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Sample records for human protein kinases

  1. Prediction of 492 human protein kinase substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Javad; Maňuch, Ján; Gupta, Arvind; Stacho, Ladislav; Pelech, Steven

    2011-10-14

    Complex intracellular signaling networks monitor diverse environmental inputs to evoke appropriate and coordinated effector responses. Defective signal transduction underlies many pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, autoimmunity and about 400 other human diseases. Therefore, there is high impetus to define the composition and architecture of cellular communications networks in humans. The major components of intracellular signaling networks are protein kinases and protein phosphatases, which catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of proteins. Here, we have focused on identification of kinase-substrate interactions through prediction of the phosphorylation site specificity from knowledge of the primary amino acid sequence of the catalytic domain of each kinase. The presented method predicts 488 different kinase catalytic domain substrate specificity matrices in 478 typical and 4 atypical human kinases that rely on both positive and negative determinants for scoring individual phosphosites for their suitability as kinase substrates. This represents a marked advancement over existing methods such as those used in NetPhorest (179 kinases in 76 groups) and NetworKIN (123 kinases), which consider only positive determinants for kinase substrate prediction. Comparison of our predicted matrices with experimentally-derived matrices from about 9,000 known kinase-phosphosite substrate pairs revealed a high degree of concordance with the established preferences of about 150 well studied protein kinases. Furthermore for many of the better known kinases, the predicted optimal phosphosite sequences were more accurate than the consensus phosphosite sequences inferred by simple alignment of the phosphosites of known kinase substrates. Application of this improved kinase substrate prediction algorithm to the primary structures of over 23, 000 proteins encoded by the human genome has permitted the identification of about 650, 000 putative phosphosites, which are posted on the

  2. A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, M; Enders, G H; Wu, C L; Su, L K; Gorka, C; Nelson, C; Harlow, E; Tsai, L H

    1992-01-01

    The p34cdc2 protein kinase is known to regulate important transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. We have identified 10 human protein kinases based on their structural relation to p34cdc2. Seven of these kinases are novel and the products of five share greater than 50% amino acid sequence identity with p34cdc2. The seven novel genes are broadly expressed in human cell lines and tissues with each displaying some cell type or tissue specificity. The cdk3 gene, like cdc2 and cdk2, can complement cdc28 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that all three of these protein kinases can play roles in the regulation of the mammalian cell cycle. The identification of a large family of cdc2-related kinases opens the possibility of combinatorial regulation of the cell cycle together with the emerging large family of cyclins. Images PMID:1639063

  3. Protein Kinase A Subunit α Catalytic and A Kinase Anchoring Protein 79 in Human Placental Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ma, Maggie Pui Chi; Thomson, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Components of protein phosphorylation signalling systems have been discovered in mitochondria and it has been proposed that these molecules modulate processes including oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. We used electrophoresis and Western blots probed with specific antibodies to protein kinase A α catalytic subunit (PKAα Cat) and A kinase anchoring protein of approximately 79 kDa molecular weight (AKAP79) to demonstrate the presence of these two proteins in human placental mitochondria. Heavy mitochondria characteristic of cytotrophoblast were separated from light mitochondria characteristic of syncytiotrophoblast by centrifugation. PKAα Cat and AKAP79 were present in both heavy and light mitochondria with no significant difference in concentration. Sucrose density gradient separation of submitochondrial fractions indicated PKAα Cat is located predominantly in the outer membrane whereas AKAP79 is present mainly in the contact site fractions. These data indicate that PKAα Cat is present in the cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria of placental cells. AKAP79 is also present in human placental mitochondria but there may be anchoring proteins other than AKAP79 responsible for fixing PKA to the outer membrane. PKA may play roles in mitochondrial protein phosphorylation systems in both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast.

  4. Protein kinase Cι: human oncogene, prognostic marker and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Alan P.; Regala, Roderick P.

    2009-01-01

    The Protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases has been the subject of intensive study in the field of cancer since their initial discovery as major cellular receptors for the tumor promoting phorbol esters nearly thirty years ago. However, despite these efforts, the search for a direct genetic link between members of the PKC family and human cancer has yielded only circumstantial evidence that any PKC isozyme is a true cancer gene. This situation changed in the past year with the discovery that atypical protein kinase C iota (PKCι) is a bonafide human oncogene. PKCι is required for the transformed growth of human cancer cells and the PKCι gene is the target of tumor-specific gene amplification in multiple forms of human cancer. PKCι participates in multiple aspects of the transformed phenotype of human cancer cells including transformed growth, invasion and survival. Herein, we review pertinent aspects of atypical PKC structure, function and regulation that relate to the role of these enzymes in oncogenesis. We discuss the evidence that PKCι is a human oncogene, review mechanisms controlling PKCι expression in human cancers, and describe the molecular details of PKCι-mediated oncogenic signaling. We conclude with a discussion of how oncogenic PKCι signaling has been successfully targeted to identify a novel, mechanism-based therapeutic drug currently entering clinical trials for treatment of human lung cancer. Throughout, we identify key unanswered questions and exciting future avenues of investigation regarding this important oncogenic molecule. PMID:17570678

  5. Comparative analysis of human and bovine protein kinases reveals unique relationship and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Nuzhat N; Kazi, Julhash U

    2011-10-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation by protein kinases and phosphatases is a common event in various cellular processes. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, which is one of the largest superfamilies of eukaryotic proteins, plays several roles in cell signaling and diseases. We identified 482 eukaryotic protein kinases and 39 atypical protein kinases in the bovine genome, by searching publicly accessible genetic-sequence databases. Bovines have 512 putative protein kinases, each orthologous to a human kinase. Whereas orthologous kinase pairs are, on an average, 90.6% identical, orthologous kinase catalytic domain pairs are, on an average, 95.9% identical at the amino acid level. This bioinformatic study of bovine protein kinases provides a suitable framework for further characterization of their functional and structural properties.

  6. Effects of butyltins on mitogen-activated-protein kinase kinase kinase and Ras activity in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Celada, Lindsay J; Whalen, Margaret M

    2014-09-01

    Butyltins (BTs) contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. BTs, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) diminish the cytotoxic function and levels of key proteins of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are an initial immune defense against tumors, virally infected cells and antibody-coated cells and thus critical to human health. The signaling pathways that regulate NK cell functions include mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Studies have shown that exposure to BTs leads to activation of specific MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) in human NK cells. MAP2K kinases (MAP3Ks) are upstream activators of MAP2Ks, which then activate MAPKs. The current study examined if BT-induced activation of MAP3Ks was responsible for MAP2K and thus, MAPK activation. This study examines the effects of TBT and DBT on the total levels of two MAP3Ks, c-Raf and ASK1, as well as activating and inhibitory phosphorylation sites on these MAP3Ks. In addition, the immediate upstream activator of c-Raf, Ras, was examined for BT-induced alterations. Our results show significant activation of the MAP3K, c-Raf, in human NK cells within 10 min of TBT exposure and the MAP3K, ASK1, after 1 h exposures to TBT. In addition, our results suggest that both TBT and DBT affect the regulation of c-Raf.

  7. Protein kinase C and the antiviral effect of human interferon.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Constantinescu, S N; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M; Cajal, N

    1989-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors: Hidaka's compounds H-7 (10 microM) and H-8 (20 microM), palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) and phloretin (50 microM), did not modify the antiviral effect of human natural or recombinant interferon alpha and of natural interferon beta. The tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (200 nM), known as activator of PKC induced an antiviral state when tested on human embryo fibroblasts challenged with the vesicular stomatitis virus. The battery of PKC inhibitors used inhibited the antiviral effect induced by TPA. Palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) exerted a toxic effect that was reversed by interferon treatment (2,000 IU/ml interferon alpha). These results suggest that PKC, possibly activated by interferon-receptor interaction, is not essential for inducing the antiviral effect of interferon, but, probably, mediates the antiviral effect of TPA.

  8. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  9. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen

    2010-07-19

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  10. Studies on the Orientation of Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase in Human Erythrocyte Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Charles S.; Rosenfeld, Robert D.; Rosen, Ora M.

    1973-01-01

    The topographic location of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase has been studied in preparations of permeable and sealed membranes derived from human erythrocytes. Both the catalytic and cyclic AMP-binding components of protein kinase are localized on the inner, cytoplasmic, surface of the plasma membrane. PMID:4359486

  11. ProNormz--an integrated approach for human proteins and protein kinases normalization.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Suresh; Raja, Kalpana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2014-02-01

    The task of recognizing and normalizing protein name mentions in biomedical literature is a challenging task and important for text mining applications such as protein-protein interactions, pathway reconstruction and many more. In this paper, we present ProNormz, an integrated approach for human proteins (HPs) tagging and normalization. In Homo sapiens, a greater number of biological processes are regulated by a large human gene family called protein kinases by post translational phosphorylation. Recognition and normalization of human protein kinases (HPKs) is considered to be important for the extraction of the underlying information on its regulatory mechanism from biomedical literature. ProNormz distinguishes HPKs from other HPs besides tagging and normalization. To our knowledge, ProNormz is the first normalization system available to distinguish HPKs from other HPs in addition to gene normalization task. ProNormz incorporates a specialized synonyms dictionary for human proteins and protein kinases, a set of 15 string matching rules and a disambiguation module to achieve the normalization. Experimental results on benchmark BioCreative II training and test datasets show that our integrated approach achieve a fairly good performance and outperforms more sophisticated semantic similarity and disambiguation systems presented in BioCreative II GN task. As a freely available web tool, ProNormz is useful to developers as extensible gene normalization implementation, to researchers as a standard for comparing their innovative techniques, and to biologists for normalization and categorization of HPs and HPKs mentions in biomedical literature. URL: http://www.biominingbu.org/pronormz. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of human platelet surface proteins by an ecto-protein kinase/phosphatase system.

    PubMed

    Naik, U P; Kornecki, E; Ehrlich, Y H

    1991-04-17

    We have characterized a novel ecto-protein kinase activity and a novel ecto-protein phosphatase activity on the membrane surface of human platelets. Washed intact platelets, when incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP in Tyrode's buffer, showed the phosphorylation of a membrane surface protein migrating with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa on 5-15% SDS polyacrylamide gradient gels. The 42 kDa protein could be further resolved on 15% SDS gels into two proteins of 39 kDa and 42 kDa. In this gel system, it was found that the 39 kDa protein became rapidly phosphorylated and dephosphorylated, whereas the 42 kDa protein was phosphorylated and dephosphorylated at a much slower rate. NaF inhibited the dephosphorylation of these proteins indicating the involvement of an ecto-protein phosphatase. The platelet membrane ecto-protein kinase responsible for the phosphorylation of both of these proteins was identified as a serine kinase and showed dependency on divalent cations Mg2+ or Mn2+ ions. Ca2+ ions potentiated the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-protein kinase activity. The ecto-protein kinase rapidly phosphorylated histone and casein added exogenously to the extracellular medium of intact platelets. Following activation of platelets by alpha-thrombin, the incorporation of [32P]phosphate from exogenously added [gamma-32P]ATP by endogenous protein substrates was reduced by 90%, suggesting a role of the ecto-protein kinase system in the regulation of platelet function. The results presented here demonstrate that both protein kinase and protein phosphatase activities reside on the membrane surface of human platelets. These activities are capable of rapidly phosphorylating and dephosphorylating specific surface platelet membrane proteins which may play important roles in early events of platelet activation and secretion.

  13. Human thrombopoiesis depends on Protein kinase Cδ/protein kinase Cε functional couple

    PubMed Central

    Carubbi, Cecilia; Masselli, Elena; Martini, Silvia; Galli, Daniela; Aversa, Franco; Mirandola, Prisco; Italiano, Joseph E.; Gobbi, Giuliana; Vitale, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the molecular events driving megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis is essential to regulate in vitro and in vivo platelet production for clinical applications. We previously documented the crucial role of PKCε in the regulation of human and mouse megakaryocyte maturation and platelet release. However, since several data show that different PKC isoforms fulfill complementary functions, we targeted PKCε and PKCδ, which show functional and phenotypical reciprocity, at the same time as boosting platelet production in vitro. Results show that PKCδ, contrary to PKCε, is persistently expressed during megakaryocytic differentiation, and a forced PKCδ down-modulation impairs megakaryocyte maturation and platelet production. PKCδ and PKCε work as a functional couple with opposite roles on thrombopoiesis, and the modulation of their balance strongly impacts platelet production. Indeed, we show an imbalance of PKCδ/PKCε ratio both in primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia, featured by impaired megakaryocyte differentiation and increased platelet production, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate that concurrent molecular targeting of both PKCδ and PKCε represents a strategy for in vitro platelet factories. PMID:27081176

  14. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    PubMed

    Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chiang, Chiu-Yun; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Weng, Shun-Long

    2012-01-01

    Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase-specific phosphorylation site

  15. Transcriptional upregulation of the human MRP2 gene expression by serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pułaski, L; Szemraj, J; Uchiumi, T; Kuwano, M; Bartosz, G

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by cellular signalling pathways of multidrug resistance proteins that pump anticancer drugs out of cells is one of key issues in the development of the multidrug resistance phenotype. In our study, we have used the reporter gene approach as well as determination of mRNA levels in two cancer cell lines of human origin, MCF-7 and A549, to study the regulation of multidrug resistance proteins 2 and 3 (MRP2 AND MRP3) by serine/threonine protein kinases. Since a prototypic PKC inducer, PMA, caused a marked upregulation of transcription from both human MRP2 and MRP3 promoters, a role for PKC isoforms in positive control of expression of these proteins could be postulated. Interestingly, broad-spectrum serine-threonine protein kinase inhibitors which also inhibit PKC, staurosporine and H-7, stimulated expression from the MRP2 promoter instead of inhibiting it. This effect was not seen for MRP3. MRP2 induction by staurosporine and H-7 was shown to have phenotypic consequences in whole cells, rendering them more resistant to etoposide and increasing their ability to export calcein through the plasma membrane. These results point to the involvement of serine/threonine protein kinases in negative regulation of the human MRP2 gene and to the necessity of testing novel anti-cancer drugs acting as protein kinase inhibitors with regard to their potential ability to induce multidrug resistance.

  16. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  17. Zipper-interacting protein kinase interacts with human cell division cycle 14A phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Haiying; Ye, Zi; Leong, Mancheong; He, Min; Li, Qin; Hu, Renming; Zhang, Shuo

    2015-04-01

    Zipper‑interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) is a novel serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of a large family of protein kinases, known as the death‑associated protein kinases. However, the function of ZIPK has yet to be fully elucidated, as few physiological substrates have currently been identified. In the present study, a yeast two‑hybrid screen was used and the human cell division cycle 14A (HsCdc14A) phosphatase was identified as a novel ZIPK binding protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the interaction between these proteins. The interaction between ZIPK and HsCdc14A was confirmed by in vitro experiments. In addition, ZIPK‑mediated phosphorylation was shown to activate the phosphatase activity of HsCdc14A. These findings indicated that ZIPK may also be involved in the regulation of the cell cycle in human cells, by interacting with HsCdc14A.

  18. Protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the nuclear egress core complex of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Eric; Milbradt, Jens; Svrlanska, Adriana; Strojan, Hanife; Häge, Sigrun; Kraut, Alexandra; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Couté, Yohann; Marschall, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids is mediated by a multi-component nuclear egress complex (NEC) assembled by a heterodimer of two essential viral core egress proteins. In the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), this core NEC is defined by the interaction between the membrane-anchored pUL50 and its nuclear cofactor, pUL53. NEC protein phosphorylation is considered to be an important regulatory step, so this study focused on the respective role of viral and cellular protein kinases. Multiply phosphorylated pUL50 varieties were detected by Western blot and Phos-tag analyses as resulting from both viral and cellular kinase activities. In vitro kinase analyses demonstrated that pUL50 is a substrate of both PKCα and CDK1, while pUL53 can also be moderately phosphorylated by CDK1. The use of kinase inhibitors further illustrated the importance of distinct kinases for core NEC phosphorylation. Importantly, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses identified five major and nine minor sites of pUL50 phosphorylation. The functional relevance of core NEC phosphorylation was confirmed by various experimental settings, including kinase knock-down/knock-out and confocal imaging, in which it was found that (i) HCMV core NEC proteins are not phosphorylated solely by viral pUL97, but also by cellular kinases; (ii) both PKC and CDK1 phosphorylation are detectable for pUL50; (iii) no impact of PKC phosphorylation on NEC functionality has been identified so far; (iv) nonetheless, CDK1-specific phosphorylation appears to be required for functional core NEC interaction. In summary, our findings provide the first evidence that the HCMV core NEC is phosphorylated by cellular kinases, and that the complex pattern of NEC phosphorylation has functional relevance.

  19. Small molecule adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulators and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sandeep; Blowers, Elizabeth C; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2015-01-08

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor of cellular energy status that plays a key role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. AMPK is a serine/threonine kinase that is activated by upstream kinases LKB1, CaMKKβ, and Tak1, among others. AMPK exists as αβγ trimeric complexes that are allosterically regulated by AMP, ADP, and ATP. Dysregulation of AMPK has been implicated in a number of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Recent studies have associated roles of AMPK with the development of cancer and neurological disorders, making it a potential therapeutic target to treat human diseases. This review focuses on the structure and function of AMPK, its role in human diseases, and its direct substrates and provides a brief synopsis of key AMPK modulators and their relevance in human diseases.

  20. [Role of protein kinases of human red cell membrane in deformability and aggregation changes].

    PubMed

    Murav'ev, A V; Maĭmistova, A A; Tikhomirova, I A; Bulaeva, S V; Mikhaĭlov, P V; Murav'ev, A A

    2012-01-01

    The proteomic analysis has showed that red cell membrane contains several kinases and phosphatases. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the role of protein kinases of human red cell membrane in deformability and aggregation changes. Exposure of red blood cells (RBCs) to some chemical compounds led to change in the RBC microrheological properties. When forskolin (10 microM), an adenylyl cyclase (AC) and a protein kinase A (PKA) stimulator was added to RBC suspension, the RBC deformability (RBCD) was increased by 20% (p < 0.05). Somewhat more significant deformability rise appeared after RBC incubation with dB-AMP (by 26%; p < 0.01). Red cell aggregation (RBCA) was significantly decreased under these conditions (p < 0.01). Markedly less changes of deformability was found after RBC incubation with protein kinase stimulator C (PKC)--phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). This drug reduced red cell aggregation only slightly. It was inhibited red cell tyrosine phosphotase activity by N-vanadat and was obtained a significant RBCD rise and RBCA lowering. The similar effect was found when cells were incubated with cisplatin as a tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) activator. It is important to note that a selective TPK inhibitor--lavendustin eliminated the above mention effects. On the whole the total data clearly show that the red cell aggregation and deformation changes were connected with an activation of the different intracellular signaling pathways.

  1. Apoptosis and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells induced by anthrax lethal factor inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Han-Mo; Vanbrocklin, Matt; McWilliams, Mary Jane; Leppla, Stephan H.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.; Vande Woude, George F.

    2002-03-01

    Lethal factor, the principal virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by proteolytically cleaving MAPK kinases. Edema factor, another component of anthrax toxin, is an adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP. Inhibition of MAPK signaling with either anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) or small molecule MAPK kinase inhibitors triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Normal melanocytes do not undergo apoptosis in response to MAPK inhibition but arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Importantly, in vivo treatment of human melanoma xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice with LeTx results in significant or complete tumor regression without apparent side effects, suggesting that inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for treating melanoma. Additionally, interrupting MAPK signaling with LeTx and elevating cAMP with anthrax edema toxin in both melanoma cells and melanocytes lead to dramatic melanin production, perhaps explaining the formation of blackened eschars in cutaneous anthrax.

  2. Structural insight into nucleotide recognition by human death-associated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Laurie K.; Watterson, D.M.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.

    2009-06-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a member of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-regulated family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The role of the kinase activity of DAPK in eukaryotic cell apoptosis and the ability of bioavailable DAPK inhibitors to rescue neuronal death after brain injury have made it a drug-discovery target for neurodegenerative disorders. In order to understand the recognition of nucleotides by DAPK and to gain insight into DAPK catalysis, the crystal structure of human DAPK was solved in complex with ADP and Mg{sup 2+} at 1.85 {angstrom} resolution. ADP is a product of the kinase reaction and product release is considered to be the rate-limiting step of protein kinase catalytic cycles. The structure of DAPK-ADP-Mg{sup 2+} was compared with a newly determined DAPK-AMP-PNP-Mg{sup 2+} structure and the previously determined apo DAPK structure (PDB code 1 jks). The comparison shows that nucleotide-induced changes are localized to the glycine-rich loop region of DAPK.

  3. Activity and regulation by growth factors of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (elongation factor 2-kinase) in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parmer, T G; Ward, M D; Yurkow, E J; Vyas, V H; Kearney, T J; Hait, W N

    1999-01-01

    Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (CaM kinase III, elongation factor-2 kinase) is a unique member of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase family. Activation of CaM kinase III leads to the selective phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) and transient inhibition of protein synthesis. Recent cloning and sequencing of CaM kinase III revealed that this enzyme represents a new superfamily of protein kinases. The activity of CaM kinase III is selectively activated in proliferating cells; inhibition of the kinase blocked cells in G0/G1-S and decreased viability. To determine the significance of CaM kinase III in breast cancer, we measured the activity of the kinase in human breast cancer cell lines as well as in fresh surgical specimens. The specific activity of CaM kinase III in human breast cancer cell lines was equal to or greater than that seen in a variety of cell lines with similar rates of proliferation. The specific activity of CaM kinase III was markedly increased in human breast tumour specimens compared with that of normal adjacent breast tissue. The activity of this enzyme was regulated by breast cancer mitogens. In serum-deprived MDA-MB-231 cells, the combination of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated cell proliferation and activated CaM kinase III to activities observed in the presence of 10% serum. Inhibition of enzyme activity blocked cell proliferation induced by growth factors. In MCF-7 cells separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, CaM kinase III was increased in S-phase over that of other phases of the cell cycle. In summary, the activity of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase III is controlled by breast cancer mitogens and appears to be constitutively activated in human breast cancer. These results suggest that CaM kinase III may contribute an important link between growth factor/receptor interactions, protein synthesis and the induction of cellular proliferation in human breast

  4. Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Wu, Wei-Chi; Hsu, Jason; Weng, Shih-Ting; Lin, Tsai-Leng; Liu, Chun-Yi; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Huang, Ching-Tsan

    2008-04-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus is thought to possess and enhance a variety of human immune functions. An immuno-modulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) isolated from G. lucidum exhibited potent mitogenic effects upon human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). However, LZ-8-mediated signal transduction in the regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression within human T cells is largely unknown. Here we cloned the LZ-8 gene of G. lucidum, and expressed the recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) by means of a yeast Pichia pastoris protein expression system. We found that rLZ-8 induces IL-2 gene expression via the Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), via reactive oxygen species (ROS), and differential protein kinase-dependent pathways within human primary T cells and cultured Jurkat T cells. In essence, we have established the nature of the rLZ-8-mediated signal-transduction pathways, such as PTK/protein kinase C (PKC)/ROS, PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/ERK1/2, and PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/p38 pathways in the regulation of IL-2 gene expression within human T cells. Our current results of analyzing rLZ-8-mediated signal transduction in T cells might provide a potential application for rLZ-8 as a pharmacological immune-modulating agent.

  5. Tyrosine phosphorylation on spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is differentially regulated in human and murine platelets by protein kinase C isoforms.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Lorena; Bhavanasi, Dheeraj; Dangelmaier, Carol; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Badolia, Rachit; Borgognone, Alessandra; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; McKenzie, Steven E; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2013-10-04

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms differentially regulate platelet functional responses downstream of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) signaling, but the role of PKCs regulating upstream effectors such as Syk is not known. We investigated the role of PKC on Syk tyrosine phosphorylation using the pan-PKC inhibitor GF109203X (GFX). GPVI-mediated phosphorylation on Syk Tyr-323, Tyr-352, and Tyr-525/526 was rapidly dephosphorylated, but GFX treatment inhibited this dephosphorylation on Tyr-525/526 in human platelets but not in wild type murine platelets. GFX treatment did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation on FcRγ chain or Src family kinases. Phosphorylation of Lat Tyr-191 and PLCγ2 Tyr-759 was also increased upon treatment with GFX. We evaluated whether secreted ADP is required for such dephosphorylation. Exogenous addition of ADP to GFX-treated platelets did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation on Syk. FcγRIIA- or CLEC-2-mediated Syk tyrosine phosphorylation was also potentiated with GFX in human platelets. Because potentiation of Syk phosphorylation is not observed in murine platelets, PKC-deficient mice cannot be used to identify the PKC isoform regulating Syk phosphorylation. We therefore used selective inhibitors of PKC isoforms. Only PKCβ inhibition resulted in Syk hyperphosphorylation similar to that in platelets treated with GFX. This result indicates that PKCβ is the isoform responsible for Syk negative regulation in human platelets. In conclusion, we have elucidated a novel pathway of Syk regulation by PKCβ in human platelets.

  6. Protein kinase CK2 is necessary for the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schwind, Lisa; Wilhelm, Nadine; Kartarius, Sabine; Montenarh, Mathias; Gorjup, Erwin; Götz, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    CK2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is so important for many aspects of cellular regulation that life without CK2 is impossible. Here, we analysed CK2 during adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). With progress of the differentiation CK2 protein level and the kinase activity decreased. Whereas CK2α remained in the nucleus during differentiation, the localization of CK2β showed a dynamic shuttling in the course of differentiation. Over the last years a large number of inhibitors of CK2 kinase activity were generated with the idea to use them in cancer therapy. Our results show that two highly specific inhibitors of CK2, CX-4945 and quinalizarin, reduced its kinase activity in proliferating hMSC with a similar efficiency. CK2 inhibition by quinalizarin resulted in nearly complete inhibition of differentiation whereas, in the presence of CX-4945, differentiation proceeded similar to the controls. In this case, differentiation was accompanied by the loss of CX-4945 inhibitory function. By analysing the subcellular localization of PPARγ2, we found a shift from a nuclear localization at the beginning of differentiation to a more cytoplasmic localization in the presence of quinalizarin. Our data further show for the first time that a certain level of CK2 kinase activity is required for adipogenic stem cell differentiation and that inhibition of CK2 resulted in an altered localization of PPARγ2, an early regulator of differentiation.

  7. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by ultraviolet A radiation in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Le Panse, Rozen; Dubertret, Louis; Coulomb, Bernard

    2003-08-01

    UVA radiation penetrates deeply into the skin reaching both the epidermis and the dermis. We thus investigated the effects of naturally occurring doses of UVA radiation on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities in human dermal fibroblasts. We demonstrated that UVA selectively activates p38 MAPK with no effect on extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK1-ERK2) or JNK-SAPK (cJun NH2-terminal kinase-stress-activated protein kinase) activities. We then investigated the signaling pathway used by UVA to activate p38 MAPK. L-Histidine and sodium azide had an inhibitory effect on UVA activation of p38 MAPK, pointing to a role of singlet oxygen in transduction of the UVA effect. Afterward, using prolonged cell treatments with growth factors to desensitize their signaling pathways or suramin to block growth factor receptors, we demonstrated that UVA signaling pathways shared elements with growth factor signaling pathways. In addition, using emetine (a translation inhibitor altering ribosome functioning) we detected the involvement of ribotoxic stress in p38 MAPK activation by UVA. Our observations suggest that p38 activation by UVA in dermal fibroblasts involves singlet oxygen-dependent activation of ligand-receptor signaling pathways or ribotoxic stress mechanism (or both). Despite the activation of these two distinct signaling mechanisms, the selective activation of p38 MAPK suggests a critical role of this kinase in the effects of UVA radiation.

  8. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  9. A Human Proteome Array Approach to Identifying Key Host Proteins Targeted by Toxoplasma Kinase ROP18.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Hou, Yongheng; Hao, Taofang; Rho, Hee-Sool; Wan, Jun; Luan, Yizhao; Gao, Xin; Yao, Jianping; Pan, Aihua; Xie, Zhi; Qian, Jiang; Liao, Wanqin; Zhu, Heng; Zhou, Xingwang

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma kinase ROP18 is a key molecule responsible for the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii; however, the mechanisms by which ROP18 exerts parasite virulence via interaction with host proteins remain limited to a small number of identified substrates. To identify a broader array of ROP18 substrates, we successfully purified bioactive mature ROP18 and used it to probe a human proteome array. Sixty eight new putative host targets were identified. Functional annotation analysis suggested that these proteins have a variety of functions, including metabolic process, kinase activity and phosphorylation, cell growth, apoptosis and cell death, and immunity, indicating a pleiotropic role of ROP18 kinase. Among these proteins, four candidates, p53, p38, UBE2N, and Smad1, were further validated. We demonstrated that ROP18 targets p53, p38, UBE2N, and Smad1 for degradation. Importantly, we demonstrated that ROP18 phosphorylates Smad1 Ser-187 to trigger its proteasome-dependent degradation. Further functional characterization of the substrates of ROP18 may enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma infection and provide new therapeutic targets. Similar strategies could be used to identify novel host targets for other microbial kinases functioning at the pathogen-host interface.

  10. Functional Analysis of Protein Kinase CK2 of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Zoë; Prudent, Renaud; Reiser, Jean-Baptiste; Cochet, Claude; Doerig, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) is a eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinase with multiple substrates and roles in diverse cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and translation. The mammalian holoenzyme consists of two catalytic alpha or alpha′ subunits and two regulatory beta subunits. We report the identification and characterization of a Plasmodium falciparum CK2α orthologue, PfCK2α, and two PfCK2β orthologues, PfCK2β1 and PfCK2β2. Recombinant PfCK2α possesses protein kinase activity, exhibits similar substrate and cosubstrate preferences to those of CK2α subunits from other organisms, and interacts with both of the PfCK2β subunits in vitro. Gene disruption experiments show that the presence of PfCK2α is crucial to asexual blood stage parasites and thereby validate the enzyme as a possible drug target. PfCK2α is amenable to inhibitor screening, and we report differential susceptibility between the human and P. falciparum CK2α enzymes to a small molecule inhibitor. Taken together, our data identify PfCK2α as a potential target for antimalarial chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:19114502

  11. Teaching resources. Protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Avrom

    2005-02-22

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein kinases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the genomics and evolutionary relationships among kinases and then proceeds to describe the structure-function relationships of specific kinases, the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate specificity, and selected issues in regulation of kinase activity.

  12. Protein Kinase-A Inhibition Is Sufficient to Support Human Neural Stem Cells Self-Renewal.

    PubMed

    Georges, Pauline; Boissart, Claire; Poulet, Aurélie; Peschanski, Marc; Benchoua, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells offer unprecedented opportunities for producing specific types of neurons for several biomedical applications. However, to achieve it, protocols of production and amplification of human neural stem cells need to be standardized, cost effective, and safe. This means that small molecules should progressively replace the use of media containing cocktails of protein-based growth factors. Here we have conducted a phenotypical screening to identify pathways involved in the regulation of hNSC self-renewal. We analyzed 80 small molecules acting as kinase inhibitors and identified compounds of the 5-isoquinolinesulfonamide family, described as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G inhibitors, as candidates to support hNSC self-renewal. Investigating the mode of action of these compounds, we found that modulation of PKA activity was central in controlling the choice between self-renewal or terminal neuronal differentiation of hNSC. We finally demonstrated that the pharmacological inhibition of PKA using the small molecule HA1004 was sufficient to support the full derivation, propagation, and long-term maintenance of stable hNSC in absence of any other extrinsic signals. Our results indicated that tuning of PKA activity is a core mechanism regulating hNSC self-renewal and differentiation and delineate the minimal culture media requirement to maintain undifferentiated hNSC in vitro. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Parasite Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases as Drug Discovery Targets to Treat Human Protozoan Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Brumlik, Michael J.; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Ludwig, Sara M.; Murthy, Kruthi; Curiel, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    Protozoan pathogens are a highly diverse group of unicellular organisms, several of which are significant human pathogens. One group of protozoan pathogens includes obligate intracellular parasites such as agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis. The other group includes extracellular pathogens such as agents of giardiasis and amebiasis. An unfortunate unifying theme for most human protozoan pathogens is that highly effective treatments for them are generally lacking. We will review targeting protozoan mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as a novel drug discovery approach towards developing better therapies, focusing on Plasmodia, Leishmania, and Toxoplasma, about which the most is known. PMID:21637385

  14. Structural insight into nucleotide recognition by human death-associated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Laurie K.; Watterson, D. Martin; Brunzelle, Joseph S.

    2009-03-01

    The crystal structures of DAPK–ADP–Mg{sup 2+} and DAPK–AMP-PNP–Mg{sup 2+} complexes were determined at 1.85 and 2.00 Å resolution, respectively. Comparison of the two nucleotide-bound states with apo DAPK revealed localized changes in the glycine-rich loop region that were indicative of a transition from a more open state to a more closed state on binding of the nucleotide substrate and to an intermediate state with the bound nucleotide product. Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a member of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-regulated family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The role of the kinase activity of DAPK in eukaryotic cell apoptosis and the ability of bioavailable DAPK inhibitors to rescue neuronal death after brain injury have made it a drug-discovery target for neurodegenerative disorders. In order to understand the recognition of nucleotides by DAPK and to gain insight into DAPK catalysis, the crystal structure of human DAPK was solved in complex with ADP and Mg{sup 2+} at 1.85 Å resolution. ADP is a product of the kinase reaction and product release is considered to be the rate-limiting step of protein kinase catalytic cycles. The structure of DAPK–ADP–Mg{sup 2+} was compared with a newly determined DAPK–AMP-PNP–Mg{sup 2+} structure and the previously determined apo DAPK structure (PDB code http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm). The comparison shows that nucleotide-induced changes are localized to the glycine-rich loop region of DAPK.

  15. Protein Kinase RNA-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase-Mediated Bcl-2 Protein Phosphorylation Contributes to Evodiamine-Induced Apoptosis of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Shin; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Yen-Chou; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer mechanism of evodiamine (EVO) against the viability of human A498 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro study showed that EVO decreased the viability of A498 cells with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics such as hypodiploid cells, DNA ladders, chromatin-condensed cells, and cleaved caspase (Casp)-3/poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. Pharmacological studies using chemical inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) indicated that phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein participated in EVO-induced cell death of A498 cells, and application of the JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (SP), inhibited EVO-induced cleavage of the Casp-3/PARP proteins and chromatin condensation according to Giemsa staining. EVO disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with increased protein levels of the phosphorylated Bcl-2 protein (p-Bcl-2) was prevented by JNK inhibitors in A498 cells. A structure-activity relationship study showed that a methyl group at position 14 in EVO was important for its apoptotic effects and increased p-Bcl-2 protein in A498 cells. Furthermore, significant increases in the phosphorylated endoplasmic reticular stress protein, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK at Thr980), by EVO were detected in A498 cells, and the PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, significantly suppressed EVO-induced apoptosis, p-JNK, p-PERK, and cleaved PARP proteins. The in vivo study showed that EVO significantly reduced RCC growth elicited by a subcutaneous injection of A498 cells, and an increased protein level of p-PERK was observed according to an immunohistochemical analysis. Apoptosis by EVO was also demonstrated in other RCC cells such as 786-O, ACHN, and Caki-1 cells. This is the first study to demonstrate the anti-RCC effect of EVO via apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and activation of JNK and PERK to induce Bcl-2

  16. Localization of a novel human A-kinase-anchoring protein, hAKAP220, during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reinton, N; Collas, P; Haugen, T B; Skâlhegg, B S; Hansson, V; Jahnsen, T; Taskén, K

    2000-07-01

    Using a combination of protein kinase A type II overlay screening, rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and database searches, a contig of 9923 bp was assembled and characterized in which the open reading frame encoded a 1901-amino-acid A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP) with an apparent SDS-PAGE mobility of 220 kDa, named human AKAP220 (hAKAP220). The hAKAP220 amino acid sequence revealed high similarity to rat AKAP220 in the 1167 C-terminal residues, but contained 727 residues in the N-terminus not present in the reported rat AKAP220 sequence. The hAKAP220 mRNA was expressed at high levels in human testis and in isolated human pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. The hAKAP220 protein was present in human male germ cells and mature sperm. Immunofluorescent labeling with specific antibodies indicated that hAKAP220 was localized in the cytoplasm of premeiotic pachytene spermatocytes and in the centrosome of developing postmeiotic germ cells, while a midpiece/centrosome localization was found in elongating spermatocytes and mature sperm. The hAKAP220 protein together with a fraction of PKA types I and II and protein phosphatase I was resistant to detergent extraction of sperm tails, suggesting an association with cytoskeletal structures. In contrast, S-AKAP84/D-AKAP1, which is also present in the midpiece, was extracted under the same conditions. Anti-hAKAP220 antisera coimmunoprecipitated both type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA in human testis lysates, indicating that hAKAP220 interacts with both classes of R subunits, either through separate or through a common binding motif(s).

  17. Phosphorylation of human serum amyloid A protein by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Nel, A E; De Beer, M C; Shephard, E G; Strachan, A F; Vandenplas, M L; De Beer, F C

    1988-01-01

    Monokine-induced hepatic secretion of serum amyloid A protein (apo-SAA), an acute-phase reactant, is followed by rapid association with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. Plasma clearance of apo-SAA is more rapid than any of the other HDL apolipoproteins. It has been shown that, of the acute-phase HDL3 apolipoproteins, apo-SAA preferentially associates with neutrophil membranes. HDL apolipoproteins have been shown to activate protein kinase C in endothelial cells. We therefore investigated potential phosphorylation of HDL3 apolipoproteins by protein kinase C. Apo-SAA was the only apolipoprotein phosphorylated (Km = 12 mM). Phosphorylation of the apo-SAA-containing HDL3 particle was selective for the more basic isoforms of apo-SAA (pI 7.0, 7.4, 7.5 and 8.0), with more acidic isoforms being phosphorylated when delipidated acute-phase apolipoproteins were used as substrate. However, phosphorylation was not in itself responsible for the establishment of the apo-SAA isoforms. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3196320

  18. Degradation of Activated Protein Kinases by Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways and play critical roles in diverse cellular functions. Once a protein kinase is activated, its activity is subsequently downregulated through a variety of mechanisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that the activation of protein kinases commonly initiates their downregulation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Failure to regulate protein kinase activity or expression levels can cause human diseases. PMID:19489726

  19. Activation of S6 kinase in human neutrophils by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals: protein kinase C-dependent and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-independent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Tudan, C; Jackson, J K; Charlton, L; Pelech, S L; Sahl, B; Burt, H M

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been shown previously to be a central enzyme in crystal-induced neutrophil activation. Since activation of the 70 kDa S6 kinase (p70S6K) has been shown to be dependent on PI 3-kinase activation in mammalian cells, and since the former is a key enzyme in the transmission of signals to the cell nucleus, activation of p70(S6K) was investigated in crystal-stimulated neutrophils. Cytosolic fractions from calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD)-crystal-activated neutrophils were separated by Mono Q chromatography and analysed for phosphotransferase activity using a range of substrates and probed by Western analysis using antibodies to p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase). CPPD crystals induced a robust, transient activation (peak activity at 2 min) of p70(S6K) that was fully inhibited by pretreatment with rapamycin. This is the first report of the activation of p70(S6K) in neutrophil signal transduction pathways induced by an agonist. This crystal-induced activation of p70(S6K) could also be inhibited by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (Compound 3), but not by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. CPPD crystals also activated the ERK1 and ERK2 forms of MAP kinase (wortmannin insensitive), PKC (Compound 3 sensitive) and protein kinase B (wortmannin sensitive) in neutrophils. These data suggest that activation of p70(S6K) may proceed through a PI 3-kinase- and protein kinase B-independent but PKC-dependent pathway in crystal-activated neutrophils. PMID:9531494

  20. Structural basis of CX-4945 binding to human protein kinase CK2

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Andrew D.; Sheth, Payal R.; Basso, Andrea D.; Paliwal, Sunil; Gray, Kimberly; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Le, Hung V.

    2012-02-07

    Protein kinase CK2 (CK2), a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase, is involved in a variety of roles essential to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Elevated levels of CK2 expression results in the dysregulation of key signaling pathways that regulate transcription, and has been implicated in cancer. The adenosine-5'-triphosphate-competitive inhibitor CX-4945 has been reported to show broad spectrum anti-proliferative activity in multiple cancer cell lines. Although the enzymatic IC{sub 50} of CX-4945 has been reported, the thermodynamics and structural basis of binding to CK2{alpha} remained elusive. Presented here are the crystal structures of human CK2{alpha} in complex with CX-4945 and adenylyl phosphoramidate at 2.7 and 1.3 {angstrom}, respectively. Biophysical analysis of CX-4945 binding is also described. This data provides the structural rationale for the design of more potent inhibitors against this emerging cancer target.

  1. A novel microfluidic assay reveals a key role for protein kinase C δ in regulating human neutrophil-endothelium interaction.

    PubMed

    Soroush, Fariborz; Zhang, Ting; King, Devon J; Tang, Yuan; Deosarkar, Sudhir; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Kilpatrick, Laurie E; Kiani, Mohammad F

    2016-11-01

    A key step in neutrophil-mediated tissue damage is the migration of activated neutrophils across the vascular endothelium. Previously, we identified protein kinase C δ as a critical regulator of neutrophil migration in sepsis but did not identify specific steps in migration. In this study, we used our novel biomimetic microfluidic assay to delineate systematically the mechanism by which protein kinase C δ regulates individual steps in human neutrophil-endothelial interaction during inflammation. The biomimetic microfluidic assay includes a network of vascular channels, produced from in vivo images connected to a tissue compartment through a porous barrier. HUVECs cultured in vascular channels formed a complete lumen under physiologic shear flow. HUVECs were pretreated with TNF-α ± a protein kinase C δ inhibitor, and the tissue compartment was filled with a chemoattractant (fMLP or IL-8). Under physiologic shear flow, the role of protein kinase C δ on spatial and temporal neutrophil adherence/migration was quantified. Protein kinase C δ inhibition significantly reduced neutrophil adhesion in response to fMLP and IL-8 only under low shear rate and near bifurcations. Protein kinase C δ inhibition also decreased adherence to nonactivated HUVECs in response to fMLP or IL-8. Protein kinase C δ inhibition reduced neutrophil migration into the tissue compartment in response to fMLP and to a lesser degree, to IL-8. Antibody-coated microparticles demonstrated that protein kinase C δ inhibition down-regulated E-selectin and ICAM-1 but not VCAM-1 expression. With the use of a physiologically relevant in vitro model system, we demonstrate that protein kinase C δ plays an important role in the regulation of neutrophil adherence/migration during inflammation and identifies key steps regulated by protein kinase C δ in neutrophil-endothelial interactions.

  2. Zinc differentially regulates mitogen-activated protein kinases in human T cells.

    PubMed

    Hönscheid, Andrea; Dubben, Svenja; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient with remarkable importance for immunity, in particular for T-cell function. This is, at least in part, based on an involvement of zinc ions in immune cell signal transduction; dynamic changes of the intracellular free zinc concentration have recently been recognized as signaling events. Because the molecular targets of zinc signals remain incompletely understood, we investigated the impact of elevated intracellular free zinc on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and MAPK-dependent cytokine production in human T-cells. p38 was activated by treatment with zinc and the ionophore pyrithione, whereas ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases were unaffected. In contrast, after T-cell receptor stimulation with antibodies against CD3, ERK1/2-phosphorylation was selectively suppressed by intracellular zinc. Mechanisms that had been shown to mediate zinc-effects in other cells, such as activation of the Src kinase Lck, inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 or MAPK phosphatases and cyclic nucleotide/protein kinase A signaling were not involved. This indicates that the differential impact of zinc on the MAPK families in T-cells is mediated by mechanisms that differ from the ones observed in other cell types. Further investigation of the activation of p38 by zinc demonstrated that this MAPK is responsible for the zinc-mediated activation of CREB and mRNA expression of the Th1 cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-2. In conclusion, regulation of MAPK activity contributes to the impact of zinc on T-cell function.

  3. Atypical Protein Kinase Cι as a human oncogene and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Peter J.; Justilien, Verline; Riou, Philippe; Linch, Mark; Fields, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors represent a major class of targeted therapeutics that has made a positive impact on treatment of cancer and other disease indications. Among the promising kinase targets for further therapeutic development are members of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family.The PKCs are central components of many signaling pathways that regulate diverse cellular functions including proliferation, cell cycle, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and polarity. Genetic manipulation of individual PKC isozymes has demonstrated that they often fulfill distinct, nonredundant cellular functions.11 Participation of PKC members in different intracellular signaling pathways reflects responses to varying extracellular stimuli, intracellular localization, tissue distribution, phosphorylation status, and intermolecular interactions. PKC activity, localization, phosphorylation, and/or expression are often altered in human tumors, and PKC isozymes have been implicated in various aspects of transformation, including uncontrolled proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and resistance to apoptosis. Despite the strong relationship between PKC isozymes and cancer, to date only atypical PKCiota has been shown to function as a bona fide oncogene, and as such is a particularly attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the role of PKCiota in transformation and describe mechanism-based approaches to therapeutically target oncogenic PKCiota signaling in cancer. PMID:24231509

  4. Human Biliverdin Reductase Suppresses Goodpasture Antigen-binding Protein (GPBP) Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miralem, Tihomir; Gibbs, Peter E. M.; Revert, Fernando; Saus, Juan; Maines, Mahin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase activity of human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) and the expression of Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP), a nonconventional Ser/Thr kinase for the type IV collagen of basement membrane, are regulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulates kinase activity of hBVR and activates NF-κB, a transcriptional regulator of GPBP mRNA. Increased GPBP activity is associated with several autoimmune conditions, including Goodpasture syndrome. Here we show that in HEK293A cells hBVR binds to GPBP and down-regulates its TNF-α-stimulated kinase activity; this was not due to a decrease in GPBP expression. Findings with small interfering RNA to hBVR and to the p65 regulatory subunit of NF-κB show the hBVR role in the initial stimulation of GPBP expression by TNF-α-activated NF-κB; hBVR was not a factor in mediating GPBP mRNA stability. The interacting domain was mapped to the 281CX10C motif in the C-terminal 24 residues of hBVR. A 7-residue peptide, KKRILHC281, corresponding to the core of the consensus D(δ)-Box motif in the interacting domain, was as effective as the intact 296-residue hBVR polypeptide in inhibiting GPBP kinase activity. GPBP neither regulated hBVR expression nor TNF-α dependent NF-κB expression. Collectively, our data reveal that hBVR is a regulator of the TNF-α-GPBP-collagen type IV signaling cascade and uncover a novel biological interaction that may be of relevance in autoimmune pathogenesis. PMID:20177069

  5. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical and physical modifications during the freeze-thaw process adversely influence the restoration of energy-dependent sperm functions required for fertilization. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has been introduced to activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase which is a cell energy sensor and a cell metabolism regulator. The cryoprotection of resveratrol on sperm cryoinjury via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase also remains to be elucidated. Our aim, thus, was to investigate: (i) the presence and intracellular localization of AMP-activated protein kinase protein; (ii) whether resveratrol may exert a protective effect on certain functional properties of fresh and post-thaw human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Spermatozoa from normozoospermic men were incubated with or without different concentrations of Compound C as an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor or resveratrol as an AMP-activated protein kinase activator for different lengths of time and were then cryopreserved. AMP-activated protein kinase is expressed essentially in the entire flagellum and the post-equatorial region. Viability of fresh spermatozoa was not significantly affected by the presence of Compound C or resveratrol. However, although Compound C caused a potent inhibition of spermatozoa motility parameters, resveratrol did not induce negative effect, except a significant reduction in motility at 25 μm for 1 h. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis-like changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Nevertheless, it was not able to compensate decreased sperm viability and motility parameters following cryopreservation. In contrast, Compound C showed opposite effects to resveratrol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis-like changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and

  6. Ornithine decarboxylase, mitogen-activated protein kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expressions in human colon tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Takahiro; Kubota, Shunichiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Murata, Nobuo; Hashimoto, Daijo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expressions of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), MMP-2, and Erk, and their relationship in human colon tumors. METHODS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity (Erk phosphorylation) were determined in 58 surgically removed human colon tumors and their adjacent normal tissues, using [1-14C]-ornithine as a substrate, ELISA assay, and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and Erk phosphorylation were significantly elevated in colon tumors, compared to those in adjacent normal tissues. A significant correlation was observed between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels. CONCLUSION: This is the first report showing a significant correlation between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels in human colon tumors. As MMP-2 is involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, and colon cancer overexpresses ODC, suppression of ODC expression may be a rational approach to treat colon cancer which overexpresses ODC. PMID:15918191

  7. The human DNA-activated protein kinase, DNA-PK: Substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Connelly, M.A.; Zhang, H.; Sipley, J.A.; Lees-Miller, S.P.; Lintott, L.G.; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Appella, E.

    1994-11-05

    Although much has been learned about the structure and function of p53 and the probable sequence of subsequent events that lead to cell cycle arrest, little is known about how DNA damage is detected and the nature of the signal that is generated by DNA damage. Circumstantial evidence suggests that protein kinases may be involved. In vitro, human DNA-PK phosphorylates a variety of nuclear DNA-binding, regulatory proteins including the tumor suppressor protein p53, the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the heat shock protein hsp90, the large tumor antigen (TAg) of simian virus 40, a variety of transcription factors including Fos, Jun, serum response factor (SRF), Myc, Sp1, Oct-1, TFIID, E2F, the estrogen receptor, and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (reviewed in Anderson, 1993; Jackson et al., 1993). However, for most of these proteins, the sites that are phosphorylated by DNA-PK are not known. To determine if the sites that were phosphorylated in vitro also were phosphorylated in vivo and if DNA-PK recognized a preferred protein sequence, the authors identified the sites phosphorylated by DNA-PK in several substrates by direct protein sequence analysis. Each phosphorylated serine or threonine is followed immediately by glutamine in the polypeptide chain; at no other positions are the amino acid residues obviously constrained.

  8. Biguanides and thiazolidinediones inhibit stimulated lipolysis in human adipocytes through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Bourron, O; Daval, M; Hainault, I; Hajduch, E; Servant, J M; Gautier, J F; Ferré, P; Foufelle, F

    2010-04-01

    In rodent adipocytes, activated AMP-activated protein kinase reduces the lipolytic rate. As the hypoglycaemic drugs metformin and thiazolidinediones activate this enzyme in rodents, we tested the hypothesis that in addition to their known actions they could have an anti-lipolytic effect in human adipocytes. Adipose tissue was obtained from individuals undergoing plastic surgery. Adipocytes were isolated and incubated with lipolytic agents (isoprenaline, atrial natriuretic peptide) and biguanides or thiazolidinediones. Lipolysis was quantified by the glycerol released in the medium. AMP-activated protein kinase activity and phosphorylation state were determined using standard procedures. In human adipocytes, isoprenaline and atrial natriuretic peptide stimulated the lipolytic rate three- to fourfold. Biguanides and thiazolidinediones activated AMP-activated protein kinase and inhibited lipolysis by 30-40%, at least in part by inhibiting hormone-sensitive lipase translocation to the lipid droplet. Inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase by compound C precluded this inhibitory effect on lipolysis. Stimulation of lipolysis also induced an activation of AMP-activated protein kinase concomitant with a drop in ATP concentration. We show for the first time in human adipocytes that biguanides and thiazolidinediones activate AMP-activated protein kinase, thus counteracting lipolysis induced by lipolytic agents. In addition, beta-agonist- or ANP-stimulated lipolysis increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity. This is because of an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, linked to activation of some of the released fatty acids into acyl-CoA. AMP-activated protein kinase activation could represent a physiological means of avoiding a deleterious drain of energy during lipolysis but could be used to restrain pharmacological release of fatty acids.

  9. Human Intestinal Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) Catalyzes Prasugrel as a Bioactivation Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Kazui, Miho; Ogura, Yuji; Hagihara, Katsunobu; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Prasugrel is a thienopyridine antiplatelet prodrug that undergoes rapid hydrolysis in vivo to a thiolactone metabolite by human carboxylesterase-2 (hCE2) during gastrointestinal absorption. The thiolactone metabolite is further converted to a pharmacologically active metabolite by cytochrome P450 isoforms. The aim of the current study was to elucidate hydrolases other than hCE2 involved in the bioactivation step of prasugrel in human intestine. Using size-exclusion column chromatography of a human small intestinal S9 fraction, another peak besides the hCE2 peak was observed to have prasugrel hydrolyzing activity, and this protein was found to have a molecular weight of about 20 kDa. This prasugrel hydrolyzing protein was successfully purified from a monkey small intestinal cytosolic fraction by successive four-step column chromatography and identified as Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Second, we evaluated the enzymatic kinetic parameters for prasugrel hydrolysis using recombinant human RKIP and hCE2 and estimated the contributions of these two hydrolyzing enzymes to the prasugrel hydrolysis reaction in human intestine, which were approximately 40% for hRKIP and 60% for hCE2. Moreover, prasugrel hydrolysis was inhibited by anti-hRKIP antibody and carboxylesterase-specific chemical inhibitor (bis p-nitrophenyl phosphate) by 30% and 60%, respectively. In conclusion, another protein capable of hydrolyzing prasugrel to its thiolactone metabolite was identified as RKIP, and this protein may play a significant role with hCE2 in prasugrel bioactivation in human intestine. RKIP is known to have diverse functions in many intracellular signaling cascades, but this is the first report describing RKIP as a hydrolase involved in drug metabolism.

  10. Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2: insights into basic properties of the CK2 holoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    Niefind, Karsten; Guerra, Barbara; Ermakowa, Inessa; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 Å resolution (Protein Data Bank code: 1JWH). In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalytic subunits, which make no direct contact with one another. Each catalytic subunit interacts with both regulatory chains, predominantly via an extended C-terminal tail of the regulatory subunit. The CK2 structure is consistent with its constitutive activity and with a flexible role of the regulatory subunit as a docking partner for various protein kinases. Furthermore it shows an inter-domain mobility in the catalytic subunit known to be functionally important in protein kinases and detected here for the first time directly within one crystal structure. PMID:11574463

  11. Nucleotide binding to nucleoside diphosphate kinases: X-ray structure of human NDPK-A in complex with ADP and comparison to protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxing; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Schneider, Benoit; Véron, Michel; Moréra, Solange; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Janin, Joel

    2003-09-26

    NDPK-A, product of the nm23-H1 gene, is one of the two major isoforms of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase. We analyzed the binding of its nucleotide substrates by fluorometric methods. The binding of nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) substrates was detected by following changes of the intrinsic fluorescence of the H118G/F60W variant, a mutant protein engineered for that purpose. Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) substrate binding was measured by competition with a fluorescent derivative of ADP, following the fluorescence anisotropy of the derivative. We also determined an X-ray structure at 2.0A resolution of the variant NDPK-A in complex with ADP, Ca(2+) and inorganic phosphate, products of ATP hydrolysis. We compared the conformation of the bound nucleotide seen in this complex and the interactions it makes with the protein, with those of the nucleotide substrates, substrate analogues or inhibitors present in other NDP kinase structures. We also compared NDP kinase-bound nucleotides to ATP bound to protein kinases, and showed that the nucleoside monophosphate moieties have nearly identical conformations in spite of the very different protein environments. However, the beta and gamma-phosphate groups are differently positioned and oriented in the two types of kinases, and they bind metal ions with opposite chiralities. Thus, it should be possible to design nucleotide analogues that are good substrates of one type of kinase, and poor substrates or inhibitors of the other kind.

  12. Activation of Protein Kinase C and Protein Kinase D in Human Natural Killer Cells: Effects of Tributyltin, Dibutyltin, and Tetrabromobisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Krupa; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the ability of target cells to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase D (PKD) (which is often a downstream target of PKC) has not been examined in natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. Here we examined whether exposure of human NK cells to lysis sensitive tumor cells activated PKC and PKD. The results of these studies show for the first time that activation of PKC and PKD occurs in response to target cell binding to NK cells. Exposure of NK cells to K562 tumor cells for 10 and 30 minutes increased phosphorylation/activation of both PKC and PKD by roughly 2 fold. Butyltins (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin (DBT)) and brominated compounds (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)) are environmental contaminants that are found in human blood. Exposures of NK cells to TBT, DBT or TBBPA decrease NK cell lytic function in part by activating the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are part of the NK lytic pathway. We established that PKC and PKD are part of the lytic pathway upstream of MAPKs and thus we investigated whether DBT, TBT, and TBBPA exposures activated PKC and PKD. TBT activated PKC by 2–3 fold at 10 min at concentrations ranging from 50–300 nM while DBT caused a 1.3 fold activation at 2.5 μM at 10 min. Both TBT and DBT caused an approximately 2 fold increase in phosphorylation/activation of PKC. Exposures to TBBPA caused no statistically significant changes in either PKC or PKD activation. PMID:26228090

  13. Activation of protein kinase C and protein kinase D in human natural killer cells: effects of tributyltin, dibutyltin, and tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Rana, Krupa; Whalen, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the ability of target cells to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase D (PKD) (which is often a downstream target of PKC) has not been examined in natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. Here we examined whether exposure of human NK cells to lysis sensitive tumor cells activated PKC and PKD. The results of these studies show for the first time that activation of PKC and PKD occurs in response to target cell binding to NK cells. Exposure of NK cells to K562 tumor cells for 10 and 30 min increased phosphorylation/activation of both PKC and PKD by roughly 2-fold. Butyltins (tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT)) and brominated compounds (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)) are environmental contaminants that are found in human blood. Exposures of NK cells to TBT, DBT, or TBBPA decrease NK cell lytic function in part by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are part of the NK lytic pathway. We established that PKC and PKD are part of the lytic pathway upstream of MAPKs and thus we investigated whether DBT, TBT, and TBBPA exposures activated PKC and PKD. TBT-activated PKC by 2-3-folds at 10 min at concentrations ranging from 50 to 300 nM while DBT caused a 1.3-fold activation at 2.5 µM at 10 min. Both TBT and DBT caused an approximately 2-fold increase in phosphorylation/activation of PKC. Exposures to TBBPA caused no statistically significant changes in either PKC or PKD activation.

  14. Assignment of the protein kinase C delta polypeptide gene (PRKCD) to human chromosome 3 and mouse chromosome 14.

    PubMed

    Huppi, K; Siwarski, D; Goodnight, J; Mischak, H

    1994-01-01

    The protein kinase C (pkc) enzymes are a family of serine-threonine protein kinases, each encoded by a distinct and separate gene. The chromosomal locations of human PRKCA, PRKCB, and PRKCG have previously been established. We now report that PRKCD, a novel member of the pkc gene family, maps to human chromosome 3. The chromosomal location of Pkcd has also been determined in the mouse by analysis of recombination frequency in an interspecific panel of backcross mice. We find that the locus encoding pkcd resides proximal to nucleoside phosphorylase (Np-2) and Tcra on mouse chromosome 14 in a region syntenic with human 3p.

  15. Dematin, a human erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, is a substrate for a recombinant FIKK kinase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Gabriel S; Bailey, Scott

    2013-09-01

    P. falciparum causes the most deadly form of malaria, resulting from the adherence of infected red blood cells to blood vessels. During the blood stage of infection, the parasite secretes a large number of proteins into the host erythrocyte. The secretion of a 20-member family of protein kinases known as FIKK kinases, after a conserved Phe-Ile-Lys-Lys sequence motif, is unique to P. falciparum. Identification of physiological substrates of these kinases may provide perspective on the importance of FIKK kinase activity to P. falciparum virulence. We demonstrate, for the first time, the heterologous expression and purification of a FIKK kinase (PfFk4.1, PFD1165w). The recombinant kinase is active against general substrates and phosphorylates itself. Having demonstrated kinase activity, we incubated recombinant Fk4.1 with parasite and human erythrocyte lysates. No parasite-derived substrates were identified. However, treatment of erythrocyte ghosts shows that the FIKK kinase Fk4.1 phosphorylates dematin, a cytoskeletal protein found at the red blood cell spectrin-actin junction.

  16. Detection of mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Janivette; Gorsk, David H; Germino, F Joseph; Shih, Weichung; Lu, Shou-En; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Jin-Ming; Hait, William N; Goydos, James S

    2003-12-15

    Recent studies suggest that activating point mutations in B-RAF may commonly occur in melanoma. We devised a method to detect point mutations in heterogeneous tissues containing both wild-type and mutant B-RAF and N-RAS genes by using site-directed mutagenesis to introduce new restrictions sites in the cDNA sequence when the specific point mutations are present. We used this technique to determine the incidence of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutations in human melanoma. We screened 85 melanoma samples for the most common B-RAF and N-RAS mutations found in melanoma using a site-directed mutagenesis-based detection technique. Western blotting was used to evaluate downstream up-regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in these tissues. Thirty-three samples (7 of 25 primaries, 15 of 25 regional metastases, 5 of 25 nodal metastases, and 6 of 10 distant metastases) harbored the V599E B-RAF mutation (39%), 12 contained a Q61R N-RAS mutation and 5 a Q61K N-RAS mutation. Western blotting with antiphosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 antibodies demonstrated up-regulation of the MAPK pathway in samples containing activating B-RAF or N-RAS mutations compared with wild-type samples. This method of detection was sensitive and specific with no false positives. Activating mutations of the MAPK pathway were present in approximately 60% of samples tested and caused activation of this cellular pathway that appears to be important in the pathogenesis of melanoma.

  17. Protein Kinase PKN1 Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard G.; Bosch, Katherine A.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Yang, Peitzu T.; Robin, Nick C.; Toroni, Rachel A.; Biechele, Travis L.; Berndt, Jason D.; von Haller, Priska D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A. PMID:24114839

  18. Protein kinase PKN1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    James, Richard G; Bosch, Katherine A; Kulikauskas, Rima M; Yang, Peitzu T; Robin, Nick C; Toroni, Rachel A; Biechele, Travis L; Berndt, Jason D; von Haller, Priska D; Eng, Jimmy K; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J; Moon, Randall T

    2013-11-29

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A.

  19. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Ru; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Browning, Joseph A; Wilkins, Robert J; Ellory, J Clive

    2001-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl− channel. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl− channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:11731569

  20. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease.

    PubMed

    Shen, M R; Chou, C Y; Browning, J A; Wilkins, R J; Ellory, J C

    2001-12-01

    1. This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. 2. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. 3. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl- channel. 4. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl- channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. 5. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. 6. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells.

  1. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peyton, Kelly J.; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yu, Yajie; Yates, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionary conserved energy-sensing enzyme that regulates cell metabolism. Emerging evidence indicates that AMPK also plays an important role in modulating endothelial cell function. In the present study, we investigated whether AMPK modulates endothelial cell growth. Treatment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells with the AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), 6,7-dihydro-4-hydroxy-3-(2′-hydroxy[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)-6-oxo-thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile (A-769662), or metformin inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. The antiproliferative action of AICAR was largely prevented by the adenosine kinase inhibitor 5′-iodotubercidin and mimicked by infecting endothelial cells with an adenovirus expressing constitutively active AMPK. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of endothelial nitric oxide synthase or heme oxygenase-1 activity failed to reverse the inhibition of endothelial cell growth by AICAR. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that pharmacological activation of AMPK arrested endothelial cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and this was associated with increases in p53 phosphorylation and p53, p21, and p27 protein expression and decreases in cyclin A protein expression and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. In addition, silencing p21 and p27 expression partially restored the mitogenic response of AMPK-activated cells. Finally, activation of AMPK by AICAR blocked the migration of endothelial cells after scrape injury and stimulated tube formation by endothelial cells plated onto Matrigel-coated plates. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that AMPK activation inhibits endothelial cell proliferation by elevating p21 and p27 expression. In addition, they show that AMPK regulates endothelial cell migration and differentiation and identify AMPK as an attractive therapeutic target in treating diseases associated with aberrant

  2. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase C in regulation of antioxidant response element activity in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Yuesheng; Bowden, G Tim

    2006-12-08

    Antioxidant response element (ARE) is a unique cis-acting regulatory sequence located in the upstream regions of many genes encoding anticarcinogenic/antioxidant proteins. Induction of ARE dependent genes plays an important role in protection of cells against oxidative damage. However, the signaling mechanism(s) involved in regulating transcription of ARE dependent gene expression has not been clearly defined. In this study, we identified protein kinases that are involved in regulation of ARE activity by using specific pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinases in engineered human HaCaT keratinocytes, which stably express the ARE-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. When HaCaT/GFP cells were treated with tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a well-known ARE activator, GFP expression was up-regulated in time and dose dependent manner, indicating that tBHQ activates the ARE in these cells. Treatment of cells with SB202190 (a specific inhibitor of p38), staurosporine (a wide-spectrum inhibitor of PKC) or rottlerin (a specific inhibitor of PKCdelta) all augmented ARE activation by tBHQ. These results suggest that p38 and PKC, especially PKCdelta, play inhibitory roles in ARE activation in human keratinocytes. Furthermore, UVB irradiation minimally affects the basal ARE activity but significantly suppresses tBHQ induced ARE activation, indicating that UVB irradiation interrupts tBHQ signaling. Interestingly, treatment of HaCaT/GFP cells with SP600125 (a specific inhibitor of JNK) could reverse UVB mediated suppression of ARE activation by tBHQ. This suggests that the suppressive effect of UVB on ARE activation by tBHQ is mediated by a JNK pathway(s). These findings provide useful information for developing novel strategies for skin cancer chemoprotection through ARE activation.

  3. A cDNA clone encoding human cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit C. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, F.; Hanks, S.K. )

    1988-08-25

    The authors have determined the nucleotide sequence from both complementary strands of a human cDNA coding for cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit type {alpha} (cAPK-C{alpha}). This cDNA was one of many protein kinase cDNAs isolated from a HeLa cell library by screening with oligonucleotide probes designed to recognize target sequences encoding highly conserved segments within the catalytic domains. The deduced human cAPK-C{alpha} amino acid sequence of 350 residues differs from the bovine and murine sequences at 3 and 7 positions, respectively.

  4. Verotoxin activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in human peripheral blood monocytes: role in apoptosis and proinflammatory cytokine release

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Pamela; Smith, Susan J; Giembycz, Mark A; Rotondo, Dino; Plevin, Robin

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in the effects of verotoxins (VTs), from Escherichia coli O157:H7, upon both apoptosis and the release of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulated factor (GM-CSF) from human monocytes. Both VT1 and VT2 stimulated a weak, transient increase in c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity and a strong activation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in human monocytes, which was sustained in the case of p38 MAP kinase. Stimulation of human monocytes with VT2 (100 ng ml−1) did not result in an increase in apoptosis; however, the toxin stimulated the release of both TNF-α and GM-CSF. Pretreatment of human monocytes with the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580, at concentrations from 100 nM to 10 μM, significantly decreased the VT1- and VT2-induced TNF-α and GM-CSF release from monocytes. In contrast, inhibition of MEK1 with PD98059 only significantly decreased GM-CSF release. Pretreatment of monocytes with SP600125 inhibited both GM-CSF and TNF-α production; however, significant effects upon p38 MAP kinase and ERK activation were observed. Taken together, these results suggest a role for p38 MAP kinase and ERK in cytokine generation in response to the verotoxins. A role for JNK remains undetermined. PMID:14597601

  5. Modulation of human c-mpl gene expression by thrombopoietin through protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Sunohara, M; Morikawa, S; Sato, T; Sato, I; Sato, T; Fuse, A

    2003-01-01

    The c-Mpl, thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor specificially controls megakaryocytic growth and differentiation. TPO increased the c-mpl promoter activity determined by a transient expression system using a vector containing the luciferase gene as a reporter in the human megakaryoblastic cell line CMK. The maximal promoter activity of c-mpl was obtained 24 hr after pretreatment with TPO for 3 hr and then declined with time. This increase was completely abolished by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors (GF109203, calphostin C and H7). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment led to an increase in c-mpl promoter activity. These results demonstrate that the promoter activity of c-mpl is modulated by transcription through a PKC-dependent pathway.

  6. Structural basis of CX-4945 binding to human protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Andrew D; Sheth, Payal R; Basso, Andrea D; Paliwal, Sunil; Gray, Kimberly; Fischmann, Thierry O; Le, Hung V

    2011-01-03

    Protein kinase CK2 (CK2), a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase, is involved in a variety of roles essential to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Elevated levels of CK2 expression results in the dysregulation of key signaling pathways that regulate transcription, and has been implicated in cancer. The adenosine-5'-triphosphate-competitive inhibitor CX-4945 has been reported to show broad spectrum anti-proliferative activity in multiple cancer cell lines. Although the enzymatic IC(50) of CX-4945 has been reported, the thermodynamics and structural basis of binding to CK2α remained elusive. Presented here are the crystal structures of human CK2α in complex with CX-4945 and adenylyl phosphoramidate at 2.7 and 1.3 Å, respectively. Biophysical analysis of CX-4945 binding is also described. This data provides the structural rationale for the design of more potent inhibitors against this emerging cancer target. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodentine induces human dental pulp stem cell differentiation through mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhirong; Kohli, Meetu R; Yu, Qing; Kim, Syngcuk; Qu, Tiejun; He, Wen-xi

    2014-07-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossès, France), a new tricalcium silicate cement formulation, has been introduced as a bioactive dentine substitute to be used in direct contact with pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to the material and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signal pathways played a regulatory role in Biodentine-induced odontoblast differentiation. hDPCs obtained from impacted third molars were incubated with Biodentine. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of messenger RNA expression of the following differentiation gene markers: osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Cell cultures in the presence of Biodentine were exposed to specific inhibitors of MAPK (U0126, SB203580, and SP600125), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and CaMKII (KN-93) pathways to evaluate the regulatory effect on the expression of these markers and mineralization assay. Biodentine significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation and the expression of OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP. The MAPK inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (U0126) and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) significantly decreased the Biodentine-induced mineralized differentiation of hDPSCs and OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP messenger RNA expression, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580) had no effect. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 significantly attenuated and the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate further enhanced the up-regulation of Biodentine-induced gene expression and mineralization. Biodentine is a bioactive and biocompatible material capable

  8. Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in human Gab-1 protein by EGF receptor kinase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lehr, S; Kotzka, J; Herkner, A; Klein, E; Siethoff, C; Knebel, B; Noelle, V; Brüning, J C; Klein, H W; Meyer, H E; Krone, W; Müller-Wieland, D

    1999-01-05

    Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab-1) has been identified recently in a cDNA library of glioblastoma tumors and appears to play a central role in cellular growth response, transformation, and apoptosis. Structural and functional features indicate that Gab-1 is a multisubstrate docking protein downstream in the signaling pathways of different receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize the phosphorylation of recombinant human Gab-1 (hGab-1) protein by EGFR in vitro. Using the pGEX system to express the entire protein and different domains of hGab-1 as glutathione S-transferase proteins, kinetic data for phosphorylation of these proteins by wheat germ agglutinine-purified EGFR and the recombinant EGFR (rEGFR) receptor kinase domain were determined. Our data revealed similar affinities of hGab-1-C for both receptor preparations (KM = 2.7 microM for rEGFR vs 3.2 microM for WGA EGFR) as well as for the different recombinant hGab-1 domains. To identify the specific EGFR phosphorylation sites, hGab-1-C was sequenced by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. The entire protein was phosphorylated by rEGFR at eight tyrosine residues (Y285, Y373, Y406, Y447, Y472, Y619, Y657, and Y689). Fifty percent of the identified radioactivity was incorporated in tyrosine Y657 as the predominant peak in HPLC analysis, a site exhibiting features of a potential Syp (PTP1D) binding site. Accordingly, GST-pull down assays with A431 and HepG2 cell lysates showed that phosphorylated intact hGab-1 was able to bind Syp. This binding appears to be specific, because it was abolished by changing the Y657 of hGab-1 to F657. These results demonstrate that hGab-1 is a high-affinity substrate for the EGFR and the major tyrosine phosphorylation site Y657 in the C terminus is a specific binding site for the tyrosine phosphatase Syp.

  9. Crystal structure of the kinase domain of human protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) at 2.33 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Manish Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Birudukota, Swarnakumari; Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Tyagi, Rajiv; Gosu, Ramachandraiah

    2016-09-16

    Human Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) (EC:2.7.10.2), also known as the breast tumor kinase (BRK), is an intracellular non-receptor Src-related tyrosine kinase expressed in a majority of human breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines, but its expression is low or completely absent in normal mammary glands. In the recent past, several studies have suggested that PTK6 is a potential therapeutic target in cancer. To understand its structural and functional properties, the PTK6 kinase domain (PTK6-KD) gene was cloned, overexpressed in a baculo-insect cell system, purified and crystallized at room temperature. X-ray diffraction data to 2.33 Å resolution was collected on a single PTK6-KD crystal, which belonged to the triclinic space group P1. The Matthews coefficient calculation suggested the presence of four protein molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of ∼50%.The structure has been solved by molecular replacement and crystal structure data submitted to the protein data bank under the accession number 5D7V. This is the first report of apo PTK6-KD structure crystallized in DFG-in and αC-helix-out conformation.

  10. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM
    IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    * Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue1
    1The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  11. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM
    IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    * Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue1
    1The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  12. Both protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cAMP coordinate adhesion of human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Netherton, Stuart J; Sutton, Jayda A; Wilson, Lindsay S; Carter, Rhonda L; Maurice, Donald H

    2007-10-12

    cAMP regulates integrin-dependent adhesions of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) to extracellular matrix proteins, their vascular endothelial cadherin-dependent intercellular adhesions, and their proliferation and migration in response to growth and chemotactic factors. Previously, we reported that cAMP-elevating agents differentially inhibited migration of human VECs isolated from large vascular structures (macro-VECs, human aortic endothelial cells [HAECs]) or small vascular structures (micro-VECs, human microvascular endothelial cells [HMVECs]) and that cAMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterase (PDE)3 and PDE4 enzymes was important in coordinating this difference. Here we report that 2 cAMP-effector enzymes, namely protein kinase (PK)A and exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC), each regulate extracellular matrix protein-based adhesions of both macro- and micro-VECs. Of interest and potential therapeutic importance, we report that although specific pharmacological activation of EPAC markedly stimulated adhesion of micro-VECs to extracellular matrix proteins when PKA was inhibited, this treatment only modestly promoted adhesion of macro-VECs. Consistent with an important role for cAMP PDEs in this difference, PDE3 or PDE4 inhibitors promoted EPAC-dependent adhesions in micro-VECs when PKA was inhibited but not in macro-VECs. At a molecular level, we identify multiple, nonoverlapping, PKA- or EPAC-based signaling protein complexes in both macro- and micro-VECs and demonstrate that each of these complexes contains either PDE3B or PDE4D but not both of these PDEs. Taken together, our data support the concept that adhesion of macro- and micro-VECs is differentially regulated by cAMP and that these differences are coordinated through selective actions of cAMP at multiple nonoverlapping signaling complexes that contain PKA or EPAC and distinct PDE variants.

  13. Platelet-activating factor (PAF)-dependent biochemical, morphologic, and physiologic responses of human platelets: Demonstration of translocation of protein kinase C associated with protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Block, L.H.; Abraham, W.M.; Groscurth, P.; Qiao, B.Y.; Perruchoud, A.P. )

    1989-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent stimulus for platelet aggregation and secretion. PAF has been shown to stimulate the phosphatidylinositol (PI) pathway in platelets, which implies that PAF should activate protein kinase C. In this study, measurements of PI metabolites, the elevation of intracellular free calcium concentration, (Ca2+)i, the activation of protein kinase C, and the phosphorylation of platelet proteins (using a two-dimensional gel electrophoretic technique) were performed before and after the addition of 10(-8) M PAF to human platelets. These findings were correlated with morphologic changes in the platelets as determined by immunoelectron microscopic studies on the cytoskeleton and by X-ray analysis of dense bodies. The results show that PAF stimulates the production of PI metabolites and causes an increase in the membrane-associated activity of protein kinase C. These changes are accompanied by a rise in the (Ca2+)i and protein phosphorylation. The increase in protein kinase C activity reaches a maximum at approximately 60 s, a time frame that is consistent with the protein phosphorylation and the subsequent morphologic and secretory events. X-ray analysis revealed two types of dense bodies containing various amounts of calcium which appeared to be released sequentially after PAF activation. These results suggest that the protein phosphorylation that controls the physiologic events resulting from PAF activation of human platelets is catalyzed by protein kinase C.

  14. Platelet-activating factor (PAF)-dependent biochemical, morphologic, and physiologic responses of human platelets: demonstration of translocation of protein kinase C associated with protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Block, L H; Abraham, W M; Groscurth, P; Qiao, B Y; Perruchoud, A P

    1989-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent stimulus for platelet aggregation and secretion. PAF has been shown to stimulate the phosphatidylinositol (PI) pathway in platelets, which implies that PAF should activate protein kinase C. In this study, measurements of PI metabolites, the elevation of intracellular free calcium concentration, (Ca2+)i, the activation of protein kinase C, and the phosphorylation of platelet proteins (using a two-dimensional gel electrophoretic technique) were performed before and after the addition of 10(-8) M PAF to human platelets. These findings were correlated with morphologic changes in the platelets as determined by immunoelectron microscopic studies on the cytoskeleton and by X-ray analysis of dense bodies. The results show that PAF stimulates the production of PI metabolites and causes an increase in the membrane-associated activity of protein kinase C. These changes are accompanied by a rise in the (Ca2+)i and protein phosphorylation. The increase in protein kinase C activity reaches a maximum at approximately 60 s, a time frame that is consistent with the protein phosphorylation and the subsequent morphologic and secretory events. X-ray analysis revealed two types of dense bodies containing various amounts of calcium which appeared to be released sequentially after PAF activation. These results suggest that the protein phosphorylation that controls the physiologic events resulting from PAF activation of human platelets is catalyzed by protein kinase C.

  15. Correlation between human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and protein kinase C alpha-expression: effect of d-alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Marilley, D; Mosieniak, G; Boscoboinik, D; Azzi, A

    1996-11-01

    Population doublings of four different human aortic vascular smooth muscle cell strains correlate with the amount of protein kinase C alpha present in these cells. d-alpha-Tocopherol inhibits, at different extents, protein kinase C activity in all cells studied. Furthermore, the extent of inhibition positively correlates with amount of protein kinase C alpha expression and not with that of the other isoforms. It is suggested that, in human aortic smooth muscle cells, protein kinase C alpha modulates cell proliferation and serves as a target for d-alpha-tocopherol inhibition.

  16. Phosphorylation of Human CTP Synthetase 1 by Protein Kinase A: IDENTIFICATION OF Thr455 AS A MAJOR SITE OF PHOSPHORYLATION*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Carman, George M.

    2007-01-01

    CTP synthetase is an essential enzyme that generates the CTP required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids. In this work, we examined the phosphorylation of the human CTPS1-encoded CTP synthetase 1 by protein kinase A. CTP synthetase 1 was expressed and purified from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ double mutant that lacks CTP synthetase activity. Using purified CTP synthetase 1 as a substrate, protein kinase A activity was time- and dose-dependent. The phosphorylation, which primarily occurred on a threonine residue, was accompanied by a 50% decrease in CTP synthetase 1 activity. The synthetic peptide LGKRRTLFQT that contains the protein kinase A motif for Thr455 was a substrate for protein kinase A. A Thr455 to Ala (T455A) mutation in CTP synthetase 1 was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and was expressed and purified from the S. cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant. The T455A mutation caused a 78% decrease in protein kinase A phosphorylation, and the loss of the phosphothreonine residue and a major phosphopeptide that were present in the purified wild type enzyme phosphorylated by protein kinase A. The CTP synthetase 1 activity of the T455A mutant enzyme was 2-fold higher than the wild type enzyme. In addition, the T455A mutation caused a 44% decrease in the amount of human CTP synthetase 1 that was phosphorylated in S. cerevisiae cells, and this was accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in the cellular concentration of CTP and a 1.5-fold increase in the choline-dependent synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. PMID:17189248

  17. Protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, enhances survival and clonogenicity of dissociated human embryonic stem cells through Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Xu, Yanqing; Xu, Jiandong; Wei, Yuping; Xu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Can cell survival of dissociated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) be increased during culture? A protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, can significantly enhance survival and clonogenicity of dissociated hESCs without affecting their pluripotency. hESCs are vulnerable to massive cell death upon cellular detachment and dissociation. hESCs were dissociated into single cells and then cultured in feeder-dependent and -independent manners. H89 was added to the culture medium at different concentrations for 1 day. The statistical results were obtained from at least three independent experiments (n ≥ 4). The group without treatment was used as the negative control. 4 µM H89 was added in the culture medium to promote cell survival and colony formation of dissociated hESCs. MTT method and propidium iodide (PI) staining were used to determine cell proliferation, cell death and cell cycle, respectively. To count colony formation, alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining was carried out. Western blot was performed to determine protein expression. Except AP staining, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and karyotype analysis were used to confirm the pluripotent state of H89 treated hESCs. H89 inhibits the dissociation-induced phosphorylation of PKA and two substrates of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), myosin light chain (MLC2) and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1), significantly increases cell survival and colony formation, and strongly depresses dissociation-induced cell death and cell blebbing without affecting the pluripotency of hESCs and their differentiation in vitro. Appropriate H89 concentration should be used and 1 day of H89 treatment is sufficient for promoting survival and colony formation of dissociated hESCs. These results provide an alternative for human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) culture, broaden the scope of participants in the cell death of single hES cells after dissociation and further enlighten clues to understand the

  18. Aluminum interaction with human brain tau protein phosphorylation by various kinases

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sebae; Abou Zeid, M.M.; Saleh, M.A. . Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Lab.); Abdel-Ghany, M.E.; Shalloway, D. . Section of Biochemistry, Mol, and Cell Biology); Blancato, J. . Environmental Monit. Systems Lab.)

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an indispensable process for energy and signal transduction in biological systems. AlCl[sub 3] at 10 nM to 10 [mu]M range activated in-vitro [[gamma][sup [minus]32]P]ATP phosphorylation of the brain ([tau]) [Gamma] protein in both normal human or E.coli expressed [Gamma] forms; in the presence of the kinases P34,PKP, and PKC. However, higher concentrations of AlCl[sub 3] inhibited the [Gamma] phosphorylation with P34, PKP, and PKC to a maximum at 1 mM level. AlCl[sub 3] at 100 [mu]M to 500 [mu]M range induced non-enzymatic phosphorylation of [Gamma] with [gamma]-ATP, [gamma]-GTP, and [alpha]-GRP. AlCl[sub 3] activated histone phosphorylation by P34 in a similar pattern. The hyperphosphorylation of [Gamma] by Al[sup 3+] was accompanied in molecular shift and mobility retardation in SDS-PAGE. This may demonstrate the mechanism of the long term neurological effect of Al[sub 3+] in human brain leading to the formation of the neutrofibrillary tangles related to Alzeheimer's disease.

  19. Application of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor to human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Susceptibility of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as human iPS and embryonic stem (ES) cells, to single-cell dissociation has been a large obstacle to develop the efficient manipulation techniques required for stem cell research. When hPSCs are completely dissociated into single cells, programmed cell death (apoptosis) is immediately induced. A specific inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK inhibitor), Y-27632, is of particular interest as a useful reagent that allows hPSCs to escape the dissociation-induced apoptosis. ROCK inhibitor has been used in a variety of applications associated with cell dissociation in the process of stem cell research, such as passaging, expansion, cryopreservation, gene transfer, differentiation induction, and cell sorting, suggesting that it may be a crucial reagent for the handling of hPSCs. This article reviews the current applications of ROCK inhibitors to stem cell research from the viewpoint of quality control of hPSCs. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The MAP kinase-activated protein kinase Rck2p regulates cellular responses to cell wall stresses, filamentation and virulence in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Li, Xichuan; Du, Wei; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Lilin; Zhu, Zhiyan; Jiang, Linghuo

    2010-06-01

    Rck2p is the Hog1p-MAP kinase-activated protein kinase required for the attenuation of protein synthesis in response to an osmotic challenge in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rck2p also regulates rapamycin sensitivity in both S. cerevisiae and Candida albicans. In this study, we demonstrate that the deletion of CaRCK2 renders C. albicans cells sensitive to, and CaRck2p translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus in response to, cell wall stresses caused by Congo red, Calcoflor White, elevated heat and zymolyase. However, the kinase activity of CaRck2p is not required for the cellular response to these cell wall stresses. Furthermore, transcripts of cell wall protein-encoding genes CaBGL2, CaHWP1 and CaXOG1 are reduced in C. albicans cells lacking CaRCK2. The deletion of CaRCK2 also reduces the in vitro filamentation of C. albicans and its virulence in a mouse model of systemic candidasis. The kinase activity of CaRck2p is required for the virulence, but not for the in vitro filamentation, in C. albicans. Therefore, Rck2p regulates cellular responses to cell wall stresses, filamentation and virulence in the human fungal pathogen C. albicans.

  1. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.-S.; Yu, F.-Y.; Su, C.-C.; Kan, J.-C.; Chung, C.-P.; Liu, B.-H. . E-mail: bingliu@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-09-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 {mu}M PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 {mu}M of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 {mu}M PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 {mu}M PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression.

  2. c-Kit-kinase induces a cascade of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in normal human melanocytes in response to mast cell growth factor and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase but is down-regulated in melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Funasaka, Y; Boulton, T; Cobb, M; Yarden, Y; Fan, B; Lyman, S D; Williams, D E; Anderson, D M; Zakut, R; Mishima, Y

    1992-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Kit, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is an important regulator of cell growth whose constitutively active oncogenic counterpart, v-kit, induces sarcomas in cats. Mutations in murine c-kit that reduce the receptor tyrosine kinase activity cause deficiencies in the migration and proliferation of melanoblasts, hematopoietic stem cells, and primordial germ cells. We therefore investigated whether c-Kit regulates normal human melanocyte proliferation and plays a role in melanomas. We show that normal human melanocytes respond to mast cell growth factor (MGF), the Kit-ligand that stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in c-Kit and induces sequential phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in several other proteins. One of the phosphorylated intermediates in the signal transduction pathway was identified as an early response kinase (mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase). Dephosphorylation of a prominent 180-kDa protein suggests that MGF also activates a phosphotyrosine phosphatase. In contrast, MGF did not induce proliferation, the cascade of protein phosphorylations, or MAP kinase activation in the majority of cells cultured from primary nodular and metastatic melanomas that grow independently of exogenous factors. In the five out of eight human melanoma lines expressing c-kit mRNAs, c-Kit was not constitutively activated. Therefore, although c-Kit-kinase is a potent growth regulator of normal human melanocytes, its activity is not positively associated with malignant transformation. Images PMID:1372524

  3. Thermodynamics parameters for binding of halogenated benzotriazole inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2α.

    PubMed

    Winiewska, Maria; Kucińska, Katarzyna; Makowska, Małgorzata; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of human CK2α (hCK2α) with nine halogenated benzotriazoles, TBBt and its analogues representing all possible patterns of halogenation on the benzene ring of benzotriazole, was studied by biophysical methods. Thermal stability of protein-ligand complexes, monitored by calorimetric (DSC) and optical (DSF) methods, showed that the increase in the mid-point temperature for unfolding of protein-ligand complexes (i.e. potency of ligand binding to hCK2α) follow the inhibitory activities determined by biochemical assays. The dissociation constant for the ATP-hCK2α complex was estimated with the aid of microscale thermophoresis (MST) as 4.3±1.8 μM, and MST-derived dissociation constants determined for halogenated benzotriazoles, when converted according to known ATP concentrations, perfectly reconstruct IC50 values determined by the biochemical assays. Ligand-dependent quenching of tyrosine fluorescence, together with molecular modeling and DSC-derived heats of unfolding, support the hypothesis that halogenated benzotriazoles bind in at least two alternative orientations, and those that are efficient hCK2α inhibitors bind in the orientation which TBBt adopts in its complex with maize CK2α. DSC-derived apparent heat for ligand binding (ΔΔHbind) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions between Lys68 and the triazole ring of the ligand, as indicated by a good correlation between ΔΔHbind and ligand pKa. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly (~40 kJ/mol), relative to possible intermolecular halogen/hydrogen bonding (less than 10 kJ/mol), in binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the ATP-binding site of hCK2α. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of human organic anion transporter 4 by parathyroid hormone-related protein and protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Peng; Li, Shanshan; You, Guofeng

    2012-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 4 (hOAT4) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT4 is abundantly expressed in the kidney and placenta. In the current study, we examined the regulation of hOAT4 by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and protein kinase A (PKA) in kidney COS-7 cells. PTHrP induced a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of hOAT4 transport activity. The stimulation of hOAT4 activity by PTHrP mainly resulted from an increased cell surface expression without a change in total cell expression of the transporter. Activation of PKA by Bt2-cAMP also resulted in a stimulation of hOAT4 activity through an increased cell surface expression of the transporter. However, PTHrP-induced stimulation of hOAT4 activity could not be prevented by treating hOAT4-expressing cells with the PKA inhibitor H89. We concluded that both PTHrP and activation of PKA stimulate hOAT4 activity through redistribution of the transporter from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. However, PTHrP regulates hOAT4 activity by mechanisms independent of PKA pathway. PMID:23097748

  5. Role for zinc in a cellular response mediated by protein kinase C in human B lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, I.J.; Zalewski, P.D.; Giannakis, C. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested a role for Zn{sup 2+}, distinct from that of CA{sup 2+}, in the subcellular distribution and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Here the author show that Zn{sup 2+} is required for a cellular response mediated by PKC, the rapid loss of expression of a human B cell receptor MER, detected by resetting with mouse erythrocytes. Zn{sup 2+}, in the presence of the Zn{sup 2+} ionophore pyrithione, caused rapid inhibition of MER rosetting at concentrations which induce the translocation and activation of PKC. This required cellular uptake of Zn{sup 2+} and was blocked by 1,10-phenanthroline and TPEN which chelate Zn{sup 2+} but not Ca{sup 2+}. Gold, a metal with similar properties, also induced translocation of PKC and inhibition of MER. Phenanthroline and TPEN also blocked the inhibition of MER induced by the PKC activators phorbol ester and sodium fluoride, suggesting that endogenous cellular Zn{sup 2+} is required. They propose that some cellular actions of PKC require a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent event and that these may be a target for gold during chrysotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are involved in Prevotella intermedia-induced proinflammatory cytokines expression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Su-Min; Zhang, Ming; He, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jun-Zheng

    2009-08-28

    Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal connective tissues and alveolar bone. Proinflammatory mediators induced by periodontal pathogens play vital roles in the initiation and progression of the disease. In this study, we examined whether Prevotella intermedia induces proinflammatory cytokines expression in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs). The mRNA expression and protein production were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) respectively. P. intermedia treatment dose- and time-dependently increased IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF, but not IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression and protein secretion. Preincubation of hPDLs with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors PD98059, SP600125, SB203580 and LY294002 resulted in significant reduction in P. intermedia-induced IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF expression. Blocking the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by indomethacin also abolished the stimulatory effects of P. intermedia on cytokines expression. Our results indicate that P. intermedia induces proinflammatory cytokines through MAPKs and PI3K signaling pathways, and PGE(2) is involved in the P. intermedia-induced proinflammatory cytokines upregulation.

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 inhibition and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in camptothecin-induced human colon cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minyoung; Young Kim, Sun; Kim, JongGuk; Kim, Hak-Su; Kim, Sang-Man; Kim, Eun Ju

    2013-01-01

    Camptothecins are commonly used chemotherapeutics; in some models, they enhance signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through effects on upstream kinases. To evaluate the impact of camptothecin (CPT) on MAPKs in human colon cancer, we studied HCT116 and CaCo2 colon cancer cells. We found that HCT116 cells highly express mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP1), which selectively inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas MKP1 levels were undetectable in CaCo2 cells. CPT did not affect ERK activity in CaCo2 cells, but did induce a striking increase in ERK activity in HCT116 cells in association with a corresponding decrease in MKP1. The reduction in MKP1 expression occurred at a posttranscriptional level and was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, whereas that CPT-induced downregulation of MKP1 was not due to proteasome-mediated degradation. Treatment of HCT116 cells with CPT induced a sustained activation of nuclear ERK, which was required for CPT-induced apoptosis. P38 and JNK activity were unaffected by CPT, suggesting that the effects of CPT are mediated specifically by ERK. These results suggest that targeting dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases in colon cancer cells may be a viable strategy for optimizing camptothecin-based therapeutic protocols. PMID:24005240

  8. Differential effects of protein kinase C inhibitors on chemokine production in human synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, N. J.; Watson, M. L.; Yoshimura, T.; Westwick, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the accumulation and activation of selected populations of inflammatory cells within the arthritic joint. One putative signal for this process is the production, by resident cells, of a group of inflammatory mediators known as the chemokines. 2. The chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted) are target-cell specific chemoattractants produced by synovial fibroblasts in response to stimulation with interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). The signalling pathways involved in their production are not well defined. We therefore used four different protein kinase C inhibitors to investigate the role of this kinase in the regulation of chemokine mRNA and protein expression in human cultured synovial fibroblasts. 3. The non-selective PKC inhibitor, staurosporine (1-300 nM) significantly increased the production of IL-1 alpha-induced IL-8 mRNA and protein. A specific PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride (0.1-3 microM), also caused a small concentration-dependent increase in IL-8 mRNA and protein production. In contrast, 3-[1-[3-(amidinothio)propyl]-3-indoly]-4-(1-methyl-3-indolyl )- 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione methanesulphonate (Ro 31-8220) and 2[1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3- yl)-maleimide (GF 109203X), two selective PKC inhibitors of the substituted bisindolylmaleimide family had a concentration-dependent biphasic effect on IL-1 alpha or TNF alpha-induced chemokine expression. At low concentrations they caused a stimulation in chemokine production, which was especially evident at the mRNA level. At higher concentrations both inhibited IL-1 alpha or TNF alpha-induced chemokine mRNA and protein production. Ro 31-8220 was 10 fold more potent than GF 109203X, with an IC50 of 1.6 +/- 0.08 microM (mean +/- s.e.mean, n = 4) for IL-1 alpha induced IL-8 production. Ro 31

  9. Linalool prevents oxidative stress activated protein kinases in single UVB-exposed human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Thangaiyan, Radhiga; Robert, Beaulah Mary; Prasad Nagarajan, Rajendra; Ponniresan, Veeramani Kandan; Rathinaraj, Pierson

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (285-320 nm) elicits a number of cellular signaling elements. We investigated the preventive effect of linalool, a natural monoterpene, against UVB-induced oxidative imbalance, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling in HDFa cells. We observed that linalool treatment (30 μM) prevented acute UVB-irradiation (20 mJ/cm2) mediated loss of activities of antioxidant enzymes in HDFa cells. The comet assay results illustrate that linalool significantly prevents UVB-mediated 8-deoxy guanosine formation (oxidative DNA damage) rather than UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine (CPD) formation. This might be due to its ability to prevent UVB-induced ROS formation and to restore the oxidative imbalance of cells. This has been reflected in UVB-induced overexpression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling. We observed that linalool inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERK1, JNK and p38 proteins of MAPK family. Linalool inhibited UVB-induced activation of NF-κB/p65 by activating IκBa. We further observed that UVB-induced expression of TNF-α, IL6, IL-10, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was modulated by linalool treatment in HDFa cells. Thus, linalool protects the human skin cells from the oxidative damages of UVB radiation and modulates MAPK and NF-κB signaling in HDFa cells. The present findings substantiate that linalool may act as a photoprotective agent against UVB-induced skin damages.

  10. Protein kinase C activates non-capacitative calcium entry in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Juan A; Sage, Stewart O

    2000-01-01

    In many non-excitable cells Ca2+ influx is mainly controlled by the filling state of the intracellular Ca2+ stores. It has been suggested that this store-mediated or capacitative Ca2+ entry is brought about by a physical and reversible coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum with the plasma membrane. Here we provide evidence for an additional, non-capacitative Ca2+ entry mechanism in human platelets. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ and Sr2+ were measured in human platelets loaded with the fluorescent indicator fura-2. Depletion of the internal Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin plus a low concentration of ionomycin stimulated store-mediated cation entry, as demonstrated upon Ca2+ or Sr2+ addition. Subsequent treatment with thrombin stimulated further divalent cation entry in a concentration-dependent manner. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol also stimulated divalent cation entry, without evoking the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Cation entry evoked by thrombin or activators of PKC was abolished by the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220. Unlike store-mediated Ca2+ entry, jasplakinolide, which reorganises actin filaments into a tight cortical layer adjacent to the plasma membrane, did not inhibit divalent cation influx evoked by thrombin when applied after Ca2+ store depletion, or by activators of PKC. Thrombin also activated Ca2+ entry in platelets in which the release from intracellular stores and store-mediated Ca2+ entry were blocked by xestospongin C. These results indicate that the non-capacitative divalent cation entry pathway is regulated independently of store-mediated entry and does not require coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. These results support the existence of a mechanism for receptor-evoked Ca2+ entry in human platelets that is independent of Ca2+ store depletion. This Ca2+ entry mechanism may be activated by occupation of G-protein-coupled receptors

  11. Characterization of phosphoproteins and protein kinase activity of virions, noninfectious enveloped particles, and dense bodies of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Roby, C; Gibson, W

    1986-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the proteins of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) virions, noninfectious enveloped particles (NIEPs), and dense bodies was investigated. Analyses of particles phosphorylated in vivo showed the following. Virions contain three predominant phosphoproteins (i.e., basic phosphoprotein and upper and lower matrix proteins) and at least nine minor phosphorylated species. NIEPs contain all of these and one additional major species, the assembly protein. Dense bodies contain only one (i.e., lower matrix) of the predominant and four of the minor virion phosphoproteins. Two-dimensional (charge-size) separations in denaturing polyacrylamide gels showed that the relative net charges of the predominant phosphorylated species ranged from the basic phosphoprotein to the more neutral upper matrix protein. In vitro assays showed that purified virions of human CMV have an associated protein kinase activity. The activity was detected only after disrupting the envelope; it had a pH optimum of approximately 9 to 9.5 and required a divalent cation, preferring magnesium to manganese. In vitro, this activity catalyzed phosphorylation of the virion proteins observed to be phosphorylated in vivo. Peptide comparisons indicated that the sites phosphorylated in vitro are a subset of those phosphorylated in vivo, underscoring the probable biological relevance of the kinase activity. Casein, phosvitin, and to a minor extent lysine-rich histones served as exogenous phosphate acceptors. Arginine-rich and lysine-rich histones and protamine sulfate, as well as the polyamines spermine and spermidine, stimulated incorporation of phosphate into the endogenous viral proteins. Virions of all human and simian CMV strains tested showed this activity. Analyses of other virus particles, including three intracellular capsid forms (i.e., A, B, and C capsids), NIEPs, and dense bodies, indicated that the active enzyme was not present in the capsid. Rate-velocity sedimentation of disrupted virions

  12. Protein kinase C inhibition by sphingoid long-chain bases: effects on secretion in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.; Arnold, R.R.; Merrill, A.H.; Lambeth, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    Sphingoid long-chain bases (sphinganine and sphingosine(So)) have recently been shown to inhibit protein kinase C (PK-C) in vitro and to block activation of the oxidative burst in intact neutrophils (PMN) by inhibiting this enzyme. In the present study, the authors have used So to investigate the role of protein kinase C in stimulus-induced secretion of PMN granule contents. Secretion of the specific granule component lactoferrin (Lf) is completely inhibited by pretreatment with So when either PMA or fLMP is used as the secretogogue. Secretion of lysozyme, a component of both the azurophilic and specific granules, is completely inhibited by So when PMA is used, but only 40% inhibited with fMLP. The secretion of the azurophilic granule markers US -glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase was not affected by So regardless of the agonist used. Data indicate that both PK-C-dependent and -independent pathways participate in the neutrophil secretory response.

  13. Modeled Microgravity-Induced Protein Kinase C Isoform Expression in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2003-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited both in microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected in diminished DNA synthess in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type 1 collagen. Direct activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 19 and MMG-culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours and serial samples assessed for locomotion using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were down-regulated by more than 50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 19 controls. Events upstream of PKC such as phosphorylation of Phospholipase C(gamma) (PLC-gamma) in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed Ca++ -independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than, but after ligand-receptor interaction. Keywords: Signal transduction, locomotion, immunity

  14. Modeled microgravity-induced protein kinase C isoform expression in human lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited in both microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected by diminished DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type I collagen. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas the calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 1 g and MMG culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and serial samples were assessed for locomotion by using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were downregulated by >50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 1-g controls. Events upstream of PKC, such as phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than PKC, but after ligand-receptor interaction.

  15. Modeled microgravity-induced protein kinase C isoform expression in human lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited in both microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected by diminished DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type I collagen. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas the calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 1 g and MMG culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and serial samples were assessed for locomotion by using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were downregulated by >50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 1-g controls. Events upstream of PKC, such as phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than PKC, but after ligand-receptor interaction.

  16. Metformin inhibits growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells via liver kinase B-1-independent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    GUO, QIANQIAN; LIU, ZHIYAN; JIANG, LILI; LIU, MENGJIE; MA, JIEQUN; YANG, CHENGCHENG; HAN, LILI; NAN, KEJUN; LIANG, XUAN

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, the most widely administered oral anti-diabetic therapeutic agent, exerts its glucose-lowering effect predominantly via liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-dependent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that metformin possesses potential antitumor effects. However, whether the antitumor effect of metformin is via the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway remains to be determined. In the current study, the effects of metformin on proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 (LKB1-null) and H1299 (LKB1-positive) cells were assessed, and the role of LKB1/AMPK signaling in the anti-growth effects of metformin were investigated. Cell viability was determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, and protein expression levels were measured by western blotting. Metformin inhibited proliferation, induced significant cell cycle arrest at the G0–G1 phase and increased apoptosis in NSCLC cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, regardless of the level of LKB1 protein expression. Furthermore, knockdown of LKB1 with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) did not affect the antiproliferative effect of metformin in the H1299 cells. Metformin stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently suppressed the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream effector, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase in the two cell lines. These effects were abrogated by silencing AMPK with small interfering RNA (siRNA). In addition, knockdown of AMPK with siRNA inhibited the effect of metformin on cell proliferation in the two cell lines. These results provide evidence that the growth inhibition of metformin in NSCLC cells is mediated by LKB1-independent activation of AMPK, indicating that metformin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of

  17. Activation of focal adhesion kinase enhances the adhesion of Fusarium solani to human corneal epithelial cells via the tyrosine-specific protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaojing; Wang, Ye; Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Hao; Xie, Lixin

    2011-03-05

    To determine the role of the integrin-FAK signaling pathway triggered by the adherence of F. solani to human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). After pretreatment with/without genistein, HCECs were incubated with F. solani spores at different times (0-24 h). Cell adhesion assays were performed by optical microscopy. Changes of the ultrastructure were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of F-actin and Paxillin (PAX) were detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting to detect the expression of these key proteins with/without genistein treatment. Cell adhesion assays showed that the number of adhered spores began to rise at 6 h after incubation and peaked at 8 h. SEM and TEM showed that the HCECs exhibited a marked morphological alteration induced by the attachment and entry of the spores. The expression of PAX increased, while the expression of F-actin decreased by stimulation with F. solani. The interaction of F. solani with HCECs causes actin rearrangement in HCECs. Genistein strongly inhibited FAK phosphorylation and the activation of the downstream protein (PAX). F. solani-induced enhancement of cell adhesion ability was inhibited along with the inhibition of FAK phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the integrin-FAK signaling pathway is involved in the control of F. solani adhesion to HCECs and that the activation of focal adhesion kinase enhances the adhesion of human corneal epithelial cells to F. solani via the tyrosine-specific protein kinase signaling pathway.

  18. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  19. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  20. Regulation of the TNF-alpha receptor in human osteosarcoma cells: role of microtubules and of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, T; Boscoboinik, D; Azzi, A

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the tumor promoter 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and of the phosphatases inhibitor okadaic acid on the binding of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) to a human osteogenic sarcoma cell line (Saos-2) was investigated. Both substances prevented almost completely TNF binding to its receptors. The effect of 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was reversed by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and calphostin C or by protein kinase C depletion. Vinblastine, under conditions causing full microtubule disassembly, produced only a 50% decrease of TNF binding. Vinblastine plus PMA was additive in fully preventing TNF binding. It is suggested that the degree of binding of TNF-alpha to its receptors in Saos-2 cells is under the control of a microtubule-dependent and of a microtubule-independent regulatory pathway.

  1. Vinblastine-dependent down-modulation of TNF receptors in human osteosarcoma cells is mediated by protein kinase C activity.

    PubMed

    Boscoboinik, D; Galeotti, T; Azzi, A

    1994-02-28

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to a human osteogenic sarcoma cell line (Saos-2) was investigated. These cells express two types of receptors as determined by specific monoclonal antibodies. Vinblastine induced a down-modulation of these receptors weaker than the one produced by phorbol esters or okadaic acid treatment. On exposure of cells to 10 microM vinblastine for two hours an approximately 55-65% diminution of TNF binding was observed, but only 20% reduction occurred under long-term vinblastine treatment. TNF receptor down-modulation induced by vinblastine was partially prevented by protein kinase C inhibitors or protein kinase C depletion. It is suggested that the regulation of TNF binding to each one of its receptors in Saos-2 cells always occurs in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.

  2. D11-Mediated Inhibition of Protein Kinase CK2 Impairs HIF-1α-Mediated Signaling in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Susanne; Svenstrup, Tina H.; Fischer, Mette; Guerra, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that protein kinase CK2 plays an important role in many steps of cancer initiation and progression, therefore, the development of effective and cell-permeable inhibitors targeting this kinase has become an important objective for the treatment of a variety of cancer types including glioblastoma. We have recently identified 1,3-dichloro-6-[(E)-((4-methoxyphenyl)imino)methyl]dibenzo(b,d)furan-2,7-diol (D11) as a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2. In this study, we have further characterized this compound and demonstrated that it suppresses CK2 kinase activity by mixed type inhibition (KI 7.7 nM, KI′ 42 nM). Incubation of glioblastoma cells with D11 induces cell death and upon hypoxia the compound leads to HIF-1α destabilization. The analysis of differential mRNA expression related to human hypoxia signaling pathway revealed that D11-mediated inhibition of CK2 caused strong down-regulation of genes associated with the hypoxia response including ANGPTL4, CA9, IGFBP3, MMP9, SLC2A1 and VEGFA. Taken together, the results reported here support the notion that including D11 in future treatment regimens might turn out to be a promising strategy to target tumor hypoxia to overcome resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. PMID:28045438

  3. D11-Mediated Inhibition of Protein Kinase CK2 Impairs HIF-1α-Mediated Signaling in Human Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Susanne; Svenstrup, Tina H; Fischer, Mette; Guerra, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that protein kinase CK2 plays an important role in many steps of cancer initiation and progression, therefore, the development of effective and cell-permeable inhibitors targeting this kinase has become an important objective for the treatment of a variety of cancer types including glioblastoma. We have recently identified 1,3-dichloro-6-[(E)-((4-methoxyphenyl)imino)methyl]dibenzo(b,d)furan-2,7-diol (D11) as a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2. In this study, we have further characterized this compound and demonstrated that it suppresses CK2 kinase activity by mixed type inhibition (KI 7.7 nM, KI' 42 nM). Incubation of glioblastoma cells with D11 induces cell death and upon hypoxia the compound leads to HIF-1α destabilization. The analysis of differential mRNA expression related to human hypoxia signaling pathway revealed that D11-mediated inhibition of CK2 caused strong down-regulation of genes associated with the hypoxia response including ANGPTL4, CA9, IGFBP3, MMP9, SLC2A1 and VEGFA. Taken together, the results reported here support the notion that including D11 in future treatment regimens might turn out to be a promising strategy to target tumor hypoxia to overcome resistance to radio- and chemotherapy.

  4. Radio-sensitization of human leukaemic molt-4 cells by DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, NU7026.

    PubMed

    Tichý, Ales; Novotná, Eva; Durisová, Kamila; Salovská, Barbora; Sedlaríková, Radka; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Zárybnická, Lenka; Vávrová, Jirina; Sinkorová, Zuzana; Rezácová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the influence of NU7026, a specific inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and ATM-kinase on molecular and cellular mechanisms triggered by ionising irradiation in human T-lymphocyte leukaemic MOLT-4 cells. We studied the effect of this inhibitor (10 1microM) combined with gamma-radiation (1 Gy) leading to DNA damage response and induction of apoptosis. We used methods for apoptosis assessment (cell viability count and flow-cytometric analysis) and cell cycle analysis (DNA content measurement) and we detected expression and post-translational modifications (Western blotting) of proteins involved in DNA repair signalling pathways. Pre-treatment with NU7026 resulted into decreased activation of checkpoint kinase-2 (Thr68), p53 (Ser15 and Ser392), and histone H2A.X (Ser139) 2 hours after irradiation. Subsequently, combination of radiation and inhibitor led to decreased amount of cells in G2-phase arrest and into increased apoptosis after 72 hours. Our results indicate that in leukaemic cells the pre-incubation with inhibitor NU7026 followed by low doses of ionising radiation results in radio-sensitising of MOLT-4 cells via diminished DNA repair and delayed but pronounced apoptosis. This novel approach might offer new strategies in combined treatment of leukaemia diseases.

  5. Protein kinase C: a putative new target for the control of human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Molè, Daniela; Gentilin, Erica; Gagliano, Teresa; Tagliati, Federico; Bondanelli, Marta; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Rossi, Martina; Filieri, Carlo; Pansini, Giancarlo; degli Uberti, Ettore C; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the control of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell proliferation by a PKC inhibitor, Enzastaurin, in human MTC primary cultures and in the TT cell line. We found that PKC inhibition reduces cell proliferation by inducing caspase-mediated apoptosis and blocks the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on calcitonin secretion. Enzastaurin reduces PKCβII (Thr500) phosphorylation, indicating a direct involvement of this isoform as well as the phosphorylated levels of Akt (Ser 473) and glycogen synthase kinase (Ser9), PKC pathway downstream targets and pharmacodynamic markers for PKC inhibition. PKCβII and PKCδ enzyme isoforms expression and localization were investigated. These data indicate that in vitro PKC is involved in the control of human MTC proliferation and survival by modulating apoptosis, with a mechanism that implicates PKCβII inhibition and translocation in different subcellular compartments. Targeting PKC may represent a useful therapeutic approach for controlling MTC proliferation.

  6. Cloning and characterization of the major promoter of the human protein kinase C beta gene. Regulation by phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Obeid, L M; Blobe, G C; Karolak, L A; Hannun, Y A

    1992-10-15

    The expression of the beta isoenzyme for protein kinase C is regulated developmentally and in response to inducers of cell differentiation (such as phorbol esters and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). The 5' segment of the gene for protein kinase C beta was cloned from a human leukocyte genomic library in EMBL3 bacteriophage. This segment of the gene (greater than 54 kilobases in length) encompassed the coding sequence for the amino-terminal regulatory domain of the enzyme, the 5'-untranslated region, and the 5'-flanking region. Initiation of transcription was identified by S1 nuclease analysis and confirmed by RNase protection analysis at 197 base pairs 5' of the initiator ATG. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region revealed it to be extremely G+C-rich (> 80%) with many features of a CpG island. Comparison of sequence with known cis-regulatory motifs disclosed a number of potential regulatory elements including an octamer binding motif at -76, Sp1-binding sites at -94 and -63, E boxes at -110, -26, and +18, an AP-1 site at -442, and an AP-2 site at -330. To demonstrate promoter activity, a 630-base pair fragment extending from -587 to +43 was subcloned in front of a promoterless luciferase gene. This fragment was able to drive the expression of luciferase in transient transfections of human hematopoietic cells. Deletion analysis demonstrated that a fragment -111 to +43 was necessary and sufficient for promoter activity; this fragment did not contain TATA or CAAT motifs. The promoter was stimulated 8-20-fold by phorbol esters accounting for the previously observed transcriptional activation of protein kinase C beta. This phorbol ester responsiveness was conferred by the basal promoter (-111 to +43) and was independent of the AP-1 site. These results define a novel mechanism of protein kinase C autoregulation at a transcriptional level.

  7. cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, H S; Li, B; Lin, Z; Huang, E; Liu, A Y

    1991-06-25

    The theme of this study is an evaluation of the involvement of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in the regulation of the human heat shock protein (hsp) 70 gene promoter. Expression of a highly specific protein inhibitor of PKA (pRSVPKI) inhibited the basal as well as heat- and cadmium-induced expression of the cotransfected pHBCAT, a human hsp 70 promoter-driven reporter gene; this inhibition was dependent on the amount of pRSVPKI used. The effect of an expression vector of the RI regulatory subunit of PKA, pMTREV, was similar to that of pRSVPKI; pMTREV inhibited both the basal as well as the heat-induced expression of pHBCAT. The specificity of effects of these expression vectors was demonstrated by the lack of effect of a mutant PKI gene and by the unaffected expression of a reference gene (pRSV beta gal) under these conditions. Analysis of the effects of dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM), forskolin (10 microM), and 8-Br-cAMP (1 mM) on the transient expression of pHBCAT showed that these cAMP-elevating agents stimulated the hsp 70 promoter activity, whereas cAMP (1 mM) was without effect. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene constructs with truncated or mutated hsp 70 promoter were used to define the cis-acting DNA element(s) that confer this cAMP stimulation; the heat induced (42 degrees C) expression was used as a control. Mutation of the adenovirus transcription factor element (pLSN-40/-26) greatly reduced the basal level of expression; forskolin had little or no effect on this adenovirus transcription factor-minus promoter, although the promoter activity was very heat inducible. The absence of a functional heat shock consensus element (HSE) in the construct pLSPNWT rendered the promoter heat insensitive; this construct was forskolin responsive although the magnitude of this stimulation was reduced when compared with that of a control construct with HSE. These results were corroborated by studies using consensus sequence of ATF (ATFE) and HSE as competitors

  8. A Novel Role of Protein Tyrosine Kinase2 in Mediating Chloride Secretion in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lihua; Woodward, Owen M.; Chen, Zhaohui; Cotter, Robert; Guggino, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ activated Cl− channels (CaCC) are up-regulated in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway surface epithelia. The presence and functional properties of CaCC make it a possible therapeutic target to compensate for the deficiency of Cl− secretion in CF epithelia. CaCC is activated by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+, which not only activates epithelial CaCCs, but also inhibits epithelial Na+ hyperabsorption, which may also be beneficial in CF. Our previous study has shown that spiperone, a known antipsychotic drug, activates CaCCs and stimulates Cl− secretion in polarized human non-CF and CF airway epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, and in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) knockout mice in vivo. Spiperone activates CaCC not by acting in its well-known role as an antagonist of either 5-HT2 or D2 receptors, but through a protein tyrosine kinase-coupled phospholipase C-dependent pathway. Moreover, spiperone independently activates CFTR through a novel mechanism. Herein, we performed a mass spectrometry analysis and identified the signaling molecule that mediates the spiperone effect in activating chloride secretion through CaCC and CFTR. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the focal adhesion kinase family. The inhibition of PYK2 notably reduced the ability of spiperone to increase intracellular Ca2+ and Cl− secretion. In conclusion, we have identified the tyrosine kinase, PYK2, as the modulator, which plays a crucial role in the activation of CaCC and CFTR by spiperone. The identification of this novel role of PYK2 reveals a new signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:21765932

  9. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  10. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signalingr driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-03-08

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology.

  11. Granule swelling and cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human neutrophils undergoing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takayuki; Ikemoto, Masaru; Hato, Fumihiko; Kitagawa, Seiichi

    2009-04-10

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 have been shown to be cleaved in human neutrophils undergoing apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and cycloheximide. However, the cleavage products of these molecules were undetected when apoptotic neutrophils were pretreated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride or disrupted by nitrogen cavitation before preparation of cell lysates. The electron microscopy revealed that granules in apoptotic neutrophils were significantly swollen than those in control cells. These findings suggest that granule membrane may become destabilized during neutrophil apoptosis, leading to rapid proteolysis of these molecules by granule-derived serine proteases during preparation of cell lysates with the conventional lysis buffer.

  12. The human protein kinase C gamma gene (PRKCG) as a susceptibility locus for behavioral disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Schlaepfer, Isabel R; Clegg, Hilary V; Corley, Robin P; Crowley, Thomas J; Hewitt, John K; Hopfer, Christian J; Krauter, Kenneth; Lessem, Jeffrey; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Stallings, Michael C; Wehner, Jeanne M; Young, Susan E; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2007-06-01

    This study explores the association between a highly heritable behavioral disinhibition phenotype and the protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG) gene in an ethnically diverse youth sample from Colorado, USA. The rationale for this study was based on the impulsive behavior and increased ethanol consumption observed in the protein kinase C gamma (PKC-gamma)-deficient mouse model. Two composite behavioral disinhibition phenotypes and their component behavioral scores [conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance experimentation (SUB) and novelty-seeking] were examined for association with five independent PRKCG single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analysis for the five individual SNPs revealed modest genetic association of Exon 14 (rs2242244) and Upstream (rs307941) markers with the behavioral disinhibition composite variables in the combined, Hispanic and African-American samples. Additionally, haplotype-based association analysis for two SNPs located in Intron 3 (rs402691) and Exon 6 (rs3745406) indicated a significant overall association of the PRKCG locus with the ADHD-hyperactive subscale scores in the combined and Caucasian samples, supporting the relation between impulsive behaviors and the PRKCG gene. A significant haplotype association was also observed with SUB scores but only in the Hispanic ethnic group, highlighting the marker variability for each ethnic group. In conclusion, our results support the role of the PKC-gamma enzyme in behavioral impulsivity previously observed in mice. This study provides the first exploration of the PRKCG gene and its association with behavioral disinhibition and warrants further study in other larger population samples.

  13. The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit phosphorylation sites in human Artemis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunmei; Pannicke, Ulrich; Lu, Haihui; Niewolik, Doris; Schwarz, Klaus; Lieber, Michael R

    2005-10-07

    Artemis protein has irreplaceable functions in V(D)J recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) as a hairpin and 5' and 3' overhang endonuclease. The kinase activity of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is necessary in activating Artemis as an endonuclease. Here we report that three basal phosphorylation sites and 11 DNA-PKcs phosphorylation sites within the mammalian Artemis are all located in the C-terminal domain. All but one of these phosphorylation sites deviate from the SQ or TQ motif of DNA-PKcs that was predicted previously from in vitro phosphorylation studies. Phosphatase-treated mammalian Artemis and Artemis that is mutated at the three basal phosphorylation sites still retain DNA-PKcs-dependent endonucleolytic activities, indicating that basal phosphorylation is not required for the activation. In vivo studies of Artemis lacking the C-terminal domain have been reported to be sufficient to complement V(D)J recombination in Artemis null cells. Therefore, the C-terminal domain may have a negative regulatory effect on the Artemis endonucleolytic activities, and phosphorylation by DNA-PKcs in the C-terminal domain may relieve this inhibition.

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase supports the NGF-induced viability of human HeLa cells to glucose starvation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Luo; Bo, Wan; Li, Ruwei; Chen, Xinya; Wang, Yingli; Jun, Zhou; Yu, Long

    2010-07-01

    As an important cellular energy regulation kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been demonstrated as a key molecule in the development of tolerance to nutrient starvation. Activation of AMPK includes the phosphorylation of Thr172 of the alpha-subunit. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally isolated for its ability to stimulate both survival and differentiation in peripheral neurons, but many investigations have shown that the NGF also plays an important role in survival, growth and invasion of many human cancers. In this study, we used CCK-8 cell viability assay to find that NGF could facilitate the viability of HeLa cells following glucose deprivation while not in glucose-normal control groups. This effect of NGF-induced viability promotion to glucose starvation can be suppressed by Compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK. Meanwhile, western blot analysis showed that AMPKalpha1/alpha2 Thr172 phosphorylation level in HeLa cells was up-regulated after NGF treatment under glucose starvation, and Compound C was able to reduce the AMPKalpha1/alpha2 Thr172 phosphorylation level which was up-regulated by NGF in HeLa cells. Taken together, these results indicate that AMP-activated protein kinase supports the NGF-induced viability of human HeLa cells to glucose starvation.

  15. Protein-tyrosine-kinase-dependent expression of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and -2 mRNAs in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, K; Takayama, H; Tomo, K; Okuma, M

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cells possess constitutive or inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoenzymes for prostacyclin production, but the mechanisms for their expression are largely unknown. We found that vanadate, an inhibitor of protein-tyrosine phosphatases, induced the expression of two COX isoenzyme mRNAs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Vanadate also stimulated an increase in COX-2 protein levels, but did not affect significantly the levels of constitutively expressed COX-1 protein. Synergistic enhancement of expression of the two COX isoenzyme mRNAs was observed on stimulation of HUVEC with vanadate plus interleukin-1alpha. Tyrphostin-47, which as an inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinases abolished vanadate-induced protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, inhibited expression of the two COX isoenzyme mRNAs in HUVEC stimulated with vanadate or interleukin-1alpha. These data provide conclusive evidence that activation of protein-tyrosine kinases is causally linked to expression of the mRNAs for the two COX isoenzymes in HUVEC. PMID:9065752

  16. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  17. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  18. Staurosporine Induces Filamentation in the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans via Signaling through Cyr1 and Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jinglin L.; O’Meara, Teresa R.; Polvi, Elizabeth J.; Robbins, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein kinases are key regulators of signal transduction pathways that participate in diverse cellular processes. In fungal pathogens, kinases regulate signaling pathways that govern drug resistance, stress adaptation, and pathogenesis. The impact of kinases on the fungal regulatory circuitry has recently garnered considerable attention in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality. Complex regulatory circuitry governs the C. albicans morphogenetic transition between yeast and filamentous growth, which is a key virulence trait. Here, we report that staurosporine, a promiscuous kinase inhibitor that abrogates fungal drug resistance, also influences C. albicans morphogenesis by inducing filamentation in the absence of any other inducing cue. We further establish that staurosporine exerts its effect via the adenylyl cyclase Cyr1 and the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Strikingly, filamentation induced by staurosporine does not require the known upstream regulators of Cyr1, Ras1 or Pkc1, or effectors downstream of PKA, including Efg1. We further demonstrate that Cyr1 is capable of activating PKA to enable filamentation in response to staurosporine through a mechanism that does not require degradation of the transcriptional repressor Nrg1. We establish that staurosporine-induced filamentation is accompanied by a defect in septin ring formation, implicating cell cycle kinases as potential staurosporine targets underpinning this cellular response. Thus, we establish staurosporine as a chemical probe to elucidate the architecture of cellular signaling governing fungal morphogenesis and highlight the existence of novel circuitry through which the Cyr1 and PKA govern a key virulence trait. IMPORTANCE The impact of fungal pathogens on human health is devastating. One of the most pervasive fungal pathogens is Candida albicans, which kills ~40% of people suffering from bloodstream

  19. Staurosporine Induces Filamentation in the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans via Signaling through Cyr1 and Protein Kinase A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinglin L; O'Meara, Teresa R; Polvi, Elizabeth J; Robbins, Nicole; Cowen, Leah E

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinases are key regulators of signal transduction pathways that participate in diverse cellular processes. In fungal pathogens, kinases regulate signaling pathways that govern drug resistance, stress adaptation, and pathogenesis. The impact of kinases on the fungal regulatory circuitry has recently garnered considerable attention in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality. Complex regulatory circuitry governs the C. albicans morphogenetic transition between yeast and filamentous growth, which is a key virulence trait. Here, we report that staurosporine, a promiscuous kinase inhibitor that abrogates fungal drug resistance, also influences C. albicans morphogenesis by inducing filamentation in the absence of any other inducing cue. We further establish that staurosporine exerts its effect via the adenylyl cyclase Cyr1 and the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Strikingly, filamentation induced by staurosporine does not require the known upstream regulators of Cyr1, Ras1 or Pkc1, or effectors downstream of PKA, including Efg1. We further demonstrate that Cyr1 is capable of activating PKA to enable filamentation in response to staurosporine through a mechanism that does not require degradation of the transcriptional repressor Nrg1. We establish that staurosporine-induced filamentation is accompanied by a defect in septin ring formation, implicating cell cycle kinases as potential staurosporine targets underpinning this cellular response. Thus, we establish staurosporine as a chemical probe to elucidate the architecture of cellular signaling governing fungal morphogenesis and highlight the existence of novel circuitry through which the Cyr1 and PKA govern a key virulence trait. IMPORTANCE The impact of fungal pathogens on human health is devastating. One of the most pervasive fungal pathogens is Candida albicans, which kills ~40% of people suffering from bloodstream

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the insulin-induced activation of the nitric oxide synthase in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ingrid; Schulz, Christian; Fichtlscherer, Birgit; Kemp, Bruce E; Fisslthaler, Beate; Busse, Rudi

    2003-11-01

    Little is known about the signaling cascades that eventually regulate the activity of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in platelets. Here, we investigated the effects of insulin on the phosphorylation and activation of eNOS in washed human platelets and in endothelial cells. Insulin activated the protein kinase Akt in cultured endothelial cells and increased the phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser(1177) but failed to increase endothelial cyclic GMP levels or to elicit the relaxation of endothelium-intact porcine coronary arteries. In platelets, insulin also elicited the activation of Akt as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS and initiated NO production which was associated with increased cyclic GMP levels and the inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation. The insulin-induced inhibition of aggregation was accompanied by a decreased Ca(2+) response to thrombin and was also prevented by N(omega) nitro-L-arginine. In platelets, but not in endothelial cells, insulin induced the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic stress-sensing kinase which was sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin and the AMPK inhibitor iodotubercidin. Moreover, the insulin-mediated inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation was prevented by iodotubercidin. Insulin-independent activation of the AMPK using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, increased platelet eNOS phosphorylation, increased cyclic GMP levels and attenuated platelet aggregation. These results highlight the differences in the signal transduction cascade activated by insulin in endothelial cells and platelets, and demonstrate that insulin stimulates the formation of NO in human platelets, in the absence of an increase in Ca(2+), by acti-vating PI3-K and AMPK which phosphorylates eNOS on Ser(1177).

  1. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  2. Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect growth regulation of human mesothelioma cells: role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Trombino, Sonya; Cesario, Alfredo; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, PierLuigi; Motta, Giovanni; Falugi, Carla; Russo, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    This study presents data suggesting that both human mesothelioma (cell lines and human mesothelioma biopsies) and human normal mesothelial cells express receptors for acetylcholine and that stimulation of these receptors by nicotine prompted cell growth via activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Thus, these data demonstrate that: (a) human mesothelioma cells and human biopsies of mesothelioma as well as of normal pleural mesothelial cells express functionally alpha-7 nicotinic acethlycholine receptors, evaluated by alpha-bungarotoxin-FITC binding, receptor binding assay, Western blot, and reverse transcription-PCR; (b) choline acetyltransferase immunostaining is present in mesothelioma cells; (c) mesothelioma cell growth is modulated by the cholinergic system in which agonists (i.e., nicotine) has a proliferative effect, and antagonists (i.e., curare) has an inhibitory effect, evaluated by cell cloning, DNA synthesis and cell cycle; (d) nicotine induces Ca(+2) influx, evaluated by [(45)Ca(2+)] uptake, and consequently activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p90(RSK) phosphorylation), evaluated by Western blot; and (e) apoptosis mechanisms in mesothelioma cells are under the control of the cholinergic system (nicotine antiapoptotic via induction of nuclear factor-kappaB complexes and phosphorylation of Bad at Ser(112); curare proapoptotic via G(0)-G(1) arrest p21(waf-1) dependent but p53 independent). The involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in mesothelioma appears reasonable and open up new therapeutic strategies.

  3. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells Is Associated with Rewiring of MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1) Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Ventz, Katharina; Harms, Manuela; Mostertz, Jörg; Hochgräfe, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cyclin-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease. PMID:27066479

  4. The protein kinase C family.

    PubMed

    Azzi, A; Boscoboinik, D; Hensey, C

    1992-09-15

    Protein kinase C represents a structurally homologous group of proteins similar in size, structure and mechanism of activation. They can modulate the biological function of proteins in a rapid and reversible manner. Protein kinase C participates in one of the major signal transduction systems triggered by the external stimulation of cells by various ligands including hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors. Hydrolysis of membrane inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C or of phosphatidylcholine, generates sn-1,2-diacylglycerol, considered the physiological activator of this kinase. Other agents, such as arachidonic acid, participate in the activation of some of these proteins. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters and related compounds is not physiological and may be responsible, at least in part, for their tumor-promoting activity. The cellular localization of the different calcium-activated protein kinases, their substrate and activator specificity are dissimilar and thus their role in signal transduction is unlike. A better understanding of the exact cellular function of the different protein kinase C isoenzymes requires the identification and characterization of their physiological substrates.

  5. Distinct contribution of protein kinase Cδ and protein kinase Cε in the lifespan and immune response of human blood monocyte subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Malavez, Yadira; Voss, Oliver H; Gonzalez-Mejia, Martha Elba; Parihar, Arti; Doseff, Andrea I

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes, key components of the immune system, are a heterogeneous population comprised of classical monocytes (CD16−) and non-classical monocytes (CD16+). Monocytes are short lived and undergo spontaneous apoptosis, unless stimulated. Dysregulation of monocyte numbers contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, yet the contribution of each subset remains poorly characterized. Protein kinase C (PKC) family members are central to monocyte biology; however, their role in regulating lifespan and immune function of CD16− and CD16+ monocytes has not been studied. Here, we evaluated the contribution of PKCδ and PKCε in the lifespan and immune response of both monocyte subsets. We showed that CD16+ monocytes are more susceptible to spontaneous apoptosis because of the increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities accompanied by higher kinase activity of PKCδ. Silencing of PKCδ reduced apoptosis in both CD16+ and CD16− monocytes. CD16+ monocytes express significantly higher levels of PKCε and produce more tumour necrosis factor-α in CD16+ compared with CD16− monocytes. Silencing of PKCε affected the survival and tumour necrosis factor-α production. These findings demonstrate a complex network with similar topography, yet unique regulatory characteristics controlling lifespan and immune response in each monocyte subset, helping define subset-specific coordination programmes controlling monocyte function. PMID:25322815

  6. Protein kinases of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: the kinome of a divergent eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Pauline; Equinet, Leila; Packer, Jeremy; Doerig, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Background Malaria, caused by the parasitic protist Plasmodium falciparum, represents a major public health problem in the developing world. The P. falciparum genome has been sequenced, which provides new opportunities for the identification of novel drug targets. Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) form a large family of enzymes with crucial roles in most cellular processes; hence malarial ePKS represent potential drug targets. We report an exhaustive analysis of the P. falciparum genomic database (PlasmoDB) aimed at identifying and classifying all ePKs in this organism. Results Using a variety of bioinformatics tools, we identified 65 malarial ePK sequences and constructed a phylogenetic tree to position these sequences relative to the seven established ePK groups. Predominant features of the tree were: (i) that several malarial sequences did not cluster within any of the known ePK groups; (ii) that the CMGC group, whose members are usually involved in the control of cell proliferation, had the highest number of malarial ePKs; and (iii) that no malarial ePK clustered with the tyrosine kinase (TyrK) or STE groups, pointing to the absence of three-component MAPK modules in the parasite. A novel family of 20 ePK-related sequences was identified and called FIKK, on the basis of a conserved amino acid motif. The FIKK family seems restricted to Apicomplexa, with 20 members in P. falciparum and just one member in some other Apicomplexan species. Conclusion The considerable phylogenetic distance between Apicomplexa and other Eukaryotes is reflected by profound divergences between the kinome of malaria parasites and that of yeast or mammalian cells. PMID:15479470

  7. Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), a novel membrane-associated, ankyrin repeat-containing protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Haider, K; Ponda, M; Cariappa, A; Rowitch, D; Pillai, S

    2001-06-15

    A novel murine membrane-associated protein kinase, PKK (protein kinase C-associated kinase), was cloned on the basis of its physical association with protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta). The regulated expression of PKK in mouse embryos is consistent with a role for this kinase in early embryogenesis. The human homolog of PKK has over 90% identity to its murine counterpart, has been localized to chromosome 21q22.3, and is identical to the PKCdelta-interacting kinase, DIK (Bahr, C., Rohwer, A., Stempka, L., Rincke, G., Marks, F., and Gschwendt, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36350-36357). PKK comprises an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal region containing 11 ankyrin repeats. PKK exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and associates with cellular membranes. PKK exists in three discernible forms at steady state: an underphosphorylated form of 100 kDa; a soluble, cytosolic, phosphorylated form of 110 kDa; and a phosphorylated, detergent-insoluble form of 112 kDa. PKK is initially synthesized as an underphosphorylated soluble 100-kDa protein that is quantitatively converted to a detergent-soluble 110-kDa form. This conversion requires an active catalytic domain. Although PKK physically associates with PKCbeta, it does not phosphorylate this PKC isoform. However, PKK itself may be phosphorylated by PKCbeta. PKK represents a developmentally regulated protein kinase that can associate with membranes. The functional significance of its association with PKCbeta remains to be ascertained.

  8. Phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 by protein kinase C: identification of Ser(462) and Thr(455) as major sites of phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Fang; Martin, Shelley S; Baldwin, Enoch P; Carman, George M

    2007-06-15

    Phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 by mammalian protein kinase C was examined. Using purified Escherichia coli-expressed CTP synthetase 1 as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was time- and dose-dependent and dependent on the concentrations of ATP and CTP synthetase 1. The protein kinase C phosphorylation of the recombinant enzyme was accompanied by a 95-fold increase in CTP synthetase 1 activity. Phosphopeptide mapping and phosphoamino acid analyses showed that CTP synthetase 1 was phosphorylated on multiple serine and threonine residues. The induction of PKC1(R398A)-encoded protein kinase C resulted in a 50% increase for human CTP synthetase 1 phosphorylation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura7Delta ura8Delta mutant lacking yeast CTP synthetase activity. Synthetic peptides that contain the protein kinase C motif for Ser(462) and Thr(455) were substrates for mammalian protein kinase C, and S462A and T455A mutations resulted in decreases in the extent of CTP synthetase 1 phosphorylation that occurred in vivo. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of S. cerevisiae-expressed CTP synthetase 1 mutant enzymes phosphorylated with mammalian protein kinase C confirmed that Ser(462) and Thr(455) were phosphorylation sites. The S. cerevisiae-expressed and purified S462A mutant enzyme exhibited a 2-fold reduction in CTP synthetase 1 activity, whereas the purified T455A mutant enzyme exhibited a 2-fold elevation in CTP synthetase 1 activity (Choi, M.-G., and Carman, G.M. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5367-5377). These data indicated that protein kinase C phosphorylation at Ser(462) stimulates human CTP synthetase 1 activity, whereas phosphorylation at Thr(455) inhibits activity.

  9. Phosphorylation of Human CTP Synthetase 1 by Protein Kinase C IDENTIFICATION OF Ser462 AND Thr455 AS MAJOR SITES OF PHOSPHORYLATION*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Fang; Martin, Shelley S.; Baldwin, Enoch P.; Carman, George M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 by mammalian protein kinase C was examined. Using purified Escherichia coli-expressed CTP synthetase 1 as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was time-and dose-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of ATP and CTP synthetase 1. The protein kinase C phosphorylation of the recombinant enzyme was accompanied by a 95-fold increase in CTP synthetase 1 activity. Phosphopeptide mapping and phosphoamino acid analyses showed that CTP synthetase 1 was phosphorylated on multiple serine and threonine residues. The induction of PKC1R398A-encoded protein kinase C resulted in a 50% increase for human CTP synthetase 1 phosphorylation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant lacking yeast CTP synthetase activity. Synthetic peptides that contain the protein kinase C motif for Ser462 and Thr455 were substrates for mammalian protein kinase C, and S462A and T455A mutations resulted in decreases in the extent of CTP synthetase 1 phosphorylation that occurred in vivo. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of S. cerevisiae-expressed CTP synthetase 1 mutant enzymes phosphorylated with mammalian protein kinase C confirmed that Ser462 and Thr455 were phosphorylation sites. The S. cerevisiae-expressed and purified S462A mutant enzyme exhibited a 2-fold reduction in CTP synthetase 1 activity, whereas the purified T455A mutant enzyme exhibits a 2-fold elevation in CTP synthetase 1 activity (Choi, M.-G., and Carman, G.M. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5367–5377). These data indicated that protein kinase C phosphorylation at Ser462 stimulates human CTP synthetase 1 activity, whereas phosphorylation at Thr455 inhibits activity. PMID:17463002

  10. Family-wide Structural Analysis of Human Numb-Associated Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Fiona J; Szklarz, Marta; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R; Elkins, Jon M; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The highly diverse Numb-associated kinase (NAK) family has been linked to broad cellular functions including receptor-mediated endocytosis, Notch pathway modulation, osteoblast differentiation, and dendrite morphogenesis. Consequently, NAK kinases play a key role in a diverse range of diseases from Parkinson's and prostate cancer to HIV. Due to the plasticity of this kinase family, NAK kinases are often inhibited by approved or investigational drugs and have been associated with side effects, but they are also potential drug targets. The presence of cysteine residues in some NAK family members provides the possibility for selective targeting via covalent inhibition. Here we report the first high-resolution structures of kinases AAK1 and BIKE in complex with two drug candidates. The presented data allow a comprehensive structural characterization of the NAK kinase family and provide the basis for rational design of selective NAK inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Family-wide Structural Analysis of Human Numb-Associated Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Fiona J.; Szklarz, Marta; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R.; Elkins, Jon M.; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Summary The highly diverse Numb-associated kinase (NAK) family has been linked to broad cellular functions including receptor-mediated endocytosis, Notch pathway modulation, osteoblast differentiation, and dendrite morphogenesis. Consequently, NAK kinases play a key role in a diverse range of diseases from Parkinson's and prostate cancer to HIV. Due to the plasticity of this kinase family, NAK kinases are often inhibited by approved or investigational drugs and have been associated with side effects, but they are also potential drug targets. The presence of cysteine residues in some NAK family members provides the possibility for selective targeting via covalent inhibition. Here we report the first high-resolution structures of kinases AAK1 and BIKE in complex with two drug candidates. The presented data allow a comprehensive structural characterization of the NAK kinase family and provide the basis for rational design of selective NAK inhibitors. PMID:26853940

  12. Evolutionary Ancestry of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases and Choline Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shenshen; Safaei, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins catalyzed by protein kinases in eukaryotes supports an important role for eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) in the emergence of nucleated cells in the third superkingdom of life. Choline kinases (ChKs) could also be critical in the early evolution of eukaryotes, because of their function in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is unique to eukaryotic membranes. However, the genomic origins of ePKs and ChKs are unclear. The high degeneracy of protein sequences and broad expansion of ePK families have made this fundamental question difficult to answer. In this study, we identified two class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with high similarities to consensus amino acid sequences of human protein-serine/threonine kinases. Comparisons of primary and tertiary structures supported that ePKs and ChKs evolved from a common ancestor related to glutaminyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which may have been one of the key factors in the successful of emergence of ancient eukaryotic cells from bacterial colonies. PMID:26742849

  13. Role of Ca(2+) and protein kinase C in the serotonin (5-HT) transport in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Turetta, L; Bazzan, E; Bertagno, K; Musacchio, E; Deana, R

    2002-05-01

    Accumulation of serotonin (5-HT) into human platelets was not affected by the presence of the extra-cellular calcium chelator EGTA, while decreased by platelet incubation with the membrane permeant chelator BAPTA-AM. Serotonin uptake also diminished upon platelet exposure to EGTA/thapsigargin or EGTA/ionomycin which increased the cytosolic [Ca(2+)] to levels lower than those inducing secretion of dense granules. The latter inhibition depended in part on changes of intra-granular pH, since the accumulation of acridine orange, which is driven into the dense granules by the intra-granular acid pH gradient, was slightly decreased in the presence of EGTA/thapsigargin. These compounds also inhibited the 5-HT uptake in platelets pre-incubated with reserpine and bafilomycin that prevent 5-HT from entering into the dense granules. Inhibitors of protease, protein phosphatase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger or ciclo-oxygenase activities did not modify the serotonin accumulation. Addition of EGTA/thapsigargin to reserpine-treated, [(14)C]5-HT-loaded, platelets caused an imipramine-insensitive release of labelled serotonin. This release was reduced by both BAPTA-AM or protein kinase C inhibitor bisindoylmaleimide (GF). The latter compound, either alone or together with EGTA/thapsigargin, inhibited the 5-HT accumulation in reserpine-treated platelets. It is concluded that both cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and protein kinase C are involved in the regulation of the plasma membrane 5-HT transport.

  14. Identification of a Potent Allosteric Inhibitor of Human Protein Kinase CK2 by Bacterial Surface Display Library Screening

    PubMed Central

    Nienberg, Christian; Garmann, Claudia; Gratz, Andreas; Bollacke, Andre; Götz, Claudia; Jose, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Human protein kinase CK2 has emerged as promising target for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. The vast majority of kinase inhibitors known today target the ATP binding site, which is highly conserved among kinases and hence leads to limited selectivity. In order to identify non-ATP competitive inhibitors, a 12-mer peptide library of 6 × 105 variants was displayed on the surface of E. coli by autodisplay. Screening of this peptide library on variants with affinity to CK2 was performed by fluorophore-conjugated CK2 and subsequent flow cytometry. Single cell sorting of CK2-bound E. coli yielded new peptide variants, which were tested on inhibition of CK2 by a CE-based assay. Peptide B2 (DCRGLIVMIKLH) was the most potent inhibitor of both, CK2 holoenzyme and the catalytic CK2α subunit (IC50 = 0.8 µM). Using different ATP concentrations and different substrate concentrations for IC50 determination, B2 was shown to be neither ATP- nor substrate competitive. By microscale thermophoresis (MST) the KD value of B2 with CK2α was determined to be 2.16 µM, whereas no binding of B2 to CK2β-subunit was detectable. To our surprise, besides inhibition of enzymatic activity, B2 also disturbed the interaction of CK2α with CK2β at higher concentrations (≥25 µM). PMID:28067769

  15. Identification of a Potent Allosteric Inhibitor of Human Protein Kinase CK2 by Bacterial Surface Display Library Screening.

    PubMed

    Nienberg, Christian; Garmann, Claudia; Gratz, Andreas; Bollacke, Andre; Götz, Claudia; Jose, Joachim

    2017-01-05

    Human protein kinase CK2 has emerged as promising target for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. The vast majority of kinase inhibitors known today target the ATP binding site, which is highly conserved among kinases and hence leads to limited selectivity. In order to identify non-ATP competitive inhibitors, a 12-mer peptide library of 6 × 10⁵ variants was displayed on the surface of E. coli by autodisplay. Screening of this peptide library on variants with affinity to CK2 was performed by fluorophore-conjugated CK2 and subsequent flow cytometry. Single cell sorting of CK2-bound E. coli yielded new peptide variants, which were tested on inhibition of CK2 by a CE-based assay. Peptide B2 (DCRGLIVMIKLH) was the most potent inhibitor of both, CK2 holoenzyme and the catalytic CK2α subunit (IC50 = 0.8 µM). Using different ATP concentrations and different substrate concentrations for IC50 determination, B2 was shown to be neither ATP- nor substrate competitive. By microscale thermophoresis (MST) the KD value of B2 with CK2α was determined to be 2.16 µM, whereas no binding of B2 to CK2β-subunit was detectable. To our surprise, besides inhibition of enzymatic activity, B2 also disturbed the interaction of CK2α with CK2β at higher concentrations (≥25 µM).

  16. E6 variants of human papillomavirus 18 differentially modulate the protein kinase B/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (akt/PI3K) signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras-Paredes, Adriana

    2009-01-05

    Intra-type genome variations of high risk Human papillomavirus (HPV) have been associated with a differential threat for cervical cancer development. In this work, the effect of HPV18 E6 isolates in Akt/PKB and Mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling pathways and its implication in cell proliferation were analyzed. E6 from HPV types 16 and 18 are able to bind and promote degradation of Human disc large (hDlg). Our results show that E6 variants differentially modulate hDlg degradation, rebounding in levels of activated PTEN and PKB. HPV18 E6 variants are also able to upregulate phospho-PI3K protein, strongly correlating with activated MAPKs and cell proliferation. Data was supported by the effect of E6 silencing in HPV18-containing HeLa cells, as well as hDlg silencing in the tested cells. Results suggest that HPV18 intra-type variations may derive in differential abilities to activate cell-signaling pathways such as Akt/PKB and MAPKs, directly involved in cell survival and proliferation.

  17. CUL3 and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Thibaud; Kleiss, Charlotte; Sumara, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational mechanisms drive fidelity of cellular processes. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination of substrates represent very common, covalent, posttranslational modifications and are often co-regulated. Phosphorylation may play a critical role both by directly regulating E3-ubiquitin ligases and/or by ensuring specificity of the ubiquitination substrate. Importantly, many kinases are not only critical regulatory components of these pathways but also represent themselves the direct ubiquitination substrates. Recent data suggest the role of CUL3-based ligases in both proteolytic and non-proteolytic regulation of protein kinases. Our own recent study identified the mitotic kinase PLK1 as a direct target of the CUL3 E3-ligase complex containing BTB-KELCH adaptor protein KLHL22.1 In this study, we aim at gaining mechanistic insights into CUL3-mediated regulation of the substrates, in particular protein kinases, by analyzing mechanisms of interaction between KLHL22 and PLK1. We find that kinase activity of PLK1 is redundant for its targeting for CUL3-ubiquitination. Moreover, CUL3/KLHL22 may contact 2 distinct motifs within PLK1 protein, consistent with the bivalent mode of substrate targeting found in other CUL3-based complexes. We discuss these findings in the context of the existing knowledge on other protein kinases and substrates targeted by CUL3-based E3-ligases. PMID:24067371

  18. The role of Misshapen NCK-related kinase (MINK), a novel Ste20 family kinase, in the IRES-mediated protein translation of human enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Leong, Shi Yun; Ong, Bryan Kit Teck; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-03-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in young children, and occasional occurrences of neurological complications can be fatal. In this study, a high-throughput cell-based screening on the serine/threonine kinase siRNA library was performed to identify potential antiviral agents against EV71 replication. Among the hits, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) was selected for detailed analysis due to its strong inhibitory profile and novelty. In the investigation of the stage at which MINK is involved in EV71 replication, virus RNA transfection in MINK siRNA-treated cells continued to cause virus inhibition despite bypassing the normal entry pathway, suggesting its involvement at the post-entry stage. We have also shown that viral RNA and protein expression level was significantly reduced upon MINK silencing, suggesting its involvement in viral protein synthesis which feeds into viral RNA replication process. Through proteomic analysis and infection inhibition assay, we found that the activation of MINK was triggered by early replication events, instead of the binding and entry of the virus. Proteomic analysis on the activation profile of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was stimulated by EV71 infection upon MINK activation. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that the translation efficiency of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reduced after blocking the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation on the effect of MINK silencing on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) localisation demonstrated that cytoplasmic relocalisation of hnRNP A1 upon EV71 infection may be facilitated via the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway which then positively regulates the translation of viral RNA transcripts. These novel findings hence suggest that MINK plays a functional role in the IRES-mediated translation of EV71 viral RNA and may provide a potential target for the

  19. Transcriptional Control of Tight Junction Proteins via a Protein Kinase C Signal Pathway in Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase-Transfected Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Takashi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Imamura, Masafumi; Son, Seiichi; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Murata, Masaki; Nagayama, Minoru; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Hirata, Koichi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2010-01-01

    In human pancreatic cancer, integral membrane proteins of tight junction claudins are abnormally regulated, making these proteins promising molecular diagnostic and therapeutic targets. However, the regulation of claudin-based tight junctions remains unknown not only in the pancreatic cancer cells but also in normal human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells. To investigate the regulation of tight junction molecules including claudins in normal HPDE cells, we introduced the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into HPDE cells in primary culture. The hTERT-transfected HPDE (hTERT-HPDE) cells were positive for the pancreatic duct epithelial markers such as CK7, CK19, and carbonic anhydrase isozyme 2 and expressed epithelial tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7 and, -18, occludin, JAM-A, ZO-1, ZO-2, and tricellulin. By treatment with fetal bovine serum or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), the tight junction molecules were up-regulated at the transcriptional level via a protein kinase C (PKC) signal pathway. A PKC-α inhibitor, Gö6976, prevented up-regulation of claudin-4 by TPA. Furthermore, a PKC-δ inhibitor, rottlerin, prevented up-regulation of claudin-7, occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2 by TPA. By GeneChip analysis, up-regulation of the transcription factor ELF3 was observed in both fetal bovine serum- and TPA-treated cells. Treatment with small interfering RNAs of ELF3 prevented up-regulation of claudin-7 by TPA. These data suggest that tight junctions of normal HPDE cells were at least in part regulated via a PKC signal pathway by transcriptional control. PMID:20566751

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 Induction by Amino Acid Deprivation Requires p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwen; Chang, Chi-Ming; Wang, Lanfang; Zhang, Ping; Shu, Hui-Kuo G

    2017-04-21

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant brain tumors that can outstrip nutrient supplies due to rapid growth. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been linked to GBMs and may contribute to their aggressive phenotypes. Amino acid starvation results in COX-2 mRNA and protein induction in multiple human glioma cell lines in a process requiring p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and the Sp1 transcription factor. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression results from starvation-dependent COX-2 induction. These data suggest that COX-2 induction with amino acid deprivation may be a part of the adaptation of glioma cells to these conditions, and potentially alter cellular response to anti-neoplastic therapy.

  1. Phosphorylation of α-Tubulin by Protein Kinase C Stimulates Microtubule Dynamics in Human Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    De, Shatarupa; Tsimounis, Areti; Chen, Xiangyu; Rotenberg, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) engenders motility through phosphorylation of α-tubulin at Ser-165 in non-transformed MCF-10A cells. Live cell imaging explored the impact of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on microtubule (MT) dynamics. MTs fluorescently labeled with GFP-α-tubulin were treated with diacylglycerol (DAG)-lactone (a membrane-permeable PKC activator), or co-transfected with a pseudo-phosphorylated S165D-α6-tubulin mutant. Each condition increased the dynamicity of MTs by stimulating the rate and duration of the growth phase and decreasing the frequency of catastrophe. In MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cells where the intrinsic PKC activity is high, these MT growth parameters were also high but could be suppressed by expression of phosphorylation-resistant S165N-α6-tubulin or by treatment with a pan-PKC inhibitor (bis-indoleylmaleimide). Sub-cellular fractionation and immunofluorescence of MCF-10A cells showed that phosphorylation (via DAG-lactone) or pseudo-phosphorylation of α6-tubulin increased its partitioning into MTs as compared to controls, and produced longer, more stable MTs. Following expression of the plus-end binding protein GFP-EB1, DAG-lactone accelerated the formation and increased the number of nascent MTs. Expression of S165D-α6-tubulin promoted Rac1 activation and Rac1-dependent cell motility. These findings call attention to PKC-mediated phosphorylation of α-tubulin as a novel mechanism for controlling the dynamics of MTs that result in cell movement. PMID:24574051

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  3. Short Interfering RNA Inhibits Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication and Degradation of Protein Kinase R in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Faburay, Bonto; Richt, Juergen A.

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen causing severe outbreaks in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human infections are characterized by fever, sometimes leading to encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever, and occasionally death. There are currently no fully licensed vaccines or effective therapies for human use. Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes, which serves as an antiviral defense mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that siRNA duplexes directed against the RVFV nucleoprotein can effectively inhibit RVFV replication in human (MRC5 cells) and African green monkey cells (Vero E6 cells). Using these cells, we demonstrate that individual or complex siRNAs, targeting the RVFV nucleoprotein gene completely abrogate viral protein expression and prevent degradation of the host innate antiviral factor, protein kinase R (PKR). Importantly, pre-treatment of cells with the nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs markedly reduces the virus titer. The antiviral effect of the siRNAs was not attributable to interferon or the interferon response effector molecule, PKR. Thus, the antiviral activity of RVFV nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs may provide novel therapeutic strategy against RVFV infections in animals and humans. PMID:27933051

  4. Short Interfering RNA Inhibits Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication and Degradation of Protein Kinase R in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Faburay, Bonto; Richt, Juergen A

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen causing severe outbreaks in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human infections are characterized by fever, sometimes leading to encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever, and occasionally death. There are currently no fully licensed vaccines or effective therapies for human use. Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes, which serves as an antiviral defense mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that siRNA duplexes directed against the RVFV nucleoprotein can effectively inhibit RVFV replication in human (MRC5 cells) and African green monkey cells (Vero E6 cells). Using these cells, we demonstrate that individual or complex siRNAs, targeting the RVFV nucleoprotein gene completely abrogate viral protein expression and prevent degradation of the host innate antiviral factor, protein kinase R (PKR). Importantly, pre-treatment of cells with the nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs markedly reduces the virus titer. The antiviral effect of the siRNAs was not attributable to interferon or the interferon response effector molecule, PKR. Thus, the antiviral activity of RVFV nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs may provide novel therapeutic strategy against RVFV infections in animals and humans.

  5. Thrombopoietin potentiates agonist-stimulated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Ezumi, Y; Nishida, E; Uchiyama, T; Takayama, H

    1999-07-22

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) plays a crucial role in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet production. c-Mpl, a receptor for TPO, is also expressed in terminally differentiated platelets. We investigated the effects of TPO on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human platelets. Thrombin, a thrombin receptor agonist peptide, a thromboxane A(2) analogue, collagen, crosslinking the glycoprotein VI, ADP, and epinephrine, but not phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate activated p38. TPO did not activate p38 by itself, whereas TPO pretreatment potentiated the agonist-induced activation of p38. TPO did not promote phosphorylation of Hsp27 and cytosolic phospholipase A(2) by itself, but enhanced thrombin-induced phosphorylation of them. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 strongly inhibited such phosphorylation. Thus, TPO possesses the priming effect on p38 activation in human platelets and could affect platelet functions through the p38 pathway.

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors sensitize reduced glucocorticoid response mediated by TNF{alpha} in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT)

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Kenji . E-mail: knjond@ps.toyaku.ac.jp; Nagashima, Masahiro; Kawakubo, Yo; Inoue, Shota; Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro

    2006-12-08

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential drugs administered topically or systematically for the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as pemphigus. However, a certain proportion of patients does not respond well to GCs. Although studies on the relationship between cytokines and GC insensitivity in local tissues have attracted attention recently, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) for GC insensitivity in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we report that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) {alpha} reduces GC-induced transactivation of endogenous genes as well as a reporter plasmid which contains GC responsive element (GRE) in human epidermal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The GC insensitivity by TNF{alpha} was not accompanied by changes in mRNA expressions of GR isoforms ({alpha} or {beta}). However, we observed that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) significantly sensitized the GC-induced transactivation of anti-inflammatory genes (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 gene in the presence of TNF{alpha}. Additionally, we observed that TNF{alpha} reduced prednisolone (PSL)-dependent nuclear translocation of GR, which was restored by pre-treatment of MEK-1 inhibitors. This is the first study demonstrating a role of the MEK-1/ERK cascade in TNF{alpha}-mediated GC insensitivity. Our data suggest that overexpression of TNF{alpha} leads to topical GC insensitivity by reducing GR nuclear translocation in keratinocytes, and our findings also suggest that inhibiting the MEK-1/ERK cascade may offer a therapeutic potential for increasing GC efficacy in epidermis where sufficient inflammatory suppression is required.

  7. S-Adenosylmethionine Regulates Dual-Specificity Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase Expression in Mouse and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ramani, Komal; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Li, Tony W. H.; Ko, Kwangsuk; Yang, Heping; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Iglesias-Ara, Ainhoa; Feo, Francesco; Pascale, Maria Rosa; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2010-01-01

    Increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity correlates with a more malignant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) phenotype. There is a reciprocal regulation between p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]1/2) and the dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase MKP-1/DUSP1. ERK phosphorylates DUSP1, facilitating its proteasomal degradation, whereas DUSP1 inhibits ERK activity. Methionine adenosyltransferase 1a (Mat1a) knockout (KO) mice express hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) deficiency and increased ERK activity and develop HCC. The aim of this study was to examine whether DUSP1 expression is regulated by SAM and if so, elucidate the molecular mechanisms. Studies were conducted using Mat1a KO mice livers, cultured mouse and human hepatocytes, and 20S and 26S proteasomes. DUSP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were reduced markedly in livers of Mat1a KO mice and in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes with protein falling to lower levels than mRNA. SAM treatment protected against the fall in DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels in mouse and human hepatocytes. SAM increased DUSP1 transcription, p53 binding to DUSP1 promoter, and stability of its mRNA and protein. Proteasomal chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities were increased in Mat1a KO livers and cultured hepatocytes, which was blocked by SAM treatment. SAM inhibited chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities by 40% and 70%, respectively, in 20S proteasomes and caused rapid degradation of some of the 26S proteasomal subunits, which was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. SAM treatment in Mat1a KO mice for 7 days raised SAM, DUSP1, mRNA and protein levels and lowered proteosomal and ERK activities. Conclusion DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels are lower in Mat1a KO livers and fall rapidly in cultured hepatocytes. SAM treatment increases DUSP1 expression through multiple mechanisms, and this may suppress ERK activity and malignant degeneration. PMID:20196119

  8. Substrate profiling of human vaccinia-related kinases identifies coilin, a Cajal body nuclear protein, as a phosphorylation target with neurological implications.

    PubMed

    Sanz-García, Marta; Vázquez-Cedeira, Marta; Kellerman, Efrat; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Lazo, Pedro A

    2011-12-21

    Protein phosphorylation by kinases plays a central role in the regulation and coordination of multiple biological processes. In general, knowledge on kinase specificity is restricted to substrates identified in the context of specific cellular responses, but kinases are likely to have multiple additional substrates and be integrated in signaling networks that might be spatially and temporally different, and in which protein complexes and subcellular localization can play an important role. In this report the substrate specificity of atypical human vaccinia-related kinases (VRK1 and VRK2) using a human peptide-array containing 1080 sequences phosphorylated in known signaling pathways has been studied. The two kinases identify a subset of potential peptide targets, all of them result in a consensus sequence composed of at least four basic residues in peptide targets. Linear peptide arrays are therefore a useful approach in the characterization of kinases and substrate identification, which can contribute to delineate the signaling network in which VRK proteins participate. One of these target proteins is coilin; a basic protein located in nuclear Cajal bodies. Coilin is phosphorylated in Ser184 by both VRK1 and VRK2. Coilin colocalizes and interacts with VRK1 in Cajal bodies, but not with the mutant VRK1 (R358X). VRK1 (R358X) is less active than VRK1. Altered regulation of coilin might be implicated in several neurological diseases such as ataxias and spinal muscular atrophies.

  9. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  10. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells by flavonoids from lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium): possible roles for protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein-kinase-mediated events.

    PubMed

    Matchett, Michael D; MacKinnon, Shawna L; Sweeney, Marva I; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Hurta, Robert A R

    2006-02-01

    Regulation of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is crucial to regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis which is important in metastasis. This study investigated the mechanism(s) by which three flavonoid-enriched fractions from lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) down-regulate MMP activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Metalloproteinase activity was evaluated from cells exposed to "crude," anthocyanin-enriched (AN) and proanthocyanidin-enriched (PAC) fractions. Differential down-regulation of MMPs was observed. The activity of the endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) from these cells was also evaluated. Increases in TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 activity were observed in response to these fractions. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways in the flavonoid-mediated decreases in MMP activity was observed. These findings indicate that blueberry flavonoids may use multiple mechanisms in down-regulating MMP activity in these cells.

  1. Opposing effects of protein kinase Calpha and protein kinase Cepsilon on collagen expression by human lung fibroblasts are mediated via MEK/ERK and caveolin-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Tourkina, Elena; Gooz, Pal; Pannu, Jaspreet; Bonner, Michael; Scholz, Dimitri; Hacker, Sharon; Silver, Richard M; Trojanowska, Maria; Hoffman, Stanley

    2005-04-08

    The roles of MEK, ERK, the epsilon and alpha isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), and caveolin-1 in regulating collagen expression were studied in normal lung fibroblasts. Knocking down caveolin-1 gave particularly striking results. A 70% decrease caused a 5-fold increase in MEK/ERK activation and collagen expression. The combined data reveal a branched signaling pathway. In its central portion MEK activates ERK, leading to increased collagen expression. Two branches converge on MEK/ERK. In one, increased PKCepsilon leads to MEK/ERK activation. In another, increased PKCalpha induces caveolin-1 expression, which in turn inhibits MEK/ERK activation and collagen expression. Lung fibroblasts from scleroderma patients with pulmonary fibrosis showed altered signaling. Consistent with their overexpression of collagen, scleroderma lung fibroblasts contain more activated MEK/ERK and less caveolin-1 than normal lung fibroblasts. Because cutaneous fibrosis is the hallmark of scleroderma, we also studied dermal fibroblasts. As in lung, there was more activated MEK/ERK in cells from scleroderma patients than in control cells, and MEK inhibition decreased collagen expression. However, the distinctive levels of PKCepsilon, PKCalpha, and caveolin-1 in lung and dermal fibroblasts from scleroderma patients and control subjects indicate that the links between these signaling proteins and MEK/ERK must function differently in the four cell types. Finally, we confirmed the relevance of these signaling cascades in vivo. The combined results demonstrate that a branched signaling pathway involving MEK, ERK, PKCepsilon, PKCalpha, and caveolin-1 regulates collagen expression in normal lung tissue and is perturbed during fibrosis.

  2. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Zahidul; Gray, Jennifer S.; Pestka, James J. . E-mail: pestka@msu.edu

    2006-06-15

    The effects of the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated IL-8 expression were investigated in cloned human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DON (250 to 1000 ng/ml) induced both IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA), an indicator of IL-8 transcription, in the human U937 monocytic cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of IL-8 hnRNA, mRNA and protein correlated with p38 phosphorylation and was completely abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. DON at 500 ng/ml similarly induced p38-dependent IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in PBMC cultures from healthy volunteers. Significantly increased IL-6 and IL-1{beta} intracellular protein and mRNA expression was also observed in PBMC treated with DON (500 ng/ml) which were also partially p38-dependent. Flow cytometry of PBMC revealed that DON-induced p38 phosphorylation varied among individuals relative to both threshold toxin concentrations (25-100 ng/ml) and relative increases in percentages of phospho-p38{sup +} cells. DON-induced p38 activation occurred exclusively in the CD14{sup +} monocyte population. DON was devoid of agonist activity for human Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. However, two other ribotoxins, emetine and anisomycin, induced p38 phosphorylation in PBMC similarly to DON. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) p38 activation was required for induction of IL-8 and proinflammatory gene expression in the monocyte and (2) DON induced p38 activation in human monocytes via the ribotoxic stress response.

  3. Structural Properties of Human CaMKII Ca2+ /Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II using X-ray Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yumeng Melody; McSpadden, Ethan; Kuriyan, John; Department of Molecular; Cell Biology; Department of Chemistry Team

    To this day, human memory storage remains a mystery as we can at most describe the process vaguely on a cellular level. Switch-like properties of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II make it a leading candidate in understanding the molecular basis of human memory. The protein crystal was placed in the beam of a synchrotron source and the x-ray crystallography data was collected as reflections on a diffraction pattern that undergo Fourier transform to obtain the electron density. We observed two drastic differences from our solved structure at 2.75Å to a similar construct of the mouse CaMKII association domain. Firstly, our structure is a 6-fold symmetric dodecamer, whereas the previously published construct was a 7-fold symmetric tetradecamer. This suggests the association domain of human CaMKII is a dynamic structure that is triggered subunit exchange process. Secondly, in our structure the N-terminal tag is docked as an additional beta-strand on an uncapped beta-sheet present in each association domain protomer. This is concrete evidence of the involvement of the polypeptide docking site in the molecular mechanism underlining subunit exchange. In the future, we would like to selectively inhibit the exchange process while not disrupting the other functionalities of CaMKII.

  4. Reduction of transition metals by human (THP-1) monocytes is enhanced by activators of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Wood, J L; Graham, A

    1999-11-01

    Macrophages oxidize low density lipoprotein (LDL) by enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms; however, it is evident that macrophage reduction of transition metals can accelerate LDL oxidation in vitro, and possibly in vivo. Distinct cellular pathways contribute to this process, including trans-plasma membrane electron transport (TPMET), and production of free thiols or superoxide. Here, we explore the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in regulating transition metal reduction by each of these redox-active pathways, in human (THP-1) monocytes. We demonstrate that PKC agonists and/or inhibitors modulate reduction of transition metals by monocytes: both thiol-independent (direct) and thiol-dependent (indirect) pathways for transition metal reduction are enhanced by PKC activation, suggesting a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Bitter melon juice activates cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase causing apoptotic death of human pancreatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Deep, Gagan; Jain, Anil K; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Wempe, Michael F; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-07-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, suggesting critical needs for additional drugs to improve disease outcome. In this study, we examined efficacy and associated mechanism of a novel agent bitter melon juice (BMJ) against pancreatic carcinoma cells both in culture and nude mice. BMJ anticancer efficacy was analyzed in human pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-2, AsPC-1 and Capan-2 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and annexin/propidium iodide assays. BMJ effect on apoptosis regulators was assessed by immunoblotting. In vivo BMJ efficacy was evaluated against MiaPaCa-2 tumors in nude mice, and xenograft was analyzed for biomarkers by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results showed that BMJ (2-5% v/v) decreases cell viability in all four pancreatic carcinoma cell lines by inducing strong apoptotic death. At molecular level, BMJ caused caspases activation, altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and cytochrome-c release into the cytosol. Additionally, BMJ decreased survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein but increased p21, CHOP and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38) levels. Importantly, BMJ activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a biomarker for cellular energy status, and an AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) reversed BMJ-induced caspase-3 activation suggesting activated AMPK involvement in BMJ-induced apoptosis. In vivo, oral administration of lyophilized BMJ (5mg in 100 µl water/day/mouse) for 6 weeks inhibited MiaPaCa-2 tumor xenograft growth by 60% (P < 0.01) without noticeable toxicity in nude mice. IHC analyses of MiaPaCa-2 xenografts showed that BMJ also inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and activates AMPK in vivo. Overall, BMJ exerts strong anticancer efficacy against human pancreatic carcinoma cells, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its clinical

  6. Mechanism of activation and functional role of protein kinase Ceta in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Bynagari, Yamini S; Nagy, Bela; Tuluc, Florin; Bhavaraju, Kamala; Kim, Soochong; Vijayan, K Vinod; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2009-05-15

    The novel class of protein kinase C (nPKC) isoform eta is expressed in platelets, but not much is known about its activation and function. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of activation and functional implications of nPKCeta using pharmacological and gene knock-out approaches. nPKCeta was phosphorylated (at Thr-512) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by 2MeSADP. Pretreatment of platelets with MRS-2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, or YM-254890, a G(q) blocker, abolished 2MeSADP-induced phosphorylation of nPKCeta. Similarly, ADP failed to activate nPKCeta in platelets isolated from P2Y1 and G(q) knock-out mice. However, pretreatment of platelets with P2Y12 receptor antagonist, AR-C69331MX did not interfere with ADP-induced nPKCeta phosphorylation. In addition, when platelets were activated with 2MeSADP under stirring conditions, although nPKCeta was phosphorylated within 30 s by ADP receptors, it was also dephosphorylated by activated integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 mediated outside-in signaling. Moreover, in the presence of SC-57101, a alpha(IIb)beta3 receptor antagonist, nPKCeta dephosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, in murine platelets lacking PP1cgamma, a catalytic subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase, alpha(IIb)beta3 failed to dephosphorylate nPKCeta. Thus, we conclude that ADP activates nPKCeta via P2Y1 receptor and is subsequently dephosphorylated by PP1gamma phosphatase activated by alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin. In addition, pretreatment of platelets with eta-RACK antagonistic peptides, a specific inhibitor of nPKCeta, inhibited ADP-induced thromboxane generation. However, these peptides had no affect on ADP-induced aggregation when thromboxane generation was blocked. In summary, nPKCeta positively regulates agonist-induced thromboxane generation with no effects on platelet aggregation.

  7. Cadmium-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human osteoblasts: role of caspases and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways.

    PubMed

    Brama, M; Politi, L; Santini, P; Migliaccio, S; Scandurra, R

    2012-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant which induces severe toxic alterations, including osteomalacia and osteoporosis, likely by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms. Indeed, cadmium has been described to act as an endocrine disruptor and its toxicity is exerted both in vivo and in vitro through induction of apoptosis and/or necrosis by not fully clarified intracellular mechanism(s) of action. Aim of the present study was to further investigate the molecular mechanism by which cadmium might alter homeostasis of estrogen target cells, such as osteoblast homeostasis, inducing cell apoptosis and/or necrosis. Human osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19) in culture were used as an in vitro model to characterize the intracellular mechanisms induced by this heavy metal. Cells were incubated in the presence/ absence of 10-50 μM cadmium chloride at different times and DNA fragmentation and activation of procaspases- 8 and -3 were induced upon CdCl(2) treatment triggering apoptotic and necrotic pathways. Addition of caspase-8 and -3 inhibitors (Z-IETD-FMK and Z-DQMD-FMK) partially blocked these effects. No activation of procaspase-9 was observed. To determine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in these events, we investigated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation which were activated by 10 μM CdCl(2). Chemical inhibitors of JNK, p38, and ERK1/2, SP600125, SB202190, and PD98059, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of the kinases and blunted apoptosis. In contrast, caspase inhibitors did not reduce the cadmium-induced MAPK phosphorylation, suggesting an independent activation of these pathways. In conclusion, at least 2 pathways appear activated by cadmium in osteoblasts: a direct induction of caspase-8 followed by activation of caspase-3 and an indirect induction by phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK MAPK triggering activation of caspase-8 and -3.

  8. The PDZ-Ligand and Src-Homology Type 3 Domains of Epidemic Avian Influenza Virus NS1 Protein Modulate Human Src Kinase Activity during Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bavagnoli, Laura; Dundon, William G.; Garbelli, Anna; Zecchin, Bianca; Milani, Adelaide; Parakkal, Geetha; Baldanti, Fausto; Paolucci, Stefania; Volmer, Romain; Tu, Yizeng; Wu, Chuanyue; Capua, Ilaria; Maga, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The Non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of avian influenza (AI) viruses is important for pathogenicity. Here, we identify a previously unrecognized tandem PDZ-ligand (TPL) domain in the extreme carboxy terminus of NS1 proteins from a subset of globally circulating AI viruses. By using protein arrays we have identified several human PDZ-cellular ligands of this novel domain, one of which is the RIL protein, a known regulator of the cellular tyrosine kinase Src. We found that the AI NS1 proteins bind and stimulate human Src tyrosine kinase, through their carboxy terminal Src homology type 3-binding (SHB) domain. The physical interaction between NS1 and Src and the ability of AI viruses to modulate the phosphorylation status of Src during the infection, were found to be influenced by the TPL arrangement. These results indicate the potential for novel host-pathogen interactions mediated by the TPL and SHB domains of AI NS1 protein. PMID:22110760

  9. Isomeric Mono-, Di-, and Tri-Bromobenzo-1H-Triazoles as Inhibitors of Human Protein Kinase CK2α

    PubMed Central

    Wąsik, Romualda; Wińska, Patrycja; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2012-01-01

    To further clarify the role of the individual bromine atoms of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromotriazole (TBBt), a relatively selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, we have examined the inhibition (IC50) of human CK2α by the two mono-, the four di-, and the two tri- bromobenzotriazoles relative to that of TBBt. Halogenation of the central vicinal C(5)/C(6) atoms proved to be a key factor in enhancing inhibitory activity, in that 5,6-di-Br2Bt and 4,5,6-Br3Bt were almost as effective inhibitors as TBBt, notwithstanding their marked differences in pKa for dissociation of the triazole proton. The decrease in pKa on halogenation of the peripheral C(4)/C(7) atoms virtually nullifies the gain due to hydrophobic interactions, and does not lead to a decrease in IC50. Molecular modeling of structures of complexes of the ligands with the enzyme, as well as QSAR analysis, pointed to a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as a discriminator of inhibitory activity. The role of halogen bonding remains debatable, as originally noted for the crystal structure of TBBt with CK2α (pdb1j91). Finally we direct attention to the promising applicability of our series of well-defined halogenated benzotriazoles to studies on inhibition of kinases other than CK2. PMID:23155426

  10. Human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to the osteogenic or adipogenic lineage is regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung-Kyun; Lim, Seyoung; Park, Ji-Man; Seo, Jeong Kon; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Kyong Tai; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2012-04-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy-sensing kinase that has recently been shown to regulate the differentiation of preadipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the role of AMPK in stem cell differentiation is largely unknown. Using in vitro culture models, the present study demonstrates that AMPK is a critical regulatory factor for osteogenic differentiation. We observed that expression and phosphorylation of AMPK were increased during osteogenesis in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSC). To elucidate the role of AMPK in osteogenic differentiation, we investigated the effect of AMPK inhibition or knockdown on mineralization of hAMSC. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, reduced mineralized matrix deposition and suppressed the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and osteocalcin (OCN). Knockdown of AMPK by shRNA-lentivirus infection also reduced osteogenesis. In addition, inhibition or knockdown of AMPK during osteogenesis inhibited ERK phosphorylation, which is required for osteogenesis. Interestingly, inhibition of AMPK induced adipogenic differentiation of hAMSC, even in osteogenic induction medium (OIM). These results provide a potential mechanism involving AMPK activation in osteogenic differentiation of hAMSC and suggest that commitment of hAMSC to osteogenic or adipogenic lineage is governed by activation or inhibition of AMPK, respectively.

  11. The kinetics of translocation and cellular quantity of protein kinase C in human leukocytes are modified during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, J. P.; Gaubert, F.; Lewis, M. L.; Darsel, Y.; Ohlmann, P.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in mediating intracellular signal transduction in eukaryotes. U937 cells were exposed to microgravity during a space shuttle flight and stimulated with a radiolabeled phorbol ester ([3H]PDBu) to both specifically label and activate translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of the cell. Although significant translocation of PKC occurred at all g levels, the kinetics of translocation in flight were significantly different from those on the ground. In addition, the total quantity of [3H]PDBu binding PKC was increased in flight compared to cells at 1 g on the ground, whereas the quantity in hypergravity (1.4 g) was decreased with respect to 1 g. Similarly, in purified human peripheral blood T cells the quantity of PKCdelta varied in inverse proportion to the g level for some experimental treatments. In addition to these novel findings, the results confirm earlier studies which showed that PKC is sensitive to changes in gravitational acceleration. The mechanisms of cellular gravisensitivity are poorly understood but the demonstrated sensitivity of PKC to this stimulus provides us with a useful means of measuring the effect of altered gravity levels on early cell activation events.

  12. The kinetics of translocation and cellular quantity of protein kinase C in human leukocytes are modified during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, J. P.; Gaubert, F.; Lewis, M. L.; Darsel, Y.; Ohlmann, P.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in mediating intracellular signal transduction in eukaryotes. U937 cells were exposed to microgravity during a space shuttle flight and stimulated with a radiolabeled phorbol ester ([3H]PDBu) to both specifically label and activate translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of the cell. Although significant translocation of PKC occurred at all g levels, the kinetics of translocation in flight were significantly different from those on the ground. In addition, the total quantity of [3H]PDBu binding PKC was increased in flight compared to cells at 1 g on the ground, whereas the quantity in hypergravity (1.4 g) was decreased with respect to 1 g. Similarly, in purified human peripheral blood T cells the quantity of PKCdelta varied in inverse proportion to the g level for some experimental treatments. In addition to these novel findings, the results confirm earlier studies which showed that PKC is sensitive to changes in gravitational acceleration. The mechanisms of cellular gravisensitivity are poorly understood but the demonstrated sensitivity of PKC to this stimulus provides us with a useful means of measuring the effect of altered gravity levels on early cell activation events.

  13. Nicotine enhances the malignant potential of human pancreatic cancer cells via activation of atypical protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Takehiko; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Nakasone, Masato; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Amisaki, Masataka; Arai, Yosuke; Tokuyasu, Naruo; Sakamoto, Teruhisa; Honjo, Soichiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Ikeguchi, Masahide; Yamashita, Kazunari; Ohno, Shigeo; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most lethal malignancy among solid tumors, and the most common risk factor for its development is cigarette smoking. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isozymes function in cell polarity, proliferation, and survival, and have also been implicated in carcinogenesis. However, the involvement of aPKC in PC progression and the effect of nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, on the biological activities of aPKC remain to be fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of nicotine on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human PC cell lines Panc1 and BxPC3. We analyzed aPKC localization and activity by immunohistochemistry and in vitro kinase assays, respectively, to assess their involvement in the regulation of PC progression. Moreover, we examined the effect of nicotine on implanted peritoneal tumors of PC cells in mice. Nicotine enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion in Panc1 and BxPC3 cells. In nicotine-treated PC cells, the aPKC was significantly activated. We also found that nicotine induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signal activation, and a specific inhibitor of the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as well as knockdown of nAChR prevented nicotine-mediated Akt phosphorylation and aPKC activation. In a peritoneal dissemination model of PC, nicotine-treated mice had larger tumors and increased numbers of nodules. Immunohistochemistry showed enhanced expression levels of aPKC and phosphorylated Akt in nodules from nicotine-treated mice. Nicotine induces aberrant activation of aPKC via nAChR/PI3K signaling in PC cells, resulting in enhancement of cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Salvianolic Acid B Protects Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts Against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Photoaging Through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Activator Protein-1 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengwang; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eunson; Zhang, Mengyang; Jin, Fengxie; Zhang, Baochun; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decreased collagen synthesis, leading to skin photoaging. Salvianolic acid B (SAB), a polyphenol, was extracted and purified from salvia miltiorrhiza. We assessed effects of SAB on UVB-induced photoaging and investigated its molecular mechanism of action in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts. Our results show that SAB significantly inhibited the UVB-induced expression of metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) while promoting the production of type I procollagen and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Moreover, treatment with SAB in the range of 1-100 μg/mL significantly inhibited UVB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation, which resulted in decreasing UVB-induced phosphorylation of c-Fos and c-Jun. These results indicate that SAB downregulates UV-induced MMP-1 expression by inhibiting Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. Our results suggest a potential use for SAB in skin photoprotection.

  15. Curcumin increases gelatinase activity in human neutrophils by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Francis; Girard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has been found to possess anti-inflammatory activities and neutrophils, key players in inflammation, were previously found to be important targets to curcumin in a few studies. For example, curcumin was found to induce apoptosis in neutrophils by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. However, the role of curcumin on the biology of neutrophils is still poorly defined. To study the role of curcumin on neutrophil degranulation and to determine the role of p38 MAPK, human neutrophils were freshly isolated from healthy individuals and incubated in vitro with curcumin. Degranulation was studied at three levels: surface expression of granule markers by flow cytometry; release of matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9 or gelatinase B) enzyme into supernatants by Western blot; and gelatinase B activity by zymography. Activation of p38 MAPK was studied by monitoring its tyrosine phosphorylation levels by western blot and its role by the utilization of a pharmacological inhibitor. The results indicate that curcumin increased the cell surface expression of CD35 (secretory vesicle), CD63 (azurophilic granules), and CD66b (gelatinase granules) in neutrophils. Also, curcumin increased the release and enzymatic activity of gelatinase B in the extracellular milieu and activated p38 MAP kinase in these cells. However, in contrast to fMLP, curcumin-induced enzymatic activity and secretion of gelatinase B were not reversed by use of a p38 inhibitor. Finally, it was found that curcumin was able to enhance phagocytosis. Taken together, the results here demonstrate that curcumin induced degranulation in human neutrophils and that the increased gelatinase activity is not dependent on p38 MAPK activation. Therefore, degranulation is another human neutrophil function that could be modulated by curcumin, as well as phagocytosis.

  16. Genomic analysis of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Steven K

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinases with a conserved catalytic domain make up one of the largest 'superfamilies' of eukaryotic proteins and play many key roles in biology and disease. Efforts to identify and classify all the members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily have recently culminated in the mining of essentially complete human genome data. PMID:12734000

  17. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ball, K. Aurelia; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lewinski, Mary K.; Guatelli, John; Verschueren, Erik; Krogan, Nevan J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well. PMID:27253329

  18. AKT serine/threonine protein kinase modulates baicalin-triggered autophagy in human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Tseng, Michael T; Peng, Shu-Fen; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Meng-Wei; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Lee, Miau-Rong; Amagaya, Sakae; Huang, Wen-Wen; Wu, Tian-Shung; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-03-01

    Baicalin is one of the major compounds in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of cell autophagy induced by baicalin in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Baicalin inhibited cell survival as shown by MTT assay and increased cell death by trypan blue exclusion assay in a concentration-dependent manner. Baicalin did not induce apoptotic cell death in T24 cells by TUNEL and caspase-3 activity assay. Baicalin induced the acidic vesicular organelle cell autophagy marker, manifested by acridine orange (AO) and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). The protein expression levels of the Atg 5, Atg 7, Atg 12, Beclin-1 and LC3-II were upregulated in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyl-adenine (an inhibitor of class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase; 3-MA) reduced the cleavage of LC3 in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. Furthermore, protein expression levels of phospho-AKT (Ser473) and enzyme activity of AKT were downregulated in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. In conclusion, baicalin triggered cell autophagy through the AKT signaling pathway in T24 cells.

  19. Thermodynamic parameters for binding of some halogenated inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2

    SciTech Connect

    Winiewska, Maria; Makowska, Małgorzata; Maj, Piotr; Wielechowska, Monika; Bretner, Maria; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Two new compounds being potential human CK2a inhibitors are studied. • Their IC50 values were determined in vitro. • The heats of binding and kbind were estimated using DSC. • The increased stability of protein–ligand complexes was followed by fluorescence. • Methylated TBBt derivative (MeBr3Br) is almost as active as TBBt. - Abstract: The interaction of human CK2α with a series of tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt) and tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) analogs, in which one of the bromine atoms proximal to the triazole/imidazole ring is replaced by a methyl group, was studied by biochemical (IC{sub 50}) and biophysical methods (thermal stability of protein–ligand complex monitored by DSC and fluorescence). Two newly synthesized tri-bromo derivatives display inhibitory activity comparable to that of the reference compounds, TBBt and TBBz, respectively. DSC analysis of the stability of protein–ligand complexes shows that the heat of ligand binding (H{sub bind}) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions involving the triazole/imidazole ring, as indicated by a strong correlation between H{sub bind} and ligand pK{sub a}. Screening, based on fluorescence-monitored thermal unfolding of protein–ligand complexes, gave comparable results, clearly identifying ligands that most strongly bind to the protein. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly, relative to possible intermolecular halogen bonding, in binding of the ligands to the CK2α ATP-binding site.

  20. Localization of the human stress responsive MAP kinase-like CSAIDs binding protein (CSBP) gene to chromosome 6p21.3/21.2

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.C.; Young, P.R.; DiLella, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) play a pivotal role in the initiation of inflammatory responses. Soluble protein antagonists of IL-1 and TNF, such as IL-1ra, sTNFR-Fc fusion, and monoclonal antibodies to TNF have proven to be effective at blocking acute and chronic responses in a number of animal models of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, septic shock, and inflammatory bowel disease. Consequently, there has been considerable interest in discovering compounds that could inhibit the production of these cytokines and might therefore become treatments. Recently, a structurally related series of pyridinyl imidazoles was found to block IL-1 and TNF production from LPS-stimulated human monocytes and to ameliorate inflammatory diseases significantly in vivo, leading to their being named CSAIDs (cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs). The protein target of these compounds, termed CSBP (CSAID binding protein), was discovered to be a new member of the MAP kinase family of serine-threonine protein kinases whose kinase activity is activated by LPS in human monocytes. Independently, the same kinase, or its rodent homologues, was found to respond also to chemical, thermal, and osmotic stress and IL-1 treatment. Inhibition of this kinase correlated with reduction in inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-activated monocytes. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Drugs designed to inhibit human p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation treat Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuang; Daniel, Benjamin J; Brumlik, Michael J; Burow, Matthew E; Zou, Weiping; Khan, Imtiaz A; Wadsworth, Scott; Siekierka, John; Curiel, Tyler J

    2007-12-01

    We recently showed that the pyridinylimidazoles SB203580 and SB202190, drugs designed to block human p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, also inhibited replication of the medically important intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii in cultured human fibroblasts through a direct effect on the parasite. We now show that additional pyridinylimidazole and imidazopyrimidine p38 MAPK inhibitors inhibit intracellular T. gondii replication in vitro and protect mice against fatal T. gondii infection. Mice surviving infection following treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitors were resistant to subsequent T. gondii challenge, demonstrating induction of protective immunity. Thus, drugs originally developed to block human p38 MAPK activation are useful for treating T. gondii infection without inducing significant immunosuppression. MAPK inhibitors combined with either of the approved anti-Toxoplasma drugs sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine resulted in improved survival among mice challenged with a fatal T. gondii inoculum. A MAPK inhibitor also treated mice infected with the Microsporidium parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi, suggesting that MAPK inhibitors represent a novel class of agents that may have a broad spectrum of antiparasitic activity. Preliminary studies implicate a T. gondii MAPK homologue as the target of drug action, suggesting possibilities for more-selective agents.

  2. Brominated Flame Retardants, Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane, Activate Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) in Human Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cato, Anita; Celada, Lindsay; Kibakaya, Esther Caroline; Simmons, Nadia; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    NK cells provide a vital surveillance against virally infected cells, tumor cells, and antibody-coated cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used primarily in expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for thermal insulation in the building and construction industry. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is used both as a reactive and an additive flame retardant in a variety of materials. HBCD and TBBPA contaminate the environment and are found in human blood samples. In previous studies, we have shown that other environmental contaminants, such as the dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), decrease NK lytic function by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the NK cells. HBCD and TBBPA also interfere with NK cell(s) lytic function. The current study evaluates whether HBCD and/or TBBPA have the capacity to activate MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks). The effects of concentrations of HBCD and TBBPA that inhibited lytic function on the phosphorylation state and total levels of the MAPKs (p44/42, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation and total levels of the MAP2Ks (MEK1/2 and MKK3/6) were examined. Results indicate that exposure of human NK cells to 10-0.5 µM HBCD or TBBPA activate MAPKs and MAP2Ks. This HBCD and TBBPA-induced activation of MAPKs may leave them unavailable for activation by virally infected or tumor target cells and thus contributes to the observed decreases in lytic function seen in NK cells exposed to HBCD and TBBPA. PMID:25341744

  3. Expression of serine/threonine protein-kinases and related factors in normal monkey and human retinas: the mechanistic understanding of a CDK2 inhibitor induced retinal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Saturno, Grazia; Pesenti, Manuela; Cavazzoli, Cristiano; Rossi, Anna; Giusti, Anna M; Gierke, Berthold; Pawlak, Michael; Venturi, Miro

    2007-12-01

    Protein-kinase inhibitors are among the most advanced compounds in development using the new drug discovery paradigm of developing small-molecule drugs against specific molecular targets in cancer. After treatment with a cyclin dependent kinase CDK2 inhibitor in monkey, histopathological analysis of the eye showed specific cellular damage in the photoreceptor layer. Since this CDK2 inhibitor showed activity also on other CDKs, in order to investigate the mechanism of toxicity of this compound, we isolated cones and rods from the retina of normal monkey and humans by Laser Capture Microdissection. Using Real-Time PCR we first measured the expression of cyclin dependent protein-kinases (CDK)1, 2, 4, 5, Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) and microtubule associated protein TAU. We additionally verified the presence of these proteins in monkey eye sections by immuno-histochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis and afterwards quantified GSK3beta, phospho-GSK3beta and TAU by Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays. With this work we demonstrate how complementary gene expression and protein-based technologies constitute a powerful tool for the understanding of the molecular mechanism of a CDK2 inhibitor induced toxicity. Moreover, this investigative approach is helpful to better understand and characterize the mechanism of species-specific toxicities and further support a rational, molecular mechanism-based safety assessment in humans.

  4. Nitric oxide stimulates human sperm motility via activation of the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Erica; De Angelis, Federico; Gazzano, Elena; Hassanpour, Hossain; Bertagna, Angela; Aldieri, Elisabetta; Revelli, Alberto; Ghigo, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a modulator of several physiological processes, is involved in different human sperm functions. We have investigated whether NO may stimulate the motility of human spermatozoa via activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway. Sperm samples obtained by masturbation from 70 normozoospermic patients were processed by the swim-up technique. The kinetic parameters of the motile sperm-rich fractions were assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. After a 30-90  min incubation, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) exerted a significant enhancing effect on progressive motility (77, 78, and 78% vs 66, 65, and 62% of the control at the corresponding time), straight linear velocity (44, 49, and 48 μm/s vs 34, 35, and 35.5 μm/s), curvilinear velocity (81, 83, and 84 μm/s vs 68 μm/s), and average path velocity (52, 57, and 54 μm/s vs 40, 42, and 42 μm/s) at 5 μM but not at lower concentrations, and in parallel increased the synthesis of cGMP. A similar effect was obtained with the NO donor spermine NONOate after 30 and 60  min. The GSNO-induced effects on sperm motility were abolished by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (a specific sGC inhibitor) and mimicked by 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP; a cell-permeating cGMP analog); the treatment with Rp-8-Br-cGMPS (an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinases) prevented both the GSNO- and the 8-Br-cGMP-induced responses. On the contrary, we did not observe any effect of the cGMP/PRKG1 (PKG) pathway modulators on the onset of hyperactivated sperm motility. Our results suggest that NO stimulates human sperm motility via the activation of sGC, the subsequent synthesis of cGMP, and the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases.

  5. An atlas of human kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, David; Jonikas, Mindaugas; Lawrence, Robert T; El Debs, Bachir; Selkrig, Joel; Typas, Athanasios; Villén, Judit; Santos, Silvia Dm; Beltrao, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The coordinated regulation of protein kinases is a rapid mechanism that integrates diverse cues and swiftly determines appropriate cellular responses. However, our understanding of cellular decision-making has been limited by the small number of simultaneously monitored phospho-regulatory events. Here, we have estimated changes in activity in 215 human kinases in 399 conditions derived from a large compilation of phosphopeptide quantifications. This atlas identifies commonly regulated kinases as those that are central in the signaling network and defines the logic relationships between kinase pairs. Co-regulation along the conditions predicts kinase-complex and kinase-substrate associations. Additionally, the kinase regulation profile acts as a molecular fingerprint to identify related and opposing signaling states. Using this atlas, we identified essential mediators of stem cell differentiation, modulators of Salmonella infection, and new targets of AKT1. This provides a global view of human phosphorylation-based signaling and the necessary context to better understand kinase-driven decision-making. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  7. Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta 2 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A; Kaldis, P; Solomon, M J

    2000-11-03

    We previously reported that the activating phosphorylation on cyclin-dependent kinases in yeast (Cdc28p) and in humans (Cdk2) is removed by type 2C protein phosphatases. In this study, we characterize this PP2C-like activity in HeLa cell extract and determine that it is due to PP2C beta 2, a novel PP2C beta isoform, and to PP2C alpha. PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 co-purified with Mg(2+)-dependent Cdk2/Cdk6 phosphatase activity in DEAE-Sepharose, Superdex-200, and Mono Q chromatographies. Moreover, purified recombinant PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 proteins efficiently dephosphorylated monomeric Cdk2/Cdk6 in vitro. The dephosphorylation of Cdk2 and Cdk6 by PP2C isoforms was inhibited by the binding of cyclins. We found that the PP2C-like activity in HeLa cell extract, partially purified HeLa PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 isoforms, and the recombinant PP2Cs exhibited a comparable substrate preference for a phosphothreonine containing substrate, consistent with the conservation of threonine residues at the site of activating phosphorylation in CDKs.

  8. Regulation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 in skeletal muscle cells: the role of protein kinase C (PKC).

    PubMed

    Narumi, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Otake, Sho; Furugen, Ayako; Takahashi, Natsuko; Ogura, Jiro; Itagaki, Shirou; Hirano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Iseki, Ken

    2012-05-30

    In the present study, to clarify the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) expression, we examined the regulation mechanism of MCT4 expression in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, an in vitro skeletal muscle model. Exposure of RD cells to PMA, a PKC activator, for 24 h resulted in a two-fold increase in the amount of lactic acid in the growth medium. In parallel to an increase in lactic acid release from RD cells, the level of MCT4 mRNA and protein were also significantly increased in RD cells. A PKC inhibitory study indicated that PMA-induced stimulation of MCT4 expression can be mediated through a novel PKC isoform, especially PKCδ. Moreover, rottlerin, a selective PKCδ inhibitor, decreased PMA-induced MCT4 promoter activity. Deletion and mutational analysis suggested that the potential hypoxia-response elements (HREs) played a major role in the observed modulation of MCT4 expression by PMA. Furthermore, we found that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) significantly inhibited PMA-induced MCT4 promoter activity. Our results show that the effects of PMA on MCT4 expression are mediated through an indirect pathway partially involving PKCδ and HIF-1α transcription factor.

  9. Protein tyrosine kinase activity is essential for Fc gamma receptor-mediated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Nibbering, P H; Zomerdijk, T P; van Furth, R

    1994-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma receptor I (Fc gamma RI) or Fc gamma RII is a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent process. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity plays a role in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of bacteria and activation of PLC in these cells. The results showed that phagocytosis of bacteria by monocytes was not affected by the PTK inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin-47. The intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma RII or Fc gamma RII with anti-Fc gamma R monoclonal antibody and a bridging antibody or with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was inhibited by these compounds in a dose-dependent fashion. The production of O2- by monocytes after stimulation with IgG or IgG-opsonized S. aureus was almost completely blocked by the PTK inhibitor. These results indicate that inhibition of PTK impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes. Genistein and tyrphostin-47, which do not affect the enzymatic activity of purified PLC, prevented activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII, measured as an increase in the intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration. Cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in monocytes, one of which was identified as PLC-gamma 1, and the phosphorylation could be completely blocked by PTK inhibitors, leading to the conclusion that activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma R in monocytes is regulated by PTK activity. Together, these results demonstrate that PTK activity is essential for the activation of PLC which is involved in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of S. aureus by human monocytes. Images PMID:7927687

  10. PME-1 protects extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity from protein phosphatase 2A-mediated inactivation in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Puustinen, Pietri; Junttila, Melissa R; Vanhatupa, Sari; Sablina, Anna A; Hector, Melissa E; Teittinen, Kaisa; Raheem, Olayinka; Ketola, Kirsi; Lin, Shujun; Kast, Juergen; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hahn, William C; Westermarck, Jukka

    2009-04-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activity is regulated by the antagonist function of activating kinases and inactivating protein phosphatases. Sustained ERK pathway activity is commonly observed in human malignancies; however, the mechanisms by which the pathway is protected from phosphatase-mediated inactivation in the tumor tissue remain obscure. Here, we show that methylesterase PME-1-mediated inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A promotes basal ERK pathway activity and is required for efficient growth factor response. Mechanistically, PME-1 is shown to support ERK pathway signaling upstream of Raf, but downstream of growth factor receptors and protein kinase C. In malignant gliomas, PME-1 expression levels correlate with both ERK activity and cell proliferation in vivo. Moreover, PME-1 expression significantly correlates with disease progression in human astrocytic gliomas (n=222). Together, these observations identify PME-1 expression as one mechanism by which ERK pathway activity is maintained in cancer cells and suggest an important functional role for PME-1 in the disease progression of human astrocytic gliomas.

  11. Multifunctional human transcriptional coactivator protein PC4 is a substrate of Aurora kinases and activates the Aurora enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Karthigeyan; Kumari, Sujata; Boopathi, Ramachandran; Shima, Hiroki; Swaminathan, Amrutha; Bachu, Mahesh; Ranga, Udaykumar; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kundu, Tapas K

    2016-03-01

    Positive coactivator 4 (PC4), a human transcriptional coactivator, is involved in diverse processes like chromatin organization and transcription regulation. It is hyperphosphorylated during mitosis, with unknown significance. For the first time, we demonstrate the function of PC4 outside the nucleus upon nuclear envelope breakdown. A fraction of PC4 associates with Aurora A and Aurora B and undergoes phosphorylation, following which PC4 activates both Aurora A and B to sustain optimal kinase activity to maintain the phosphorylation gradient for the proper functioning of the mitotic machinery. This mitotic role is evident in PC4 knockdown cells where the defects are rescued only by the catalytically active Aurora kinases, but not the kinase-dead mutants. Similarly, the PC4 phosphodeficient mutant failed to rescue such defects. Hence, our observations establish a novel mitotic function of PC4 that might be dependent on Aurora kinase-mediated phosphorylation.

  12. Human CD4+ T cell recent thymic emigrants are identified by protein tyrosine kinase 7 and have reduced immune function

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Christopher J.; Giffon, Thierry D.; Lu, Li-Sheng; Lu, Xiaowei; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Ross, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    CD4+ recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) comprise a clinically and immunologically important T cell population that indicates thymic output and that is essential for maintaining a diverse αβ–T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of the naive CD4+ T cell compartment. However, their frequency and function are poorly understood because no known surface markers distinguish them from older non-RTE naive CD4+ T cells. We demonstrate that protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) is a novel marker for human CD4+ RTEs. Consistent with their recent thymic origin, human PTK7+ RTEs contained higher levels of signal joint TCR gene excision circles and were more responsive to interleukin (IL)-7 compared with PTK7− naive CD4+ T cells, and rapidly decreased after complete thymectomy. Importantly, CD4+ RTEs proliferated less and produced less IL-2 and interferon-γ than PTK7− naive CD4+ T cells after αβ-TCR/CD3 and CD28 engagement. This immaturity in CD4+ RTE effector function may contribute to the reduced CD4+ T cell immunity observed in contexts in which CD4+ RTEs predominate, such as in the fetus and neonate or after immune reconstitution. The ability to identify viable CD4+ RTEs by PTK7 staining should be useful for monitoring thymic output in both healthy individuals and in patients with genetic or acquired CD4+ T cell immunodeficiencies. PMID:19171767

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates T cell activation-induced expression of FasL and COX-2 via protein kinase C theta-dependent pathway in human Jurkat T leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Choi, A-Young; Oh, Young Taek; Choe, Wonchae; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2012-06-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy homeostasis, is known to be activated during T cell activation. T cell activation by T cell receptor (TCR) engagement or its pharmacological mimics, PMA plus ionomycin (PMA/Io), induces immunomodulatory FasL and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. In this study, we examined the role and mechanisms of AMPK in PMA/Io-induced expression of FasL and COX-2 in Jurkat T human leukemic cells. Inhibition of AMPK by a pharmacological agent, compound C, or AMPKα1 siRNA suppressed expression of FasL and COX-2 mRNAs and proteins in PMA/Io-activated Jurkat cells. It also reduced secretion of FasL protein and prostaglandin E2, a main product of COX-2, in Jurkat cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes activated with PMA/Io or monoclonal anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28. Consistently, inhibition of AMPK blocked promoter activities of FasL and COX-2 in activated Jurkat cells. As protein kinase C theta (PKCθ) is a central molecule for TCR signaling, we examined any possible cross-talk between AMPK and PKCθ in activated T cells. Of particular importance, we found that inhibition of AMPK blocked phosphorylation and activation of PKCθ, suggesting that AMPK is an upstream kinase of PKCθ. Moreover, we showed that AMPK was directly associated with PKCθ and phosphorylated Thr538 of PKCθ in PMA/Io-stimulated Jurkat cells. We also showed that inhibition of PKCθ by rottlerin or dominant negative PKCθ reduced AMPK-mediated transcriptional activation of NF-AT and AP-1 in activated Jurkat cells. Taken together, these results suggest that AMPK regulates expression of FasL and COX-2 via the PKCθ and NF-AT and AP-1 pathways in activated Jurkat cells.

  14. Protection of Human Podocytes from Shiga Toxin 2-Induced Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Apoptosis by Human Serum Amyloid P Component

    PubMed Central

    Dettmar, Anne K.; Binder, Elisabeth; Greiner, Friederike R.; Liebau, Max C.; Kurschat, Christine E.; Jungraithmayr, Therese C.; Saleem, Moin A.; Schmitt, Claus-Peter; Feifel, Elisabeth; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Kemper, Markus J.; Pepys, Mark; Würzner, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is mainly induced by Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing Escherichia coli. Proteinuria can occur in the early phase of the disease, and its persistence determines the renal prognosis. Stx2 may injure podocytes and induce proteinuria. Human serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, has been shown to protect against Stx2-induced lethality in mice in vivo, presumably by specific binding to the toxin. We therefore tested the hypothesis that SAP can protect against Stx2-induced injury of human podocytes. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying podocyte injury in HUS-associated proteinuria, we assessed Stx2-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and apoptosis in immortalized human podocytes and evaluated the impact of SAP on Stx2-induced damage. Human podocytes express Stx2-binding globotriaosylceramide 3. Stx2 applied to cultured podocytes was internalized and then activated p38α MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), important signaling steps in cell differentiation and apoptosis. Stx2 also activated caspase 3, resulting in an increased level of apoptosis. Coincubation of podocytes with SAP and Stx2 mitigated the effects of Stx2 and induced upregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl2. These data suggest that podocytes are a target of Stx2 and that SAP protects podocytes against Stx2-induced injury. SAP may therefore be a useful therapeutic option. PMID:24566618

  15. The ULb′ Region of the Human Cytomegalovirus Genome Confers an Increased Requirement for the Viral Protein Kinase UL97

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Depeng; Li, Gang; Schauflinger, Martin; Nguyen, Christopher C.; Hall, Ellie D.; Yurochko, Andrew D.; von Einem, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We report a requirement for the viral protein kinase UL97 in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication that maps to the ULb′ region of the viral genome. A UL97-null (Δ97) mutant of strain TB40/E, which encodes a full-length ULb′ region, exhibited replication defects, particularly in production of cell-free virus, that were more severe than those seen with a Δ97 mutant of laboratory strain AD169, which harbors extensive deletions in its ULb′ region. These differences were recapitulated with additional HCMV strains by treatment with a UL97 kinase inhibitor, 1-(β-l-ribofuranosyl)-2-isopropylamino-5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole (maribavir). We observed lower levels of viral DNA synthesis and an increased requirement for UL97 in viral late gene expression in strains with full-length ULb′ regions. Analysis of UL97-deficient TB40/E infections by electron microscopy revealed fewer C-capsids in nuclei, unusual viral particles in the cytoplasmic assembly compartment, and defective viral nuclear egress. Partial inhibition of viral DNA synthesis caused defects in production of cell-free virus that were up to ∼100-fold greater than those seen with cell-associated virus in strains TB40/E and TR, suggesting that UL97-dependent defects in cell-free virus production in strains with full-length ULb′ regions were secondary to DNA synthesis defects. Accordingly, a chimeric virus in which the ULb′ region of TB40/E was replaced with that of AD169 showed reduced effects of UL97 inhibition on viral DNA synthesis, late gene expression, and production of cell-free virus compared to parental TB40/E. Together, these results argue that the ULb′ region encodes a factor(s) which invokes an increased requirement for UL97 during viral DNA synthesis. PMID:23536674

  16. Nicotine stimulates adhesion molecular expression via calcium influx and mitogen-activated protein kinases in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajing; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Liming; Zhao, Yangxing; Yao, Chenjiang; Wang, Lianyun; Qiao, Zhongdong

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of nicotine on endothelium dysfunction and development of vascular diseases, we investigated the influence on adhesion molecular expression mediated by nicotine and the mechanism of this effect in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The result showed that nicotine could induce surface/soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) and endothelial selectin (E-selectin) expression in a time-response decline manner and the peak appeared at 15 min. This action could be mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/ERK1/2) and MAPK/p38 because their activation could be distinctly blocked by MAPK inhibitors, PD098059 or SB203580. Mecamylamine (non-selective nicotinic receptor inhibitor), alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha7 nicotinic receptor inhibitor) could block Ca2+ accumulation, and then, prevented the phosphorylation on ERK1/2 and p38. They also inhibited the surface/soluble VCAM-1, E-selectin production of HUVECs modulated by nicotine. Therefore, we concluded that: (i) nicotine obviously up-regulates VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression at 15 min in HUVECs, (ii) nicotine activates HUVECs triggered by the ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation with an involvement of intracellular calcium mobilization chiefly mediated by alpha7 nicotinic receptor, (iii) intracellular Ca2+ activates a sequential pathway from alpha7 nicotinic receptor to the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38. These elucidate that nicotine activates HUVECs through fast signal transduction pathway and arguments their capacity of adhesion molecular production. Further more nicotine may contribute its influence to the progression of vascular disease such as atherosclerotic lesion.

  17. Effect of Biodentine and Bioaggregate on odontoblastic differentiation via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, J-Y; Woo, S-M; Lee, B-N; Koh, J-T; Nör, J E; Hwang, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    To compare the mineralization inductive capacity of Biodentine and Bioaggregate with Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and to investigate possible signaling pathways of mineralization in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Viability of HDPCs in response to Biodentine, Bioaggregate, and MTA was measured using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide. To investigate their potential to induce odontoblast differentiation, expression of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentine matrix protein1 (DMP1) mRNA level was evaluated by RT-PCR. For the mineralized nodule assay, Alizarin red staining was performed. To determine the role of MAPK signaling in the odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs, activated MAPKs were investigated by Western blot and the effect of MAPK inhibitor was examined by Alizarin red S staining. The results were statistically analysed using one-way anova and the Bonferroni test. The effects of MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate on cell viability were similar. Biodentine and Bioaggregate enhanced DSPP and DMP1 mRNA expression compared to the control group, but to the same extent as MTA (P < 0.05). MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate increased the area of calcified nodules compared to the control (P < 0.01). MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MAPK inhibitors attenuated mineralized nodule formation, which was increased by MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate, respectively (P < 0.01). Biodentine and Bioaggregate stimulated odontoblastic differentiation and mineralization nodule formation by activating the MAPK pathway as did MTA. This suggests that the new materials could be useful for regenerative endodontic procedures. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The nuts and bolts of AGC protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Laura R; Komander, David; Alessi, Dario R

    2010-01-01

    The AGC kinase subfamily of protein kinases contains 60 members, including PKA, PKG and PKC. The family comprises some intensely examined protein kinases (such as Akt, S6K, RSK, MSK, PDK1 and GRK) as well as many less well-studied enzymes (such as SGK, NDR, LATS, CRIK, SGK494, PRKX, PRKY and MAST). Research has shed new light onto the architecture and regulatory mechanisms of these kinases. In addition, AGC kinases mediate diverse and important cellular functions, and their mutation and/or dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and diabetes.

  19. Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function.

    PubMed

    Golsteyn, R M; Mundt, K E; Fry, A M; Nigg, E A

    1995-06-01

    Correct assembly and function of the mitotic spindle during cell division is essential for the accurate partitioning of the duplicated genome to daughter cells. Protein phosphorylation has long been implicated in controlling spindle function and chromosome segregation, and genetic studies have identified several protein kinases and phosphatases that are likely to regulate these processes. In particular, mutations in the serine/threonine-specific Drosophila kinase polo, and the structurally related kinase Cdc5p of Saccharomyces cerevisae, result in abnormal mitotic and meiotic divisions. Here, we describe a detailed analysis of the cell cycle-dependent activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a recently identified human protein kinase with extensive sequence similarity to both Drosophila polo and S. cerevisiae Cdc5p. With the aid of recombinant baculoviruses, we have established a reliable in vitro assay for Plk1 kinase activity. We show that the activity of human Plk1 is cell cycle regulated, Plk1 activity being low during interphase but high during mitosis. We further show, by immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy, that human Plk1 binds to components of the mitotic spindle at all stages of mitosis, but undergoes a striking redistribution as cells progress from metaphase to anaphase. Specifically, Plk1 associates with spindle poles up to metaphase, but relocalizes to the equatorial plane, where spindle microtubules overlap (the midzone), as cells go through anaphase. These results indicate that the association of Plk1 with the spindle is highly dynamic and that Plk1 may function at multiple stages of mitotic progression. Taken together, our data strengthen the notion that human Plk1 may represent a functional homolog of polo and Cdc5p, and they suggest that this kinase plays an important role in the dynamic function of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation.

  20. A-kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 Recruits Protein Kinase C to Phosphorylate Roundabout Receptors.

    PubMed

    Samelson, Bret K; Gore, Bryan B; Whiting, Jennifer L; Nygren, Patrick J; Purkey, Alicia M; Colledge, Marcie; Langeberg, Lorene K; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Zweifel, Larry S; Scott, John D

    2015-05-29

    Anchoring proteins direct protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases toward selected substrates to control the efficacy, context, and duration of neuronal phosphorylation events. The A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP79/150 interacts with protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) to modulate second messenger signaling events. In a mass spectrometry-based screen for additional AKAP79/150 binding partners, we have identified the Roundabout axonal guidance receptor Robo2 and its ligands Slit2 and Slit3. Biochemical and cellular approaches confirm that a linear sequence located in the cytoplasmic tail of Robo2 (residues 991-1070) interfaces directly with sites on the anchoring protein. Parallel studies show that AKAP79/150 interacts with the Robo3 receptor in a similar manner. Immunofluorescent staining detects overlapping expression patterns for murine AKAP150, Robo2, and Robo3 in a variety of brain regions, including hippocampal region CA1 and the islands of Calleja. In vitro kinase assays, peptide spot array mapping, and proximity ligation assay staining approaches establish that human AKAP79-anchored PKC selectively phosphorylates the Robo3.1 receptor subtype on serine 1330. These findings imply that anchored PKC locally modulates the phosphorylation status of Robo3.1 in brain regions governing learning and memory and reward. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy in human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, X; Kim, S-Y; Zhang, L; Tang, D; Bartlett, D L; Kwon, Y T; Lee, Y J

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable colorectal liver metastases remain a major unresolved issue and more effective novel regimens are urgently needed. While screening synergistic drug combinations for colon cancer therapy, we identified a novel multidrug treatment for colon cancer: chemotherapeutic agent melphalan in combination with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin. We investigated the mechanisms of synergistic antitumor efficacy during the multidrug treatment. All experiments were performed with highly metastatic human colon cancer CX-1 and HCT116 cells, and selected critical experiments were repeated with human colon cancer stem Tu-22 cells and mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells. We used immunochemical techniques to investigate a cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy during the multidrug treatment. We observed that melphalan triggered apoptosis, bortezomib induced apoptosis and autophagy, rapamycin caused autophagy and the combinatorial treatment-induced synergistic apoptosis, which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. We also observed that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the combination was linked with altered cellular metabolism, which induced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, resulting in Beclin-1 phosphorylated at Ser 93/96. Interestingly, Beclin-1 phosphorylated at Ser 93/96 is sufficient to induce Beclin-1 cleavage by caspase-8, which switches off autophagy to achieve the synergistic induction of apoptosis. Similar results were observed with the essential autophagy gene, autophagy-related protein 7, -deficient MEF cells. The multidrug treatment-induced Beclin-1 cleavage was abolished in Beclin-1 double-mutant (D133A/D146A) knock-in HCT116 cells, restoring the autophagy-promoting function of Beclin-1 and suppressing the apoptosis induced by the combination therapy. These observations identify a novel mechanism for AMPK-induced apoptosis through interplay

  2. Fungus induces the release of IL-8 in human corneal epithelial cells, via Dectin-1-mediated protein kinase C pathways

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Lin, Jing; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Qiang; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Qu, Jian-Qiu; Cong, Lin; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    AIM To identify whether Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) hyphae antigens induced the release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in anti-fungal innate immunity of cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) and determine the involvement of intracellular signalling pathways. METHODS HCECs were treated with A. fumigatus hyphae antigens with different concentrations and time. The cytoplasmic calcium of HCECs were assessed by fluorescence imaging. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC). The IL-8 levels were determined by specific human IL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using a series of pharmacological inhibitors, we examined the upstream signalling pathway responsible for IL-8 expression in response to A. fumigatus hyphae antigens. RESULTS Cells exposed to A. fumigatus hyphae antigens showed higher level of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein production. We demonstrated here that stimulation of HCECs with A. fumigatus hyphae triggers an intracellular Ca2+ flux and results in the activation of Ca2+-dependent PKC (α, βI and βII) which can be attenuated by pre-treatment of cells with laminarin, suggesting that Dectin-1 signals pathway induced cytoplasmic calcium and influence the activation of PKC in HCECs. Inhibitors of Ca2+-dependent PKC (Ro-31-8220 and Go6976) significantly abolished hyphae-induced expression of IL-8. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that A. fumigatus hyphae-induced IL-8 expression was regulated by the activation of Dectin-1-mediated Ca2+-dependent PKC in HCECs. PMID:26085988

  3. Bacterial co-expression of human Tau protein with protein kinase A and 14-3-3 for studies of 14-3-3/phospho-Tau interaction.

    PubMed

    Tugaeva, Kristina V; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Sluchanko, Nikolai N

    2017-01-01

    Abundant regulatory 14-3-3 proteins have an extremely wide interactome and coordinate multiple cellular events via interaction with specifically phosphorylated partner proteins. Notwithstanding the key role of 14-3-3/phosphotarget interactions in many physiological and pathological processes, they are dramatically underexplored. Here, we focused on the 14-3-3 interaction with human Tau protein associated with the development of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Among many known phosphorylation sites within Tau, protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates several key residues of Tau and induces its tight interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. However, the stoichiometry and mechanism of 14-3-3 interaction with phosphorylated Tau (pTau) are not clearly elucidated. In this work, we describe a simple bacterial co-expression system aimed to facilitate biochemical and structural studies on the 14-3-3/pTau interaction. We show that dual co-expression of human fetal Tau with PKA in Escherichia coli results in multisite Tau phosphorylation including also naturally occurring sites which were not previously considered in the context of 14-3-3 binding. Tau protein co-expressed with PKA displays tight functional interaction with 14-3-3 isoforms of a different type. Upon triple co-expression with 14-3-3 and PKA, Tau protein could be co-purified with 14-3-3 and demonstrates complex which is similar to that formed in vitro between individual 14-3-3 and pTau obtained from dual co-expression. Although used in this study for the specific case of the previously known 14-3-3/pTau interaction, our co-expression system may be useful to study of other selected 14-3-3/phosphotarget interactions and for validations of 14-3-3 complexes identified by other methods.

  4. MicroRNAs function primarily in the pathogenesis of human anencephaly via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W D; Yu, X; Fu, X; Huang, S; Jin, S J; Ning, Q; Luo, X P

    2014-02-20

    Anencephaly is one of the most serious forms of neural tube defects (NTDs), a group of congenital central nervous system (CNS) malformations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diverse biological processes via the post-transcriptional regulation of target mRNAs. Although miRNAs play important roles in the development of mammalian CNS, their function in human NTDs remains unknown. Using a miRNA microarray, we identified a unique expression profile in fetal anencephalic brain tissues, characterized by 70 upregulated miRNAs (ratio ≥ 2) and 7 downregulated miRNAs (ratio ≤ 0.5) compared with healthy human samples. Ten miRNAs with altered expression were selected from the microarray findings for validation with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We found that in anencephalic tissues, miR-22, miR-23a, miR-34a, miR-103, miR-125a, miR-132, miR-134, miR-138, and miR-185 were significantly upregulated, while miR-149 was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, 459 potential target genes within the validated miRNAs were revealed using combined four target prediction algorithms in the human genome, and subsequently analyzed with the Molecule Annotation System 3.0. A total of 119 target genes were ultimately identified, including those involved in 22 singular annotations (i.e., transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle) and 55 functional pathways [i.e., mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and actin cytoskeleton regulation]. Six target genes (HNRPU, JAG1, FMR1, EGR3, RUNX1T1, and NDEL1) were chosen as candidate genes and associated with congenital birth abnormalities of the brain structure. Our results, therefore, suggest that miRNA maladjustment mainly contributes to the etiopathogenesis of anencephaly via the MAPK signaling pathway.

  5. P38 Alpha-Selective Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor For Improvement Of Cultured Human Islet Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Keiko; Todorov, Ivan; Shintaku, Jonathan; Rawson, Jeffrey; Al-Abdullah, Ismail H.; Higgins, Linda S.; Medicherla, Satyanarayana; Kandeel, Fouad; Mullen, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether the recovery of cultured human islets is improved through the addition of a p38α-selective mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor, SD-282, to clinically used serum-free culture medium. Methods Immediately after isolation, islets were cultured for 24 hours in medium alone (control) or medium containing DMSO, 0.1 μM or 0.3 μM SD-282. Cytokine expression, apoptotic β cell percentage, and islet function were assessed post-culture. Results Expression of p38 and phosphorylated p38 in islets increased during culture. IL-6 mRNA expression in cultured islets, as well as IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF released into the medium were significantly reduced by adding SD-282. The apoptotic β cell percentage was significantly lower in islets cultured with 0.1 μM SD-282, but not 0.3 μM as compared to the control. Stimulation indices measured in vitro were higher, but without significance (p=0.06), and function of transplanted islets in diabetic NODscid mice was also better in 0.1 μM SD-282 group as compared to control. Conclusions Better islet function was obtained by adding 0.1 μM SD-282 to the serum-free culture medium. This improvement was associated with suppression of cytokine production and prevention of β cell apoptosis. However, this beneficial effect was diminished at a higher concentration. PMID:20084046

  6. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  7. The human telomerase RNA component, hTR, activates the DNA-dependent protein kinase to phosphorylate heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1.

    PubMed

    Ting, Nicholas S Y; Pohorelic, Brant; Yu, Yaping; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Beattie, Tara L

    2009-10-01

    Telomere integrity in human cells is maintained by the dynamic interplay between telomerase, telomere associated proteins, and DNA repair proteins. These interactions are vital to suppress DNA damage responses and unfavorable changes in chromosome dynamics. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is critical for this process. Cells deficient for functional DNA-PKcs show increased rates of telomere loss, accompanied by chromosomal fusions and translocations. Treatment of cells with specific DNA-PK kinase inhibitors leads to similar phenotypes. These observations indicate that the kinase activity of DNA-PK is required for its function at telomeres possibly through phosphorylation of essential proteins needed for telomere length maintenance. Here we show that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a direct substrate for DNA-PK in vitro. Phosphorylation of hnRNP A1 is stimulated not only by the presence of DNA but also by the telomerase RNA component, hTR. Furthermore, we show that hnRNP A1 is phosphorylated in vivo in a DNA-PK-dependent manner and that this phosphorylation is greatly reduced in cell lines which lack hTR. These data are the first to report that hTR stimulates the kinase activity of DNA-PK toward a known telomere-associated protein, and may provide further insights into the function of DNA-PK at telomeres.

  8. Understanding and exploiting substrate recognition by protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Turk, Benjamin E

    2008-02-01

    Protein kinases play a virtually universal role in cellular regulation and are emerging as an important class of new drug targets, yet the cellular functions of most human kinases largely remain obscure. Aspects of substrate recognition common to all kinases in the ATP nucleotide binding site have been exploited in the generation of analog-specific mutants for exploring kinase function and discovering novel protein substrates. Likewise, understanding interactions with the protein substrate, which differ substantially between kinases, can also help to identify substrates and to produce tools for studying kinase pathways, including fluorescent biosensors. Principles of kinase substrate recognition are particularly valuable in guiding bioinformatics and phosphoproteomics approaches that impact our understanding of signaling pathways and networks on a global scale.

  9. Effects of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors on cytokine-induced adhesion molecule expression by human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    May, M. J.; Wheeler-Jones, C. P.; Pearson, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    1. Endothelial cells can be stimulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha to express the leukocyte adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 but the intracellular signalling mechanisms leading to this expression are incompletely understood. We have investigated the role of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) in adhesion molecule expression by cytokine-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) using the PTK inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A, and the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. 2. Maximal E-selectin expression induced by incubation of HUVEC for 4 h with IL-1 alpha (100 u ml-1) and TNF alpha (100 u ml-1) was dose-dependently inhibited by genistein and herbimycin A. Although similar effects were seen on phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA)-induced expression, this was not due to inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) activity as the selective inhibitors of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide (BIM), Ro31-7549 or Ro31-8220 did not affect IL-1 alpha- or TNF alpha-induced E-selectin expression at concentrations which maximally inhibited PMA-induced expression. 3. Genistein inhibited VCAM-1 expression induced by incubation of HUVEC for 24 h with TNF alpha or IL-1 alpha whereas it did not affect ICAM-1 expression induced by 24 h incubation with either of these cytokines. Herbimycin A inhibited both VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced by TNF alpha. 4. Basal expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was dose-dependently enhanced by sodium orthovanadate. In contrast, vanadate differentially affected TNF alpha-induced expression of these molecules with maximal E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression being slightly enhanced and VCAM-1 expression dose-dependently reduced. 5. We also studied the effects of PTK and PTP inhibitors on adhesion of the human pre-myeloid cell line U937 to TNF alpha-stimulated HUVEC

  10. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-08-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21{sup waf1/Cip1}, and p16{sup INK4A}), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2{alpha} resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity.

  11. Radio-sensitization of human leukaemic MOLT-4 cells by DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, NU7441.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Ales; Durisova, Kamila; Salovska, Barbora; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Zarybnicka, Lenka; Vavrova, Jirina; Dye, Natalie A; Sinkorova, Zuzana

    2014-03-01

    We studied the effect of pre-incubation with NU7441, a specific inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), on molecular mechanisms triggered by ionizing radiation (IR). The experimental design involved four groups of human T-lymphocyte leukaemic MOLT-4 cells: control, NU7441-treated (1 μM), IR-treated (1 Gy), and combination of NU7441 and IR. We used flow cytometry for apoptosis assessment, Western blotting and ELISA for detection of proteins involved in DNA repair signalling and epifluorescence microscopy for detection of IR-induced phosphorylation of histone H2A.X. We did not observe any major changes in the amount of DNA-PK subunits Ku70/80 caused by the combination of NU7441 and radiation. Their combination led to an increased phosphorylation of H2A.X, a hallmark of DNA damage. However, it did not prevent up-regulation of neither p53 (and its phosphorylation at Ser 15 and 392) nor p21. We observed a decrease in the levels of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1, cdc25A phosphatase, cleavage of PARP and a significant increase in apoptosis in the group treated with combination. In conclusion, the combination of NU7441 with IR caused increased phosphorylation of H2A.X early after irradiation and subsequent induction of apoptosis. It was efficient in MOLT-4 cells in 10× lower concentration than the inhibitor NU7026. NU7441 proved as a potent radio-sensitizing agent, and it might provide a platform for development of new radio-sensitizers in radiotherapy.

  12. Development of Pharmacophore Model for Indeno[1,2-b]indoles as Human Protein Kinase CK2 Inhibitors and Database Mining

    PubMed Central

    Haidar, Samer; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Marminon, Christelle; Laitinen, Tuomo; Poso, Antti; Le Borgne, Marc; Jose, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2, initially designated as casein kinase 2, is an ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase. This enzyme, implicated in many cellular processes, is highly expressed and active in many tumor cells. A large number of compounds has been developed as inhibitors comprising different backbones. Beside others, structures with an indeno[1,2-b]indole scaffold turned out to be potent new leads. With the aim of developing new inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2, we report here on the generation of common feature pharmacophore model to further explain the binding requirements for human CK2 inhibitors. Nine common chemical features of indeno[1,2-b]indole-type CK2 inhibitors were determined using MOE software (Chemical Computing Group, Montreal, Canada). This pharmacophore model was used for database mining with the aim to identify novel scaffolds for developing new potent and selective CK2 inhibitors. Using this strategy several structures were selected by searching inside the ZINC compound database. One of the selected compounds was bikaverin (6,11-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy-1-methylbenzo[b]xanthene-7,10,12-trione), a natural compound which is produced by several kinds of fungi. This compound was tested on human recombinant CK2 and turned out to be an active inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.24 µM. PMID:28075359

  13. Development of Pharmacophore Model for Indeno[1,2-b]indoles as Human Protein Kinase CK2 Inhibitors and Database Mining.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Samer; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Marminon, Christelle; Laitinen, Tuomo; Poso, Antti; Le Borgne, Marc; Jose, Joachim

    2017-01-09

    Protein kinase CK2, initially designated as casein kinase 2, is an ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase. This enzyme, implicated in many cellular processes, is highly expressed and active in many tumor cells. A large number of compounds has been developed as inhibitors comprising different backbones. Beside others, structures with an indeno[1,2-b]indole scaffold turned out to be potent new leads. With the aim of developing new inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2, we report here on the generation of common feature pharmacophore model to further explain the binding requirements for human CK2 inhibitors. Nine common chemical features of indeno[1,2-b]indole-type CK2 inhibitors were determined using MOE software (Chemical Computing Group, Montreal, Canada). This pharmacophore model was used for database mining with the aim to identify novel scaffolds for developing new potent and selective CK2 inhibitors. Using this strategy several structures were selected by searching inside the ZINC compound database. One of the selected compounds was bikaverin (6,11-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy-1-methylbenzo[b]xanthene-7,10,12-trione), a natural compound which is produced by several kinds of fungi. This compound was tested on human recombinant CK2 and turned out to be an active inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.24 µM.

  14. Nintedanib modulates surfactant protein-D expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-activator protein-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Koichiro; Usuki, Jiro; Azuma, Arata; Matsuda, Kuniko; Ishii, Takeo; Inomata, Minoru; Hayashi, Hiroki; Kokuho, Nariaki; Fujita, Kazue; Saito, Yoshinobu; Miya, Toshimichi; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate. Signalling pathways activated by several tyrosine kinase receptors are known to be involved in lung fibrosis, and this knowledge has led to the development of the triple tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), for the treatment of IPF. Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), an important biomarker of IPF, reportedly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In this study, we investigated whether nintedanib modulates SP-D expression in human lung epithelial (A549) cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of nintedanib, we evaluated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target c-Jun. The effect of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on c-Jun phosphorylation was also tested. Activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based test, and cell proliferation assays were performed to estimate the effect of nintedanib on cell proliferation. Furthermore, we treated mice with nintedanib to examine its in vivo effect on SP-D levels in lungs. These experiments showed that nintedanib up-regulated SP-D messenger RNA expression in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations up to 5 μM, with significant SP-D induction observed at concentrations of 3 μM and 5 μM, in comparison with that observed in vehicle controls. Nintedanib stimulated a rapid increase in phosphorylated JNK in A549 cells within 30 min of treatment and stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation, which was inhibited by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Additionally, nintedanib was found to activate AP-1. A549 cell proliferation was not affected by nintedanib at any of the tested

  15. A novel Physarum polycephalum SR protein kinase specifically phosphorylates the RS domain of the human SR protein, ASF/SF2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shide; Kang, Kang; Zhang, Jianhua; Ouyang, Qiuling; Zhou, Zhuolong; Tian, Shengli; Xing, Miao

    2009-08-01

    A 1591-bp cDNA of a serine-rich protein kinase (SRPK)-like protein has been identified in Physarum polycephalum (GenBank accession No. DQ140379). The cDNA contains two repeat sequences at bp 1-153 and bp 395-547. The encoding sequence is 56% homologous to human SRPK1 and is named Physarum SRPK (PSRPK). Consistent with other SRPKs, the consensus motifs of PSRPK are within the two conserved domains (CDs). However, divergent motifs between the N-terminal and CDs are much shorter than the corresponding sequences of other SRPKs. To study the structure and function of this protein, we performed co-expression experiment in Escherichia coli and in vitro phosphorylation assay to investigate the phosphorylation effect of recombinant PSRPK on the human SR protein, ASF/SF2. Western blot analysis showed that PSRPK could phosphorylate ASF/SF2 in E. coli cells. Autoradiographic examination showed that both recombinant PSRPK and a truncated form of PSRPK with a 28-aa deletion at the N-terminus could phosphorylate ASF/SF2 and a truncated form of ASF/SF2 that contains the RS domain. However, these two forms of PSRPK could not phosphorylate a truncated form ASF/SF2 that lacks the RS domain. A truncated form of PSRPK that lacks either of CDs does not have any phosphorylation activity. These results indicated that, like other SRPKs, the phosphorylation site in PSRPK is located within the RS domain of the SR protein and that its phosphorylation activity is closely associated with the two CDs. This study on the structure and function of PSRPK demonstrates that it is a new member of the SRPK family.

  16. Fragment-based structure-guided drug discovery: strategy, process, and lessons from human protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, Stephen K.; Hirst, Gavin; Sprengeler, Paul; Reich, Siegfried

    2012-04-24

    The experimental roots of fragment-based drug discovery can be found in the work of Petsko, Ringe, and coworkers, who were the first to report flooding of protein crystals with small organic solutes (e.g., compounds such as benzene with ten or fewer nonhydrogen atoms) to identify bound functional groups that might ultimately be transformed into targeted ligands. The concept of linking fragments together to increase binding affinity was described as early as 1992 by Verlinde et al. Computational screening of fragments, using tools such as DOCK or MCSS, was also described in the early 1990s. Pharmaceutical industry application of fragment screening began at Abbott Laboratories, where Fesik and coworkers pioneered 'SAR by NMR' (structure/activity relationship by nuclear magnetic resonance). In this spectroscopic approach, bound fragments are detected by NMR screening and subsequently linked together to increase affinity, as envisaged by Verlinde and coworkers. Application of x-ray crystallography to detect and identify fragment hits was also pursued at Abbott. Fragment-based drug discovery has now been under way for more than a decade. Although Fesik and coworkers popularized the notion of linking fragments (as in their highly successful BCL-2 program), tactical emphasis appears to have largely shifted from fragment condensation to fragment engineering (or growing the fragment) to increase binding affinity and selectivity. Various biotechnology companies, including SGX Pharmaceuticals, Astex, and Plexxikon, have recently demonstrated that fragment-based approaches can indeed produce development candidates suitable for Phase I studies of safety and tolerability in patients (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

  17. Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein is associated with an increase in both NF-kappa B binding and protein kinase C activity in primary human astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Conant, K; Ma, M; Nath, A; Major, E O

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has been associated with an increase in the binding of the transcription factor NF-kappa B to its consensus sequence in the viral promoter. Using cultures of primary human fetal astrocytes, we show that exogenous HIV-1 Tat protein, which has been demonstrated to be released from infected cells, is associated with an increase in the binding of this transcription factor to an HIV-1 long terminal repeat kappa B sequence. This effect occurs rapidly and is independent of new protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that extracellular Tat protein is associated with an increase in protein kinase C activity. If Tat functions similarly in other cell types, such findings could relate to some of this protein's previously described physiological effects. These effects include Tat's ability to upregulate the synthesis of specific cytokines and to act as a growth factor. PMID:8627654

  18. Geranylgeranylacetone, heat shock protein 90/AMP-activated protein kinase/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide pathway, and endothelial function in humans.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Noritaka; Jitsuiki, Daisuke; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Mikami, Shinsuke; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Kajikawa, Masato; Chayama, Kazuaki; Kihara, Yasuki; Noma, Kensuke; Goto, Chikara; Higashi, Yukihito

    2012-01-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) induces expression of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an adaptor molecule for assembly of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation complex. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GGA enhances Hsp90 expression and augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation via upregulation of eNOS in humans. We evaluated the effects of GGA on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in 40 healthy young men. Hsp90, eNOS, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Akt expression in HUVECs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells was detected by Western blot analysis. GGA increased Hsp90 expression and phosphorylation of eNOS and AMPK but not Akt in HUVECs and increased Hsp90 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Oral administration of GGA (600 mg) augmented the FBF response to acetylcholine. Infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, completely abolished GGA-induced augmentation of the FBF response to acetylcholine. GGA also augmented the acetylcholine-stimulated NO release in smokers. These findings suggest that GGA-induced activation of Hsp90/AMPK significantly increased NO-mediated vasodilation in healthy subjects, as well as in smokers. The use of GGA may be a new therapeutic approach for improving endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  1. Immunochemical characterization of rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.P.; Huang, F.L.

    1986-11-05

    Polyclonal antibodies against rat brain protein kinase C (the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent enzyme) were raised in goat. These antibodies can neutralize completely the kinase activity in purified enzyme preparation as well as that in the crude homogenate. Immunoblot analysis of the purified and the crude protein kinase C preparations revealed a major immunoreactive band of 80 kDa. The antibodies also recognize the same enzyme from other rat tissues. Neuronal tissues (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and retina) and lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) were found to be enriched in protein kinase C, whereas lung, kidney, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle contained relatively low amounts of this kinase. Limited proteolysis of the purified rat brain protein kinase C with trypsin results in an initial degradation of the kinase into two major fragments of 48 and 38 kDa. Both fragments are recognized by the antibodies. However, further digestion of the 48-kDa fragment to 45 kDa and the 38-kDa fragment to 33 kDa causes a loss of the immunoreactivity. Upon incubation of the cerebellar extract with Ca/sup 2 +/, the 48-kDa fragment was also identified as a major proteolytic product of protein kinase C. Proteolytic degradation of protein kinase C converts the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent kinase to an independent form without causing a large impairment of the binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. The two major proteolytic fragments were separated by ion exchange chromatography and one of them (45-48 kDa) was identified as a protein kinase and the other (33-38 kDa) as a phorbol ester-binding protein. These results demonstrate that rat brain protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units, namely, a protein kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent/phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester-binding protein.

  2. Human Cytomegalovirus UL97 Kinase Activity Is Required for the Hyperphosphorylation of Retinoblastoma Protein and Inhibits the Formation of Nuclear Aggresomes

    SciTech Connect

    Prichard, Mark N.; Sztul, Elizabeth; Daily, Shannon L.; Perry, Amie L.; Frederick, Samuel L.; Gill, Rachel B.; Hartline, Caroll B.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Varnum, Susan M.; Smith, Richard D.; Kern, Earl R.

    2008-05-01

    Cells infected with human cytomegalovirus in the absence of UL97 kinase activity produce large nuclear aggregates that sequester considerable quantities of viral proteins. A transient expression assay suggested that pp71 and IE1 were also involved in this process, and this suggestion was significant, since both proteins have been reported to interact with components of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies (ND10) and also interact functionally with retinoblastoma pocket proteins (RB). PML bodies have been linked to the formation of nuclear aggresomes, and colocalization studies suggested that viral proteins were recruited to these structures and that UL97 kinase activity inhibited their formation. Proteins associated with PML bodies were examined by Western blot analysis, and pUL97 appeared to specifically affect the phosphorylation of RB in a kinasedependent manner. Three consensus RB binding motifs were identified in the UL97 kinase, and recombinant viruses were constructed in which each was mutated to assess a potential role in the phosphorylation of RB and the inhibition of nuclear aggresome formation. The mutation of either the conserved LxCxE RB binding moti for the lysine required for kinase activity impaired the ability of the virus to stabilize and phosphorylate RB. We concluded from these studies that both UL97 kinase activity and the LxCxE RB binding motif are required for the phosphorylation and stabilization of RB in infected cells and that this effect can be antagonized by the antiviral drug maribavir. These data also suggest a potential link between RB function and the formation of aggresomes.

  3. Protein kinase C regulates the flow rate-dependent decline in human nasal ciliary beat frequency in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mwimbi, X K; Muimo, R; Green, M; Mehta, A

    2000-01-01

    Cilia provide the driving force for mucociliary clearance, the process that removes mucus from the airways. Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a poorly understood regulatory role in phosphorylation-based signal transduction cascades, including the control of human mucociliary clearance, especially with respect to ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Ciliary studies minimize the importance of fluid flow, because it is generally accepted that flow increases CBF. Here, we studied postflow events by measuring CBF in vitro in volunteers. Rose chamber-loaded cells were pulsed for 5 minutes at 30 mL/h in medium-199 +/- PKC modulators at 20 degrees C. The 5-minute pulse precipitated a fall in CBF noted within 1 minute after flow (acute dip response [ADR] to 84 +/- 2% of preflow baseline). Thereafter, CBF rose to 8% below baseline for 30 minutes [postrecovery plateau at 92 +/- 3%]. Preincubation with 1 microM of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC-activating phorbol ester attenuated the ADR (c. 95%) and restored the postrecovery plateau almost to baseline levels (98 +/- 0.7%; p > 0.10 compared with baseline CBF). With respect to the ADR, the PMA protective effect was lost in the presence of the selective PKC inhibitor myristoylated epidermal growth factor peptide 651d-658 (Myr-PKCI; 10 microM). Myr-PKCI alone changed the ADR pattern such that the CBF remained at 15% below preflow baseline. We conclude that CBF fall and recovery after a fluid pulse is regulated by PKC activity either directly or indirectly.

  4. Regulation of oxytocin receptor responsiveness by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 in human myometrial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Willets, Jonathon M; Brighton, Paul J; Mistry, Rajendra; Morris, Gavin E; Konje, Justin C; Challiss, R A John

    2009-08-01

    Oxytocin plays an important role in the progression, timing, and modulation of uterine contraction during labor and is widely used as an uterotonic agent. We investigated the mechanisms regulating oxytocin receptor (OTR) signaling in human primary myometrial smooth muscle cells and the ULTR cell-line. Oxytocin produced concentration-dependent increases in both total [(3)H]inositol phosphate accumulation and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)); however, responses were greater and more reproducible in the ULTR cell line. Assessment of phospholipase C activity in single cells revealed that the OTR desensitizes rapidly (within 5 min) in the presence of oxytocin (100 nm). To characterize OTR desensitization further, cells were stimulated with a maximally effective concentration of oxytocin (100 nm, 30 sec) followed by a variable washout period and a second identical application of oxytocin. This brief exposure to oxytocin caused a marked decrease (>70%) in OTR responsiveness to rechallenge and was fully reversed by increasing the time period between agonist challenges. To assess involvement of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in OTR desensitization, cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs to cause specific > or =75% knockdown of GRKs 2, 3, 5, or 6. In both primary myometrial and ULTR cells, knockdown of GRK6 largely prevented oxytocin-induced OTR desensitization; in contrast, selective depletion of GRKs 2, 3, or 5 was without effect. These data indicate that GRK6 recruitment is a cardinal effector of OTR responsiveness and provide mechanistic insight into the likely in vivo regulation of OTR signaling in uterine smooth muscle.

  5. Prostaglandins protect human intestinal cells against ethanol injury by stabilizing microtubules: role of protein kinase C and enhanced calcium efflux.

    PubMed

    Banan, A; Smith, G S; Deshpande, Y; Rieckenberg, C L; Kokoska, E R; Miller, T A

    1999-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) protect gastrointestinal cells against damage induced by ethanol (EtOH) and other noxious agents, a process termed cytoprotection. The present study investigated the relationships between microtubule (MT) stability, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and calcium efflux as a possible mechanism of PG's protective action using a human colonic cell line (Caco-2) exposed to known damaging concentrations of EtOH (7.5% and 10%). Preincubation of Caco-2 cells with 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2 (PG, 2.6 microM) significantly increased PKC activity in these cells. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with 50 microM OAG (a synthetic diacylglycerol and PKC activator) or 30 nM TPA (a direct PKC activator) prior to exposure to 7.5% or 10% EtOH for 5 min significantly reduced cell injury, as determined by trypan blue exclusion, and increased MT stability, as confirmed by confocal microscopy. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with 4 alpha-PDD (an inactive phorbol ester, 20 nM) failed to prevent cell injury and disruption of the MT cytoskeleton. Preincubation with staurosporine (a PKC inhibitor, 3 nM) abolished the protective effects of PG in cells exposed to 7.5% and 10% EtOH. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with A23187 (a Ca2+ ionophore), similar to 10% EtOH, caused a significant reduction in cell viability and MT stability. Preincubation with A23187 in combination with PG or OAG prior to subsequent exposure to EtOH significantly abolished the protective effects of PG or OAG pretreatment. Finally, pretreatment with OAG, TPA, or PG resulted in significant increases in calcium-45 efflux, which correlated with increased stability of the MT cytoskeleton. These data suggest that PG possesses direct protective effects against EtOH injury in Caco-2 cells and may act by stabilizing MT through the PKC signal transduction pathway and/or stimulation of calcium efflux from the cells.

  6. Pathway illuminated: visualizing protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Newton, Alexandra C

    2003-12-01

    Protein kinase C has been at the center of cell signaling since the discovery 25 years ago that it transduces signals that promote phospholipid hydrolysis. In recent years, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters has enabled studies of the regulation of protein kinase C signaling in living cells. Advances in imaging techniques have unveiled unprecedented detail of the signal processing mechanics of protein kinase C, from the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol that regulate protein kinase C activity, to the locations and kinetics of different protein kinase C isozymes, to the spatial and temporal dynamics of substrate phosphorylation by this key enzyme. This review discusses how fluorescence imaging studies have illuminated the fidelity with which protein kinase C transduces rapidly changing extracellular information into intracellular phosphorylation signals.

  7. Characterization of a novel human sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) having structural homology with c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein

    PubMed Central

    Jagadish, Nirmala; Rana, Ritu; Selvi, Ramasamy; Mishra, Deepshikha; Garg, Manoj; Yadav, Shikha; Herr, John C.; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Hasegawa, Akiko; Koyama, Koji; Suri, Anil

    2005-01-01

    We report a novel SPAG9 (sperm-associated antigen 9) protein having structural homology with JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)-interacting protein 3. SPAG9, a single copy gene mapped to the human chromosome 17q21.33 syntenic with location of mouse chromosome 11, was earlier shown to be expressed exclusively in testis [Shankar, Mohapatra and Suri (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243, 561–565]. The SPAG9 amino acid sequence analysis revealed identity with the JNK-binding domain and predicted coiled-coil, leucine zipper and transmembrane domains. The secondary structure analysis predicted an α-helical structure for SPAG9 that was confirmed by CD spectra. Microsequencing of higher-order aggregates of recombinant SPAG9 by tandem MS confirmed the amino acid sequence and mono atomic mass of 83.9 kDa. Transient expression of SPAG9 and its deletion mutants revealed that both leucine zipper with extended coiled-coil domains and transmembrane domain of SPAG9 were essential for dimerization and proper localization. Studies of MAPK (mitogenactivated protein kinase) interactions demonstrated that SPAG9 interacted with higher binding affinity to JNK3 and JNK2 compared with JNK1. No interaction was observed with p38α or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathways. Polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant SPAG9 recognized native protein in human sperm extracts and localized specifically on the acrosomal compartment of intact human spermatozoa. Acrosome-reacted spermatozoa demonstrated SPAG9 immunofluorescence, indicating its retention on the equatorial segment after the acrosome reaction. Further, anti-SPAG9 antibodies inhibited the binding of human spermatozoa to intact human oocytes as well as to matched hemizona. This is the first report of sperm-associated JNK-binding protein that may have a role in spermatozoa–egg interaction. PMID:15693750

  8. Phosphorylation of Serine 11 and Serine 92 as New Positive Regulators of Human Snail1 Function: Potential Involvement of Casein Kinase-2 and the cAMP-activated Kinase Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Matthew Reid; Molina, Patricia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy; Wernstedt, Christer; Martin-Pérez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Snail1 is a major factor for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important event in tumor metastasis and in other pathologies. Snail1 is tightly regulated at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Control of Snail1 protein stability and nuclear export by GSK3β phosphorylation is important for Snail1 functionality. Stabilization mechanisms independent of GSK3β have also been reported, including interaction with LOXL2 or regulation of the COP9 signalosome by inflammatory signals. To get further insights into the role of Snail1 phosphorylation, we have performed an in-depth analysis of in vivo human Snail1 phosphorylation combined with mutational studies. We identify new phosphorylation sites at serines 11, 82, and 92 and confirmed previously suggested phosphorylations at serine 104 and 107. Serines 11 and 92 participate in the control of Snail1 stability and positively regulate Snail1 repressive function and its interaction with mSin3A corepressor. Furthermore, serines 11 and 92 are required for Snail1-mediated EMT and cell viability, respectively. PKA and CK2 have been characterized as the main kinases responsible for in vitro Snail1 phosphorylation at serine 11 and 92, respectively. These results highlight serines 11 and 92 as new players in Snail1 regulation and suggest the participation of CK2 and PKA in the modulation of Snail1 functionality. PMID:19923321

  9. Gastrin induces sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 phosphorylation and mTOR activation via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-/protein kinase C-dependent but AKT-independent pathway in renal proximal tubule cells derived from a normotensive male human.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbing; Jose, Pedro A

    2013-02-01

    Gastrin is natriuretic, but its renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways are not fully known. In this study, we confirmed the existence of CCKBR (a gastrin receptor) in male human renal proximal tubule cells and discovered that gastrin induced S6 phosphorylation, a downstream component of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Gastrin also increased the phosphorylation of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) at serine 552, caused its internalization, and decreased its expression at the cell surface and NHE activity. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was dependent on PI3 kinases because it was blocked by 2 different PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294,002. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was not affected by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 but was blocked by a pan-PKC (chelerythrine) and a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor (Gö6976) (10 μM) and an intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The cPKC involved was probably PKCα because it was phosphorylated by gastrin. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of NHE3, S6, and PKCα was via phospholipase C because it was blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122 (10 μM). The phosphorylation (activation) of AKT, which is usually upstream of mammalian target of rapamycin in the classic PI3 kinase-AKT-p70S6K signaling pathway, was not affected, suggesting that the gastrin-induced phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 is dependent on both PI3 kinase and PKCα but not AKT.

  10. Gastrin Induces Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3 Phosphorylation and mTOR Activation via a Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-/Protein Kinase C-Dependent but AKT-Independent Pathway in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells Derived From a Normotensive Male Human

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gastrin is natriuretic, but its renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways are not fully known. In this study, we confirmed the existence of CCKBR (a gastrin receptor) in male human renal proximal tubule cells and discovered that gastrin induced S6 phosphorylation, a downstream component of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Gastrin also increased the phosphorylation of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) at serine 552, caused its internalization, and decreased its expression at the cell surface and NHE activity. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was dependent on PI3 kinases because it was blocked by 2 different PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294,002. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was not affected by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 but was blocked by a pan-PKC (chelerythrine) and a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor (Gö6976) (10 μM) and an intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The cPKC involved was probably PKCα because it was phosphorylated by gastrin. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of NHE3, S6, and PKCα was via phospholipase C because it was blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122 (10 μM). The phosphorylation (activation) of AKT, which is usually upstream of mammalian target of rapamycin in the classic PI3 kinase-AKT-p70S6K signaling pathway, was not affected, suggesting that the gastrin-induced phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 is dependent on both PI3 kinase and PKCα but not AKT. PMID:23275470

  11. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  12. Protein Kinase Activity of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Regulates Cytokine-Dependent Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benjamin D.; Barry, Emma F.; Ma, Yuefang; Woodcock, Joanna; Fitter, Stephen; Zannettino, Andrew C. W.; Pitson, Stuart M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Lopez, Angel F.; Shepherd, Peter R.; Wei, Andrew H.; Ekert, Paul G.; Guthridge, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting such pathways in

  13. Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1act/tubulin interaction is an important determinant of mitotic stability in cultured HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia-Ning; Shafee, Norazizah; Vickery, Larry; Kaluz, Stefan; Ru, Ning; Stanbridge, Eric J

    2010-07-15

    Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a major role in neoplastic cell transformation. Using a proteomics approach, we identified alpha tubulin and beta tubulin as proteins that interact with activated MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), a central MAPK regulatory kinase. Confocal analysis revealed spatiotemporal control of MEK1-tubulin colocalization that was most prominent in the mitotic spindle apparatus in variant HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Peptide arrays identified the critical role of positively charged amino acids R108, R113, R160, and K157 on the surface of MEK1 for tubulin interaction. Overexpression of activated MEK1 caused defects in spindle arrangement, chromosome segregation, and ploidy. In contrast, chromosome polyploidy was reduced in the presence of an activated MEK1 mutant (R108A, R113A) that disrupted interactions with tubulin. Our findings indicate the importance of signaling by activated MEK1-tubulin in spindle organization and chromosomal instability. (c)2010 AACR.

  14. Pb2+ induces gastrin gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and transcription factor activator protein 1 in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chien-Pin; Tsai, Yao-Ting; Chen, Yao-Li; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Joseph T; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Shiurba, Robert; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2015-02-01

    Divalent lead ions (Pb(2+) ) are toxic environmental pollutants known to cause serious health problems in humans and animals. Absorption of Pb(2+) from air, water, and food takes place in the respiratory and digestive tracts. The ways in which absorbed Pb(2+) affects cell physiology are just beginning to be understood at the molecular level. Here, we used reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting to analyze cultures of human gastric carcinoma cells exposed to 10 μM lead nitrate. We found that Pb(2+) induces gastrin hormone gene transcription and translation in a time-dependent manner. Promoter deletion analysis revealed that activator protein 1 (AP1) was necessary for gastrin gene transcription in cells exposed to Pb(2+) . MitogIen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the Pb(2+) -induced increase in messenger RNA. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors AG1478 and PD153035 reduced both transcription and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells exposed to Pb(2+) also increased production of c-Jun protein, a component of AP1, and over-expression of c-Jun enhanced activation of the gastrin promoter. In sum, the findings suggest the EGFR-ERK1/2-AP1 pathway mediates the effects of Pb(2+) on gastrin gene activity in cell culture.

  15. Sensitization of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to Shiga toxin: involvement of protein kinase C and NF-kappaB.

    PubMed Central

    Louise, C B; Tran, M C; Obrig, T G

    1997-01-01

    Infection of humans with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 is strongly associated with vascular endothelial cell damage and the development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxins on vascular endothelial cells in vitro is enhanced by prior exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or either of the host cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1). The purpose of this study was to examine individual signal transduction components involved in the sensitization of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to Shiga toxin 1. The results demonstrate that class I and II protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are required for sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or LPS but not by TNF or IL-1. Thus, the specific competitive inhibitor of class I/II PKC, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (AMG), prevented only the action of PMA and LPS on HUVEC. Additional data obtained with ATP binding site inhibitors which affect all PKCs (i.e., classes I, II, and III) suggest that TNF may utilize class III PKC isozymes in the Shiga toxin sensitization of HUVEC. Transcriptional activator NF-kappaB did not appear to be involved in the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by LPS, TNF, IL-1, or PMA. Thus, the specific serine protease inhibitor L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not inhibit the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by LPS, TNF, IL-1, or PMA despite its ability to inhibit NF-kappaB activation and the induction of the NF-kappaB-dependent tissue factor gene by these agents. Finally, all-trans retinoic acid partially inhibited the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin, by unknown mechanisms which also appeared to be independent of NF-kappaB activation. These results indicate that PKC plays a role in the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin in response to some, but not all, sensitizing agents. In contrast, NF

  16. Bavachalcone-induced manganese superoxide dismutase expression through the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yanqi; Ling, Shuang; Duan, Ju; Ma, Jing; Ni, Rongzhen; Xu, Jin-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress has been suggested as a major etiological factor in cardiovascular diseases. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an essential antioxidant mitochondrial enzyme. Although polyphenols can induce MnSOD expression, their mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the effect of bavachalcone, a bioactive compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia, on MnSOD protein expression and explored whether this effect is mediated through the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Our data showed that bavachalcone enhanced the luciferase activity of the MnSOD promoter and increased MnSOD mRNA and protein expressions. Moreover, bavachalcone suppressed the mitochondrial superoxide production in endothelial cells. Conversely, bavachalcone stimulated liver kinase B1 and AMPKα phosphorylation. mRNA interference by using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) of AMPK inhibited bavachalcone-induced MnSOD expression. A-769662, an AMPK activator, also stimulated AMPK activity and increased MnSOD expression. Furthermore, AMPK knockdown by shRNA-AMPK reversed the inhibitory effects of bavachalcone on mitochondrial superoxide production in endothelial cells. These findings indicate that bavachalcone can protect the endothelial function by increasing AMPK activity and MnSOD expression and reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress. .

  17. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by celecoxib oppositely regulates survivin and gamma-H2AX in human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, P.-W.; Chang, C.-C.; Liu, H.-F.; Tsai, C.-M.; Chiu, Ted H.; Chao, J.-I . E-mail: chaoji@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    2007-07-01

    Cancer cells express survivin that facilitates tumorigenesis. Celecoxib has been shown to reduce human colorectal cancers. However, the role and regulation of survivin by celecoxib in colorectal carcinoma cells remain unclear. Treatment with 40-80 {mu}M celecoxib for 24 h induced cytotoxicity and proliferation inhibition via a concentration-dependent manner in RKO colorectal carcinoma cells. Celecoxib blocked the survivin protein expression and increased the phosphorylation of H2AX at serine-193 ({gamma}-H2AX). The survivin gene knockdown by transfection with a survivin siRNA revealed that the loss of survivin correlated with the expression of {gamma}-H2AX. Meanwhile, celecoxib increased caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Celecoxib activated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The phosphorylated proteins of p38 MAP kinase and {gamma}-H2AX were observed in the apoptotic cells. SB203580, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, protected the survivin protein expression and decreased the levels of {gamma}-H2AX and apoptosis in the celecoxib-exposed cells. The blockade of survivin expression increased the celecoxib-induced cytotoxicity; conversely, overexpression of survivin by transfection with a survivin-expressing vector raised the cancer cell proliferation and resisted the celecoxib-induced cell death. Our results provide for the first time that p38 MAP kinase participates in the down-regulation of survivin and subsequently induces the activation of {gamma}-H2AX for mediating apoptosis following treatment with celecoxib in human colorectal cancer cells.

  18. Quantitative Profiling of Protein Tyrosine Kinases in Human Cancer Cell Lines by Multiplexed Parallel Reaction Monitoring Assays*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lin, De; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Li, Ming; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of PTK-activated pathways, often by receptor overexpression, gene amplification, or genetic mutation, is a causal factor underlying numerous cancers. In this study, we have developed a parallel reaction monitoring-based assay for quantitative profiling of 83 PTKs. The assay detects 308 proteotypic peptides from 54 receptor tyrosine kinases and 29 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in a single run. Quantitative comparisons were based on the labeled reference peptide method. We implemented the assay in four cell models: 1) a comparison of proliferating versus epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells, 2) a comparison of SW480Null (mutant APC) and SW480APC (APC restored) colon tumor cell lines, and 3) a comparison of 10 colorectal cancer cell lines with different genomic abnormalities, and 4) lung cancer cell lines with either susceptibility (11–18) or acquired resistance (11–18R) to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We observed distinct PTK expression changes that were induced by stimuli, genomic features or drug resistance, which were consistent with previous reports. However, most of the measured expression differences were novel observations. For example, acquired resistance to erlotinib in the 11–18 cell model was associated not only with previously reported up-regulation of MET, but also with up-regulation of FLK2 and down-regulation of LYN and PTK7. Immunoblot analyses and shotgun proteomics data were highly consistent with parallel reaction monitoring data. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring assays provide a targeted, systems-level profiling approach to evaluate cancer-related proteotypes and adaptations. Data are available through Proteome eXchange Accession PXD002706. PMID:26631510

  19. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Chien-Liang; Huang, Shih-Yuan; Hu, Meng-Chun; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  20. Rac2 GTPase activation by angiotensin II is modulated by Ca2+/calcineurin and mitogen-activated protein kinases in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    El Bekay, Rajaa; Alba, Gonzalo; Reyes, M Edith; Chacón, Pedro; Vega, Antonio; Martín-Nieto, José; Jiménez, Juan; Ramos, Eladio; Oliván, Josefina; Pintado, Elízabeth; Sobrino, Francisco

    2007-11-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) highly stimulates superoxide anion production by neutrophils. The G-protein Rac2 modulates the activity of NADPH oxidase in response to various stimuli. Here, we describe that Ang II induced both Rac2 translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane and Rac2 GTP-binding activity. Furthermore, Clostridium difficile toxin A, an inhibitor of the Rho-GTPases family Rho, Rac and Cdc42, prevented Ang II-elicited O2-/ROS production, phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, and Rac2 activation. Rac2 GTPase inhibition by C. difficile toxin A was accompanied by a robust reduction of the cytosolic Ca(2)(+) elevation induced by Ang II in human neutrophils. Furthermore, SB203580 and PD098059 act as inhibitors of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 respectively, wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and cyclosporin A, a calcineurin inhibitor, hindered both translocation of Rac2 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane and enhancement of Rac2 GTP-binding elicited by Ang II. These results provide evidence that the activation of Rac2 by Ang II is exerted through multiple signalling pathways, involving Ca(2)(+)/calcineurin and protein kinases, the elucidation of which should be insightful in the design of new therapies aimed at reversing the inflammation of vessel walls found in a number of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Discovery of a Novel Mode of Protein Kinase Inhibition Characterized by the Mechanism of Inhibition of Human Mesenchymal-epithelial Transition Factor (c-Met) Protein Autophosphorylation by ARQ 197

    PubMed Central

    Eathiraj, Sudharshan; Palma, Rocio; Volckova, Erika; Hirschi, Marscha; France, Dennis S.; Ashwell, Mark A.; Chan, Thomas C. K.

    2011-01-01

    A number of human malignancies exhibit sustained stimulation, mutation, or gene amplification of the receptor tyrosine kinase human mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met). ARQ 197 is a clinically advanced, selective, orally bioavailable, and well tolerated c-Met inhibitor, currently in Phase 3 clinical testing in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Herein, we describe the molecular and structural basis by which ARQ 197 selectively targets c-Met. Through our analysis we reveal a previously undisclosed, novel inhibitory mechanism that utilizes distinct regulatory elements of the c-Met kinase. The structure of ARQ 197 in complex with the c-Met kinase domain shows that the inhibitor binds a conformation that is distinct from published kinase structures. ARQ 197 inhibits c-Met autophosphorylation and is highly selective for the inactive or unphosphorylated form of c-Met. Through our analysis of the interplay between the regulatory and catalytic residues of c-Met, and by comparison between the autoinhibited canonical conformation of c-Met bound by ARQ 197 to previously described kinase domains of type III receptor tyrosine kinases, we believe this to be the basis of a powerful new in silico approach for the design of similar inhibitors for other protein kinases of therapeutic interest. PMID:21454604

  2. Discovery of a novel mode of protein kinase inhibition characterized by the mechanism of inhibition of human mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) protein autophosphorylation by ARQ 197.

    PubMed

    Eathiraj, Sudharshan; Palma, Rocio; Volckova, Erika; Hirschi, Marscha; France, Dennis S; Ashwell, Mark A; Chan, Thomas C K

    2011-06-10

    A number of human malignancies exhibit sustained stimulation, mutation, or gene amplification of the receptor tyrosine kinase human mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met). ARQ 197 is a clinically advanced, selective, orally bioavailable, and well tolerated c-Met inhibitor, currently in Phase 3 clinical testing in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Herein, we describe the molecular and structural basis by which ARQ 197 selectively targets c-Met. Through our analysis we reveal a previously undisclosed, novel inhibitory mechanism that utilizes distinct regulatory elements of the c-Met kinase. The structure of ARQ 197 in complex with the c-Met kinase domain shows that the inhibitor binds a conformation that is distinct from published kinase structures. ARQ 197 inhibits c-Met autophosphorylation and is highly selective for the inactive or unphosphorylated form of c-Met. Through our analysis of the interplay between the regulatory and catalytic residues of c-Met, and by comparison between the autoinhibited canonical conformation of c-Met bound by ARQ 197 to previously described kinase domains of type III receptor tyrosine kinases, we believe this to be the basis of a powerful new in silico approach for the design of similar inhibitors for other protein kinases of therapeutic interest.

  3. Protein kinase activity of the insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gammeltoft, S; Van Obberghen, E

    1986-01-01

    The insulin receptor is an integral membrane glycoprotein (Mr approximately 300,000) composed of two alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 130,000) and two beta-subunits (Mr approximately 95,000) linked by disulphide bonds. This oligomeric structure divides the receptor into two functional domains such that alpha-subunits bind insulin and beta-subunits possess tyrosine kinase activity. The amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA of the single polypeptide chain precursor of human placental insulin receptor revealed that alpha- and beta-subunits consist of 735 and 620 residues, respectively. The alpha-subunit is hydrophilic, disulphide-bonded, glycosylated and probably extracellular. The beta-subunit consists of a short extracellular region which links the alpha-subunit through disulphide bridges, a hydrophobic transmembrane region and a longer cytoplasmic region which is structurally homologous with other tyrosine kinases like the src oncogene product and EGF receptor kinases. The cellular function of insulin receptors is dual: transmembrane signalling and endocytosis of hormone. The binding of insulin to its receptor on the cell membrane induces transfer of signal from extracellular to cytoplasmic receptor domains leading to activation of cell metabolism and growth. In addition, hormone-receptor complexes are internalized leading to intracellular proteolysis of insulin, whereas receptors are recycled to the membrane. These phenomena are kinetically well-characterized, but their molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Insulin receptor in different tissues and animal species are homologous in their structure and function, but show also significant differences regarding size of alpha-subunits, binding kinetics, insulin specificity and receptor-mediated degradation. We suggest that this heterogeneity of receptors may be linked to the diversity in insulin effects on metabolism and growth in various cell types. The purified insulin receptor phosphorylates its own beta-subunit and

  4. Human SMG-1, a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase, associates with components of the mRNA surveillance complex and is involved in the regulation of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Akio; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Kashima, Isao; Taya, Yoichi; Ohno, Shigeo

    2001-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a conserved surveillance mechanism that eliminates imperfect mRNAs that contain premature translation termination codons (PTCs) and code for nonfunctional or potentially harmful polypeptides. We show that a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase, hSMG-1, is a human ortholog of a product of Caenorhabditis elegans smg-1, one of seven smg genes involved in NMD. hSMG-1 phosphorylates hUPF1/SMG-2 in vivo and in vitro at specific serine residues in SQ motifs. hSMG-1 can associate with hUPF1/SMG-2 and other components of the surveillance complex. In particular, overexpression of a kinase-deficient point mutant of hSMG-1, hSMG-1-DA, results in a marked suppression of the PTC-dependent β-globin mRNA degradation; whereas that of wild-type hSMG-1 enhances it. We also show that inhibitors of hSMG-1 induce the accumulation of truncated p53 proteins in human cancer cell lines with p53 PTC mutation. Taken together, we conclude that hSMG-1 plays a critical role in NMD through the direct phosphorylation of hUPF1/SMG-2 in the evolutionally conserved mRNA surveillance complex. PMID:11544179

  5. Fibronectin Fragment Activation of Proline-rich Tyrosine Kinase PYK2 Mediates Integrin Signals Regulating Collagenase-3 Expression by Human Chondrocytes through a Protein Kinase C-dependent Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Loeser, Richard F.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Samarel, Allen M.; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Fibronectin fragments (FN-f), including the 110-kDa fragment that binds the α5β1 integrin, stimulate collagenase-3 (MMP-13) production and cartilage destruction. In the present study, treatment of chondrocytes with the 110-kDa FN-f or an activating antibody to the α5β1 integrin was found to increase tyrosine autophosphorylation (Tyr-402) of the proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (PYK2) without significant change in autophosphorylation (Tyr-397) of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin A9, shown previously to block a PYK2-dependent pathway, blocked the FN-f-stimulated increase in MMP-13, whereas tyrphostin A25 did not. FN-f-stimulated PYK2 phosphorylation and MMP-13 production was also blocked by reducing intracellular calcium levels. Adenovirally mediated overexpression of wild type but not mutant PYK2 resulted in increased MMP-13 production. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulated PYK2 phosphorylation and MMP-13 production. MMP-13 expression stimulated by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or FN-f was blocked by PKC inhibitors including the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin. Furthermore, PKCδ translocation from cytosol to membrane was noted within 5 min of stimulation with FN-f. Immortalized human chondrocytes, transiently transfected with MMP-13 promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, showed increased promoter activity after FN-f treatment that was inhibited by co-transfection with either of two dominant negative mutants of PYK2 (Y402F and K457A). No inhibition was seen after co-transfection with wild type PYK2, a dominant negative of FAK (FRNK) or empty vector plasmid. FN-f-stimulated MMP-13 promoter activity was also inhibited by chemical inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases or by co-transfection of dominant negative MAP kinase mutant constructs. These studies have identified a novel pathway for the MAP kinase regulation of MMP-13 production which involves

  6. Ten things you should know about protein kinases: IUPHAR Review 14

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, Doriano; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W; Moebitz, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Many human malignancies are associated with aberrant regulation of protein or lipid kinases due to mutations, chromosomal rearrangements and/or gene amplification. Protein and lipid kinases represent an important target class for treating human disorders. This review focus on ‘the 10 things you should know about protein kinases and their inhibitors', including a short introduction on the history of protein kinases and their inhibitors and ending with a perspective on kinase drug discovery. Although the ‘10 things’ have been, to a certain extent, chosen arbitrarily, they cover in a comprehensive way the past and present efforts in kinase drug discovery and summarize the status quo of the current kinase inhibitors as well as knowledge about kinase structure and binding modes. Besides describing the potentials of protein kinase inhibitors as drugs, this review also focus on their limitations, particularly on how to circumvent emerging resistance against kinase inhibitors in oncological indications. PMID:25630872

  7. Effect of pH on the structure, function, and stability of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: combined spectroscopic and MD simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Naz, Huma; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-06-01

    Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMKIV) is a member of Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is regulated by the calcium-calmodulin dependent signal through a secondary messenger, Ca(2+), which leads to the activation of its autoinhibited form. The over-expression and mutation in CAMKIV as well as change in Ca(2+) concentration is often associated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. We have successfully cloned, expressed, and purified a functionally active kinase domain of human CAMKIV. To observe the effect of different pH conditions on the structural and functional properties of CAMKIV, we have used spectroscopic techniques such as circular diachroism (CD) absorbance and fluorescence. We have observed that within the pH range 5.0-11.5, CAMKIV maintained both its secondary and tertiary structures, along with its function, whereas significant aggregation was observed at acidic pH (2.0-4.5). We have also performed ATPase activity assays under different pH conditions and found a significant correlation between the structure and enzymatic activities of CAMKIV. In-silico validations were further carried out by modeling the 3-dimensional structure of CAMKIV and then subjecting it to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand its conformational behavior in explicit water conditions. A strong correlation between spectroscopic observations and the output of molecular dynamics simulation was observed for CAMKIV.

  8. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    kinase . This grant proposal will explore the resistance to small molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors mediated by the... molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors is potentially mediated by the Pim-1 protein kinase , and that unique Pim protein kinase inhibitors that can in...application is essential for the development of this combined chemotherapeutic strategy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small Molecule AKT Inhibitors ,

  9. Involvement of protein kinase C in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in a human colonic carcinoma cell line, COLO-205

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dyuti Datta; Saha, Subhrajit; Chakrabarti, Manoj K. . E-mail: mkc_niced@yahoo.co.in

    2005-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the involvement of calcium-protein kinase C pathway in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) apart from STa-induced activation of guanylate cyclase in human colonic carcinoma cell line COLO-205, which was used as a model cultured cell line to study the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. In response to E. coli STa, protein kinase C (PKC) activity was increased in a time-dependent manner with its physical translocation from cytosol to membrane. Inhibition of the PKC activity in membrane fraction and inhibition of its physical translocation in response to IP{sub 3}-mediated calcium release inhibitor dantrolene suggested the involvement of intracellular store depletion in the regulation of PKC activity. Among different PKC isoforms, predominant involvement of calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC{alpha}) was specified using isotype-specific pseudosubstrate, which showed pronounce enzyme activity. Inhibition of enzyme activity by PKC{alpha}-specific inhibitor Goe6976 and immunoblott study employing isotype-specific antibody further demonstrated the involvement of calcium-dependent isoform of PKC in the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. Moreover, inhibition of guanylate cyclase activity by PKC{alpha}-specific inhibitor Goe6976 suggested the involvement of PKC{alpha} in the regulation of guanylate cyclase activity.

  10. Promotion of DNA strand breaks in cocultured mononuclear leukocytes by protein kinase C-dependent prooxidative interactions of benoxaprofen, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, G.; Beyers, A.D.; Anderson, R.; Nel, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    At concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and greater the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug benoxaprofen caused dose-related activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Benoxaprofen-mediated activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence by PMNL was increased by UV radiation and was particularly sensitive to inhibition by the selective protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. To identify the molecular mechanism of the prooxidative activity of benoxaprofen, the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on the activity of purified protein kinase C in a cell-free system were investigated. Benoxaprofen caused a dose-related activation of protein kinase C by interaction with the binding site for the physiological activator phosphatidylserine, but could not replace diacylglycerol. When autologous mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were cocultured with PMNL and benoxaprofen in combination, but not individually, the frequency of DNA strand breaks in MNL was markedly increased. UV radiation significantly potentiated damage to DNA mediated by benoxaprofen and PMNL. Inclusion of superoxide dismutase, H-7, and, to a much lesser extent, catalase during exposure of MNL to benoxaprofen-activated PMNL prevented oxidant damage to DNA. These results clearly demonstrate that potentially carcinogenic prooxidative interactions, which are unlikely to be detected by conventional assays of mutagenicity, may occur between phagocytes, UV radiation, and certain pharmacological agents.

  11. Phosphoregulators: Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphatases of Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Alistair R.R.; Ravasi, Timothy; Taylor, Darrin; Huber, Thomas; Hume, David A.; Grimmond, Sean

    2003-01-01

    With the completion of the human and mouse genome sequences, the task now turns to identifying their encoded transcripts and assigning gene function. In this study, we have undertaken a computational approach to identify and classify all of the protein kinases and phosphatases present in the mouse gene complement. A nonredundant set of these sequences was produced by mining Ensembl gene predictions and publicly available cDNA sequences with a panel of InterPro domains. This approach identified 561 candidate protein kinases and 162 candidate protein phosphatases. This cohort was then analyzed using TribeMCL protein sequence similarity clustering followed by CLUSTALV alignment and hierarchical tree generation. This approach allowed us to (1) distinguish between true members of the protein kinase and phosphatase families and enzymes of related biochemistry, (2) determine the structure of the families, and (3) suggest functions for previously uncharacterized members. The classifications obtained by this approach were in good agreement with previous schemes and allowed us to demonstrate domain associations with a number of clusters. Finally, we comment on the complementary nature of cDNA and genome-based gene detection and the impact of the FANTOM2 transcriptome project. PMID:12819143

  12. Atorvastatin promotes human monocyte differentiation toward alternative M2 macrophages through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ou; Zhang, Jinying

    2015-05-01

    M1 and M2 macrophages are detectable in human atherosclerotic lesions, and M2 macrophages are present at locations distant from the lipid core in more stable zones of the plaque and appear to exert anti-inflammatory properties on M1 macrophages. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Although both statins and PPARγ ligands have been reported to protect against the progression of atherosclerosis, no data are currently available regarding the implication of statins in the alternative differentiation of human monocytes. In the present study, we hypothesized that atorvastatin may exert novel effects to prime human monocytes toward an anti-inflammatory alternative M2 phenotype. To this aim, we first found that abundant M2 markers were expressed in human circulating monocytes after atorvastatin treatment. Moreover, atorvastatin was able to induce PPARγ expression and activation in human monocytes in vivo and in vitro, resulting in priming primary human monocytes differentiation into M2 macrophages with a more pronounced paracrine anti-inflammatory activity in M1 macrophages. Additional data with molecular approaches revealed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation was involved in atorvastatin-mediated PPARγ activation and enhanced alternative M2 macrophage phenotype. Collectively, our data demonstrated that atorvastatin promotes human monocyte differentiation toward alternative M2 macrophages via p38 MAPK-dependent PPARγ activation.

  13. Human Gastric Cancer Kinase Profile and Prognostic Significance of MKK4 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chew-Wun; Li, Anna F.-Y.; Chi, Chin-Wen; Huang, Chen Lung; Shen, King-Han; Liu, Wing-Yiu; Lin, Wen-chang

    2000-01-01

    Alterations of protein tyrosine kinase are often associated with uncontrolled cell growth and tumor progression. Knowledge of the overall expression pattern of tyrosine kinases should prove beneficial in understanding the signaling pathways involved in gastric cancer oncogenesis and in providing possible biomarkers for gastric cancer progression. To establish a general tyrosine-kinase expression profile, degenerated polymerase chain reaction primers designed from the consensus catalytic kinase motifs were used to amplify protein tyrosine kinase molecules from gastric cancer tissues. We observed more than 50 tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases from matching pairs of gastric cancer tissue and normal mucosa. Based on this new kinase profile information, we selected the MKK4 gene for further immunohistochemical studies. Statistical analysis of MKK4 protein expression and clinicopathological features indicated that MKK4 kinase expression could serve as a significant prognostic factor for relapse-free survival and for overall survival. We demonstrated a simple and sensitive method for establishing protein tyrosine-kinase expression profiles of human gastric cancer tissues as well as for discovering novel and useful clinical biomarkers from such kinase expression profiles. PMID:10854223

  14. Roles of p38 and JNK protein kinase pathways activated by compound cantharidin capsules containing serum on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yonghao; Zhang, Dejuan; Mao, Mao; Lu, Yangping; Jiao, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of compound cantharides capsules (CCCs) on the viability and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell lines, BGC-823 and SGC-7901, and to detect its regulation of gene expression levels, as well as its inhibition mechanisms. Each cell line was grouped into a control group, CCC serum group, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) group, combination therapy group (CCC serum + 5-FU) and serum control group. Growth curves were measured and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell viability. The mRNA expression level of proliferation-related C-MYC and p53 genes were assayed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein phosphorylation levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and IκB were assayed by western blotting. The combined CCC serum and 5-FU group exhibited a higher inhibition rate in both cell lines and CCC serum therapy demonstrated a similar effect to 5-FU treatment, as demonstrated in the MTT and cell growth assay. Combined therapy significantly decreased the C-MYC mRNA expression levels and increased p53 mRNA expression levels (P<0.05). Combined therapy of 5-FU and CCC was more significant compared with CCC serum or 5-FU only (P<0.05). P38 and JNK-related protein phosphorylation are involved in apoptosis initiated by CCC combined 5-FU therapy. Combined therapy was able to significantly inhibit human gastric cancer cell growth (P<0.05), and advance cell apoptosis compared with CCC serum only. CCC serum resulted in downregulation of the c-Myc gene and upregulation of the p53 gene. p38 and JNK-related protein phosphorylation is involved in the inhibition of cell viability and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:28810654

  15. Roles of p38 and JNK protein kinase pathways activated by compound cantharidin capsules containing serum on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonghao; Zhang, Dejuan; Mao, Mao; Lu, Yangping; Jiao, Ning

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of compound cantharides capsules (CCCs) on the viability and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell lines, BGC-823 and SGC-7901, and to detect its regulation of gene expression levels, as well as its inhibition mechanisms. Each cell line was grouped into a control group, CCC serum group, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) group, combination therapy group (CCC serum + 5-FU) and serum control group. Growth curves were measured and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell viability. The mRNA expression level of proliferation-related C-MYC and p53 genes were assayed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein phosphorylation levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and IκB were assayed by western blotting. The combined CCC serum and 5-FU group exhibited a higher inhibition rate in both cell lines and CCC serum therapy demonstrated a similar effect to 5-FU treatment, as demonstrated in the MTT and cell growth assay. Combined therapy significantly decreased the C-MYC mRNA expression levels and increased p53 mRNA expression levels (P<0.05). Combined therapy of 5-FU and CCC was more significant compared with CCC serum or 5-FU only (P<0.05). P38 and JNK-related protein phosphorylation are involved in apoptosis initiated by CCC combined 5-FU therapy. Combined therapy was able to significantly inhibit human gastric cancer cell growth (P<0.05), and advance cell apoptosis compared with CCC serum only. CCC serum resulted in downregulation of the c-Myc gene and upregulation of the p53 gene. p38 and JNK-related protein phosphorylation is involved in the inhibition of cell viability and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell lines.

  16. Protein kinase biochemistry and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Phillip A; Murray, Brion W

    2011-12-01

    Protein kinases are fascinating biological catalysts with a rapidly expanding knowledge base, a growing appreciation in cell regulatory control, and an ascendant role in successful therapeutic intervention. To better understand protein kinases, the molecular underpinnings of phosphoryl group transfer, protein phosphorylation, and inhibitor interactions are examined. This analysis begins with a survey of phosphate group and phosphoprotein properties which provide context to the evolutionary selection of phosphorylation as a central mechanism for biological regulation of most cellular processes. Next, the kinetic and catalytic mechanisms of protein kinases are examined with respect to model aqueous systems to define the elements of catalysis. A brief structural biology overview further delves into the molecular basis of catalysis and regulation of catalytic activity. Concomitant with a prominent role in normal physiology, protein kinases have important roles in the disease state. To facilitate effective kinase drug discovery, classic and emerging approaches for characterizing kinase inhibitors are evaluated including biochemical assay design, inhibitor mechanism of action analysis, and proper kinetic treatment of irreversible inhibitors. As the resulting protein kinase inhibitors can modulate intended and unintended targets, profiling methods are discussed which can illuminate a more complete range of an inhibitor's biological activities to enable more meaningful cellular studies and more effective clinical studies. Taken as a whole, a wealth of protein kinase biochemistry knowledge is available, yet it is clear that a substantial extent of our understanding in this field remains to be discovered which should yield many new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Participation of protein kinases and phosphatases in the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and calcium influx in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barón, L; Fara, K; Zapata-Carmona, H; Zuñiga, L; Kong, M; Signorelli, J; Díaz, E S; Morales, P

    2016-11-01

    In human spermatozoa, protein kinases have a role in the acrosome reaction (AR) induced by a variety of stimuli. However, there is disagreement or a lack of information regarding the role of protein kinases and phosphatases in the progesterone (P)-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ). In addition, there are no studies regarding the role of Ser/Thr and Tyr phosphatases and there are contradictory results regarding the role of Tyr kinases in the P-induced acrosome reaction. Here, we performed a simultaneous evaluation of the involvement of protein kinases and phosphatases in the P-induced acrosome reaction and in the P-induced calcium influx. Motile spermatozoa were capacitated for 18 h and different aliquots were allocated to treated or control groups and then evaluated for their ability to undergo the acrosome reaction and to increase [Ca(2+) ]i in response to P. The acrosome reaction was evaluated using Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA)-FITC, and [Ca(2+) ]i was evaluated using fura 2AM. At all of the concentrations tested, PKA inhibitors significantly reduced the percentage of the P-induced acrosome reaction (p < 0.001). However, only the highest concentrations of PKA inhibitors reduced the P-induced calcium influx; lower concentrations of PKA inhibitors did not affect it. Similar results were apparent for PKC inhibitors and for tyrosine kinase inhibitors. None of the Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitors affected the P-induced acrosome reaction or the P-induced calcium influx, except for the PP2B inhibitors that significantly reduced the P-induced acrosome reaction without affecting calcium influx. Finally, the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors significantly blocked the P-induced acrosome reaction and reduced the amplitude of the P-induced calcium transient (p < 0.001) as well as the amplitude of the plateau phase (p < 0.01). The data suggest that protein kinases and possibly PP2B have a role on the acrosome reaction at some

  18. A high throughput system for the evaluation of protein kinase C inhibitors based on Elk1 transcriptional activation in human astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sharif, T R; Sharif, M

    1999-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) designates a family of kinases that regulate many essential functions including cell growth and differentiation. The tight regulation of PKC activity is crucial for maintaining normal cellular proliferation and excessive activity leads to abnormal or uncontrolled cell growth. Recent reports indicate that malignant glioma cell lines express 100 to 1000-fold higher PKC activity when compared to non-neoplastic astrocytes. This high activity correlates well with the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro. We recently reported on the anti-proliferative properties of selective PKC inhibitors on the growth of U-373MG human astrocytoma cell line, and their ability to block mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway activated by substance P (SP) neuropeptide receptor signaling via a PKC-dependent mechanism. Therefore, inhibiting PKC activity by selective PKC inhibitors may present a promising approach for improving astroglial brain tumor therapy. For this purpose, we constructed a high throughput model cell system to evaluate the efficacy of PKC inhibitors. This system is based on the measurement of light production in U-373MG cells stably transfected with the luciferase reporter gene whose expression depends on the transcriptional activation of GAL4-Elk1 fusion protein by enzyme components of the MAP kinase pathway and the upstream activation of PKC (PKC activation-->MAP kinases-->GAL4-Elk1 phosphorylation-->luciferase expression-->luciferase activity). In brief, we have demonstrated that the PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced luciferase activity in this cell system is mediated via the MAP kinase pathway and can be blocked in the presence of MEK1 selective inhibitors (PD 098059 or U0126). We also demonstrated that TPA-induced luciferase activity in U-373MG stable clones can be blocked by PKC inhibitors (CGP 41251, Go 6976, and GF 109203X) in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF

  19. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  20. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  1. A new human p34 protein kinase, CDK2, identified by complementation of a cdc28 mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a homolog of Xenopus Eg1.

    PubMed

    Elledge, S J; Spottswood, M R

    1991-09-01

    The onset of S-phase and M-phase in both Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the function of the cdc2/CDC28 gene product, p34, a serine-threonine protein kinase. A human homolog, p34cdc2, was identified by functional complementation of the S.pombe cdc2 mutation (Lee and Nurse, 1987). Using a human cDNA expression library to search for suppressors of cdc28 mutations in S. cerevisiae, we have identified a second functional p34 homolog, CDK2 cell division kinase). This gene is expressed as a 2.1 kb transcript encoding a polypeptide of 298 amino acids. This protein retains nearly all of the amino acids highly conserved among previously identified p34 homologs from other species, but is considerably divergent from all previous p34cdc2 homologs, approximately 65% identity. This gene encodes the human homolog of the Xenopus Eg1 gene, sharing 89% amino acid identity, and defines a second sub-family of CDC2 homologs. A second chromosomal mutation which arose spontaneously was required to allow complementation of the cdc28-4 mutation by CDK2. This mutation blocked the ability of this strain to mate. These results suggest that the machinery controlling the human cell cycle is more complex than that for fission and budding yeast.

  2. Yessotoxin activates cell death pathways independent of Protein Kinase C in K-562 human leukemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-10-01

    Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a group of enzymes involved in pro-survival or pro-apoptotic events depending on the cellular model. Moreover, Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates its expression and activates different cell death pathways. In K-562 tumor cell line, YTX induces apoptosis and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of incubation, respectively, and the toxin carries out its action through the phosphodiesterase 4A (PDE4A). Therefore, the levels of two subtypes of PKC, conventional (cPKC) and δ isotype of novel PKC (PKCδ) were studied at these times after YTX incubation. Also their involvement in the cell death activated by the toxin and their relationship with PDE4A was checked. The expression of cPKC and PKCδ in cytosol, plasma membrane and nucleus was studied in normal and PDE4A-silenced cells. Furthermore, cell viability of normal cells, as well as cPKC-, PKCδ- and PDE4A-silenced cells was tested by Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. As a result, PKCδ showed a key role in K-562 cell survive, since without this protein, K-562 cell decreased their viability. Furthermore, modulation of PKCs by YTX treatment was observed, however, the changes in the expression of these proteins are independent of cell death activated by the toxin. In addition, the modulation of PKCs detected is PDE4A-dependent, since the silencing of this protein change PKC expression pattern.

  3. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

  4. The Link between Protein Kinase CK2 and Atypical Kinase Rio1

    PubMed Central

    Kubiński, Konrad; Masłyk, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    The atypical kinase Rio1 is widespread in many organisms, ranging from Archaebacteria to humans, and is an essential factor in ribosome biogenesis. Little is known about the protein substrates of the enzyme and small-molecule inhibitors of the kinase. Protein kinase CK2 was the first interaction partner of Rio1, identified in yeast cells. The enzyme from various sources undergoes CK2-mediated phosphorylation at several sites and this modification regulates the activity of Rio1. The aim of this review is to present studies of the relationship between the two different kinases, with respect to CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rio1, regulation of Rio1 activity, and similar susceptibility of the kinases to benzimidazole inhibitors. PMID:28178206

  5. Urea-induced denaturation of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: a combined spectroscopic and MD simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Naz, Huma; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Haque, Md Anzarul; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2017-02-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is a multifunctional enzyme which belongs to the Ser/Thr kinase family. CaMKIV plays important role in varieties of biological processes such as gene expression regulation, memory consolidation, bone growth, T-cell maturation, sperm motility, regulation of microtubule dynamics, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis. To measure stability parameters, urea-induced denaturation of CaMKIV was carried out at pH 7.4 and 25°C, using three different probes, namely far-UV CD, near-UV absorption, and tryptophan fluorescence. A coincidence of normalized denaturation curves of these optical properties suggests that urea-induced denaturation is a two-state process. Analysis of these denaturation curves gave values of 4.20 ± 0.12 kcal mol(-1), 2.95 ± 0.15 M, and 1.42 ± 0.06 kcal mol(-1) M(-1) for [Formula: see text] (Gibbs free energy change (ΔGD) in the absence of urea), Cm (molar urea concentration ([urea]) at the midpoint of the denaturation curve), and m (=∂ΔGD/∂[urea]), respectively. All these experimental observations have been fully supported by 30 ns molecular dynamics simulation studies.

  6. Protein kinase C phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase α1 Ser487

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Helen R.; Mancini, Sarah J.; Strembitska, Anastasiya; Jamal, Kunzah; Reihill, James A.; Palmer, Timothy M.; Gould, Gwyn W.; Salt, Ian P.

    2016-01-01

    The key metabolic regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is reported to be down-regulated in metabolic disorders, but the mechanisms are poorly characterised. Recent studies have identified phosphorylation of the AMPKα1/α2 catalytic subunit isoforms at Ser487/491, respectively, as an inhibitory regulation mechanism. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates AMPK and protein kinase B (Akt) in cultured human endothelial cells. As Akt has been demonstrated to be an AMPKα1 Ser487 kinase, the effect of VEGF on inhibitory AMPK phosphorylation in cultured primary human endothelial cells was examined. Stimulation of endothelial cells with VEGF rapidly increased AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation in an Akt-independent manner, without altering AMPKα2 Ser491 phosphorylation. In contrast, VEGF-stimulated AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation was sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and PKC activation using phorbol esters or overexpression of PKC-stimulated AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation. Purified PKC and Akt both phosphorylated AMPKα1 Ser487 in vitro with similar efficiency. PKC activation was associated with reduced AMPK activity, as inhibition of PKC increased AMPK activity and phorbol esters inhibited AMPK, an effect lost in cells expressing mutant AMPKα1 Ser487Ala. Consistent with a pathophysiological role for this modification, AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in human muscle. These data indicate a novel regulatory role of PKC to inhibit AMPKα1 in human cells. As PKC activation is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, PKC may underlie the reduced AMPK activity reported in response to overnutrition in insulin-resistant metabolic and vascular tissues. PMID:27784766

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel sucrose-non-fermenting protein kinase/AMP-activated protein kinase-related protein kinase, SNARK.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, D L; Bai, Y; Shahmolky, N; Sharma, M; Poon, R; Drucker, D J; Rosen, C F

    2001-01-01

    Subtraction hybridization after the exposure of keratinocytes to ultraviolet radiation identified a differentially expressed cDNA that encodes a protein of 630 amino acid residues possessing significant similarity to the catalytic domain of the sucrose-non-fermenting protein kinase (SNF1)/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. Northern blotting and reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the SNF1/AMPK-related kinase (SNARK) were widely expressed in rodent tissues. The SNARK gene was localized to human chromosome 1q32 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. SNARK was translated in vitro to yield a single protein band of approx. 76 kDa; Western analysis of transfected baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells detected two SNARK-immunoreactive bands of approx. 76-80 kDa. SNARK was capable of autophosphorylation in vitro; immunoprecipitated SNARK exhibited phosphotransferase activity with the synthetic peptide substrate HMRSAMSGLHLVKRR (SAMS) as a kinase substrate. SNARK activity was significantly increased by AMP and 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAriboside) in rat keratinocyte cells, implying that SNARK might be activated by an AMPK kinase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, glucose deprivation increased SNARK activity 3-fold in BHK fibroblasts. These findings identify SNARK as a glucose- and AICAriboside-regulated member of the AMPK-related gene family that represents a new candidate mediator of the cellular response to metabolic stress. PMID:11284715

  8. Critical role of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation in troglitazone-induced apoptosis of human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Myung-Ae; Song, Byoung J

    2003-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist troglitazone (TRO) was used for treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes until its removal from the market because of its severe hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanism for its hepatotoxicity is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether TRO caused cell death by altering signaling pathways associated with cell damage and survival in human hepatoma cells. Our data reveal that TRO caused time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis of HepG2 and Chang liver human hepatoma cells, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and staining with Hoechst 33342. In contrast, 50 or 100 microM rosiglitazone, a structural analog of TRO, did not cause apoptosis in these hepatoma cells. TRO activated both c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase about 5-fold between 0.5 and 8 h before they returned to control levels at 16 h in HepG2 cells. In contrast, TRO failed to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Furthermore, TRO increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bad, Bax, release of cytochrome c, and cleavage of Bid in a time-dependent manner. The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level decreased in hepatoma cells treated with TRO. Pretreatment of hepatoma cells with a selective JNK inhibitor, anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one (SP600125), significantly reduced the rate of TRO-induced cell death, whereas 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole (SB203580), an inhibitor of p38 kinase, had little effect on apoptosis. Pretreatment with SP600125 also prevented JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation. In addition, rosiglitazone, which is not as toxic to hepatoma cells as TRO, did not stimulate JNK activity. Transfection of cDNA for the dominant-negative mutant JNK-KR (Lys-->Arg) or SEK1-KR (Lys-->Arg), an immediate upstream kinase of JNK, significantly reduced TRO-induced JNK activation and cell death rate. Furthermore, SP600125 pretreatment effectively prevented the

  9. Linkage of protein kinase C-beta activation and intracellular interleukin-2 accumulation in human naive CD4 T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J; Rainsford, E; Reen, D J

    1997-01-01

    A critical role for protein kinase C (PKC) in signal transduction events has been well established. Moreover, studies of regulation in PKC levels suggest participation in mediating long-term cellular functions. Protein kinase C-beta (PKC-beta) has been reported to be involved in interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis in T lymphocytes. In this study, the role of PKC-beta in intracellular accumulation of IL-2 was investigated using specific inhibitors. Preincubation with two different PKC inhibitors, one specific for classical isotypes (alpha and beta I) Go6976, and one which inhibits both classical and non-classical isotypes, GF109203X, caused a complete block in cytoplasmic IL-2 accumulation when naive CD4 T cells were stimulated in the presence of CD2+CD28+phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). In contrast, preincubation with up to 1000 ng/ml of cyclosporin A (CsA) resulted in a reduction in the intracellular IL-2 detected, as observed by a decrease in the proportion of positive cells as well as a fall in the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). CsA did not influence PKC-beta translocation. Flow cytometric assessments of PKC-beta and its isoforms beta I and beta II correlated with Western blotting analysis and these results were further supported by the use of PKC-beta-positive (HUT 78) and -negative (BW5147) T-cell lines. Using the specific inhibitors, Go6976 and GF109203X, the findings in this study suggest that activation and translocation of PKC-beta is critical for accumulation of intracellular IL-2. The influence of CsA in reducing but not blocking IL-2 synthesis is discussed. PMA-induced down-regulation of the CD4 antigen was observed in the presence of Go6976 and but not GF109203X, suggesting regulation by non-classical PKC isoforms. Images Figure 4 PMID:9497487

  10. Diacylglycerol kinase is phosphorylated in vivo upon stimulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and serine/threonine kinases, including protein kinase C-epsilon.

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, D; van der Wal, J; van Blitterswijk, W J; van der Bend, R L; Ploegh, H L

    1993-01-01

    In signal transduction, diacylglycerol (DG) kinase attenuates levels of the second messenger DG by converting it to phosphatidic acid. A previously cloned full-length human 86 kDa DG kinase cDNA was expressed as fusion protein in Escherichia coli, to aid in the generation of DG-kinase-specific monoclonal antibodies suitable for immunoprecipitation experiments. To investigate whether phosphorylation of DG kinase is a possible mechanism for its regulation, COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with the DG kinase cDNA and phosphorylation of the expressed DG kinase was induced by various stimuli. Activation of both cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) resulted in phosphorylation of DG kinase on serine residues in vivo, and both kinases induced this phosphorylation within the same tryptic phosphopeptide, suggesting that they may exert similar control over DG kinase. No phosphorylation was observed upon ionomycin treatment, intended to activate Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases. Co-transfections of DG kinase with either PKC-alpha or PKC-epsilon cDNA revealed that both protein kinases, when stimulated, are able to phosphorylate DG kinase. For PKC-epsilon, DG kinase is the first in vivo substrate identified. Stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) of COS-7 cells transfected with both DG kinase and EGF-receptor cDNA results mainly in phosphorylation of DG kinase on tyrosine. Since the EGF receptor has an intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, this finding implies that DG kinase may be a direct substrate for the activated EGF receptor. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7679574

  11. Microgravity modifies protein kinase C isoform translocation in the human monocytic cell line U937 and human peripheral blood T-cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Jason P.; Gaubert, Francois; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Schmitt, Didier; Hashemi, B. B. (Principal Investigator); Hughes-Fulford, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Individual protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms fulfill distinct roles in the regulation of the commitment to differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in both monocytes and T-cells. The human monocyte like cell line U937 and T-cells were exposed to microgravity, during spaceflight and the translocation (a critical step in PKC signaling) of individual isoforms to cell particulate fraction examined. PKC activating phorbol esters induced a rapid translocation of several PKC isoforms to the particulate fraction of U937 monocytes under terrestrial gravity (1 g) conditions in the laboratory. In microgravity, the translocation of PKC beta II, delta, and epsilon in response to phorbol esters was reduced in microgravity compared to 1 g, but was enhanced in weak hypergravity (1.4 g). All isoforms showed a net increase in particulate PKC following phorbol ester stimulation, except PKC delta which showed a net decrease in microgravity. In T-cells, phorbol ester induced translocation of PKC delta was reduced in microgravity, compared to 1 g, while PKC beta II translocation was not significantly different at the two g-levels. These data show that microgravity differentially alters the translocation of individual PKC isoforms in monocytes and T-cells, thus providing a partial explanation for the modifications previously observed in the activation of these cell types under microgravity.

  12. Microgravity modifies protein kinase C isoform translocation in the human monocytic cell line U937 and human peripheral blood T-cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Jason P.; Gaubert, Francois; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Schmitt, Didier; Hashemi, B. B. (Principal Investigator); Hughes-Fulford, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Individual protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms fulfill distinct roles in the regulation of the commitment to differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in both monocytes and T-cells. The human monocyte like cell line U937 and T-cells were exposed to microgravity, during spaceflight and the translocation (a critical step in PKC signaling) of individual isoforms to cell particulate fraction examined. PKC activating phorbol esters induced a rapid translocation of several PKC isoforms to the particulate fraction of U937 monocytes under terrestrial gravity (1 g) conditions in the laboratory. In microgravity, the translocation of PKC beta II, delta, and epsilon in response to phorbol esters was reduced in microgravity compared to 1 g, but was enhanced in weak hypergravity (1.4 g). All isoforms showed a net increase in particulate PKC following phorbol ester stimulation, except PKC delta which showed a net decrease in microgravity. In T-cells, phorbol ester induced translocation of PKC delta was reduced in microgravity, compared to 1 g, while PKC beta II translocation was not significantly different at the two g-levels. These data show that microgravity differentially alters the translocation of individual PKC isoforms in monocytes and T-cells, thus providing a partial explanation for the modifications previously observed in the activation of these cell types under microgravity.

  13. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells.

    PubMed

    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50-100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of N-coumaroyltyramine as a potent phytochemical which arrests human transformed cells via inhibiting protein tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae B; Schoene, Norberta

    2002-04-12

    Numerous phytochemicals are believed to have beneficial effects on human health. N-Coumaroyltyramine accumulates in plants in response to wounding and pathogen attack. Due to the scarcity of N-coumaroyltyramine, its biological activities have not been studied in human cells. In this study, N-coumaroyltyramine was chemically synthesized and then purified by an HPLC with a UV-visible absorbance detector. Retention times of major peaks were 14.3 and 20.7 min, and the peak at 20.7 min was confirmed by LC-MS as N-coumaroyltyramine with a mass/charge (m/z) unit of 284.1. The synthesis procedure was relatively easy and had an acceptable yield (approximately 55%). The compound exhibited a new activity, suppression of growth of human tumor cells such as U937 and Jurkat cells. In addition, the suppressed growth of the cells was strongly associated with an increased percentage of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle progression. Furthermore, N-coumaroyltyramine was able to inhibit the protein tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This is the first report of the growth suppressing activity of N-coumaroyltyramine and its arrest of cells at the S phase of the cell cycle, possibly by inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases.

  15. Distinct effects of methylseleninic acid versus selenite on apoptosis, cell cycle, and protein kinase pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Wang, Zaisen; Ganther, Howard; Lü, Junxuan

    2002-10-01

    Selenium has been implicated as a promising chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. Whereas the anticancer mechanisms have not been clearly defined, one hypothesis relates to selenium metabolites, especially the monomethyl selenium pool, generated under supranutritional selenium supplementation. To explore potential molecular targets for mediating the chemopreventive activity, we contrasted the effects of methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a novel precursor of methylselenol, versus sodium selenite, a representative of the hydrogen selenide metabolite pool, on apoptosis execution, cell cycle distribution, and selected protein kinases in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Exposure of DU145 cells to 3 microM MSeA led to a profound G1 arrest at 24 h, and exposure to greater concentrations led to not only G1 arrest, but also to DNA fragmentation and caspase-mediated cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), two biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis. Immunobiot analyses indicated that G1 arrest induced by the subapoptogenic doses of MSeA was associated with increased expression of p27kip1 and p21cip1, but apoptosis was accompanied by dose-dependent decreases of phosphorylation of protein kinase AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in the absence of any phosphorylation change in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK1/2). In contrast, selenite exposure caused S-phase arrest and caspase-independent apoptotic DNA fragmentation, which were associated with decreased expression of p27kip1 and p21cip1 and increased phosphorylation of AKT, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK. Although apoptosis induction by MSeA exposure was not sensitive to superoxide dismutase added into the cell culture medium, cell detachment and DNA nucleosomal fragmentation induced by selenite exposure were greatly attenuated by this enzyme, supporting a chemical mediator role of superoxide for these processes. Despite a temporal relationship of AKT and ERK1

  16. Human biliverdin reductase suppresses Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP) kinase activity: the reductase regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-NF-kappaB-dependent GPBP expression.

    PubMed

    Miralem, Tihomir; Gibbs, Peter E M; Revert, Fernando; Saus, Juan; Maines, Mahin D

    2010-04-23

    The Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase activity of human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) and the expression of Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP), a nonconventional Ser/Thr kinase for the type IV collagen of basement membrane, are regulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha). The pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulates kinase activity of hBVR and activates NF-kappaB, a transcriptional regulator of GPBP mRNA. Increased GPBP activity is associated with several autoimmune conditions, including Goodpasture syndrome. Here we show that in HEK293A cells hBVR binds to GPBP and down-regulates its TNF-alpha-stimulated kinase activity; this was not due to a decrease in GPBP expression. Findings with small interfering RNA to hBVR and to the p65 regulatory subunit of NF-kappaB show the hBVR role in the initial stimulation of GPBP expression by TNF-alpha-activated NF-kappaB; hBVR was not a factor in mediating GPBP mRNA stability. The interacting domain was mapped to the (281)CX(10)C motif in the C-terminal 24 residues of hBVR. A 7-residue peptide, KKRILHC(281), corresponding to the core of the consensus D(delta)-Box motif in the interacting domain, was as effective as the intact 296-residue hBVR polypeptide in inhibiting GPBP kinase activity. GPBP neither regulated hBVR expression nor TNF-alpha dependent NF-kappaB expression. Collectively, our data reveal that hBVR is a regulator of the TNF-alpha-GPBP-collagen type IV signaling cascade and uncover a novel biological interaction that may be of relevance in autoimmune pathogenesis.

  17. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  18. COOH-terminal association of human smooth muscle calcium channel Ca(v)1.2b with Src kinase protein binding domains: effect of nitrotyrosylation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minho; Ross, Gracious R; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2007-12-01

    The carboxyl terminus of the calcium channel plays an important role in the regulation of calcium entry, signal transduction, and gene expression. Potential protein-protein interaction sites within the COOH terminus of the L-type calcium channel include those for the SH3 and SH2 binding domains of c-Src kinase that regulates calcium currents in smooth muscle. In this study, we examined the binding sites involved in Src kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the human voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v)) 1.2b (hCav1.2b) and the effect of nitrotyrosylation. Cotransfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells with hCa(v)1.2b and c-Src resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the calcium channel, which was prevented by nitration of tyrosine residues by peroxynitrite. Whole cell calcium currents were reduced by 58 + 5% by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 and 64 + 6% by peroxynitrite. Nitrotyrosylation prevented Src-mediated regulation of the currents. Glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the distal COOH terminus of hCa(v)1.2b (1809-2138) bound to SH2 domain of Src following tyrosine phosphorylation, while binding to SH3 required the presence of the proline-rich motif. Site-directed mutation of Y(2134) prevented SH2 binding and resulted in reduced phosphorylation of hCa(v)1.2b. Within the distal COOH terminus, single, double, or triple mutations of Y(1837), Y(1861), and Y(2134) were constructed and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The inhibitory effects of PP2 and peroxynitrite on calcium currents were significantly reduced in the double mutant Y(1837-2134F). These data demonstrate that the COOH terminus of hCa(v)1.2b contains sites for the SH2 and SH3 binding of Src kinase. Nitrotyrosylation of these sites prevents Src kinase regulation and may be importantly involved in calcium influx regulation during inflammation.

  19. Protein kinase C activators inhibit capillary endothelial cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Doctrow, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binds specifically to bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) cells (K/sub d/ = 8nM) and inhibits the proliferation (K/sub 50/ = 6 +/- 4 nM). Under similar conditions, PDBu does not inhibit the growth of bovine aortic endothelial or smooth muscle cells. PDBu markedly attenuates the response of BCE cells to purified human hepatoma-derived growth factor which, in the absence of PDBu, stimulates BCE cell growth by about 3-fold. Several observations suggest that the inhibition of BCE cell growth by PDBu is mediated by protein kinase C: (1) different phorbol compounds inhibit BCE cell growth according to the relative potencies as protein kinase C activators (12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate > PDBu >> phorbol 12,13-diacetate >>>..beta..-phorbol; ..cap alpha..-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate). (2) Specific binding of PDBu to BCE cells is displaced by sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC/sub 8/), a protein kinase C activator and an analog of the putative second messenger activating this kinase in vivo. The weak protein kinase C activator, sn-1,2-dibutyrylglycerol, does not affect PDBu binding. (3) A cytosolic extract from BCE cells contains a Ca/sup 2 +//phosphatidylserine-dependent kinase that is activated by diC/sub 8/ and PDBu, but not by ..beta..-phorbol. These results support a role for protein kinase C in suppressing capillary endothelial cell growth and may therefore have implications in the intracellular regulation of angiogenesis.

  20. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  1. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  2. UVB-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances resistance of normal human keratinocytes to apoptosis by stabilizing cytoplasmic p53.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Nadine; Valerie, Kristoffer; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Huot, Jacques

    2002-07-01

    Human keratinocytes respond to UV rays by developing a fast adaptive response that contributes to maintaining their functions and survival. We investigated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in transducing the UV signals in normal human keratinocytes. We found that UVA, UVB or UVC induced a marked and persistent activation of p38, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase were less or not activated respectively. Inhibition of p38 activity by expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p38 or with SB203580 impaired cell viability and led to an increase in UVB-induced apoptosis. This sensitization to apoptosis was independent of caspase activities. Inhibition of p38 did not sensitize transformed HaCaT keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis. In normal keratinocytes, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p53 increased UVB-induced cell death, pointing to a role for p53. In these cells, UVB triggered a p38-dependent phosphorylation of p53 on Ser-15. This phosphorylation was associated with an SB203580-sensitive accumulation of p53, even in the presence of a serine phosphatase inhibitor. Accumulated p53 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, independently of CRM1 nuclear export. In HaCaT cells, p53 was localized exclusively in the nucleus and its distribution and level were not affected by UVB or p38 inhibition. However, UVB induced an SB203580-insensitive phosphorylation on Ser-15 of mutated p53. Overall, our results suggest that, in normal human keratinocytes, protection against UVB depends on p38-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of p53 and is tightly associated with the cytoplasmic sequestration of wild-type p53. We conclude that the p38/p53 pathway plays a key role in the adaptive response of normal human keratinocytes against UV stress.

  3. Pivotal Role of Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1 and Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like in Neuronal Cell Death Induced by the Human Neuroinvasive Coronavirus OC43.

    PubMed

    Meessen-Pinard, Mathieu; Le Coupanec, Alain; Desforges, Marc; Talbot, Pierre J

    2017-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are respiratory pathogens with neuroinvasive, neurotropic, and neurovirulent properties, highlighting the importance of studying the potential implication of these viruses in neurological diseases. The OC43 strain (HCoV-OC43) was reported to induce neuronal cell death, which may participate in neuropathogenesis. Here, we show that HCoV-OC43 harboring two point mutations in the spike glycoprotein (rOC/Us183-241) was more neurovirulent than the wild-type HCoV-OC43 (rOC/ATCC) in mice and induced more cell death in murine and human neuronal cells. To evaluate the role of regulated cell death (RCD) in HCoV-OC43-mediated neural pathogenesis, we determined if knockdown of Bax, a key regulator of apoptosis, or RIP1, a key regulator of necroptosis, altered the percentage of neuronal cell death following HCoV-OC43 infection. We found that Bax-dependent apoptosis did not play a significant role in RCD following infection, as inhibition of Bax expression mediated by RNA interference did not confer cellular protection against the cell death process. On the other hand, we demonstrated that RIP1 and MLKL were involved in neuronal cell death, as RIP1 knockdown and chemical inhibition of MLKL significantly increased cell survival after infection. Taken together, these results indicate that RIP1 and MLKL contribute to necroptotic cell death after HCoV-OC43 infection to limit viral replication. However, this RCD could lead to neuronal loss in the mouse CNS and accentuate the neuroinflammation process, reflecting the severity of neuropathogenesis. Because they are naturally neuroinvasive and neurotropic, human coronaviruses are suspected to participate in the development of neurological diseases. Given that the strain OC43 is neurovirulent in mice and induces neuronal cell death, we explored the neuronal response to infection by characterizing the activation of RCD. Our results revealed that classical apoptosis associated with the Bax protein does not play a

  4. Light-assisted small molecule screening against protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Inglés-Prieto, Álvaro; Reichhart, Eva; Muellner, Markus K.; Nowak, Matthias; Nijman, Sebastian M.; Grusch, Michael; Janovjak, Harald

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput live-cell screens are intricate elements of systems biology studies and drug discovery pipelines. Here, we demonstrate an optogenetics-assisted method that obviates the addition of chemical activators and reporters, reduces the number of operational steps and increases information content in a cell-based small molecule screen against human protein kinases including an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase. This blueprint for all-optical screening can be adapted to many drug targets and cellular processes. PMID:26457372

  5. Locostatin, a disrupter of Raf kinase inhibitor protein, inhibits extracellular matrix production, proliferation, and migration in human uterine leiomyoma and myometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Janjusevic, Milijana; Greco, Stefania; Islam, Md Soriful; Castellucci, Clara; Ciavattini, Andrea; Toti, Paolo; Petraglia, Felice; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the presence of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) in human myometrium and leiomyoma as well as to determine the effect of locostatin (RKIP inhibitor) on extracellular matrix (ECM) production, proliferation, and migration in human myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Laboratory study. Human myometrium and leiomyoma. Thirty premenopausal women who were admitted to the hospital for myomectomy or hysterectomy. Myometrial and leiomyoma tissues were used to investigate the localization and the expression level of RKIP through immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Myometrial and leiomyoma cells were treated with locostatin (10 μM) to measure ECM expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction, GSK3β expression by Western blotting, cell migration by wound-healing assay, and cell proliferation by MTT assay and immunocytochemistry. The expression of RKIP in human myometrial and leiomyoma tissue; ECM components and GSK3β expression, migration, and proliferation in myometrial and leiomyoma cells. RKIP is expressed in human myometrial and leiomyoma tissue. Locostatin treatment resulted in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway (ERK phosphorylation), providing a powerful validation of our targeting protocol. Further, RKIP inhibition by locostatin reduces ECM components. Moreover, the inhibition of RKIP by locostatin impaired cell proliferation and migration in both leiomyoma and myometrial cells. Finally, locostatin treatment reduced GSK3β expression. Therefore, even if the activation of MAPK pathway should increase proliferation and migration, the destabilization of GSK3β leads to the reduction of proliferation and migration of myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Our results indicate that RKIP may be involved in leiomyoma pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of ERK1/2 by protein kinase C-alpha in response to hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio; Arroyo-Cruz, Rita; Villeda-Navarro, Mónica; Méndez-Mejía, José Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increases protein tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Two main proteins, with an apparent molecular weight of 44 and 42kDa, were phosphorylated after hydrogen peroxide stimulation of the human gingival fibroblasts. Further analysis identified these two proteins as ERK1/2. Maximum phosphorylation was detected at 10min post-H(2)O(2) treatment. Pretreatment with an MEK inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited H(2)O(2)-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with H(2)O(2) also induced phosphorylation of protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha). Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, blocked ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by H(2)O(2). In addition, H(2)O(2)-induced cell death was prevented by PD98059, SB203580, and calphostin C, which are MEK, p38 and PKC inhibitors, respectively. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) leads to the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 in a PKC-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that the MAPK signaling pathway plays an active role in mediating the H(2)O(2)-induced decrease in HGF cell viability and ATP depletion.

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Huang, Yuan-Li; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Chen, Jiun-Hong; Lee, Hsinyu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3}. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3} siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.

  8. Lanatoside C, a cardiac glycoside, acts through protein kinase Cδ to cause apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Min-Wu; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Huang, Han-Li; Chang, Yu-Wei; HuangFu, Wei-Chun; Lee, Yu-Ching; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that cardiac glycosides, such as digitalis and digoxin, have anticancer activity and may serve as lead compounds for the development of cancer treatments. The poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients reflects the development of resistance to current chemotherapeutic agents, highlighting the need for discovering new small-molecule therapeutics. Here, we found that lanatoside C, an anti-arrhythmic agent extracted from Digitalis lanata, inhibited the growth of HCC cells and dramatically decreased tumor volume as well as delayed tumor growth without obvious body weight loss. Moreover, lanatoside C triggered mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, activation of caspases and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) into the nucleus, which suggests that lanatoside C induced apoptosis through both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. Furthermore, we discovered that lanatoside C activated protein kinase delta (PKCδ) via Thr505 phosphorylation and subsequent membrane translocation. Inhibition of PKCδ reversed lanatoside C-induced MMP loss and apoptosis, confirming that lanatoside C caused apoptosis through PKCδ activation. We also found that the AKT/mTOR pathway was negatively regulated by lanatoside C through PKCδ activation. In conclusion, we provide the first demonstration that the anticancer effects of lanatoside C are mainly attributable to PKCδ activation. PMID:28387249

  9. The Natural Stilbenoid Piceatannol Decreases Activity and Accelerates Apoptosis of Human Neutrophils: Involvement of Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Nosal, Radomir; Svitekova, Klara; Drabikova, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are able to release cytotoxic substances and inflammatory mediators, which, along with their delayed apoptosis, have a potential to maintain permanent inflammation. Therefore, treatment of diseases associated with chronic inflammation should be focused on neutrophils; formation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis of these cells represent two promising targets for pharmacological intervention. Piceatannol, a naturally occurring stilbenoid, has the ability to reduce the toxic action of neutrophils. This substance decreased the amount of oxidants produced by neutrophils both extra- and intracellularly. Radicals formed within neutrophils (fulfilling a regulatory role) were reduced to a lesser extent than extracellular oxidants, potentially dangerous for host tissues. Moreover, piceatannol did not affect the phosphorylation of p40phox—a component of NADPH oxidase, responsible for the assembly of functional oxidase in intracellular (granular) membranes. The stilbenoid tested elevated the percentage of early apoptotic neutrophils, inhibited the activity of protein kinase C (PKC)—the main regulatory enzyme in neutrophils, and reduced phosphorylation of PKC isoforms α, βII, and δ on their catalytic region. The results indicated that piceatannol may be useful as a complementary medicine in states associated with persisting neutrophil activation and with oxidative damage of tissues. PMID:24288583

  10. MicroRNA-31 sensitizes human breast cells to apoptosis by direct targeting of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon).

    PubMed

    Körner, Cindy; Keklikoglou, Ioanna; Bender, Christian; Wörner, Angelika; Münstermann, Ewald; Wiemann, Stefan

    2013-03-22

    MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and thereby contribute to the modulation of numerous complex and disease-relevant cellular phenotypes, including cell proliferation, cell motility, apoptosis, and stress response. In breast cancer cell systems, miR-31 has been shown to inhibit cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we link enhanced expression of miR-31 to the inhibition of the oncogenic NF-κB pathway, thus supporting the tumor-suppressive function of this microRNA. We identified protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε encoded by the PRKCE gene) as a novel direct target of miR-31 and show that down-regulation of PKCε results in impaired NF-κB signaling, enhanced apoptosis, and increased sensitivity of MCF10A breast epithelial and MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells toward ionizing radiation as well as treatment with chemotherapeutics. Mechanistically, we attribute this sensitization to anti-cancer treatments to the PRKCE-mediated down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2. In clinical breast cancer samples, high BCL2 expression was associated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, we found an inverse correlation between miR-31 and BCL2 expression, highlighting the functional relevance of the indirect down-regulation of BCL2 via direct targeting of PRKCE by miR-31.

  11. Hyperglycaemia promotes human brain microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of protein kinase C-ßI and prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier disruption represents a key feature in hyperglycaemia-aggravated cerebral damage after an ischaemic stroke. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to play a critical role. This study examined whether apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) might contribute to hyperglycaemia-evoked barrier damage and assessed the specific role of PKC in this phenomenon. Treatments with hyperglycaemia (25 mM) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator, 100 nM) significantly increased NADPH oxidase activity, O2 (•-) generation, proapoptotic protein Bax expression, TUNEL-positive staining and caspase-3/7 activities. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase, PKC-a, PKC-ß or PKC-ßI via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2 (•-) by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP normalised all the aforementioned increases induced by hyperglycaemia. Suppression of these PKC isoforms also negated the stimulatory effects of hyperglycaemia on the protein expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound components, Nox2 and p22-phox which determine the overall enzymatic activity. Silencing of PKC-ßI gene through use of specific siRNAs abolished the effects of both hyperglycaemia and PMA on endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activity, O2 (•-) production and apoptosis and consequently improved the integrity and function of an in vitro model of human cerebral barrier comprising HBMEC, astrocytes and pericytes. Hyperglycaemia-mediated apoptosis of HBMEC contributes to cerebral barrier dysfunction and is modulated by sequential activations of PKC-ßI and NADPH oxidase.

  12. Hyperglycaemia promotes human brain microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of protein kinase C-ßI and prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier disruption represents a key feature in hyperglycaemia-aggravated cerebral damage after an ischaemic stroke. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to play a critical role. This study examined whether apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) might contribute to hyperglycaemia-evoked barrier damage and assessed the specific role of PKC in this phenomenon. Treatments with hyperglycaemia (25 mM) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator, 100 nM) significantly increased NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- generation, proapoptotic protein Bax expression, TUNEL-positive staining and caspase-3/7 activities. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase, PKC-a, PKC-ß or PKC-ßI via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2•- by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP normalised all the aforementioned increases induced by hyperglycaemia. Suppression of these PKC isoforms also negated the stimulatory effects of hyperglycaemia on the protein expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound components, Nox2 and p22-phox which determine the overall enzymatic activity. Silencing of PKC-ßI gene through use of specific siRNAs abolished the effects of both hyperglycaemia and PMA on endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- production and apoptosis and consequently improved the integrity and function of an in vitro model of human cerebral barrier comprising HBMEC, astrocytes and pericytes. Hyperglycaemia-mediated apoptosis of HBMEC contributes to cerebral barrier dysfunction and is modulated by sequential activations of PKC-ßI and NADPH oxidase. PMID:24936444

  13. A YAC contig spanning a cluster of human type III receptor protein tyrosine kinase genes (PDGFRA-KIT-KDR) in chromosome segment 4q12

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Strunk, K.M.; Lee, S.T.

    1994-07-15

    The authors have mapped five genes encoding protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) to the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 4. PTK4 and TYRO4, which encode nonreceptor intracellular PTKs, are located at 4p12 and 4q13, respectively. The other three genes, PDGFRA, KIT, and KDR, encode type III transmembrane receptor PTKs for known ligands. The authors have developed a contig of 29 yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) spanning approximately 2 Mb of DNA at 4q12 that includes PDGFRA, KIT, and KDR, and have used this YAC contig to map 12 different sequence-tagged sites in this region. PDGFRA, KIT, and KDR thus constitute a cluster of genes at 4q12 encoding closely related type III receptor PTKs. Mutations of the human KIT gene result in piebaldism, an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development. 42 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Onion (Allium cepa L.) peel extract (OPE) regulates human sperm motility via protein kinase C-mediated activation of the human voltage-gated proton channel.

    PubMed

    Chae, M R; Kang, S J; Lee, K P; Choi, B R; Kim, H K; Park, J K; Kim, C Y; Lee, S W

    2017-09-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) and quercetin protect against oxidative damage and have positive effects on multiple functional parameters of spermatozoa, including viability and motility. However, the associated underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of onion peel extract (OPE) on voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channels, which play a critical role in rapid proton extrusion. This process underlies a wide range of physiological processes, particularly male fertility. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the changes in Hv1 currents in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human Hv1 (HVCN1). The effects of OPE on human sperm motility were also analyzed. OPE significantly activated the outward-rectifying proton currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with an EC50 value of 30 μg/mL. This effect was largely reversible upon washout. Moreover, OPE induced an increase in the proton current amplitude and decreased the time constant of activation at 0 mV from 4.9 ± 1.7 to 0.6 ± 0.1 sec (n = 6). In the presence of OPE, the half-activation voltage (V1/2 ) shifted in the negative direction, from 20.1 ± 5.8 to 5.2 ± 8.7 mV (n = 6), but the slope was not significantly altered. The OPE-induced current was profoundly inhibited by 10 μm Zn(2+) , the most potent Hv1 channel inhibitor, and was also inhibited by treatment with GF109203X, a specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. Furthermore, sperm motility was significantly increased in the OPE-treated groups. OPE exhibits protective effects on sperm motility, at least partially via regulation of the proton channel. Moreover, similar effects were exerted by quercetin, the major flavonoid in OPE. These results suggest OPE, which is rich in the potent Hv1 channel activator quercetin, as a possible new candidate treatment for human infertility. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Assessing the mechanism and therapeutic potential of modulators of the human Mediator complex-associated protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Paul A; Ortiz-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; TePoele, Robert; Adeniji-Popoola, Olajumoke; Box, Gary; Court, Will; Czasch, Stephanie; El Bawab, Samer; Esdar, Christina; Ewan, Ken; Gowan, Sharon; De Haven Brandon, Alexis; Hewitt, Phillip; Hobbs, Stephen M; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Mallinger, Aurélie; Raynaud, Florence; Roe, Toby; Rohdich, Felix; Schiemann, Kai; Simon, Stephanie; Schneider, Richard; Valenti, Melanie; Weigt, Stefan; Blagg, Julian; Blaukat, Andree; Dale, Trevor C; Eccles, Suzanne A; Hecht, Stefan; Urbahns, Klaus; Workman, Paul; Wienke, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Mediator-associated kinases CDK8/19 are context-dependent drivers or suppressors of tumorigenesis. Their inhibition is predicted to have pleiotropic effects, but it is unclear whether this will impact on the clinical utility of CDK8/19 inhibitors. We discovered two series of potent chemical probes with high selectivity for CDK8/19. Despite pharmacodynamic evidence for robust on-target activity, the compounds exhibited modest, though significant, efficacy against human tumor lines and patient-derived xenografts. Altered gene expression was consistent with CDK8/19 inhibition, including profiles associated with super-enhancers, immune and inflammatory responses and stem cell function. In a mouse model expressing oncogenic beta-catenin, treatment shifted cells within hyperplastic intestinal crypts from a stem cell to a transit amplifying phenotype. In two species, neither probe was tolerated at therapeutically-relevant exposures. The complex nature of the toxicity observed with two structurally-differentiated chemical series is consistent with on-target effects posing significant challenges to the clinical development of CDK8/19 inhibitors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20722.001 PMID:27935476

  16. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A plays a role in the directed migration of human keratinocytes in a DC electric field.

    PubMed

    Pullar, C E; Isseroff, R R; Nuccitelli, R

    2001-12-01

    Skin wound healing requires epithelial cell migration for re-epithelialization, wound closure, and re-establishment of normal function. We believe that one of the earliest signals to initiate wound healing is the lateral electric field generated by the wound current. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes migrate towards the negative pole, representing the center of the wound, in direct currents of a physiological strength, 100 mV/mm. Virtually nothing is known about the signal transduction mechanisms used by these cells to sense the endogenous electric field. To elucidate possible protein kinase (PK) involvement in the process, PK inhibitors were utilized. Two important findings have been described. Firstly, addition of 50 nM KT5720, an inhibitor of PKA, resulted in a 53% percent reduction in the directional response of keratinocytes in the electric field, while not significantly affecting general cell motility. The reduction was dose-dependent, there was a gradual decrease in the directional response from 5 to 50 nM. Secondly, addition of 1 microM ML-7, a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, resulted in an approximate 31% decrease in the distance the cells migrated without affecting directional migration. The PKC inhibitors GF109203X at 4 microM and H-7 at 20 microM and W-7, a CaM kinase inhibitor, did not significantly alter either directed migration or cell migration, although they all resulted in a slight reduction in directional migration. D-erythro-sphingosine at 15 microM, a PKC inhibitor, had virtually no effect on either migration distance or directed migration. These findings demonstrate that divergent kinase signaling pathways regulate general cell motility and sustained directional migration and highlight the complexity of the signal transduction mechanisms involved. The inhibitor studies described in this paper implicate a role for PKA in the regulation of the directional migratory response to applied electric fields, galvanotaxis. Copyright 2001 Wiley

  17. Sequestration of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor hm1-hm5 subtypes: effect of G protein-coupled receptor kinases GRK2, GRK4, GRK5 and GRK6.

    PubMed

    Tsuga, H; Okuno, E; Kameyama, K; Haga, T

    1998-03-01

    Sequestration of porcine muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes (m2 receptors) expressed in COS-7 cells is facilitated by coexpression of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (GRK2). We examined the effect of coexpression of GRK2, GRK4 delta, GRK5 and GRK6 on sequestration of human m1-m5 receptors expressed in COS-7 cells, which was assessed as loss of [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding activity from the cell surface. Sequestration of m4 receptors as well as m2 receptors was facilitated by coexpression of GRK2 and attenuated by coexpression of the dominant negative form of GRK2 (DN-GRK2). Sequestration of m3 and m5 receptors also was facilitated by coexpression of GRK2 but not affected by coexpression of DN-GRK2. On the other hand, proportions of sequestered m1 receptors were not significantly different with coexpression of GRK2 and DN-GRK2. GRK4 delta, GRK5 and GRK6 did not facilitate sequestration of m1-m5 receptors in COS-7 cells, except that the sequestration of m2 receptors tended to be facilitated by coexpression of GRK4 delta, GRK5 and GRK6. However, coexpression of GRK4 delta, GRK5, but not GRK6, in BHK-21 cells facilitated sequestration of m2, but not m3, receptors. These results indicate that the effect of GRK2 to facilitate receptor sequestration is not restricted to m2 receptors but is generalized to other muscarinic receptors except m1 receptors and that other kinases, including GRK4 delta, GRK5 and endogenous kinase(s) in COS-7 cells, also contribute to sequestration of m2 and m4 receptors.

  18. Novel protein kinase C inhibitors: alpha-terthiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S; Ashendel, C L; Zhou, Q; Chang, C T; Lee, E S; Chang, C J

    1998-10-06

    A series of alpha-terthiophene derivatives were prepared and their protein kinase C inhibitory activity were evaluated. The aldehyde derivatives were most potent inhibitors (IC50 < 1 microM). alpha-Terthiophene monoaldehyde was inactive in the inhibitions of protein kinase A, mitogen activated protein kinase and protein tyrosine kinase.

  19. Molecular Regulation of Human Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) Gene Expression in Placental Villi and Trophoblast Cells is Mediated via the Protein Kinase A Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Depoix, Christophe; Tee, Meng Kian; Taylor, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical second messenger for human trophoblasts and regulates the expression of numerous genes. It is known to stimulate in vitro the fusion and differentiation of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells, which acquire characteristics of syncytiotrophoblasts. A DNA microarray analysis of BeWo cells undergoing forskolin-induced syncytialization revealed that among the induced genes, placental growth factor (PlGF) was 10-fold upregulated. We verified this result in two choriocarcinoma cell lines, BeWo and JEG-3, and also in first trimester placental villous explants by quantifying PlGF mRNA (real time PCR) and PlGF protein secreted into the supernatant (ELISA). Similar effects were noted for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression. Treatment with cholera toxin and the use of a specific inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA) blocked these effects, indicating that the cAMP/PKA pathway is responsible for the cAMP-induced upregulation of PlGF and that one or more G protein coupled receptor(s) was involved. We identified two functional cAMP responsive elements (CRE) in the PlGF promoter and demonstrated that the CRE binding protein, CREB, contributes to the regulation of PlGF gene expression. We speculate that defects in this signaling pathway may lead to abnormal secretion of PlGF protein as observed in the pregnancy-related diseases preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:21135203

  20. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2004-10-12

    The present invention relates to 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  1. The role of protein kinase A regulation of the E6 PDZ-binding domain during the differentiation-dependent life cycle of human papillomavirus type 18.

    PubMed

    Delury, Craig P; Marsh, Elizabeth K; James, Claire D; Boon, Siaw Shi; Banks, Lawrence; Knight, Gillian L; Roberts, Sally

    2013-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins of high-risk alpha types target a select group of PSD95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins by using a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PBM), an interaction that can be negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the E6 PBM by protein kinase A (PKA). Here, we have mutated the canonical PKA recognition motif that partially overlaps with the E6 PBM in the HPV18 genome (E6153PKA) and compared the effect of this mutation on the HPVl8 life cycle in primary keratinocytes with the wild-type genome and with a second mutant genome that lacks the E6 PBM (E6ΔPDZ). Loss of PKA recognition of E6 was associated with increased growth of the genome-containing cells relative to cells carrying the wild-type genome, and upon stratification, a more hyperplastic phenotype, with an increase in the number of S-phase competent cells in the upper suprabasal layers, while the opposite was seen with the E6ΔPDZ genome. Moreover, the growth of wild-type genome-containing cells was sensitive to changes in PKA activity, and these changes were associated with increased phosphorylation of the E6 PBM. In marked contrast to E6ΔPDZ genomes, the E6153PKA mutation exhibited no deleterious effects on viral genome amplification or expression of late proteins. Our data suggest that the E6 PBM function is differentially regulated by phosphorylation in the HPV18 life cycle. We speculate that perturbation of protein kinase signaling pathways could lead to changes in E6 PBM function, which in turn could have a bearing on tumor promotion and progression.

  2. Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase regulates the expression of p21 via the E2A transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongju; Su, Yongyue; Zhao, Xiaodong; Qi, Jie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Yang, Zongcheng; Yao, Yongming; Luo, Xiangdong; Xia, Zhaofan

    2009-04-15

    CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase) is a kind of scaffolding protein that recruits or organizes other proteins at the plasma membrane to co-ordinate signal transduction pathways within the cytoplasm and nucleus. We have previously found that hCASK (human CASK) binds Id1 (inhibitor of DNA binding 1) through hCASK's GUK (guanylate kinase) domain and inhibits cell growth, probably via interactions with Id1. Overexpression of hCASK resulted in a reduced rate of cell growth, although inhibition of CASK via RNAi (RNA interference) promoted cell proliferation in ECV304 cells. This study revealed that hCASK regulates the protein and mRNA level of p21(wafi/cip1) (referred to throughout as p21), and activated the expression of p21 in a time-dependent manner. Two E-boxes in the proximal region at the TSS (transcription start site) play key roles in regulating hCASK-mediated p21 expression. We suggest that E2A (E12 and E47), a representative of the E proteins that binds the E-box elements, is a participant in the mediation of p21 expression by hCASK. The results of the present study suggest that hCASK regulation of cell growth might involve p21 expression, and that the bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor E2A probably participates in hCASK regulation of p21 expression. From these findings, we propose a novel proliferation signalling pathway mediated by hCASK.

  3. The Role of Protein Kinase A Regulation of the E6 PDZ-Binding Domain during the Differentiation-Dependent Life Cycle of Human Papillomavirus Type 18

    PubMed Central

    Delury, Craig P.; Marsh, Elizabeth K.; James, Claire D.; Boon, Siaw Shi; Banks, Lawrence; Knight, Gillian L.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins of high-risk alpha types target a select group of PSD95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins by using a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PBM), an interaction that can be negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the E6 PBM by protein kinase A (PKA). Here, we have mutated the canonical PKA recognition motif that partially overlaps with the E6 PBM in the HPV18 genome (E6153PKA) and compared the effect of this mutation on the HPVl8 life cycle in primary keratinocytes with the wild-type genome and with a second mutant genome that lacks the E6 PBM (E6ΔPDZ). Loss of PKA recognition of E6 was associated with increased growth of the genome-containing cells relative to cells carrying the wild-type genome, and upon stratification, a more hyperplastic phenotype, with an increase in the number of S-phase competent cells in the upper suprabasal layers, while the opposite was seen with the E6ΔPDZ genome. Moreover, the growth of wild-type genome-containing cells was sensitive to changes in PKA activity, and these changes were associated with increased phosphorylation of the E6 PBM. In marked contrast to E6ΔPDZ genomes, the E6153PKA mutation exhibited no deleterious effects on viral genome amplification or expression of late proteins. Our data suggest that the E6 PBM function is differentially regulated by phosphorylation in the HPV18 life cycle. We speculate that perturbation of protein kinase signaling pathways could lead to changes in E6 PBM function, which in turn could have a bearing on tumor promotion and progression. PMID:23804647

  4. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits nuclear factor-κB and protein kinase B signalling pathways and induces caspase-3 expression in primary human CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L-C; Chu, K-H; Liang, Y-C; Lin, Y-L; Chiang, B-L

    2010-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component in propolis, is known to have anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. In this study, the effects of CAPE on the functions of primary human CD4+ T cells were evaluated in vitro. CAPE significantly suppressed interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-5 production and proliferation of CD4+ T cells stimulated by soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in both healthy subjects and asthmatic patients. CAPE inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in T cells. CAPE also induced active caspase-3 expression in CD4+ T cells; CCR4+CD4+ T cells were more sensitive to CAPE induction than CXCR3+CD4+ T cells. Together, these results indicate that CAPE inhibits cytokine production and proliferation of T cells, which might be related to the NF-κB and Akt signalling pathways, and that CCR4+CD4+ T cells are more sensitive to CAPE inhibition. This study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of CAPE for immune regulation and a rationale for the use of propolis for the treatment of allergic disorders. PMID:20059479

  5. The protein activator of protein kinase R, PACT/RAX, negatively regulates protein kinase R during mouse anterior pituitary development.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, Benjamin K; White, Christine L; Kessler, Patricia M; Sadler, Anthony J; Williams, Bryan R G; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-12-01

    The murine double-stranded RNA-binding protein termed protein kinase R (PKR)-associated protein X (RAX) and the human homolog, protein activator of PKR (PACT), were originally characterized as activators of PKR. Mice deficient in RAX show reproductive and developmental defects, including reduced body size, craniofacial defects and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. As these defects are not observed in PKR-deficient mice, the phenotype has been attributed to PKR-independent activities of RAX. Here we further investigated the involvement of PKR in the physiological function of RAX, by generating rax(-/-) mice deficient in PKR, or carrying a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR (K271R) or an unphosphorylatable mutant of the PKR substrate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α subunit (eIF2α) (S51A). Ablating PKR expression rescued the developmental and reproductive deficiencies in rax(-/-) mice. Generating rax(-/-) mice with a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR resulted in similar rescue, confirming that the rax(-/-) defects are PKR dependent; specifically that the kinase activity of PKR was required for these defects. Moreover, generating rax(-/-) mice that were heterozygous for an unphosphorylatable mutant eIF2α provides partial rescue of the rax(-/-) defect, consistent with mutation of one copy of the Eif2s1 gene. These observations were further investigated in vitro by reducing RAX expression in anterior pituitary cells, resulting in increased PKR activity and induction of the PKR-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1). These results demonstrate that PKR kinase activity is required for onset of the rax(-/-) phenotype, implying an unexpected function for RAX as a negative regulator of PKR in the context of postnatal anterior pituitary tissue, and identify a critical role for the regulation of PKR activity for normal development.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of gene cascades involved in protein kinase A and C signalling in the KGN line of human ovarian granulosa tumour cells1.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Patricia G; Sirard, Marc-André

    2017-04-05

    The developmental competence of an oocyte is its capacity to resume maturation, undergo successful fertilization and reach the blastocyst stage. This competence is acquired through interaction with somatic cells of the follicle. Cumulus and granulosa cells support oocyte development while the oocyte influences follicular cell growth and differentiation. Studies suggest that follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone play an essential role in oocyte competence acquisition through signalling initiated by protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC) in granulosa cells. Using a microarray and RT-qPCR, the transcriptome of human granulosa-like tumour cells (KGN) treated for 24 h with forskolin (FSK) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was analyzed to determine the effects of PKA and PKC stimulation on gene expression. Protein-kinase-driven signalling appeared to involve five major upstream regulators, namely EGF, TGFB1, VEGF, FGF2 and HGF. Genes associations with seven major ovarian functions were identified: PTGS2, IL8 and IL6 with inflammation; STAR, CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 with steroidogenesis; VEGFC, VEGFA and CXCR4 with angiogenesis; AREG, EGFR and SPRY2 with differentiation, BAX, BCL2L12 and CASP1 with apoptosis, CCND1, CCNB1 and CCNB2 with division and MMP1, MMP9 and TIMP1 with ovulation. These results indicate overall that signalling via both PKA and PKC potentiates gene regulation of functions such as inflammation and apoptosis, while functions such as differentiation, ovulation and angiogenesis are partial to one kinase or the other. These results improve understanding of the pathways underlying the most important changes that occur in the follicle prior to ovulation.

  7. Dynamics driven allostery in protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kornev, Alexandr P.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases have very dynamic structures and their functionality strongly depends on their dynamic state. Active kinases reveal a dynamic pattern with residues clustering into semirigid communities that move in µs-ms timescale. Previously detected hydrophobic spines serve as connectors between communities. Communities do not follow the traditional subdomain structure of the kinase core or its secondary structure elements. Instead they are organized around main functional units. Integration of the communities depends on the assembly of the hydrophobic spine and phosphorylation of the activation loop. Single mutations can significantly disrupt the dynamic infrastructure and thereby interfere with long distance allosteric signaling that propagates throughout the whole molecule. Dynamics is proposed to be the underlying mechanism for allosteric regulation in protein kinases. PMID:26481499

  8. Pharmacological activators of AMP-activated protein kinase have different effects on Na+ transport processes across human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Woollhead, A M; Sivagnanasundaram, J; Kalsi, K K; Pucovsky, V; Pellatt, L J; Scott, J W; Mustard, K J; Hardie, D G; Baines, D L

    2007-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by metformin, phenformin, and the AMP mimetic, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). We have completed an extensive study of the pharmacological effects of these drugs on AMPK activation, adenine nucleotide concentration, transepithelial amiloride-sensitive (I(amiloride)) and ouabain-sensitive basolateral (I(ouabain)) short circuit current in H441 lung epithelial cells. H441 cells were grown on permeable filters at air interface. I(amiloride), I(ouabain) and transepithelial resistance were measured in Ussing chambers. AMPK activity was measured as the amount of radiolabelled phosphate transferred to the SAMS peptide. Adenine nucleotide concentration was analysed by reverse phase HPLC and NAD(P)H autofluorescence was measured using confocal microscopy. Phenformin, AICAR and metformin increased AMPK (alpha1) activity and decreased I(amiloride). The AMPK inhibitor Compound C prevented the action of metformin and AICAR but not phenformin. Phenformin and AICAR decreased I(ouabain) across H441 monolayers and decreased monolayer resistance. The decrease in I(amiloride) was closely related to I(ouabain) with phenformin, but not in AICAR treated monolayers. Metformin and phenformin increased the cellular AMP:ATP ratio but only phenformin and AICAR decreased cellular ATP. Activation of alpha1-AMPK is associated with inhibition of apical amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channels (ENaC), which has important implications for the clinical use of metformin. Additional pharmacological effects evoked by AICAR and phenformin on I(ouabain), with potential secondary effects on apical Na+ conductance, ENaC activity and monolayer resistance, have important consequences for their use as pharmacological activators of AMPK in cell systems where Na+K+ATPase is an important component.

  9. Protein kinase CK2 in development and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Claudia; Montenarh, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Among the human kinomes, protein kinase CK2 (formerly termed casein kinase II) is considered to be essential, as it is implicated in the regulation of various cellular processes. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors of the kinase activity of CK2 provide evidence that CK2 is essential for development and differentiation. Therefore, the present review addresses the role of CK2 during embryogenesis, neuronal, adipogenic, osteogenic and myogenic differentiation in established model cell lines, and in embryonic, neural and mesenchymal stem cells. CK2 kinase activity appears to be essential in the early stages of differentiation, as CK2 inhibition at early time points generally prevents differentiation. In addition, the present review reports on target proteins of CK2 in embryogenesis and differentiation. PMID:28357063

  10. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent intracellular signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Frasch, S C; Nick, J A; Fadok, V A; Bratton, D L; Worthen, G S; Henson, P M

    1998-04-03

    Human neutrophils undergo apoptosis spontaneously when cultured in vitro; however, the signal transduction pathways involved remain largely unknown. In some cell types, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) have been implicated in the pathways leading to stress-induced apoptosis. In this study, we begin to define two pathways leading to apoptosis in the neutrophil induced either by stress stimuli (UV, hyperosmolarity, sphingosine) or by anti-Fas antibody or overnight culture in vitro (spontaneous apoptosis). Apoptosis induced by stress stimuli activated p38 MAPK, and apoptosis was inhibited by the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor, 6-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2.3-dihydro-5-(4-puridinyl)imidazo(2, 1-beta)thiazole dihydrochloride. Furthermore, differentiation of HL-60 cells toward the neutrophil phenotype resulted in a loss in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation with concomitant acquisition of formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine-stimulatable and stress-inducible p38 MAPK activity as well as apoptosis blockade by the p38 MAPK inhibitor. In contrast, anti-Fas-induced or spontaneous apoptosis occurred independent of p38 MAPK activation and was not blocked by the inhibitor. Both pathways appear to utilize member(s) of the caspase family, since pretreatment with either Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone or Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone inhibited apoptosis induced by each of the stimuli. We propose the presence of at least two pathways leading to apoptosis in human neutrophils, a stress-activated pathway that is dependent on p38 MAPK activation and an anti-FAS/spontaneous pathway that is p38 MAPK-independent.

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  12. ITC-derived binding affinity may be biased due to titrant (nano)-aggregation. Binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the catalytic domain of human protein kinase CK2

    PubMed Central

    Winiewska, Maria; Bugajska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The binding of four bromobenzotriazoles to the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 was assessed by two complementary methods: Microscale Thermophoresis (MST) and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). New algorithm proposed for the global analysis of MST pseudo-titration data enabled reliable determination of binding affinities for two distinct sites, a relatively strong one with the Kd of the order of 100 nM and a substantially weaker one (Kd > 1 μM). The affinities for the strong binding site determined for the same protein-ligand systems using ITC were in most cases approximately 10-fold underestimated. The discrepancy was assigned directly to the kinetics of ligand nano-aggregates decay occurring upon injection of the concentrated ligand solution to the protein sample. The binding affinities determined in the reverse ITC experiment, in which ligands were titrated with a concentrated protein solution, agreed with the MST-derived data. Our analysis suggests that some ITC-derived Kd values, routinely reported together with PDB structures of protein-ligand complexes, may be biased due to the uncontrolled ligand (nano)-aggregation, which may occur even substantially below the solubility limit. PMID:28273138

  13. meso-Dihydroguaiaretic acid inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Kyung Jin; Kim, Daeyoung; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation is a major risk factor for dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance. The present study was conducted to evaluate hypolipidemic effects of meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDA), anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory compound isolated from the Myristica fragrans HOUTT., by oil red O staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot. MDA significantly inhibited insulin-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. The lipid-lowering effect of MDA was accompanied by increased expression of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation and decreased expression of lipid synthetic proteins. In addition, MDA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as determined by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK. The effects of MDA on lipogenic protein expression were suppressed by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Taken together, these findings show that MDA inhibits insulin-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 cells by suppressing expression of lipogenic proteins through AMPK signaling, suggesting a potent lipid-lowering agent.

  14. ITC-derived binding affinity may be biased due to titrant (nano)-aggregation. Binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the catalytic domain of human protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Winiewska, Maria; Bugajska, Ewa; Poznański, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    The binding of four bromobenzotriazoles to the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 was assessed by two complementary methods: Microscale Thermophoresis (MST) and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). New algorithm proposed for the global analysis of MST pseudo-titration data enabled reliable determination of binding affinities for two distinct sites, a relatively strong one with the Kd of the order of 100 nM and a substantially weaker one (Kd > 1 μM). The affinities for the strong binding site determined for the same protein-ligand systems using ITC were in most cases approximately 10-fold underestimated. The discrepancy was assigned directly to the kinetics of ligand nano-aggregates decay occurring upon injection of the concentrated ligand solution to the protein sample. The binding affinities determined in the reverse ITC experiment, in which ligands were titrated with a concentrated protein solution, agreed with the MST-derived data. Our analysis suggests that some ITC-derived Kd values, routinely reported together with PDB structures of protein-ligand complexes, may be biased due to the uncontrolled ligand (nano)-aggregation, which may occur even substantially below the solubility limit.

  15. Imatinib quantification in human serum with LC-MS3 as an effective way of protein kinase inhibitor analysis in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Dziadosz, Marek; Klintschar, Michael; Teske, Jörg

    2017-08-08

    As imatinib gained a lot of attention in the field of medicine, appropriate methods are needed for drug analysis. LC-MS/MS combined with complex sample preparation and column enrichment is usually the method of choice when high sensitivity is necessary. The application of LC-MS3 in imatinib quantification has not been discussed in the literature. An LC-MS3 imatinib quantification method was developed and validated in human serum. The sample preparation was based on the liquid-liquid extraction of 50 μL human serum. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna 5 μm C18 (2) 100 A, 150 mm×2 mm column and the elution was done using a mobile phase consisting of A (H2O/methanol=95/5, v/v) and B (H2O/methanol=3/97, v/v), both with 10 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% acetic acid. The conditions applied resulted in a limit of detection/quantification value of 0.14/0.45 ng/mL reached without a sophisticated sample preparation technique or enrichment column application. It could be demonstrated that MS3 detection is a very effective way of sensitive imatinib quantification. Further, it could be stated that the strategy presented can be very useful for a sensitive analysis of other protein kinase inhibitors, because their molecule structure is appropriate for MS3 detection. The presented analytical strategy is an effective way of protein kinase inhibitor analysis in human serum.

  16. Dual activators of Protein Kinase R (PKR) and Protein Kinase R Like Kinase (PERK) Identify Common and Divergent Catalytic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Jie; Sun, Hong; Cao, Peng; Fusco, Dahlene N.; Chung, Raymond T.; Chorev, Michael; Jin, Qi; Aktas, Bertal H.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical genetics has evolved into a powerful tool for studying gene function in normal- and patho-biology. PKR and PERK, two eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) kinases, play critical roles in maintenance of cellular hemostasis, metabolic stability, and anti-viral defenses. Both kinases interact with and phosphorylate additional substrates including tumor suppressor p53 and nuclear protein 90. Loss of function of both kinases has been studied by reverse genetics and recently identified inhibitors. In contrast, activating probes for studying the role of catalytic activity of these kinases are not available. We identified a 3-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one (DHBDC) as specific dual activator of PKR and PERK by screening a chemical library of 20,000 small molecules in a dual luciferase surrogate eIF2α phosphorylation assay. We present here extensive biological characterization and preliminary structure-activity relationship of DHBDC, which phosphorylate eIF2α by activating PKR and PERK but no other eIF2α kinases. These agents also activate downstream effectors of eIF2α phosphorylation; inducing CHOP and suppressing cyclin D1 expression and inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, all in a manner dependent on PKR and PERK. Consistent with the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in viral infection, DHBDC inhibits proliferation of human hepatitis C virus. Finally, DHBDC induces phosphorylation of Ikβα, and activates NF-κB pathway. Surprisingly, activation of NF-κB pathway is dependent on PERK but independent of PKR activity. These data indicate that DHBDC is an invaluable probe for elucidating the role of PKR and PERK in normal- and patho-biology. PMID:23784735

  17. Extracellular ATP stimulates the early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway in the human osteoblastic HOBIT cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Pines, Alex; Romanello, Milena; Cesaratto, Laura; Damante, Giuseppe; Moro, Luigi; D'andrea, Paola; Tell, Gianluca

    2003-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides exert an important role in controlling cell physiology by activating intracellular signalling cascades. Osteoblast HOBIT cells express P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) G-protein-coupled receptors, and respond to extracellular ATP by increasing cytosolic calcium concentrations. Early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) is a C(2)H(2)-zinc-finger-containing transcriptional regulator responsible for the activation of several genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and is thought to have a central role in osteoblast biology. We show that ATP treatment of HOBIT cells increases Egr-1 protein levels and binding activity via a mechanism involving a Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C isoform. Moreover, hypotonic stress and increased medium turbulence, by inducing ATP release, result in a similar effect on Egr-1. Increased levels of Egr-1 protein expression and activity are achieved at very early times after stimulation (5 min), possibly accounting for a rapid way for changing the osteoblast gene-expression profile. A target gene for Egr-1 that is fundamental in osteoblast physiology, COL1A2, is up-regulated by ATP stimulation of HOBIT cells in a timescale that is compatible with that of Egr-1 activation. PMID:12729460

  18. G protein-coupled receptor kinases: more than just kinases and not only for GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Tesmer, John J. G.; Mushegian, Arcady; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are best known for their role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. GRKs phosphorylate activated receptors and promote high affinity binding of arrestins, which precludes G protein coupling. GRKs have a multidomain structure, with the kinase domain inserted into a loop of a regulator of G protein signaling homology domain. Unlike many other kinases, GRKs do not need to be phosphorylated in their activation loop to achieve an activated state. Instead, they are directly activated by docking with active GPCRs. In this manner they are able to selectively phosphorylate Ser/Thr residues on only the activated form of the receptor, unlike related kinases such as protein kinase A. GRKs also phosphorylate a variety of non-GPCR substrates and regulate several signaling pathways via direct interactions with other proteins in a phosphorylation-independent manner. Multiple GRK subtypes are present in virtually every animal cell, with the highest expression levels found in neurons, with their extensive and complex signal regulation. Insufficient or excessive GRK activity was implicated in a variety of human disorders, ranging from heart failure to depression to Parkinson’s disease. As key regulators of GPCR-dependent and -independent signaling pathways, GRKs are emerging drug targets and promising molecular tools for therapy. Targeted modulation of expression and/or of activity of several GRK isoforms for therapeutic purposes was recently validated in cardiac disorders and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:21903131

  19. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  20. Malassezia furfur induces the expression of beta-defensin-2 in human keratinocytes in a protein kinase C-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Giovanna; Paoletti, Iole; Buommino, Elisabetta; Orlando, Manuela; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Baroni, Adone

    2004-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family are expressed in all human epithelial tissues tested to date and have recently been the subject of vigorous investigation. Their localization and characteristics support the hypothesis that these peptides play a role in mucosal and skin defense. The lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur is a saprophyte found in normal human cutaneous flora. Malassezia furfur is not only a saprophyte, but is also associated with several diseases such as Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and some forms of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis. Little is known about the mechanism by which M. furfur overcomes the natural barrier of the skin. To further define the role of the beta-defensins in the innate human skin immune response, we analyzed the mRNA expression of two human beta-defensins HBD-1 and HBD-2 in human keratinocytes treated with M. furfur. In addition, we looked into how M. furfur of TGF-beta1 and IL-10, cytokines that interfere with the development of protective cell immunity, regulate their expression. Finally, we examined the signal transduction mechanisms involved during M. furfur uptake. Cultured human keratinocytes were treated with M. furfur. The mRNA and protein expression were analyzed, respectively, by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Our data demonstrate that M. furfur does not modify HBD-1 expression, whereas it up-regulates, via protein kinase C (PKC), the expression of HBD-2, TGFbeta-1 and IL-10 48 h after treatment. Our results suggest that beta-defensins are integral components of innate host defenses. They play an essential part in the resistance of the human skin surfaces against M. furfur uptake and other microbial invasion.

  1. Epigenetic modulation of the protein kinase A RIIα (PRKAR2A) gene by histone deacetylases 1 and 2 in human smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Loughney, Andrew D; Robson, Stephen C; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Recently we reported that the expression of the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIIα is dynamically regulated in human smooth muscle cells of the uterus. We showed that expression levels of mRNA/protein were substantially increased during pregnancy and decreased upon labour, changes that were mirrored by particulate type II PKA activity. This implied an important role for RIIα in maintaining uterine quiescence during pregnancy. Consequently the purpose of the present study was to identify potential mechanisms by which expression of the RIIα gene was regulated in this tissue. We indicate here that the three SpI-III (GC) binding domains within the proximal promoter region of the human RIIα gene may play important roles in modulating expression of the gene in human myometrial cells. We show that all three GC binding domains are involved in binding Sp1, Sp3, histone deacetylase (HDACs) 1/2 and RbAp48 transcriptional complexes. The functional significance of these binding domains was further analysed employing in vitro luciferase reporter assays with full-length/truncated RIIα promoter constructs. Importantly we show that treatment of primary human myometrial cell cultures with the general class I/II HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A results in an increase in mRNA/protein levels. Moreover the increase in mRNA levels appeared to be preceded by an increase in aH3, PolIIa, Sp3 and HDAC 2 binding to the three SpI-III (GC) binding sites within the RIIα promoter. These results enable us to provide a model whereby RIIα expression is epigenetically regulated in human myometrial smooth muscle cells by histone deacetylase(s) activity within the GC-rich proximal promoter region of the gene.

  2. Enterovirus 71 VP1 activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and results in the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Haolong, Cong; Du, Ning; Hongchao, Tian; Yang, Yang; Wei, Zhang; Hua, Zhang; Wenliang, Zhang; Lei, Song; Po, Tien

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human.

  3. Novel human neutrophil agonistic properties of arsenic trioxide: involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and/or c-jun NH2-terminal MAPK but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Girard, Denis

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and for inducing apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in promyelocytes and cancer cells. We recently reported that ATO induces neutrophil apoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not ATO recruits MAPKs in neutrophils, as well as to further investigate its agonistic properties. We found that ATO activates p38 and that, unlike H2O2, this response was not inhibited by exogenous catalase. Also, we demonstrated that ATO-induced p38 activation occurs before H2O2 generation and without a calcium burst. We next established that ATO recruits c-jun NH2-terminal (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk-1/2). Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that the proapoptotic activity of ATO occurs by a MAPK-independent mechanism. In contrast, the ability of ATO to enhance adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, release, and activity of gelatinase and degranulation of secretory, specific, and gelatinase, but not azurophilic granules, is dependent upon activation of p38 and/or JNK. This is the first study establishing that ATO possesses important agonistic properties in human neutrophils. Given the central role of neutrophils in various inflammatory disorders, we propose that ATO might have broader therapeutic implications in clinics, especially for regulating inflammation.

  4. Controls of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Signaling Activity by 5’-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation With Examples in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Generally, both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and hypoxia-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) effects are alleviated through differential posttranslational modification of NF-κB phosphorylation after pretreatment with 5´-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators such as 5´-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) or the hypoglycemic agent metformin. We found that AICAR or metformin acts as a regulator of LPS/NF-κB-or hypoxia/NF-κB-mediated cyclooxygenase induction by an AMPK-dependent mechanism with interactions between p65-NF-κB phosphorylation and acetylation, including in a human bladder cancer cell line (T24). In summary, we highlighted the regulatory interactions of AMPK activity on NF-κB induction, particularly in posttranslational phosphorylation and acetylation of NF-κB under inflammatory conditions or hypoxia environment. PMID:27706018

  5. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is a target for selective kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Kayode K; Larson, Eric T; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Castaneda, Lisa J; DeRocher, Amy E; Inampudi, Krishna K; Kim, Jessica E; Arakaki, Tracy L; Murphy, Ryan C; Zhang, Li; Napuli, Alberto J; Maly, Dustin J; Verlinde, Christophe LMJ; Buckner, Frederick S; Parsons, Marilyn; Hol, Wim GJ; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2010-01-01

    New drugs are needed to treat toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinases (TgCDPKs) are attractive targets because they are absent in mammals. We show that TgCDPK1 is inhibited by low nanomolar levels of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), compounds designed to be inactive against mammalian kinases. Cocrystal structures of TgCDPK1 with BKIs confirm that the structural basis for selectivity is due to the unique glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP-binding site at residue 128. We show that BKIs interfere with an early step in T. gondii infection of human cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that TgCDPK1 is the in vivo target of BKIs because T. gondii cells expressing a glycine to methionine gatekeeper mutant enzyme show significantly decreased sensitivity to this class of selective kinase inhibitors. Thus, design of selective TgCDPK1 inhibitors with low host toxicity may be achievable. PMID:20436472

  6. Requirement of T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase for TRAIL resistance of human HeLa cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyeok-Ran; Lee, Ki Won; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Kyung Bok; Oh, Sang-Muk

    2010-01-01

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) appears to be highly expressed in various cancer cells and to play an important role in maintaining proliferation of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism by which TOPK regulates growth of cancer cells remains elusive. Here we report that upregulated endogenous TOPK augments resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Stable knocking down of TOPK markedly increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of human HeLa cervical cancer cells, as compared with control cells. Caspase 8 or caspase 3 activities in response to TRAIL were greatly incremented in TOPK-depleted cells. Ablation of TOPK negatively regulated TRAIL-mediated NF-{kappa}B activity. Furthermore, expression of NF-{kappa}B-dependent genes, FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1), or X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was reduced in TOPK-depleted cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that TOPK contributed to TRAIL resistance of cancer cells via NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that TOPK might be a potential molecular target for successful cancer therapy using TRAIL.

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase--an archetypal protein kinase cascade?

    PubMed

    Hardie, D G; MacKintosh, R W

    1992-10-01

    Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase is the central component of a protein kinase cascade which inactivates three key enzymes involved in the synthesis or release of free fatty acids and cholesterol inside the cell. The kinase cascade is activated by elevation of AMP, and perhaps also by fatty acid and cholesterol metabolites. The system may fulfil a protective function, preventing damage caused by depletion of ATP or excessive intracellular release of free lipids, a type of stress response. Recent evidence suggests that it may have been in existence for at least a billion years, since a very similar protein kinase cascade is present in higher plants. This system therefore represents an early eukaryotic protein kinase cascade, which is unique in that it is regulated by intracellular metabolites rather than extracellular signals or cell cycle events.

  8. Paradoxical stimulation and inhibition by protein kinase C modulating agents of lipopolysaccharide evoked production of tumour necrosis factor in human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, R G; Weakland, L L; Alberts, V A

    1992-01-01

    Human blood monocytes were activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for cytotoxicity of WEHI-164 mouse fibrosarcoma cells, determined by release of 51Cr from WEHI-164 tumour cells incubated with monocyte supernatants. The chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) augmented LPS-induced cytotoxicity but had no effect alone. FMLP but not LPS stimulated phospholipase C (PLC), determined by the release of [3H]inositol phosphates. Addition of tumour promoter and protein kinase C stimulant, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) at concentrations of 3 x 10(-10) M to 3 x 10(-9) M, resulted in an augmentation of 30-200% in LPS-evoked cytotoxicity. The effects of FMLP and PMA, like the effect of LPS alone, were completely blocked by antibody to recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), indicating that cytotoxicity induced by LPS, FMLP, and PMA were due solely to TNF release. Concentrations of PMA greater than 3 x 10(-9) M caused inhibition of TNF release. Okadaic acid (20 ng/ml), an inhibitor of phosphatases I and IIa, augmented the effects of LPS and the stimulatory effects of low levels of PMA, suggesting that phosphorylation was important in the actions of both LPS and PMA. The effects of LPS and of low levels of PMA were augmented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors H-7 (10-30 microM), staurosporine (2-10 nM) and calphostin C (0.1 microM). Higher concentrations of the inhibitors prevented LPS-evoked TNF release and its augmentation by low levels of PMA. However, they did not prevent the inhibition by high levels of PMA. One possible explanation for the results is that different isozymes of PKC may mediate the stimulatory as compared to the inhibitory effects of PKC on TNF production. PMID:1628900

  9. Protein kinase D1 stimulates proliferation and enhances tumorigenesis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through a MEK/ERK-dependent signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, Manale; Legay, Christine; Auclair, Christian; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2012-03-10

    Protein kinase D1, PKD1, is a novel serine/threonine kinase whose altered expression and dysregulation in many tumors as well as its activation by several mitogens suggest that this protein could regulate proliferation and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, the precise signaling pathways used are still unclear and the potential direct role of PKD1 in tumor development and progression has not been yet investigated. In order to clarify the role of PKD1 in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, we studied the effects of PKD1 overexpression in a human adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. We demonstrated that overexpression of PKD1 specifically promotes MCF-7 cell proliferation through accelerating G0/G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous PKD1 significantly reduced cell proliferation. Taken together, these results clearly strengthen the regulatory role of PKD1 in cell growth. We also demonstrated that overexpression of PKD1 specifically diminished serum- and anchorage-dependence for proliferation and survival in vitro and allowed MCF-7 cells to form tumors in vivo. Thus, all these data highlight the central role of PKD1 in biological processes which are hallmarks of malignant transformation. Analysis of two major signaling pathways implicated in MCF-7 cell proliferation showed that PKD1 overexpression significantly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation state without affecting Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, PKD1 overexpression-stimulated cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth were totally impaired by inhibition of the MEK/ERK kinase cascade. However, neither of these effects was affected by blocking the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, the MEK/ERK signaling appears to be a determining pathway mediating the biological effects of PKD1 in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, all these data demonstrate that PKD1 overexpression increases the aggressiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through enhancing their oncogenic

  10. Multiple protein kinase pathways mediate amplified IL-6 release by human lung fibroblasts co-exposed to nickel and TLR-2 agonist, MALP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Brant, Kelly A.; Ward, Rachel M.; Cattley, Richard T.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Fabisiak, James P.

    2010-09-01

    Microbial stimuli and atmospheric particulate matter (PM) interact to amplify the release of inflammatory and immune-modulating cytokines. The basis of this interaction, however, is not known. Cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLF) were used to determine whether various protein kinase pathways were involved in the release of IL-6 following combined exposure to the PM-derived metal, Ni, and M. fermentans-derived macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2), a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. Synergistic release of IL-6 by MALP-2 and NiSO{sub 4} was obvious after 8 h of co-stimulation and correlated with a late phase accumulation of IL-6 mRNA. Ni and MALP-2, alone or together, all led to rapid and transient phosphorylations of ERK{sub 1/2} and JNK/SAPK of similar magnitude. p38 phosphorylation, however, was observed only after prolonged treatment of cells with both stimuli together. A constitutive level of PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation remained unchanged by Ni and/or MALP-2 exposure. IL-6 induced by Ni/MALP-2 co-exposure was partially dependent on activity of HIF-1{alpha} and COX-2 as shown by targeted knockdown using siRNA. IL-6 release in response to Ni/MALP-2 was partially sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of ERK{sub 1/2}, p38, and PI3K signaling. The protein kinase inhibitors had minimal or no effects on Ni/MALP-2-induced accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} protein, however, COX-2 expression and, more markedly PGE{sub 2} production, were suppressed by LY294002, SB203580, and U0126. Thus, Ni/MALP-2 interactions involve multiple protein kinase pathways (ERK{sub 1/2}, p38, and PI3K) that modulate events downstream from the early accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} to promote IL-6 gene expression directly or secondarily, through COX-2-derived autocrine products like PGE{sub 2}.

  11. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK3β) Negatively Regulates PTTG1/Human Securin Protein Stability, and GSK3β Inactivation Correlates with Securin Accumulation in Breast Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Santos, Mar; Limón-Mortés, M. Cristina; Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á.; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, securin is targeted for proteasomal destruction by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome, allowing activation of separase. In addition, securin is overexpressed in metastatic or genomically instable tumors, suggesting a relevant role for securin in tumor progression. Stability of securin is regulated by phosphorylation; some phosphorylated forms are degraded out of mitosis, by the action of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex. The kinases targeting securin for proteolysis have not been identified, and mechanistic insight into the cause of securin accumulation in human cancers is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylates securin to promote its proteolysis via SCFβTrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, a strong correlation between securin accumulation and GSK3β inactivation was observed in breast cancer tissues, indicating that GSK3β inactivation may account for securin accumulation in breast cancers. PMID:21757741

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) negatively regulates PTTG1/human securin protein stability, and GSK3beta inactivation correlates with securin accumulation in breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Mora-Santos, Mar; Limón-Mortés, M Cristina; Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2011-08-26

    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, securin is targeted for proteasomal destruction by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome, allowing activation of separase. In addition, securin is overexpressed in metastatic or genomically instable tumors, suggesting a relevant role for securin in tumor progression. Stability of securin is regulated by phosphorylation; some phosphorylated forms are degraded out of mitosis, by the action of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex. The kinases targeting securin for proteolysis have not been identified, and mechanistic insight into the cause of securin accumulation in human cancers is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylates securin to promote its proteolysis via SCF(βTrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, a strong correlation between securin accumulation and GSK3β inactivation was observed in breast cancer tissues, indicating that GSK3β inactivation may account for securin accumulation in breast cancers.

  13. LIM kinases: function, regulation and association with human disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca W; Olson, Michael F

    2007-06-01

    The LIM kinase family consists of just two members: LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) and LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2). With uniquely organised signalling domains, LIM kinases are regulated by several upstream signalling pathways, principally acting downstream of Rho GTPases to influence the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton by regulating the activity of the cofilin family proteins cofilin1, cofilin2 and destrin. Although the LIM kinases are very homologous, particularly when comparing kinase domains, there is emerging evidence that each may be subject to different regulatory pathways and may contribute to both distinct and overlapping cellular and developmental functions. Normal central nervous system development is reliant upon the presence of LIMK1, and its deletion has been implicated in the development of the human genetic disorder Williams syndrome. Normal testis development, on the other hand, is disrupted by the deletion of LIMK2. In addition, the possible involvement of each kinase in cardiovascular disorders as well as cancer has recently emerged. The LIM kinases have been proposed to play an important role in tumour-cell invasion and metastasis; fine-tuning the balance between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated cofilin may be a significant determinant of tumour-cell metastatic potential. In this review, we outline the structure, regulation and function of LIM kinases and their functions at cellular and organismal levels, as well as their possible contributions to human disease.

  14. Intracellular calcium changes induced by the endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of protein kinase C and effect of calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Cattaneo, Simona; Frigo, Giuseppina; Fietta, Anna M; Lecchini, Sergio; Frigo, Gian Mario

    2004-06-30

    BACKGROUND: The endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN) induces intracellular calcium ([Ca++]i) changes followed by activation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of protein kinase (PK) C in the modulation of the response to TTN by human PMNs, and to examine the pharmacology of TTN-induced Ca++ entry through the plasma membrane of these cells. RESULTS: The PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) concentration-dependently inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise, and this effect was reverted by the PKC inhibitors rottlerin (partially) and Ro 32-0432 (completely). PMA also inhibited TTN-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. In the absence of PMA, however, rottlerin (but not Ro 32-0432) per se partially inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise. The response of [Ca++]i to TTN was also sensitive to mibefradil and flunarizine (T-type Ca++-channel blockers), but not to nifedipine, verapamil (L-type) or omega-conotoxin GVIA (N-type). In agreement with this observation, PCR analysis showed the expression in human PMNs of the mRNA for all the alpha1 subunits of T-type Ca++ channels (namely, alpha1G, alpha1H, and alpha1I). CONCLUSIONS: In human PMNs TTN activates PKC-modulated pathways leading to Ca++ entry possibly through T-type Ca++ channels.

  15. Intracellular calcium changes induced by the endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of protein kinase C and effect of calcium channel blockers

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Cattaneo, Simona; Frigo, Giuseppina; Fietta, Anna M; Lecchini, Sergio; Frigo, Gian Mario

    2004-01-01

    Background The endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN) induces intracellular calcium ([Ca++]i) changes followed by activation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of protein kinase (PK) C in the modulation of the response to TTN by human PMNs, and to examine the pharmacology of TTN-induced Ca++ entry through the plasma membrane of these cells. Results The PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) concentration-dependently inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise, and this effect was reverted by the PKC inhibitors rottlerin (partially) and Ro 32-0432 (completely). PMA also inhibited TTN-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. In the absence of PMA, however, rottlerin (but not Ro 32-0432) per se partially inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise. The response of [Ca++]i to TTN was also sensitive to mibefradil and flunarizine (T-type Ca++-channel blockers), but not to nifedipine, verapamil (L-type) or ω-conotoxin GVIA (N-type). In agreement with this observation, PCR analysis showed the expression in human PMNs of the mRNA for all the α1 subunits of T-type Ca++ channels (namely, α1G, α1H, and α1I). Conclusions In human PMNs TTN activates PKC-modulated pathways leading to Ca++ entry possibly through T-type Ca++ channels. PMID:15228623

  16. Loss-of-function of the protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) causes a B-cell lymphoproliferative syndrome in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Hye Sun; Niemela, Julie E.; Rangel-Santos, Andreia; Zhang, Mingchang; Pittaluga, Stefania; Stoddard, Jennifer L.; Hussey, Ashleigh A.; Evbuomwan, Moses O.; Priel, Debra A. Long; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Park, C. Lucy; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Uzel, Gulbu

    2013-01-01

    Defective lymphocyte apoptosis results in chronic lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly associated with autoimmune phenomena. The prototype for human apoptosis disorders is the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is caused by mutations in the FAS apoptotic pathway. Recently, patients with an ALPS-like disease called RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder, in which somatic mutations in NRAS or KRAS are found, also were described. Despite this progress, many patients with ALPS-like disease remain undefined genetically. We identified a homozygous, loss-of-function mutation in PRKCD (PKCδ) in a patient who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, autoantibodies, elevated immunoglobulins and natural killer dysfunction associated with chronic, low-grade Epstein-Barr virus infection. This mutation markedly decreased protein expression and resulted in ex vivo B-cell hyperproliferation, a phenotype similar to that of the PKCδ knockout mouse. Lymph nodes showed intense follicular hyperplasia, also mirroring the mouse model. Immunophenotyping of circulating lymphocytes demonstrated expansion of CD5+CD20+ B cells. Knockdown of PKCδ in normal mononuclear cells recapitulated the B-cell hyperproliferative phenotype in vitro. Reconstitution of PKCδ in patient-derived EBV-transformed B-cell lines partially restored phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate–induced cell death. In summary, homozygous PRKCD mutation results in B-cell hyperproliferation and defective apoptosis with consequent lymphocyte accumulation and autoantibody production in humans, and disrupts natural killer cell function. PMID:23430113

  17. Loss-of-function of the protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) causes a B-cell lymphoproliferative syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Hye Sun; Niemela, Julie E; Rangel-Santos, Andreia; Zhang, Mingchang; Pittaluga, Stefania; Stoddard, Jennifer L; Hussey, Ashleigh A; Evbuomwan, Moses O; Priel, Debra A Long; Kuhns, Douglas B; Park, C Lucy; Fleisher, Thomas A; Uzel, Gulbu; Oliveira, João B

    2013-04-18

    Defective lymphocyte apoptosis results in chronic lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly associated with autoimmune phenomena. The prototype for human apoptosis disorders is the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is caused by mutations in the FAS apoptotic pathway. Recently, patients with an ALPS-like disease called RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder, in which somatic mutations in NRAS or KRAS are found, also were described. Despite this progress, many patients with ALPS-like disease remain undefined genetically. We identified a homozygous, loss-of-function mutation in PRKCD (PKCδ) in a patient who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, autoantibodies, elevated immunoglobulins and natural killer dysfunction associated with chronic, low-grade Epstein-Barr virus infection. This mutation markedly decreased protein expression and resulted in ex vivo B-cell hyperproliferation, a phenotype similar to that of the PKCδ knockout mouse. Lymph nodes showed intense follicular hyperplasia, also mirroring the mouse model. Immunophenotyping of circulating lymphocytes demonstrated expansion of CD5+CD20+ B cells. Knockdown of PKCδ in normal mononuclear cells recapitulated the B-cell hyperproliferative phenotype in vitro. Reconstitution of PKCδ in patient-derived EBV-transformed B-cell lines partially restored phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced cell death. In summary, homozygous PRKCD mutation results in B-cell hyperproliferation and defective apoptosis with consequent lymphocyte accumulation and autoantibody production in humans, and disrupts natural killer cell function.

  18. Continuous PTH modulates alkaline phosphatase activity in human PDL cells via protein kinase C dependent pathways in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M; Jäger, A; Abuduwali, N; Götz, W; Lossdörfer, S

    2013-10-01

    Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, a major component of the tooth supporting apparatus, share osteoblastic characteristics including their responsiveness to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Clinical studies have already pointed to the benefit of PTH in supporting regenerative processes in the craniofacial region. However, those reports did not analyze which cells mediated the PTH effect on the alveolar bone. The aim of the present study has been to further elucidate the mechanism of action of continuous PTH application on human PDL-cells mimicking a local bolus application and to analyze its intracellular signalling pathways to widen the theoretical basis for future development of reliable local PTH delivery protocols. Analyses of PDL of extracted human teeth as well as cultured human PDL-cells demonstrated strong expression of PTH-receptor-1 by immune fluorescencecytochemistry/histochemistry. To examine the effect of short time continuous PTH treatment on PDL-cell osteogenic differentiation, PDL-cells were stimulated for 48h. Analyses for mRNA and protein expression of the early osteogenic marker alkaline-phosphatase revealed an enhanced expression. Pathways analyses mediating the PTH effect resulted in a similar effect when PDL-cells were stimulated with either the signal specific fragments lacking the PKA-activating domain PTH(3-34), PTH(7-34), second-messenger-analogues PKC (PMA) or inhibitors for PKA (H8). Inhibition of the PKC-dependent pathway by stimulation with PTH(1-31), PKA second-messenger-analogue (forskolin) or PKA-inhibitor (RO-32-0432) abolished the PTH effect These data indicate abundant expression of PTH1R within the PDL and a stimulatory effect of short time continuous PTH on PDL cell differentiation towards an osteogenic phenotype and suggested local PTH application protocols as a possible treatment option in periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The protein activator of protein kinase R, PACT/RAX, negatively regulates protein kinase R during mouse anterior pituitary development

    PubMed Central

    Dickerman, Benjamin K.; White, Christine L.; Kessler, Patricia M.; Sadler, Anthony J.; Williams, Bryan R.G.; Sen, Ganes C.

    2015-01-01

    The murine double-stranded RNA-binding protein RAX and the human homolog PACT were originally characterized as activators of protein kinase R (PKR). Mice deficient in RAX show reproductive and developmental defects, including reduced body size, craniofacial defects and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. As these defects are not observed in PKR-deficient mice, the phenotype has been attributed to PKR-independent activities of RAX. Here we further investigated the involvement of PKR in the physiological function of RAX, by generating rax−/− mice deficient in PKR, or carrying a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR (K271R) or an unphosphorylatable mutant of the PKR substrate eIF2α (S51A). Ablating PKR expression rescued the developmental and reproductive deficiencies in rax−/− mice. Generating rax−/− mice with a kinase-inactive mutant of PKR resulted in similar rescue, confirming that the rax−/− defects are PKR dependent; specifically that the kinase activity of PKR was required for these defects. Moreover, generating rax−/− mice that were heterozygous for an unphosphorylatable mutant eIF2α provides partial rescue of the rax−/− defect, consistent with mutation of one copy of the Eif2s1 gene. These observations were further investigated in vitro by reducing RAX expression in anterior pituitary cells, resulting in increased PKR activity and induction of the PKR-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. These results demonstrate that PKR kinase activity is required for onset of the rax−/− phenotype, implying an unexpected function for RAX as a negative regulator of PKR in the context of postnatal anterior pituitary tissue, and identify a critical role for the regulation of PKR activity for normal development. PMID:26414443

  20. Cell-cycle-specific interaction of nuclear DNA-binding proteins with a CCAAT sequence from the human thymidine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, G B; Gudas, J M; Pardee, A B

    1987-01-01

    Induction of thymidine kinase parallels the onset of DNA synthesis. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of the thymidine kinase gene, we have examined whether specific nuclear factors interact in a cell-cycle-dependent manner with sequences upstream of this gene. Two inverted CCAAT boxes near the transcriptional initiation sites were observed to form complexes with nuclear DNA-binding proteins. The nature of the complexes changes dramatically as the cells approach DNA synthesis and correlates well with the previously reported transcriptional increase of the thymidine kinase gene. Images PMID:3479796

  1. Reduction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclooxygenase-2 signaling by isoflurane inhibits proliferation and apoptosis evasion in human papillomavirus-infected laryngeal papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongbo; Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Human laryngeal papilloma (LP) is a human papillomavirus-induced hyperplastic tumor of the respiratory tract, which is characterized by rapid growth and apoptosis resistance. Isoflurane (ISO) inhibits proliferation and elicits apoptosis in cancer cells. The results of the present study found that the mRNA and protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) were higher in LP tissues than in normal laryngeal samples, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was increased in LP cells, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and radioimmunoassay analyses. Notably, the increase in COX2 and PGE2 levels was significantly abrogated in the ISO-treated LP cells. The inhibitory effects of ISO on COX2 expression and activity depended on the inactivation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in LP cells. By inhibiting the COX2 activity of LP cells, ISO treatment markedly suppressed cell viability and proliferation, as determined using Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry and 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine incorporation assays. Furthermore, ISO treatment promoted cell apoptosis, as demonstrated by flow cytometry, nucleosomal fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assays. Collectively, the present results suggest that COX2 is critical in the progression of LP, and ISO is a potential agent for LP therapy by impeding p38 MAPK/COX2 signaling. PMID:27882174

  2. TLR4 Signaling Is Coupled to SRC Family Kinase Activation, Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Zonula Adherens Proteins, and Opening of the Paracellular Pathway in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelia*

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ping; Angelini, Daniel J.; Yang, Shiqi; Xia, Guanjun; Cross, Alan S.; Mann, Dean; Bannerman, Douglas D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Goldblum, Simeon E.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator in the vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections. LPS opens the paracellular pathway in pulmonary vascular endothelia through protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We now have identified the protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and their substrates required for LPS-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). LPS disrupted barrier integrity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and prior broad spectrum PTK inhibition was protective. LPS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, VE-cadherin, γ-catenin, and p120ctn. Two SRC family PTK (SFK)-selective inhibitors, PP2 and SU6656, blocked LPS-induced increments in tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and p120ctn and paracellular permeability. In HMVEC-Ls, c-SRC, YES, FYN, and LYN were expressed at both mRNA and protein levels. Selective small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of c-SRC, FYN, or YES diminished LPS-induced SRC Tyr416 phosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and p120ctn, and barrier disruption, whereas knockdown of LYN did not. For VE-cadherin phosphorylation, knockdown of either c-SRC or FYN provided total protection, whereas YES knockdown was only partially protective. For p120ctn phosphorylation, knockdown of FYN, c-SRC, or YES each provided comparable but partial protection. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was expressed both on the surface and intracellular compartment of HMVEC-Ls. Prior knockdown of TLR4 blocked both LPS-induced SFK activation and barrier disruption. These data indicate that LPS recognition by TLR4 activates the SFKs, c-SRC, FYN, and YES, which, in turn, contribute to tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins to open the endothelial paracellular pathway. PMID:18326860

  3. Inhibition of growth of human tumor cell lines in nude mice by an antisense of oligonucleotide inhibitor of protein kinase C-alpha expression.

    PubMed

    Dean, N; McKay, R; Miraglia, L; Howard, R; Cooper, S; Giddings, J; Nicklin, P; Meister, L; Ziel, R; Geiger, T; Muller, M; Fabbro, D

    1996-08-01

    A 20-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ISIS 3521) designed to hybridize sequences in the 3'-untranslated region of human protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) mRNA has been shown to inhibit the expression of PKC-alpha in multiple human cell lines. In human bladder carcinoma (T-24) cells, inhibition of PKC-alpha was both concentration dependent and oligonucleotide sequence specific. ISIS 3521 had a IC50 of 50-100 nM for PKC-alpha mRNA reduction and was without effect on the expression of other members of the PKC family of genes (PKC-eta and zeta). Toxicity studies in mice revealed that the oligodeoxynucleotide was well tolerated at repeat doses of 100 mg/kg i.v. for up to 14 days, with no acute toxicity apparent. The oligodeoxynucleotide was found to also inhibit the growth of three different human tumor cell lines, the T-24 bladder, human lung carcinoma (A549), and Colo 205 colon carcinoma grown in nude mice. The inhibition was dose dependent with ID50 values for the growth inhibition between 0.06 and 0.6 mg/kg daily when given i.v., depending on the cell line examined. Three control phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides not targeting human PKC-alpha were without effect on the growth of the tumors at doses as high as 6 mg/kg. Recovery of ISIS 3521 from tumor tissue and resolution by capillary gel electrophoresis revealed that 24 It after the final dose of oligodeoxynucleotide, intact, full-length 20-mer material was present as well as some apparent exonuclease degradation products (e.g., n-1 and n-2 mers). These studies demonstrate the in vivo antitumor effects of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting PKC-alpha and suggest that this compound may be of value as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of human cancers.

  4. The RNA helicase/transcriptional co-regulator, p68 (DDX5), stimulates expression of oncogenic protein kinase, Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1), and is associated with elevated PLK1 levels in human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, R Sumanth; Nicol, Samantha M; Quinlan, Philip R; Thompson, Alastair M; Meek, David W; Fuller-Pace, Frances V

    2014-01-01

    p68 (DDX5) acts both as an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and as a transcriptional co-activator of several cancer-associated transcription factors, including the p53 tumor suppressor. p68 is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of cancers, but the oncogenic drive for, or the consequences of, these expression changes remain unclear. Here we show that elevated p68 expression in a cohort of human breast cancers is associated significantly with elevated levels of the oncogenic protein kinase, Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1). Patients expressing detectable levels of both p68 and PLK1 have a poor prognosis, but only if they also have mutation in the TP53 gene (encoding p53), suggesting that p68 can regulate PLK1 levels in a manner that is suppressed by p53. In support of this hypothesis, we show that p68 stimulates expression from the PLK1 promoter, and that silencing of endogenous p68 expression downregulates endogenous PLK1 gene expression. In the absence of functional p53, p68 stimulates the expression of PLK1 both at basal levels and in response to the clinically relevant drug, etoposide. In keeping with a role as a transcriptional activator/co-activator, chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis shows that p68 is associated with the PLK1 promoter, irrespective of the p53 status. However, its recruitment is stimulated by etoposide in cells lacking p53, suggesting that p53 can oppose association of p68 with the PLK1 promoter. These data provide a model in which p68 and p53 interplay regulates PLK1 expression, and which describes the behavior of these molecules, and the outcome of their interaction, in human breast cancer. PMID:24626184

  5. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the proliferation of human nucleus pulposus cells via nuclear factor-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hu; Hong, Xin; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Yun-Tao; Bao, Jun-Ping; Liu, Lei; Wang, Feng; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-04-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is known to play a critical role in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the effect of TNF-α on nucleus pulposus (NP) cells has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of TNF-α on proliferation of human NP cells. NP cells were treated with different concentrations of TNF-α. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis and Ki67 immunofluorescence staining, and expression of cyclin B1 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry and cell apoptosis was analyzed using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) & propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis detection kit. To identify the mechanism by which TNF-α induced proliferation of NP cells, selective inhibitors of major signaling pathways were used and Western blotting was carried out. Treatment with TNF-α increased cell viability (as determined by CCK-8 analysis) and expression of cyclin B1 and the number of Ki67-positive and S-phase NP cells, indicating enhancement of proliferation. Consistent with this, NP cell apoptosis was suppressed by TNF-α treatment. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) blocked TNF-α-stimulated proliferation of NP cells. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that the effect of TNF-α on IVD degeneration involves promotion of the proliferation of human NP cells via the NF-κB, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways.

  6. Regulation of proliferation in developing human tooth germs by MSX muscle segment homeodomain proteins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19(INK4d).

    PubMed

    Kero, Darko; Vukojevic, Katarina; Stazic, Petra; Sundov, Danijela; Brakus, Snjezana Mardesic; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2017-09-21

    Before the secretion of hard dental tissues, tooth germs undergo several distinctive stages of development (dental lamina, bud, cap and bell). Every stage is characterized by specific proliferation patterns, which is regulated by various morphogens, growth factors and homeodomain proteins. The role of MSX homeodomain proteins in odontogenesis is rather complex. Expression domains of genes encoding for murine Msx1/2 during development are observed in tissues containing highly proliferative progenitor cells. Arrest of tooth development in Msx knockout mice can be attributed to impaired proliferation of progenitor cells. In Msx1 knockout mice, these progenitor cells start to differentiate prematurely as they strongly express cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19(INK4d). p19(INK4d) induces terminal differentiation of cells by blocking the cell cycle in mitogen-responsive G1 phase. Direct suppression of p19(INK4d) by Msx1 protein is, therefore, important for maintaining proliferation of progenitor cells at levels required for the normal progression of tooth development. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of MSX1, MSX2 and p19(INK4d) in human incisor tooth germs during the bud, cap and early bell stages of development. The distribution of expression domains of p19(INK4d) throughout the investigated period indicates that p19(INK4d) plays active role during human tooth development. Furthermore, comparison of expression domains of p19(INK4d) with those of MSX1, MSX2 and proliferation markers Ki67, Cyclin A2 and pRb, indicates that MSX-mediated regulation of proliferation in human tooth germs might not be executed by the mechanism similar to one described in developing tooth germs of wild-type mouse.

  7. Modulation of basal nitric oxide-dependent cyclic-GMP production by ambient glucose, myo-inositol, and protein kinase C in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, H; Thomas, T P; Larkin, D D; Karihaloo, A K; Inada, H; Onaya, T; Stevens, M J; Greene, D A

    1996-01-01

    Defective tissue perfusion and nitric oxide production and altered myo-inositol metabolism and protein kinase C activation have been invoked in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including neuropathy. The precise cellular compartmentalization and mechanistic interrelationships of these abnormalities remain obscure, and nitric oxide possesses both neurotransmitter and vasodilator activity. Therefore the effects of ambient glucose and myo-inositol on nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production and protein kinase C activity were studied in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell culture model for peripheral cholinergic neurons. D-Glucose lowered cellular myo-inositol content, phosphatidylinositol synthesis, and phosphorylation of an endogenous protein kinase C substrate, and specifically reduced nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production a time- and dose-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of approximately 30 mM. The near maximal decrease in cGMP induced by 50 mM D-glucose was corrected by the addition of protein kinase C agonists or 500 microM myo-inositol to the culture medium, and was reproduced by protein kinase C inhibition or downregulation, or by myo-inositol deficient medium. Sodium nitroprusside increased cGMP in a dose-dependent fashion, with low concentrations (1 microM) counteracting the effects of 50 mM D-glucose or protein kinase C inhibition. The demonstration that elevated D-glucose diminishes basal nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production by myo-inositol depletion and protein kinase C inhibition in peripheral cholinergic neurons provides a potential metabolic basis for impaired nitric oxide production, nerve blood flow, and nerve impulse conduction in diabetes. PMID:8609230

  8. Brief Report: Elastin Microfibril Interface 1 and Integrin-Linked Protein Kinase Are Novel Markers of Islet Regenerative Function in Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jessie R; Creskey, Marybeth M; Muradia, Gauri; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Gao, Jun; Stewart, Duncan J; Cyr, Terry D; Hess, David A; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation is proposed as a novel therapy for treating diabetes by promoting the regeneration of damaged islets. The clinical promise of such treatments may be hampered by a high degree of donor-related variability in MSC function and a lack of standards for comparing potency. Here, we set out to identify markers of cultured human MSCs directly associated with islet regenerative function. Stromal cultures from nine separate bone marrow donors were demonstrated to have differing capacities to reduce hyperglycemia in the NOD/SCID streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Regenerative (R) and non-regenerative (NR) MSC cultures were directly compared using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics. A total of 1,410 proteins were quantified resulting in the identification of 612 upregulated proteins and 275 downregulated proteins by ± 1.2-fold in R-MSC cultures. Elastin microfibril interface 1 (EMILIN-1), integrin-linked protein kinase (ILK), and hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) were differentially expressed in R-MSCs, and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses revealed each candidate as known regulators of integrin signaling. Western blot validation of EMILIN-1, ILK, and HDGF not only showed significantly higher abundance levels in R-MSCs, as compared with NR-MSCs, but also correlated with passage-induced loss of islet-regenerative potential. Generalized estimating equation modeling was applied to examine the association between each marker and blood glucose reduction. Both EMILIN-1 and ILK were significantly associated with blood glucose lowering function in vivo. Our study is the first to identify EMILIN-1 and ILK as prospective markers of islet regenerative function in human MSCs. Stem Cells 2016;34:2249-2255.

  9. Ethanol Impairs Intestinal Barrier Function in Humans through Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Signaling: A Combined In Vivo and In Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Elamin, Elhaseen; Masclee, Ad; Troost, Freddy; Pieters, Harm-Jan; Keszthelyi, Daniel; Aleksa, Katarina; Dekker, Jan; Jonkers, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethanol-induced gut barrier disruption is associated with several gastrointestinal and liver disorders. Aim Since human data on effects of moderate ethanol consumption on intestinal barrier integrity and involved mechanisms are limited, the objectives of this study were to investigate effects of a single moderate ethanol dose on small and large intestinal permeability and to explore the role of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a primary signaling mechanism. Methods Intestinal permeability was assessed in 12 healthy volunteers after intraduodenal administration of either placebo or 20 g ethanol in a randomised cross-over trial. Localization of the tight junction (TJ) and gene expression, phosphorylation of the MAPK isoforms p38, ERK and JNK as indicative of activation were analyzed in duodenal biopsies. The role of MAPK was further examined in vitro using Caco-2 monolayers. Results Ethanol increased small and large intestinal permeability, paralleled by redistribution of ZO-1 and occludin, down-regulation of ZO-1 and up-regulation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA expression, and increased MAPK isoforms phosphorylation. In Caco-2 monolayers, ethanol increased permeability, induced redistribution of the junctional proteins and F-actin, and MAPK and MLCK activation, as indicated by phosphorylation of MAPK isoforms and myosin light chain (MLC), respectively, which could be reversed by pretreatment with either MAPK inhibitors or the anti-oxidant L-cysteine. Conclusions Administration of moderate ethanol dosage can increase both small and colon permeability. Furthermore, the data indicate a pivotal role for MAPK and its crosstalk with MLCK in ethanol-induced intestinal barrier disruption. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928733 PMID:25226407

  10. Role of protein kinase C in TBT-induced inhibition of lytic function and MAPK activation in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Abraha, Abraham B; Rana, Krupa; Whalen, Margaret M

    2010-11-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that destroy tumor and virally infected cells. Previous studies have shown that exposure of NK cells to tributyltin (TBT) greatly diminishes their ability to destroy tumor cells (lytic function) while activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p44/42, p38, and JNK) in NK cells. The signaling pathway that regulates NK lytic function appears to include activation of protein kinase C(PKC) as well as MAPK activity. TBT-induced activation of MAPKs would trigger a portion of the NK lytic signaling pathway, which would then leave the NK cell unable to trigger this pathway in response to a subsequent encounter with a target cell. In the present study we evaluated the involvement of PKC in inhibition of NK lysis of tumor cells and activation of MAPKs caused by TBT exposure. TBT caused a 2–3-fold activation of PKC at concentrations ranging from 50 to 300 nM (16–98 ng/ml),indicating that activation of PKC occurs in response to TBT exposure. This would then leave the NK cell unable to respond to targets. Treatment with the PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I, caused an 85% decrease in the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells, validating the involvement of PKC in the lytic signaling pathway. The role of PKC in the activation of MAPKs by TBT was also investigated using bisindolylmaleimide I. The results indicated that, in NK cells where PKC activation was blocked, there was no activation of the MAPK, p44/42 in response to TBT.However, TBT-induced activation of the MAPKs, p38 and JNK did not require PKC activation. These results indicate the pivotal role of PKC in the TBT-induced loss of NK lytic function including activation of p44/42 by TBT in NK cells.

  11. Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II is a Ubiquitous Molecule in Human Long-term Memory Synaptic Plasticity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ataei, Negar; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Movahedian, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term memory is based on synaptic plasticity, a series of biochemical mechanisms include changes in structure and proteins of brain's neurons. In this article, we systematically reviewed the studies that indicate calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous molecule among different enzymes involved in human long-term memory and the main downstream signaling pathway of long-term memory. Methods: All of the observational, case–control and review studies were considered and evaluated by the search engines PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ScienceDirect Scopus between 1990 and February 2015. We did not carry out meta-analysis. Results: At the first search, it was fined 1015 articles which included “synaptic plasticity” OR “neuronal plasticity” OR “synaptic density” AND memory AND “molecular mechanism” AND “calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II” OR CaMKII as the keywords. A total of 335 articles were duplicates in the databases and eliminated. A total of 680 title articles were evaluated. Finally, 40 articles were selected as reference. Conclusions: The studies have shown the most important intracellular signal of long-term memory is calcium-dependent signals. Calcium linked calmodulin can activate CaMKII. After receiving information for learning and memory, CaMKII is activated by Glutamate, the most important neurotransmitter for memory-related plasticity. Glutamate activates CaMKII and it plays some important roles in synaptic plasticity modification and long-term memory. PMID:26445635

  12. Effects of sodium lactate Ringer's injection on transfection of human protein kinase C-α antisense oligonucleotide in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z H; Sun, W W; Han, Y L; Ma, Z

    2016-08-26

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of four solutions [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), sodium lactate Ringer's injection (SLRI), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and NaCl] on the transfection of the human protein kinase C-a antisense oligonucleotide (PKC-a ASO) aprinocarsen in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Specifically, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as the growth solutions for A549 cells, and OPTI-MEM was used as the PKC-a ASO diluent for transfection. Additionally, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as both the growth solutions and diluents for transfection. The cell viability and transfection efficiency were determined. The results demonstrated that when SLRI was used as either the growth solution or both the growth solution and diluent for aprinocarsen transfection in A549 cells, the effects were close to the best effects observed with DMEM as the growth solution and OPTI-MEM as the diluent, which supported the transfection of aprinocarsen into the cells. Moreover, SLRI resulted in higher transfection efficiency than those of PBS and NaCl. In in vitro experiments, aprinocarsen effectively induced apoptosis in A549 cells. In conclusion, SLRI may replace PBS or NaCl in clinical trials as a transfection solution readily accepted by the human body. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of SLRI as a transfection solution in lung-cancer cell lines.

  13. Induction of cell death by stimulation of protein kinase C in human epithelial cells expressing a mutant ras oncogene: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Jackson, C. A.; Jones, T.; Eccles, N. G.; Dawson, T. P.; Bond, J. A.; Gescher, A.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1998-01-01

    Ras oncogene activation is a key genetic event in several types of human cancer, making its signal pathways an ideal target for novel therapies. We previously showed that expression of mutant ras sensitizes human thyroid epithelial cells to induction of cell death by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and other phorbol esters. We have now investigated further the nature and mechanism of this cell death using both primary and cell line models. The cytotoxic effect of PMA could be blocked by bisindolylmaleimide (GF 109203X), a well-characterized inhibitor of c and n protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and by prior down-regulation of PKC, indicating that it is mediated by acute stimulation, rather than down-regulation. Western analysis identified two candidate isoforms--alpha and epsilon--both of which showed PMA-induced subcellular translocation, either or both of which may be necessary for PMA-induced cell death. Immunofluorescence showed that PMA induced a rapid nuclear translocation of p42 MAP kinase of similar magnitude in the presence or absence of mutant ras expression. Cell death exhibited the microscopic features (chromatin condensation, TdT labelling) and DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis but after a surprising lag (4 days). Taken together with recent models of ras-modulated apoptosis, our data suggest that activation of the MAPK pathway by PMA tips the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic signals generated by ras in favour of apoptosis. The high frequency of ras mutations in some cancers, such as cancer of the pancreas, which are refractory to conventional chemotherapy, together with the potential for stimulating PKC by cell-permeant pharmacological agents, makes this an attractive therapeutic approach. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9744505

  14. Characterization of 5' end of human thromboxane receptor gene. Organizational analysis and mapping of protein kinase C--responsive elements regulating expression in platelets.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, D D; Davis, M G; Houser, W A; Eubank, J J; Ritchie, M E; Dorn, G W

    1995-09-01

    Platelet thromboxane receptors are acutely and reversibly upregulated after acute myocardial infarction. To determine if platelet thromboxane receptors are under transcriptional control, we isolated and characterized human genomic DNA clones containing the 5' flanking region of the thromboxane receptor gene. The exon-intron structure of the 5' portion of the thromboxane receptor gene was determined initially by comparing the nucleotide sequence of the 5' flanking genomic clone with that of a novel human uterine thromboxane receptor cDNA that extended the mRNA 141 bp further upstream than the previously identified human placental cDNA. A major transcription initiation site was located in three human tissues approximately 560 bp upstream from the translation initiation codon and 380 bp upstream from any previously identified transcription initiation site. The thromboxane receptor gene has neither a TATA nor a CAAT consensus site. Promoter function of the 5' flanking region of the thromboxane receptor gene was evaluated by transfection of thromboxane receptor gene promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) chimera plasmids into platelet-like K562 cells. Thromboxane receptor promoter activity, as assessed by CAT expression, was relatively weak but was significantly enhanced by phorbol ester treatment. Functional analysis of 5' deletion constructs in transfected K562 cells and gel mobility shift localized the major phorbol ester-responsive motifs in the thromboxane receptor gene promoter to a cluster of activator protein-2 (AP-2) binding consensus sites located approximately 1.8 kb 5' from the transcription initiation site. These studies are the first to determine the structure and organization of the 5' end of the thromboxane receptor gene and demonstrate that thromboxane receptor gene expression can be regulated by activation of protein kinase C via induction of an AP-2-like nuclear factor binding to upstream promoter elements. These findings strongly suggest

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  16. A retroviral-derived peptide phosphorylates protein kinase D/protein kinase Cmu involving phospholipase C and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Luangwedchakarn, Voravich; Day, Noorbibi K; Hitchcock, Remi; Brown, Pam G; Lerner, Danica L; Rucker, Rajivi P; Cianciolo, George J; Good, Robert A; Haraguchi, Soichi

    2003-05-01

    CKS-17, a synthetic peptide representing a unique amino acid motif which is highly conserved in retroviral transmembrane proteins and other immunoregulatory proteins, induces selective immunomodulatory functions, both in vitro and in vivo, and activates intracellular signaling molecules such as cAMP and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. In the present study, using Jurkat T-cells, we report that CKS-17 phosphorylates protein kinase D (PKD)/protein kinase C (PKC) mu. Total cell extracts from CKS-17-stimulated Jurkat cells were immunoblotted with an anti-phospho-PKCmu antibody. The results show that CKS-17 significantly phosphorylates PKD/PKCmu in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with the PKC inhibitors GF 109203X and Ro 31-8220, which do not act directly on PKD/PKCmu, attenuates CKS-17-induced phosphorylation of PKD/PKCmu. In contrast, the selective protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 does not reverse the action of CKS-17. Furthermore, a phospholipase C (PLC) selective inhibitor, U-73122, completely blocks the phosphorylation of PKD/PKCmu by CKS-17 while a negative control U-73343 does not. In addition, substitution of lysine for arginine residues in the CKS-17 sequence completely abrogates the ability of CKS-17 to phosphorylate PKD/PKCmu. These results clearly indicate that CKS-17 phosphorylates PKD/PKCmu through a PLC- and PKC-dependent mechanism and that arginine residues play an essential role in this activity of CKS-17, presenting a novel modality of the retroviral peptide CKS-17 and molecular interaction of this compound with target cells.

  17. Berberine Induced Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Inhibiting Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt) Signal Pathway Activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Ze

    2016-05-01

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with high mortality but effective therapy has not yet been developed. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid component in several Chinese herbs including Huanglian, has been shown to induce growth inhibition and the apoptosis of certain cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and its potential mechanism. The proliferation effect of U20S was exanimed by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and the percentage of apoptotic cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of PI3K, p-Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, cleavage-PARP and Caspase3 were detected by Western blott. Berberine treatment caused dose-dependent inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of U20S cell. Mechanistically, berberine inhibits PI3K/AKT activation that, in turn, results in up-regulating the expression of Bax, and PARP and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase3. In all, berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. Berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation.

  18. Berberine Induced Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Inhibiting Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt) Signal Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with high mortality but effective therapy has not yet been developed. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid component in several Chinese herbs including Huanglian, has been shown to induce growth inhibition and the apoptosis of certain cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and its potential mechanism. Methods: The proliferation effect of U20S was exanimed by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and the percentage of apoptotic cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of PI3K, p-Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, cleavage-PARP and Caspase3 were detected by Western blott. Results: Berberine treatment caused dose-dependent inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of U20S cell. Mechanistically, berberine inhibits PI3K/AKT activation that, in turn, results in up-regulating the expression of Bax, and PARP and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase3. In all, berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. Conclusion: Berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. PMID:27398330

  19. Solution structure and backbone dynamics of the pleckstrin homology domain of the human protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Interaction with inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Auguin, Daniel; Barthe, Philippe; Augé-Sénégas, Marie-Thérèse; Stern, Marc-Henri; Noguchi, Masayuki; Roumestand, Christian

    2004-02-01

    The programmed cell death occurs as part of normal mammalian development. The induction of developmental cell death is a highly regulated process and can be suppressed by a variety of extracellular stimuli. Recently, the ability of trophic factors to promote survival have been attributed, at least in part, to the phosphatidylinositide 3'-OH kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B (PKB, also named Akt) cascade. Several targets of the PI3K/PKB signaling pathway have been identified that may underlie the ability of this regulatory cascade to promote cell survival. PKB possesses a N-terminal Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain that binds specifically and with high affinity to PtIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtIns(3,4)P(2), the PI3K second messengers. PKB is then recruited to the plasma membrane by virtue of its interaction with 3'-OH phosphatidylinositides and activated. Recent evidence indicates that PKB is active in various types of human cancer; constitutive PKB signaling activation is believed to promote proliferation and increased cell survival, thereby contributing to cancer progression. Thus, it has been shown that induction of PKB activity is augmented by the TCL1/MTCP1 oncoproteins through a physical association requiring the PKB PH domain. Here we present the three-dimensional solution structure of the PH domain of the human protein PKB (isoform beta). PKBbeta-PH is an electrostatically polarized molecule that adopts the same fold and topology as other PH-domains, consisting of a beta-sandwich of seven strands capped on one top by an alpha-helix. The opposite face presents three variable loops that appear poorly defined in the NMR structure. Measurements of (15)N spin relaxation times and heteronuclear (15)N[(1)H]NOEs showed that this poor definition is due to intrinsic flexibility, involving complex motions on different time scales. Chemical shift mapping studies correctly defined the binding site of Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) (the head group of PtIns(3,4,5)P(3)), as was previously proposed

  20. Fasting Induces Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters via Protein Kinase A and Sirtuin-1 in Mouse and Human

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Xu, Jialin; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Qiuqiong C.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) dependent mechanisms modulate ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transport protein expression. ABC transport proteins (ABCC2–4) are essential for chemical elimination from hepatocytes and biliary excretion. Nuclear factor-E2 related-factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that mediates ABCC induction in response to chemical inducers and liver injury. However, a role for NRF2 in the regulation of transporter expression in nonchemical models of liver perturbation is largely undescribed. Results: Here we show that fasting increased NRF2 target gene expression through NRF2- and SIRT1–dependent mechanisms. In intact mouse liver, fasting induces NRF2 target gene expression by at least 1.5 to 5-fold. In mouse and human hepatocytes, treatment with 8-Bromoadenosine-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased NRF2 target gene expression and antioxidant response element activity, which was decreased by the PKA inhibitor, H-89. Moreover, fasting induced NRF2 target gene expression was decreased in liver and hepatocytes of SIRT1 liver-specific null mice and NRF2-null mice. Lastly, NRF2 and SIRT1 were recruited to MAREs and Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs) in the human ABCC2 promoter. Innovation: Oxidative stress mediated NRF2 activation is well described, yet the influence of basic metabolic processes on NRF2 activation is just emerging. Conclusion: The current data point toward a novel role of nutrient status in regulation of NRF2 activity and the antioxidant response, and indicates that cAMP/PKA and SIRT1 are upstream regulators for fasting-induced activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 15–30. PMID:23725046

  1. Reversal of efflux of an anticancer drug in human drug-resistant breast cancer cells by inhibition of protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Woo; Asai, Daisuke; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a 170-kDa transmembrane protein that mediates the efflux of anticancer drugs from cells. Pgp overexpression has a distinct role in cells exhibiting multidrug resistance (MDR). We examined reversal of drug resistance in human MDR breast cancer cells by inhibition of protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activity, which is associated with Pgp-mediated efflux of anticancer drugs. PKCα activity was confirmed by measurement of phosphorylation levels of a PKCα-specific peptide substrate (FKKQGSFAKKK-NH2), showing relatively higher basal activity in drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells (84 %) than that in drug-sensitive MCF-7 cells (63 %). PKCα activity was effectively suppressed by the PKC inhibitor, Ro-31-7549, and reversal of intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin was observed by inhibition of PKCα activity in MCF-7/ADR cells compared with their intrinsic drug resistance. Importantly, increased accumulation of doxorubicin could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in MDR cells significantly. These results suggest a potential for overcoming MDR via inhibition of PKCα activity with conventional anticancer drugs.

  2. Midostaurin, a Novel Protein Kinase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia: Insights from Human Absorption, Metabolism and Excretion Studies of a BDDCS II Drug.

    PubMed

    He, Handan; Tran, Phi; Gu, Helen; Tedesco, Vivienne; Zhang, Jin; Lin, Wen; Gatlik, Ewa; Klein, Kai; Heimbach, Tycho

    2017-03-07

    The absorption, metabolism and excretion of midostaurin, a potent class III tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor for acute myelogenous leukemia, were evaluated in healthy subjects. A microemulsion formulation was chosen to optimize absorption. After a 50 mg [14C]midostaurin dose, oral absorption was high (> 90%) and relatively rapid. In plasma, the major circulating components were midostaurin (22%), CGP52421 (32.7%), and CGP62221 (27.7%). Long plasma half-lives were observed for midostaurin (20.3 h), CGP52421 (495 h), and CGP62221 (33.4 h). Through careful mass-balance study design, the recovery achieved was good (81.6%), despite the long radioactivity half-lives. Most of the radioactive dose was recovered in feces (77.6%) mainly as metabolites; as only 3.43% was unchanged, suggesting mainly hepatic metabolism. Renal elimination was minor (4%). Midostaurin metabolism pathways involved hydroxylation, O demethylation, amide hydrolysis and N demethylation. High plasma CGP52421 and CGP62221 exposures in humans, along with relatively potent cell-based IC50 for FLT3-ITD inhibition, suggested that the antileukemic activity in AML patients may also be maintained by the metabolites. Very high plasma protein binding (>99%) required equilibrium gel filtration to identify differences between humans and animals. As midostaurin, CGP52421 and CGP62221 are metabolized mainly by CYP3A4 and are inhibitors/inducers for CYP3A, potential drug-drug interactions with mainly CYP3A4 modulators/CYP3A substrates could be expected. Given its low aqueous solubility, high oral absorption and extensive metabolism (> 90%), midostaurin is a BCS/BDDCS class II drug in human, consistent with rat BDDCS in vivo data showing high absorption (>90%) and extensive metabolism (>90%).

  3. Modulation of hepatic acute phase gene expression by epidermal growth factor and Src protein tyrosine kinases in murine and human hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Ripperger, J; Fey, G H; Samols, D; Kordula, T; Wetzler, M; Van Etten, R A; Baumann, H

    1999-09-01

    As part of systemic inflammatory reactions, interleukin 6 (IL-6) induces acute phase protein (APP) genes through the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), which contributes to the regenerative process after liver injury and also activates STATs, does not induce but attenuates IL-6-stimulated expression of several APP genes in primary mouse hepatocytes. The APP-modifying action of EGF receptor (EGFR) was characterized in HepG2 cells. Although EGF less effectively engages STAT proteins in these cells, it reduces expression of fibrinogen and haptoglobin, but stimulates production of alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin and induces transcription through the alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin and C-reactive protein promoter. The stimulatory EGFR signal is insensitive to inhibition of JAKs and appears to involve Src kinases and STAT proteins as shown by inhibition through overexpression of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and transdominant negative STAT3, respectively. A mediator role of Src is supported by the ability of c-Src and v-Src to activate STATs and induce transcription through APP promoters. Src kinases have been observed in association with the IL-6 receptor; however, inhibition of Src kinases by Csk enhances IL-6-induced transcription. The Csk effect is attributed to prevention of Src kinases from phosphorylating gp130 at the docking site for the signal-moderating protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. The inhibitory EGFR signal on APP expression correlates with the activation of Erk1 and Erk2. The study shows a dual signaling function for EGFR and suggests that the ratio of receptor-activated STATs and Erks influence the level of stimulated or inhibited expression of individual APPs.

  4. Lipoarabinomannan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes protein tyrosine dephosphorylation and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase in human mononuclear phagocytes. Role of the Src homology 2 containing tyrosine phosphatase 1.

    PubMed

    Knutson, K L; Hmama, Z; Herrera-Velit, P; Rochford, R; Reiner, N E

    1998-01-02

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a putative virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that inhibits monocyte functions, and this may involve antagonism of cell signaling pathways. The effects of LAM on protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cells of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 were examined. LAM promoted tyrosine dephosphorylation of multiple cell proteins and attenuated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. To examine whether these effects of LAM could be related to activation of a phosphatase, fractions from LAM-treated cells were analyzed for dephosphorylation of para-nitrophenol phosphate. The data show that LAM induced increased phosphatase activity associated with the membrane fraction. The Src homology 2 containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is important for signal termination and was examined as a potential target of LAM. Exposure of cells to LAM brought about (i) an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-1, and (ii) translocation of the phosphatase to the membrane. Phosphatase assay of SHP-1 immunoprecipitated from LAM-treated cells, using phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase as substrate, indicated that LAM promoted increased activity of SHP-1 in vivo. LAM also activated SHP-1 directly in vitro. Exposure of cells to LAM also attenuated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-12, and major histocompatibility class II molecules. These results suggest that one mechanism by which LAM deactivates monocytes involves activation of SHP-1.

  5. Differential regulation of rice mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) by abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kundan; Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Sharma, Pallavi; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2008-10-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase cascade plays a crucial role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division and developmental processes. MAP kinase kinase being integral part of this cascade performs an important function of integrating upstream signals to mitogen activated protein kinase for further appropriate cellular responses. We here report cloning of five MAP kinase kinase members from Oryza sativa indica cultivar var. Pusa Basmati 1, namely MAP kinase kinases 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10-2. All these members, except MKK10-2 possess fully canonical motif structures of MAP kinase kinase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed changes at certain position within japonica and indica variety of rice. Analysis of transcript regulation by quantitative real time PCR revealed that these five members are differentially regulated by cold, heat, salinity and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinases 4 and 6 are strongly regulated by cold and salt stresses while MAP kinase kinase 1 is regulated by salt and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinase 10-2 is regulated only by cold stress. The study provides the indication of involvement of specific MAP kinase kinase in different abiotic stress signaling and also possible cross talks that exist during the signaling processes.

  6. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF{kappa}B in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weidong | Alexis, Neil E. |; Chen Xian |; Bromberg, Philip A. |; Peden, David B. ||

    2008-04-15

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF{kappa}B were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NF{kappa}B activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NF{kappa}B activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NF{kappa}B.

  7. Regulation of mitogen-stimulated human T-cell proliferation, interleukin-2 production, and interleukin-2 receptor expression by protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7

    SciTech Connect

    Atluru, D.; Polam, S.; Atluru, S. ); Woloschak, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Recently published reports suggest that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the activation pathway of many cell types. In this study, the authors examined the role of PKC in human T-cell proliferation, IL-2 production, and IL-2R expression, when cultured with the mitogen PHA, the PKC inhibitor H-7, and H-7 control HA1004. H-7 inhibited the PHA-simulated ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake, IL-2production, and IL-2R expression in a dose-related manner. Further, they found H-7 inhibited T-cell proliferation, IL-2 production, and IL-2mRNA from PHA plus PMA-stimulated cultures. They also found that H-7 inhibited the early-stage activation of PHA-stimulated cells. The presence of exogenous purified human IL-2 or rIL-4 partly reversed the immunosuppression caused by H-7. In contrast, HA1004 had no effect on cell proliferation, IL-2 production, or IL-2R expression. The results demonstrate that PKC activation is one major pathway through which T-cells become activated.

  8. Absence of humoral mediated 5′AMP-activated protein kinase activation in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Johnsen, Anders Bo; Birk, Jesper B; Nielsen, Jakob Nis; Jensen, Bente Rona; Hellsten, Ylva; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2007-01-01

    5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) exists as a heterotrimer comprising a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits. The AMPK system is activated under conditions of cellular stress, indicated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, as observed, e.g. in muscles during contractile activity. AMPK was originally thought to be activated only by local intracellular mechanisms. However, recently it has become apparent that AMPK in mammals is also regulated by humoral substances, e.g. catecholamines. We studied whether humoral factors released during exercise regulate AMPK activity in contracting and resting muscles as well as in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. In resting leg muscle and adipose tissue the AMPK activity was not up-regulated by humoral factors during one-legged knee extensor exercise even when arm cranking exercise, inducing a ∼20-fold increase in plasma catecholamine level, was added simultaneously. In exercising leg muscle the AMPK activity was increased by one-legged knee extensor exercise eliciting a whole body respiratory load of only 30% but was not further increased by adding arm cranking exercise. In conclusion, during exercise with combined leg kicking and arm cranking, the AMPK activity in human skeletal muscle is restricted to contracting muscle without influence of marked increased catecholamine levels. Also, with this type of exercise the catecholamines or other humoral factors do not seem to be physiological regulators of AMPK in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:17962330

  9. Using Bacteria to Determine Protein Kinase Specificity and Predict Target Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Joshua M.; Church, George M.; Husson, Robert N.; Schwartz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The identification of protein kinase targets remains a significant bottleneck for our understanding of signal transduction in normal and diseased cellular states. Kinases recognize their substrates in part through sequence motifs on substrate proteins, which, to date, have most effectively been elucidated using combinatorial peptide library approaches. Here, we present and demonstrate the ProPeL method for easy and accurate discovery of kinase specificity motifs through the use of native bacterial proteomes that serve as in vivo libraries for thousands of simultaneous phosphorylation reactions. Using recombinant kinases expressed in E. coli followed by mass spectrometry, the approach accurately recapitulated the well-established motif preferences of human basophilic (Protein Kinase A) and acidophilic (Casein Kinase II) kinases. These motifs, derived for PKA and CK II using only bacterial sequence data, were then further validated by utilizing them in conjunction with the scan-x software program to computationally predict known human phosphorylation sites with high confidence. PMID:23300758

  10. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  11. The phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway is involved in cathepsin G-induced human platelet activation: comparison with thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Si-Tahar, M; Renesto, P; Falet, H; Rendu, F; Chignard, M

    1996-01-01

    Cathepsin G, an enzyme released by stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and thrombin are two human proteinases which potently trigger platelet activation. Unlike thrombin, the mechanisms by which cathepsin G initiates platelet activation have yet to be elucidated. The involvement of the phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in cathepsin G-induced activation was investigated and compared with stimulation by thrombin. Exposure of 5-[14C]hydroxytryptamine-labelled platelets to cathepsin G, in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid and phosphocreatine/creatine kinase, induced platelet aggregation and degranulation in a concentration-dependent manner (0.1-3.0 microM). Time-course studies (0-180 s) comparing equivalent concentrations of cathepsin G (3 microM) and thrombin (0.5 unit/ml) resulted in very similar transient hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and steady accumulation of phosphatidic acid. In addition cathepsin G, like thrombin, initiated the production of inositol phosphates. The neutrophil-derived proteinase also induced phosphorylation of both the myosin light chain and pleckstrin, a substrate for PKC, to levels similar to those observed in platelets challenged with thrombin. Inhibition of PKC by GF 109203X, a specific inhibitor, suppressed platelet aggregation and degranulation to the same extent for both proteinases. Using fura 2-loaded platelets, the rise in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration induced by cathepsin G was shown to result, as for thrombin, from both mobilization of internal stores and Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane. These findings provide evidence that cathepsin G stimulates the PLC/PKC pathway as potently as does thrombin, independently of thromboxane A2 formation and ADP release, and that this pathway is required for platelet functional responses. PMID:8573071

  12. Effects of fucoidan on proliferation, AMP-activated protein kinase, and downstream metabolism- and cell cycle-associated molecules in poorly differentiated human hepatoma HLF cells.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Hayakawa, Masako; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2015-05-01

    Survival rates are low in patients with poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, has anticancer activity; however, the effects of fucoidan on poorly differentiated HCC remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoidan on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a proliferation regulator, and its downstream metabolism- and cell cycle-related molecules in a poorly differentiated human hepatoma HLF cell line. HLF cells were treated with fucoidan (10, 50, or 100 µg/ml; n=4) or phosphate buffered saline (control; n=4) for 96 h. Proliferation was evaluated by counting cells every 24 h. AMPK, TSC2, mTOR, GSK3β, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP-citrate lyase, p53, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, and CDK6 expression and/or phosphorylation were examined by immunoblotting 24 h after treatment with 100 µg/ml fucoidan. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter 48 h after treatment. Treatment with 50 or 100 µg/ml fucoidan significantly and dose- and time-dependently suppressed HLF cell proliferation (P<0.0001). Fucoidan induced AMPK phosphorylation on Ser172 24 h after treatment. Although no differences were seen in expression and phosphorylation levels of TSC2, mTOR, GSK3β, ATP-citrate lyase, and p53 between the control and fucoidan-treated HLF cells, fucoidan induced ACC phosphorylation on Ser79. Moreover, fucoidan decreased cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression 24 h after treatment. Furthermore, HLF cells were arrested in the G1/S phase 48 h after fucoidan treatment. We demonstrated that fucoidan suppressed HLF cell proliferation with AMPK phosphorylation. We showed that fucoidan phosphorylated ACC and downregulated cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression. Our findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits proliferation through AMPK-associated suppression of fatty acid synthesis and G1/S transition in HLF cells.

  13. Heart failure-specific changes in protein kinase signalling.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kristina; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Schmid, Evelyn; Eder, Petra; Cuello, Friederike

    2014-06-01

    Among the myriad of molecular alterations occurring in heart failure development, aggravation of the disease is often attributed to global or local changes in protein kinase activity, thus making protein kinases attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Since protein kinases do not only have maladaptive roles, but also contribute to the physiological integrity of cells, it is a challenging task to circumvent undesired inhibition of protein kinase activity. Identification of posttranslational modifications and/or protein-protein interactions that are exclusively apparent under pathophysiological conditions provides exciting information for alternative non-kinase inhibitory treatment strategies that eliminate maladaptive functions of a protein kinase, but preserve the beneficial ones. Here, we focus on the disease-specific regulation of a number of protein kinases, namely, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II isoform δ (CaMKIIδ), G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C isoform β2 (PKCβ2), which are embedded in complex signal transduction pathways implicated in heart failure development, and discuss potential avenues for novel treatment strategies to combat heart disease.

  14. [The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in inhibition of proliferation in human prostate carcinoma cells by raloxifene: an in vitro experiment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xi; Kong, Chui-Ze

    2008-01-22

    To investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human prostate carcinoma cells induced by raloxifene (RAL). Human prostate carcinoma cells of the line PC3 were cultured. RAL of the concentrations of 10(-4), 10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7) mol/L were added into the culture fluid. MTT method was used to detect the inhibitory rate of the PC3 proliferation. RAL of the concentrations of 10(-6) mol/L or 10(-6) mol/L +10 micromol/L PD98059, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, and 10(-6) mol/L RAL +10 micromol/L SB203580, JNK inhibitor, and RAL + SB203580, a p38 inhibitor were added respectively for 48 h, and the flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the cell cycle. The cell apoptosis percentage was measured by TUNEL staining. The activation of extra cellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), and the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, phospho-Bcl-2 (p-Bcl-2), and caspase-3 were determined by Western blotting. The expressions of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ERbeta, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (P21(WAF1)), and cyclinD1 mRNA were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A dose-dependent proliferation inhibition of RAL was demonstrated in the PC3 cells. A G(1) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced in the PC3 cells exposed to 10(-6) mol/L RAL. 10(-6) mol/L RAL induced the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 with different time courses, but it did not induce the activation of JNK. Suppression ERK1/2 activation by treatment with PD98059 or p38 activation by treatment with SB203580 attenuated the cell-cycle arrest at the G(1) phase respectively. 48 h after the treatment of 10(-6) mol/L RAL the PC3 cells was arrested at G(1) stage, however, 48 h after the treatment of 10(-6) mol/L RAL +10 micromol/L PD98059 and 10(-6) mol/L RAL +10 micromol/L SB203580 the degree of PC3 cell arrest at the G(1) stage was lower. 18 h after the

  15. Effect of Protein Kinase C delta (PKC-δ) Inhibition on the Transcriptome of Normal and Systemic Sclerosis Human Dermal Fibroblasts In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wermuth, Peter J.; Addya, Sankar; Jimenez, Sergio A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase C- δ (PKC-δ) inhibition with the selective inhibitor, rottlerin, resulted in potent downregulation of type I collagen expression and production in normal human dermal fibroblasts and abrogated the exaggerated type I collagen production and expression in fibroblasts cultured from affected skin from patients with the fibrosing disorder systemic sclerosis (SSc). To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the ability of PKC-δ to regulate collagen production in fibroblasts, we examined the effects of PKC-δ inhibition on the transcriptome of normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts. Normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with rottlerin (5 µM), and their gene expression was analyzed by microarrays. Pathway analysis and gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes in each comparison were performed. Identification of significantly overrepresented transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) was performed using the Promoter Analysis and Interaction Network Toolset (PAINT) program. PKC-δ activity was also inhibited using RNA interference (siRNA) and by treating fibroblasts with a specific PKC-δ inhibitory cell permeable peptide. Differential gene expression of 20 genes was confirmed using real time PCR. PKC-δ inhibition caused a profound change in the transcriptome of normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Pathway and gene ontology analysis identified multiple cellular and organismal pathways affected by PKC-δ inhibition. Furthermore, both pathway and PAINT analyses indicated that the transcription factor NFκB played an important role in the transcriptome changes induced by PKC-δ inhibition. Multiple genes involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix components were significantly reduced in SSc fibroblasts and their expression was increased by PKC-δ inhibition. These results indicate that isoform-specific inhibition of PKC-δ profibrotic effects may represent a novel

  16. Targeting Human Central Nervous System Protein Kinases: An Isoform Selective p38αMAPK Inhibitor That Attenuates Disease Progression in Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first kinase inhibitor drug approval in 2001 initiated a remarkable decade of tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs for oncology indications, but a void exists for serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor drugs and central nervous system indications. Stress kinases are of special interest in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders due to their involvement in synaptic dysfunction and complex disease susceptibility. Clinical and preclinical evidence implicates the stress related kinase p38αMAPK as a potential neurotherapeutic target, but isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor candidates are lacking and the mixed kinase inhibitor drugs that are promising in peripheral tissue disease indications have limitations for neurologic indications. Therefore, pursuit of the neurotherapeutic hypothesis requires kinase isoform selective inhibitors with appropriate neuropharmacology features. Synaptic dysfunction disorders offer a potential for enhanced pharmacological efficacy due to stress-induced activation of p38αMAPK in both neurons and glia, the interacting cellular components of the synaptic pathophysiological axis, to be modulated. We report a novel isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor, MW01-18-150SRM (=MW150), that is efficacious in suppression of hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial memory deficits in two distinct synaptic dysfunction mouse models. A synthetic scheme for biocompatible product and positive outcomes from pharmacological screens are presented. The high-resolution crystallographic structure of the p38αMAPK/MW150 complex documents active site binding, reveals a potential low energy conformation of the bound inhibitor, and suggests a structural explanation for MW150’s exquisite target selectivity. As far as we are aware, MW150 is without precedent as an isoform selective p38MAPK inhibitor or as a kinase inhibitor capable of modulating in vivo stress related behavior. PMID:25676389

  17. Protein kinase C-associated kinase regulates NF-κB activation through inducing IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Schifano, Matthew; Oleksyn, David; Jordan, Craig T; Ryan, Daniel; Insel, Richard; Zhao, Jiyong; Chen, Luojing

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB induced by extracellular stimuli requires IKKα and IKKβ kinase activity. How IKKα and IKKβ are activated by various upstream signaling molecules is not fully understood. We previously showed that protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as DIK/RIP4), which belongs to the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, mediates the B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF)-induced NF-κB activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines. Here we have investigated the mechanism underlying NF-κB activation regulated by PKK. Our results suggest that PKK can activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB activation pathways. PKK associates with IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells and induces activation of both IKKα and IKKβ via phosphorylation of their serine residues 176/180 and 177/181, respectively. Unlike other members of the RIP family that activate NF-κB through a kinase-independent pathway, PKK appears to activate IKK and NF-κB mainly in a kinase-dependent manner. Suppression of PKK expression by RNA interference inhibits phosphorylation of IKKα and IKKβ as well as activation of NF-κB in human cancer cell lines. Thus, PKK regulates NF-κB activation by modulating activation of IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells. We propose that PKK may provide a critical link between IKK activation and various upstream signaling cascades, and may represent a potential target for inhibiting abnormal NF-κB activation in human cancers.

  18. 3pK, a new mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase located in the small cell lung cancer tumor suppressor gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Sithanandam, G; Latif, F; Duh, F M; Bernal, R; Smola, U; Li, H; Kuzmin, I; Wixler, V; Geil, L; Shrestha, S

    1996-01-01

    NotI linking clones, localized to the human chromosome 3p21.3 region and homozygously deleted in small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H740 and NCI-H1450, were used to search for a putative tumor suppressor gene(s). One of these clones, NL1G210, detected a 2.5-kb mRNA in all examined human tissues, expression being especially high in the heart and skeletal muscle. Two overlapping cDNA clones containing the entire open reading frame were isolated from a human heart cDNA library and fully characterized. Computer analysis and a search of the GenBank database to reveal high sequence identity of the product of this gene to serine-threonine kinases, especially to mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2, a recently described substrate of mitogen-activated kinases. Sequence identitiy was 72% at the nucleotide level and 75% at the amino acid level, strongly suggesting that this protein is a serine-threonine kinase. Here we demonstrate that the new gene, referred to as 3pK (for chromosome 3p kinase), in fact encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated protein serine-threonine kinase with a novel substrate specificity. PMID:8622688

  19. Protein Kinase C Isozyme in Mammary Carcinogenesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    11 A B Clone 72 Clone 34 AKAP 86 Clone 35H CInn 72 lonn 4 P 95 lone 351 9. 5J 4.4- 688 431 Clone 45 Clone 35F Clone 64 Annexln 1 Clone 45 Clone 35F...purified antibodies directed against a variety of PKC substrates and an A-kinase anchoring protein, AKAP 95. (B) PolyA+ mRNAs isolated from confluent cell

  20. Repurposing of Human Kinase Inhibitors in Neglected Protozoan Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dichiara, Maria; Marrazzo, Agostino; Prezzavento, Orazio; Collina, Simona; Rescifina, Antonio; Amata, Emanuele

    2017-08-22

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis belong to a group of infectious diseases known as neglected tropical diseases and are induced by infection with protozoan parasites named trypanosomatids. Drugs in current use have several limitations, and therefore new candidate drugs are required. The majority of current therapeutic trypanosomatid targets are enzymes or cell-surface receptors. Among these, eukaryotic protein kinases are a major group of protein targets whose modulation may be beneficial for the treatment of neglected tropical protozoan diseases. This review summarizes the finding of new hit compounds for neglected tropical protozoan diseases, by repurposing known human kinase inhibitors on trypanosomatids. Kinase inhibitors are grouped by human kinase family and discussed according to the screening (target-based or phenotypic) reported for these compounds on trypanosomatids. This collection aims to provide insight into repurposed human kinase inhibitors and their importance in the development of new chemical entities with potential beneficial effects on the diseases caused by trypanosomatids. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Protein kinase A and regulation of neonatal Nav1.5 expression in human breast cancer cells: activity-dependent positive feedback and cellular migration.

    PubMed

    Chioni, Athina-Myrto; Shao, Dongmin; Grose, Richard; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2010-02-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are expressed in excitable cells (e.g. neurons and muscles), as well as in some classically 'non-excitable' cells (e.g. fibroblasts), and in carcinomas. In general, functional expression of VGSCs in plasma membrane (PM) is hierarchical and dynamic. Previously, we have shown that an activity-dependent positive feedback mechanism involving cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) plays a significant role in upregulation of VGSCs in strongly metastatic rat prostate cancer Mat-LyLu cells expressing Nav1.7. Here, we investigated the possible role of PKA in VGSC regulation and its functional consequences in strongly metastatic human breast cancer (BCa) MDA-MB-231 cells, where the neonatal splice form of Nav1.5 (nNav1.5) is the predominant VGSC present. Treatment with the PKA activator forskolin for 24h increased mRNA and PM protein levels of nNav1.5, without changing the total VGSC protein level. Opposite effects were obtained by application of the PKA inhibitor KT5720 or the highly specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), the latter implying activity-dependent upregulation. We tested the possibility, therefore, that the activity dependence of VGSC (nNav1.5) expression involved PKA. Indeed, TTX pretreatment reduced the level of phosphorylated PKA and eliminated basal and PKA-stimulated cellular migration. These data suggested that activity-dependent positive feedback mediated by PKA plays an important role in the functional expression of nNav1.5 in BCa, and in turn, this enhances the cells' metastatic potential.

  2. Differential AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Recognition Mechanism of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-06-24

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) is a known activating kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In vitro, CaMKKβ phosphorylates Thr(172) in the AMPKα subunit more efficiently than CaMKKα, with a lower Km (∼2 μm) for AMPK, whereas the CaMKIα phosphorylation efficiencies by both CaMKKs are indistinguishable. Here we found that subdomain VIII of CaMKK is involved in the discrimination of AMPK as a native substrate by measuring the activities of various CaMKKα/CaMKKβ chimera mutants. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that Leu(358) in CaMKKβ/Ile(322) in CaMKKα confer, at least in part, a distinct recognition of AMPK but not of CaMKIα.

  3. MAP kinase activator from insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle is a protein threonine/tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Nakielny, S; Cohen, P; Wu, J; Sturgill, T

    1992-01-01

    A 'MAP kinase activator' was purified several thousand-fold from insulin-stimulated rabbit skeletal muscle, which resembled the 'activator' from nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells in that it could be inactivated by incubation with protein phosphatase 2A, but not by protein tyrosine phosphatases and its apparent molecular mass was 45-50 kDa. In the presence of MgATP, 'MAP kinase activator' converted the normal 'wild-type' 42 kDa MAP kinase from an inactive dephosphorylated form to the fully active diphosphorylated species. Phosphorylation occurred on the same threonine and tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated in vivo in response to growth factors or phorbol esters. A mutant MAP kinase produced by changing a lysine at the active centre to arginine was phosphorylated in an identical manner by the 'MAP kinase activator', but no activity was generated. The results demonstrate that 'MAP kinase activator' is a protein kinase (MAP kinase kinase) and not a protein that stimulates the autophosphorylation of MAP kinase. MAP kinase kinase is the first established example of a protein kinase that can phosphorylate an exogenous protein on threonine as well as tyrosine residues. Images PMID:1318193

  4. Distinct Kinetic and Spatial Patterns of Protein Kinase C (PKC)- and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases 1 and 2 by Human Nicotinic Acid Receptor GPR109A*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Deng, Xiaoyan; Wu, Chun; Zhou, Qi; Chen, Linjie; Shi, Ying; Huang, Haishan; Zhou, Naiming

    2011-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (niacin) has been widely used as a lipid-lowering drug for several decades, and recently, orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR109A has been identified as a receptor for niacin. Mechanistic investigations have shown that, upon niacin activation, GPR109A couples to a Gi protein and inhibits adenylate cyclase activity, leading to inhibition of liberation of free fatty acid. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GPR109A signaling remain largely unknown. Using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing GPR109A and A431 cells, which are a human epidermoid cell line with high levels of endogenous expression of functional GPR109A receptors, we found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by niacin was rapid, peaking at 5 min, and was significantly blocked by pertussis toxin. Furthermore, time course experiments with different kinase inhibitors demonstrated that GPR109A induced ERK1/2 activation via the matrix metalloproteinase/epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation pathway at both early and later time points (2–5 min); this pathway was distinct from the PKC pathway-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation that occurs at early time points (≤2 min) in response to niacin. Overexpression of Gβγ subunit scavengers βARK1-CT and the Gα subunit of transducin led to a significant reduction of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a critical role for βγ subunits in GPR109A-activated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Using arrestin-2/3-specific siRNA and an internalization-deficient GPR109A mutant, we found that arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 were not involved in GPR109A-mediated ERK1/2 activation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that upon binding to niacin GPR109A receptors initially activate Gi, leading to dissociation of the Gβγ subunit from activated Gi, and subsequently induce ERK1/2 activation via two distinct pathways, one PKC-dependent pathway occurring at a peak time of ≤2 min and the other matrix metalloproteinase

  5. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  6. Cryoprotective effect of resveratrol on DNA damage and crucial human sperm messenger RNAs, possibly through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Shabani Nashtaei, Maryam; Nekoonam, Saeid; Naji, Mohammad; Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Amidi, Fardin

    2017-07-26

    This work aimed at investigating the effect of resveratrol on (1) DNA integrity and (2) fertilizing capacity of sperm by quantifying the presence of key paternal transcripts considered as markers for male fertility (protamine 1 [PRM1] and protamine 2 [PRM2]) and pregnancy success (adducin 1 alpha [ADD1]) in cryopreserved human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The study populations was drawn from 22 normozoospermic healthy volunteers which were incubated with or without AMPK activator (resveratrol [RSV], 15 µM) or inhibitor (Compound C [CC], 30 µM) for 1 h and were then cryopreserved. Untreated frozen-thawed spermatozoa served as controls. The RSV-induced AMPK activation decreased the level of DNA fragmentation in comparison with the control (21.18 ± 0.92 vs. 22.50 ± 0.40; p < 0.01). The relative mRNA expression levels of protamines (1 and 2) and ADD1 in RSV pretreated frozen-thawed human spermatozoa were also improved significantly compared to the control (p < 0.05). Conversely, the inhibitory effect of CC on AMPK activity deteriorated the deleterious effects of cryopreservation on these parameters (p < 0.01). In conclusion, these results demonstrated the cryoprotective effect of the RSV-induced increase in AMPK activity on DNA integrity and key paternal transcripts of cryopreserved human spermatozoa. These findings are of great importance for improving the available cryopreservation protocols in terms of the number of lesions that produced over key genes and the dramatic effects on sperm DNA fragmentation.

  7. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Nagata, Sayaka; Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Murakami, Manabu; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2016-02-19

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM{sub 1} receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM{sub 1} receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM{sub 1} receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [{sup 125}I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449–453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM{sub 1} receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. - Highlights: • We discovered a novel function of GRKs in GPCR trafficking using human CLR/RAMP2. • GRKs 4 and 5 markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of human CLR/RAMP2. • Both GRKs exhibited highly significant receptor signaling inhibition. • Five residues of the C-terminal tail of CLR govern this function of GRKs.

  8. Characterisation of a plant 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 homologue which contains a pleckstrin homology domain.

    PubMed

    Deak, M; Casamayor, A; Currie, R A; Downes, C P; Alessi, D R

    1999-05-28

    A plant homologue of mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) has been identified in Arabidopsis and rice which displays 40% overall identity with human 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1. Like the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, Arabidopsis 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and rice 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 possess a kinase domain at N-termini and a pleckstrin homology domain at their C-termini. Arabidopsis 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 can rescue lethality in Saccharomyces cerevisiae caused by disruption of the genes encoding yeast 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 homologues. Arabidopsis 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 interacts via its pleckstrin homology domain with phosphatidic acid, PtdIns3P, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2 and to a lesser extent with PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns4P. Arabidopsis 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 is able to activate human protein kinase B alpha (PKB/AKT) in the presence of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Arabidopsis 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 is only the second plant protein reported to possess a pleckstrin homology domain and the first plant protein shown to bind 3-phosphoinositides.

  9. Real-time protein kinase assay.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongye; Low, Karen E; Woo, Sam; Noble, Richard L; Graham, Ronald J; Connaughton, Sonia S; Gee, Melissa A; Lee, Linda G

    2005-04-01

    We report a novel, real-time fluorogenic kinase assay. The peptide substrates are synthesized with a fluorescent dye and a hydrocarbon tail. The substrate self-assembles into micelles, increasing the local concentration of the dye and quenching its fluorescence. Upon phosphorylation, the fluorescence intensity increases 4-6-fold due to micelle reorganization. Both dynamic light scattering data and cryoelectron microscope images show that the size and the shape of the phosphopeptide micelles are significantly different from micelles of substrate peptide. The system provides a robust fluorescence increase in a real-time protein kinase assay. Unlike other fluorogenic systems, the fluorophore may be distant from the serine, threonine, or tyrosine that is phosphorylated. Assays for several kinases, including PKA, PKC, p38, MAPKAP K2, akt, Erk1, and src-family kinases, have been developed. IC(50) values of inhibitors for PKC betaII determined with this technology are consistent with published values. The utility of this assay to high-throughput screening was demonstrated with Sigma's LOPAC library, a collection of 640 compounds with known biological activities, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  10. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase by Adenine Alleviates TNF-Alpha-Induced Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Jang, Hyun-Hwa; Chen, Chin-Chen; Nong, Jing-Yi; Chen, Po-Ku; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Han-Min

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling system plays a key role in cellular stress by repressing the inflammatory responses induced by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) system. Previous studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory role of AMPK involves activation by adenine, but the mechanism that allows adenine to produce these effects has not yet been elucidated. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), adenine was observed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK in both a time- and dose-dependent manner as well as its downstream target acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACC). Adenine also attenuated NF-κB targeting of gene expression in a dose-dependent manner and decreased monocyte adhesion to HUVECs following tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) treatment. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against AMPK α1 in HUVECs attenuated the adenine-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α, thereby suggesting that the anti-inflammatory role of adenine is mediated by AMPK. Following the knockdown of adenosyl phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) in HUVECs, adenine supplementation failed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Similarly, the expression of a shRNA against APRT nullified the anti-inflammatory effects of adenine in HUVECs. These results suggested that the role of adenine as an AMPK activator is related to catabolism by APRT, which increases the cellular AMP levels to activate AMPK. PMID:26544976

  11. The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is located on the secretory granules in human neutrophils and translocates towards the phagosome during cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Möhn, H; Le Cabec, V; Fischer, S; Maridonneau-Parini, I

    1995-01-01

    The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is mainly expressed in neutrophils; however, its functional role in these cells is unknown. Several other src-family members are localized on secretory vesicles and have been proposed to regulate intracellular traffic. We have established here the subcellular localization of p59hck in human neutrophils. Immunoblotting of subcellular fractions showed that approx. 60% of the p59hck per cell is localized on the secretory granules; the other 40% is distributed equally between non-granular membranes and the cytosol. Immunofluorescence of neutrophils and HL60 cells suggests that the p59hck-positive granules are azurophil granules. Granular p59hck is highly susceptible to degradation by an azurophil-granule proteinase. Different forms of p59hck occur in the three subcellular compartments: a 61 kDa form is mainly found in the granules, a 59 kDa form is predominant in the non-granular membranes, whereas cytosolic p59hck migrates as a doublet at 63 kDa. During the process of phagocytosis-linked degranulation, induced by serum-opsonized zymosan in neutrophils or HL60 cells, granular p59hck translocates towards the phagosome. The subcellular localization of p59hck suggests that the enzyme could be involved in the regulation of the degranulation process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7626033

  12. Short-term and long-term effects of protein kinase C on the trafficking and stability of human organic anion transporter 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Suh, Wonmo; Pan, Zui; You, Guofeng

    2012-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of numerous clinically important drugs. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this transporter has profound clinical significance. In the current study, we investigated the short-term and long-term regulation of hOAT3 by protein kinase C (PKC). We showed that short-term activation of PKC by phobol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) inhibited hOAT3 activity through accelerating its internalization from cell surface to intracellular recycling endosomes. The colocalization of hOAT3 with EEA1-positive recycling endosomes was demonstrated by immunolocalization with confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we showed that long-term activation of PKC resulted in the enhanced degradation of cell surface hOAT3. The pathways for hOAT3 degradation were further examined using proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors. Our results showed that both proteasomal inhibitors and the lysosomal inhibitors significantly blocked hOAT3 degradation. These results demonstrate that PKC plays critical roles in the trafficking and the stability of hOAT3. PMID:22773962

  13. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase by Adenine Alleviates TNF-Alpha-Induced Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Fang; Young, Guang-Huar; Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Jang, Hyun-Hwa; Chen, Chin-Chen; Nong, Jing-Yi; Chen, Po-Ku; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Han-Min

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling system plays a key role in cellular stress by repressing the inflammatory responses induced by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) system. Previous studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory role of AMPK involves activation by adenine, but the mechanism that allows adenine to produce these effects has not yet been elucidated. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), adenine was observed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK in both a time- and dose-dependent manner as well as its downstream target acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACC). Adenine also attenuated NF-κB targeting of gene expression in a dose-dependent manner and decreased monocyte adhesion to HUVECs following tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) treatment. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against AMPK α1 in HUVECs attenuated the adenine-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α, thereby suggesting that the anti-inflammatory role of adenine is mediated by AMPK. Following the knockdown of adenosyl phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) in HUVECs, adenine supplementation failed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Similarly, the expression of a shRNA against APRT nullified the anti-inflammatory effects of adenine in HUVECs. These results suggested that the role of adenine as an AMPK activator is related to catabolism by APRT, which increases the cellular AMP levels to activate AMPK.

  14. Telmisartan enhances mitochondrial activity and alters cellular functions in human coronary artery endothelial cells via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Sugamura, Koichi; Toyama, Kensuke; Matsubara, Junichi; Fujisue, Koichiro; Ohba, Keisuke; Maeda, Hirofumi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Sumida, Hitoshi; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cellular senescence and impaired function of vascular endothelium, resulted in cardiovascular diseases. Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II type I receptor blocker that has been shown to prevent cardiovascular events in high risk patients. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in mitochondrial biogenesis and endothelial function. This study assessed whether telmisartan enhances mitochondrial function and alters cellular functions via AMPK in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). In cultured HCAECs, telmisartan significantly enhanced mitochondrial activity assessed by mitochondrial reductase activity and intracellular ATP production and increased the expression of mitochondria related genes. Telmisartan prevented cellular senescence and exhibited the anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of genes related anti-oxidant and pro-angiogenic properties were increased by telmisartan. Telmisartan increased endothelial NO synthase and AMPK phosphorylation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling was not involved in telmisartan-induced improvement of mitochondrial function. All of these effects were abolished by inhibition of AMPK. Telmisartan enhanced mitochondrial activity and exhibited anti-senescence effects and improving endothelial function through AMPK in HCAECs. Telmisartan could provide beneficial effects on vascular diseases via enhancement of mitochondrial activity and modulating endothelial function through AMPK activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coumestrol induces senescence through protein kinase CKII inhibition-mediated reactive oxygen species production in human breast cancer and colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hoon; Yuk, Heung Joo; Park, Ki-Hun; Bae, Young-Seuk

    2013-11-01

    An inhibitor of the protein kinase CKII (CKII) was purified from leaves of Glycine max (L.) Merrill and was identified as coumestrol by structural analysis. Coumestrol inhibited the phosphotransferase activity of CKII toward β-casein, with an IC50 of about 5 μM. It acted as a competitive inhibitor with respect to ATP as a substrate, with an apparent Ki value of 7.67 μM. Coumestrol at 50μM resulted in 50% and 30% growth inhibition of human breast cancer MCF-7 and colorectal cancer HCT116 cells, respectively. Coumestrol promoted senescence through the p53-p21(Cip1/WAF1) pathway by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in MCF-7 and HCT116 cells. The ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and p22(phox) siRNA almost completely abolished this event. Overexpression of CKIIα antagonised cellular senescence mediated by coumestrol, indicating that this compound induced senescence via a CKII-dependent pathway. Since senescence is an important tumour suppression process in vivo, these results suggest that coumestrol can function by inhibiting oncogenic disease, at least in part, through CKII inhibition-mediated cellular senescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinase Pathway Database: An Integrated Protein-Kinase and NLP-Based Protein-Interaction Resource

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Asako; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinases play a crucial role in the regulation of cellular functions. Various kinds of information about these molecules are important for understanding signaling pathways and organism characteristics. We have developed the Kinase Pathway Database, an integrated database involving major completely sequenced eukaryotes. It contains the classification of protein kinases and their functional conservation, ortholog tables among species, protein–protein, protein–gene, and protein–compound interaction data, domain information, and structural information. It also provides an automatic pathway graphic image interface. The protein, gene, and compound interactions are automatically extracted from abstracts for all genes and proteins by natural-language processing (NLP).The method of automatic extraction uses phrase patterns and the GENA protein, gene, and compound name dictionary, which was developed by our group. With this database, pathways are easily compared among species using data with more than 47,000 protein interactions and protein kinase ortholog tables. The database is available for querying and browsing at http://kinasedb.ontology.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/. PMID:12799355

  18. Activation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release via protein kinase C-alpha in HEC-1B human endometrial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Dearn, S.; Rahman, M.; Lewis, A.; Ahmed, Z.; Eggo, M. C.; Ahmed, A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impairment of the fertility in the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor transgenic female mice suggests changes in PAF functions can influence uterine receptivity. We hypothesized that vasodilatory actions of PAF in the uterus was exerted by PAF-mediated nitric oxide (NO) release via activation of isoenzyme-specific protein kinase C (PKC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inducible and endothelial NOS was shown by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR in cDNA synthesized from RNA extract of proliferative and secretory endometrium as well endometrial epithelial cell lines HEC-1B. The effect of WEB2170, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and Ro31-8220 on PAF mediated NO release by HEC-1B cell was determined. PAF induced translocation of PKCalpha in HEC-1B cell and its antagonist effect by Ro 31-8220 was studied by Western immunoblot analysis. PKC isoenzyme regulated by PAF was determined in HEC-1B cell lysate by immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: PAF-evoked a rapid and concentration-dependent biphasic increase in total NO in human HEC-1B endometrial epithelial cell line [as measured by a Sievers NOA 280A NO Chemiluminescent Analyser.] This increase in NO release was attenuated by the PAF receptor antagonist, WEB2170. Inhibition of NO synthesis by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine produced marked dose-dependent attenuation of PAF-mediated NO release, indicating nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation. PAF-mediated NO release was also inhibited by the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 and by the removal of extracellular calcium, suggesting a dependency on PKC and calcium, respectively. RT-PCR analysis showed expression of inducible NOS and endothelial NOS in human endometrium, myometrium and HEC-1B cells. Western immunoblot analysis showed PKCalpha, betaII and iota were the principal isozymes present in the HEC-1B cell line and normal endometrium, suggesting that both HEC-1B cells and normal endometrium have similar PKC isozymes. PAF induced the translocation of

  19. Protein Scaffolds in MAP Kinase Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew D.; Sacks, David B.

    2009-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway allows cells to interpret external signals and respond in an appropriate way. Diverse cellular functions, ranging from differentiation and proliferation to migration and inflammation, are regulated by MAPK signalling. Therefore, cells have developed mechanisms by which this single pathway modulates numerous cellular responses from a wide range of activating factors. This specificity is achieved by several mechanisms, including temporal and spatial control of MAPK signalling components. Key to this control are protein scaffolds, which are multidomain proteins that interact with components of the MAPK cascade in order to assemble signalling complexes. Studies conducted on different scaffolds, in different biological systems, have shown that scaffolds exert substantial control over MAPK signalling, influencing the signal intensity, time course and, importantly, the cellular responses. Protein scaffolds, therefore, are integral elements in the modulation of the MAPK network in fundamental physiological processes. PMID:19091303

  20. Telencephalin protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by activating the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heping; Wu, Dapeng; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiang; Peng, Yi; Hu, Zhiping

    2012-10-05

    Telencephalin is a neural glycoprotein that reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid beta protein in the human neural tumor cell line PAJU. In this study, we examined the role of the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in this process. Western blot analysis demonstrated that telencephalin, phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B were not expressed in PAJU cells transfected with empty plasmid, while they were expressed in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid. After treatment with 1.0 nM amyloid beta protein 42, expression of telencephalin and phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B in the transfected cells gradually diminished, while levels of phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin increased. In addition, the high levels of telencephalin, phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B expression in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid could be suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings indicate that telencephalin activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis.

  1. Physical and functional association of a serine-threonine protein kinase to the cytoplasmic domain of the p80 form of the human tumor necrosis factor receptor in human histiocytic lymphoma U-937 cells.

    PubMed

    Darnay, B G; Reddy, S A; Aggarwal, B B

    1994-08-05

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binds two distinct cell surface receptors designated p60 and p80. Our previous studies indicate that a protein kinase from U-937 cells binds to and phosphorylates the p60 receptor. While the p80 receptor is phosphorylated in vivo, no association of a protein kinase has been described. We employed a fusion protein comprising of glutathione S-transferase and the cytoplasmic domain of the p80 receptor (GST-p80CD) to identify cellular proteins that might associate with this receptor. From 35S- and 32P-labeled cells, a protein of 59 kDa bound specifically to GST-p80CD. In vitro kinase reactions indicated that serine/threonine protein kinase activity associated with GST-p80CD and causes its phosphorylation. Additionally, a 59-kDa phosphoprotein was also identified after kinase reactions of proteins bound to GST-p80CD. This kinase activity required either Mg2+ or Mn2+ for optimal activity, and it phosphorylated myelin basic protein, histone H2B, and also the cytoplasmic domain of the p60 receptor. Treatment of cells with TNF increased the p80 receptor-associated kinase activity by 200%. In summary, our results provide evidence of a novel ligand-activated serine/threonine protein kinase that associates with the cytoplasmic domain of the p80 receptor and causes the phosphorylation of both forms of the TNF receptor. This p80 TNF receptor-associated protein and the associated kinase described here are referred to as p80-TRAP and p80-TRAK, respectively.

  2. Glycolate kinase activity in human red cells.

    PubMed

    Fujii, S; Beutler, E

    1985-02-01

    Human red cells manifest glycolate kinase activity. This activity copurifies with pyruvate kinase and is decreased in the red cells of subjects with hereditary pyruvate kinase deficiency. Glycolate kinase activity was detected in the presence of FDP or glucose-1,6-P2. In the presence of 1 mmol/L FDP, the Km for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was 0.28 mmol/L and a half maximum velocity for glycolate was obtained at 40 mmol/L. The pH optimum of the reaction was over 10.5 With 10 mumol/L FDP, 500 mumol/L glucose-1,6-P2, 2 mmol/L ATP, 5 mmol/L MgCl2, and 50 mmol/L glycolate at pH 7.5, glycolate kinase activity was calculated to be approximately 0.0013 U/mL RBC. In view of this low activity even in the presence of massive amounts of glycolate, the glycolate kinase reaction cannot account for the maintenance of the reported phosphoglycolate level in human red cells.

  3. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Mediates Lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Induction of Shiga Toxin 2 Sensitivity in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Matthew K.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Lindner, Matthew H.; Obrig, Tom G.

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), one of the causative agents of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, is toxic to endothelial cells, including primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). This sensitivity of cells to Stx2 can be increased with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The goal of the present study was to identify the intracellular signaling pathway(s) by which LPS and TNF-α sensitize HUVEC to the cytotoxic effects of Stx2. To identify these pathways, specific pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs were tested with cell viability endpoints. A time course and dose response experiment for HUVEC exposure to LPS and TNF-α showed that a relatively short exposure to either agonist was sufficient to sensitize the cells to Stx2 and that both agonists stimulated intracellular signaling pathways within a short time. Cell viability assays indicated that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 and the general protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited both the LPS and TNF-α sensitization of HUVEC to Stx2, while all other inhibitors tested did not inhibit this sensitization. Additionally, SB202190 reduced the cellular globotriaosylceramide content under LPS- and TNF-α-induced conditions. In conclusion, our results show that LPS and TNF-α induction of Stx2 sensitivity in HUVEC is mediated through a pathway that includes p38 MAPK. These results indicate that inhibition of p38 MAPK in endothelial cells may protect a host from the deleterious effects of Stx2. PMID:18086809

  4. A Novel Role for c-Myc in G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 (GRK4) Transcriptional Regulation in Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gildea, John J.; Tran, Hanh T.; Van Sciver, Robert E.; Wang, Dora Bigler; Carlson, Julia M.; Felder, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    The G coupled-protein receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) negatively regulates the dopaminergic system by desensitizing the dopamine-1-receptor (D1R). The expressional control of GRK4 has not been reported, but here, we show that the transcription factor c-Myc binds to the promoter of GRK4 and positively regulates GRK4 protein expression in human renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs). Addition of phorbol esters (PMA) to RPTCs not only increased c-Myc binding to the GRK4 promoter, but also increased both phospho-c-Myc and GRK4 expression. The PMA-mediated increase in GRK4 expression was completely blocked by the c-Myc inhibitor, 10074-G5, indicating that GRK4 is downstream of phospho-c-Myc. The autocrine production of angiotensin II (Ang II) in RPTCs increased the phosphorylation and activation of c-Myc and subsequently GRK4 expression. 3-Amino-4-thio-butyl sulfonate (EC-33), an inhibitor of aminopeptidase A (APA), increased RPTC secretion of Ang II. EC-33 or Ang II increased the expression of both phospho-c-Myc and GRK4, which was blocked by 10074-G5. Blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) with losartan decreased phospho-c-Myc and GRK4 expression. Both inhibition of c-Myc activity and blockade of AT1R restored the coupling of D1R to adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulation in uncoupled RPTCs (uRPTCs) while PMA or Ang II caused the uncoupling of normally coupled RPTCs (nRPTCs). We suggest that the AT1R impairs D1R function via c-Myc activation of GRK4. This novel pathway may be involved in the increase in blood pressure in hypertension that is mediated by increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and decreased activity of the renal dopaminergic system. PMID:23509080

  5. A novel role for c-Myc in G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) transcriptional regulation in human kidney proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Tran, Hanh T; Van Sciver, Robert E; Bigler Wang, Dora; Carlson, Julia M; Felder, Robin A

    2013-05-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) negatively regulates the dopaminergic system by desensitizing the dopamine-1-receptor. The expressional control of GRK4 has not been reported, but here we show that the transcription factor c-Myc binds to the promoter of GRK4 and positively regulates GRK4 protein expression in human renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs). Addition of phorbol esters to RPTCs not only increased c-Myc binding to the GRK4 promoter but also increased both phospho-c-Myc and GRK4 expression. The phorbol ester-mediated increase in GRK4 expression was completely blocked by the c-Myc inhibitor, 10074-G5, indicating that GRK4 is downstream of phospho-c-Myc. The autocrine production of angiotensin II (Ang II) in RPTCs increased the phosphorylation and activation of c-Myc and subsequently GRK4 expression. 3-Amino-4-thio-butyl sulfonate, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase A, increased RPTC secretion of Ang II. 3-Amino-4-thio-butyl sulfonate or Ang II increased the expression of both phospho-c-Myc and GRK4, which was blocked by 10074-G5. Blockade of the Ang II type 1 receptor with losartan decreased phospho-c-Myc and GRK4 expression. Both inhibition of c-Myc activity and blockade of Ang II type 1 receptor restored the coupling of dopamine-1-receptor to adenylyl cyclase stimulation in uncoupled RPTCs, whereas phorbol esters or Ang II caused the uncoupling of normally coupled RPTCs. We suggest that the Ang II type 1 receptor impairs dopamine-1-receptor function via c-Myc activation of GRK4. This novel pathway may be involved in the increase in blood pressure in hypertension that is mediated by increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and decreased activity of the renal dopaminergic system.

  6. Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits Histamine-Evoked Ca2+ Release in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells through Hyperactive cAMP Signalling Junctions and Protein Kinase A.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Emily J A; Pantazaka, Evangelia; Shelley, Kathryn L; Taylor, Colin W

    2017-09-06

    In human aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMC), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates adenylyl cyclase (AC) and attenuates the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) evoked by activation of histamine H1 receptors. The mechanisms are not resolved. We show that cAMP mediates inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca(2+) signals by PGE2 Exchange proteins activated by cAMP (EPACs) were not required, but the effects were attenuated by inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PGE2 had no effect on the Ca(2+) signals evoked by protease-activated receptors, heterologously expressed muscarinic M3 receptors, or by direct activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors by photolysis of caged IP3 The rate of Ca(2+) removal from the cytosol was unaffected by PGE2, but PGE2 attenuated histamine-evoked IP3 accumulation. Substantial inhibition of AC had no effect on the concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca(2+) signals by PGE2 or butaprost (to selectively activate EP2 receptors), but it modestly attenuated responses to EP4 receptors, activation of which generated less cAMP than EP2 receptors. We conclude that inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca(2+) signals by PGE2 occurs through 'hyperactive signalling junctions', wherein cAMP is locally delivered to PKA at super-saturating concentrations to cause uncoupling of H1 receptors from phospholipase C. This sequence allows digital signalling from PGE2 receptors, through cAMP and PKA, to histamine-evoked Ca(2+) signals. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Suppression of 5'-nucleotidase enzymes promotes AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and metabolism in human and mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sameer S; Karlsson, Håkan K R; Szekeres, Ferenc; Chibalin, Alexander V; Krook, Anna; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-10-07

    The 5'-nucleotidase (NT5) family of enzyme dephosphorylates non-cyclic nucleoside monophosphates to produce nucleosides and inorganic phosphates. We hypothesized that gene silencing of NT5 enzymes to increase the intracellular availability of AMP would increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and metabolism. We determined the role of cytosolic NT5 in metabolic responses linked to the development of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using siRNA to silence NT5C2 expression in cultured human myotubes, we observed a 2-fold increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, a 2.4-fold increase in AMPK phosphorylation (Thr(172)), and a 2.8-fold increase in acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (Ser(79)) (p < 0.05). siRNA silencing of NT5C2 expression increased palmitate oxidation by 2-fold in the absence and by 8-fold in the presence of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside. This was paralleled by an increase in glucose transport and a decrease in glucose oxidation, incorporation into glycogen, and lactate release from NT5C2-depleted myotubes. Gene silencing of NT5C1A by shRNA injection and electroporation in mouse tibialis anterior muscle reduced protein content (60%; p < 0.05) and increased phosphorylation of AMPK (60%; p < 0.05) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (50%; p < 0.05) and glucose uptake (20%; p < 0.05). Endogenous expression of NT5C enzymes inhibited basal lipid oxidation and glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Reduction of 5'-nucleotidase expression or activity may promote metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Endothelial Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 Is Critical for Lymphatic Vascular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-An; Danai, Laura V.; Yawe, Joseph C.; Gujja, Sharvari; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lymphatic vascular development and function are not well understood. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. Here, we show that constitutive loss of EC Map4k4 in mice causes postnatal lethality due to chylothorax, suggesting that Map4k4 is required for normal lymphatic vascular function. Mice constitutively lacking EC Map4k4 displayed dilated lymphatic capillaries, insufficient lymphatic valves, and impaired lymphatic flow; furthermore, primary ECs derived from these animals displayed enhanced proliferation compared with controls. Yeast 2-hybrid analyses identified the Ras GTPase-activating protein Rasa1, a known regulator of lymphatic development and lymphatic endothelial cell fate, as a direct interacting partner for Map4k4. Map4k4 silencing in ECs enhanced basal Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activities, and primary ECs lacking Map4k4 displayed enhanced lymphatic EC marker expression. Taken together, these results reveal that EC Map4k4 is critical for lymphatic vascular development by regulating EC quiescence and lymphatic EC fate. PMID:27044870

  9. All-trans retinoic acid enhances gemcitabine cytotoxicity in human pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC-1 by up-regulating protein expression of deoxycytidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroki; Tachikawa, Masanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Inoue, Koetsu; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Unno, Michiaki; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2017-02-12

    We previously showed that gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer chemotherapy correlates with suppressed expression of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of gemcitabine activation. The purpose of the present study was to find a drug that might be useful to enhance the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine by increasing dCK expression in gemcitabine-resistant human pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC-1. Screening of 40 prescription drugs identified 35 with no intrinsic cytotoxicity towards AsPC-1 cells. When AsPC-1 cells were pre-incubated with these drugs and then incubated with gemcitabine, we found that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) significantly decreased the viability by 28% compared with that of non-treated cells. Luciferase assay showed that ATRA transactivated the DCK promoter in AsPC-1 cells by about 2-fold compared with the untreated control, and an increase of dCK protein expression was confirmed by immunoblotting. ATRA decreased the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of gemcitabine by 2.8-fold (ATRA-non-treated cells, 28.8nM; ATRA-treated cells, 10.0nM). The ATRA concentration of 0.03μM was sufficient to enhance gemcitabine cytotoxicity, and the effect was well maintained in the concentration range from 0.03 to 50μM. These results indicate that ATRA enhances gemcitabine cytotoxicity by increasing dCK expression in gemcitabine-resistant human pancreatic cancer cells.

  10. Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase Cε Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Gilijamse, Pim W; Versteeg, Ruth I; Ackermans, Mariette T; Nederveen, Aart J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Romijn, Johannes A; Nieuwdorp, Max; Zhang, Dongyan; Samuel, Varman T; Vatner, Daniel F; Petersen, Kitt F; Shulman, Gerald I; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-06-06

    Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in obese subjects was associated with hepatic, adipose tissue, and peripheral insulin resistance, we found that intrahepatic triglycerides were not strictly sufficient or essential for hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance, we comprehensively analyzed liver biopsies from a subset of 29 subjects. Here, hepatic cytosolic diacylglycerol content, but not hepatic ceramide content, was increased in subjects with hepatic insulin resistance. Moreover, cytosolic diacylglycerols were strongly associated with hepatic PKCε activation, as reflected by PKCε translocation to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate the relevance of hepatic diacylglycerol-induced PKCε activation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD-associated hepatic insulin resistance in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of the human dimeric ATM kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wilson C. Y.; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Huen, Michael S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA-double strand breaks activate the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to initiate DNA damage signal transduction. This activation process involves autophosphorylation and dissociation of inert ATM dimers into monomers that are catalytically active. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we determined the structure of dimeric ATM in its resting state. The EM map could accommodate the crystal structure of the N-terminal truncated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a closely related enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, allowing for the localization of the N- and the C-terminal regions of ATM. In the dimeric structure, the actives sites are buried, restricting the access of the substrates to these sites. The unanticipated domain organization of ATM provides a basis for understanding its mechanism of inhibition. PMID:27097373

  12. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Interaction Protein Functions as an A-kinase Anchoring Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Hundsrucker, Christian; Skroblin, Philipp; Christian, Frank; Zenn, Hans-Michael; Popara, Viola; Joshi, Mangesh; Eichhorst, Jenny; Wiesner, Burkhard; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Reif, Bernd; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2010-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) include a family of scaffolding proteins that target protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to cellular compartments and thereby confine the activities of the associated proteins to distinct regions within cells. AKAPs bind PKA directly. The interaction is mediated by the dimerization and docking domain of regulatory subunits of PKA and the PKA-binding domain of AKAPs. Analysis of the interactions between the dimerization and docking domain and various PKA-binding domains yielded a generalized motif allowing the identification of AKAPs. Our bioinformatics and peptide array screening approaches based on this signature motif identified GSKIP (glycogen synthase kinase 3β interaction protein) as an AKAP. GSKIP directly interacts with PKA and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β). It is widely expressed and facilitates phosphorylation and thus inactivation of GSK3β by PKA. GSKIP contains the evolutionarily conserved domain of unknown function 727. We show here that this domain of GSKIP and its vertebrate orthologues binds both PKA and GSK3β and thereby provides a mechanism for the integration of PKA and GSK3β signaling pathways. PMID:20007971

  13. Photoinduced structural changes to protein kinase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozinek, Sarah C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The importance of porphyrins in organisms is underscored by the ubiquitous biological and biochemical functions that are mediated by these compounds and by their potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is the precursor to heme and has biomedical applications such as its use as a photosensitizer in phototherapy and photodetection of cancer. Among other applications, our group has demonstrated that low-irradiance exposure to laser irradiation of PPIX, Fe-PPIX, or meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TSPP) non-covalently docked to a protein causes conformational changes in the polypeptide. Such approach can have remarkable consequences in the study of protein structure/function relationship and can be used to prompt non-native protein properties. Therefore we have investigated protein kinase A (PKA), a more relevant protein model towards the photo-treatment of cancer. PKA's enzymatic functions are regulated by the presence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate for intracellular signal transduction involved in, among other things, stimulation of transcription, tumorigenesis in Carney complex and migration of breast carcinoma cells. Since phosphorylation is a necessary step in some cancers and inflammatory diseases, inhibiting the protein kinase, and therefore phosphorylation, may serve to treat these diseases. Changes in absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime indicate: 1) both TSPP and PPIX non-covalently bind to PKA where they maintain photoreactivity; 2) absorptive photoproduct formation occurs only when PKA is bound to TSPP and irradiated; and 3) PKA undergoes secondary structural changes after irradiation with either porphyrin bound. These photoinduced changes could affect the protein's enzymatic and signaling capabilities.

  14. Building and exploring an integrated human kinase network: global organization and medical entry points.

    PubMed

    Colinge, Jacques; César-Razquin, Adrián; Huber, Kilian; Breitwieser, Florian P; Májek, Peter; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2014-07-31

    Biological matter is organized in functional networks of different natures among which kinase-substrate and protein-protein interactions play an important role. Large public data collections allowed us to compile an important corpus of interaction data around human protein kinases. One of the most interesting observations analyzing this network is that coherence in kinase functional activity relies on kinase substrate interactions primarily and not on which protein complexes are formed around them. Further dissecting the two types of interactions at the level of kinase groups (CMGCs, Tyrosine kinases, etc.) we show a prevalence of intra-group interconnectivity, which we can naturally relate to current scenarios of evolution of biological networks. Tracking publication dates we observe high correlation of kinase interaction research focus with general kinase research. We find a similar bias in the targets of kinase inhibitors that feature high redundancy. Finally, intersecting kinase inhibitor specificity with sets of kinases located at specific positions in the kinase network, we propose alternative options for future therapeutic strategies using these compounds. Despite its importance for cellular regulation and the fact that protein kinases feature prominent targets of modern therapeutic approaches, the structure and logic of the global, integrated protein phosphorylation network have not been investigated intensively. To focus on the regulatory skeleton of the phosphorylation network, we contemplated a network consisting of kinases, their substrates, and publicly available physical protein interactions. Analysis of this network at multiple levels allowed establishing a series of interesting properties such as prevalence of kinase substrate interactions as opposed to general protein-protein interactions for establishing a holistic control over kinases activities. Kinases controlling many or a few only other kinases, in addition to non-kinases, were distributed in

  15. Proteolytic Inhibition of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Induced Activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ERK and JNK in Cultured Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mynott, Tracey L.; Crossett, Ben; Prathalingam, S. Radhika

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks signaling by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1) and ERK-2, inhibits inflammation, and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we examined the effect of bromelain on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, since an important feature of its pathogenesis is its ability to induce activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2, which leads to internalization of bacteria and induction of inflammatory responses. Our results show that bromelain dose dependently blocks serovar Typhimurium-induced ERK-1, ERK-2, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Caco-2 cells. Bromelain also blocked signaling induced by carbachol and anisomycin, pharmacological MAP kinase agonists. Despite bromelain inhibition of serovar Typhimurium-induced MAP kinase signaling, it did not prevent subsequent invasion of the Caco-2 cells by serovar Typhimurium or alter serovar Typhimurium -induced decreases in resistance across Caco-2 monolayers. Surprisingly, bromelain also did not block serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion but synergized with serovar Typhimurium to enhance IL-8 production. We also found that serovar Typhimurium does not induce ERK phosphorylation in Caco-2 cells in the absence of serum but that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion and decreases in monolayer resistance are unaffected. Collectively, these data indicate that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion of Caco-2 cells, changes in the resistance of epithelial cell monolayers, and IL-8 production can occur independently of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Data also confirm that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of MAP kinase signaling pathways and suggest a novel role for proteases as inhibitors of signal transduction pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11748167

  16. Proteolytic inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK in cultured human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Mynott, Tracey L; Crossett, Ben; Prathalingam, S Radhika

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks signaling by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1) and ERK-2, inhibits inflammation, and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we examined the effect of bromelain on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, since an important feature of its pathogenesis is its ability to induce activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2, which leads to internalization of bacteria and induction of inflammatory responses. Our results show that bromelain dose dependently blocks serovar Typhimurium-induced ERK-1, ERK-2, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Caco-2 cells. Bromelain also blocked signaling induced by carbachol and anisomycin, pharmacological MAP kinase agonists. Despite bromelain inhibition of serovar Typhimurium-induced MAP kinase signaling, it did not prevent subsequent invasion of the Caco-2 cells by serovar Typhimurium or alter serovar Typhimurium -induced decreases in resistance across Caco-2 monolayers. Surprisingly, bromelain also did not block serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion but synergized with serovar Typhimurium to enhance IL-8 production. We also found that serovar Typhimurium does not induce ERK phosphorylation in Caco-2 cells in the absence of serum but that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion and decreases in monolayer resistance are unaffected. Collectively, these data indicate that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion of Caco-2 cells, changes in the resistance of epithelial cell monolayers, and IL-8 production can occur independently of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Data also confirm that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of MAP kinase signaling pathways and suggest a novel role for proteases as inhibitors of signal transduction pathways in intestinal epithelial cells.

  17. Protein Tyrosine Kinase Signaling During Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Lynda K.; Carroll, David J.; Kinsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The oocyte is a highly specialized cell capable of accumulating and storing energy supplies as well as maternal transcripts and pre-positioned signal transduction components needed for zygotic development, undergoing meiosis under control of paracrine signals from the follicle, fusing with a single sperm during fertilization, and zygotic development. The oocyte accomplishes this diverse series of events by establishing an array of signal transduction pathway components that include a select collection of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that are expressed at levels significantly higher than most other cell types. This array of PTKs includes cytosolic kinases such as SRC-family PTKs (FYN and YES), and FAK kinases, as well as FER. These kinases typically exhibit distinct patterns of localization and in some cases are translocated from one subcellular compartment to another during meiosis. Significant differences exist in the extent to which PTK-mediated pathways are used by oocytes from species that fertilize externally versus internally. The PTK activation profiles as well as calcium signaling pattern seems to correlate with the extent to which a rapid block to polyspermy is required by the biology of each species. Suppression of each of the SRC-family PTKs as well as FER kinase results in failure of meiotic maturation or zygote development, indicating that these PTKs are important for oocyte quality and developmental potential. Future studies will hopefully reveal the extent to which these factors impact clinical assisted reproductive techniques in domestic animals and humans. PMID:21681843

  18. Protein Kinases in Mammary Gland Development and Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    differ among CaM kinase family members include their subcellular localization , regulation by autophosphorylation, and regulation by other proteins. In...addition, CaM kinases have unique amino- and carboxyl- terminal domains that contribute to kinase-specific differences in subcellular localization ...chromosomal localization of Punc, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, (Submitted). 14. Hennings, H., Glick, A., Lowry, D., Krsmanovic, L