharmacologic) so that a patient's life span is increased and quality of life is improved. The purpose of this review is twofold. First, the article provides an overview of the Human Genome Project and its clinical significance in advancing interdisciplinary care for patients with cystic fibrosis. Second, the article includes a discussion of the genetic basis, pathophysiology, and management of cystic fibrosis.

  11. Rocky desertification treatment project in karst areas in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jinxing; Pang, Danbo; Wan, Long; Wu, Xiuqin; Wang, Genzhu

    2017-04-01

    Rocky desertification is one of the most severe ecological problems in karst areas of South China. Severe vegetation degradation, high soil erosion, high exposed bedrock and fast groundwater flow through karst conduits are typical characteristics in the rocky desertification areas. From 2008, the rocky desertification treatment project was conducted by the Chinese government to improve the local ecological environment. This paper has offered an overview of the rocky desertification treatment project, and the partitions for the rocky desertification treatment. Changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of different severity of rocky desertification were investigated. Diverse vegetation restoration modes and ecological engineering technology modes for rocky desertification management were introduced. We also discussed the vegetation restoration effects and the carbon absorbing effects by Chinese rocky desertification treatment project. Besides, the problems exist in the rocky desertification treatment were analyzed in our study. The new rocky desertification treatment project will be carried out from 2016 in China. We need continue to summarize the past experiences, and gain more achievements from the new project.

  12. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis, Jennifer; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is about understanding and shaping the interactions between humans and robots (Goodrich & Schultz, 2007). It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human s ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively (Crandall, Goodrich, Olsen Jr., & Nielsen, 2005) It is also critical to evaluate the effects of human-robot interfaces and command modalities on operator mental workload (Sheridan, 1992) and situation awareness (Endsley, Bolt , & Jones, 2003). By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed that support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for design. Because the factors associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI are too numerous to address in 3 years of research, the proposed research concentrates on three manageable areas applicable to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) robot systems. These topic areas emerged from the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 work that included extensive literature reviews and observations of NASA systems. The three topic areas are: 1) video overlays, 2) camera views, and 3) command modalities. Each area is described in detail below, along with relevance to existing NASA human-robot systems. In addition to studies in these three topic areas, a workshop is proposed for FY12. The workshop will bring together experts in human-robot interaction and robotics to discuss the state of the practice as applicable to research in space robotics. Studies proposed in the area of video overlays consider two factors in the implementation of augmented reality (AR) for operator displays during teleoperation. The first of these factors is the type of navigational guidance provided by AR symbology. In the proposed

  13. Beyond the genomics blueprint: the 4th Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO, Paris, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Smith, Timothy D; Robinson, Helen M

    2013-07-01

    The 4th Biennial Meeting of the Human Variome Project Consortium was held at the headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, 11-15 June 2012. The Human Variome Project, a nongovernmental organization and an official partner of UNESCO, enables the routine collection, curation, interpretation, and sharing of information on all human genetic variation. This meeting was attended by more than 180 delegates from 39 countries and continued the theme of addressing issues of implementation in this unique project. The meeting was structured around the four main themes of the Human Variome Project strategic plan, "Project Roadmap 2012-2016": setting normative function, behaving ethically, sharing knowledge, and building capacity. During the meeting, the members held extensive discussions to formulate an action plan in the key areas of the Human Variome Project. The actions agreed on were promulgated at the Project's two Advisory Council and Scientific Advisory Committee postconference meetings.

  14. Arts and Humanities: Perspectives. A First Report (1979) of Project H.E.L.P. (Humanities Education Liaison Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Ira P., Comp.

    Project H.E.L.P. (Humanities Education Liaison Program) was initiated in 1976 to identify materials and programs in humanities and arts and to study various teaching methods. Investigation involved personal observations of the author, observations of area and state arts and humanities coordinators, and reports and observations by numerous teachers…

  15. An overview of the human genome project

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The human genome project is one of the most ambitious scientific projects to date, with the ultimate goal being a nucleotide sequence for all four billion bases of human DNA. In the process of determining the nucleotide sequence for each base, the location, function, and regulatory regions from the estimated 100,000 human genes will be identified. The genome project itself relies upon maps of the human genetic code derived from several different levels of resolution. Genetic linkage analysis provides a low resolution genome map. The information for genetic linkage maps is derived from the analysis of chromosome specific markers such as Sequence Tagged Sites (STSs), Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) or other polymorphic (highly informative) loci in a number of different-families. Using this information the location of an unknown disease gene can be limited to a region comprised of one million base pairs of DNA or less. After this point, one must construct or have access to a physical map of the region of interest. Physical mapping involves the construction of an ordered overlapping (contiguous) set of recombinant DNA clones. These clones may be derived from a number of different vectors including cosmids, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), P1 derived Artificial Chromosomes (PACs), somatic cell hybrids, or Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs). The ultimate goal for physical mapping is to establish a completely overlapping (contiguous) set of clones for the entire genome. After a gene or region of interest has been localized using physical mapping the nucleotide sequence is determined. The overlap between genetic mapping, physical mapping and DNA sequencing has proven to be a powerful tool for the isolation of disease genes through positional cloning.

  16. The Human Genome Project and biology education

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    Within the last several years, biologists celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the Watson-Crick model of DNA and the fiftieth anniversary of the demonstration that DNA is the genetic material, discoveries that began a pervasive and ongoing revolution in biology and medicine. Nobelist Joshua Lederberg, for example, called the work of Avery`s group {open_quotes}the most important discovery in biology in the twentieth century.{close_quotes} This early work on DNA also contributed to a revolution in biology education, beginning in the 1960s. Like the biological revolution that is its counterpart, however, the educational revolution is incomplete, in part because the science continues to evolve, but primarily because scientists and science educators have not yet responded completely to the challenges of genetics and molecular biology. These challenges are made even more obvious by the scope and visibility of the Human Genome Project, the international project intended to map and sequence all human genes. Science educators face 4 challenges discussed in this article and using the Genome project as an example: teach for conceptual understanding; the nature of science; the personal and social impact of science and technology; the principles of technology.

  17. Origins of the Human Genome Project

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cook-Deegan, Robert (Affiliation: Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences)

    1993-07-01

    The human genome project was borne of technology, grew into a science bureaucracy in the United States and throughout the world, and is now being transformed into a hybrid academic and commercial enterprise. The next phase of the project promises to veer more sharply toward commercial application, harnessing both the technical prowess of molecular biology and the rapidly growing body of knowledge about DNA structure to the pursuit of practical benefits. Faith that the systematic analysis of DNA structure will prove to be a powerful research tool underlies the rationale behind the genome project. The notion that most genetic information is embedded in the sequence of CNA base pairs comprising chromosomes is a central tenet. A rough analogy is to liken an organism's genetic code to computer code. The coal of the genome project, in this parlance, is to identify and catalog 75,000 or more files (genes) in the software that directs construction of a self-modifying and self-replicating system -- a living organism.

  18. Origins of the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, Robert

    1993-07-01

    The human genome project was borne of technology, grew into a science bureaucracy in the US and throughout the world, and is now being transformed into a hybrid academic and commercial enterprise. The next phase of the project promises to veer more sharply toward commercial application, harnessing both the technical prowess of molecular biology and the rapidly growing body of knowledge about DNA structure to the pursuit of practical benefits. Faith that the systematic analysis of DNA structure will prove to be a powerful research tool underlies the rationale behind the genome project. The notion that most genetic information is embedded in the sequence of CNA base pairs comprising chromosomes is a central tenet. A rough analogy is to liken an organism's genetic code to computer code. The coal of the genome project, in this parlance, is to identify and catalog 75,000 or more files (genes) in the software that directs construction of a self-modifying and self-replicating system -- a living organism.

  19. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  20. Project ATHENA Creates Surrogate Human Organ Systems

    ScienceCinema

    MacQueen, Luke; Knospel, Fanny; Sherrod, Stacy; Iyer, Rashi

    2016-07-12

    The development of miniature surrogate human organs, coupled with highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, could one day revolutionize the way new drugs and toxic agents are studied. “By developing this ‘homo minutus,’ we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs,” said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is nearing the full integration of four human organ constructs — liver, heart, lung and kidney — each organ component is about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA “body” of interconnected organs will fit neatly on a desk. A new video available on the Los Alamos National Laboratory YouTube channel updates the ATHENA project as it begins to integrate the various organ systems into a single system (link to video here). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success. ATHENA is funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and is a collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Harvard University, Vanderbilt University, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany, CFD Research Corporation, and the University of California San Francisco.

  1. Project ATHENA Creates Surrogate Human Organ Systems

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, Luke; Knospel, Fanny; Sherrod, Stacy; Iyer, Rashi

    2015-06-15

    The development of miniature surrogate human organs, coupled with highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, could one day revolutionize the way new drugs and toxic agents are studied. “By developing this ‘homo minutus,’ we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs,” said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is nearing the full integration of four human organ constructs — liver, heart, lung and kidney — each organ component is about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA “body” of interconnected organs will fit neatly on a desk. A new video available on the Los Alamos National Laboratory YouTube channel updates the ATHENA project as it begins to integrate the various organ systems into a single system (link to video here). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success. ATHENA is funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and is a collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Harvard University, Vanderbilt University, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany, CFD Research Corporation, and the University of California San Francisco.

  2. [Human genome project: a federator program of genomic medicine].

    PubMed

    Sfar, S; Chouchane, L

    2008-05-01

    The Human Genome Project improves our understanding of the molecular genetics basis of the inherited and complex diseases such as diabetes, schizophrenia, and cancer. Information from the human genome sequence is essential for several antenatal and neonatal screening programmes. The new genomic tools emerging from this project have revolutionized biology and medicine and have transformed our understanding of health and the provision of healthcare. Its implications pervade all areas of medicine, from disease prediction and prevention to the diagnosis and treatment of all forms of disease. Increasingly, it will be possible to drive predisposition testing into clinical practice, to develop new treatments or to adapt available treatments more specifically to an individual's genetic make-up. This genomic information should transform the traditional medications that are effective for every members of the population to personalized medicine and personalized therapy. The pharmacogenomics could give rise to a new generation of highly effective drugs that treat causes, not just symptoms.

  3. Connecting the Human Variome Project to nutrigenomics

    PubMed Central

    Evelo, Chris T.; Perozzi, Giuditta; van Ommen, Ben; Cotton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is the science of analyzing and understanding gene–nutrient interactions, which because of the genetic heterogeneity, varying degrees of interaction among gene products, and the environmental diversity is a complex science. Although much knowledge of human diversity has been accumulated, estimates suggest that ~90% of genetic variation has not yet been characterized. Identification of the DNA sequence variants that contribute to nutrition-related disease risk is essential for developing a better understanding of the complex causes of disease in humans, including nutrition-related disease. The Human Variome Project (HVP; http://www.humanvariomeproject.org/) is an international effort to systematically identify genes, their mutations, and their variants associated with phenotypic variability and indications of human disease or phenotype. Since nutrigenomic research uses genetic information in the design and analysis of experiments, the HVP is an essential collaborator for ongoing studies of gene–nutrient interactions. With the advent of next generation sequencing methodologies and the understanding of the undiscovered variation in human genomes, the nutrigenomic community will be generating novel sequence data and results. The guidelines and practices of the HVP can guide and harmonize these efforts. PMID:28300226

  4. The Genome Project and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The author claims that the positional cloning approach, whereby a gene is identified by its map position without making assumptions about its structure or function, has provided significant information about common inherited disorders. Genes responsible for cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and neurofibromatosis have been cloned. However, this technology has been labor intensive and extremely expensive. The Human Genome Project will provide information that will drive research for at least the next 100 years and will likely transform medicine in the 21st century into the preventive mode.

  5. The Human Brain Project and neuromorphic computing

    PubMed Central

    Calimera, Andrea; Macii, Enrico; Poncino, Massimo

    Summary Understanding how the brain manages billions of processing units connected via kilometers of fibers and trillions of synapses, while consuming a few tens of Watts could provide the key to a completely new category of hardware (neuromorphic computing systems). In order to achieve this, a paradigm shift for computing as a whole is needed, which will see it moving away from current “bit precise” computing models and towards new techniques that exploit the stochastic behavior of simple, reliable, very fast, low-power computing devices embedded in intensely recursive architectures. In this paper we summarize how these objectives will be pursued in the Human Brain Project. PMID:24139655

  6. Justice and the human genome project

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    This book is a collection of nine essays originally presented at a conference entitled {open_quotes}Justice and the Human Genome{close_quotes} held in Chicago in late 1991. The goal of the articles in this collection is to explore questions of justice raised by developments in genomic research and by applications of genetic knowledge and technology. The Human Genome Project (HGP) is used as a starting point for exploring these questions, but, as Marc Lappe recognizes, the database generated by HGP research will have implications far beyond the medical applications frequently used to justify this research effort. Thus, the book`s contributors consider questions of justice in relation to screening and testing for various predispositions, conditions, and diseases and gene therapy but also examine testing for other characteristics, forensic uses of genetic information, issues associated with DNA banks, and (hypothetical) genetic enhancement possibilities.

  7. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M.

    1992-12-31

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  8. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  9. The Human Genome Diversity Project: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca

    2005-04-01

    The Human Genome Project, in accomplishing its goal of sequencing one human genome, heralded a new era of research, a component of which is the systematic study of human genetic variation. Despite delays, the Human Genome Diversity Project has started to make progress in understanding the patterns of this variation and its causes, and also promises to provide important information for biomedical studies.

  10. The human genome project and international health

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.D.; Cook-Deegan, R.M. )

    1990-06-27

    The human genome project is designed to provide common resources for the study of human genetics, and to assist biomedical researchers in their assault on disease. The main benefit will be to provide several kinds of maps of the human genome, and those of other organisms, to permit rapid isolation of genes for further study about DNA structure and function. This article describes genome research programs in developed and developing countries, and the international efforts that have contributed to genome research programs. For example, the large-scale collaborations to study Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis involve collaborators from many nations and families spread throughout the world. In the USA, the US Department of Energy was first to start a dedicated genome research program in 1987. Since then, another major government program has begun at the National Center for Human Genome Research of the National Institutes of Health. Italy, China, Australia, France, Canada, and Japan have genome research programs also.

  11. Area recommendation report for the crystalline repository project: An evaluation. [Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J E; Lowe, H; Yurkovich, S P

    1986-03-28

    An evaluation is given of DOE's recommendation of the Elk River complex in North Carolina for siting the second repository. Twelve recommendations are made including a strong suggestion that the Cherokee Tribe appeal both through political and legal avenues for inclusion as an affected area primarily due to projected impacts upon economy and public health as a consequence of the potential for reduced tourism.

  12. Human Factors Considerations for Area Navigation Departure and Arrival Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Area navigation (RNAV) procedures are being implemented in the United States and around the world as part of a transition to a performance-based navigation system. These procedures are providing significant benefits and have also caused some human factors issues to emerge. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document RNAV-related human factors issues and propose areas for further consideration. The component focusing on RNAV Departure and Arrival Procedures involved discussions with expert users, a literature review, and a focused review of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for specific instrument procedure design guidelines that consider the effects of human performance. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged. A review of factors contributing to RNAV in-service errors would likely lead to improved system design and operational performance.

  13. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  14. Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

    2009-07-01

    According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

  15. Vestibular projections in the human cortex.

    PubMed

    de Waele, C; Baudonnière, P M; Lepecq, J C; Tran Ba Huy, P; Vidal, P P

    2001-12-01

    There is considerable evidence from studies on cats and monkeys that several cortical areas such as area 2v at the tip of the intraparietal sulcus, area 3av in the sulcus centralis, the parietoinsular vestibular cortex adjacent to the posterior insula (PIVC) and area 7 in the inferior parietal lobule are involved in the processing of vestibular information. Microelectrode recordings from these areas have shown that: (1) most of these cortical neurons are connected trisynaptically to the labyrinthine endorgans and (2) they receive converging vestibular, visual and somatosensory inputs. These data suggest that a multimodal cortical system is involved in postural and gaze control. In humans, recent positron emission tomography (PET) scans and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have largely confirmed these data. However, because of the limited temporal resolution of these two methods, the minimum time of arrival of labyrinthine inputs from the vestibular hair cells to these cortical areas has not yet been determined. In this study, we used the evoked potential method to attempt to answer this question. Due to its excellent temporal resolution, this method is ideal for the investigation of the tri- or polysynaptic nature of the vestibulocortical pathways. Eleven volunteer patients, who underwent a vestibular neurectomy due to intractable Meniere's disease (MD) or acoustic neurinoma resection, were included in this experiment. Patients were anesthetized and the vestibular nerve was electrically stimulated. The evoked potentials were recorded by 30 subcutaneous active electrodes located on the scalp. The brain electrical source imaging (BESA) program (version 2.0, 1995) was used to calculate dipole sources. The latency period for the activation of five distinct cortical zones, including the prefrontal and/or the frontal lobe, the ipsilateral temporoparietal cortex, the anterior portion of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the contralateral parietal

  16. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  17. The Griffith area palliative care service: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Ian; McDonald, Keith; Nancarrow, Lynette; Fletcher, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In September 2000 the Commonwealth released, as part of its National Palliative Care Strategy under the Australian Health Care Agreements, a National Framework for Palliative Care Service Development. The new National Framework stressed an important set of values to guide models of palliative care delivery. It notes that the challenge is to secure the place of palliative care as an integral part of health care across Australia, routinely available within local communities to those people who need it. Care and support for people who are dying and their families need to be built not only into health care services, but also into the fabric of communities and their support networks. While few would disagree with this, little is known about how best to achieve it in rural Australia. The Griffith Area Palliative Care Service (GAPS) is a two-year pilot project delivering a palliative care service through a truly integrated approach to care for patients, their carers and families within the Griffith Local Government Area and Carrathool Shire areas. This paper describes how GAPS is successfully meeting the challenges of service provision to rural and remote areas.

  18. Projections from the Subfornical Region of the Lateral Hypothalamic Area

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, MARINA; CANTERAS, NEWTON S.; BURNS, GULLY; SWANSON, LARRY W.

    2010-01-01

    The L-shaped anterior zone of the lateral hypothalamic area’s subfornical region (LHAsfa) is delineated by a pontine nucleus incertus input. Function evidence suggests the subfornical region and nucleus incertus modulate foraging and defensive behaviors, although subfornical region connections are poorly understood. A high resolution Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHAL) structural analysis is presented here of the LHAsfa neuron population’s overall axonal projection pattern. The strongest LHAsfa targets are in the interbrain and cerebral hemisphere. The former include inputs to anterior hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial part of the ventromedial nucleus, and ventral region of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (defensive behavior control system components), and to lateral habenula and dorsal region of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (foraging behavior control system components). The latter include massive inputs to lateral and medial septal nuclei (septo-hippocampal system components), and inputs to bed nuclei of the stria terminalis posterior division related to the defensive behavior system, intercalated amygdalar nucleus (projecting to central amygdalar nucleus), and posterior part of the basomedial amygdalar nucleus. LHAsfa vertical and horizontal limb basic projection patterns are similar, although each preferentially innervates certain terminal fields. Lateral hypothalamic area regions immediately medial, lateral, and caudal to the LHAsfa each generate quite distinct projection patterns. Combined with previous evidence that major sources LHAsfa neural inputs include the parabrachial nucleus (nociceptive information), defensive and foraging behavior system components, and the septo-hippocampal system, the present results suggest that the LHAsfa helps match adaptive behavioral responses (either defensive or foraging) to current internal motivational status and external environmental conditions. PMID:16261534

  19. Project Management Methodology in Human Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josler, Cheryl; Burger, James

    2005-01-01

    When charged with overseeing a project, how can one ensure that the project will be completed on time, within budget, and to the satisfaction of everyone involved? In this article, the authors examine project management methodology as a means of ensuring that projects are conducted in a disciplined, well-managed and consistent manner that serves…

  20. Project Management Methodology in Human Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josler, Cheryl; Burger, James

    2005-01-01

    When charged with overseeing a project, how can one ensure that the project will be completed on time, within budget, and to the satisfaction of everyone involved? In this article, the authors examine project management methodology as a means of ensuring that projects are conducted in a disciplined, well-managed and consistent manner that serves…

  1. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  2. The UK Human Genome Mapping Project online computing service.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, F R; Bishop, M J; Gibbs, G P; Williams, G W

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of computing and networking facilities developed by the Medical Research Council to provide online computing support to the Human Genome Mapping Project (HGMP) in the UK. The facility is connected to a number of other computing facilities in various centres of genetics and molecular biology research excellence, either directly via high-speed links or through national and international wide-area networks. The paper describes the design and implementation of the current system, a 'client/server' network of Sun, IBM, DEC and Apple servers, gateways and workstations. A short outline of online computing services currently delivered by this system to the UK human genetics research community is also provided. More information about the services and their availability could be obtained by a direct approach to the UK HGMP-RC.

  3. The Human Genome Project: An Imperative for International Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allende, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is the Human Genome Project which aims to decipher the totality of the human genetic information. The historical background, the objectives, international cooperation, ethical discussion, and the role of UNESCO are included. (KR)

  4. The Human Genome Project: An Imperative for International Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allende, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is the Human Genome Project which aims to decipher the totality of the human genetic information. The historical background, the objectives, international cooperation, ethical discussion, and the role of UNESCO are included. (KR)

  5. Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 447, as specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the State of Nevada, includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the PSA.

  6. Closure report for CAU No. 416: Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Project Shoal Area (PSA) Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416. CAU 416 consists of a mud pit, muckpile, and housekeeping site. The PSA is located approximately 48.3 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The mud pit was the result of drilling activities at the PSA in 1963. Investigation activities completed in 1996 determined drilling mud in the mud pit was impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons in excess of the State of Nevada 100 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg). The muckpile consists of broken granite from emplacement shaft and drift (tunnel) mining activities at the PSA in 1963. The housekeeping site consisted of approximately 20 used, empty, rusted, steel 0.9 liter (1 quart) oil cans.

  7. Societal and medical consequences of the Human Genome Project. Inter-disciplinary approaches to human genetics.

    PubMed

    Keilbart, M

    2000-09-01

    The Human Genome Project is a US-based molecular biological project, the results of which are likely to be implemented on humans. The sociopolitical dimension of this is highly neglected. The aim of the conference was to fill this gap by drawing together scientists of natural and political sciences to discuss the consequences of the Human Genome Project across the disciplines.

  8. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  9. Robust human detection, tracking, and recognition in crowded urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms we recently developed to support an automated security surveillance system for very crowded urban areas. In our approach for human detection, the color features are obtained by taking the difference of R, G, B spectrum and converting R, G, B to HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) space. Morphological patch filtering and regional minimum and maximum segmentation on the extracted features are applied for target detection. The human tracking process approach includes: 1) Color and intensity feature matching track candidate selection; 2) Separate three parallel trackers for color, bright (above mean intensity), and dim (below mean intensity) detections, respectively; 3) Adaptive track gate size selection for reducing false tracking probability; and 4) Forward position prediction based on previous moving speed and direction for continuing tracking even when detections are missed from frame to frame. The Human target recognition is improved with a Super-Resolution Image Enhancement (SRIE) process. This process can improve target resolution by 3-5 times and can simultaneously process many targets that are tracked. Our approach can project tracks from one camera to another camera with a different perspective viewing angle to obtain additional biometric features from different perspective angles, and to continue tracking the same person from the 2nd camera even though the person moved out of the Field of View (FOV) of the 1st camera with `Tracking Relay'. Finally, the multiple cameras at different view poses have been geo-rectified to nadir view plane and geo-registered with Google- Earth (or other GIS) to obtain accurate positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) of the tracked human for pin-point targeting and for a large area total human motion activity top-view. Preliminary tests of our algorithms indicate than high probability of detection can be achieved for both moving and stationary humans. Our algorithms can simultaneously track

  10. Supplemental Instruction in the Content Areas: Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerger, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    One college professor finds that while supplemental instruction (SI) sessions in the humanities resemble those in social, physical, and biological sciences, there are also qualitative differences that derive from discipline-specific expectations. These are rooted in the epistemology and axiology of the humanities, the expansive nature of…

  11. Supplemental Instruction in the Content Areas: Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerger, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    One college professor finds that while supplemental instruction (SI) sessions in the humanities resemble those in social, physical, and biological sciences, there are also qualitative differences that derive from discipline-specific expectations. These are rooted in the epistemology and axiology of the humanities, the expansive nature of…

  12. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  13. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  14. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  15. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  16. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  17. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... project areas. 1468.4 Section 1468.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas. (a) CCC may periodically solicit proposals from the public to establish pilot project areas in the...

  18. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  19. Encoding of Human Action in Broca's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Patrik; Cantagallo, Anna; Craighero, Laila; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Roy, Alice C.; Pozzo, Thierry; Calzolari, Ferdinando; Granieri, Enrico; Fadiga, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Broca's area has been considered, for over a century, as the brain centre responsible for speech production. Modern neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence have suggested a wider functional role is played by this area. In addition to the evidence that it is involved in syntactical analysis, mathematical calculation and music processing, it…

  20. Encoding of Human Action in Broca's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Patrik; Cantagallo, Anna; Craighero, Laila; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Roy, Alice C.; Pozzo, Thierry; Calzolari, Ferdinando; Granieri, Enrico; Fadiga, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Broca's area has been considered, for over a century, as the brain centre responsible for speech production. Modern neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence have suggested a wider functional role is played by this area. In addition to the evidence that it is involved in syntactical analysis, mathematical calculation and music processing, it…

  1. The Perseus Project and Beyond: How Building a Digital Library Challenges the Humanities and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus Project, a digital library in the humanities concentrating on ancient Greek culture, is expanding to cover Roman, Renaissance and various other areas of the humanities. Goals include helping traditional scholars research effectively and help humanists use technology to redefine the relationship between their work and the broader…

  2. Standard development at the Human Variome Project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy D; Vihinen, Mauno

    2015-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) is a world organization working towards facilitating the collection, curation, interpretation and free and open sharing of genetic variation information. A key component of HVP activities is the development of standards and guidelines. HVP Standards are systems, procedures and technologies that the HVP Consortium has determined must be used by HVP-affiliated data sharing infrastructure and should be used by the broader community. HVP guidelines are considered to be beneficial for HVP affiliated data sharing infrastructure and the broader community to adopt. The HVP also maintains a process for assessing systems, processes and tools that implement HVP Standards and Guidelines. Recommended System Status is an accreditation process designed to encourage the adoption of HVP Standards and Guidelines. Here, we describe the HVP standards development process and discuss the accepted standards, guidelines and recommended systems as well as those under acceptance. Certain HVP Standards and Guidelines are already widely adopted by the community and there are committed users for the others. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  4. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  5. Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) - Progress Report, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Haase, Jennifer L.; Moore, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Maps of surficial geology, deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard, and liquefaction potential index have been prepared by various members of the Evansville Area Earthquake Hazard Mapping Project for seven quadrangles in the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, metropolitan areas. The surficial geologic maps feature 23 types of surficial geologic deposits, artificial fill, and undifferentiated bedrock outcrop and include alluvial and lake deposits of the Ohio River valley. Probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard and liquefaction hazard mapping is made possible by drawing on a wealth of information including surficial geologic maps, water well logs, and in-situ testing profiles using the cone penetration test, standard penetration test, down-hole shear wave velocity tests, and seismic refraction tests. These data were compiled and collected with contributions from the Indiana Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois State Geological Survey, United States Geological Survey, and Purdue University. Hazard map products are in progress and are expected to be completed by the end of 2009, with a public roll out in early 2010. Preliminary results suggest that there is a 2 percent probability that peak ground accelerations of about 0.3 g will be exceeded in much of the study area within 50 years, which is similar to the 2002 USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps for a firm rock site value. Accelerations as high as 0.4-0.5 g may be exceeded along the edge of the Ohio River basin. Most of the region outside of the river basin has a low liquefaction potential index (LPI), where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 (that is, there is a high potential for liquefaction) for a M7.7 New Madrid type event is only 20-30 percent. Within the river basin, most of the region has high LPI, where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 for a New Madrid type event is 80-100 percent.

  6. Some problems with a crash program. [Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This brief article describes the controversy over funding for the Human Genome Project. The author states that if the goal of the project is to understand the human genome by relating structure to function if would not appear justifiable to invest massive amounts of money now in improving sequencing techniques. Complete sequencing data may emerge eventually from expanding regions of interest.

  7. Whose genes are they? The Human Genome Diversity Project.

    PubMed

    Lone Dog, L

    1999-01-01

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) has targeted several hundred indigenous peoples worldwide as their source of genetic material. Proponents for this project claim that information derived by analyzing these materials may be used for a variety of purposes ranging from finding a cure for diabetes to resolving debates about human origins. However, the HGDP plan raises many issues for indigenous people. This paper describes the project as well as the possible ethical and policy implications for Native communities.

  8. Getting Ready for the Human Phenome Project: The 2012 Forum of the Human Variome Project

    PubMed Central

    Oetting, William S.; Robinson, Peter N.; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Cotton, Richard G.; Beck, Tim; Carey, John C.; Doelken, Sandra C.; Girdea, Marta; Groza, Tudor; Hamilton, Carol M.; Hamosh, Ada; Kerner, Berit; MacArthur, Jacqueline A. L.; Maglott, Donna R.; Mons, Barend; Rehm, Heidi L.; Schofield, Paul N.; Searle, Beverly A.; Smedley, Damian; Smith, Cynthia L.; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Zankl, Andreas; Zhao, Eric Y.

    2014-01-01

    A forum of the Human Variome Project (HVP) was held as a satellite to the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics in San Francisco, California. The theme of this meeting was “Getting Ready for the Human Phenome Project.” Understanding the genetic contribution to both rare single-gene “Mendelian” disorders and more complex common diseases will require integration of research efforts among many fields and better defined phenotypes. The HVP is dedicated to bringing together researchers and research populations throughout the world to provide the resources to investigate the impact of genetic variation on disease. To this end, there needs to be a greater sharing of phenotype and genotype data. For this to occur, many databases that currently exist will need to become interoperable to allow for the combining of cohorts with similar phenotypes to increase statistical power for studies attempting to identify novel disease genes or causative genetic variants. Improved systems and tools that enhance the collection of phenotype data from clinicians are urgently needed. This meeting begins the HVP’s effort toward this important goal. PMID:23401191

  9. Non-Human Loss in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Ralph

    This paper examines non-human loss and its psychological effect upon rural people. It discusses the absence of any ritual response to loss, including farm loss, that would otherwise benefit the loss victims or the surrounding society. The dilemma is comparable to that of the "transitional person," the immigrant experience following World…

  10. Large-scale data mining pilot project in human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R.; Fidelis, R.; Slezak, T.

    1997-05-01

    This whitepaper briefly describes a new, aggressive effort in large- scale data Livermore National Labs. The implications of `large- scale` will be clarified Section. In the short term, this effort will focus on several @ssion-critical questions of Genome project. We will adapt current data mining techniques to the Genome domain, to quantify the accuracy of inference results, and lay the groundwork for a more extensive effort in large-scale data mining. A major aspect of the approach is that we will be fully-staffed data warehousing effort in the human Genome area. The long term goal is strong applications- oriented research program in large-@e data mining. The tools, skill set gained will be directly applicable to a wide spectrum of tasks involving a for large spatial and multidimensional data. This includes applications in ensuring non-proliferation, stockpile stewardship, enabling Global Ecology (Materials Database Industrial Ecology), advancing the Biosciences (Human Genome Project), and supporting data for others (Battlefield Management, Health Care).

  11. The Human Genome Project: how do we protect Australians?

    PubMed

    Stott Despoja, N

    It is the moon landing of the nineties: the ambitious Human Genome Project--identifying the up to 100,000 genes that make up human DNA and the sequences of the three billion base-pairs that comprise the human genome. However, unlike the moon landing, the effects of the genome project will have a fundamental impact on the way we see ourselves and each other.

  12. Human Life and American Values Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    or an electroencephalogram.” Dianne N. Irving, “American Bioethics Advisory Commission: When do Human Beings Begin? Scientific Myths and Scientific...Trinity University Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity, “Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research,” http://cbhd.org/stem-cell-research/position...to copying a person. 78 Paige Comstock, “Ligers, Tigons, and Splice: Human-Animal Hybrids,” Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity, May 20, 2011

  13. Growth of ice particle mass and projected area during riming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David L.

    2017-01-01

    There is a long-standing challenge in cloud and climate models to simulate the process of ice particle riming realistically, partly due to the unrealistic parameterization of the growth of ice particle mass (m) and projected area (A) during riming. This study addresses this problem, utilizing ground-based measurements of m and ice particle maximum dimension (D) as well as theory to formulate simple expressions describing the dependence of m and A on riming. It was observed that β in the m - D power law m = α Dβ appears independent of riming during the phase 1 (before the formation of graupel), with α accounting for the ice particle mass increase due to riming. This semi-empirical approach accounts for the degree of riming and renders a gradual and smooth ice particle growth process from unrimed ice particles to graupel, and thus avoids discontinuities in m and A during accretional growth. Once the graupel with quasi-spherical shape forms, D increases with an increase in m and A (phase 2 of riming). The treatment for riming is explicit, and includes the parameterization of the ice crystal-cloud droplet collision efficiency (Ec) for hexagonal columns and plates using hydrodynamic theory. In particular, Ec for cloud droplet diameters less than 10 µm are estimated, and under some conditions observed in mixed-phase clouds, these droplets can account for roughly half of the mass growth rate from riming. These physically meaningful yet simple methods can be used in models to improve the riming process.

  14. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control.

  15. TQM project team - closure of a radioactive disposal area

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, A.S. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The paper discusses the integration of Total Quality Management (TQM) and specific project management best practices during design stages of an environmental restoration project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. It emphasizes the importance of an empowered, flexible and responsible project team to best reflect the translation of contractor resources into customer needs when faced with changes in funding level and schedules. 7 figs.

  16. Factors of human capital related to project success in health care work units.

    PubMed

    Suhonen, Marjo; Paasivaara, Leena

    2011-03-01

    To explore factors of human capital related to project success that employees expect from nurse managers. Human capital refers to those resources that managers working with projects possess, such as abilities, knowledge and qualities of character. The data were collected by open interviews (n=14) with nurses, public health nurses and nurse managers working in primary health care and a hospital. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The main factors of human capital related to project success proved to be as follows: (1) management of enthusiastic project culture, (2) management of regeneration and (3) management of emotional intelligence. Future research is needed on the kind of means nurse managers use in human capital management in projects and how they see their possibilities in managing human capital. Human capital management skills should be underlined as an important competence area when recruiting a nurse manager. The success of health care projects cannot be improved only through education or by training of nurse managers; in addition, projects need nurse managers who understand workplace spirituality and have high emotional intelligence. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. 78 FR 63481 - Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... drug applications (INDs), (2) existing standardization projects underway, and (3) industry input on... TA standards. Stakeholders are encouraged to engage in and support these data standardization efforts...

  18. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  19. Human Resource Development and Human Services Technology...A Training Program Comes of Age: Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Dan

    This report presents comprehensive documentation for the Mental Health Associate Training Project at Wayne Community College. The report is composed of twelve sections describing: (1) the changing nature, philosophy and scope of the human services as a system; (2) the characteristics of the college service area; (3) general information about Wayne…

  20. The Human Genome Project: big science transforms biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy; Rowen, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has transformed biology through its integrated big science approach to deciphering a reference human genome sequence along with the complete sequences of key model organisms. The project exemplifies the power, necessity and success of large, integrated, cross-disciplinary efforts - so-called 'big science' - directed towards complex major objectives. In this article, we discuss the ways in which this ambitious endeavor led to the development of novel technologies and analytical tools, and how it brought the expertise of engineers, computer scientists and mathematicians together with biologists. It established an open approach to data sharing and open-source software, thereby making the data resulting from the project accessible to all. The genome sequences of microbes, plants and animals have revolutionized many fields of science, including microbiology, virology, infectious disease and plant biology. Moreover, deeper knowledge of human sequence variation has begun to alter the practice of medicine. The Human Genome Project has inspired subsequent large-scale data acquisition initiatives such as the International HapMap Project, 1000 Genomes, and The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as the recently announced Human Brain Project and the emerging Human Proteome Project.

  1. Local Area Networks--The ENFI Project (Writing on the College Campus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Linda

    1989-01-01

    Describes Electronic Networks for Interaction (ENFI), a local area network project developed at Gallaudet University to empower students with hearing impairments. Notes that this project can be adapted easily for use with traditional students. (MM)

  2. Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    The region surrounding Evansville, Indiana, has experienced minor damage from earthquakes several times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and the proximity of Evansville to the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones, there is concern among nearby communities about hazards from earthquakes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as a result of an earthquake and are able to design structures to withstand this estimated ground shaking. Earthquake-hazard maps provide one way of conveying such information and can help the region of Evansville prepare for future earthquakes and reduce earthquake-caused loss of life and financial and structural loss. The Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) has produced three types of hazard maps for the Evansville area: (1) probabilistic seismic-hazard maps show the ground motion that is expected to be exceeded with a given probability within a given period of time; (2) scenario ground-shaking maps show the expected shaking from two specific scenario earthquakes; (3) liquefaction-potential maps show how likely the strong ground shaking from the scenario earthquakes is to produce liquefaction. These maps complement the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps but are more detailed regionally and take into account surficial geology, soil thickness, and soil stiffness; these elements greatly affect ground shaking.

  3. A Pilot Project for Vocational Guidance in Economically Underdeveloped Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carroll H.

    The purpose of this project was to establish a demonstration program to provide guidance services for: (1) non-college bound high school seniors, (2) recent high school graduates currently unemployed, and (3) former high school students who had dropped out of school within 3 years of initiation of the project. Specific objectives included: (1)…

  4. Project Heroes: A Humanities Curriculum for the Learning Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Linda Schaffner

    1981-01-01

    Project Heroes is a humanities program for learning disabled children which is designed to maximize four principles--appreciation of process, acknowledgement of independence, development of a sense of worth, and skill acquisition. (SB)

  5. The human genome project: an historical perspective for social workers.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    Having mapped the human genome, the Human Genome Project maintains that certain genes can be linked to specific diseases and certain forms of human behavior. This breakthrough, it is hoped, will lead to the effective treatment, even the elimination of serious, debilitating illnesses for all groups of people. However, because the project conjures up memories of eugenics, the project raises concerns about its potential for identifying and linking diseases and social conditions (e.g., criminal behavior) to certain groups. This article places the Human Genome Project in historical context in terms of its resemblance to the eugenics movement in America and a period in social work history when the profession embraced eugenics and was guided by the movement's premises in its response to poor people.

  6. Some Equal-area, Conformal and Conventional Map Projections: A Tutorial Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Map projections have been widely used in many areas such as geography, oceanography, meteorology, geology, geodesy, photogrammetry and global positioning systems. Understanding different types of map projections is very crucial in these areas. This paper presents a tutorial review of various types of current map projections such as equal-area, conformal and conventional. We present these map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for them in detail. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  7. Underground Test Area Project Waste Management Plan (Rev. No. 2, April 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) initiated the UGTA Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project investigation sites have been grouped into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) in accordance with the most recent version of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The primary UGTA objective is to gather data to characterize the groundwater aquifers beneath the NTS and adjacent lands. The investigations proposed under the UGTA program may involve the drilling and sampling of new wells; recompletion, monitoring, and sampling of existing wells; well development and hydrologic/ aquifer testing; geophysical surveys; and subsidence crater recharge evaluation. Those wastes generated as a result of these activities will be managed in accordance with existing federal and state regulations, DOE Orders, and NNSA/NV waste minimization and pollution prevention objectives. This Waste Management Plan provides a general framework for all Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project participants to follow for the characterization, storage/accumulation, treatment, and disposal of wastes generated by UGTA Project activities. The objective of this waste management plan is to provide guidelines to minimize waste generation and to properly manage wastes that are produced. Attachment 1 to this plan is the Fluid Management Plan and details specific strategies for management of fluids produced under UGTA operations.

  8. Large rainfall changes consistently projected over substantial areas of tropical land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Robin; Good, Peter; Martin, Gill; Rowell, David P.

    2016-02-01

    Many tropical countries are exceptionally vulnerable to changes in rainfall patterns, with floods or droughts often severely affecting human life and health, food and water supplies, ecosystems and infrastructure. There is widespread disagreement among climate model projections of how and where rainfall will change over tropical land at the regional scales relevant to impacts, with different models predicting the position of current tropical wet and dry regions to shift in different ways. Here we show that despite uncertainty in the location of future rainfall shifts, climate models consistently project that large rainfall changes will occur for a considerable proportion of tropical land over the twenty-first century. The area of semi-arid land affected by large changes under a higher emissions scenario is likely to be greater than during even the most extreme regional wet or dry periods of the twentieth century, such as the Sahel drought of the late 1960s to 1990s. Substantial changes are projected to occur by mid-century--earlier than previously expected--and to intensify in line with global temperature rise. Therefore, current climate projections contain quantitative, decision-relevant information on future regional rainfall changes, particularly with regard to climate change mitigation policy.

  9. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  10. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  11. The Hammond Humane Education Project (Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vockell, Edward L.; Hodal, E. Frank

    The paper assesses an effort by the elementary school system of Hammond, Indiana, to develop and implement an educational program to improve children's attitudes toward animal life. Three levels of humane education treatment were introduced. The first level, introduced in seven schools, consisted of an intensive program involving humane education…

  12. The lawful uses of knowledge from the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, F.P.

    1994-04-15

    Part I of this study deals with the right to know or not to know personal genetic information, and examines available legal protections of the right of privacy and the adverse effect of the disclosure of genetic information both on employment and insurance interests and on self esteem and protection of personal integrity. The study examines the rationale for the legal protection of privacy as the protection of a public interest. It examines the very limited protections currently available for privacy interests, including genetic privacy interests, and concludes that there is a need for broader, more far-reaching legal protections. The second part of the study is based on the assumption that as major a project as the Human Genome Project, spending billions of dollars on science which is health related, will indeed be applied for preventive and therapeutic public health purposes, as it has been in the past. It also addresses the recurring fear that public health initiatives in the genetic area must evolve a new eugenic agenda, that we must not repeat the miserable discriminatory experiences of the past.

  13. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  14. Human liver proteome project: plan, progress, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    He, Fuchu

    2005-12-01

    The Human Liver Proteome Project is the first initiative of the human proteome project for human organs/tissues and aims at writing a modern Prometheus myth. Its global scientific objectives are to reveal the "solar system" of the human liver proteome, expression profiles, modification profiles, a protein linkage (protein-protein interaction) map, and a proteome localization map, and to define an ORFeome, physiome, and pathome. Since it was first proposed in April 2002, the Human Liver Proteome Project has attracted more than 100 laboratories from all over the world. In the ensuing 3 years, we set up a management infrastructure, identified reference laboratories, confirmed standard operating procedures, initiated international research collaborations, and finally achieved the first set of expression profile data.

  15. Genomics and the Human Genome Project: implications for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kelsoe, John R

    2004-11-01

    In the past decade the Human Genome Project has made extraordinary strides in understanding of fundamental human genetics. The complete human genetic sequence has been determined, and the chromosomal location of almost all human genes identified. Presently, a large international consortium, the HapMap Project, is working to identify a large portion of genetic variation in different human populations and the structure and relationship of these variants to each other. The Human Genome Project has approached human genetics on a scale not previously seen in biology. This has been made possible by dramatic advances in high throughput technology and bio-informatics. Tools such as gene chips and micro-arrays have spawned an entirely new strategy to examine the function and expression of genes in a massively parallel fashion. Together these tools have dramatically advanced our knowledge about the human genome. They promise powerful new approaches to complex genetic traits such as psychiatric illness. The goals and progress of the Human Genome Project and the technology involved are reviewed. The implications of this science for psychiatric genetics are discussed.

  16. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  17. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  18. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ACTION:...

  19. Democratizing Human Genome Project Information: A Model Program for Education, Information and Debate in Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Miriam

    The "Mapping the Human Genome" project demonstrated that librarians can help whomever they serve in accessing information resources in the areas of biological and health information, whether it is the scientists who are developing the information or a member of the public who is using the information. Public libraries can guide library…

  20. ESTCP Pilot Project Wide Area Assessment for Munitions Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    and open , gradual slopes, and valleys between steep hills. Vegetation varies from sparse shrubs and trees to dense, continuous groves. The site...technologies that locate areas intentionally used for military activities such as impact areas, target areas, or other “ concentrations ” such as open ...number cannot be used to define an anomaly density that constitutes ‘ concentrated ,’ as the contrast between the site background anomaly density and the

  1. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-09-23

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  2. Tunnelling in Urbanised Areas - Geotechnical Case Studies at Different Project Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Stefan; Poscher, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard

    Tunnelling in urbanised areas is always a challenge for the client and the contractor as well as for the designers, the engineers, and the geologists. The high demand for space and the disturbance of existing infrastructures by construction measures increasingly forces future infrastructure projects to be carried out underground. At the same time, interferences with human, natural or water resources shall be reduced and noise, dust, as well as site traffic shall be minimised. Quite frequently, politics also come into play. All these factors may lead to pre-determined routes, with ground conditions which may not always be very favourable. This article presents examples of different projects at different stages and emphasizes the importance of engineering geology in the route selection process. The most promising options are routes located in ground, which is not sensitive to settlement and/or water ingress. A longer route in favourable ground conditions is to be given preference over a shorter route in adverse ground conditions. In case of no alternative, the risk of surface settlements and exploding construction costs have to be taken into account. The first project presented is the railway line in the Inn valley / Tyrol, comprising four sections in urbanised areas, which - due to environmental and political reasons - have to cross infrastructure facilities and traffic lines, often in unfavourable ground conditions. There is a variety of construction methods in the tender design to be applied in urbanised tunnelling ranging from NATM tunnels with local groundwater draw-down and jet grouting enclosure against water pressure, to TBM-driven tunnels with hydro-shield. The second project is a planned by-pass for the city of Linz, which is at the environmental impact assessment stage. The alignment is dominated by geological considerations, avoiding unfavourable ground conditions to the greatest possible extent.

  3. Human Sensing Fusion Project for Safety and Health Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenaka, Kazusuke

    This paper introduces objectives and status of “Human sensing fusion project” in the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) scheme produced by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This project was started in December 2007 and the laboratory with 11 members opened on April 2008. The aim of this project is to realize a human activity-monitoring device with many kinds of sensors in ultimate small size so that the device can be pasted or patched to the human body, and to establish the algorism for understanding human condition including both physical and mental conditions from obtained data. This system can be used towards the prevention of the danger of accidents and the maintenance of health. The actual research has just begun and preparations for project are well under way.

  4. A cell-based approach to the human proteome project.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Neil L

    2012-10-01

    The general scope of a project to determine the protein molecules that comprise the cells within the human body is framed. By focusing on protein primary structure as expressed in specific cell types, this concept for a cell-based version of the Human Proteome Project (CB-HPP) is crafted in a manner analogous to the Human Genome Project while recognizing that cells provide a primary context in which to define a proteome. Several activities flow from this articulation of the HPP, which enables the definition of clear milestones and deliverables. The CB-HPP highlights major gaps in our knowledge regarding cell heterogeneity and protein isoforms, and calls for development of technology that is capable of defining all human cell types and their proteomes. The main activities will involve mapping and sorting cell types combined with the application of beyond the state-of-the art in protein mass spectrometry.

  5. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    PubMed Central

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas; Šalkevičius, Justas; Woźniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject's body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented. PMID:27413392

  6. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections.

    PubMed

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas; Šalkevičius, Justas; Woźniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject's body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented.

  7. A Cell-Based Approach to the Human Proteome Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, Neil L.

    2012-10-01

    The general scope of a project to determine the protein molecules that comprise the cells within the human body is framed. By focusing on protein primary structure as expressed in specific cell types, this concept for a cell-based version of the Human Proteome Project (CB-HPP) is crafted in a manner analogous to the Human Genome Project while recognizing that cells provide a primary context in which to define a proteome. Several activities flow from this articulation of the HPP, which enables the definition of clear milestones and deliverables. The CB-HPP highlights major gaps in our knowledge regarding cell heterogeneity and protein isoforms, and calls for development of technology that is capable of defining all human cell types and their proteomes. The main activities will involve mapping and sorting cell types combined with the application of beyond the state-of-the art in protein mass spectrometry.

  8. NHC's Manpower Distribution Project--Finding Ways to Interest Students to Practice in Shortage Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Anne R.

    1975-01-01

    Through its Health Manpower Distribution Project, the National Health Council has developed three demonstration projects in rural Maine, inner city New Orleans, and Applachian Kentucky to test methods of influencing students to practice in shortage areas. Four additional projects have been funded and three regional workshops sponsored. (MW)

  9. Aberdeen Area Final Evaluation Report, ESEA Title I Project, Fiscal Year 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    Compiled from the final evaluation reports of 36 direct instruction projects and 1 Area Technical Assistance project (94 percent of which were contracted and administered by American Indian tribes or Indian school boards), this report is a summative evaluation of 1974 Title I projects in North and South Dakota. A brief introduction describes the…

  10. Projected Allied Health and Nursing Training Needs for a Seven-County Area in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Charles L.; And Others

    This report describes a project that developed and field tested a model for projecting state-wide manpower needs in the allied health and nursing occupations in West Virginia and presents projections made for sixteen allied health and nursing occupations in the Charleston area. The content of the report is presented in three sections. The first…

  11. Human genome project: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.D.

    1990-04-06

    The article presents a short discussion of the development of the human genome program in the United States, a summary of the current status of the organization and administration of the National Institutes of Health component of the program, and some prospects for the future directions of the program and the applications of genome information.

  12. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass conversion...

  13. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass conversion...

  14. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass conversion...

  15. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass conversion...

  16. Lowell Area Council on Interlibrary Network Radio Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panciers, David J.

    In the fall of 1973, public, school, and college librarians in the Lowell, Massachusetts, area formed the Lowell Area Council on Interlibrary Networks (LACOIN). With a grant from the Library Services and Construction Act, Title III, LACOIN initiated library-sponsored public affairs radio broadcasting for its community. Utilizing the Lowell…

  17. Projections of forestland and developed land areas in western Washington.

    Treesearch

    R. Alig; E. White

    2007-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2000, nonfederal timberland areas in western Washington declined by 5 percent, in contrast to a 3-percent reduction for the 1980-90 period. Most of this reduction is attributed to the conversion of timberland to other land uses, especially urban and other developed uses. In areas such as the Puget Sound region, population densities have more than...

  18. Libyan Military Power Projection in Sub-Saharan Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-12

    credible. One pays attention to his great design to unify all the Arabic world. Can such a thing happen? And how could a military power in this area be...6th century. The Berber cultural substratem was totally submerged in Libya in the ninth and tenth centuries by large-scale immigration of Arabic ...speaking, nomadic tribes from central Arabia. That explains the heavy Arabic feeling of the modern inhabitants. It may be said of numerous areas that

  19. The human proteome project: current state and future direction.

    PubMed

    Legrain, Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Archakov, Alexander; Bairoch, Amos; Bala, Kumar; Beretta, Laura; Bergeron, John; Borchers, Christoph H; Corthals, Garry L; Costello, Catherine E; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Hancock, William; He, Fuchu; Hochstrasser, Denis; Marko-Varga, György; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Sechi, Salvatore; Snyder, Michael; Srivastava, Sudhir; Uhlén, Mathias; Wu, Cathy H; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Paik, Young-Ki; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2011-07-01

    After the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, the Human Proteome Organization has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP), which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the lack of protein-level evidence for about 30% of the estimated 20,300 protein-coding genes, a systematic global effort will be necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP research groups will use the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge bases. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing Human Proteome Organization initiatives and a chromosome-centric protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP, with which many national teams are currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically driven and disease-oriented projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents, and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. The Human Proteome Organization urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators.

  20. NASA UAS Integration into the NAS Project: Human Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Integration into the NAS project. The most recent simulation on DAA interoperability with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is discussed in the most detail. The relationship of the work to the larger UAS community and next steps are also detailed.

  1. Los Alamos Science: The Human Genome Project. Number 20, 1992

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, N. G.; Shea, N. eds.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a broad overview of the Human Genome Project, with particular emphasis on work being done at Los Alamos. It tries to emphasize the scientific aspects of the project, compared to the more speculative information presented in the popular press. There is a brief introduction to modern genetics, including a review of classic work. There is a broad overview of the Genome Project, describing what the project is, what are some of its major five-year goals, what are major technological challenges ahead of the project, and what can the field of biology, as well as society expect to see as benefits from this project. Specific results on the efforts directed at mapping chromosomes 16 and 5 are discussed. A brief introduction to DNA libraries is presented, bearing in mind that Los Alamos has housed such libraries for many years prior to the Genome Project. Information on efforts to do applied computational work related to the project are discussed, as well as experimental efforts to do rapid DNA sequencing by means of single-molecule detection using applied spectroscopic methods. The article introduces the Los Alamos staff which are working on the Genome Project, and concludes with brief discussions on ethical, legal, and social implications of this work; a brief glimpse of genetics as it may be practiced in the next century; and a glossary of relevant terms.

  2. Los Alamos Science: The Human Genome Project. Number 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N G; Shea, N

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the Human Genome Project, with particular emphasis on work being done at Los Alamos. It tries to emphasize the scientific aspects of the project, compared to the more speculative information presented in the popular press. There is a brief introduction to modern genetics, including a review of classic work. There is a broad overview of the Genome Project, describing what the project is, what are some of its major five-year goals, what are major technological challenges ahead of the project, and what can the field of biology, as well as society expect to see as benefits from this project. Specific results on the efforts directed at mapping chromosomes 16 and 5 are discussed. A brief introduction to DNA libraries is presented, bearing in mind that Los Alamos has housed such libraries for many years prior to the Genome Project. Information on efforts to do applied computational work related to the project are discussed, as well as experimental efforts to do rapid DNA sequencing by means of single-molecule detection using applied spectroscopic methods. The article introduces the Los Alamos staff which are working on the Genome Project, and concludes with brief discussions on ethical, legal, and social implications of this work; a brief glimpse of genetics as it may be practiced in the next century; and a glossary of relevant terms.

  3. City of Huntsville Public Housing Areas STEM Initiative Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Tomeka; Smith, Cydale; Pugh, Marcus; Budak, Satilmis; Muntele, Claudiu

    2012-02-01

    Students in high-poverty and high-minority schools are entering the classroom without the knowledge and skills they need to succeed. In order to bridge the gaps in opportunity and achievement that separate low-income students and students of color from other young Americans, we have introduced elementary and middle school students to the basic concepts of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Within the project, we have provided students with excellent learning opportunities, engaging hands-on experiences, and outstanding advising and mentoring. We have assessed student development and impact before, during, and after the program.

  4. [Restructuring and reorganization project in the public health area].

    PubMed

    Crosetto, M A; Caballero, G

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to produce substantial change as regards the reorganization, reconstruction and normalization of the hospital data to extra hospital data recording system from the Ministry of Health in the Province of Córdoba (Argentina). In order to incorporate socio-demographic factors in the various data forms so asa to produce efficiency upon the politic implemented. To achieve such aim, colwork on the different levels of execution, training the health team with respect to the identification of the population problems, and attempting to change of a demographic basis the current sanitary policies into policies of populations.

  5. Discontinued drug projects in the respiratory therapeutic area during 2012.

    PubMed

    Snell, Noel J C

    2014-03-01

    During 2012, a number of respiratory drug projects and individual agents were discontinued, for a variety of reasons, including toxicity, lack of efficacy, commercial re-evaluation and change in corporate focus. These included three antagonists of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2), which had been evaluated in allergic respiratory disease and (in one case) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other agents intended for the treatment of asthma, COPD, pulmonary hypertension and lung fibrosis. These have been reviewed against the background of a general reduction in respiratory research by the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. The Human Genome Diversity (HGD) Project. Summary document

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    In 1991 a group of human geneticists and molecular biologists proposed to the scientific community that a world wide survey be undertaken of variation in the human genome. To aid their considerations, the committee therefore decided to hold a small series of international workshops to explore the major scientific issues involved. The intention was to define a framework for the project which could provide a basis for much wider and more detailed discussion and planning--it was recognized that the successful implementation of the proposed project, which has come to be known as the Human Genome Diversity (HGD) Project, would not only involve scientists but also various national and international non-scientific groups all of which should contribute to the project`s development. The international HGD workshop held in Sardinia in September 1993 was the last in the initial series of planning workshops. As such it not only explored new ground but also pulled together into a more coherent form much of the formal and informal discussion that had taken place in the preceding two years. This report presents the deliberations of the Sardinia workshop within a consideration of the overall development of the HGD Project to date.

  7. Estimation of projection errors in human ocular fundus imaging.

    PubMed

    Doelemeyer, A; Petrig, B L

    2000-03-01

    Photogrammetric analysis of features in human ocular fundus images is affected by various sources of errors, for example aberrations of the camera and eye optics. Another--usually disregarded--type of distortion arises from projecting the near spherical shape of the fundus onto a planar imaging device. In this paper we quantify such projection errors based on geometrical analysis of the reduced model eye imaged by a pinhole camera. The projection error found near the edge of a 50 degrees fundus image is 24%. In addition, the influence of axial ametropia is investigated for both myopia and hyperopia. The projection errors found in hyperopia are similar to those in emmetropia, but decrease in myopia. Spherical as well as ellipsoidal eye shapes were used in the above calculation and their effect was compared. Our results suggest that the simple spherical eye shape is sufficient for correcting projection distortions within a range of ametropia from -5 to +5 diopters.

  8. Genes after the human genome project.

    PubMed

    Baetu, Tudor M

    2012-03-01

    While the Human Genome Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) concept of the gene can accommodate a wide variety of genomic sequences contributing to phenotypic outcomes, it fails to specify how sequences should be grouped when dealing with complex loci consisting of adjacent/overlapping sequences contributing to the same phenotype, distant sequences shown to contribute to the same gene product, and partially overlapping sequences identified by different techniques. The purpose of this paper is to review recently proposed concepts of the gene and critically assess how well they succeed in addressing the above problems while preserving the degree of generality achieved by the HGNC concept. I conclude that a dynamic interplay between mapping and syntax-based concepts is required in order to satisfy these desiderata. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human genome project: New tools for tomorrow's health research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is discussed within the context of the benefits that can be derived from human biological and biomedical research in the 21st century. Explanations are given about what chromosome mapping is and the different kinds that exist. Next, model organisms that were developed to better understand and interpret genetic information are discussed, as well as the database that the project will develop and the training opportunities that such a database will afford to emerging technologies. Finally, a review is given of the personal and social implications stemming from greater genetic knowledge.

  10. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  11. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  12. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  13. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  14. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  15. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  16. 76 FR 64083 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Proposed 2025 Power Marketing Initiative... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is seeking comments on this proposed 2025 Power...

  17. Community Mobilization Project: A Strategic Plan for American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Indian Nations, Inc., Oakland, CA.

    The Community Mobilization Project was a 3-year, grassroots strategic planning process by American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area. As a result of Bureau of Indian Affairs policies that relocated reservation Indians to the Bay Area in the 1950s-70s, over 40,000 American Indians now live in the 10-county area. However, the Indian population…

  18. [The Human Genome Project, genetic viability and genetic epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2005-12-18

    The goal of the Human Genome Project to elucidate the complete sequence of the human genome has been achieved. The aims of the "post-genome" era are explaining the genetic information, characterisation of functional elements encoded in the human genome and mapping the human genetic variability as well. Two unrelated human beings also share 99.9% of their genomic sequence. The difference of 0.1% is the result of genetic polymorphisms: single nucleotide polymorphisms, repetitive sequences and insertion/deletion. The genetic differences, coupled with environmental exposures will determine the phenotypic variation we observe in health or disease. The disease-causing genetic variants can be identified by linkage analysis or association studies. The knowledge of human genome and application of multiple biomarkers will improve our ability to identify individuals at risk, so that preventive interventions can be applied, earlier diagnosis can be made and treatment can be optimized.

  19. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  20. Ipsilateral corticotectal projections from the primary, premotor and supplementary motor cortical areas in adult macaque monkeys: a quantitative anterograde tracing study.

    PubMed

    Fregosi, Michela; Rouiller, Eric M

    2017-09-18

    The corticotectal projection from cortical motor areas is one of several descending pathways involved in the indirect control of spinal motoneurons. In non-human primates, previous studies reported that cortical projections to the superior colliculus (SC) originated from the premotor cortex (PM) and the primary motor cortex, whereas no projection originated from the supplementary motor area (SMA). The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the properties of corticotectal projections originating from these three cortical motor areas in intact adult macaques (n = 9). The anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine was injected into one of these cortical areas in each animal. Individual axonal boutons, both en passant and terminaux, were charted and counted in the different layers of the ipsilateral SC. The data confirmed the presence of strong corticotectal projections from the PM. A new observation was that strong corticotectal projections were also found to originate from the SMA (its proper division). The corticotectal projection from the primary motor cortex was quantitatively less strong than that from either the premotor or SMAs. The corticotectal projection from each motor area was directed mainly to the deep layer of the SC, although its intermediate layer was also a consistent target of fairly dense terminations. The strong corticotectal projections from non-primary motor areas are in position to influence the preparation and planning of voluntary movements. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Head of Human Genome Project Retracts 5 Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Karla

    1996-01-01

    Five published leukemia studies have been retracted by the director of the Human Genome Project because they were based on falsified data from a graduate student, although some of the conclusions are still supported. Inconsistencies were discovered by a peer reviewer and were also found in the student's other work. (MSE)

  2. The Human Brain Project: social and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nikolas

    2014-06-18

    Focusing on the Human Brain Project, I discuss some social and ethical challenges raised by such programs of research: the possibility of a unified knowledge of "the brain," balancing privacy and the public good, dilemmas of "dual use," brain-computer interfaces, and "responsible research and innovation" in governance of emerging technologies.

  3. Head of Human Genome Project Retracts 5 Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Karla

    1996-01-01

    Five published leukemia studies have been retracted by the director of the Human Genome Project because they were based on falsified data from a graduate student, although some of the conclusions are still supported. Inconsistencies were discovered by a peer reviewer and were also found in the student's other work. (MSE)

  4. Landscaping Habitat for Humanity Homes: A Community Outreach Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jodie L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to incorporate a community service component into a Biology course at Northern State University (NSU) in Aberdeen, SD. Students in an upper-level botany course (Plant Structure and Function) provide landscaping services to homeowners who have purchased homes through Habitat for Humanity. Homeowner satisfaction with…

  5. 77 FR 5489 - Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... identification as part of this project will undergo STR profiling, a DNA profiling method that examines/screens for STRs (DNA elements 2-6 bps long repeated in tandem) in the human chromosomes, that has been shown... are expected between cell line DNA samples originating from unrelated individuals. Each unique...

  6. Landscaping Habitat for Humanity Homes: A Community Outreach Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jodie L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to incorporate a community service component into a Biology course at Northern State University (NSU) in Aberdeen, SD. Students in an upper-level botany course (Plant Structure and Function) provide landscaping services to homeowners who have purchased homes through Habitat for Humanity. Homeowner satisfaction with…

  7. Enhancing Biology Instruction with the Human Genome Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxeda, Rosa J.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2003-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a recent scientific milestone that has received notable attention. This article shows how a biology course is using the HGP to enhance students' experiences by providing awareness of cutting edge research, with information on new emerging career options, and with opportunities to consider ethical questions raised…

  8. The Human Functional Genomics Project: Understanding Generation of Diversity.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Jenna L; Hafler, David A

    2016-11-03

    Generation of biologic diversity is a cornerstone of immunity, yet the tools to investigate the causal influence of genetic and environmental factors have been greatly limited. Studies from the Human Functional Genomics Project, presented in Cell and other Cell Press journals, integrate environmental and genetic factors with the direction and magnitude of immune responses to decipher inflammatory disease pathogenesis.

  9. Enhancing Biology Instruction with the Human Genome Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxeda, Rosa J.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2003-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a recent scientific milestone that has received notable attention. This article shows how a biology course is using the HGP to enhance students' experiences by providing awareness of cutting edge research, with information on new emerging career options, and with opportunities to consider ethical questions raised…

  10. The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Mary Ann G.; Drexler, Edward; Gottesman, Kay S.; Goulding, Philip G.; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Micikas, Lynda B.; Mural, Richard J.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Zola, John

    This module, for high school teachers, is the second of two modules about the Human Genome Project (HGP) produced by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). The first section of this module provides background information for teachers about the structure and objectives of the HGP, aspects of the science and technology that underlie the…

  11. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews II. Projections of four nuclei to areas of visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Patterns of thalamocortical connections were related to architectonically defined subdivisions of the pulvinar complex and the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews are of special interest because they are considered close relatives of primates, and they have a highly developed visual system. Several distinguishable tracers were injected within and across cortical visual areas in individual tree shrews in order to reveal retinotopic patterns and cortical targets of subdivisions of the pulvinar. The results indicate that each of the three architectonic regions of the pulvinar has a distinctive pattern of cortical connections and that one of these divisions is further divided into two regions with different patterns of connections. Two of the pulvinar nuclei have similar retinotopic patterns of projections to caudal visual cortex. The large central nucleus of the pulvinar (Pc) projects to the first and second visual areas, V1 and V2, and an adjoining temporal dorsal area (TD) in retinotopic patterns indicating that the upper visual quadrant is represented dorsal to the lower quadrant in Pc. The smaller ventral nucleus (Pv) which stains darkly for the Cat-301 antigen, projects to these same cortical areas, with a retinotopic pattern. Pv also projects to a temporal anterior area, TA. The dorsal nucleus (Pd), which densely expresses AChE, projects to posterior and ventral areas of temporal extrastriate cortex, areas TP and TPI. A posterior nucleus, Pp, projects to anterior areas TAL and TI, of the temporal lobe, as well as TPI. Injections in different cortical areas as much as 6 mm apart labeled overlapping zones in Pp and double-labeled some cells. These results indicate that the visual pulvinar of tree shrews contains at least four functionally distinct subdivisions, or nuclei. In addition, the cortical injections revealed that the LGN projects topographically and densely to V1 and that a significant number of LGN neurons

  12. AC Electric Field Communication for Human-Area Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    We have proposed a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses an AC electric field signal below the resonant frequency of the human body. This technology aims to achieve a “touch and connect” intuitive form of communication by using the electric field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body, while suppressing both the electric field radiating from the human body and mutual interference. To suppress the radiation field, the frequency of the AC signal that excites the transmitter electrode must be lowered, and the sensitivity of the receiver must be raised while reducing transmission power to its minimally required level. We describe how we are developing AC electric field communication technologies to promote the further evolution of a human-area network in support of ubiquitous services, focusing on three main characteristics, enabling-transceiver technique, application-scenario modeling, and communications quality evaluation. Special attention is paid to the relationship between electro-magnetic compatibility evaluation and regulations for extremely low-power radio stations based on Japan's Radio Law.

  13. The human cortical areas V6 and V6A.

    PubMed

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In macaque, it has long been known since the late nineties that the medial parieto-occipital sulcus (POS) contains two regions, V6 and V6A, important for visual motion and action. While V6 is a retinotopically organized extrastriate area, V6A is a broadly retinotopically organized visuomotor area constituted by a ventral and dorsal subdivision (V6Av and V6Ad), both containing arm movement-related cells active during spatially directed reaching movements. In humans, these areas have been mapped only in recent years thanks to neuroimaging methods. In a series of brain mapping studies, by using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging methods such as wide-field retinotopy and task-evoked activity, we mapped human areas V6 (Pitzalis et al., 2006) and V6Av (Pitzalis et al., 2013 d) retinotopically and defined human V6Ad functionally as a pointing-selective region situated anteriorly in the close proximity of V6Av (Tosoni et al., 2014). Like in macaque, human V6 is a motion area (e.g., Pitzalis et al., 2010, 2012, 2013 a, b , c ), while V6Av and V6Ad respond to pointing movements (Tosoni et al., 2014). The retinotopic organization (when present), anatomical position, neighbor relations, and functional properties of these three areas closely resemble those reported for macaque V6 (Galletti et al., 1996, 1999 a), V6Av, and V6Ad (Galletti et al., 1999 b; Gamberini et al., 2011). We suggest that information on objects in depth which are translating in space, because of the self-motion, is processed in V6 and conveyed to V6A for evaluating object distance in a dynamic condition such as that created by self-motion, so to orchestrate the eye and arm movements necessary to reach or avoid static and moving objects in the environment.

  14. The National Map - Lake Tahoe Area Pilot Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  15. Archeological Investigations in the Lower Pool Area of the La Farge Lake Project Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is the area which would be flooded if aa cofferdam were built to enable the completion of the proposed Kickapoo dam. The Lower Pool area was...to the National Register of Historic Places. These sites have potential for yielding valuable archaeological information which would enhance our understanding of prehistoric settlement in the Upper Kickapoo Valley. (Author)

  16. BLOCK TEACHING PROJECT, INTEGRATING HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KREISMAN, ARTHUR

    A BLOCK TEACHING PROJECT BRINGING TOGETHER 100 STUDENTS AND 7 FACULTY MEMBERS, COVERING 6 AREAS OF SUBJECT MATTER FOR A TOTAL OF 12 CREDIT HOURS PER QUARTER FOR 3 QUARTERS, WAS SET UP. THE SUBJECT MATTER WAS MADE UP OF HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION (3 CREDIT HOURS PER QUARTER), WORLD LITERATURE (3 CREDIT HOURS PER QUARTER), ENGLISH COMPOSITION…

  17. 7. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS315A HELIUM STORAGE AREA: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS-315A HELIUM STORAGE AREA: PLAN AND DETAILS-MECHANICAL, APRIL 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28419, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. Linking with Community To Reclaim Natural Areas for Education: The McLane Elementary School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Melinda; Smith, Kathy Kurtz

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project in which students, teachers, and the community work to reclaim neglected wetlands and forested areas for use as an environmental study site for interdisciplinary learning. (Author/MM)

  19. Linking with Community To Reclaim Natural Areas for Education: The McLane Elementary School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Melinda; Smith, Kathy Kurtz

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project in which students, teachers, and the community work to reclaim neglected wetlands and forested areas for use as an environmental study site for interdisciplinary learning. (Author/MM)

  20. Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

  1. Tomorrow's Manpower Needs. Volume I, Developing Area Manpower Projections. Bulletin No. 1606.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication is the first of four volumes of "Tomorrow's Manpower Needs," publications devoted to the subject of national, state, and area projections of manpower requirements. The objective of this publication is to provide projections of probable need in particular occupations as guides for education, training, and other policies aimed at…

  2. Rural Critical Care Nurse Training Project--Four Corners Area, November 14, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Regional Medical Program, Albuquerque.

    Project objectives were to train 10 nurses from hospitals in the Four Corners Area in rural critical care nursing, to have a training director organize and coordinate the project, and to utilize the replacement nurse concept. The course curriculum was determined through a needs assessment survey conducted by a team of health professionals from…

  3. Project MACTAD, Mobile Area Committee for Training and Development. Periodic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliard, R.W.; And Others

    The project was created to train the unemployed and underemployed in the Mobile area in skills qualifying them for jobs in Alabama's expanding industrial complex. Developments in the administration, recruiting, counseling, community service, training, job development and placement, and followup of the project from January 1, 1968 through February…

  4. Research, demonstration, and extension: the ARS area-wide ecologically based invasive plant management project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Area-wide project is a collaborative five year effort funded in 2008 by USDA-ARS that has brought together scientists with the USDA-ARS, universities, land managers, and policy makers throughout the Great Basin. A primary goal of the project is to develop and implement a comprehensive, regional...

  5. Aberdeen Area Final Evaluation Report, ESEA Title I Projects, Fiscal Year 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The final evaluation report on the 37 Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I projects in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Aberdeen Area, this report presents graphic and tabular descriptions for each of the 37 projects re: (1) Title I expenditures (graphic display of expenditures for reading, math, language, administration, area…

  6. A Project for Everyone: English Language Learners and Technology in Content-Area Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of student participation in classroom projects when learning English as a second language highlights conditions that support language and content learning; approaches that can facilitate language and content learning; and what technology and other resources support English language learners in content-area classrooms. Uses a project on…

  7. USDA area-wide project for annual grasses: outcomes and impacts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This document provides a record of the research, outreach, education and technology transfer that was completed as part of the area-wide project for invasive annual grasses from 2007-2012. The overall goal of the project was to catalyze a holistic integrated management program for invasive annual g...

  8. The WU-Minn Human Connectome Project: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen M.; Barch, Deanna M.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    The Human Connectome Project consortium led by Washington University, University of Minnesota, and Oxford University is undertaking a systematic effort to map macroscopic human brain circuits and their relationship to behavior in a large population of healthy adults. This overview article focuses on progress made during the first half of the 5-year project in refining the methods for data acquisition and analysis. Preliminary analyses based on a finalized set of acquisition and preprocessing protocols demonstrate the exceptionally high quality of the data from each modality. The first quarterly release of imaging and behavioral data via the ConnectomeDB database demonstrates the commitment to making HCP datasets freely accessible. Altogether, the progress to date provides grounds for optimism that the HCP datasets and associated methods and software will become increasingly valuable resources for characterizing human brain connectivity and function, their relationship to behavior, and their heritability and genetic underpinnings. PMID:23684880

  9. The lartge-area picosecond photo-detector (LAPPD) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, Gary

    2012-03-01

    The technological revolution that replaced the bulky Cathode Ray Tube with a wide variety of thin, reduced-cost display technologies, has yet to be realized for photosensors. Such a low-cost, robust and flexible photon detector, capable of efficient single photon measurement with good spatial and temporal resolution, would have numerous scientific, medical and industrial applications. To address the significant technological challenges of realizing such a disruptive technology, the Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD) collaboration was formed, and has been strongly supported by the Department of Energy. This group leverages the inter-disciplinary capabilities and facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, the Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL), electronics expertise at the Universities of Chicago and Hawaii, and close work with industrial partners to extend the known technologies. Advances in theory-inspired design and in-situ photocathode characterization during growth, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for revolutionizing micro-channel plate fabrication, and compact, wave-form sampling CMOS ASIC readout of micro striplines are key tools toward realizing a viable LAPPD device. Progress toward a first 8" x 8" demonstrator module will be presented.

  10. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  11. Convective heat transfer area of the human body.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2004-12-01

    In order to clarify the heat transfer area involved in convective heat exchange for the human body, the total body surface area of six healthy subjects was measured, and the non-convective heat transfer area and floor and chair contact areas for the following nine common body positions were measured: standing, sitting on a chair, sitting in the seiza position, sitting cross-legged, sitting sideways, sitting with both knees erect, sitting with a leg out, and the lateral and supine positions. The main non-convective heat transfer areas were: the armpits (contact between the upper arm and trunk regions), contact between the two legs, contacts between the fingers and toes, and contact between the hands and the body surface. Also, when sitting on the floor with some degree of leg contact (sitting in the seiza position, cross-legged, or sideways), there was a large non-convective heat transfer area on the thighs and legs. Even when standing or sitting in a chair, about 6-8% of the body surface did not transfer heat by convection. The results showed that the effective thermal convective area factor for the naked whole body in the standing position was 0.942. While sitting in a chair this factor was 0.860, while sitting in a chair but excluding the chair contact area it was 0.918, when sitting in the seiza position 0.818, when sitting cross-legged 0.843, in the sideways sitting position 0.855, when sitting with both knees erect 0.887, in the leg-out sitting position 0.906, while in the lateral position it was 0.877 and the supine position 0.844. For all body positions, the effective thermal convective area factor was greater than the effective thermal radiation area factor, but smaller than the total body surface area.

  12. Fluid Management Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of testing at formerly used nuclear sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support the subsurface investigation at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Shoal - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Spring Range, south of Highway 50, about 39 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada. (Figure 1-1). This FMP will be used at the PSA in lieu of an individual discharge permit for each well or a general water pollution control permit for management of all fluids produced during the drilling, construction, development, testing, experimentation, and/or sampling of wells conducted by the Offsites Project. The FMP provides guidance for the management of fluids generated during investigation activities and provides the standards by which fluids may be discharged on site. Although the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), Bureau of Federal Facilities (BoFF) is not a signatory to this FMP, it is involved in the negotiation of the contents of this plan and approves the conditions contained within. The major elements of this FMP include: (1) establishment of a well-site operations strategy; (2) site design/layout; (3) monitoring of contamination indicators (monitoring program); (4) sump characterization (sump sampling program); (5) fluid management decision criteria and fluid disposition; and (6) reporting requirements.

  13. Extreme events of perceived temperature over Europe: a projected northward extension of dangerous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoccimarro, Enrico; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Gualdi, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that an increase of temperature over Europe, both in terms of averages and extremes, is expected within the current century. In order to consider health impacts under warm conditions, it is important to take into account the combined effect of temperature and humidity on the human body. To this aim a basic index - the humindex - representative of the perceived temperature, under different scenarios and periods, has been investigated in this study. A very low concomitance of extreme temperature events and extreme humindex events is found over the present climate, reinforcing the importance to investigate not only extreme temperature and relative humidity future projections but also the combination of the two parameters. A set of 10-km resolution regional climate simulations provided within the EUR-11 EURO-CORDEX multi-model effort, demonstrates ability in representing the intense and extreme events of the humindex over the present climate and to be eligible as a tool to quantify future changes in geographical patterns of exposed areas over Europe. An enlargement of the domain subject to dangerous conditions is found since the middle of the current century, reaching 60 degrees North when considering really extreme events. The most significant increase in humindex extreme events is found when comparing the 2066-2095 projections under rcp8.5 scenario, to the 1966-2005 period: bearing in mind that changes in relative humidity may either amplify or offset the health effects of temperature extremes, a less pronounced projected reduction of relative humidity intensity in the Northern part of the European domain, associated to extreme temperature and humindex, makes Northern Europe the most prone region to a local increase of the humindex extremes.

  14. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  15. The Human Homologue of Macaque Area V6A

    PubMed Central

    Pitzalis, S.; Sereno, M.I.; Committeri, G.; Fattori, P.; Galati, G.; Tosoni, A.; Galletti, C.

    2013-01-01

    In macaque monkeys, V6A is a visuomotor area located in the anterior bank of the POs, dorsal and anterior to retinotopically-organized extrastriate area V6 (Galletti et al 1996). Unlike V6, V6A represents both contra- and ipsilateral visual fields and is broadly retinotopically organized (Galletti et al 1999b). The contralateral lower visual field is overrepresented in V6A. The central 20°–30° of the visual field are mainly represented dorsally (V6Ad) and the periphery ventrally (V6Av), at the border with V6. Both sectors of area V6A contain arm movement-related cells, active during spatially-directed reaching movements (Gamberini et al., 2011). In humans, we previously mapped the retinotopic organization of area V6 (Pitzalis et al., 2006). Here, using phase-encoded fMRI, cortical surface-based analysis and wide-field retinotopic mapping, we define a new cortical region that borders V6 anteriorly and shows a clear over-representation of the contralateral lower visual field and of the periphery. As with macaque V6A, the eccentricity increases moving ventrally within the area. The new region contains a non-mirror-image representation of the visual field. Functional mapping reveals that, as in macaque V6A, the new region, but not the nearby area V6, responds during finger pointing and reaching movements. Based on similarity in position, retinotopic properties, functional organization and relationship with the neighbouring extrastriate visual areas, we propose that the new cortical region is the human homologue of macaque area V6A. PMID:23770406

  16. Topographical and quantitative distribution of the projecting neurons to main divisions of the septal area.

    PubMed

    Haghdoost-Yazdi, H; Pasbakhsh, P; Vatanparast, J; Rajaei, F; Behzadi, G

    2009-06-01

    Septal area is a limbic structure that is involved in the regulation of several autonomic, learning-related and behavioral functions. Participation of this area in various physiologic functions is indicative of its extensive connections with different brain areas. It contains two major divisions: lateral septum (LS) and medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB). In the present work, we examined topographical distribution of projecting neurons to these divisions and quantitatively verified them. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) retrograde tract tracing was performed. Our results show that about two-thirds of projections to the septal area terminate in the LS. They mostly originate ipsilaterally from the septal area itself (8%), hippocampal formation (38%), non-specific thalamic nuclei (23%), lateral pre-optic area, lateral hypothalamus, perifornical area and mammillary complex in hypothalamus (20%), ventral tegmental area, raphe and tegmental nuclei, and also locus coeruleus in brainstem (10%). Most afferents to the MS come ipsilaterally from the septal area itself (18%), hippocampal formation (12%), lateral pre-optic area, lateral hypothalamus and mammillary complex in hypothalamus (42%), ventral tegmental area, raphe and tegmental nuclei, central gray matter and also locus coeruleus in brainstem (20%). Some afferents to the septal area originate contralaterally from the lateral hypothalamus, supramammillary area, raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus. Afferents from the interanterodorsal and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, which increase the role of the septal area in arousal and awareness, are reported for the first time. Projecting cells to the MS support the learning-related function of this area. Projecting cells to the LS that are more scattered throughout the brain indicate its involvement in more diverse functions.

  17. The Human Eye Proteome Project: perspectives on an emerging proteome.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Enghild, Jan J; Venkatraman, Vidya; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    There are an estimated 285 million people with visual impairment worldwide, of whom 39 million are blind. The pathogenesis of many eye diseases remains poorly understood. The human eye is currently an emerging proteome that may provide key insight into the biological pathways of disease. We review proteomic investigations of the human eye and present a catalogue of 4842 nonredundant proteins identified in human eye tissues and biofluids to date. We highlight the need to identify new biomarkers for eye diseases using proteomics. Recent advances in proteomics do now allow the identification of hundreds to thousands of proteins in tissues and fluids, characterization of various PTMs and simultaneous quantification of multiple proteins. To facilitate proteomic studies of the eye, the Human Eye Proteome Project (HEPP) was organized in September 2012. The HEPP is one of the most recent components of the Biology/Disease-driven Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) whose overarching goal is to support the broad application of state-of-the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. The large repertoire of investigative proteomic tools has great potential to transform vision science and enhance understanding of physiology and disease processes that affect sight. © 2013 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Human Eye Proteome Project: Perspectives on an emerging proteome

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Enghild, Jan J.; Venkatraman, Vidya; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 285 million people with visual impairment worldwide, of whom 39 million are blind. The pathogenesis of many eye diseases remains poorly understood. The human eye is currently an emerging proteome that may provide key insight into the biological pathways of disease. We review proteomic investigations of the human eye and present a catalogue of 4842 non-redundant proteins identified in human eye tissues and biofluids to date. We highlight the need to identify new biomarkers for eye diseases using proteomics. Recent advances in proteomics now allow the identification of hundreds to thousands of proteins in tissues and fluids, characterization of various post-translational modifications, and simultaneous quantification of multiple proteins. To facilitate proteomic studies of the eye, the Human Eye Proteome Project (HEPP) was organized in September 2012. The HEPP is one of the most recent components of the Biology/Disease-driven Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) whose overarching goal is to support the broad application of state-of-the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. The large repertoire of investigative proteomic tools has great potential to transform vision science and enhance understanding of physiology and disease processes that affect sight. PMID:23749747

  19. The mitochondrial Italian Human Proteome Project initiative (mt-HPP).

    PubMed

    Urbani, Andrea; De Canio, Michele; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Sechi, Salvatore; Bini, Luca; Castagnola, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro; Modesti, Alessandra; Roncada, Paola; Timperio, Anna Maria; Bonizzi, Luigi; Brunori, Maurizio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca; De Pinto, Vito; Di Ilio, Carmine; Federici, Giorgio; Folli, Franco; Foti, Salvatore; Gelfi, Cecilia; Lauro, Davide; Lucacchini, Antonio; Magni, Fulvio; Messana, Irene; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Papa, Sergio; Pucci, Piero; Sacchetta, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria carry maternally inherited genetic material, called the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), which can be defined as the 25th human chromosome. The chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (c-HPP) has initially focused its activities addressing the characterization and quantification of the nuclear encoded proteins. Following the last International HUPO Congress in Boston (September 2012) it was clear that however small the mitochondrial chromosome is, it plays an important role in many biological and physiopathological functions. Mutations in the mtDNA have been shown to be associated with dozens of unexplained disorders and the information contained in the mtDNA should be of major relevance to the understanding of many human diseases. Within this paper we describe the Italian initiative of the Human Proteome Project dedicated to mitochondria as part of both programs: chromosome-centric (c-HPP) and Biology/Disease (B/D-HPP). The mt-HPP has finally shifted the attention of the HUPO community outside the nuclear chromosomes with the general purpose to highlight the mitochondrial processes influencing the human health. Following this vision and considering the large interest and evidence collected on the non-Mendelian heredity of Homo sapiens associated with mt-chromosome and with the microbial commensal ecosystem constituting our organism we may speculate that this program will represent an initial step toward other HPP initiatives focusing on human phenotypic heredity.

  20. Corrective action investigation plan for Project Shoal Area CAU No. 416

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project Shoal Area (PSA). Project Shoal was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.

  1. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  2. A Computer Program for Projections of Vehicular Pollutant Emissions in Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, G. D.; Ott, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an algorithm for the determination of current and projected annual air pollution emissions from vehicles in any urban area. A computer program based on this algorithm, PAVE, has been developed. Results of applying the program to emissions from automobiles in the San Francisco Bay Area are presented and discussed. (Editor/JR)

  3. A Computer Program for Projections of Vehicular Pollutant Emissions in Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, G. D.; Ott, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an algorithm for the determination of current and projected annual air pollution emissions from vehicles in any urban area. A computer program based on this algorithm, PAVE, has been developed. Results of applying the program to emissions from automobiles in the San Francisco Bay Area are presented and discussed. (Editor/JR)

  4. The Human Genome Project: ethical and social implications.

    PubMed

    Murray, T H; Livny, E

    1995-01-01

    This article explores some of the potential moral and social ramifications of the Human Genome Project. Research on the human genome is generating important ethical and social questions of at least three distinct kinds. First, what genetic information should be generated, and who should control its dissemination and use? Improved diagnostic techniques such as presymptomatic testing, carrier screening, and prenatal screening can provide information that poses significant ethical problems for individuals, employers and insurance companies, and the medical and counseling professions. Second, what genetic procedures should be employed? The burgeoning ability to manipulate human genotypes and phenotypes through procedures such as gene therapy and enzyme therapy are leading to difficult questions about which manipulations should be permitted and which should be prohibited. Third, how will this new information change lives? Increasing claims about the relationship of genetics to ethically and politically significant traits and behaviors are challenging human self-understanding and the capacity of social institutions to respond adequately.

  5. The Human Genome Project: ethical and social implications.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T H; Livny, E

    1995-01-01

    This article explores some of the potential moral and social ramifications of the Human Genome Project. Research on the human genome is generating important ethical and social questions of at least three distinct kinds. First, what genetic information should be generated, and who should control its dissemination and use? Improved diagnostic techniques such as presymptomatic testing, carrier screening, and prenatal screening can provide information that poses significant ethical problems for individuals, employers and insurance companies, and the medical and counseling professions. Second, what genetic procedures should be employed? The burgeoning ability to manipulate human genotypes and phenotypes through procedures such as gene therapy and enzyme therapy are leading to difficult questions about which manipulations should be permitted and which should be prohibited. Third, how will this new information change lives? Increasing claims about the relationship of genetics to ethically and politically significant traits and behaviors are challenging human self-understanding and the capacity of social institutions to respond adequately. PMID:7703933

  6. Project NO REST: Addressing Human Trafficking in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Dean F

    Project NO REST (North Carolina Organizing and Responding to the Exploitation and Sexual Trafficking of Children) is a 5-year effort funded by the US Children's Bureau to address the trafficking of individuals age 25 years and younger in North Carolina. The project aims to increase awareness of human trafficking affecting children and youth, especially those in the child welfare system; to reduce the number of these youth who are trafficked; and to improve outcomes for those who are trafficked. In the project's first year, nearly 100 stakeholders statewide developed a comprehensive plan to address trafficking. Later, 5 communities were recruited to implement the plan at the local level. Their experiences will be used to develop a toolkit for future anti-trafficking efforts.

  7. Tuberculoventral neurons project to the multipolar cell area but not to the octopus cell area of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wickesberg, R E; Whitlon, D; Oertel, D

    1991-11-15

    Tuberculoventral neurons in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) provide frequency-specific inhibition to neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of the mouse (Wickesberg and Oertel, '88, '90). The present experiments examine the projection from the deep DCN to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into the PVCN reveal that the multipolar cell area, but not the octopus cell area, is innervated by neurons in the deep layer of the DCN. Injections into the multipolar cell area, in the rostral and ventral PVCN, labeled neurons across the entire rostrocaudal extent of the deep DCN. The labeled tuberculoventral neurons generally lay within the band of labeled auditory nerve terminals in the DCN. Injections of HRP into the octopus cell area, in the dorsal caudal PVCN, labeled almost no cells within the band of auditory nerve fiber terminals that were labeled by the same injection. The inhibition from tuberculoventral neurons onto ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons is likely to be mediated by glycine (Wickesberg and Oertel, '90). Slices of the cochlear nuclear complex were immunolabeled by an antibody against glycine conjugated with glutaraldehyde to bovine serum albumin (Wenthold et al., '87). Glycine-like immunoreactivity was found throughout the DCN, the AVCN and the multipolar cell area, but there was little labeling in the octopus cell area. This finding provides independent evidence that tuberculoventral neurons do not innervate the octopus cell area and indicates that the octopus cell area is anatomically and functionally distinct.

  8. A new five-year plan for the U. S. human genome project

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F. ); Galas, D. )

    1993-10-01

    Progress toward achieving the first set of goals for the genome project appears to be on schedule or, in some instances, even ahead of schedule. Furthermore, technological improvements that could not have been anticipated in 1990 have in some areas changed the scope of the project and allowed more ambitious approaches. Earlier this year, it was therefore decided to update and extend the initial goals to address the scope of genome research beyond the completion of the original 5-year plan. A major purpose of revising the plan is to inform and provide a new guide to all participants in the genome project about the project's goal. To obtain the advice needed to develop the extended goals, NIH and DOE held a series of meetings with a large number of scientists and other interested scholars and representatives of the public, including many who previously had not been direct participants in the genome project. Reports of all these meetings are available from the Office of Communications of the National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR) and the Human Genome Management Information System of DOE. Finally, a group of representative advisors from MIH and DOE drafted a set of new, extended goals for presentation to the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research of NIH and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee of DOE.

  9. TMS reveals a direct influence of spinal projections from human SMAp on precise force production.

    PubMed

    Entakli, Jonathan; Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Berton, Eric; De Graaf, Jozina B

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal (CS) system plays an important role in fine motor control, especially in precision grip tasks. Although the primary motor cortex (M1) is the main source of the CS projections, other projections have been found, especially from the supplementary motor area proper (SMAp). To study the characteristics of these CS projections from SMAp, we compared muscle responses of an intrinsic hand muscle (FDI) evoked by stimulation of human M1 and SMAp during an isometric static low-force control task. Subjects were instructed to maintain a small cursor on a target force curve by applying a pressure with their right precision grip on a force sensor. Neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to stimulate either left M1 or left SMAp with equal induced electric field values at the defined cortical targets. The results show that the SMAp stimulation evokes reproducible muscle responses with similar latencies and amplitudes as M1 stimulation, and with a clear and significant shorter silent period. These results suggest that (i) CS projections from human SMAp are as rapid and efficient as those from M1, (ii) CS projections from SMAp are directly involved in control of the excitability of spinal motoneurons and (iii) SMAp has a different intracortical inhibitory circuitry. We conclude that human SMAp and M1 both have direct influence on force production during fine manual motor tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A human-driven decline in global burned area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Morton, D. C.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Fire is an important and dynamic ecosystem process that influences many aspects of the global Earth system. Here, we used several different satellite datasets to assess trends in global burned area during 1998 to 2014. Global burned area decreased by about 21.6 ± 8.5% over the period from 1998-2014, with large regional declines observed in savanna and grassland ecosystems in northern Africa, Eurasia, and South America. The decrease in burned area remained robust after removing the influence of climate (16.0 ± 6.0%), implicating human activity as a likely driver. To further investigate the mechanisms contributing to regional and global trends, we conducted several kinds of analysis, including separation of burned area into ignition and fire size components and geospatial analysis of fire trends in relationship with demographic and land use variables. We found that fire number was a more important factor contributing to burned area trends than fire size, suggesting a reduction in the use of fire for management purposes. Concurrent decreases in fire size also contributed to the trend outside of North and South America, suggesting a role for greater landscape fragmentation. From our geospatial analysis, we developed a conceptual model that incorporates a range of drivers for human-driven changes in biomass burning that can be used to guide global fire models, currently unable to reproduce these large scale recent trends. Patterns of agricultural expansion and land use intensification are likely to further contribute to declining burned area trends in future decades, with important consequences for Earth system processes mediated by surface albedo, greenhouse gas emissions, and aerosols. Our results also highlight the vulnerability of savannas and grassland to land use changes with unprecedented global scale consequences for vegetation structure and the carbon cycle.

  11. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  12. Human genome project: revolutionizing biology through leveraging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Carol A.; Strausberg, Robert L.

    1996-04-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international project to develop genetic, physical, and sequence-based maps of the human genome. Since the inception of the HGP it has been clear that substantially improved technology would be required to meet the scientific goals, particularly in order to acquire the complete sequence of the human genome, and that these technologies coupled with the information forthcoming from the project would have a dramatic effect on the way biomedical research is performed in the future. In this paper, we discuss the state-of-the-art for genomic DNA sequencing, technological challenges that remain, and the potential technological paths that could yield substantially improved genomic sequencing technology. The impact of the technology developed from the HGP is broad-reaching and a discussion of other research and medical applications that are leveraging HGP-derived DNA analysis technologies is included. The multidisciplinary approach to the development of new technologies that has been successful for the HGP provides a paradigm for facilitating new genomic approaches toward understanding the biological role of functional elements and systems within the cell, including those encoded within genomic DNA and their molecular products.

  13. Facilitating telemedicine project sustainability in medically underserved areas: a healthcare provider participant perspective.

    PubMed

    Paul, David L; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2016-04-26

    Very few telemedicine projects in medically underserved areas have been sustained over time. This research furthers understanding of telemedicine service sustainability by examining teleconsultation projects from the perspective of healthcare providers. Drivers influencing healthcare providers' continued participation in teleconsultation projects and how projects can be designed to effectively and efficiently address these drivers is examined. Case studies of fourteen teleconsultation projects that were part of two health sciences center (HSC) based telemedicine networks was utilized. Semi-structured interviews of 60 key informants (clinicians, administrators, and IT professionals) involved in teleconsultation projects were the primary data collection method. Two key drivers influenced providers' continued participation. First was severe time constraints. Second was remote site healthcare providers' (RSHCPs) sense of professional isolation. Two design steps to address these were identified. One involved implementing relatively simple technology and process solutions to make participation convenient. The more critical and difficult design step focused on designing teleconsultation projects for collaborative, active learning. This learning empowered participating RSHCPs by leveraging HSC specialists' expertise. In order to increase sustainability the fundamental purpose of teleconsultation projects needs to be re-conceptualized. Doing so requires HSC specialists and RSHCPs to assume new roles and highlights the importance of trust. By implementing these design steps, healthcare delivery in medically underserved areas can be positively impacted.

  14. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  15. [Brodmann Areas 39 and 40: Human Parietal Association Area and Higher Cortical Function].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia). Damage to either gyrus causes Gerstmann's syndrome (finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, agraphia and acalculia) and verbal short-term memory impairment. "Angular alexia with agraphia" results from damage to the middle occipital gyrus posterior to the angular gyrus. Alexia and agraphia, with lesions in the angular or supramarginal gyrus, are characterized by kana transposition errors in reading words, which suggests the impairment of sequential phonological processing.

  16. Specificity of human cortical areas for reaches and saccades

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ifat; Schluppeck, Denis; Heeger, David J.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have identified effector-related regions in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The lateral intraparietal area (LIP), for example, responds preferentially for saccades whereas the parietal reach region (PRR) responds preferentially for arm movements. However, the degree of effector selectivity actually observed is limited; each area contains neurons selective for the non-preferred effector, and many neurons in both areas respond for both effectors. We used fMRI to assess the degree of effector preference at the population level, focusing on topographically organized regions in the human PPC (V7, IPS1 and IPS2). An event-related design adapted from monkey experiments was employed. In each trial, an effector cue preceded the appearance of a spatial target, after which a go-signal instructed subjects to produce the specified movement with the specified effector. Our results show that the degree of effector specificity is limited in many cortical areas, and transitions gradually from saccade to reach preference as one moves through the hierarchy of areas in the occipital, parietal, and frontal cortices. Saccade preference was observed in visual cortex, including early areas and V7. IPS1 exhibited balanced activation to saccades and reaches, whereas IPS2 showed a weak but significant preference for reaches. In frontal cortex, areas near the central sulcus showed a clear and absolute preference for reaches while the Frontal Eye Field (FEF) showed little or no effector selectivity. Although these results contradict many theoretical conclusions about effector specificity, they are compatible with the complex picture arising from electrophysiological studies and also with previous imaging studies that reported largely overlapping saccade and arm related activation. The results are also compatible with theories of efficient coding in cortex. PMID:17460081

  17. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  18. Cortical projection topography of the human splenium: hemispheric asymmetry and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Mary Colvin; Steven, Megan S; Doron, Karl W; Riggall, Adam C; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter pathway in the human brain. The most posterior portion, known as the splenium, is critical for interhemispheric communication between visual areas. The current study employed diffusion tensor imaging to delineate the complete cortical projection topography of the human splenium. Homotopic and heterotopic connections were revealed between the splenium and the posterior visual areas, including the occipital and the posterior parietal cortices. In nearly one third of participants, there were homotopic connections between the primary visual cortices, suggesting interindividual differences in splenial connectivity. There were also more instances of connections with the right hemisphere, indicating a hemispheric asymmetry in interhemispheric connectivity within the splenium. Combined, these findings demonstrate unique aspects of human interhemispheric connectivity and provide anatomical bases for hemispheric asymmetries in visual processing and a long-described hemispheric asymmetry in speed of interhemispheric communication for visual information.

  19. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-08-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compenstion, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project.

  1. Report of Final Evaluation, ESEA Title I Projects, Fiscal Year 1972. Phoenix Area Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Phoenix, AZ.

    Title I projects operated in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Phoenix Area, during Fiscal 1972 are described in this final evaluation report. An overview of the geographical location of Areas within the BIA is given, along with the organization of the BIA at large and of the Phoenix Area. Enrollments in the Phoenix Area projects are presented…

  2. Resolving the Orientation of Cylinders and Cuboids from Projected Area Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    5b. GRANT NUMBER  5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S)    5d.  PROJECT  NUMBER  5e. TASK NUMBER  5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER  7. PERFORMING......terms of pitch, yaw, and roll. Yaw cards and orthogonal X-rays can provide estimates of the impact projected area, but the model makes use of the

  3. RECREATION Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 1. Barkley Lock and Dam, Lake Barkley Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Area Jul 1980 Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the enthusiasm and excellent cooperation of the resource managers , rangers, and other Corps...recreation carrying capacity-related information for the Lake Barkley Project. The information is based upon: 1) user and management surveys conducted...WES was the Project Monitor. Dr. Adolph Anderson, WES, was Program Manager of the Environmental Laboratory (EL) Recreation Research Program. The

  4. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  5. Patterns and Variability of Projected Bioclimatic Habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J.; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980–2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2–29% and 0.04–10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010–2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910–2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  6. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  7. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  8. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information.

  9. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  10. Human impact on the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollma, Merita

    2010-05-01

    Human impact on the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin This paper is about the natural and human factors role impact on the geomorphology of the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin. The morphotectonic and morphologic evolution of this zone is closely connected to the Adriatic sea and Mat, Ishem rivers activities. An important role in this evolution has also played the tectonic faults, where Mat and Ishem rivers flow. River delta advancing in this zone, besides the littoral cordons, is connected to the river solid loads (about 5380 ton/km2), which manage to compensate the continuous tectonic subsidents of its structural basement. The presence of the lagoons (Patok, Merxhan, Ceka), dead meanders and marshlands along a distance of 2-4 km of this zone, are the evidences of continues morphologic evolution of the present coastline, especially between these two rivers. The higher tectonic subsident values of the basement along Mat fault have also defined the smaller size of the alluvial field of this river compare to the alluvial field created by Ishem river. This tectonic phenomena is evidenced with the different thickness of the quaternary depositions along the Ishem river sector (30-80m) and along Mati river (250-290 m). Human impact on the geomorphologic evolution of this zone has caused the total destruction of Patok beach, due to the deviation of the Ishem river flow to the lagoon of Patok. The creation of the artificial reservoirs along Mat river (Ulez, Shkopet) and Ishem river (Bovilla), besides the extraction of the river inert materials along Mati riverbed and destruction of the river banks concretes, have decreased the solid river load. This has caused the beginning of the erosion process of the coastline in some sectors of this zone. Consequently the damages on the natural environment of this zone caused by the human impact are severe and their rehabilitation and management needs an integrated approach from different actors.

  11. Human-environment sustainable development of rural areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Hongbing; Hu, Shanfeng

    2017-05-01

    Human-environment sustainable development has become the important issue of rural transformation development in China. This paper analyses the development status of rural sustainability in China, and also presents the challenges facing the sustainability from the economic, social and environmental levels, including land and energy efficiency, solid waste, water and other types of environmental pollution. At last, the paper proposes the measures to establish the sustainable and liveable rural areas in China, like raising rural community awareness of sustainable development thinking; improving resource efficiency and new energy; and creating rural green industries and green products.

  12. Human factors in aviation: Terminal control area boundary conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air conflicts in the vicinity of Terminal Control Area (TCA) boundaries were studied to obtain a better understanding of the causal dynamics of these events with particular focus on human factor issues. The study dataset consisted of 381 Instrument Flight Rules/Visual Flight Rules (IFR/VFR) traffic conflicts in airspace layers above TCA ceiling and below TCA floors; 213 reports of incursions in TCA terminal airspace by VFR aircraft, of which 123 resulted in conflicts; and an additional set of reports describing problems with Air Traffic Control (ATC) services in and around TCAs. Results and conclusions are detailed.

  13. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - December 2008-June 2009 Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.A.; Bauer, R.A.; Boyd, O.S.; Chung, J.; Cramer, C.H.; Gaunt, D.A.; Hempen, G.L.; Hoffman, D.; McCallister, N.S.; Prewett, J.L.; Rogers, J.D.; Steckel, P.J.; Watkins, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the mission, the project background, the participants, and the progress of the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) for the period from December 2008 through June 2009. During this period, the SLAEHMP held five conference calls and two face-to-face meetings in St. Louis, participated in several earthquake awareness public meetings, held one outreach field trip for the business and government community, collected and compiled new borehole and digital elevation data from partners, and published a project summary.

  14. [The human genome project: reflections of an expert].

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, M

    1990-01-01

    Just about five years have elapsed since a handful of leading scientists began to discuss the opportunity to launch the Human Genoma Program, an international organized effort to characterise all the genetic material--DNA--of the human organism. Today, the project is well under way with the participation of tens of thousands investigators from all over the world and the direct involvement of major sponsoring bodies such as the United States Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, the European Economic Council, the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Governments of France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan and Spain. Yet, the reactions of the general public to the Project is, to say the least, very diverse. Some are sure of its positive impact on the prevention and cure of inherited diseases, some fear its infringence on individual privacy, but the majority remains totally indifferent. Since the lack of adequate information is the common denominator at the root such different reactions, this Editorial will try to summarise the major issues of the Project and their impact on Society.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The software analysis project for the Office of Human Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tureman, Robert L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    There were two major sections of the project for the Office of Human Resources (OHR). The first section was to conduct a planning study to analyze software use with the goal of recommending software purchases and determining whether the need exists for a file server. The second section was analysis and distribution planning for retirement planning computer program entitled VISION provided by NASA Headquarters. The software planning study was developed to help OHR analyze the current administrative desktop computing environment and make decisions regarding software acquisition and implementation. There were three major areas addressed by the study: current environment new software requirements, and strategies regarding the implementation of a server in the Office. To gather data on current environment, employees were surveyed and an inventory of computers were produced. The surveys were compiled and analyzed by the ASEE fellow with interpretation help by OHR staff. New software requirements represented a compilation and analysis of the surveyed requests of OHR personnel. Finally, the information on the use of a server represents research done by the ASEE fellow and analysis of survey data to determine software requirements for a server. This included selection of a methodology to estimate the number of copies of each software program required given current use and estimated growth. The report presents the results of the computing survey, a description of the current computing environment, recommenations for changes in the computing environment, current software needs, management advantages of using a server, and management considerations in the implementation of a server. In addition, detailed specifications were presented for the hardware and software recommendations to offer a complete picture to OHR management. The retirement planning computer program available to NASA employees will aid in long-range retirement planning. The intended audience is the NASA civil

  16. Development of the human superior colliculus and the retinocollicular projection.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian; Zhu, Hua; Cheng, Gang; Ashwell, Ken W S; Lu, Fan

    2006-02-01

    We have used carbocyanine dye tracing from the brachium of the superior colliculus in conjunction with Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry to GAP-43 and calretinin to study the development of retinal projections to the superior colliculus in 17 human embryos and fetuses aged from 8 to 28 weeks. Lamination of the superior colliculus begins to emerge by 11 weeks, and by 16 weeks all seven layers of the mature superior colliculus are visible. Fibres immunoreactive to GAP-43 were seen at 13 weeks in the most superficial layers. By 19 weeks, GAP-43 immunoreactivity was present in the stratum opticum as well as the deeper fibres layers, indicating the development of fibre pathways following those laminae. Carbocyanine dye tracing of retinocollicular projections showed extensive rostrocaudally running unbranched fibres in the superficial superior colliculus at 12 weeks. Shortly after this (13 weeks), retinocollicular fibres penetrate the deeper collicular layers and branching becomes apparent. We also saw occasional retrogradely labelled somata following DiI insertion into the superior brachium. Our findings indicate that development of the human superior colliculus and its connections is largely complete by 20 weeks. This would suggest that functional capacity of the human superior colliculus should also be mature by the middle of gestation.

  17. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  18. A Stoichioproteomic Analysis of Samples from the Human Microbiome Project.

    PubMed

    Vecchio-Pagan, Briana; Bewick, Sharon; Mainali, Kumar; Karig, David K; Fagan, William F

    2017-01-01

    Ecological stoichiometry (ES) uses organism-specific elemental content to explain differences in species life histories, species interactions, community organization, environmental constraints and even ecosystem function. Although ES has been successfully applied to a range of different organisms, most emphasis on microbial ecological stoichiometry focuses on lake, ocean, and soil communities. With the recent advances in human microbiome research, however, large amounts of data are being generated that describe differences in community composition across body sites and individuals. We suggest that ES may provide a framework for beginning to understand the structure, organization, and function of human microbial communities, including why certain organisms exist at certain locations, and how they interact with both the other microbes in their environment and their human host. As a first step, we undertake a stoichioproteomic analysis of microbial communities from different body sites. Specifically, we compare and contrast the elemental composition of microbial protein samples using annotated sequencing data from 690 gut, vaginal, oral, nares, and skin samples currently available through the Human Microbiome Project. Our results suggest significant differences in both the median and variance of the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur contents of microbial protein samples from different locations. For example, whereas proteins from vaginal sites are high in carbon, proteins from skin and nasal sites are high in nitrogen and oxygen. Meanwhile, proteins from stool (the gut) are particularly high in sulfur content. We interpret these differences in terms of the local environments at different human body sites, including atmospheric exposure and food intake rates.

  19. A Stoichioproteomic Analysis of Samples from the Human Microbiome Project

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio-Pagan, Briana; Bewick, Sharon; Mainali, Kumar; Karig, David K.; Fagan, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological stoichiometry (ES) uses organism-specific elemental content to explain differences in species life histories, species interactions, community organization, environmental constraints and even ecosystem function. Although ES has been successfully applied to a range of different organisms, most emphasis on microbial ecological stoichiometry focuses on lake, ocean, and soil communities. With the recent advances in human microbiome research, however, large amounts of data are being generated that describe differences in community composition across body sites and individuals. We suggest that ES may provide a framework for beginning to understand the structure, organization, and function of human microbial communities, including why certain organisms exist at certain locations, and how they interact with both the other microbes in their environment and their human host. As a first step, we undertake a stoichioproteomic analysis of microbial communities from different body sites. Specifically, we compare and contrast the elemental composition of microbial protein samples using annotated sequencing data from 690 gut, vaginal, oral, nares, and skin samples currently available through the Human Microbiome Project. Our results suggest significant differences in both the median and variance of the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur contents of microbial protein samples from different locations. For example, whereas proteins from vaginal sites are high in carbon, proteins from skin and nasal sites are high in nitrogen and oxygen. Meanwhile, proteins from stool (the gut) are particularly high in sulfur content. We interpret these differences in terms of the local environments at different human body sites, including atmospheric exposure and food intake rates. PMID:28769875

  20. The human genome project: Prospects and implications for clinical medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.D.; Waterston, R.H. )

    1991-10-09

    The recently initiated human genome project is a large international effort to elucidate the genetic architecture of the genomes of man and several model organisms. The initial phases of this endeavor involve the establishment of rough blueprints (maps) of the genetic landscape of these genomes, with the long-term goal of determining their precise nucleotide sequences and identifying the genes. The knowledge gained by these studies will provide a vital tool for the study of many biologic processes and will have a profound impact on clinical medicine.

  1. Urbanization in the US: land use trends, impacts on forest area, projections, and policy considerations

    Treesearch

    Ralph Alig

    2010-01-01

    Since World War II, socio-economic drivers of US urbanization such as population totals and personal income levels have increased substantially. Human land use is the primary force driving changes in forest ecosystem attributes including forest area, which is the focus of this paper. The percentage of the US population residing in urban areas is higher than that in...

  2. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Northern Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASAASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the northern area, specifically: Bethel, Fairbanks, Nome, Kotzebue, and Barrow. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  3. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics.

  4. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Northern Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASAASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the northern area, specifically: Bethel, Fairbanks, Nome, Kotzebue, and Barrow. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  5. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  6. Underground test area quality assurance project plan, Nevada test site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) is one of the planning documents used for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which falls under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP). The Nevada ERP consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The UGTA Subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. The purposes of the UGTA Subproject are to define boundaries around each Corrective Action Unit (CAU), as defined by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), that establish areas containing water that may be unsafe for domestic or municipal use and to establish monitoring programs for each CAU that will verify modeling upon which the boundaries are based.

  7. Content Area Bilingual Education: Project CABE 1988-89. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Lista, Carlos A.

    Project CABE (Content Area Bilingual Education) offered instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and Native Language Arts (NLA) to 823 limited English proficient Spanish-Speaking students in grades 1 through 9 in 34 schools in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens (New York). All students were two or more years below level in mathematics and…

  8. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  9. A Study of the Science Achievement of Earth Science Curriculum Project Students From Different Socioeconomic Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Stanley Joe

    Reported is a study to compare science achievement of 318 ninth-grade students who came from different socioeconomic areas but all enrolled in an Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP) program. The students were divided into three socioeconomic groups: upper, middle, and lower. All were given a pretest in science achievement, a posttest, an…

  10. METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS IN THE DENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHMAN, LESLIE; AND OTHERS

    VARIOUS METHODS AVAILABLE FOR A PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF A STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (SMSA) ARE REVIEWED, AS WELL AS THE DATA AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENT THESE APPROACHES. TWO "NAIVE" MODELS ARE RECOMMENDED FOR USE AS BENCH MARKS AGAINST WHICH TO COMPARE MORE SOPHISTICATED APPROACHES--THE "NO CHANGE"…

  11. 76 FR 65493 - Draft Environmental Assessment; Giant Miscanthus in REPREVE Renewables, LLC Project Areas Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... REPREVE Renewables, LLC Project Areas Under the Biomass Crop Assistance Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit... miscanthus (Miscanthus X giganteus) as a dedicated energy crop to be grown in the REPREVE Renewables, LLC... Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP). This notice provides a means for the public to voice any...

  12. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-09-11

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies.

  13. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  14. Evaluation of the USDA Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project by Meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using USDA ‘4-Poster’ devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed d...

  15. Using the Gravity Model to Delineate a Trade Area: A Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzik, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Reports that students who might be bored or intimidated by economic geographic theory become enthusiastic when they can apply it to their own experiences. Describes a class project involving fieldwork and in-class analysis on delineating the retail trade area of a small Ohio city. Includes three maps and mathematical formulae for data analysis.…

  16. Deer browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River project area

    Treesearch

    William H. Moore

    1967-01-01

    A procedure developed in Georgia was used to inventory the browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River Project Area near Aiken, South Carolina. Through this procedure, the forest land manager is supplied with relative carrying capacity data for deer . If silvical practices can be related to habitat quality and quantity, he can adjust...

  17. Delinquency Prevention in South Chicago. A Fifty-Year Assessment of the Chicago Area Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlossman, Steven; And Others

    This report examines the Chicago Area Project (CAP), the first community-based delinquency prevention program, from both a historical and a contemporary perspective. The analysis is in three parts. The first part describes CAP's founding in the 1930s and analyzes the process through which it was established and the operation of its prevention…

  18. EPA Awards New Great Lakes Restoration Funding for Projects in the Clinton River Area of Concern

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    No. 15-OPA166 HARRISON TOWNSHIP, MICH. (Nov. 9, 2015) -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of new funding for major Great Lakes Restoration Initiative projects in the Clinton River Area of Concern totaling nearly $20 m

  19. An Ecological Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Muddy-Virgin River Project Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Muddy-Virgin River Project Area covers a large part of southern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The Muddy and Virgin Rivers drain into Lake Mead which provides drinking water for communities located in the Las Vegas Valley. The are...

  20. An Ecological Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Muddy-Virgin River Project Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Muddy-Virgin River Project Area covers a large part of southern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The Muddy and Virgin Rivers drain into Lake Mead which provides drinking water for communities located in the Las Vegas Valley. The are...

  1. 22. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS315A: MISCELLANEOUS DETAILSLAUNCHING AREAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS-315A: MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS-LAUNCHING AREAS 17A, 17B-STRUCTURAL, APRIL 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. Business Marketing Information Systems Skills. Voc-Ed Project. Business Data Processing Career Area. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    This report and research analysis relate to the Milwaukee Area Technical College Research Project, a study undertaken to determine a curriculum to meet the information processing/management training needs of individuals entering or continuing careers in the information marketing and business data processing occupational clusters. The report of…

  3. Area Consortium on Training. "Training for Technology" Project, 1982-1983. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moock, Lynn D.

    The Area Consortium on Training initiated the Training for Technology Project to fill industry needs for skilled personnel and job needs for economically disadvantaged persons. Major accomplishments included establishment of a training team for economic development and for development of training programs; contacting of more than 100 employers;…

  4. Using the Gravity Model to Delineate a Trade Area: A Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzik, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Reports that students who might be bored or intimidated by economic geographic theory become enthusiastic when they can apply it to their own experiences. Describes a class project involving fieldwork and in-class analysis on delineating the retail trade area of a small Ohio city. Includes three maps and mathematical formulae for data analysis.…

  5. Selectivity to Translational Egomotion in Human Brain Motion Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Sdoia, Stefano; Bultrini, Alessandro; Committeri, Giorgia; Di Russo, Francesco; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio; Galati, Gaspare

    2013-01-01

    The optic flow generated when a person moves through the environment can be locally decomposed into several basic components, including radial, circular, translational and spiral motion. Since their analysis plays an important part in the visual perception and control of locomotion and posture it is likely that some brain regions in the primate dorsal visual pathway are specialized to distinguish among them. The aim of this study is to explore the sensitivity to different types of egomotion-compatible visual stimulations in the human motion-sensitive regions of the brain. Event-related fMRI experiments, 3D motion and wide-field stimulation, functional localizers and brain mapping methods were used to study the sensitivity of six distinct motion areas (V6, MT, MST+, V3A, CSv and an Intra-Parietal Sulcus motion [IPSmot] region) to different types of optic flow stimuli. Results show that only areas V6, MST+ and IPSmot are specialized in distinguishing among the various types of flow patterns, with a high response for the translational flow which was maximum in V6 and IPSmot and less marked in MST+. Given that during egomotion the translational optic flow conveys differential information about the near and far external objects, areas V6 and IPSmot likely process visual egomotion signals to extract information about the relative distance of objects with respect to the observer. Since area V6 is also involved in distinguishing object-motion from self-motion, it could provide information about location in space of moving and static objects during self-motion, particularly in a dynamically unstable environment. PMID:23577096

  6. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  7. Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language. PMID:23638065

  8. Variable exchange between a stream and an aquifer in the Rio Grande Project Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Z.; Abudu, S.; Michelsen, A.; King, P.

    2016-12-01

    Both surface water and groundwater in the Rio Grande Project area in southern New Mexico and Far West Texas have been stressed by natural conditions such as droughts and human activities, including urban development and agricultural irrigation. In some area pumping stress in the aquifer becomes so great that it depletes the river flow especially during the irrigation season, typically from March through October. Therefore understanding such relationship between surface water and groundwater becomes more important in regional water resources planning and management. In this area, stream flows are highly regulated by the upstream reservoirs during the irrigation season and greatly influenced by return flows during non-irrigation season. During a drought additional groundwater pumping to supplement surface water shortage further complicates the surface water and groundwater interaction. In this paper the authors will use observation data and results of numerical models (MODFLOW) to characterize and quantify hydrological exchange fluxes between groundwater in the aquifers and surface water as well as impacts of groundwater pumping. The interaction shows a very interesting seasonal variation (irrigation vs. non-irrigation) as well as impact of a drought. Groundwater has been pumped for both municipal supplies and agricultural irrigation, which has imposed stresses toward both stream flows and aquifer storage. The results clearly show that historic groundwater pumping has caused some reaches of the river change from gaining stream to losing stream. Beyond the exchange between surface water and groundwater in the shallow aquifer, groundwater pumping in a deep aquifer could also enhance the exchanges between different aquifers through leaky confining layers. In the earlier history of pumping, pumping from the shallow aquifer is compensated by simple depletion of surface water, while deep aquifer tends to use the aquifer storage. With continued pumping, the cumulative

  9. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raquel A; Burgess, Neil D; Cabeza, Mar; Rahbek, Carsten; Araújo, Miguel B

    2012-01-01

    Africa is predicted to be highly vulnerable to 21st century climatic changes. Assessing the impacts of these changes on Africa's biodiversity is, however, plagued by uncertainties, and markedly different results can be obtained from alternative bioclimatic envelope models or future climate projections. Using an ensemble forecasting framework, we examine projections of future shifts in climatic suitability, and their methodological uncertainties, for over 2500 species of mammals, birds, amphibians and snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. To summarize a priori the variability in the ensemble of 17 general circulation models, we introduce a consensus methodology that combines co-varying models. Thus, we quantify and map the relative contribution to uncertainty of seven bioclimatic envelope models, three multi-model climate projections and three emissions scenarios, and explore the resulting variability in species turnover estimates. We show that bioclimatic envelope models contribute most to variability, particularly in projected novel climatic conditions over Sahelian and southern Saharan Africa. To summarize agreements among projections from the bioclimatic envelope models we compare five consensus methodologies, which generally increase or retain projection accuracy and provide consistent estimates of species turnover. Variability from emissions scenarios increases towards late-century and affects southern regions of high species turnover centred in arid Namibia. Twofold differences in median species turnover across the study area emerge among alternative climate projections and emissions scenarios. Our ensemble of projections underscores the potential bias when using a single algorithm or climate projection for Africa, and provides a cautious first approximation of the potential exposure of sub-Saharan African vertebrates to climatic changes. The future use and further development of bioclimatic envelope modelling will hinge on the interpretation of results in the light

  10. Evolution of mammalian sensorimotor cortex: thalamic projections to parietal cortical areas in Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Franca, João G.; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Cooke, Dylan F.; Krubitzer, Leah A.

    2015-01-01

    The current experiments build upon previous studies designed to reveal the network of parietal cortical areas present in the common mammalian ancestor. Understanding this ancestral network is essential for highlighting the basic somatosensory circuitry present in all mammals, and how this basic plan was modified to generate species specific behaviors. Our animal model, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), is a South American marsupial that has been proposed to have a similar ecological niche and morphology to the earliest common mammalian ancestor. In this investigation, we injected retrograde neuroanatomical tracers into the face and body representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the rostral and caudal somatosensory fields (SR and SC), as well as a multimodal region (MM). Projections from different architectonically defined thalamic nuclei were then quantified. Our results provide further evidence to support the hypothesized basic mammalian plan of thalamic projections to S1, with the lateral and medial ventral posterior thalamic nuclei (VPl and VPm) projecting to S1 body and S1 face, respectively. Additional strong projections are from the medial division of posterior nucleus (Pom). SR receives projections from several midline nuclei, including the medial dorsal, ventral medial nucleus, and Pom. SC and MM show similar patterns of connectivity, with projections from the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei, VPm and VPl, and the entire posterior nucleus (medial and lateral). Notably, MM is distinguished from SC by relatively dense projections from the dorsal division of the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar. We discuss the finding that S1 of the short-tailed opossum has a similar pattern of projections as other marsupials and mammals, but also some distinct projections not present in other mammals. Further we provide additional support for a primitive posterior parietal cortex which receives input from multiple modalities. PMID

  11. Evolution of mammalian sensorimotor cortex: thalamic projections to parietal cortical areas in Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Dooley, James C; Franca, João G; Seelke, Adele M H; Cooke, Dylan F; Krubitzer, Leah A

    2014-01-01

    The current experiments build upon previous studies designed to reveal the network of parietal cortical areas present in the common mammalian ancestor. Understanding this ancestral network is essential for highlighting the basic somatosensory circuitry present in all mammals, and how this basic plan was modified to generate species specific behaviors. Our animal model, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), is a South American marsupial that has been proposed to have a similar ecological niche and morphology to the earliest common mammalian ancestor. In this investigation, we injected retrograde neuroanatomical tracers into the face and body representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the rostral and caudal somatosensory fields (SR and SC), as well as a multimodal region (MM). Projections from different architectonically defined thalamic nuclei were then quantified. Our results provide further evidence to support the hypothesized basic mammalian plan of thalamic projections to S1, with the lateral and medial ventral posterior thalamic nuclei (VPl and VPm) projecting to S1 body and S1 face, respectively. Additional strong projections are from the medial division of posterior nucleus (Pom). SR receives projections from several midline nuclei, including the medial dorsal, ventral medial nucleus, and Pom. SC and MM show similar patterns of connectivity, with projections from the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei, VPm and VPl, and the entire posterior nucleus (medial and lateral). Notably, MM is distinguished from SC by relatively dense projections from the dorsal division of the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar. We discuss the finding that S1 of the short-tailed opossum has a similar pattern of projections as other marsupials and mammals, but also some distinct projections not present in other mammals. Further we provide additional support for a primitive posterior parietal cortex which receives input from multiple modalities.

  12. Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions.

  13. The 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a group of expert collaborators are using the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site 300 Area uranium plume within the footprint of the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit as a site for an Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC). The IFRC is entitled Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on the Hanford Site 300 Area Uranium Plume Project. The theme is investigation of multi-scale mass transfer processes. A series of forefront science questions on mass transfer are posed for research that relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements/approaches needed to characterize and model a mass transfer-dominated system. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the 300 Area IFRC Project. This plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  14. Projections of the ventrolateral pontine vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Stefanie; Jürgens, Uwe

    2006-02-01

    In four squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), the tracer biotin dextranamine (BDA) was injected into the ventrolateral pons at a site at which injection of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid blocked vocalization electrically elicited from the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Anterograde projections could be traced into all cranial motor and sensory nuclei involved in phonation, that is, the nucleus ambiguus, facial, hypoglossal and trigeminal motor nuclei, the motorneuron column in the ventral gray substance innervating the extrinsic laryngeal muscles, the nucleus retroambiguus, solitary tract and spinal trigeminal nuclei. Projections were also found into a number of auditory nuclei, namely the nucleus cochlearis-complex, superior olive, ventral and dorsal nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and inferior colliculus. Furthermore, there were projections into the reticular formation of the lateral and dorsocaudal medulla and lateral pons, into nucleus gracilis, inferior and medial vestibular nuclei, lateral reticular nucleus, ventral raphe, pontine gray, superior colliculus, PAG and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. Injection of the tracer wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase into the ventrolateral pontine vocalization-blocking area in one animal yielded retrograde labeling throughout the PAG. Injection of BDA into a vocalization-eliciting site of the PAG in another animal yielded projections into the ventrolateral pontine vocalization-blocking area. It is concluded that the ventral paralemniscal area in the ventrolateral pons represents a relay station of the descending periaqueductal vocalization-controlling pathway.

  15. Assessment of Flooded Areas Projections and Floods Potential Impacts Applying Remote Sensing Imagery and Demographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, D. A.; Carriello, F.; Fernandes, P. J. F.; Garofolo Lopes, L.; Siqueira Júnior, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Assessing vulnerability and potential impacts associated with extreme discharges requires an accurate topographic description in order to estimate the extension of flooded areas. However, in most populated regions, topographic data obtained by in-situ measurements is not available. In this case, digital elevation models derived from remote sensing date are usually applied. Moreover, this digital elevation models have intrinsic errors that introduce bigger uncertainty in results than the associated to hydrological projections. On the other hand, estimations of flooded areas through remote sensing images provide accurate information, which could be used for the construction of river level-flooded area relationships regarding vulnerability assessment. In this work, this approach is applied for the city of Porto Velho in the Brazilian Amazonia to assess potential vulnerability to floods associated with climate change projections. The approach is validated using census data, provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and information about socio-economical injuries associated to historical floods, provided by the Brazilian Civil Defence. Hydrological projections under climate change are carried out using several downscaling of climate projections as inputs in a hydrological model. Results show more accurate estimation of flood impacts than the obtained using digital elevation models derivate from remote sensing data. This reduces uncertainties in the assessment of vulnerability to floods associated with climate change in the region.

  16. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  17. EPA Critical Path Science Plan Projects 19, 20 and 21: Human and Bovine Source Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Critical Path Science Plan Projects are: Project 19: develop novel bovine and human host-specific PCR assays and complete performance evaluation with other published methods. Project 20: Evaluate human-specific assays with water samples impacted with different lev...

  18. Adding dynamics to the Human Connectome Project with MEG

    PubMed Central

    Larson-Prior, L. J.; Oostenveld, R.; Della Penna, S.; Michalareas, G.; Prior, F.; Babajani-Feremi, A.; Schoffelen, J-M.; Marzetti, L.; de Pasquale, F.; Di Pompeo, F.; Stout, J.; Woolrich, M.; Luo, Q.; Bucholz, R.; Fries, P.; Pizzella, V.; Romani, G.L.; Corbetta, M.; Snyder, A. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The Human Connectome Project (HCP) seeks to map the structural and functional connections between network elements in the human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a temporally rich source of information on brain network dynamics and represents one source of functional connectivity data to be provided by the HCP. High quality MEG data will be collected from 50 twin pairs both in the resting state and during performance of motor, working memory and language tasks. These data will be available to the general community. Additionally, using the cortical parcellation scheme common to all imaging modalities, the HCP will provide processing pipelines for calculating connection matrices as a function of time and frequency. Together with structural and functional data generated using magnetic resonance imaging methods, these data represent a unique opportunity to investigate brain network connectivity in a large cohort of normal adult human subjects. The analysis pipeline software and the dynamic connectivity matrices that it generates will all be made freely available to the research community. PMID:23702419

  19. THE HETEROGENEITY OF VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA NEURONS: PROJECTION FUNCTIONS IN A MOOD-RELATED CONTEXT

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J.J.; Han, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain’s reward circuitry is composed of a heterogeneous population of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons that play important roles in mediating mood-related functions including depression. These neurons project to different brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the amygdala. The functional understanding of these projection pathways has been improved since the extensive use of advanced techniques such as viral-mediated gene transfer, cell-type specific neurophysiology and circuit-probing optogenetics. In this article, we will discuss the recent progress in understanding these VTA projection-specific functions, focusing on mood-related disorders. PMID:24931766

  20. Surfaces designed to control the projected area and shape of individual cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C H; Lhoest, J B; Castner, D G; McFarland, C D; Healy, K E

    1999-02-01

    Materials with spatially resolved surface chemistry were designed to isolate individual mammalian cells to determine the influence of projected area on specific cell functions (e.g., proliferation, cytoskeletal organization). Surfaces were fabricated using a photolithographic process resulting in islands of cell binding N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (EDS) separated by a nonadhesive interpenetrating polymer network [poly (acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol); P (AAm-co-EG)]. The surfaces contained over 3800 adhesive islands/cm2, allowing for isolation of single cells with projected areas ranging from 100 microns 2 to 10,000 microns 2. These surfaces provide a useful tool for researching how cell morphology and mechanical forces affect cell function.

  1. Digital-model study of ground-water hydrology, Columbia Basin Irrigation Project Area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hansen, A.J.; Skrivan, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1952 water diverted from the Columbia River at Grand Coulee Dam has been used to irrigate parts of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project area in eastern Washington, and as a result ground-water levels generally have risen in the area. The rapid increases in ground-water inflow, outflow, and storage from irrigation have created a need for a better understanding of the ground-water system before and after the start of irrigation to establish guidelines necessary for management of the area's ground-water resource. Data and information from previous geologic and hydrologic studies were used as a basis for quantitative analyses of ground-water inflow and outflow by means of digital computer models representing three major areas--Quincy Basin, Pasco Basin, and Royal Slope.

  2. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST...) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All... for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and will be used to differentiate among cell lines, as described...

  3. Human Genome Teacher Networking Project, Final Report, April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Debra

    1999-10-01

    Project to provide education regarding ethical legal and social implications of Human Genome Project to high school science teachers through two consecutive summer workshops, in class activities, and peer teaching workshops.

  4. The Human Brain Project: Creating a European Research Infrastructure to Decode the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Amunts, Katrin; Ebell, Christoph; Muller, Jeff; Telefont, Martin; Knoll, Alois; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-11-02

    Decoding the human brain is perhaps the most fascinating scientific challenge in the 21st century. The Human Brain Project (HBP), a 10-year European Flagship, targets the reconstruction of the brain's multi-scale organization. It uses productive loops of experiments, medical, data, data analytics, and simulation on all levels that will eventually bridge the scales. The HBP IT architecture is unique, utilizing cloud-based collaboration and development platforms with databases, workflow systems, petabyte storage, and supercomputers. The HBP is developing toward a European research infrastructure advancing brain research, medicine, and brain-inspired information technology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  6. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  9. Area 5 Site Characterization Project: Report of hydraulic property analysis through August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Estrella, R.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.

    1993-12-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) has supported the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (ERWM), Waste Operations Branch (WOB). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from Pilot Wells and Science Trench borehole samples through August 1993. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, soil water extract isotope analyses and soil water chemistry analyses.

  10. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western`s net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western`s purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western`s net revenue is computed.

  11. The area acustico-vestibularis of Discoglossus pictus. II. The primary afferent projections.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A; Muñoz, M

    1988-01-01

    In the present report the primary projections to the dorsal rhombencephalic alar plate (area acustico-vestibularis, AAV) of the adult anuran amphibian Discoglossus pictus have been studied by means of the anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). As in Alytes cisternasii, other member of the family Discoglossidae, no primary afferent fibers to the AAV were found from nerves other than the VIIIth cranial nerve. No remanent of the lateral line system in the adult stage is present. The projections of the dorsal root of nerve VIIIth distribute over the dorsal nucleus and rostrally reach the aspect of the cerebellum. Caudally projects to the large cells of the ventral nucleus and terminate caudally, in the dorsolateral neuropil, at levels coincident with the IX motor nucleus. The projection of the ventral root also reaches the cerebellum in its lateral aspect but also fibers to the nucleus cerebelli were observed. The extensive projection to the ventral nucleus is also continued caudally to the caudal nucleus and ends around the solitary tract. Main terminal fields were located in two neuropils, one subventricular and other in an intermediate position. In addition, from both nerve branches, fibers leave the AAV and reach the reticular formation. Particularly, fibers from the posterior branch enter the superior olivary nucleus. Retrograde labeled neurons in the vicinity of the VII motor nucleus are interpreted as efferent cells to the labyrinth.

  12. Fluoride analysis of human milk in remote areas of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuckpaiwong, S; Nakornchai, S; Surarit, R; Soo-ampon, S

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the fluoride content in human milk collected from mothers living in remote areas of Thailand and to correlate it with fluoride concentrations in drinking water and water for domestic use. Four to five ml of breast milk were sampled from mothers living in villages where schools under the jurisdiction of the Department of Border Patrol Police were located. The schools were sampled by Multiple Stratified Cluster Random Sampling. Fluoride was determined by microdiffusion method. Statistical analysis were made by ANOVA and LSD test. Correlation between fluoride content in milk and water was assessed by Kendall's tau-b. The mean fluoride concentration in breast milk was 0.017+/-0.02 ppm. There was no difference in breast milk fluoride concentration between regions (p=0.6). No correlation was found between breast milk fluoride content and fluoride concentrations in either drinking water or water for domestic use (r(tau) = -0.09, p = 0.32, r(tau) = -0.04, p = 0.65 respectively).

  13. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N.; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language. PMID:26441551

  14. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  15. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N.; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2015-09-15

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. As a result, the unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  16. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    DOE PAGES

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Liu, Hesheng; ...

    2015-09-15

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that themore » left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. As a result, the unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.« less

  17. Human pluripotent stem cell differentiation into authentic striatal projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Delli Carri, Alessia; Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Faedo, Andrea; Camnasio, Stefano; Toselli, Mauro; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2013-08-01

    Here we present the principles and steps of a protocol that we have recently developed for the differentiation of hES/iPS cells into the authentic human striatal projection medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that die in Huntington's Disease (HD). Authenticity is judged by the convergence of multiple features within individual cells. Our procedure lasts 80 days and couples neural induction via BMP/TGF-β inhibition with exposure to the developmental factors sonic hedgehog (SHH) and dickkopf1 (DKK-1) to drive ventral telencephalic specification, followed by terminal differentiation [1]. Authenticity of the resulting neuronal population is monitored by the appearance of FOXG1(+)/GSX2(+) progenitor cells of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at day 15-25 of differentiation, followed by appearance of CTIP2-, FOXP1- and FOXP2-positive cells at day 45. These precursor cells then mature into MAP2(+)/GABA(+) neurons with 20 % of them ultimately co-expressing the DARPP-32 and CTIP2 diagnostic markers and carrying electrophysiological properties expected for fully functional MSNs.The protocol is characterized by its replicability in at least three human pluripotent cell lines. Altogether this protocol defines a useful platform for in vitro developmental neurobiology studies, drug screening, and regenerative medicine approaches.

  18. Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011-60

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Uma Shankar; Aijun Xiu; K. Talgo; D. Yang; Ernest Dixon; Donald McKenzie; Karen L. Abt

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in society and climate are expected to affect wildfire activity in the south-eastern United States. The objective of this research was to understand how changes in both climate and society may affect wildfire in the coming decades.We estimated a three-stage statistical model of wildfire area burned by ecoregion province for lightning and human causes (...

  19. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  20. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  1. Dog Bites in Humans and Estimating Human Rabies Mortality in Rabies Endemic Areas of Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Tenzin; Dhand, Navneet K.; Gyeltshen, Tashi; Firestone, Simon; Zangmo, Chhimi; Dema, Chimi; Gyeltshen, Rawang; Ward, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. Methods A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009–2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. Results Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8–1022.5), 293.8 (240–358.2) and 284.8 (251.2–323) per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62%) were more at risk than females (P<0.001). Children aged 5–9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71%) were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing) in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57–6.29) per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53–7.53) deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69–25.14) deaths/year in these two areas. Conclusions Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan. PMID:22132247

  2. Geosphere-biosphere interactions in European Protected Areas: a view from the H2020 ECOPOTENTIAL Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Karnieli, Arnon; Marangi, Carmela; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Imperio, Simona

    2017-04-01

    The large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, contributing to GEO and GEOSS - http://www.ecopotential-project.eu/) is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, adopting the view of ecosystems as one physical system with their environment, focusing on geosphere-biosphere interactions, Earth Critical Zone dynamics, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions, the effect of extreme events and using Essential (Climate, Biodiversity and Ocean) Variables as descriptors of change. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The project focuses on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance, that is representative of the range of environmental and biogeographical conditions characterizing Europe. Some of the activities of the project are devoted to detect and quantify the changes taking place in the Protected Areas, through the analysis of remote sensing observations, in-situ data and gridded climatic datasets. Likewise, the project aims at providing estimates of the future ecosystem conditions in different climate and environmental change scenarios. In all such endeavours, one is faced with cross-scale issues: downscaling of climate information to drive ecosystem response, and upscaling of local ecosystem changes to larger scales. So far, the analysis has been conducted mainly by using traditional methods, but there is wide room for improvement by using more refined approaches. In particular, a crucial question is how to upscale the information gained at single-site scale to larger, regional or continental scale, an issue that could benefit from using, for example, complex network analysis.

  3. Uncertainty Surrounding Projections of the Long-Term Impact of Ivermectin Treatment on Human Onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hugo C.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Walker, Martin; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Prichard, Roger K.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal have indicated that annual (or biannual) ivermectin distribution may lead to local elimination of human onchocerciasis in certain African foci. Modelling-based projections have been used to estimate the required duration of ivermectin distribution to reach elimination. A crucial assumption has been that microfilarial production by Onchocerca volvulus is reduced irreversibly by 30–35% with each (annual) ivermectin round. However, other modelling-based analyses suggest that ivermectin may not have such a cumulative effect. Uncertainty in this (biological) and other (programmatic) assumptions would affect projected outcomes of long-term ivermectin treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings We modify a deterministic age- and sex-structured onchocerciasis transmission model, parameterised for savannah O. volvulus–Simulium damnosum, to explore the impact of assumptions regarding the effect of ivermectin on worm fertility and the patterns of treatment coverage compliance, and frequency on projections of parasitological outcomes due to long-term, mass ivermectin administration in hyperendemic areas. The projected impact of ivermectin distribution on onchocerciasis and the benefits of switching from annual to biannual distribution are strongly dependent on assumptions regarding the drug's effect on worm fertility and on treatment compliance. If ivermectin does not have a cumulative impact on microfilarial production, elimination of onchocerciasis in hyperendemic areas may not be feasible with annual ivermectin distribution. Conclusions/Significance There is substantial (biological and programmatic) uncertainty surrounding modelling projections of onchocerciasis elimination. These uncertainties need to be acknowledged for mathematical models to inform control policy reliably. Further research is needed to elucidate the effect of ivermectin on O. volvulus reproductive biology and quantify the patterns of coverage and

  4. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  5. GIS-aided port area plane design on project for Dongluo island-port in Fuzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zong, Yueguang; He, Jinliao

    2008-10-01

    Up to now, the site selection of deepwater port has become a hot issue in the construction and planning of many estuary port cities. At the same time, there are various schemes about the location of deepwater port in Fuzhou and different opinions on them. Under this background, a new project for Dongluo Island-Port has been put forward. Port engineering has distinct spatial attributes, so its design is closely related to geographic spatial location. According to common engineering technique standards of seaport's location and construction, this paper explores the port area plane design of the new project by spatial analysis means of GIS. Main technical processes include applying the ARC/INFO9.0 and ArcView3.2 software to build elevation data firstly, then overlay the feature coverage to the base map to implement spatial analysis, and obtain the design coverage for port area finally. Combining with technical criterions of port area plane design, the paper analyses the design effect and concludes that the berths arrangement accords with the demand of transport capacity and the items layout accords with the engineering technique criterions as well, therefore the port area plane design is technically feasible as a whole.

  6. Project scheduling: A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm that optimizes the effectiveness of human resources and the project makespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannibelli, Virginia; Amandi, Analía

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the project scheduling problem is addressed in order to assist project managers at the early stage of scheduling. Thus, as part of the problem, two priority optimization objectives for managers at that stage are considered. One of these objectives is to assign the most effective set of human resources to each project activity. The effectiveness of a human resource is considered to depend on its work context. The other objective is to minimize the project makespan. To solve the problem, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is proposed. This algorithm designs feasible schedules for a given project and evaluates the designed schedules in relation to each objective. The algorithm generates an approximation to the Pareto set as a solution to the problem. The computational experiments carried out on nine different instance sets are reported.

  7. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Project and Design Engineering

    2011-03-01

    The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and (9) when all disturbed areas are re-stabilized, remove

  8. 3-D diffusion tensor axonal tracking shows distinct SMA and pre-SMA projections to the human striatum.

    PubMed

    Lehéricy, Stéphane; Ducros, Mathieu; Krainik, Alexandre; Francois, Chantal; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Ugurbil, Kamil; Kim, Dae-Shik

    2004-12-01

    Studies in non-human primates have shown that medial premotor projections to the striatum are characterized as a set of distinct circuits conveying different type of information. This study assesses the anatomical projections from the supplementary motor area (SMA), pre-SMA and motor cortex (MC) to the human striatum using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. Eight right-handed volunteers were studied at 1.5 T using DTI axonal tracking. A connectivity matrix was computed, which tested for connections between cortical areas (MC, SMA and pre-SMA) and subcortical areas (posterior, middle and anterior putamen and the head of the caudate nucleus) in each hemisphere. Pre-SMA projections to the striatum were located rostral to SMA projections to the striatum. The SMA and the MC were similarly connected to the posterior and middle putamen and not to the anterior striatum. These data show that the MC and SMA have connections with similar parts of the sensorimotor compartment of the human striatum, whereas the pre-SMA sends connections to more rostral parts of the striatum, including the associative compartment.

  9. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  10. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  11. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  12. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region.

  13. Efferent projection from the rostral ventrolateral medulla to the area postrema in rats.

    PubMed

    Frugière, A; Nunez, E; Pasaro, R; Gaytan, S; Barillot, J C

    1998-08-06

    The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a region of the brain primarily involved in cardiovascular control. It receives information from several areas of the brainstem, among which the area postrema (AP) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The medial subnuclei of the solitary tract (TS) project towards the RVLM, providing cardiopulmonary information, and the AP serves information about circulatory hormones. Although the efferent pathways are well known, it is not the case for the connections from the RVLM towards the AP and the NTS. The present study was designed to examine the efferent connections from the RVLM onto the dorsal structures of the medulla: quantitatively by means of anatomical techniques, and functionally by means of electrophysiological techniques. Morphologically, Biocytin or Biotinylated dextran amine microinjections into the RVLM were followed by labelling of many fibres running towards the bulbar dorsomedial structures, with some pathways lying in the AP itself, or located in its caudal vicinity. Conversely, when microinjections of Fast Blue (FB) were made into the AP, FB-labelled cells could be observed within the RVLM. Electrophysiologically, single shock stimulation carried on AP allowed identification of axonal fibres issuing from somata located into the cardiovascular neuronal pool in the RVLM. From these results, we can assume: (1) the existence of dense efferent projection from RVLM to aspects of the dorsal vagal complex, including the AP and, among this dense projection, (2) the existence of some fibres terminating in, or crossing through the AP, and identified as conveying baroreceptor-related information, in the rat.

  14. Long-distance feedback projections to area V1: implications for multisensory integration, spatial awareness, and visual consciousness.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Simon; Falchier, Arnaud; Kennedy, Henry

    2004-06-01

    It is generally agreed that information flow through the cortex is constrained by a hierarchical architecture. Recent experimental evidence suggests that projections descending the hierarchy and targeting the primary visual cortex (area V1) may play an essential role in perceptual processes. We have, therefore, reexamined feedback projections to area V1, using retrograde tracer injections in this area In addition to well-known areas, quantification of labeling in higher cortical areas reveals a number of hitherto unknown long-distance feedback connections originating from auditory (A1), multisensory (STP) cortices, but also from a perirhinal area (36). These feedback projections from advanced cortical stations, a global feature shared by areas that belong to the ventral visual stream, could play an important role in early multisensory integration and spatial awareness and could provide the physical substrate for the involvement of area V1 in visual consciousness.

  15. Large Area Projection Microstereolithography: Characterization and Optimization of 3D Printing Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Melissa R.; Moran, Bryan; Bekker, Logan; Dudukovic, Nikola

    2016-08-12

    Large Area Projection Microstereolithography (LAPμSL) is a new technology that allows the additive manufacture of parts that have feature sizes spanning from centimeters to tens of microns. Knowing the accuracy of builds from a system like this is a crucial step in development. This project explored the capabilities of the second and newest LAPμSL system that was built by comparing the features of actual builds to the desired structures. The system was then characterized in order to achieve the best results. The photo polymeric resins that were used were Autodesk PR48 and HDDA. Build parameters for Autodesk PR48 were found that allowed the prints to progress while using the full capacity of the system to print quality parts in a relatively short amount of time. One of the larger prints in particular had a print time that was nearly eighteen times faster than it would have been had printed in the first LAPμSL system. The characterization of HDDA resin helped the understanding that the flux of the light projected into the resin also affected the quality of the builds, rather than just the dose of light given. Future work for this project includes exploring the use of other resins in the LAPμSL systems, exploring the use of Raman Spectroscopy to analyze builds, and completing the characterization of the LAPμSL system.

  16. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  17. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  18. Tackling five main problem areas found in science (ground segment) project developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, T.; Pérez-López, F.

    2014-08-01

    Science projects which require a large software development may use many scientists alongside a few professional software engineers. Such projects tend to show extreme cases of the general problems associated with software developments. After introducing an example of a large software development in a science project, the importance of a development management plan will be emphasised and sections of the plan highlighted and it is explained how these sections address and prepare for the expected problems throughout the life of the project. A positive, strongly proactive quality assurance, QA, approach is the common theme throughout. The role of QA is, therefore, more to guide, support and advise all members of the team rather than only to detect and react to problems. The top five problem areas addressed are: 1. Vague, late and missing requirements. 2. Few professional software engineers in a large software development. 3. A lack of testers with an appropriate test mentality. 4. Quality Assurance people cannot be everywhere, nor have in-depth skills in every subject. 5. Scientists will want to start coding and see writing documents as a waste of their time.

  19. A Program to Strengthen Early Childhood Education in Poverty Area Schools; Project No. 0769. Evaluation of ESEA Title I Projects in New York City 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Cynthia H.

    The Program to Strengthen Early Childhood Education in poverty area schools in New York City, a Title I ESEA project, was designed to continue the efforts of Project Headstart into the primary grades. The program attempted to improve the achievement level of primary grade pupils by introducing reduced class ratios, paraprofessional assistance, and…

  20. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  1. Patterns of morphological integration between parietal and temporal areas in the human skull.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Bastir, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Modern humans have evolved bulging parietal areas and large, projecting temporal lobes. Both changes, largely due to a longitudinal expansion of these cranial and cerebral elements, were hypothesized to be the result of brain evolution and cognitive variations. Nonetheless, the independence of these two morphological characters has not been evaluated. Because of structural and functional integration among cranial elements, changes in the position of the temporal poles can be a secondary consequence of parietal bulging and reorientation of the head axis. In this study, we use geometric morphometrics to test the correlation between parietal shape and the morphology of the endocranial base in a sample of adult modern humans. Our results suggest that parietal proportions show no correlation with the relative position of the temporal poles within the spatial organization of the endocranial base. The vault and endocranial base are likely to be involved in distinct morphogenetic processes, with scarce or no integration between these two districts. Therefore, the current evidence rejects the hypothesis of reciprocal morphological influences between parietal and temporal morphology, suggesting that evolutionary spatial changes in these two areas may have been independent. However, parietal bulging exerts a visible effect on the rotation of the cranial base, influencing head position and orientation. This change can have had a major relevance in the reorganization of the head functional axis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-an; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0–330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15–180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates. PMID:26186707

  3. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0-330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15-180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates.

  4. Impact of the Three Gorges project on ecological environment changes and snail distribution in Dongting Lake area.

    PubMed

    Li, Feiyue; Ma, Shujuan; Li, Yiyi; Tan, Hongzhuan; Hou, Xunya; Ren, Guanghui; Cai, Kaiping

    2017-07-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is a remarkable, far-reaching project in China. This study was conducted to assess the impact of TGD on changes in the ecological environment, snail distribution and schistosomiasis transmission in Dongting Lake area. Hydrological data were collected from 12 monitoring sites in Hunan section of Yangtze River before and after TGD was established. Data on snail distribution and human schistosomiasis infection were also collected. Correlation analyses were performed to detect the significance of snail distribution to changes in ecological environmental factors and human schistosomiasis infection. A series of ecological environmental factors have changed in Dongting Lake area following the operation of TGD. Volume of annual runoff discharged into Dongting Lake declined by 20.85%. Annual sediment volume discharged into the lake and the mean lake sedimentation rate decreased by 73.9% and 32.2%, respectively. From 2003 to 2015, occurrence rate of frames with living snails and mean density of living snails decreased overall by 82.43% and 94.35%, respectively, with annual decrements being 13.49% and 21.29%. Moreover, human infection rate of schistosomiasis had decreased from 3.38% in 2003 to 0.44% in 2015, with a reduction of 86.98%. Correlation analyses showed that mean density of living snails was significantly associated with water level (r = 0.588, p<0.001), as well as the mean elevation range of the bottomland (r = 0.374, p = 0.025) and infection rate of schistosomiasis (r = 0.865, p<0.001). Ecological environmental changes caused by the TGD were associated with distribution of snails, and might further affect the transmission and prevalence of schistosomiasis. Risk of schistosomiasis transmission still exists in Dongting Lake area and long-term monitoring is required.

  5. The projection from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum sustains long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Commins, S; Gigg, J; Anderson, M; O'Mara, S M

    1998-03-30

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a popular model of the synaptic plasticity which may be engaged by the biological processes underlying learning and memory. Most available studies of LTP have concentrated on the analysis of LTP occurring in 'early' components of the hippocampal circuit (for example, dentate gyrus and area CA1). We examine here, for the first time, LTP as it occurs in the massive, unidirectional projection from CA1 to the subiculum in vivo. We show that this projection sustains high-frequency stimulus-induced LTP (10 trains of 20 stimuli at 200 Hz; intertrain interval 2 s; LTP 181 +/- 9% at 30 min post-LTP induction). In addition, input-output (I/O) curves show a leftward shift for all stimulation values.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-11-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) continued environmental investigation of the subsurface Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447. The PSA is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles [mi]) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal was part of the Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the US' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device deep underground in granitic rock to determine whether seismic waves produced by an underground nuclear test could be differentiated from seismic waves produced by a naturally occurring earthquake. The test was a joint effort conducted by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) in October 1963 (AEC, 1964).

  7. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  8. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network.

    PubMed

    Hole, David G; Willis, Stephen G; Pain, Deborah J; Fishpool, Lincoln D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Collingham, Yvonne C; Rahbek, Carsten; Huntley, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Despite widespread concern, the continuing effectiveness of networks of protected areas under projected 21st century climate change is uncertain. Shifts in species' distributions could mean these resources will cease to afford protection to those species for which they were originally established. Using modelled projected shifts in the distributions of sub-Saharan Africa's entire breeding avifauna, we show that species turnover across the continent's Important Bird Area (IBA) network is likely to vary regionally and will be substantial at many sites (> 50% at 42% of IBAs by 2085 for priority species). Persistence of suitable climate space across the network as a whole, however, is notably high, with 88-92% of priority species retaining suitable climate space in >or= 1 IBA(s) in which they are currently found. Only 7-8 priority species lose climatic representation from the network. Hence, despite the likelihood of significant community disruption, we demonstrate that rigorously defined networks of protected areas can play a key role in mitigating the worst impacts of climate change on biodiversity.

  9. Emergence Model of social and human capital and its application to the Healthy Municipalities project in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; de Sá, Ronice Franco; Pincovsky, Sheila; Shimanouchi, Norio

    2007-12-01

    We developed the Emergence Model and introduced the concept of social and human capital into designing and evaluating the Healthy Cities/Municipalities project to ensure health promotion infrastructure. This model hypothesizes that through the interaction and utilization of the other forms of capital, namely financial, physical and natural, the emergence of collective action takes place in the community or municipal setting. Subsequently, collective action may influence health and quality of life determinants. Once health and quality of life improvements are achieved, the enhancement of the social, human and other capital may be brought about through positive feedback, and successive collective action is thereby facilitated. According to the model, practitioners and policy makers of the Healthy Cities/Municipalities project should primarily strengthen social and human capital. The model is currently applied to designing the Healthy Municipalities project implemented in rural areas of Northeast Brazil, where infrastructure and a supportive environment to facilitate collective action for control over health and health determinant have been considerably frail due to geographical, historical, social and cultural reasons. Various interventions have been conducted in the scope of the project to enhance social and human capital on three levels, namely the state, municipality and community. Through the capacity development of health promoters, obliging volunteers and so on, the project attempts to create the social mechanism that enables people to build healthy public policies through inter- and trans-sectoral collaboration as well as to address and resolve day-to-day issues using their potentialities.

  10. The Minimal Preprocessing Pipelines for the Human Connectome Project

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Matthew F.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Wilson, J Anthony; Coalson, Timothy S; Fischl, Bruce; Andersson, Jesper L; Xu, Junqian; Jbabdi, Saad; Webster, Matthew; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Van Essen, David C; Jenkinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Human Connectome Project (HCP) faces the challenging task of bringing multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities together in a common automated preprocessing framework across a large cohort of subjects. The MRI data acquired by the HCP differ in many ways from data acquired on conventional 3 Tesla scanners and often require newly developed preprocessing methods. We describe the minimal preprocessing pipelines for structural, functional, and diffusion MRI that were developed by the HCP to accomplish many low level tasks, including spatial artifact/distortion removal, surface generation, cross-modal registration, and alignment to standard space. These pipelines are specially designed to capitalize on the high quality data offered by the HCP. The final standard space makes use of a recently introduced CIFTI file format and the associated grayordinates spatial coordinate system. This allows for combined cortical surface and subcortical volume analyses while reducing the storage and processing requirements for high spatial and temporal resolution data. Here, we provide the minimum image acquisition requirements for the HCP minimal preprocessing pipelines and additional advice for investigators interested in replicating the HCP’s acquisition protocols or using these pipelines. Finally, we discuss some potential future improvements for the pipelines. PMID:23668970

  11. Human Variome Project Quality Assessment Criteria for Variation Databases.

    PubMed

    Vihinen, Mauno; Hancock, John M; Maglott, Donna R; Landrum, Melissa J; Schaafsma, Gerard C P; Taschner, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Numerous databases containing information about DNA, RNA, and protein variations are available. Gene-specific variant databases (locus-specific variation databases, LSDBs) are typically curated and maintained for single genes or groups of genes for a certain disease(s). These databases are widely considered as the most reliable information source for a particular gene/protein/disease, but it should also be made clear they may have widely varying contents, infrastructure, and quality. Quality is very important to evaluate because these databases may affect health decision-making, research, and clinical practice. The Human Variome Project (HVP) established a Working Group for Variant Database Quality Assessment. The basic principle was to develop a simple system that nevertheless provides a good overview of the quality of a database. The HVP quality evaluation criteria that resulted are divided into four main components: data quality, technical quality, accessibility, and timeliness. This report elaborates on the developed quality criteria and how implementation of the quality scheme can be achieved. Examples are provided for the current status of the quality items in two different databases, BTKbase, an LSDB, and ClinVar, a central archive of submissions about variants and their clinical significance. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. The chromosome-centric human proteome project at FEBS Congress.

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, Elena; Baranova, Ancha; Lisitsa, Andrey; Albar, Juan Pablo; Archakov, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In the summer of 2013, distinguished global representatives of proteome science gathered to discuss the futuristic visions of the chromosome-centric human proteome project (C-HPP) (Cochairs: Y. K. Paik, G. Omenn; hosted by A. Archakov, Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Russia) that was broadcast to the annual Federation of European Biochemical Societies Congress (St. Petersburg, Russia, July 10-11, 2013). Technology breakthroughs presented included a new ultra-sensitive Tribrid mass-spectrometer from Thermo and SOMAmers-Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamers (SOMAlogic, USA), a new type of protein capture reagents. Professor Archakov's group introduced the "rectangle" concept of proteome size as a product of proteome width and depth. The discussion on proteome width culminated with the introduction of digital biomarkers-low-copied aberrant proteins that differ from their typical forms by PTMs, alternative splicing, or single amino acid polymorphisms. The aberrant proteoforms, a complement to whole-genome proteomic surveys, were presented as an ultimate goal for the proteomic community.

  13. Data dictionary services in XNAT and the Human Connectome Project.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Rick; McKay, Michael; Olsen, Timothy; Horton, William; Florida, Mark; Moore, Charles J; Marcus, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    The XNAT informatics platform is an open source data management tool used by biomedical imaging researchers around the world. An important feature of XNAT is its highly extensible architecture: users of XNAT can add new data types to the system to capture the imaging and phenotypic data generated in their studies. Until recently, XNAT has had limited capacity to broadcast the meaning of these data extensions to users, other XNAT installations, and other software. We have implemented a data dictionary service for XNAT, which is currently being used on ConnectomeDB, the Human Connectome Project (HCP) public data sharing website. The data dictionary service provides a framework to define key relationships between data elements and structures across the XNAT installation. This includes not just core data representing medical imaging data or subject or patient evaluations, but also taxonomical structures, security relationships, subject groups, and research protocols. The data dictionary allows users to define metadata for data structures and their properties, such as value types (e.g., textual, integers, floats) and valid value templates, ranges, or field lists. The service provides compatibility and integration with other research data management services by enabling easy migration of XNAT data to standards-based formats such as the Resource Description Framework (RDF), JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), and Extensible Markup Language (XML). It also facilitates the conversion of XNAT's native data schema into standard neuroimaging vocabularies and structures.

  14. Project Columbiad: Reestablishment of human presence on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Joseph; Weiss, Stanley; Alexander, Harold; Belobaba, Peter; Loboda, Greg; Berry, Maresi; Bower, Mark; Bruen, Charles; Cazeau, Patrick; Clarke, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted missions have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mecanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  15. Data dictionary services in XNAT and the Human Connectome Project

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Rick; McKay, Michael; Olsen, Timothy; Horton, William; Florida, Mark; Moore, Charles J.; Marcus, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The XNAT informatics platform is an open source data management tool used by biomedical imaging researchers around the world. An important feature of XNAT is its highly extensible architecture: users of XNAT can add new data types to the system to capture the imaging and phenotypic data generated in their studies. Until recently, XNAT has had limited capacity to broadcast the meaning of these data extensions to users, other XNAT installations, and other software. We have implemented a data dictionary service for XNAT, which is currently being used on ConnectomeDB, the Human Connectome Project (HCP) public data sharing website. The data dictionary service provides a framework to define key relationships between data elements and structures across the XNAT installation. This includes not just core data representing medical imaging data or subject or patient evaluations, but also taxonomical structures, security relationships, subject groups, and research protocols. The data dictionary allows users to define metadata for data structures and their properties, such as value types (e.g., textual, integers, floats) and valid value templates, ranges, or field lists. The service provides compatibility and integration with other research data management services by enabling easy migration of XNAT data to standards-based formats such as the Resource Description Framework (RDF), JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), and Extensible Markup Language (XML). It also facilitates the conversion of XNAT's native data schema into standard neuroimaging vocabularies and structures. PMID:25071542

  16. Geological evaluation of San Diego Norte Pilot Project, Zuata area, Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    De Rojas, I.

    1987-10-01

    The San Diego Norte Pilot Project consists of twelve inclined wells (7 producing wells 300 m (984 ft) apart, plus 5 observation wells) drilled from a cluster, to study the production and compaction behavior under steam soak (huff and puff) of the Tertiary heavy crude oil reservoirs of the Zuata area. This area is located within the Orinoco Heavy Oil belt of Venezuela. A geological model was needed as a base for the reservoir studies and to understand the geological setting. This model was constructed from extensive log information, seismic lines, well samples, and cores. The reservoir sands are friable with an average porosity of 34% and permeabilities ranging from 1 to 7 ..mu..m/sup 2/ (1 to 7 darcys). The sands were deposited in meander belts that stacked up forming multistory bodies. Point bars and channel fills account for 80-90% of the total sand. These sands are internally heterogeneous, sinuous and elongated, and larger than the 1 km/sup 2/ area covered by the project. The topmost two productive sands, which together average 22 m (72 ft), show the best porosities and permeabilities and are isolated by thick clays that make them suitable for selective steam injection. In the project, the oil has a density of about 1.0 g/cm/sup 3/ (10/sup 0/ API) and fills all the sands down to the oil-water contact. The depth of this contact is controlled by regional faults. Based on core compressibility tests, compaction is expected to be the principal production mechanism that could increase the expected primary recovery of 4 to 12% by huff and puff steam injection, leading to a possible recovery of 0.64 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ (4 million bbl) in six years with four cycles of steam injection. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  17. The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend

    2015-01-01

    School students should be taught about the law and this includes rights education. The global human rights education (HRE) project focuses on universal human rights and has a strongly utopian orientation, drawing as it does on international declarations and principles of human rights law. International human rights law is, however, at best a…

  18. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  19. The Spanish biology/disease initiative within the human proteome project: Application to rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Romero, Cristina; Calamia, Valentina; Albar, Juan Pablo; Casal, José Ignacio; Corrales, Fernando J; Fernández-Puente, Patricia; Gil, Concha; Mateos, Jesús; Vivanco, Fernando; Blanco, Francisco J

    2015-09-08

    The Spanish Chromosome 16 consortium is integrated in the global initiative Human Proteome Project, which aims to develop an entire map of the proteins encoded following a gene-centric strategy (C-HPP) in order to make progress in the understanding of human biology in health and disease (B/D-HPP). Chromosome 16 contains many genes encoding proteins involved in the development of a broad range of diseases, which have a significant impact on the health care system. The Spanish HPP consortium has developed a B/D platform with five programs focused on selected medical areas: cancer, obesity, cardiovascular, infectious and rheumatic diseases. Each of these areas has a clinical leader associated to a proteomic investigator with the responsibility to get a comprehensive understanding of the proteins encoded by Chromosome 16 genes. Proteomics strategies have enabled great advances in the area of rheumatic diseases, particularly in osteoarthritis, with studies performed on joint cells, tissues and fluids. In this manuscript we describe how the Spanish HPP-16 consortium has developed a B/D platform with five programs focused on selected medical areas: cancer, obesity, cardiovascular, infectious and rheumatic diseases. Each of these areas has a clinical leader associated to a proteomic investigator with the responsibility to get a comprehensive understanding of the proteins encoded by Chromosome 16 genes. We show how the Proteomic strategy has enabled great advances in the area of rheumatic diseases, particularly in osteoarthritis, with studies performed on joint cells, tissues and fluids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: HUPO 2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Io Shown in Lambertian Equal Area Projection and in Approximately Natural Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    NASA's Voyager 1 computer color mosaics, shown in approximately natural color and in Lambertian equal-area projections, show the Eastern (left) and Western (right) hemispheres of Io. This innermost of Jupiter's 4 major satellites is the most volcanically active object in the solar system. Io is 2263 mi (3640 km) in diameter, making it a little bigger than Earth's moon. Almost all the features visible here have volcanic origins, including several calderas and eruption plumes that were active at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00318

  1. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A PowerPoint Presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Earthquake Insight St. Louis, Mo., field trip held on May 28, 2009. The presentation focused on summarizing the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) justification, goals, achievements, and products, for an audience of business and public officials. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight, in an abbreviated format, the topics addressed; they are discussed below and are explained with additional text as appropriate.

  2. Procedures and results of the measurements on large area photomultipliers for the NEMO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Aloisio, A.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Bellotti, R.; Bersani, A.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bonori, M.; Bouhdaef, B.; Cacopardo, G.; Calı, C.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carminati, G.; Cassano, B.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; D'Amico, A.; DeBonis, G.; DeRosa, G.; DeRuvo, G.; DeVita, R.; Distefano, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Giovanetti, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; Imbesi, M.; Lonardo, A.; LoPresti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Maugeri, F.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Piattelli, P.; Piombo, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Spurio, M.; Stefani, F.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vicini, P.; Wischnewski, R.

    2010-03-01

    The selection of the photomultiplier plays a crucial role in the R&D activity related to a large-scale underwater neutrino telescope. This paper illustrates the main procedures and facilities used to characterize the performances of 72 large area photomultipliers, Hamamatsu model R7081 sel. The voltage to achieve a gain of 5×10 7, dark count rate and single photoelectron time and charge properties of the overall response were measured with a properly attenuated 410 nm pulsed laser. A dedicated study of the spurious pulses was also performed. The results prove that the photomultipliers comply with the general requirements imposed by the project.

  3. Delayed response to animate implied motion in human motion processing areas.

    PubMed

    Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Kenemans, J Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; de Heer, Frederiek; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2006-02-01

    Viewing static photographs of objects in motion evokes higher fMRI activation in the human medial temporal complex (MT+) than looking at similar photographs without this implied motion. As MT+ is traditionally thought to be involved in motion perception (and not in form perception), this finding suggests feedback from object-recognition areas onto MT+. To investigate this hypothesis, we recorded extracranial potentials evoked by the sight of photographs of biological agents with and without implied motion. The difference in potential between responses to pictures with and without implied motion was maximal between 260 and 400 msec after stimulus onset. Source analysis of this difference revealed one bilateral, symmetrical dipole pair in the occipital lobe. This area also showed a response to real motion, but approximately 100 msec earlier than the implied motion response. The longer latency of the implied motion response in comparison to the real motion response is consistent with a feedback projection onto MT+ following object recognition in higher-level temporal areas.

  4. Crisis Communication in the Area of Risk Management: The CriCoRM Project

    PubMed Central

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Antonelli, Laura; Orizio, Grazia; Rossmann, Costanze; Ziegler, Lena; Meyer, Lisa; Garcia-Jimenez, Leonarda; Losada, Jose Carlos; Correia, Joao; Soares, Joana; Covolo, Loredana; Lirangi, Enrico; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    releases, press coverage and forum discussions) and on interviews with key stakeholders in health crisis communication. The development of web 2.0 tools, providing rapid responses will allow real-time verification of awareness of social trends and citizens’ response. Furthermore, the project would like to offer these resources to the EU Public Health Institutions and EU citizens to improve their interaction, and hence reinforce citizens’ right to patient-centred health care. The project proposal has been designed in accordance with the general principles of ethics and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights with regard to human rights, values, freedom, solidarity, and better protection of European citizens. PMID:25170491

  5. Crisis Communication in the Area of Risk Management: The CriCoRM Project.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Antonelli, Laura; Orizio, Grazia; Rossmann, Costanze; Ziegler, Lena; Meyer, Lisa; Garcia-Jimenez, Leonarda; Losada, Jose Carlos; Correia, Joao; Soares, Joana; Covolo, Loredana; Lirangi, Enrico; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-09-02

    stakeholders in health crisis communication. The development of web 2.0 tools, providing rapid responses will allow real-time verification of awareness of social trends and citizens' response. Furthermore, the project would like to offer these resources to the EU Public Health Institutions and EU citizens to improve their interaction, and hence reinforce citizens' right to patient-centred health care. The project proposal has been designed in accordance with the general principles of ethics and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights with regard to human rights, values, freedom, solidarity, and better protection of European citizens.

  6. The Human Genome Project: Information access, management, and regulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1996-08-31

    The Human Genome Project is a large, internationally coordinated effort in biological research directed at creating a detailed map of human DNA. This report describes the access of information, management, and regulation of the project. The project led to the development of an instructional module titled The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy, designed for use in high school biology classes. The module consists of print materials and both Macintosh and Windows versions of related computer software-Appendix A contains a copy of the print materials and discs containing the two versions of the software.

  7. Project Work Plan: Hanford 100-D Area Treatability Demonstration - In Situ Biostimulation for Reducing Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-05-31

    This work plan supports a new, integrated approach to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This new approach will provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the ISRM barrier by directly treating chromium and other oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen), thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier and protecting the ecological receptors and human health at the river boundary.

  8. Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011-60

    Treesearch

    Jeff Prestemon; Uma Shankar; Aijun Xiu; K. Talgo; D. Yang; Ernest Dixon IV; Donald McKenzie; Karen L. Abt

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in society and climate are expected to affect wildfire activity in the south-eastern United States. The objective of this research was to understand how changes in both climate and society may affect wildfire in the coming decades.Weestimated a three-stage statistical model of wildfire area burned by ecoregion province for lightning and human causes (...

  9. Eld's deer translocated to human-inhabited areas become nocturnal.

    PubMed

    Pan, Duo; Teng, Liwei; Cui, Fangjie; Zeng, Zhigao; Bravery, Benjamin D; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Yanling

    2011-02-01

    As human populations expand and nonhuman animals decline, understanding the interactions between people and wildlife is essential. For endangered species, appreciating the effect of human disturbance can be important for their conservation. However, a human disturbance angle is often absent from ecological research, despite growing evidence of the negative impact of nonfatal human interference. Here, we monitored Hainan Eld's deer living within a reserve and translocated animals living amongst villagers. We show that translocated deer deviated from a crepuscular activity pattern and became increas-. ingly nocturnal, and most active when villagers were not. It appears that translocated deer adapted over time to human disturbance and this pattern is similar to that of other species during periods of hunting. People do not pose an actual threat to Eld's deer, but their presence triggered a response akin to predator avoidance and may be interfering with broader aspects of their biology and conservation.

  10. EUROSEISMOS 2002-2003 a project for saving and studying historical seismograms in the Eeuro-mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, G.; Pino, N. A.

    2003-04-01

    The study of the great earthquakes and the analysis of their tectonic significance are very important elements in the evaluation of seismic potential, seismic hazard and risk. The analysis of the seismograms of historical earthquakes plays a crucial role in understanding the patterns of deformation energy release, the characteristics of propagation and interaction of the seismic waves with the inhabited areas, in the areas affected by these events. The recovery and reproduction of historical seismograms and the indispensable information contained therein, on the instruments that recorded them and their related characteristics, often become difficult and laborious operations that deprive research of a disproportionate amount of human and economic resources in relation to the objective complexity of the matter. These difficulties have so far much reduced the number of study cases and have been a disincentive to researchers interested in dealing with this important research strand. In order to overcome these difficulties the EUROSEISMOS has been started up (http://80.117.141.2/Es_web); this is a project for collaboration between researchers and research bodies having a long tradition of seismic monitoring, with the following main objectives: 1) the recovery, with the reproduction at the SISMOS centre of the INGV, of the seismograms of the most important historical earthquakes (1895 1980) in the Euro-Mediterranean area in the 20th century; 2) benchmarking of experiences on the processing of seismographic historical data; 3) creation of a permanent workgroup on these aspects. So far 29 researchers belonging to 26 countries from Finland to Algeria, and from Georgia to Portugal, have joined the project. The approximately 300 earthquakes of primary interest for the researchers involved have been collected in a catalogue, and early in 2003 the first reproductions of seismograms were started.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  12. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A Progress Report-November 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karadeniz, D.; Rogers, J.D.; Williams, R.A.; Cramer, C.H.; Bauer, R.A.; Hoffman, D.; Chung, J.; Hempen, G.L.; Steckel, P.H.; Boyd, O.L.; Watkins, C.M.; McCallister, N.S.; Schweig, E.

    2009-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) is producing digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards, including liquefaction and ground shaking, in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. Although not site specific enough to indicate the hazard at a house-by-house resolution, they can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as the result of an earthquake. Earthquake hazard maps provide one way of conveying such estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which produces earthquake hazard maps for the Nation, is working with local partners to develop detailed maps for urban areas vulnerable to strong ground shaking. These partners, which along with the USGS comprise the SLAEHMP, include the Missouri University of Science and Technology-Rolla (Missouri S&T), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Saint Louis University, Missouri State Emergency Management Agency, and URS Corporation. Preliminary hazard maps covering a test portion of the 29-quadrangle St. Louis study area have been produced and are currently being evaluated by the SLAEHMP. A USGS Fact Sheet summarizing this project was produced and almost 1000 copies have been distributed at several public outreach meetings and field trips that have featured the SLAEHMP (Williams and others, 2007). In addition, a USGS website focusing on the SLAEHMP, which provides links to project results and relevant earthquake hazard information, can be found at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/ceus/urban_map/st_louis/index.php. This progress report summarizes the

  13. Pilot project on the resettlement of out-migrant agricultural population in Yangtze Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W

    1992-10-01

    A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity.

  14. Personal genomes in progress: from the human genome project to the personal genome project.

    PubMed

    Lunshof, Jeantine E; Bobe, Jason; Aach, John; Angrist, Misha; Thakuria, Joseph V; Vorhaus, Daniel B; Hoehe, Margret R; Church, George M

    2010-01-01

    The cost of a diploid human genome sequence has dropped from about $70M to $2000 since 2007--even as the standards for redundancy have increased from 7x to 40x in order to improve call rates. Coupled with the low return on investment for common single-nucleotide polylmorphisms, this has caused a significant rise in interest in correlating genome sequences with comprehensive environmental and trait data (GET). The cost of electronic health records, imaging, and microbial, immunological, and behavioral data are also dropping quickly. Sharing such integrated GET datasets and their interpretations with a diversity of researchers and research subjects highlights the need for informed-consent models capable of addressing novel privacy and other issues, as well as for flexible data-sharing resources that make materials and data available with minimum restrictions on use. This article examines the Personal Genome Project's effort to develop a GET database as a public genomics resource broadly accessible to both researchers and research participants, while pursuing the highest standards in research ethics.

  15. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2000 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Eaton, G F; Hakemi, N L; Hudson, G B; Hutcheon, I D; Lau, C A; Kersting, A B; Kenneally, J M; Moran, J E; Phinney, D L; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Williams, R; Zavarin, M

    2001-07-01

    This report highlights the results of FY 2000 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. This is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL-ANCD to document recent investigations of radionuclide migration and transport processes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOENV), and supports DP operations at the NTS through studies of radiochemical and hydrologic processes that are relevant to the DP mission. Other organizations that support the HRMP include Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPS), and Bechtel Nevada (BN). The UGTA Project is sponsored by the Environmental Management (EM) program at DOENV; its goal is to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination in groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. The project strategy follows guidelines set forth in a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Participating contractors include LLNL (both ANCD and the Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate), LANL, USGS, DRI, BN, and IT Corporation (with subcontract support from Geotrans Inc.).

  16. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  17. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  18. Natural resource dependency and decentralized conservation within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  19. Natural Resource Dependency and Decentralized Conservation Within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  20. Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1991-11-01

    More than 30 years of intensive and continual tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage at the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany. The Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, followed by a three-year monitoring effort, was conducted to develop and evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of seven revegetation and four erosion control prescriptions implemented at a 16-ha site. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and the changes in the vegetative community during three years of military use on the seven areas treated with revegetation prescriptions. Field observations were made to determine the suitability and durability of four types of erosion control structures. Soil fertility and a source of seed appeared to be the most limiting factors in establishing vegetation, while seedbed preparation had only a minor influence. Grasses appeared to be more resistant to vehicle traffic than did other types of vegetation. Because grassed waterways were used as roads by military vehicles and a system of graded terraces was expensive, these erosion control prescriptions were unsuitable and uneconomical for use on training areas. Low-cost riprap waterbars and porous check dams slowed the velocity of runoff, trapped sediments, and were durable. Recommendations were formulated to improve the environmental and economic effectiveness of future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  1. Progress on the HUPO Draft Human Proteome: 2017 Metrics of the Human Proteome Project.

    PubMed

    Omenn, Gilbert S; Lane, Lydie; Lundberg, Emma K; Overall, Christopher M; Deutsch, Eric W

    2017-10-09

    The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Human Proteome Project (HPP) continues to make progress on its two overall goals: (1) completing the protein parts list, with an annual update of the HUPO draft human proteome, and (2) making proteomics an integrated complement to genomics and transcriptomics throughout biomedical and life sciences research. neXtProt version 2017-01-23 has 17 008 confident protein identifications (Protein Existence [PE] level 1) that are compliant with the HPP Guidelines v2.1 ( https://hupo.org/Guidelines ), up from 13 664 in 2012-12 and 16 518 in 2016-04. Remaining to be found by mass spectrometry and other methods are 2579 "missing proteins" (PE2+3+4), down from 2949 in 2016. PeptideAtlas 2017-01 has 15 173 canonical proteins, accounting for nearly all of the 15 290 PE1 proteins based on MS data. These resources have extensive data on PTMs, single amino acid variants, and splice isoforms. The Human Protein Atlas v16 has 10 492 highly curated protein entries with tissue and subcellular spatial localization of proteins and transcript expression. Organ-specific popular protein lists have been generated for broad use in quantitative targeted proteomics using SRM-MS or DIA-SWATH-MS studies of biology and disease.

  2. Lateral Hypothalamic Area Glutamatergic Neurons and Their Projections to the Lateral Habenula Regulate Feeding and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Alice M.; Van Swieten, Maaike; Basiri, Marcus L.; Blair, Grace A.; Kantak, Pranish

    2016-01-01

    The overconsumption of calorically dense, highly palatable foods is thought to be a major contributor to the worldwide obesity epidemic; however, the precise neural circuits that directly regulate hedonic feeding remain elusive. Here, we show that lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) glutamatergic neurons, and their projections to the lateral habenula (LHb), negatively regulate the consumption of palatable food. Genetic ablation of LHA glutamatergic neurons increased daily caloric intake and produced weight gain in mice that had access to a high-fat diet, while not altering general locomotor activity. Anterior LHA glutamatergic neurons send a functional glutamatergic projection to the LHb, a brain region involved in processing aversive stimuli and negative reward prediction outcomes. Pathway-specific, optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic LHA-LHb circuit resulted in detectable glutamate-mediated EPSCs as well as GABA-mediated IPSCs, although the net effect of neurotransmitter release was to increase the firing of most LHb neurons. In vivo optogenetic inhibition of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers produced a real-time place preference, whereas optogenetic stimulation of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers had the opposite effect. Furthermore, optogenetic inhibition of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers acutely increased the consumption of a palatable liquid caloric reward. Collectively, these results demonstrate that LHA glutamatergic neurons are well situated to bidirectionally regulate feeding and potentially other behavioral states via their functional circuit connectivity with the LHb and potentially other brain regions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that the genetic ablation of LHA glutamatergic neurons enhances caloric intake. Some of these LHA glutamatergic neurons project to the lateral habenula, a brain area important for generating behavioral avoidance. Optogenetic stimulation of this circuit has net excitatory effects on postsynaptic LHb neurons. This is the

  3. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 416, Mud Pit, Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the restoration and closure of the Project Shoal Area (PSA), Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416, Mud Pit (Corrective Action Site No. 57-09-01), a pit that was used to store effluent produced during drilling of the Post-Shot Borehole PS-1 in 1963. This plan describes the activities that will occur at the site and the steps that will be taken to gather enough data to obtain a notice of completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (DOE/NV, 1994). The SAFER process is being employed at this CAU where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action without completing a Corrective Action Decision Document and Corrective Action Plan. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. This has already been completed for the mud pit so it will not be repeated here. The DQOs for the mud pit are presented in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Project Shoal Area, CAU No. 416 (DOE/NV, 1996). This observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision making.

  4. The NASA role in major areas of human concern: Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    After introducing some of the general factors that have affected progress in the area of communication, NASA program elements are examined to illustrate relevant points of contact. Interpretive steps are taken throughout the report to show a few of the more important ways people's lives have been affected as a result of the work of NASA and other organizations functioning in this area. The principal documents used and interviews conducted are identified.

  5. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  6. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  7. 33 CFR 165.T01-1130 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. 165.T01-1130 Section 165.T01-1130... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  8. 33 CFR 165.T01-1130 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. 165.T01-1130 Section 165.T01-1130... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  9. 33 CFR 165.T01-1125 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA 165.T01-1125 Section 165.T01-1125... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  10. 33 CFR 165.T01-0174 - Regulated Navigation Area; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and Tarrytown, NY. 165.T01-0174 Section 165...; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and Tarrytown, NY. (a) Boundaries. The...

  11. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  12. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  13. Application of the Sketch Match method in Sulina coastal study area within PEGASO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iuliana; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian; Nichersu, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    The Sketch Match approach for Sulina pilot case was carried out in the frame of the project "People for Ecosystem Based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and Coast" - PEGASO, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme. The PEGASO project has been designed to identify common threats and solutions in relation to the long-term sustainable development and environmental protection of coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas in ways relevant to the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol (ICZM) for the Mediterranean. PEGASO will use the model of the existing ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean and adjust it to the needs of the Black Sea through innovative actions, one of them being Refine and develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone tested through a number of relevant pilot sites. Thus, for the Romania case study, the Sketch Match approach was selected, being an interactive public participation planning method, developed by the Dutch Government, and applied for Sulina area in order to stimulate support and involvement from stakeholders regarding Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol by consulting and involving these people in the planning process and making use of a coherent package of interactive methods. Participants were representatives of a wide range of stakeholders, varying from local fisherman to representatives of the Local and County council and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority. They participated in a two-day design session, focused on problems and potentials of the area, with the aim to work out possible solutions for an integrated coastal spatial planning, focusing on the parallel enhance of the various local functions in the spatial design (coastal area protection next to industry, tourism, nature, recreation, and other activities).

  14. MORPHIN: a web tool for human disease research by projecting model organism biology onto a human integrated gene network.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Yang, Sunmo; Marcotte, Edward M; Lee, Insuk

    2014-07-01

    Despite recent advances in human genetics, model organisms are indispensable for human disease research. Most human disease pathways are evolutionally conserved among other species, where they may phenocopy the human condition or be associated with seemingly unrelated phenotypes. Much of the known gene-to-phenotype association information is distributed across diverse databases, growing rapidly due to new experimental techniques. Accessible bioinformatics tools will therefore facilitate translation of discoveries from model organisms into human disease biology. Here, we present a web-based discovery tool for human disease studies, MORPHIN (model organisms projected on a human integrated gene network), which prioritizes the most relevant human diseases for a given set of model organism genes, potentially highlighting new model systems for human diseases and providing context to model organism studies. Conceptually, MORPHIN investigates human diseases by an orthology-based projection of a set of model organism genes onto a genome-scale human gene network. MORPHIN then prioritizes human diseases by relevance to the projected model organism genes using two distinct methods: a conventional overlap-based gene set enrichment analysis and a network-based measure of closeness between the query and disease gene sets capable of detecting associations undetectable by the conventional overlap-based methods. MORPHIN is freely accessible at http://www.inetbio.org/morphin.

  15. Cerebral areas associated with motor control of speech in humans.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K; Corfield, D R; Guz, A; Fink, G R; Wise, R J; Harrison, J; Adams, L

    1997-11-01

    We have defined areas in the brain activated during speaking, utilizing positron emission tomography. Six normal subjects continuously repeated the phrase "Buy Bobby a poppy" (requiring minimal language processing) in four ways: A) spoken aloud, B) mouthed silently, C) without articulation, and D) thought silently. Statistical comparison of images from conditions A with C and B with D highlighted areas associated with articulation alone, because control of breathing for speech was controlled for; we found bilateral activations in sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum with right-sided activation in the thalamus/caudate nucleus. Contrasting images from conditions A with B and C with D highlighted areas associated with the control of breathing for speech, vocalization, and hearing, because articulation was controlled for; we found bilateral activations in sensorimotor and motor cortex, close to but distinct from the activations in the preceding contrast, together with activations in thalamus, cerebellum, and supplementary motor area. In neither subtraction was there activation in Broca's area. These results emphasize the bilaterality of the cerebral control of "speaking" without language processing.

  16. The Human Microbiome Project strategy for comprehensive sampling of the human microbiome and why it matters

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Kjersti; Petrosino, Joseph; Keitel, Wendy; Watson, Mark; Katancik, James; Garcia, Nathalia; Patel, Shital; Cutting, Mary; Madden, Tessa; Hamilton, Holli; Harris, Emily; Gevers, Dirk; Simone, Gina; McInnes, Pamela; Versalovic, James

    2013-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project used rigorous good clinical practice standards to complete comprehensive body site sampling in healthy 18- to 40-yr-old adults, creating an unparalleled reference set of microbiome specimens. To ensure that specimens represented minimally perturbed microbiomes, we first screened potential participants using exclusion criteria based on health history, including the presence of systemic diseases (e.g., hypertension, cancer, or immunodeficiency or autoimmune disorders), use of potential immunomodulators, and recent use of antibiotics or probiotics. Subsequent physical examinations excluded individuals based on body mass index (BMI), cutaneous lesions, and oral health. We screened 554 individuals to enroll 300 (149 men and 151 women, mean age 26 yr, mean BMI 24 kg/m2, 20.0% racial minority, and 10.7% Hispanic). We obtained specimens from the oral cavity, nares, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina (15 specimens from men and 18 from women). The study evaluated longitudinal changes in an individual's microbiome by sampling 279 participants twice (mean 212 d after the first sampling; range 30-359 d) and 100 individuals 3 times (mean 72 d after the second sampling; range 30-224 d). This sampling strategy yielded 11,174 primary specimens, from which 12,479 DNA samples were submitted to 4 centers for metagenomic sequencing. Our clinical design and well-defined reference cohort has laid a foundation for microbiome research.—Aagaard, K., Petrosino, J., Keitel, W., Watson, M., Katancik, J., Garcia, N., Patel, S., Cutting, M., Madden, T., Hamilton, H., Harris, E., Gevers, D., Simone, G., McInnes, P., Versalovic, J. The Human Microbiome Project strategy for comprehensive sampling of the human microbiome and why it matters. PMID:23165986

  17. Anatomic pathways of peripancreatic fluid draining to mediastinum in recurrent acute pancreatitis: visible human project and CT study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haotong; Zhang, Xiaoming; Christe, Andreas; Ebner, Lukas; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Luo, Zhulin; Wu, Yi; Li, Yin; Tian, Fuzhou

    2013-01-01

    In past reports, researchers have seldom attached importance to achievements in transforming digital anatomy to radiological diagnosis. However, investigators have been able to illustrate communication relationships in the retroperitoneal space by drawing potential routes in computerized tomography (CT) images or a virtual anatomical atlas. We established a new imaging anatomy research method for comparisons of the communication relationships of the retroperitoneal space in combination with the Visible Human Project and CT images. Specifically, the anatomic pathways of peripancreatic fluid extension to the mediastinum that may potentially transform into fistulas were studied. We explored potential pathways to the mediastinum based on American and Chinese Visible Human Project datasets. These drainage pathways to the mediastinum were confirmed or corrected in CT images of 51 patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis in 2011. We also investigated whether additional routes to the mediastinum were displayed in CT images that were not in Visible Human Project images. All hypothesized routes to the mediastinum displayed in Visible Human Project images, except for routes from the retromesenteric plane to the bilateral retrorenal plane across the bilateral fascial trifurcation and further to the retrocrural space via the aortic hiatus, were confirmed in CT images. In addition, route 13 via the narrow space between the left costal and crural diaphragm into the retrocrural space was demonstrated for the first time in CT images. This type of exploration model related to imaging anatomy may be used to support research on the communication relationships of abdominal spaces, mediastinal spaces, cervical fascial spaces and other areas of the body.

  18. How is the human genome project doing, and what have we learned so far?

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, M.S.; Collins, F.S.

    1995-11-21

    In this paper, we describe the accomplishments of the initial phase of the Human Genome Project, with particular attention to the progress made toward achieving the defined goals for constructing genetic and physical maps of the human genome and determining the sequence of human DNA, identifying the complete set of human genes, and analyzing the need for adequate policies for using the information about human genetics in ways that maximize the benefits for individuals and society. 92 refs., 2 figs.

  19. How is the Human Genome Project doing, and what have we learned so far?

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, M S; Collins, F S

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the accomplishments of the initial phase of the Human Genome Project, with particular attention to the progress made toward achieving the defined goals for constructing genetic and physical maps of the human genome and determining the sequence of human DNA, identifying the complete set of human genes, and analyzing the need for adequate policies for using the information about human genetics in ways that maximize the benefits for individuals and society. PMID:7479895

  20. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  1. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment

  2. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY2005 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Nimz, G J; Ramon, E C; Rose, T P; Shuller, L; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2007-03-23

    This report describes FY 2005 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  3. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  4. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  5. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  6. Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project: Overview. [Second repository

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The draft Area Recommendation Report (ARR) for the Crystalline Repository Project identifies portions of crystalline rock bodies as proposed potentially acceptable sites for the Nation's second repository for deep geologic burial of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. This Overview provides a brief summary of that report. The US Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated available geologic and environmental data for 235 crystalline rock bodies in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions to identify preliminary candidate areas. The 12 proposed potentially acceptable sites are located in the States of Georgia (1), Maine (2), Minnesota (3), New Hampshire (1), North Carolina (2), Virginia (2), and Wisconsin (1). The data, analyses and rationale pertaining to the identification of the 12 proposed potentially acceptable sites are presented in the draft ARR. The analyses presented in the draft ARR demonstrate that the evidence available for each proposed potentially acceptable site supports (1) a finding that the site is not disqualified under Appendix III of the DOE Siting Guidelines and (2) a decision to proceed with the continued investigation of the site on the basis of the favorable and potentially adverse conditions identified to date. These potentially acceptable sites will be investigated and evaluated in more detail during the area phase of the siting process and considered along with other candidate sites in a progressive narrowing process to finally choose the site of the second repository in 1998.

  7. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Tests Area Project FY 2003 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J., B C; F., E G; K., E B; L., F D; J., H L; Max, H; Bryant, H G; B., K A; E., M J; A., P G; P., R T; K., S D; F.B., T A; W., W R; Mavrik, Z; Pihong, Z

    2004-08-17

    This report describes FY 2003 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The present report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-CBND during FY 2003. Although we have emphasized investigations that were led by CBND, we also participated in a variety of collaborative studies with other UGTA and HRMP contract organizations including the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  8. No postnatal doubling of number of neurons in human Broca's areas (Brodmann areas 44 and 45)? A stereological study.

    PubMed

    Uylings, H B M; Malofeeva, L I; Bogolepova, I N; Jacobsen, A M; Amunts, K; Zilles, K

    2005-01-01

    In this study we explored whether a postnatal doubling of the total number of neurons occurs in the human Brodmann areas 44 and 45 (Broca's area). We describe the most recent error prediction formulae and their application for the modern stereological estimators for volume and number of neurons. We estimated the number of neurons in 3D optical disector probes systematically random sampled throughout the entire Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 in developing and young adult cases. In the relatively small number of male and female cases studied no substantial postnatal increase in total number of neurons occurred in areas 44 and 45; the volume of these areas reached adult values around 7 years. In addition, we did find indications that a shift from a right-over-left to a left-over-right asymmetry may occur in the volume of BA 45 during postnatal development. No major asymmetry in total number of neurons in BA 44 and 45 was detected.

  9. March 10, 2006, Transportation Conformity Rule That Addresses Requirements for Project-level Conformity Determinations in PM2.5 and PM10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule, published March 10, 2006, establishes requirements for project-level conformity determinations in particulate matter (PM) 2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas, and revises existing requirements for projects in PM10 areas.

  10. Feedforward and feedback projections of caudal belt and parabelt areas of auditory cortex: refining the hierarchical model

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Troy A.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.; Camalier, Corrie R.; Falchier, Arnaud; Lakatos, Peter; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Our working model of the primate auditory cortex recognizes three major regions (core, belt, parabelt), subdivided into thirteen areas. The connections between areas are topographically ordered in a manner consistent with information flow along two major anatomical axes: core-belt-parabelt and caudal-rostral. Remarkably, most of the connections supporting this model were revealed using retrograde tracing techniques. Little is known about laminar circuitry, as anterograde tracing of axon terminations has rarely been used. The purpose of the present study was to examine the laminar projections of three areas of auditory cortex, pursuant to analysis of all areas. The selected areas were: middle lateral belt (ML); caudomedial belt (CM); and caudal parabelt (CPB). Injections of anterograde tracers yielded data consistent with major features of our model, and also new findings that compel modifications. Results supporting the model were: (1) feedforward projection from ML and CM terminated in CPB; (2) feedforward projections from ML and CPB terminated in rostral areas of the belt and parabelt; and (3) feedback projections typified inputs to the core region from belt and parabelt. At odds with the model was the convergence of feedforward inputs into rostral medial belt from ML and CPB. This was unexpected since CPB is at a higher stage of the processing hierarchy, with mainly feedback projections to all other belt areas. Lastly, extending the model, feedforward projections from CM, ML, and CPB overlapped in the temporal parietal occipital area (TPO) in the superior temporal sulcus, indicating significant auditory influence on sensory processing in this region. The combined results refine our working model and highlight the need to complete studies of the laminar inputs to all areas of auditory cortex. Their documentation is essential for developing informed hypotheses about the neurophysiological influences of inputs to each layer and area. PMID:24795550

  11. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Caldwell, Jamie M.; Fisher, Micah R.; Genco, Brandon M.; Running, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under “business as usual” (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world’s population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people. PMID:26061091

  12. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Caldwell, Jamie M; Fisher, Micah R; Genco, Brandon M; Running, Steven W

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under "business as usual" (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world's population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people.

  13. MANAGEMENT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE RETRIEVAL PROJECT RISKS SUCCESSES IN THE STARTUP OF THE HANFORD 200 AREA TRU WASTE RETRIEVAL PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GREENWLL, R.D.

    2005-01-20

    A risk identification and mitigation method applied to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Retrieval Project performed at the Hanford 200 Area burial grounds is described. Retrieval operations are analyzed using process flow diagramming. and the anticipated project contingencies are included in the Authorization Basis and operational plans. Examples of uncertainties assessed include degraded container integrity, bulged drums, unknown containers, and releases to the environment. Identification and mitigation of project risks contributed to the safe retrieval of over 1700 cubic meters of waste without significant work stoppage and below the targeted cost per cubic meter retrieved. This paper will be of interest to managers, project engineers, regulators, and others who are responsible for successful performance of waste retrieval and other projects with high safety and performance risks.

  14. Temperature changes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area and linkage with Three Gorges Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen; Liang, Shunlin; Feng, Lian; He, Tao; Song, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is one of the largest hydroelectric projects throughout the world. It has brought many benefits to the society but also led to endless debates about its environmental and climatic impacts. Monitoring the spatiotemporal variations of temperature in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) is important for understanding the climatic impacts of the TGP. In this study, we used remote sensing-based land surface temperature (LST) and ground-measured air temperature data to investigate temperature changes in the TGRA. Results showed that during the daytime in summer, LST exhibited significant cooling (1-5°C) in the downstream region of the reservoir, whereas LST during the nighttime in winter exhibited significant warming (1-5°C) across the entire reservoir. However, these cooling and warming effects were both locally constrained within 5 km buffer along the reservoir. The changes in air temperature were consistent with those in LST, with 0.67°C cooling in summer and 0.33°C warming in winter. The temperature changes along the reservoir not only resulted from the land-water conversion induced by the dam impounding but were also related to the increase of vegetation cover caused by the ecological restoration projects. Significant warming trends were also found in the upstream of TGRA, especially during the daytime in summer, with up to 5°C for LST and 0.52°C for air temperature. The warming was caused mainly by urban expansion, which was driven in part by the population resettlement of TGP. Based on satellite observations, we investigated the comprehensive climatic impacts of TGP caused by multiple factors.

  15. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

  16. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  17. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  18. Late Miocene hominin teeth from the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes.

  19. The epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infections in the Egypt-49 project area

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, M.; Nielsen, J.; Samaan, S. A.; Mallah, M. B.; Allam, A. A.

    1966-01-01

    The influence of the size and location of communities in relation to the different types of watercourse, the availability of a protected water supply, types of housing and the presence of other sanitary facilities on the prevalence of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area has been studied. There is no direct relationship between the size of village and the prevalence of bilharziasis. Main drains and distributaries are potent sources of infection and, in terms of the total population exposed, distributaries play the most significant role in the transmission of infection. Of the other factors, the availability of a protected water supply seems to have the greatest effect on the prevalence. Although the presence of a latrine in the dwelling does not of itself influence the extent of schistosome infection, which is caught from polluted water, the installation of latrines assists in the cultivation of healthy habits, thereby lessening the prevalence not only of bilharziasis but also of certain other infections. PMID:5297628

  20. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  1. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  2. Technical Area V (TA-V) transformation project close-out report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Technical Area V (TA-V) has provided unique nuclear experimental environments for decades. The technologies tested in TA-V facilities have furthered the United States Nuclear Weapons program and has contributed to the national energy and homeland security mission. The importance of TA-V working efficiently to produce an attractive and effective platform for experiments should not be underestimated. Throughout its brief history, TA-V has evolved to address multiple and diverse sets of requirements. These requirements evolved over many years; however, the requirements had not been managed nor communicated comprehensively or effectively. A series of programmatic findings over several years of external audits was evidence of this downfall. Today, these same requirements flow down through a new TA-V management system that produces consistently applied and reproducible approaches to work practices. In 2008, the TA-V department managers assessed the state of TA-V services and work activities to understand how to improve customer interfaces, stakeholders perceptions, and workforce efficiencies. The TA-V management team initiated the TA-V Transformation Project after they deemed the pre-June 2008 operational model to be ineffective in managing work and in providing integrated, continuous improvement to TA-V processes. This report summarizes the TA-V Transformation Project goals, activities, and accomplishments.

  3. OURSES: a telemedicine project for rural areas in france. Telemonitoring of elderly people.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Guerrero, Alfonso; Mailhes, Corinne; Castanie, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Several telemedicine applications are proposed within the frame of OURSES project, French acronym for Offer of Rural Use of Services by Satellite, providing services for elderly people. The main objective of this project is to show the interest of using satellites as a complement to terrestrial technologies, in areas where telecommunication infrastructure is lacking or incomplete. This paper describes one of these applications: an ECG monitoring system. This telemonitoring system allows, thanks to a wireless wearable sensor, to detect possible cardiac problems of elderly people. ECG signals are analyzed through signal processing algorithms and if some abnormal condition is detected, an alarm is raised and sent via satellite to the physician's office. The corresponding physician is able to access at any time the recorded ECG signals, whenever he is willing to, in the presence of an alarm or not. This allows a constant monitoring of the elderly people. Tests realized in a real environment have demonstrated the feasibility and the interest of this application.

  4. YANGTZE project: Investigation of mass movements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (P. R. China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Dominik; Rohn, Joachim; Wiedenmann, Johannes; Rudolph, René; Otte, Karel; Ernstberger, Stefanie; Eckstein, Susan; Dumperth, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Within the German YANGTZE Project, mass movement hazard is investigated for the Xiangxi Catchment which is part of the Three Gorges Reservoir (P. R. China). The objective of our sub-project is to investigate the impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir on slope stability and (re-)activation of mass movements. Within this paper first results of investigations on mass movements in the Xiangxi Catchment that were started in summer 2008 are presented. They show a significant correlation between mass movement distribution and activity on the one hand and lithology and altitude on the other hand. In Xiangxi Catchment, correlation between geology and occurrence of mass movements can be studied ideally as most of the geological formations outcropping in the reservoir area can be found there. Furthermore, the mouth of Xiangxi River is quite close to the Three Gorges Dam so that the impact of the impoundment is distinctive in the Xiangxi Catchment. In 2008 and 2009, about 70 km² were mapped geotechnically. The mapping was done for (a) the backwater area of Xiangxi River influenced by the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (from Yangtze River to Gaoyang Town), (b) Quyuan Valley as a sub-catchment of Xiangxi Catchment, and (c) along the main roads from Gaoyang Town towards Gufu City and towards Shennongjia Nature Reserve. The investigated area comprises marine and continental sedimentary layers from Cambrian to Jurassic Period. The lithology of these layers is dominated by carbonates (limestone, dolostone and marlstone) on the one hand and clastic sediments (shale, mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate) on the other hand. A total of 180 mass movements was found and mapped. Mainly rotational or combined rotational-translational landslides, but also some rockslides and rockfalls were found. As expected, a strong correlation between lithology on the one side and occurrence and activity of mass movements on the other side could be found. In the study area, Jurassic

  5. Land use change around protected areas: management to balance human needs and ecological function.

    PubMed

    DeFries, Ruth; Hansen, Andrew; Turner, B L; Reid, Robin; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-06-01

    Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

  6. The NASA role in major areas of human concern: Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    After introducing some of the general factors that have affected progress in the transportation area, NASA program elements are examined to illustrate relevant points of contact. Interpretive steps are taken throughout the statement to show a few of the more important ways people's lives have been affected as a result of the work of NASA and other organizations functioning in this area. The principal documents used and interviews conducted are identified after the conclusion of this statement. This statement, it should be noted, is incomplete in many respects, primarily because it reflects only a small number of the technical, economic, and social forces affecting American life. Taken as a summary statement, however, it hopefully will provide a useful basis for better understanding NASA's role in the national attempt to upgrade the quality of transportation services.

  7. The GRASP project - a multidisciplinary study of hydrology and biogeochemistry in a periglacial catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Emma; Lindborg, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic region is sensitive to global warming, and permafrost thaw and release of old carbon are examples of processes that may have a positive feedback effect to the global climate system. Quantification and assumptions on future change are often based on model predictions. Such models require cross-disciplinary data of high quality that often is lacking. Biogeochemical processes in the landscape are highly influenced by the hydrology, which in turn is intimately related to permafrost processes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is needed when collecting data and setting up field experiments aiming at increase the understanding of these processes. Here we summarize and present data collected in the GRASP, Greenland Analogue Surface Project. GRASP is a catchment-scale field study of the periglacial area in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, focusing on hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. The site investigations were initiated in 2010 and have since then resulted in three separate data sets published in ESSD (Earth system and Science Data) each one focusing on i) meteorological data and hydrology, ii) biogeochemistry and iii) geometries of sediments and the active layer. The three data-sets, which are freely available via the PANGAEA data base, enable conceptual and coupled numerical modeling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes. An important strength with the GRASP data is that all data is collected within the same, relatively small, catchment area. This implies that measurements are more easily linked to the right source area or process. Despite the small catchment area it includes the major units of the periglacial hydrological system; a lake, a talik, a supra- and subpermafrost aquifer and, consequently, biogeochemical processes in each of these units may be studied. The new data from GRASP is both used with the aim to increase the knowledge of present day periglacial hydrology and biogeochemistry but also in order to

  8. Identifying areas of high herpetofauna diversity that are threatened by planned infrastructure projects in Spain.

    PubMed

    Benayas, José M Rey; Montaña, Enrique De La; Belliure, Josabel; Eekhout, Xavier R

    2006-05-01

    A major task related to conservation is to predict if planned infrastructure projects are likely to threaten biodiversity. In this study we investigated the potential impact of planned infrastructure in Spain on amphibian and reptile species, two highly vulnerable groups given their limited dispersal and current situation of population decline. We used distribution data of both groups to identify areas of high herpetofauna diversity, and compared the locations of these areas with the locations of the planned road, high-speed train railway and water reservoir network. Four criteria were used for this identification: species richness, rarity, vulnerability, and a combined index of the three criteria. From a total of 1441 cells of 20 x 20 km, areas of high diversity were defined as those cells whose ranked values for the different criteria included either all species or all threatened species. The combined index provided the smallest number of cells needed to retain all threatened species (1.7 and 2.6% of the cells for amphibian and reptile species, respectively). Coincidences between these high diversity areas and cells including planned infrastructures-denominated 'alert planning units'-were 35.4% for amphibians and 31.2% for reptiles. Mitigation of the potential impacts would include actions such as barriers to animal access to roads and railways and ecoducts under these constructions. Our approach provides conservation authorities information that can be used to make decisions on habitat protection. A technique that identifies threats to herpetofauna before they occur is also likely to improve the chance of herpetofauna being protected.

  9. Human body area factors for radiation exchange analysis: standing and walking postures.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E

    2011-09-01

    Effective radiation area factors (f (eff)) and projected area factors (f (p)) of unclothed Caucasians' standing and walking postures used in estimating human radiation exchange with the surrounding environment were determined from a sample of adults in Canada. Several three-dimensional (3D) computer body models were created for standing and walking postures. Only small differences in f (eff) and f (p) values for standing posture were found between gender (male or female) and body type (normal- or over-weight). Differences between this study and previous studies were much larger: ≤0.173 in f (p) and ≤0.101 in f (eff). Directionless f (p) values for walking posture also had only minor differences between genders and positions in a stride. However, the differences of mean directional f (p) values of the positions dependent on azimuth angles were large enough, ≤0.072, to create important differences in modeled radiation receipt. Differences in f (eff) values were small: 0.02 between the normal-weight male and female models and up to 0.033 between positions in a stride. Variations of directional f (p) values depending on solar altitudes for walking posture were narrower than those for standing posture. When both standing and walking postures are considered, the mean f (eff) value, 0.836, of standing (0.826) and walking (0.846) could be used. However, f (p) values should be selected carefully because differences between directional and directionless f (p) values were large enough that they could influence the estimated level of human thermal sensation.

  10. Electrophysiological and functional connectivity of the human supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Shalini; Laird, Angela R; Tandon, Nitin; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    2012-08-01

    Neuro-imaging methods for detecting functional and structural inter-regional connectivity are in a rapid phase of development. While reports of regional connectivity patterns based on individual methods are becoming common, studies comparing the results of two or more connectivity-mapping methods remain rare. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation during PET imaging (TMS/PET), a stimulation-based method, and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), a task-based method to map the connectivity patterns of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Further, we drew upon the behavioral domain meta-data of the BrainMap® database to characterize the behavioral domain specificity of two maps. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected multi-synaptic connectivity patterns, with the MACM-detected connections being more extensive. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected connections belonging to multiple behavioral domains, including action, cognition and perception. Finally, we show that the two connectivity-mapping methods are complementary in that, the MACM informed on the functional nature of SMA connections, while TMS/PET identified brain areas electrophysiologically connected with the SMA. Thus, we demonstrate that integrating multimodal database and imaging techniques can derive comprehensive connectivity maps of brain areas.

  11. Electrophysiological and Functional Connectivity of the Human Supplementary Motor Area

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Shalini; Laird, Angela R.; Tandon, Nitin; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Neuro-imaging methods for detecting functional and structural inter-regional connectivity are in a rapid phase of development. While reports of regional connectivity patterns based on individual methods are becoming common, studies comparing the results of two or more connectivity-mapping methods remain rare. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation during PET imaging (TMS/PET), a stimulation-based method, and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), a task-based method to map the connectivity patterns of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Further, we drew upon the behavioral domain meta-data of the BrainMap® database to characterize the behavioral domain specificity of two maps. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected multi-synaptic connectivity patterns, with the MACM-detected connections being more extensive. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected connections belonging to multiple behavioral domains, including action, cognition and perception. Finally, we show that the two connectivity-mapping methods are complementary in that, the MACM informed on the functional nature of SMA connections, while TMS/PET identified brain areas electrophysiologically connected with the SMA. Thus, we demonstrate that integrating multimodal database and imaging techniques can derive comprehensive connectivity maps of brain areas. PMID:22569543

  12. The efferent projections of neurons in the white matter of different cortical areas of the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Meyer, G; Gonzalez-Hernandez, T; Galindo-Mireles, D; Castañeyra-Perdomo, A; Ferres-Torres, R

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Fast Blue into different cortical areas (frontal, parietal, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex) revealed that neurons in the white matter (interstitial neurons) give rise to association fibers which project mostly to the gray matter of the overlying cytoarchitectonic area, but which may extend also over different cytoarchitectonic areas. The rostrocaudal extent of the projecting axons was up to 1 mm in the frontal and parietal cortex, and up to 3.5 mm in the cingulate cortex. Concurrent processing for dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry showed that 70% of cortically projecting interstitial neurons were NADPH-d-positive. An analysis of neuronal morphology suggests that the FasT-Blue-labeled, NADPH-d-negative neurons may represent displaced pyramidal neurons of layer VIb; the Fast-Blue-labeled and NADPH-d-positive neurons have bipolar or multipolar dendritic trees, constituting a population of nonpyramidal interstitial neurons that project into the cortical gray matter.

  13. Using Big Data to Understand the Human Condition: The Kavli HUMAN Project

    PubMed Central

    Azmak, Okan; Bayer, Hannah; Caplin, Andrew; Chun, Miyoung; Glimcher, Paul; Koonin, Steven; Patrinos, Aristides

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Until now, most large-scale studies of humans have either focused on very specific domains of inquiry or have relied on between-subjects approaches. While these previous studies have been invaluable for revealing important biological factors in cardiac health or social factors in retirement choices, no single repository contains anything like a complete record of the health, education, genetics, environmental, and lifestyle profiles of a large group of individuals at the within-subject level. This seems critical today because emerging evidence about the dynamic interplay between biology, behavior, and the environment point to a pressing need for just the kind of large-scale, long-term synoptic dataset that does not yet exist at the within-subject level. At the same time that the need for such a dataset is becoming clear, there is also growing evidence that just such a synoptic dataset may now be obtainable—at least at moderate scale—using contemporary big data approaches. To this end, we introduce the Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP), an effort to aggregate data from 2,500 New York City households in all five boroughs (roughly 10,000 individuals) whose biology and behavior will be measured using an unprecedented array of modalities over 20 years. It will also richly measure environmental conditions and events that KHP members experience using a geographic information system database of unparalleled scale, currently under construction in New York. In this manner, KHP will offer both synoptic and granular views of how human health and behavior coevolve over the life cycle and why they evolve differently for different people. In turn, we argue that this will allow for new discovery-based scientific approaches, rooted in big data analytics, to improving the health and quality of human life, particularly in urban contexts. PMID:26487987

  14. Using Big Data to Understand the Human Condition: The Kavli HUMAN Project.

    PubMed

    Azmak, Okan; Bayer, Hannah; Caplin, Andrew; Chun, Miyoung; Glimcher, Paul; Koonin, Steven; Patrinos, Aristides

    2015-09-01

    Until now, most large-scale studies of humans have either focused on very specific domains of inquiry or have relied on between-subjects approaches. While these previous studies have been invaluable for revealing important biological factors in cardiac health or social factors in retirement choices, no single repository contains anything like a complete record of the health, education, genetics, environmental, and lifestyle profiles of a large group of individuals at the within-subject level. This seems critical today because emerging evidence about the dynamic interplay between biology, behavior, and the environment point to a pressing need for just the kind of large-scale, long-term synoptic dataset that does not yet exist at the within-subject level. At the same time that the need for such a dataset is becoming clear, there is also growing evidence that just such a synoptic dataset may now be obtainable-at least at moderate scale-using contemporary big data approaches. To this end, we introduce the Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP), an effort to aggregate data from 2,500 New York City households in all five boroughs (roughly 10,000 individuals) whose biology and behavior will be measured using an unprecedented array of modalities over 20 years. It will also richly measure environmental conditions and events that KHP members experience using a geographic information system database of unparalleled scale, currently under construction in New York. In this manner, KHP will offer both synoptic and granular views of how human health and behavior coevolve over the life cycle and why they evolve differently for different people. In turn, we argue that this will allow for new discovery-based scientific approaches, rooted in big data analytics, to improving the health and quality of human life, particularly in urban contexts.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  16. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... small area FMR demonstration project until the 5-year American Community Survey (ACS) data are published...: HUD intends to use the 5-year ACS data to calculate small area FMRs for PHAs participating in the demonstration. However, due to timing, the special tabulations of 5-year ACS data that are required...

  17. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  18. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  19. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area, southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Jensen, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Water, bottom-sediment, and biota samples were collected in 1990-91 to identify water-quality problems associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in some water samples exceeded aquatic-life criteria. Selenium was associated with irrigaton drainage from the Dolores Project, but other trace elements may be transported into the area in the irrigation water supply. Selenium concentrations exceeded the chronic aquatic-life criterion in water samples from lower McElmo Creek and Navajo Wash, which drain the Montezuma Valley, from newly irrigated areas, and from the Mancos River. The maximum selenium con- centration in water was 88 micrograms per liter from Navajo Wash. Concentrations of herbicides in water were less than concentrations harmful to aquatic life. Selenium concentrations in four bottom-sediment samples exceeded the baseline concentrations for soils in the Western United States. The largest selenium concentrations in biota were in samples from Navajo Wash, from newly irrigated areas north of the Montezuma Valley, and from the Mancos River basin. Selenium concentrations in aquatic-invertebrate samples from the newly irrigated areas exceeded a guideline for food items consumed by fish and wildlife. Selenium concen- trations in whole-body suckers were larger in the San Juan River downstream from the Dolores Project than upstream from the project at Four Corners. Selenium concentrations in fathead minnow samples from two sites were at adverse-effect levels. Mercury concentrations in warm-water game fish in reservoirs in the study area may be of concern to human health. Some concentrations of other trace elements exceeded background concentrations, but the concentrations were not toxicologically significant or the toxicologic significance is not known.

  20. Evaluation of a Terminal Area In-Trail Approach Spacing, Project and Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelden, Stephen; Johnson, Walter (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Reported here are the results of work completed as a precursor to Distributed Air Ground (DAG), Concept Element 11 (CE11) research. CE11 is a NASA, Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) concept initiated to promote research on in-trail merging and spacing during approach in the terminal area environment, such that improvements to the National Air Space (NAS) may be realized. A description of the project concept, results of a preliminary study, and a literature review are presented. In terms of conclusions, study results, and reference material respectively: 1) the concept is supported as being significant to NAS capacity improvement, 2) the preliminary study indicated that having more than one downstream, in-trail aircraft present on a CDTI during approach may be advantageous, and that flying traditional Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) utilizing advanced decision support tools (DST) may be complicated by wake turbulence considerations, a lack of vertical awareness on the part of the flight crew, and the 'step-down' nature of many terminal area approaches, and 3) the results of a literature review are presented for future reference.

  1. Main contributions of the KfK nuclear safety project in the LWR safety area

    SciTech Connect

    Kuczera, B.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Project (PNS) was established at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in 1972. At that time, nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany was in a transition phase proceeding from light water reactor (LWR) demonstration plants (300 MW(e)) to commercial size plants of 1200 to 1300 MW(e) which are standard units today. Simultaneously, general questions about LWR safety and reliability as well as questions on risk-oriented features became more pronounced in the public discussion. As a consequence, various already existing LWR safety activities were brought together and combined in the organizational framework of the PNS. The overriding objectives of PNS research and development (R and D) effort were at the quantification of safety margins of reactor systems and components, and the improvement of existing safety systems to avoid accident occurrence and to minimize accident consequences. In close cooperation with governmental authorities, manufacturers, and utilities, an R and D program was developed, comprised of four main areas: 1) dynamic behavior of reactor components; 2) fuel element behavior under accident conditions; 3) core meltdown accident analyses; and 4) retention of radioactive fission products and limitation of severe accident consequences. An overview on the KfK contribution to LWR safety research is given. It deals in a comprehensive matter with results obtained in the areas listed above.

  2. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  3. Documentation assessment, Project C-018H, 200-E area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, M.W.; Connor, M.D.; Mertelendy, J.I.

    1994-12-21

    Project C-018H is one of the fourteen subprojects to the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project. Project C-018H provides treatment and disposal for the 242-A Evaporator and PUREX plant process condensate waste streams. This project used the Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach proposed by RL. The IMT approach included all affected organizations on the project team to coordinate and execute all required project tasks, while striving to integrate and satisfy all technical, operational, functional, and organizational objectives. The HEC Projects were initiated in 1989. Project C-018H began in early 1990, with completion of construction currently targeted for mid-1995. This assessment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the management control on design documents and quality assurance records developed and submitted for processing, use, and retention for the Project. The assessment focused primarily on the overall adequacy and quality of the design documentation currently being submitted to the project document control function.

  4. Human support issues and systems for the space exploration initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aroesty, J.; Zimmerman, R.; Logan, J.

    1991-01-01

    The analyses and evaluations of the Human Support panel are discussed. The Human Support panel is one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program. Submissions to the Human Support panel were in the following areas: radiation protection; microgravity; life support systems; medical care; and human factors (behavior and performance).

  5. Understanding the Human Genome Project — A Fact Sheet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Human Genome Project spurred a revolution in biotechnology innovation around the world and played a key ... the U.S. the global leader in the new biotechnology sector. In April 2003, researchers successfully completed the ...

  6. 76 FR 56433 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... (42 U.S.C. 7152). This act transferred to and vested in the Secretary of Energy the power marketing..., pursuant to the Post-1989 General Power Marketing and Allocation Criteria (Marketing Plan). Firm Point-to... preparation of this Rate Order. Project Descriptions The Post-1989 General Power Marketing and Allocation...

  7. Morphology of individual axons projecting from area V2 to MT in the macaque.

    PubMed

    Rockland, K S

    1995-04-24

    Efferent axons from area V2 to the middle temporal area (MT) were anterogradely labeled by Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) or biocytin and analyzed in serial reconstructions. Five of seven reconstructed axons had three arbors (each < or = 200 microns in diameter) in layers 3-4, separated by 200-600 microns. Two axons terminated in what was apparently a single focus in layers 3-4. Of 15 additional single arbors analyzed, 12 were concentrated in layers 3-4, and measured 200-250 microns across at their widest point. Three of these arbors were more columnar in shape (about 400 microns in diameter), and extended from layer 4 toward layer 1. This system differs in several features from MT-projecting axons originating from V1. Namely, V2 axons terminating in MT are thinner (approximately 1.0 microns vs. 3.0 microns), their terminal specializations are more delicate, and their arbors are concentrated in layer 4 and overlying layer 3, with no collaterals to layer 6. These differences may reflect the distinctive neuronal populations giving rise to these two connectional systems (different sizes of pyramidal neurons in layer 3 of V2, and a mix of pyramidal and spiny stellate cells in area V1). Differences may have implications for timing factors; that is, impulses from V1, subserved by large-caliber axons, may arrive in MT coincidentally with indirect connections via V2 to MT. Another consideration may be the functional architecture of MT. Regularly spaced clusters of neurons have been described in MT which have similar directionality preferences. The interarbor spacing of cortical efferents is consistent with a columnar organization, but the laminar specificity may indicate recruitment of different combinations of postsynaptic populations by V1 or V2 terminations.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    SciTech Connect

    Marschke, Stephen F.

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  9. Human-motion energy harvester for autonomous body area sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Perez, M.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on a method to optimize an electromagnetic energy harvester converting the low-frequency body motion and aimed at powering wireless body area sensors. This method is based on recorded accelerations, and mechanical and transduction models that enable an efficient joint optimization of the structural parameters. An optimized prototype of 14.8 mmØ × 52 mm, weighting 20 g, has generated up to 4.95 mW in a resistive load when worn at the arm during a run, and 6.57 mW when hand-shaken. Among the inertial electromagnetic energy harvesters reported so far, this one exhibits one of the highest power densities (up to 730 μW cm‑3). The energy harvester was finally used to power a bluetooth low energy wireless sensor node with accelerations measurements at 25 Hz.

  10. UNESCO and the Associated Schools Project: Symbolic Affirmation of World Community, International Understanding, and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The UNESCO Associated Schools Project emphasizes world community, human rights, and international understanding. This article investigates the emergence and global diffusion of the project from 1953 to 2001, estimating the influence of national, regional, and world characteristics on the likelihood of a country adopting a UNESCO school. It also…

  11. Using Intergenerational Oral History Service-Learning Projects to Teach Human Behavior Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Natalie; Diepstra, Stephene A.

    2006-01-01

    An intergenerational oral history project paired 63 students enrolled in human behavior in the social environment (HBSC) courses in a bachelor of social work (BSW) programs with older adults. The goal of the project was to provide contextual application of HBSE theories and concepts by engaging students in semester-long intentional interaction…

  12. A Collaborative Media Production Project on Human Rights: Bridging Everyday and Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydari, Nazan; Kara, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of media institutions and universities as spaces of knowledge productions, development of "critical media pedagogy" becomes crucial for the establishment of a responsible and ethical media environment. Drawing from the collaborative project of The First Step into Human Rights: I do not do it!--A Short Film Project on…

  13. A Collaborative Media Production Project on Human Rights: Bridging Everyday and Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydari, Nazan; Kara, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of media institutions and universities as spaces of knowledge productions, development of "critical media pedagogy" becomes crucial for the establishment of a responsible and ethical media environment. Drawing from the collaborative project of The First Step into Human Rights: I do not do it!--A Short Film Project on…

  14. Using Intergenerational Oral History Service-Learning Projects to Teach Human Behavior Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Natalie; Diepstra, Stephene A.

    2006-01-01

    An intergenerational oral history project paired 63 students enrolled in human behavior in the social environment (HBSC) courses in a bachelor of social work (BSW) programs with older adults. The goal of the project was to provide contextual application of HBSE theories and concepts by engaging students in semester-long intentional interaction…

  15. UNESCO and the Associated Schools Project: Symbolic Affirmation of World Community, International Understanding, and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The UNESCO Associated Schools Project emphasizes world community, human rights, and international understanding. This article investigates the emergence and global diffusion of the project from 1953 to 2001, estimating the influence of national, regional, and world characteristics on the likelihood of a country adopting a UNESCO school. It also…

  16. Ethics Review of Research Projects Involving Human Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Maltreatment of subjects has led to the introduction of an ethics review process for research involving humans. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) require investigators to justify their human research to peers prior to recruiting participants. This paper describes the composition, functions, and duties of IRBs; the effectiveness and…

  17. Spotted hyaena space use in relation to human infrastructure inside a protected area

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Lydia E.; Cameron, Elissa Z.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing human population growth has led to elevated levels of human-carnivore conflict. However, some carnivore populations have adapted to urban environments and the resources they supply. Such associations may influence carnivore ecology, behaviour and life-history. Pockets of urbanisation sometimes occur within protected areas, so that anthropogenic influences on carnivore biology are not necessarily confined to unprotected areas. In this study we evaluated associations between human infrastructure and related activity and space use of spotted hyaenas within one of the largest protected areas in South Africa, the Kruger National Park. Home range size was smaller for the dominant female of a clan living in close proximity to humans than that of the dominant female of a clan without direct access to human infrastructure. The home range including human infrastructure was also used less evenly during the night, presumably when the animals were active. Within this home range, a village area was preferred during the night, when the least modified areas within the village were preferred and administration and highly modified areas were avoided. During the day, however, there were no preference or avoidance of the village area, but all habitats except unmodified habitats within the village area were avoided. We suggest that human infrastructure and associated activity influenced hyaena space use, primarily through alterations in the spatial distribution of food. However, these effects may have been indirectly caused by habitat modification that generated favourable hunting habitat rather than a direct effect caused by access to human food such as garbage. Because of the often pivotal effects of apex predators in terrestrial ecosystems, we encourage further work aimed to quantify how human presence influences large carnivores and associated ecosystem processes within protected areas. PMID:27781175

  18. Spotted hyaena space use in relation to human infrastructure inside a protected area.

    PubMed

    Belton, Lydia E; Cameron, Elissa Z; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Increasing human population growth has led to elevated levels of human-carnivore conflict. However, some carnivore populations have adapted to urban environments and the resources they supply. Such associations may influence carnivore ecology, behaviour and life-history. Pockets of urbanisation sometimes occur within protected areas, so that anthropogenic influences on carnivore biology are not necessarily confined to unprotected areas. In this study we evaluated associations between human infrastructure and related activity and space use of spotted hyaenas within one of the largest protected areas in South Africa, the Kruger National Park. Home range size was smaller for the dominant female of a clan living in close proximity to humans than that of the dominant female of a clan without direct access to human infrastructure. The home range including human infrastructure was also used less evenly during the night, presumably when the animals were active. Within this home range, a village area was preferred during the night, when the least modified areas within the village were preferred and administration and highly modified areas were avoided. During the day, however, there were no preference or avoidance of the village area, but all habitats except unmodified habitats within the village area were avoided. We suggest that human infrastructure and associated activity influenced hyaena space use, primarily through alterations in the spatial distribution of food. However, these effects may have been indirectly caused by habitat modification that generated favourable hunting habitat rather than a direct effect caused by access to human food such as garbage. Because of the often pivotal effects of apex predators in terrestrial ecosystems, we encourage further work aimed to quantify how human presence influences large carnivores and associated ecosystem processes within protected areas.

  19. Somatotopic direct projections from orofacial areas of secondary somatosensory cortex to trigeminal sensory nuclear complex in rats.

    PubMed

    Haque, T; Akhter, F; Kato, T; Sato, F; Takeda, R; Higashiyama, K; Moritani, M; Bae, Y-C; Sessle, B J; Yoshida, A

    2012-09-06

    Little is known about the projections from the orofacial areas of the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) to the pons and medulla including the second-order somatosensory neuron pools. To address this in rats, we first examined the distribution of S2 neurons projecting to the trigeminal principal nucleus (Vp) or oral subnucleus (Vo) of the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) after injections of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), into five regions in the Vp/Vo which were responsive to stimulation of trigeminal nerves innervating the orofacial tissues. A large number of FG-labeled neurons were found with a somatotopic arrangement in the dorsal areas of S2 (orofacial S2 area). This somatotopic arrangement in the orofacial S2 area was shown to closely match that of the orofacial afferent inputs by recording cortical surface potentials evoked by stimulation of the trigeminal nerves. We then examined the morphology of descending projections from these electrophysiologically defined areas of the orofacial S2 to the pons and medulla after injections of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextranamine (BDA), into the areas. A large number of BDA-labeled axon fibers and terminals were seen only in some of the second-order somatosensory neuron pools, most notably in the contralateral TSNC, although the labeled terminals were not seen in certain rostrocaudal levels of the contralateral TSNC including the rostrocaudal middle level of the trigeminal interpolar subnucleus. The projections to the TSNC showed somatotopic arrangements in dorsoventral, superficial-deep and rostrocaudal directions. The somatotopic arrangements in the Vp/Vo closely matched those of the electrophysiologically defined central projection sites of the orofacial trigeminal afferents in the TSNC. The present results suggest that the orofacial S2 projects selectively to certain rostrocaudal levels of the contralateral TSNC, and the projections may allow the orofacial S2 to accurately modulate

  20. Corticocortical projections to representations of the teeth, tongue, and face in somatosensory area 3b of macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cerkevich, Christina M.; Qi, Hui-Xin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2013-01-01

    We placed injections of anatomical tracers into representations of the tongue, teeth, and face in the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b) of macaque monkeys. Our injections revealed strong projections to representations of the tongue and teeth from other parts of the oral cavity responsive region in 3b. The 3b face also provided input to the representations of the intra-oral structures. The primary representation of the face showed a pattern of intrinsic connections similar to that of the mouth. The area 3b hand representation provided little to no input to either the mouth or face representations. The mouth and face representations of area 3b received projections from the presumptive oral cavity and face regions of other somatosensory areas in the anterior parietal cortex and the lateral sulcus including areas 3a, 1, 2, the second somatosensory area (S2), the parietal ventral area (PV), and cortex that may include the parietal rostral (PR) and ventral somatosensory (VS) areas. Additional inputs came from primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) areas. This areal pattern of projections is similar to the well-studied pattern revealed by tracer injections in regions of 3b representing the hand. The tongue representation appeared to be unique in area 3b in that it also received inputs from areas in the anterior upper bank of the lateral sulcus and anterior insula that may include the primary gustatory area (area G) and other cortical taste processing areas, as well as a region of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) lining the principal sulcus. PMID:23853118