Science.gov

Sample records for human recombinant anti-thyroperoxidase

  1. Human recombinant anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies: in vitro cytotoxic activity on papillary thyroid cancer expressing TPO

    PubMed Central

    Rebuffat, S A; Morin, M; Nguyen, B; Castex, F; Robert, B; Péraldi-Roux, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancers are difficult to treat due to their limited responsiveness to chemo- and radiotherapy. There is thus a great interest in and a need for alternative therapeutic approaches. Results: We studied the cytotoxic activity of anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO aAbs, expressed in baculovirus/insect cell (B4) and CHO cells (B4′) or purified from patients' sera) against a papillary thyroid cancer (NPA) cell line. Anti-TPO aAbs from patients' sera led to a partial destruction of NPA cell line by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and exhibited an anti-proliferative activity. Comparison of the cytotoxic activity of anti-TPO aAbs shows that B4′ induced an anti-proliferative effect and a better ADCC than B4, but a lower one than anti-TPO aAbs from patients' sera. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity was increased when human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used as effector cells, suggesting that FcγRs, CD64, CD32 and CD16 are involved. Indeed, anti-TPO aAbs from patients' sera, but not B4 and B4′, exhibited CDC activity. Conclusions: These data indicate that anti-TPO aAbs display moderate ADCC and anti-proliferative activities on NPA cells; IgG glycosylation appears to be important for cytotoxic activity and ADCC efficiency depends on FcγR-bearing cells. Finally, recombinant human anti-TPO aAbs cannot yet be considered as an optimal tool for the development of a novel therapeutic approach for thyroid cancer. PMID:20145622

  2. Anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies from patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy bind to cerebellar astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Blanchin, Stéphanie; Coffin, Christine; Viader, Fausto; Ruf, Jean; Carayon, Pierre; Potier, Francette; Portier, Estelle; Comby, Elisabeth; Allouche, Stéphane; Ollivier, Yann; Reznik, Yves; Ballet, Jean Jacques

    2007-12-01

    A cohort of 10 Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) patients, 33 patients with unrelated neurological symptoms, 12 Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and 4 healthy adult donors was studied to explore the neurological targets of anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) autoantibodies (aAb) in HE. High levels of anti-TPO aAb were only detected in HE group's cerebrospinal fluids. In immunofluorescence assays on monkey brain cerebellum sections, both HE patients' sera and anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were able to bind cerebellar cells expressing glial fibrillary acid protein. Normal human astrocytes from primary cultures also reacted with anti-TPO mAb. Specific astrocyte binding of anti-TPO aAb suggests a role of these aAb in the HE pathogenesis.

  3. A radioligand binding assay to measure anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Sarah L; Suzuki, Kunimasa; Elliott, John F

    2007-06-30

    Autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis is a chronic inflammatory disease which affects >3% of the population and shows an increasing prevalence with increasing age. Anti-thyroid autoantibodies, particularly against thyroperoxidase (also known as thyroid peroxidase or TPO), occur commonly in humans with autoimmune thyroid disease, and assays for anti-TPO autoantibodies are used in clinical diagnosis. In contrast anti-TPO autoantibodies have not been observed in classical mouse models of autoimmune thyroiditis, except in cases where mice were deliberately immunized with TPO. In the past, detection of anti-TPO autoantibodies in mice has relied on an indirect immunofluorescence assay (iIFA) which screens for thyroid follicle membrane staining in frozen sections of mouse thyroid glands. Since recent transgenic mouse models of autoimmune thyroiditis spontaneously develop anti-TPO autoantibodies, an assay other than serial dilution and iIFA would be useful to detect and quantify these autoantibodies. In this paper we describe such an assay, based on the capacity of autoimmune mouse sera to bind to the extracellular domain of mouse TPO which was produced in a radioactively labeled form using a coupled in vitro transcription/translation system. The same approach, using human TPO, could provide a highly sensitive method to detect anti-TPO autoantibodies in humans.

  4. Evaluation of serum vitamin B12 levels and its correlation with anti-thyroperoxidase antibody in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaya Kumari, S; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Devanath, Anitha; Aiyyar, Vageesh; Patil, Madhuri

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported in patients with Autoimmune thyroid disorders. However there is limited data on exact prevalence of low B12 and its correlation with anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels in these patients. The aim of our study was to estimate serum vitamin B12 levels in autoimmune thyroid disorders and to correlate B12 levels with anti-TPO. 350 patients were selected by convenient sampling. Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid parameters were estimated using fully automated chemiluminescence method on Access 2. Results of our study shows that using the manufacturer's cut-off of 145 pg/mL, the prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 was found to be 45.50 %. Higher prevalence (55 %) was seen based on the published cut-off of 200 pg/mL The study however did not demonstrate any significant correlation between vitamin B12 levels and anti-TPO (r = -0.11 and p value of 0.30).

  5. Anti-Thyroperoxidase Antibody Levels >500 IU/ml Indicate a Moderately Increased Risk for Developing Hypothyroidism in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, M; Jordan, A-L; Feldkamp, J; Fritzen, R; Quadbeck, B; Haase, M; Allelein, S; Schmid, C; Schott, M

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmune Thyroiditis (AIT) is the most common autoimmune disease, which is characterized by cellular and humoral immunity leading to thyroid destruction. The impact of the humoral immunity on the risk to develop hypothyroidism has not exactly been defined yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between thyroid antibody levels and the risk for developing hypothyroidism. In this retrospective study, 335 untreated AIT patients were enrolled. Anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies (Abs), and the TSH level were measured. Patients with TPO-Ab levels>500 IU/ml showed a moderately increased risk of having elevated TSH levels [p=0.0023; relative risk (95% confidence interval): 1.343 (1.108-1.627)] compared to those below this threshold. AIT patients with TPO- or Tg-Abs<100 IU/ml and between 100-500 IU/ml had no significantly different TSH levels. Presence of Tg-Abs alone or in combination with TPO-Abs did not help to increase the sensitivity to identify patients at risk. Long term follow-up of AIT patients with high TPO-Abs level (>500 IU/ml) showed an increase of TSH levels (mean: 0.5 mIU/l; range: 2.52±2.73 to 3.02±3.05 mIU/l; p=0.0420). Still, these patients remained euthyroid. Our data indicate largely elevated levels of TPO-Abs being associated with a moderately increased risk of developing hypothyroidism.

  6. Recombinant human milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Human milk provides proteins that benefit newborn infants. They not only provide amino acids, but also facilitate the absorption of nutrients, stimulate growth and development of the intestine, modulate immune function, and aid in the digestion of other nutrients. Breastfed infants have a lower prevalence of infections than formula-fed infants. Since many women in industrialized countries choose not to breastfeed, and an increasing proportion of women in developing countries are advised not to breastfeed because of the risk of HIV transmission, incorporation of recombinant human milk proteins into infant foods is likely to be beneficial. We are expressing human milk proteins known to have anti-infective activity in rice. Since rice is a normal constituent of the diet of infants and children, limited purification of the proteins is required. Lactoferrin has antimicrobial and iron-binding activities. Lysozyme is an enzyme that is bactericidal and also acts synergistically with lactoferrin. These recombinant proteins have biological activities identical to their native counterparts. They are equally resistant to heat processing, which is necessary for food applications, and to acid and proteolytic enzymes which are needed to maintain their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. These recombinant human milk proteins may be incorporated into infant formulas, baby foods and complementary foods, and used with the goal to reduce infectious diseases.

  7. Selection of Recombinant Human Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tomszak, Florian; Weber, Susanne; Zantow, Jonas; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of therapeutic antibodies the demand of recombinant human antibodies is steadily increasing. Traditionally, therapeutic antibodies were generated by immunization of rat or mice, the generation of hybridoma clones, cloning of the antibody genes and subsequent humanization and engineering of the lead candidates. In the last few years, techniques were developed that use transgenic animals with a human antibody gene repertoire. Here, modern recombinant DNA technologies can be combined with well established immunization and hybridoma technologies to generate already affinity maturated human antibodies. An alternative are in vitro technologies which enabled the generation of fully human antibodies from antibody gene libraries that even exceed the human antibody repertoire. Specific antibodies can be isolated from these libraries in a very short time and therefore reduce the development time of an antibody drug at a very early stage.In this review, we describe different technologies that are currently used for the in vitro and in vivo generation of human antibodies.

  8. DNA recombination. Recombination initiation maps of individual human genomes.

    PubMed

    Pratto, Florencia; Brick, Kevin; Khil, Pavel; Smagulova, Fatima; Petukhova, Galina V; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel

    2014-11-14

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced in meiosis to initiate recombination and generate crossovers, the reciprocal exchanges of genetic material between parental chromosomes. Here, we present high-resolution maps of meiotic DSBs in individual human genomes. Comparing DSB maps between individuals shows that along with DNA binding by PRDM9, additional factors may dictate the efficiency of DSB formation. We find evidence for both GC-biased gene conversion and mutagenesis around meiotic DSB hotspots, while frequent colocalization of DSB hotspots with chromosome rearrangement breakpoints implicates the aberrant repair of meiotic DSBs in genomic disorders. Furthermore, our data indicate that DSB frequency is a major determinant of crossover rate. These maps provide new insights into the regulation of meiotic recombination and the impact of meiotic recombination on genome function.

  9. Human Insulin from Recombinant DNA Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Irving S.

    1983-02-01

    Human insulin produced by recombinant DNA technology is the first commercial health care product derived from this technology. Work on this product was initiated before there were federal guidelines for large-scale recombinant DNA work or commercial development of recombinant DNA products. The steps taken to facilitate acceptance of large-scale work and proof of the identity and safety of such a product are described. While basic studies in recombinant DNA technology will continue to have a profound impact on research in the life sciences, commercial applications may well be controlled by economic conditions and the availability of investment capital.

  10. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  11. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  12. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  13. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  14. Hydrodynamic characterization of recombinant human fibrinogen species

    PubMed Central

    Raynal, Bertrand; Cardinali, Barbara; Grimbergen, Jos; Profumo, Aldo; Lord, Susan T.; England, Patrick; Rocco, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fibrinogen is a key component of the blood coagulation system and plays important, diverse roles in several relevant pathologies such as thrombosis, hemorrhage, and cancer. It is a large glycoprotein whose three-dimensional molecular structure is not fully known. Furthermore, circulating fibrinogen is highly heterogeneous, mainly due to proteolytic degradation and alternative mRNA processing. Recombinant production of human fibrinogen allows investigating the impact on the three-dimensional structure of specific changes in the primary structure. Methods We performed analytical ultracentrifugation analyses of a full-length recombinant human fibrinogen, its counterpart purified from human plasma, and a recombinant human fibrinogen with both Aα chains truncated at amino acid 251, thus missing their last 359 amino acid residues. Results We have accurately determined the translational diffusion and sedimentation coefficients (Dt(20,w)0, s(20,w)0) of all three species. This was confirmed by derived molecular weights within 1% for the full length species, and 5% for the truncated species, as assessed by comparison with SDS-PAGE/Western blot analyses and primary structure data. No significant differences in the values of Dt(20,w)0 and s(20,w)0 were found between the recombinant and purified full length human fibrinogens, while slightly lower and higher values, respectively, resulted for the recombinant truncated human fibrinogen compared to a previously characterized purified human fibrinogen fragment X obtained by plasmin digestion. Conclusions Full-length recombinant fibrinogen is less polydisperse but hydrodynamically indistinguishable from its counterpart purified from human plasma. Recombinant Aα251-truncated human fibrinogen instead behaves differently from fragment X, suggesting a role for the Bβ residues 1–52 in inter-molecular interactions. Overall, these new hydrodynamic data will constitute a reliable benchmark against which models of

  15. Multiple geminate ligand recombinations in human hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Esquerra, R M; Goldbeck, R A; Reaney, S H; Batchelder, A M; Wen, Y; Lewis, J W; Kliger, D S

    2000-01-01

    The geminate ligand recombination reactions of photolyzed carbonmonoxyhemoglobin were studied in a nanosecond double-excitation-pulse time-resolved absorption experiment. The second laser pulse, delayed by intervals as long as 400 ns after the first, provided a measure of the geminate kinetics by rephotolyzing ligands that have recombined during the delay time. The peak-to-trough magnitude of the Soret band photolysis difference spectrum measured as a function of the delay between excitation pulses showed that the room temperature kinetics of geminate recombination in adult human hemoglobin are best described by two exponential processes, with lifetimes of 36 and 162 ns. The relative amounts of bimolecular recombination to T- and R-state hemoglobins and the temperature dependence of the submicrosecond kinetics between 283 and 323 K are also consistent with biexponential kinetics for geminate recombination. These results are discussed in terms of two models: geminate recombination kinetics modulated by concurrent protein relaxation and heterogeneous kinetics arising from alpha and beta chain differences. PMID:10827999

  16. Protein Crystal Recombinant Human Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Recombiant Human Insulin; space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). On STS-60, Spacehab II indicated that space-grown crystals are larger and of greater optical clarity than their earth-grown counterparts. Recombiant Human Insulin facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  17. Protein Crystal Recombinant Human Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Recombiant Human Insulin; space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). On STS-60, Spacehab II indicated that space-grown crystals are larger and of greater optical clarity than their earth-grown counterparts. Recombiant Human Insulin facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  18. The Role of Recombinant Genetics in Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Troy A.

    1983-01-01

    To eliminate the public's fear of recombinant genetics the important link between science and the humanities should be part of the educational system. Universal applied genetics guidelines are needed that encompass philosophical and technical issues. Biological advances can revitalize humankind in the future. (AM)

  19. Bayesian inference of shared recombination hotspots between humans and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies against methionyl recombinant human prolactin.

    PubMed

    Paris, N; Robert, R; Mercier, L

    1993-02-01

    Hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibody (Mab) against recombinant human prolactin (rhPrl) were established from fusion between X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and Balb/c mice splenocytes. Four Mabs numbered I to IV were selected by ELISA, purified and characterized. All these Mabs were of the Ig1 kappa isotype and able to recognize oxidized as well as reduced rhPrl. As shown by a competitive inhibition assay, Mab IV did not compete with any of the three others. Moreover, both rhPrl and hPrl extracted from human pituitaries, were recognized equally by this Mab. Properties displayed by Mab IV make it very attractive for the evaluation of prolactin levels by sandwich immunoassays.

  1. Patterns of recombination on human chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Schlumpf, K.S.; Kim, D.; Haines, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    Virtually all genetic linkage maps generated to date are gross averages across individuals, ages, and (often) sexes. In addition, although some level of positive interference has been assumed, until recently little evidence to support this in humans has been available. The major stumbling block has been the quality of the data available, since even a few genotypic errors can have drastic effects on both the map length and the number of apparent recombinants. In addition, variation in recombination by factors other than sex have pretty much been ignored. To explore recombination in more detail, we have generated a microsatellite marker map of human chromosome 22. This map includes 32 markers genotyped through 46 sibships of the Venezuelan Reference Pedigree (VRP). Extensive error checking and regenotyping was performed to remove as many genotypic errors as possible, but no genotypes were removed simply because they created unlikely events. The following 1000:1 odds map has been obtained: cen--F8VWFP1--11--S264--3-S311--4--S257--2--TOP1P2--3--S156--1--CRYB2--1--S258--2--S310--6--S193--1--S275--3--S268--1--S280--4--S304--3--S283--2--LiR1--3--IL2RB--3--S299--1--S302--1--S537--2--S270--4--PDGF--8--S274--qter. The female map (91 cM) is twice as long as the male map (46 cM) and the log-likelihood difference in the maps (22.3) is highly significant (P=0.001, df=22) and appears constant across the chromosome. Analysis of recombination with age showed no particular trends for either males or females when chromosomes were grouped into three categories (20, 20-30, 30+) by parental age at birth of child. Positive interference was found in maternally derived chromosomes ({chi}{sup 2}=30.5 (4), p<0.005), but not in paternally derived chromosomes ({chi}{sup 2}=6.24 (3), P=0.10). This contrasts to data from chromosomes 9 and 21 where positive interference was found for both sexes. More detailed analyses are in progress.

  2. International Validation of Two Human Recombinant Estrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An international validation study has been successfully completed for 2 competitive binding assays using human recombinant ERa. Assays evaluated included the Freyberger-Wilson (FW) assay using a full length human ER, and the Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute (CERI) assay using a ligand-binding domain of the human ER. Twenty three compounds were tested in 6 laboratories for the FW assay and 5 for the CERJ assay, which included three controls (used with every run), 9 uncoded, and 14 coded chemicals across 3 subtasks. The overall goal of this validation study was to demonstrate the ability of each of the two assays to reliably classify the test chemicals as binders or non-binders. Laboratories had little trouble with the ER binders that produced a full binding curve when using either the CERI or FW assays. As is typical with all ER competitive binding assays, the weak binders proved to be more challenging. However, overall results from both the FW and CERI assays were consistent and in agreement with expected classifications regardless of the form of the hrER (i.e., full length ER versus an ER ligand binding domain) or the subtle differences in the protocols for conducting each assay. The reproducibility and accuracy for classification of chemicals as potential ER binders and non- binders using the FW and CERI hrER binding assays were comparable to that of the U.S.EPA’s existing ER binding test guideline OPPTS 890.1250, while providing an improved, highe

  3. [Preparation of recombinant human insulin--study of downstream process].

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Jiyu; Wu, Wutong

    2004-10-01

    This study was intended to establish a method of preparation of recombinant human insulin, with (His)6-Arg-Arg-human proinsulin (RRhPI) expressed by Escherichia coli. After DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 chromatography and refolding, enzyme cleavage and Superdex 75 size exclusion chromatography,the RRhPI expressed by Escherichia coli in inclusion body form was converted to human insulin. The obtained recombinant human insulin was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, HPLC, amino acid composition analysis and bioidentity test (mouse convulsion test). The results indicate that our obtained preparation is highly purified, active recombinant human insulin.

  4. Purification of soluble recombinant human FcgammaRII (CD32).

    PubMed

    Gruel, N; Chapiro, J; Fridman, W H; Teillaud, J L

    2001-11-01

    The present study describes the methodology used to purify human recombinant low-affinity FcgammaRIIa2 produced in E. coli and to evaluate its binding to surface IgG. The recombinant molecule was purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure, including affinity chromatography using IV.3 anti-FcgammaRIIa1/2 immunosorbent, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Using this method, the purified recombinant FcgammaRIIa2 was 99% pure. It exhibited an isoeletric point of 5.2. Binding studies demonstrated a specific binding of the purified recombinant molecule to surface IgG expressed by human B cells. Thus, we have set up a method which allows to purify functional human recombinant FcgammaRIIa2 for further characterization of its biological activities.

  5. Recombinant expression of hydroxylated human collagen in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rutschmann, Christoph; Baumann, Stephan; Cabalzar, Jürg; Luther, Kelvin B; Hennet, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and thereby a structural protein of considerable biotechnological interest. The complex maturation process of collagen, including essential post-translational modifications such as prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation, has precluded large-scale production of recombinant collagen featuring the biophysical properties of endogenous collagen. The characterization of new prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase genes encoded by the giant virus mimivirus reveals a method for production of hydroxylated collagen. The coexpression of a human collagen type III construct together with mimivirus prolyl and lysyl hydroxylases in Escherichia coli yielded up to 90 mg of hydroxylated collagen per liter culture. The respective levels of prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation reaching 25 % and 26 % were similar to the hydroxylation levels of native human collagen type III. The distribution of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine along recombinant collagen was also similar to that of native collagen as determined by mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides. The triple helix signature of recombinant hydroxylated collagen was confirmed by circular dichroism, which also showed that hydroxylation increased the thermal stability of the recombinant collagen construct. Recombinant hydroxylated collagen produced in E. coli supported the growth of human umbilical endothelial cells, underlining the biocompatibility of the recombinant protein as extracellular matrix. The high yield of recombinant protein expression and the extensive level of prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation achieved indicate that recombinant hydroxylated collagen can be produced at large scale for biomaterials engineering in the context of biomedical applications.

  6. Purification and partial characterisation of recombinant human hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Daniel F; Jones, Marc D; Pedersen, Palle; Rivas, Lucy; Sly, Lindsay I; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Hepcidin is a liver-expressed antimicrobial and iron regulatory peptide. A number of studies have indicated that hepcidin is important for the correct regulation of body iron homeostasis. The aims of this study were to analyse the expression, trafficking and regulation of human hepcidin in an in vitro cell culture system. Human hepcidin was transfected into human embryonic kidney cells. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analysis revealed that recombinant hepcidin localised to the Golgi complex. Recombinant hepcidin is secreted from the cell within 1 h of its synthesis. Recombinant hepcidin was purified from the cell culture medium using ion-exchange and metal-affinity chromatography and was active in antimicrobial assays. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the secreted peptide revealed that it was the mature 25 amino acid form of hepcidin. Our results show that recombinant myc-His tagged human hepcidin was expressed, processed and secreted correctly and biologically active in antimicrobial assays.

  7. Effectiveness of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone for Pharyngocutaneous Fistula Closure

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Murat; Midi, Ahmet; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Findik, Ozan; Binnetoglu, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In laryngeal cancer, which comprises 25% of head and neck cancer, chemotherapy has come into prominence with the increase in organ-protective treatments. With such treatment, salvage surgery has increased following recurrence; the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula has also increased in both respiratory and digestive system surgery. We investigated the effects of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure in Sprague-Dawley rats, based on an increase in amino acid uptake and protein synthesis for wound healing, an increase in mitogenesis, and enhancement of collagen formation by recombinant human growth hormone. Methods This study was experimental animal study. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into two groups, and pharyngoesophagotomy was performed. The pharyngoesophagotomy was sutured with vicryl in both groups. Rats in group 1 (control group) received no treatment, while those in group 2 were administered a subcutaneous injection of recombinant human growth hormone daily. On day 14, the pharynx, larynx, and upper oesophagus were excised and examined microscopically. Results Pharyngocutaneous fistula exhibited better closure macroscopically in the recombinant human growth hormone group. There was a significant difference in collagen formation and epithelisation in the recombinant human growth hormone group compared to the control group. Conclusion This study is believed to be the first in which the effect of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure was evaluated, and the findings suggest the potential of use of growth hormone for treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistula. PMID:26622960

  8. Evidence of recombination within human alpha-papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Manuel; Carvajal-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a causal role in cervical cancer with almost half a million new cases occurring each year. Presence of the carcinogenic HPV is necessary for the development of the invasive carcinoma of the genital tract. Therefore, persistent infection with carcinogenic HPV causes virtually all cervical cancers. Some aspects of the molecular evolution of this virus, as the putative importance of recombination in its evolutionary history, are an opened current question. In addition, recombination could also be a significant issue nowadays since the frequency of co-infection with more than one HPV type is not a rare event and, thus, new recombinant types could be currently being generated. Results We have used human alpha-PV sequences from the public database at Los Alamos National Laboratory to report evidence that recombination may exist in this virus. A model-based population genetic approach was used to infer the recombination signal from the HPV DNA sequences grouped attending to phylogenetic and epidemiological information, as well as to clinical manifestations. Our results agree with recently published ones that use a different methodology to detect recombination associated to the gene L2. In addition, we have detected significant recombination signal in the genes E6, E7, L2 and L1 at different groups, and importantly within the high-risk type HPV16. The method used has recently been shown to be one of the most powerful and reliable procedures to detect the recombination signal. Conclusion We provide new support to the recent evidence of recombination in HPV. Additionally, we performed the recombination estimation assuming the best-fit model of nucleotide substitution and rate variation among sites, of the HPV DNA sequence sets. We found that the gene with recombination in most of the groups is L2 but the highest values were detected in L1 and E6. Gene E7 was recombinant only within the HPV16 type. The topic deserves further study

  9. Recombinant human gamma interferon inhibits simian malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, R K; Czarniecki, C W; Dutta, G P; Puri, S K; Dhawan, B N; Friedman, R M

    1986-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment with 0.1 mg of human gamma interferon per kg (body weight) per day completely suppressed experimental infection with Plasmodium cynomolgi B sporozoites in rhesus monkeys. Treatment with lower doses partially suppressed this infection. Prophylactic treatment with human gamma interferon, however, had no protective effect against trophozoite-induced infection, suggesting that the interferon effect was limited to the exoerythrocytic stage of parasitic development. PMID:3091507

  10. Recombinant genetic libraries and human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jarrett J; Nelson, Bryce; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2014-01-01

    In order to comprehensively manipulate the human proteome we require a vast repertoire of pharmacological reagents. To address these needs we have developed repertoires of synthetic antibodies by phage display, where diversified oligonucleotides are used to modify the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of a human antigen-binding fragment (Fab) scaffold. As diversity is produced outside the confines of the mammalian immune system, synthetic antibody libraries allow us to bypass several limitations of hybridoma technology while improving the experimental parameters under which pharmacological reagents are produced. Here we describe the methodologies used to produce synthetic antibody libraries from a single human framework with diversity restricted to four CDRs. These synthetic repertoires can be extremely functional as they produce highly selective, high affinity Fabs to the majority of soluble human antigens. Finally we describe selection methodologies that allow us to overcome immuno-dominance in our selections to target a variety of epitopes per antigen. Together these methodologies allow us to produce human monoclonal antibodies to manipulate the human proteome.

  11. Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  12. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R

    2014-07-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

  13. Limited human infection due to recombinant raccoon pox virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Dein, F.J.; Fuchsberger, M.; Fox, B.C.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of Yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. Within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. Raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (F1) and RCN. This is the first documented case of human exposure to RCN.

  14. Generation of hybrid human immunodeficiency virus by homologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, A; York, D; Jannoun-Nasr, R; Kalyanaraman, S; Swan, D; Benson, J; Bohan, C; Luciw, P A; Schnoll, S; Robinson, R A

    1989-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, isolated from diverse sources, exhibits genomic diversity. The mechanisms by which the genomic diversity takes place in individuals exposed to multiple virus isolates is yet to be elucidated. Genetic variation, in general, might result from mutagenic events such as point mutations, rearrangements (insertions and deletions), and recombination. In an attempt to evaluate the process of genetic diversity, we designed experiments to analyze recombination between HIV DNAs by using DNA transfection in cell cultures. Here we report the successful recombination between truncated HIV proviral DNAs with an overlap homology of 53 base pairs that leads to the formation of viable hybrid virus. Recombination was also seen between exogenous DNA introduced into cells and homologous HIV sequences resident in the cells. These results indicate that recombination among various HIV isolates may play a significant role in the generation of genetic diversity of HIV. Further, the method used here enables the construction of hybrid HIV genomes to identify the viral determinants responsible for tropism, replication, and cytopathic effects. Images PMID:2474834

  15. Homologous recombination evidence in human and swine influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Qiang; Han, Guan-Zhu; Wang, Dong; Liu, Wei; Li, Guo-Rong; Liu, Xi-Ping; Ding, Nai-Zheng

    2008-10-10

    Dynamic gene mutation and the reassortment of genes have been considered as the key factors responsible for influenza A virus virulence and host tropism change. This study reports several significant evidence demonstrating that homologous recombination also takes place between influenza A viruses in human and swine lineages. Moreover, in a mosaic descended from swine H1N1 subtype and human H2N2, we found that its minor putative parent might be a derivative from the human cold-adapted vaccine lineage, which suggests that live vaccine is capable of playing a role in genetic change of influenza A virus via recombination with circulating viruses. These results would be important for knowing the molecular mechanism of mammal influenza A virus heredity and evolution.

  16. Arabinosylation of recombinant human immunoglobulin-based protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Patrick; Chumsae, Christopher; Racicot, Christopher; Ouellette, David; Ibraghimov, Alexander; Serna, Daniel; Mora, Alessandro; McDermott, Sean; Labkovsky, Boris; Scesney, Susanne; Grinnell, Christine; Preston, Gregory; Bose, Sahana; Carrillo, Ralf

    Protein glycosylation is arguably the paramount post-translational modification on recombinant glycoproteins, and highly cited in the literature for affecting the physiochemical properties and the efficacy of recombinant glycoprotein therapeutics. Glycosylation of human immunoglobulins follows a reasonably well-understood metabolic pathway, which gives rise to a diverse range of asparagine-linked (N-linked), or serine/threonine-linked (O-linked) glycans. In N-linked glycans, fucose levels have been shown to have an inverse relationship with the degree of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and high mannose levels have been implicated in potentially increasing immunogenicity and contributing to less favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to potentially reduce the presence of high-mannose species in recombinant human immunoglobulin preparations, as well as facilitate an approximate 100% replacement of fucosylation with arabinosylation in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture through media supplementation with D-arabinose, an uncommonly used mammalian cell culture sugar substrate. The replacement of fucose with arabinose was very effective and practical to implement, since no cell line engineering or cellular adaptation strategies were required. Arabinosylated recombinant IgGs and the accompanying reduction in high mannose glycans, facilitated a reduction in dendritic cell uptake, increased FcγRIIIa signaling, and significantly increased the levels of ADCC. These aforementioned effects were without any adverse changes to various structural or functional attributes of multiple recombinant human antibodies and a bispecific DVD-Ig. Protein arabinosylation represents an expansion of the N-glycan code in mammalian expressed glycoproteins.

  17. Human Recombinant Insulin 1g - ug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Proteins are the building blocks of our bodies and the living world around us. Within our bodies proteins make it possible for red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Others help transmit nerve impulses so we can hear, smell and feel the world around us. While others play a crucial role in preventing or causing disease. If the structure of a protein is known, then companies can develop new or improved drugs to fight the disease of which the protein is a part. To determine protein structure, researchers must grow near-perfect crystals of the protein. On Earth convection currents, sedimentation and other gravity-induced phenomena hamper crystal growth efforts. In microgravity researchers can grow near-perfect crystals in an environment free of these effects. Because of the enormous potential for new pharmaceutical products the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography--the NASA Commercial Space Center responsible for commercial protein crystal growth efforts has more than fifty major industry and academic partners. Research on crystals of human insulin could lead to improved treatments for diabetes.

  18. Human Recombinant Insulin 1g - ug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Proteins are the building blocks of our bodies and the living world around us. Within our bodies proteins make it possible for red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Others help transmit nerve impulses so we can hear, smell and feel the world around us. While others play a crucial role in preventing or causing disease. If the structure of a protein is known, then companies can develop new or improved drugs to fight the disease of which the protein is a part. To determine protein structure, researchers must grow near-perfect crystals of the protein. On Earth convection currents, sedimentation and other gravity-induced phenomena hamper crystal growth efforts. In microgravity researchers can grow near-perfect crystals in an environment free of these effects. Because of the enormous potential for new pharmaceutical products the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography--the NASA Commercial Space Center responsible for commercial protein crystal growth efforts has more than fifty major industry and academic partners. Research on crystals of human insulin could lead to improved treatments for diabetes.

  19. Crystallization of recombinant human interleukin 1β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einspahr, Howard; Clancy, L. L.; Muchmore, S. W.; Watenpaugh, K. D.; Harris, P. K. W.; Carter, D. B.; Curry, K. A.; Tomich, C.-S. C.; Yem, A. W.; Deibel, M. R.; Tracey, D. E.; Paslay, J. W.; Staite, N. D.; Carter, J. B.; Theriault, N. Y.; Reardon, I. M.; Zurcher-Neely, H. A.; Heinrikson, R. L.

    1988-07-01

    The gene for the fully processed form of human interleukin 1β was cloned from SK-hep-1 hepatoma cellular RNA and expressed at high levels in E. coli. The protein produced in E. coli. was purified to homogeneity by standard chromatographic methods, including adsorption and desorption from Procion Red Sepharose, sizing on a Superose 12 FPLC column, and anion exchange chromatography on QAE Sepharose. The result is a biologically active protein, rIL-1β, that migrates on two-dimensional gels as a single spot with a pI of 6.5 ± 0.2 and a molecular mass of 17, 500 daltons. Crystals of rIL-1β have been produced from concentrated solutions of the protein by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The crystals are tetragonal, have space group P41 or its enantiomer, have lattice constants of a = 58.46(1) Å and c = 77.02(3) Å, and scatter to at least 2 Å resolution. A structure determination ba these crystals is underway.

  20. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Mechanisms of fever induced by recombinant human interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Dinarello, C A; Bernheim, H A; Duff, G W; Le, H V; Nagabhushan, T L; Hamilton, N C; Coceani, F

    1984-01-01

    Since the early trials using human interferon (hIFN) derived from blood leukocytes or cell lines, fever has been a prominent component of IFN therapy. Human protein impurities might account for the fever to cell-derived hIFN, but recombinant hIFN, free of extraneous human proteins, has produced fever in nearly all recipients during clinical trials. Our present studies were carried out to determine the mechanisms of fever due to recombinant hIFN currently being used in humans. Because recombinant hIFN is produced in Escherichia coli, in these experiments we considered contaminating endotoxin as the cause of fever. Polymyxin B, which blocks endotoxin, had no effect on the pyrogenicity of hIFN in rabbits. In addition, hIFN injected into an endotoxin-resistant strain of mice produced fever. The pyrogenicity of hIFN does not appear to involve production of leukocytic pyrogen (LP), since no circulating LP was detected in rabbits during IFN fever. Furthermore, human mononuclear cells incubated with hIFN in vitro at 10(4)-10(6) U/ml did not release LP. However, hIFN stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from rabbit hypothalamic tissue in vitro. Intracerebroventricular injection of hIFN into the awake cat also produced fever and a rise in PGE2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid; both effects were reversed by treatment with indomethacin. We conclude that the fever of recombinant hIFN is not due to endotoxin but that hIFN is intrinsically pyrogenic by inducing PGE2 in the hypothalamus. PMID:6590569

  2. Biphasic modulation of cell growth by recombinant human galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Adams, L; Scott, G K; Weinberg, C S

    1996-06-13

    Human soluble galactose-binding lectin (galectin-1) has been expressed as an Escherichia coli fusion protein, following the amplification by polymerase chain reaction of cDNA prepared from a human osteosarcoma cell line. The fusion protein is a functional beta-galactoside-binding lectin, as is the recombinant galectin when purified from the cleaved fusion protein. The recombinant galectin has a biphasic effect on cell proliferation. Unlike the fusion protein, it functions as a human cell growth inhibitor, confirming earlier findings with natural human galectin-1, though it is less effective than the natural galectin. This reaction is not significantly inhibited by lactose, and is thus largely independent of the beta-galactoside-binding site. At lower concentrations, recombinant galectin-1 is mitogenic, this activity being susceptible to inhibition by lactose, and thus attributable to the beta-galactoside-binding ability of the protein. Some tumour cells are susceptible to the growth-inhibitory effect, and the galectin-1 gene is expressed in both normal and tumour cells.

  3. Bioinformatic Analysis of the Human Recombinant Iduronate 2-Sulfate Sulfatase

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Álvarez, Edwin D.; Rivera-Hoyos, Claudia M.; Landázuri, Patricia; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A.; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura M.

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II is a human recessive disease linked to the X chromosome caused by deficiency of lysosomal enzyme Iduronate 2-Sulfate Sulfatase (IDS), which leads to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in tissues and organs. The human enzyme has been expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris in attempt to develop more successful expression systems that allow the production of recombinant IDS for Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT). However, the preservation of native signal peptide in the sequence has caused conflicts in processing and recognition in the past, which led to problems in expression and enzyme activity. With the main object being the improvement of the expression system, we eliminate the native signal peptide of human recombinant IDS. The resulting sequence showed two modified codons, thus, our study aimed to analyze computationally the nucleotide sequence of the IDSnh without signal peptide in order to determine the 3D structure and other biochemical properties to compare them with the native human IDS (IDSnh). Results showed that there are no significant differences between both molecules in spite of the two-codon modifications detected in the recombinant DNA sequence. PMID:27335624

  4. [Use of human recombinant erythropoietin in children with cancer].

    PubMed

    Guyot, D; Margueritte, G

    2005-09-01

    Eighty percent of children with cancer suffer from anemia at the time of diagnosis. The physiopathology of anemia is complex. Although anemia can be life threatening, its consequences on the physical, psychological and social state of the child are often minimized. Blood transfusion is the main treatment of anemia: its efficacy is immediate but shortlasting, and it involves infectious and hemolytic risks. The human recombinant erythropoietin has been used for more than 25-years, and is often prescribed to adults with cancer and anemia. The human recombinant erythropoietin rHuEPO is nowadays used when blood transfusion is contra-indicated because of religious or cultural considerations, although several promising studies have been conducted about rHuEPO and children with cancer since 1996: it might be soon the preferential alternative treatment to anemia in children with cancer.

  5. Plant-based biopharming of recombinant human lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Yemets, Alla I; Tanasienko, Iryna V; Krasylenko, Yuliya A; Blume, Yaroslav B

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant proteins are currently recognized as pharmaceuticals, enzymes, food constituents, nutritional additives, antibodies and other valuable products for industry, healthcare, research, and everyday life. Lactoferrin (Lf), one of the promising human milk proteins, occupies the expanding biotechnological food market niche due to its important versatile properties. Lf shows antiviral, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and antioxidant activities, modulates cell growth rate, binds glycosaminoglycans and lipopolysaccharides, and also inputs into the innate/specific immune responses. Development of highly efficient human recombinant Lf expression systems employing yeasts, filamentous fungi and undoubtedly higher plants as bioreactors for the large-scale Lf production is a biotechnological challenge. This review highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the existing non-animal Lf expression systems from the standpoint of protein yield and its biological activity. Special emphasis is put on the benefits of monocot plant system for Lf expression and the biosafety aspects of the transgenic Lf-expressing plants.

  6. Construction and expression of recombined human AFP eukaryotic expression vector

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Wang; Ren, Jun; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Jin, Bin; Pan, Bo-Rong; Si, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Wang, Zhong-Hua; Pan, Yang-Lin; Festein, Stephen M

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombined human AFP eukaryotic expression vector for the purpose of gene therapy and target therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The full length AFP-cDNA of prokaryotic vector was digested, and subcloned to the multi-clony sites of the eukaryotic vector. The constructed vector was confirmed by enzymes digestion and electrophoresis, and the product expressed was detected by electrochemiluminescence and immunofluorescence methods. RESULTS: The full length AFP-cDNA successfully cloned to the eukaryotic vector through electrophoresis, 0.9723 IU/mL AFP antigen was detected in the supernatant of AFP-CHO by electrochemiluminescence method. Compared with the control groups, the differences were significant (P < 0.05). AFP antigen molecule was observed in the plasma of AFP-CHO by immunofluorescence staining. CONCLUSION: The recombined human AFP eukaryotic expression vector can express in CHO cell line. It provides experimental data for gene therapy and target therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:12854142

  7. Transient Expression of Tetrameric Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Alkanaimsh, Salem; Karuppanan, Kalimuthu; Guerrero, Andrés; Tu, Aye M.; Hashimoto, Bryce; Hwang, Min Sook; Phu, My L.; Arzola, Lucas; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Falk, Bryce W.; Nandi, Somen; Rodriguez, Raymond L.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    To optimize the expression, extraction and purification of plant-derived tetrameric recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE), we describe the development and use of plant viral amplicon-based gene expression system; Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) RNA-based overexpression vector (TRBO) to express enzymatically active FLAG-tagged plant made recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (rBChE) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using transient agroinfiltration. Two gene expression cassettes were designed to express the recombinant protein in either the ER or to the apoplastic compartment. Leaf homogenization was used to isolate ER-retained recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE-ER) while apoplast-targeted rBChE was isolated by either leaf homogenization (prBChE) or vacuum-extraction of apoplastic wash fluid (prBChE-AWF). rBChE from apoplast wash fluid had a higher specific activity but lower enzyme yield than leaf homogenate. To optimize the isolation and purification of total recombinant protein from leaf homogenates, an acidic extraction buffer was used. The acidic extraction buffer yielded >95% enzymatically active tetrameric rBChE as verified by Coomassie stained and native gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, when compared to human butyrylcholinesterase, the prBChE was found to be similar in terms of tetramerization and enzyme kinetics. The N-linked glycan profile of purified prBChE-ER was found to be mostly high mannose structures while the N-linked glycans on prBChE-AWF were primarily complex. The glycan profile of the prBChE leaf homogenates showed a mixture of high mannose, complex and paucimannose type N-glycans. These findings demonstrate the ability of plants to produce rBChE that is enzymatically active and whose oligomeric state is comparable to mammalian butyrylcholinesterase. The process of plant made rBChE tetramerization and strategies for improving its pharmacokinetics properties are also discussed. PMID:27379103

  8. Human recombinant type I collagen produced in plants.

    PubMed

    Shoseyov, Oded; Posen, Yehudit; Grynspan, Frida

    2013-07-01

    As a central element of the extracellular matrix, collagen is intimately involved in tissue development, remodeling, and repair and confers high tensile strength to tissues. Numerous medical applications, particularly, wound healing, cell therapy, bone reconstruction, and cosmetic technologies, rely on its supportive and healing qualities. Its synthesis and assembly require a multitude of genes and post-translational modifications, where even minor deviations can be deleterious or even fatal. Historically, collagen was always extracted from animal and human cadaver sources, but bare risk of contamination and allergenicity and was subjected to harsh purification conditions resulting in irreversible modifications impeding its biofunctionality. In parallel, the highly complex and stringent post-translational processing of collagen, prerequisite of its viability and proper functioning, sets significant limitations on recombinant expression systems. A tobacco plant expression platform has been recruited to effectively express human collagen, along with three modifying enzymes, critical to collagen maturation. The plant extracted recombinant human collagen type I forms thermally stable helical structures, fibrillates, and demonstrates bioactivity resembling that of native collagen. Deployment of the highly versatile plant-based biofactory can be leveraged toward mass, rapid, and low-cost production of a wide variety of recombinant proteins. As in the case of collagen, proper planning can bypass plant-related limitations, to yield products structurally and functionally identical to their native counterparts.

  9. Recombinant Human Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Reveal Antichlamydial Activity.

    PubMed

    Bobrovsky, Pavel; Manuvera, Valentin; Polina, Nadezhda; Podgorny, Oleg; Prusakov, Kirill; Govorun, Vadim; Lazarev, Vassili

    2016-07-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRPs) are innate immune components that recognize the peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharides of bacteria and exhibit antibacterial activity. Recently, the obligate intracellular parasite Chlamydia trachomatis was shown to have peptidoglycan. However, the antichlamydial activity of PGLYRPs has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of our study was to test whether PGLYRPs exhibit antibacterial activity against C. trachomatis Thus, we cloned the regions containing the human Pglyrp1, Pglyrp2, Pglyrp3, and Pglyrp4 genes for subsequent expression in human cell lines. We obtained stable HeLa cell lines that secrete recombinant human PGLYRPs into culture medium. We also generated purified recombinant PGLYRP1, -2, and -4 and confirmed their activities against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Furthermore, we examined the activities of recombinant PGLYRPs against C. trachomatis and determined their MICs. We also observed a decrease in the infectious ability of chlamydial elementary bodies in the next generation after a single exposure to PGLYRPs. Finally, we demonstrated that PGLYRPs attach to C. trachomatis elementary bodies and activate the expression of the chlamydial two-component stress response system. Thus, PGLYRPs inhibit the development of chlamydial infection.

  10. Recombinant Human Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Reveal Antichlamydial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Manuvera, Valentin; Polina, Nadezhda; Podgorny, Oleg; Prusakov, Kirill; Govorun, Vadim; Lazarev, Vassili

    2016-01-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRPs) are innate immune components that recognize the peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharides of bacteria and exhibit antibacterial activity. Recently, the obligate intracellular parasite Chlamydia trachomatis was shown to have peptidoglycan. However, the antichlamydial activity of PGLYRPs has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of our study was to test whether PGLYRPs exhibit antibacterial activity against C. trachomatis. Thus, we cloned the regions containing the human Pglyrp1, Pglyrp2, Pglyrp3, and Pglyrp4 genes for subsequent expression in human cell lines. We obtained stable HeLa cell lines that secrete recombinant human PGLYRPs into culture medium. We also generated purified recombinant PGLYRP1, -2, and -4 and confirmed their activities against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Furthermore, we examined the activities of recombinant PGLYRPs against C. trachomatis and determined their MICs. We also observed a decrease in the infectious ability of chlamydial elementary bodies in the next generation after a single exposure to PGLYRPs. Finally, we demonstrated that PGLYRPs attach to C. trachomatis elementary bodies and activate the expression of the chlamydial two-component stress response system. Thus, PGLYRPs inhibit the development of chlamydial infection. PMID:27160295

  11. Construction of human artificial chromosome vectors by recombineering.

    PubMed

    Kotzamanis, George; Cheung, Wing; Abdulrazzak, Hassan; Perez-Luz, Sara; Howe, Steven; Cooke, Howard; Huxley, Clare

    2005-05-23

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) can be formed de novo by transfection of large fragments of cloned alphoid DNA into human HT1080 cells in tissue culture. In order to generate HACs carrying a gene of interest, one can either co-transfect the alphoid DNA and the gene of interest, or one can clone both into a single vector prior to transfection. Here we describe linking approximately 70 kb of alphoid DNA onto a 156-kb BAC carrying the human HPRT gene using Red homologous recombination in the EL350 Escherichia coli host [Lee et al., Genomics 73 (2001) 56-65]. A selectable marker and EGFP marker were then added by loxP/Cre recombination using the arabinose inducible cre gene in the EL350 bacteria. The final construct generates minichromosomes in HT1080 cells and the HPRT gene is expressed. The retrofitting vector can be used to add the approximately 70 kb of alphoid DNA to any BAC carrying a gene of interest to generate a HAC vector. The method can also be used to link any unrelated BAC or PAC insert onto another BAC clone. The EL350 bacteria are an excellent host for building up complex vectors by a combination of homologous and loxP/Cre recombination.

  12. Preparation of recombinant alpha-thrombin: high-level expression of recombinant human prethrombin-2 and its activation by recombinant ecarin.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, Hiroshi; Imamura, Takayuki; Soejima, Kenji; Nakahara, Yo; Morikawa, Wataru; Ushio, Yoshitaka; Kamachi, Yasuharu; Nakatake, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Keishin; Nakagaki, Tomohiro; Nozaki, Chikateru

    2004-05-01

    We have established a large-scale manufacturing system to produce recombinant human alpha-thrombin. In this system, a high yield of alpha-thrombin is prepared from prethrombin-2 activated by recombinant ecarin. We produced human prethrombin-2 using mouse myeloma cells and an expression plasmid carrying the chicken beta-actin promoter and mutant dihydrofolate reductase gene for gene amplification. To increase prethrombin-2 expression further, we performed fed-batch cultivation with the addition of vegetable peptone in 50 liters of suspension culture. After five feedings of vegetable peptone, the expression level of the recombinant prethrombin-2 reached 200 micro g/ml. Subsequently, the recombinant prethrombin-2 could be activated to alpha-thrombin by recombinant ecarin expressed in a similar manner. Finally, recombinant alpha-thrombin was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography using a benzamidine-Sepharose gel. The yield from prethrombin-2 in culture medium was approximately 70%. The activity of the purified recombinant alpha-thrombin, including hydrolysis of a chromogenic substrate, release of fibrinopeptide A, and activation of protein C, was indistinguishable from that of plasma-derived alpha-thrombin. Our system is suitable for the large-scale production of recombinant alpha-thrombin, which can be used in place of clinically available alpha-thrombin derived from human or bovine plasma.

  13. In vivo potential of recombinant granulysin against human tumors

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wasaby, Sameer; de Miguel, Diego; Aporta, Adriana; Naval, Javier; Conde, Blanca; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Anel, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    9 kDa granulysin is a protein present in the granules of human CTL and NK cells, with cytolytic activity against microbes and tumors. Previous work from our group demonstrated that this granulysin isoform induced apoptosis in vitro on hematological tumor cells and on primary tumor cells from B-CLL patients. In the present work, recombinant 9 kDa granulysin was used as an anti-tumoral agent to study its in vivo effect on tumor development in athymic “nude” mice models bearing human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 or multiple myeloma NCI-H929–derived xenografts. Granulysin prevented the in vivo development of detectable MDA-MB-231-derived tumors. In addition, recombinant granulysin was able to completely eradicate NCI-H929-derived tumors. All granulysin-treated tumors exhibited signs of apoptosis induction and an increased NK cell infiltration inside the tumor tissue comparing to control ones. Moreover, no in vivo deleterious effects of the recombinant 9 kDa granulysin doses used in this study were observed on the skin or on the internal organs of the animals. In conclusion, granulysin was able to inhibit the progression of MDA-MB-231-derived xenografts and also to eradicate multiple myeloma NCI-H929-derived xenografts. This work opens the door to the initiation of preclinical and possibly clinical studies for the use of 9 kDa granulysin as a new anti-tumoral treatment. PMID:26405603

  14. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  15. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  16. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: Expression, purification, and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2000-01-01

    The α1- and β1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein. PMID:10995472

  17. Recombinant production of TEV cleaved human parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Audu, Christopher O; Cochran, Jared C; Pellegrini, Maria; Mierke, Dale F

    2013-08-01

    The parathyroid hormone, PTH, is responsible for calcium and phosphate ion homeostasis in the body. The first 34 amino acids of the peptide maintain the biological activity of the hormone and is currently marketed for calcium imbalance disorders. Although several methods for the production of recombinant PTH(1-34) have been reported, most involve the use of cleavage conditions that result in a modified peptide or unfavorable side products. Herein, we detail the recombinant production of (15) N-enriched human parathyroid hormone, (15) N PTH(1-34), generated via a plasmid vector that gives reasonable yield, low-cost protease cleavage (leaving the native N-terminal serine in its amino form), and purification by affinity and size exclusion chromatography. We characterize the product by multidimensional, heteronuclear NMR, circular dichroism, and LC/MS.

  18. [Biosynthesis and isolation of a recombinant protein for producing genetically-engineered human proinsulin].

    PubMed

    Ivankin, A N; Mitaleva, S I; Nekliudov, A D

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of the recombinant protein from a genetically engineered Escherichia coli 1854 producer for further chemical enzymatic transformation into human insulin through proinsulin was studied. Under optimal conditions, the recombinant protein formation was more than 35% of the total cell proteins. Structures of the polypeptides obtained and purified chromatographically were confirmed by amino acid analysis. Human proinsulin was derived from the recombinant protein isolated.

  19. Preparation and immunogenicity of tag-free recombinant human eppin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Ding, Xin-Liang; Bian, Zeng-Hui; Xia, Yan-Kai; Wang, Shou-Lin; Song, Ling; Wang, Xin-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Human epididymal protease inhibitor (eppin) may be effective as a male contraceptive vaccine. In a number of studies, eppin with an engineered His6-tag has been produced using prokaryotic expression systems. For production of pharmaceutical-grade proteins for human use, however, the His6-tag must be removed. This study describes a method for producing recombinant human eppin without a His6-tag. We constructed plasmid pET28a (+)-His6-tobacco etch virus (TEV)-eppin for expression in Escherichia coli. After purification and refolding, the fusion protein His6-TEV-eppin was digested with TEV protease to remove the His6-tag and was further purified by NTA-Ni2+ affinity chromatography. Using this procedure, 2 mg of eppin without a His6-tag was isolated from 1 l of culture with a purity of >95%. The immunogenicity of the eppin was characterized using male Balb/c mice. PMID:21892195

  20. Vancouver Experience of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Younger, Alistair; Penner, Murray; Montijo, Harvey E

    2016-12-01

    Joint arthrodesis utilizing autogenous bone graft remains the gold standard of treatment in fusion procedures of the foot and ankle. Graft harvest, however, has been associated with increased morbidity to patients as well as increased costs. With this in mind, multiple clinical studies have evaluated the efficacy of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rh-PDGF-BB) with beta-tricalcium phosphate (B-TCP) to augment in foot and ankle arthrodesis with favorable results. These factors have led to the increased use of rh-PDGF-BB with B-TCP in Vancouver with good clinical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polyethylene glycol enhanced refolding of the recombinant human tissue transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, A; Fésüs, L

    2001-02-01

    Tissue transglutaminase forms cross-links between lysine and glutamine side-chains of polypeptide chains in a Ca2+-dependent reaction; its structural basis is still not clarified. In this study, we demonstrate that the refolding of the human recombinant enzyme molecule to its catalytically active form from inclusion bodies needs the presence of a helper material with higher molecular mass, but only in the initiation phase. Ca2+ and nucleotides are ascribed as affector molecules also in the early phase of structural reconstitution. Two optimal concentrations of polyethylene glycol and a relatively long time scale for the evolution of the final structure were identified. The optimized refolding procedure is reported.

  2. Enhanced Proteolytic Processing of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor VIII B-Domain Variants by Recombinant Furins.

    PubMed

    Demasi, Marcos A; de S Molina, Erika; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Lojudice, Fernando H; Muras, Angelita; Sogayar, Mari C

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant human factor VIII (rFVIII) is used in replacement therapy for hemophilia A. Current research efforts are focused on bioengineering rFVIII molecules to improve its secretion efficiency and stability, limiting factors for its efficient production. However, high expression yield in mammalian cells of these rFVIII variants is generally associated with limited proteolytic processing. Non-processed single-chain polypeptides constitute non-natural FVIII molecule configurations with unpredictable toxicity and/or antigenicity. Our main objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of promoting full-proteolytic processing of an rFVIII variant retaining a portion of the B-domain, converting it into the smallest natural activatable form of rFVIII, while keeping its main advantage, i.e., improved secretion efficiency. We generated and employed a CHO-DG44 cell clone producing an rFVIII variant retaining a portion of the B-domain and the FVIII native cleavage site between Arg(1648) and Glu(1649). By bioengineering CHO-DG44 cells to express stably the recombinant human endoproteases PACE, PACE-SOL, PCSK5, PCSK6, or PCKS7, we were able to achieve complete intra- or extracellular proteolytic processing of this rFVIII variant. Additionally, our quantitative data indicated that removal of the B-domain segment by intracellular proteolytic processing does not interfere with this rFVIII variant secretion efficiency. This work also provides the first direct evidence of (1) intracellular cleavage at the Arg(1648) FVIII processing site promoted by wild-type PACE and PCSK7 and (2) proteolytic processing at the Arg(1648) FVIII processing site by PCSK6.

  3. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase by recombinant human proteinase inhibitor 9.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, J R; Foster, D C; Kisiel, W

    1999-09-21

    Proteinase inhibitor PI9 (PI9) is an intracellular 42-kDa member of the ovalbumin family of serpins that is found primarily in placenta, lung and lymphocytes. PI9 has been shown to be a fast-acting inhibitor of granzyme B in vitro, presumably through the utilization of Glu(340) as the P(1) inhibitory residue in its reactive site loop. In this report, we describe the inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by recombinant human PI9. Inhibition occurred with an overall K(i)' of 221 pM and a second-order association rate constant of 1.5 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), indicating that PI9 is a potent inhibitor of this serine proteinase in vitro. In addition, incubation of recombinant PI9 with native neutrophil elastase resulted in the formation of an SDS-resistant 62-kDa complex. Amino-terminal sequence analyses provided evidence that inhibition of elastase occurred through the use of Cys(342) as the reactive P(1) amino acid residue in the PI9 reactive site loop. Thus, PI9 joins its close relatives PI6 and PI8 as having the ability to utilize multiple reactive site loop residues as the inhibitory P(1) residue to expand its inhibitory spectrum.

  4. Recombinant human fibrinogen and sulfation of the. gamma. prime chain

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, D.H.; Huang, S.; Chung, D.W.; Davie, E.W. ); Mulvihill, E.R. )

    1991-10-01

    Human fibrinogen and the homodimeric {gamma}{prime}-chain-containing variant have been expressed in BHK cells using cDNAs coding for the {alpha},{beta}, and {gamma} (or {gamma}{prime}) chains. The fibrinogens were secreted at levels greater than 4 {mu}g (mg of total cell protein){sup {minus}1}day{sup {minus}1} and were biologically active in clotting assays. Recombinant fibrinogen containing the {gamma}' chain incorporated {sup 35}SO{sub 4} into its chains during biosynthesis, while no incorporation occurred in the protein containing the {gamma} chain. The identity of the sulfated {gamma}{prime} chain was verified by its ability to form dimers during clotting. In addition, carboxypeptidase {Upsilon} digestion of the recombinant fibrinogen containing the {gamma}{prime} chain released 96% of the {sup 35}S label from the sulfated chain, and the radioactive material was identified as tyrosine O-sulfate. These results clarify previous findings of the sulfation of tyrosine in human fibrinogen.

  5. Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlin; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Devereux, Wendy; Hacker, Amy; Frydman, Benjamin; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2003-05-16

    The discovery of an inducible oxidase whose apparent substrate preference is spermine indicates that polyamine catabolism is more complex than that originally proposed. To facilitate the study of this enzyme, the purification and characterization of the recombinant human PAOh1/SMO polyamine oxidase are reported. Purified PAOh1/SMO oxidizes both spermine (K(m)=1.6 microM) and N(1)-acetylspermine (K(m)=51 microM), but does not oxidize spermidine. The purified human enzyme also does not oxidize eight representative antitumor polyamine analogues; however, specific oligamine analogues were found to be potent inhibitors of the oxidation of spermine by PAOh1/SMO. The results of these studies are consistent with the hypothesis that PAOh1/SMO represents a new addition to the polyamine metabolic pathway that may represent a new target for antineoplastic drug development.

  6. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-03-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.

  7. “Genome-wide recombination and chromosome segregation in human oocytes and embryos reveal selection for maternal recombination rates”

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Senthilkumar A.; Joshi, Hrishikesh A.; Cimadomo, Danilo; Griffin, Darren K.; Sage, Karen; Summers, Michael C.; Thornhill, Alan R.; Housworth, Elizabeth; Herbert, Alex D.; Rienzi, Laura; Ubaldi, Filippo M.; Handyside, Alan H.; Hoffmann, Eva R.

    2015-01-01

    Crossover recombination reshuffles genes and prevents errors in segregation that lead to extra or missing chromosomes (aneuploidy) in human eggs, a major cause of pregnancy failure and congenital disorders. Here, we generate genome-wide maps of crossovers and chromosome segregation patterns by recovering all three products of single female meioses. Genotyping > 4 million informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 23 complete meioses allowed us to map 2,032 maternal and 1,342 paternal crossovers and to infer the segregation patterns of 529 chromosome pairs. We uncover a novel reverse chromosome segregation pattern in which both homologs separate their sister chromatids at meiosis I; detect selection for higher recombination rates in the female germline by the elimination of aneuploid embryos; and report chromosomal drive against non-recombinant chromatids at meiosis II. Collectively, our findings reveal that recombination not only affects homolog segregation at meiosis I but also the fate of sister chromatids at meiosis II. PMID:25985139

  8. [Human bone morphogenetic protein-2: recombinant expression in E. coli].

    PubMed

    Ma, Q; Dang, G; Ma, D

    1998-04-01

    To explore the way of producing human bone morphogenetic protein-2(hBMP-2) for bone healing by using the gene engeneering techniques. hBMP-2 cDNA fragment, which consists of 3' end partial propeptide and mature peptide sequence, was inserted into the multiple cloning site of expression vector pkpL-3a via ligation. The recombinant plasmid pkpL-3a/hBMP-2 was transformed into E. coli pOp2136. By the method of restriction map, the positive expression clone was selected. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a new foreign protein band near 27,000 after induction. The yield of induced hBMP-2 accouned for 10% of the total bacterial proteins. The partial purified recombinant hBMP-2 was implanted into Wistar rat thigh. After 4 weeks, histological analysis showed that it induced the proliferation of mesenchymal type cells and formation of new cartilage and bone in the implantation area. The hBMP-2 produced by gene engeneering techniques has the biologic capacity of ectopic bone formation.

  9. Expression and purification of recombinant human EGFL7 protein.

    PubMed

    Picuric, Srdjan; Friedrich, Matthias; Oess, Stefanie

    2009-11-01

    The secreted epidermal growth factor-like protein 7 (EGFL7) plays an important role in angiogenesis, especially in the recruitment of endothelial and smooth muscle cells to the site of the nascent vessel and their ordered assembly into functional vasculature. However, progress in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is to date greatly hindered by the lack of recombinant EGFL7 protein in a stable, soluble, native state, thus preventing e.g. the characterization of the proposed functional receptor as well as investigation of additional biological effects of EGFL7. So far all attempts to produce sufficient amounts of recombinant EGFL7 protein by various groups have failed. In this study we describe a procedure for the expression and purification of human EGFL7 from Sf9 cells and for the first time provide means to isolate biologically functional EGFL7 protein in sufficient quantities for its further biological characterization. We believe that the availability of EGFL7 will greatly accelerate our understanding of the precise role of EGFL7 and the underlying molecular mechanisms of EGFL7 action in the fundamentally important process of angiogenesis.

  10. Novel human recombinant antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85B.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Manon; Kämpfer, Susanne; Helmsing, Saskia; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Prilop, Wiebke; Frank, Ronald; Dübel, Stefan; Singh, Mahavir; Hust, Michael

    2014-07-17

    Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to bacterial infections worldwide, mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antigen 85 complex comprises a set of major secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, which are potential biomarkers for diagnostic. In this work, the first human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies specific for the tuberculosis biomarker 85 B were selected by phage display from naïve antibody gene libraries (HAL7/8). Produced as scFv-Fc in mammalian cells, these antibodies were further characterized and analysed for specificity and applicability in different tuberculosis antigen detection assays. Sandwich detection of recombinant 85 B was successful in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay and immunoblot. Whereas detection of M. tuberculosis cell extracts and culture filtrates was only possible in direct ELISA and immunoblot assays. It was found that the conformation of 85 B, depending on sample treatment, influenced antigen detection. Recombinant antibodies, selected by phage display, may be applicable for 85 B detection in various assays. These antibodies are candidates for the development of future point of care tuberculosis diagnostic kits. Using 85 B as a biomarker, the antigen conformation influenced by sample treatment is important.

  11. Novel human recombinant antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to bacterial infections worldwide, mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antigen 85 complex comprises a set of major secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, which are potential biomarkers for diagnostic. Results In this work, the first human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies specific for the tuberculosis biomarker 85 B were selected by phage display from naïve antibody gene libraries (HAL7/8). Produced as scFv-Fc in mammalian cells, these antibodies were further characterized and analysed for specificity and applicability in different tuberculosis antigen detection assays. Sandwich detection of recombinant 85 B was successful in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay and immunoblot. Whereas detection of M. tuberculosis cell extracts and culture filtrates was only possible in direct ELISA and immunoblot assays. It was found that the conformation of 85 B, depending on sample treatment, influenced antigen detection. Conclusions Recombinant antibodies, selected by phage display, may be applicable for 85 B detection in various assays. These antibodies are candidates for the development of future point of care tuberculosis diagnostic kits. Using 85 B as a biomarker, the antigen conformation influenced by sample treatment is important. PMID:25033887

  12. [Use of recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rHGH)].

    PubMed

    Calzada-León, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone, synthesized in E.coli or mammalian cells cultures, is since 1985, a useful therapeutic resource to increase growth velocity and final height. In this paper are discussed the four phases (aims, security and efficacy, utility and efficiency) indispensables to define the start of treatment, as well as the absolute, relative and metabolic indications and the transitory and permanent conditions that contraindicate its use. It is commented the way to optimize the results (simple but indispensables indications for the physician, the patients and their family). Finally it is analyzed the results of treatment in patients with growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, chronic renal failure, Prader-Willi syndrome, Noonan syndrome, SHOX deficiency, intrauterine growth retardation and idiopathic short stature.

  13. Preparation of biologically active recombinant human progastrin(1-80).

    PubMed

    McQueen, Kim; Kovac, Suzana; Ho, Po-Ki; Rorison, Kristy; Pannequin, Julie; Neumann, Greg; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S

    2002-10-01

    The bacterial expression of human progastrin(6-80) has been reported previously [Baldwin, G.S. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276: 7791-7796]. The aims of the present study were to prepare full-length recombinant human progastrin(1-80) and to compare its biological activity with that of progastrin(6-80) in vitro, to determine whether or not the N-terminal five amino acids contributed to activity. A fusion protein of glutathione-S-transferase and human progastrin(1-80) was expressed in Escherichia coli, collected on glutathione-agarose beads, and cleaved with enterokinase. Progastrin(1-80) was purified by reversed-phase and anion exchange HPLC and characterized by radioimmunoassay, amino acid sequencing, and mass spectrometry. No differences were detected in the extent of stimulation by progastrin(1-80) and progastrin(6-80) in proliferation and migration assays with the mouse gastric cell line IMGE-5. We conclude that residues 1-5 of progastrin(1-80) are not essential for biological activity.

  14. Recombinant human intelectin binds bovine lactoferrin and its peptides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kouichirou; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-08-01

    Intelectin (IntL), a lectin that exists on the brush border membrane of the small intestine, plays a role in the innate immune response and also acts as a receptor for lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other secretions. Similar to human LF (hLF), bovine LF (bLF) has been shown to induce proliferation and differentiation of human enterocytes and to modulate their cytokine productions. To evaluate the interaction between human IntL (hIntL) and bLF, recombinant hIntL (rhIntL) conjugated with a tag sequence was examined for its ligand-binding capacity by using microtiter plates coated with LF or other proteins. Interestingly, rhIntL showed higher binding for bLF than hLF. It also bound pepsin hydrolysate of bLF, but to a lower degree than native bLF. A very low binding of rhIntL was observed for bovine serum albumin or transferrin. These findings suggest that hIntL acts as a receptor for bLF and its digested fragments.

  15. Stability of Ala 125 recombinant human interleukin-2 in solution.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Nuria; Ruiz, Llamil; Aroche, Kethia; Gerónimo, Haydee; Brito, Olga; Hardy, Eugenio

    2005-01-01

    Herein, we describe the preformulation study of Ala 125- recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2A(125)) in solution. This modified form of the natural human IL-2 is obtained by the replacement of cysteine with alanine at position 125. The compatibility of this rhIL-2A(125) with type I borosilicate glass vials showed no significant adsorption at liquid-vial interface. The effect of single excipients on the stability of this lymphokine was evaluated through RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE and biological activity assay. Polysorbate 80 at high concentrations decreased the stability of rhIL-2A(125) in solution. On the other hand, the use of antioxidants (methionine and EDTA Na(2)) diminished the oxidation rate of the active ingredient. Additionally, a group of amino acids (glutamine, alanine, glycine and histidine) stabilized rhIL-2A(125) in different grades, and glycine at 5 mg mL(-1) allowed for the best stability behaviour. Taken together, these preformulation results can be used to design an adequate liquid vehicle for rhIL-2A(125) to be manufactured for human use.

  16. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  17. 78 FR 78838 - Grant of Interim Extension of the Term of U.S. Patent No. 5,496,801; Recombinant Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...,801; Recombinant Human Parathyroid Hormone AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce... human biological product recombinant human parathyroid hormone. The application indicates that Biologics License Application 125511 for the drug product, recombinant human parathyroid hormone, was filed...

  18. The first recombinant human coagulation factor VIII of human origin: human cell line and manufacturing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Casademunt, Elisabeth; Martinelle, Kristina; Jernberg, Mats; Winge, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Maya; Biesert, Lothar; Knaub, Sigurd; Walter, Olaf; Schröder, Carola

    2012-08-01

    Since the early 1990s, recombinant human clotting factor VIII (rhFVIII) produced in hamster cells has been available for haemophilia A treatment. However, the post-translational modifications of these proteins are not identical to those of native human FVIII, which may lead to immunogenic reactions and the development of inhibitors against rhFVIII. For the first time, rhFVIII produced in a human host cell line is available. We describe here the establishment of the first human production cell line for rhFVIII and the manufacturing process of this novel product. A human cell line expressing rhFVIII was derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 F cells transfected with an FVIII expression plasmid. No virus or virus-like particles could be detected following extensive testing. The stringently controlled production process is completely free from added materials of animal or human origin. Multistep purification employing a combination of filtration and chromatography steps ensures the efficient removal of impurities. Solvent/detergent treatment and a 20 nm pore size nanofiltration step, used for the first time in rhFVIII manufacturing, efficiently eliminate any hypothetically present viruses. In contrast to hamster cell-derived products, this rhFVIII product does not contain hamster-like epitopes, which might be expected to be immunogenic. HEK 293 F cells, whose parental cell line HEK 293 has been used by researchers for decades, are a suitable production cell line for rhFVIII and will help avoid immunogenic epitopes. A modern manufacturing process has been developed to ensure the highest level of purity and pathogen safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Stabilization of a hydrophobic recombinant cytokine by human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Hawe, Andrea; Friess, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate the impact of pH and NaCl content on aggregation, particle formation, and solubility of a hydrophobic recombinant human cytokine in formulations with human serum albumin (HSA) as stabilizing excipient. While cytokine-HSA formulations were stable at physiological pH, a tremendous increase in turbidity at pH 5.0, close to the isoelectric point of HSA was caused by a partially irreversible precipitation. By dynamic light scattering (DLS), disc centrifugation, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and light obscuration it could be shown that the turbidity was mainly caused by particles larger than 120 nm. SDS-PAGE provided evidence that the precipitation at pH 5.0 was mainly caused by the cytokine. The HSA-stabilizers Na-octanoate and Na-N-acetyltryptophante were less effective in preventing the turbidity increase of unstabilized-HSA compared to NaCl. The interactions between HSA and cytokine were weakened by NaCl, as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. The positive effect of NaCl on the formulation could be attributed to a direct stabilization of HSA and weaker interactions between HSA and the cytokine, which in consequence provided an overall stabilization of the cytokine. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Expression of recombination-activating genes and T cell receptor gene recombination in the human T cell leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hong-yun; Ma, Li; Meng, Min-jie; Yao, Xin-sheng; Lin, Ying; Wu, Zhen-qiang; He, Xiao-wei; Wang, Ju-fang; Wang, Xiao-ning

    2007-03-05

    Recent studies have suggested that mature T cells can change their specificity through reexpression of recombination-activating genes (RAG) and RAG-mediated V(D)J recombination. This process is named receptor revision and has been observed in mature peripheral T cells from transgenic mice and human donors. However, whether thebreceptor revision in mature T cells is a random or orientated process remains poorly understood. Here we used the Jurkathuman T cell line, which represents a mature stage of T cell development, as a model to investigate the regulation of Tcell receptor (TCR) gene recombination. TCR Dbeta-Jbeta signal joint T cell receptor excision DNA circles (sjTRECs) were determined by nested and seminested PCR. Double-strand DNA breaks at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) in the TCRVbeta chain locus were detected by ligation-mediated-PCR. Further analysis of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) size of the TCRVbeta chain was examined by the TCR GeneScan technique. RAG1, RAG2, and three crucial components of the nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) pathway were readily detected in Jurkat. Characteristics of junctional diversity of Dbeta2-Jbeta2 signal joints and ds RSS breaks associated with the Dbeta2 5' and Dbeta 2 3' sites were detected in DNA from Jurkat cells. CDR3 size and the gene sequences of the TCRVbeta chain did not change during cell proliferation. RAG1 and RAG2 and ongoing TCR gene recombination are coexpressed in Jurkat cells, but the ongoing recombination process may not play a role in modification of the TCR repertoire.However, the results suggest that Jurkat could be used as a model for studying the regulation of RAGs and V(D)J recombination and as a "special" model of the coexistence of TCR gene rearrangements and "negative" receptor revision.

  1. Plant-derived recombinant human serum transferrin demonstrates multiple functions.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Martin E; Diao, Hong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Ma, Shengwu

    2010-05-01

    Human serum transferrin (hTf) is the major iron-binding protein in human plasma, having a vital role in iron transport. Additionally, hTf has many other uses including antimicrobial functions and growth factor effects on mammalian cell proliferation and differentiation. The multitask nature of hTf makes it highly valuable for different therapeutic and commercial applications. However, the success of hTf in these applications is critically dependent on the availability of high-quality hTf in large amounts. In this study, we have developed plants as a novel platform for the production of recombinant (r)hTf. We show here that transgenic plants are an efficient system for rhTf production, with a maximum accumulation of 0.25% total soluble protein (TSP) (or up to 33.5 microg/g fresh leaf weight). Furthermore, plant-derived rhTf retains many of the biological activities synonymous with native hTf. In particular, rhTf reversibly binds iron in vitro, exhibits bacteriostatic activity, supports cell proliferation in serum-free medium and can be internalized into mammalian cells in vitro. The success of this study validates the future application of plant rhTf in a variety of fields. Of particular interest is the use of plant rhTf as a novel carrier for cell-specific or oral delivery of protein/peptide drugs for the treatment of human diseases such as diabetes.To demonstrate this hypothesis, we have additionally expressed an hTf fusion protein containing glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or its derivative in plants. Here, we show that plant-derived hTf-GLP-1 fusion proteins retain the ability to be internalized by mammalian cells when added to culture medium in vitro.

  2. Human recombinant RNASET2: A potential anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate.

  3. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  4. Recombinant human factor IX produced from transgenic porcine milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  5. Conformation and activity of recombinant human fibroblast interferon-beta.

    PubMed

    Boublik, M; Moschera, J A; Wei, C; Kung, H F

    1990-04-01

    Conformation of highly purified recombinant human fibroblast interferon-beta (rHuIFN-beta) was correlated with its biological activity. The extent of ordered secondary structure was determined by circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy in various buffer conditions to establish conditions of protein stability and its potential for helix formation. The highest "helicity" (about 50 +/- 5% of alpha-helices) and the highest antiviral activities (4-10 x 10(7) units/mg) were found in 50% ethylene glycol, 1 M NaCl and 0.05 M Na3PO4, pH 7.2 (Buffer I); 80 mM citric acid, 20 mM Na2HPO4, pH 2.9 (Buffer II); and 25 mM NH4OAc, 125 mM NaCl, pH 5.1 (Buffer III). Both helicity and antiviral activity of the IFN-beta decrease in parallel with denaturation by urea, heat, and/or by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. Low pH (pH 2.9 Buffer II) exhibits a distinct stabilizing effect on the structure and antiviral activity of IFN-beta against heat denaturation.

  6. Genetic heterogeneity and recombination in type-3 human astroviruses.

    PubMed

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; Martella, Vito; Banyai, Krisztián; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Calderaro, Adriana

    2015-06-01

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are important enteric pathogens and can be classified genetically and antigenically into eight types. During molecular surveillance for HAstVs in Italy, sequence analysis of the diagnostic region C (about 400 nucleotide in length), located on the capsid (ORF2) gene, identified a novel type-3 strain. Upon sequencing of the full-length ORF2, the type-3 HAstV strain was characterized as a novel ORF2 genetic lineage, designated as 3c. By converse, in the ORF1b the virus was more similar to type-1 HAstVs, rather than to type-3 strains, suggesting a recombination nature, with the crossover site being mapped to the ORF1b/ORF2 junction region. Region C sequences of similar type-3 HAstV identified from European and extra-European countries were retrieved in the databases, suggesting the global distribution of this novel type-3 lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human recombinant RNASET2: A potential anti-cancer drug

    PubMed Central

    Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate. PMID:27014725

  8. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period.

  9. Boundary mode lubrication of articular cartilage by recombinant human lubricin.

    PubMed

    Gleghorn, Jason P; Jones, Aled R C; Flannery, Carl R; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2009-06-01

    Lubrication of cartilage involves a variety of physical and chemical factors, including lubricin, a synovial glycoprotein that has been shown to be a boundary lubricant. It is unclear how lubricin boundary lubricates a wide range of bearings from tissue to artificial surfaces, and if the mechanism is the same for both soluble and bound lubricin. In the current study, experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that recombinant human lubricin (rh-lubricin) lubricates cartilage in a dose-dependent manner and that soluble and bound fractions of rh-lubricin both contribute to the lubrication process. An rh-lubricin dose response was observed with maximal lubrication achieved at concentrations of rh-lubricin greater than 50 microg/mL. A concentration-response variable-slope model was fit to the data, and indicated that rh-lubricin binding to cartilage was not first order. The pattern of decrease in equilibrium friction coefficient indicated that aggregation of rh-lubricin or steric arrangement may regulate boundary lubrication. rh-lubricin localized at the cartilage surface was found to lubricate a cartilage-glass interface in boundary mode, as did soluble rh-lubricin at high concentrations (150 microg/mL); however, the most effective lubrication occurred when both soluble and bound rh-lubricin were present at the interface. These findings point to two distinct mechanisms by which rh-lubricin lubricates, one mechanism involving lubricin bound to the tissue surface and the other involving lubricin in solution.

  10. Human recombinant erythropoietin in the prevention and treatment of anemia of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Ohls, Robin K

    2002-01-01

    Human recombinant erythropoietin has been studied extensively as treatment for a variety of anemias. Since in vitro studies showed the primary etiology of the anemia of prematurity to be insufficient serum erythropoietin concentrations, clinical trials have evaluated the administration of human recombinant erythropoietin to preterm infants to treat this indication. These studies were followed by pharmacokinetic determinations in animal models and preterm infants, which revealed that preterm infants required greater doses of human recombinant erythropoietin because of a more rapid clearance and greater volume of distribution. Recent studies have focused on the administration of human recombinant erythropoietin in the first weeks of life to alleviate the anemia caused by excessive phlebotomy losses, and to prevent the anemia of prematurity. In addition, human recombinant erythropoietin has been tried clinically in a variety of neonatal populations in an attempt to decrease or eliminate transfusions. Although much information has been accumulated about the clinical use of human recombinant erythropoietin in preterm infants over the last 15 years, many questions remain unanswered. The evolution of clinical practice in the care of extremely low birthweight infants continues to affect the number of transfusions. It is likely that human recombinant erythropoietin administration in combination with instituting rigorous transfusion guidelines and decreasing phlebotomy losses will have the greatest impact in decreasing transfusion requirements in all preterm and term neonates, regardless of the etiology of their anemia.

  11. Expression of adrenomedullin in rats after spinal cord injury and intervention effect of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Jing, Yu; Qu, Lin; Meng, Xiangwei; Cao, Yang; Tan, Huibing

    2016-12-01

    The expression of adrenomedullin (ADM) in injured tissue of rat spinal cord was observed and the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin was analyzed. A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and divided into 3 equal groups including, a sham-operation group in which rats received an excision of vertebral plate; a spinal cord injury model group and a recombinant human erythropoietin group in which rats with spinal cord injury received a caudal vein injection of 300 units recombinant human erythropoietin after injury. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to observe the spinal cord injury conditions. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the expression of ADM. Pathologic changes in the group of recombinant human erythropoietin at various times were significantly less severe than those in the group of spinal cord injury model. The expression of ADM was increased particularly in the group of recombinant human erythropoietin (P<0.01). The improved Tarlov scores of the group of spinal cord injury model and the group of recombinant human erythropoietin were lower than those of the sham-operation group at 3, 6 and 9 days (P<0.01). Thus, the recombinant human erythropoietin is capable of alleviating the secondary injury of spinal cord. One of the mechanisms may be achieved by promoting the increase of ADM expression.

  12. Expression of adrenomedullin in rats after spinal cord injury and intervention effect of recombinant human erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Jing, Yu; Qu, Lin; Meng, Xiangwei; Cao, Yang; Tan, Huibing

    2016-01-01

    The expression of adrenomedullin (ADM) in injured tissue of rat spinal cord was observed and the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin was analyzed. A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and divided into 3 equal groups including, a sham-operation group in which rats received an excision of vertebral plate; a spinal cord injury model group and a recombinant human erythropoietin group in which rats with spinal cord injury received a caudal vein injection of 300 units recombinant human erythropoietin after injury. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to observe the spinal cord injury conditions. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the expression of ADM. Pathologic changes in the group of recombinant human erythropoietin at various times were significantly less severe than those in the group of spinal cord injury model. The expression of ADM was increased particularly in the group of recombinant human erythropoietin (P<0.01). The improved Tarlov scores of the group of spinal cord injury model and the group of recombinant human erythropoietin were lower than those of the sham-operation group at 3, 6 and 9 days (P<0.01). Thus, the recombinant human erythropoietin is capable of alleviating the secondary injury of spinal cord. One of the mechanisms may be achieved by promoting the increase of ADM expression. PMID:28101163

  13. Analysis of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced CD4 expression on human eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M; Okubo, Y; Horie, S; Sekiguchi, M

    1996-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that one of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), could induce expression of the adhesion molecule CD4 on human eosinophils. We further examined the effector function of CD4 and the mechanisms regulating CD4 expression. Human eosinophils were cultured with various concentrations of recombinant human TNF-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) with or without various drugs for 24 hr. After culture, eosinophils were stained for CD4 using a monoclonal antibody and then analysed by flow cytometry. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) release as eosinophil degranulation was examined by cross-linking of CD4 on eosinophils. The rhTNF-alpha induced CD4 expression on human eosinophils in a dose- and time-dependent fashion; rhTNF-alpha-induced CD4 expression was significantly inhibited by 10(-6) M cycloheximide, 10(-8) M dexamethasone, or 10(-6) M herbimycin A. Recombinant human interferon-gamma inhibited rhTNF-alpha-induced CD4 expression in a dose-dependent manner. However, cross-linking of CD4 on eosinophils did not evoke EDN release, suggesting that newly expressed CD4 molecules on human eosinophils do not play any role in triggering degranulation. Our data indicate that TNF-alpha-induced CD4 expression on human eosinophils is dependent on protein synthesis and may be dependent on tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:8690465

  14. Involvement of BDNF and NGF in the mechanism of neuroprotective effect of human recombinant erythropoietin nanoforms.

    PubMed

    Solev, I N; Balabanyan, V Yu; Volchek, I A; Elizarova, O S; Litvinova, S A; Garibova, T L; Voronina, T A

    2013-06-01

    Human recombinant erythropoietin adsorbed on poly(butyl)cyanoacrylate nanoparticles and administered intraperitoneally in a dose of 0.05 mg/kg exhibited a neuroprotective effect in experimental intracerebral posttraumatic hematomas (hemorrhagic stroke) and reduced animal mortality. Human recombinant erythropoietin, native and adsorbed on lactic and glycolic acid copolymer-based nanoparticles, exhibited no antistroke effect on this model. Analysis of reverse transcription PCR products showed that human recombinant erythropoietin adsorbed on poly(butyl)cyanoacrylate nanoparticles more than 2-fold increased the expression of BDNF and NGF neurotrophins in the rat brain frontal cortex and hippocampus.

  15. Human insulin genome sequence map, biochemical structure of insulin for recombinant DNA insulin.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Mungantiwar, Ashish A

    2003-08-01

    Insulin is a essential molecule for type I diabetes that is marketed by very few companies. It is the first molecule, which was made by recombinant technology; but the commercialization process is very difficult. Knowledge about biochemical structure of insulin and human insulin genome sequence map is pivotal to large scale manufacturing of recombinant DNA Insulin. This paper reviews human insulin genome sequence map, the amino acid sequence of porcine insulin, crystal structure of porcine insulin, insulin monomer, aggregation surfaces of insulin, conformational variation in the insulin monomer, insulin X-ray structures for recombinant DNA technology in the synthesis of human insulin in Escherichia coli.

  16. Ligand and proton exchange dynamics in recombinant human myoglobin mutants.

    PubMed

    Lambright, D G; Balasubramanian, S; Boxer, S G

    1989-05-05

    Site-specific mutants of human myoglobin have been prepared in which lysine 45 is replaced by arginine (K45R) and aspartate 60 by glutamate (D60E), in order to examine the influence of these residues and their interaction on the dynamics of the protein. These proteins were studied by a variety of methods, including one and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, exchange kinetics for the distal and proximal histidine NH protons as a function of pH in the met cyano forms, flash photolysis of the CO forms, and ligand replacement kinetics. The electronic absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the CO forms of these proteins are virtually identical, indicating that the structure of the heme pocket is unaltered by these mutations. There are, however, substantial changes in the dynamics of both CO binding and proton exchange for the mutant K45R, whereas the mutant D60E exhibits behavior indistinguishable from the reference human myoglobin. K45R has a faster CO bimolecular recombination rate and slower CO off-rate relative to the reference. The kinetics for CO binding are independent of pH (6.5 to 10) as well as ionic strength (0 to 1 M-NaCl). The exchange rate for the distal histidine NH is substantially lower for K45R than the reference, whereas the proximal histidine NH exchange rate is unaltered. The exchange behavior of the human proteins is similar to that reported for a comparison of the exchange rates for myoglobins having lysine at position 45 with sperm whale myoglobin, which has arginine at this position. This indicates that the differences in exchange rates reflects largely the Lys----Arg substitution. The lack of a simple correlation for the CO kinetics with this substitution means that these are sensitive to other factors as well. Specific kinetic models, whereby substitution of arginine for lysine at position 45 can affect ligand binding dynamics, are outlined. These experiments demonstrate that a relatively

  17. How Good Are Indirect Tests at Detecting Recombination in Human mtDNA?

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel James; Bryant, David; Gemmell, Neil John

    2013-01-01

    Empirical proof of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination in somatic tissues was obtained in 2004; however, a lack of irrefutable evidence exists for recombination in human mtDNA at the population level. Our inability to demonstrate convincingly a signal of recombination in population data sets of human mtDNA sequence may be due, in part, to the ineffectiveness of current indirect tests. Previously, we tested some well-established indirect tests of recombination (linkage disequilibrium vs. distance using D′ and r2, Homoplasy Test, Pairwise Homoplasy Index, Neighborhood Similarity Score, and Max χ2) on sequence data derived from the only empirically confirmed case of human mtDNA recombination thus far and demonstrated that some methods were unable to detect recombination. Here, we assess the performance of these six well-established tests and explore what characteristics specific to human mtDNA sequence may affect their efficacy by simulating sequence under various parameters with levels of recombination (ρ) that vary around an empirically derived estimate for human mtDNA (population parameter ρ = 5.492). No test performed infallibly under any of our scenarios, and error rates varied across tests, whereas detection rates increased substantially with ρ values > 5.492. Under a model of evolution that incorporates parameters specific to human mtDNA, including rate heterogeneity, population expansion, and ρ = 5.492, successful detection rates are limited to a range of 7−70% across tests with an acceptable level of false-positive results: the neighborhood similarity score incompatibility test performed best overall under these parameters. Population growth seems to have the greatest impact on recombination detection probabilities across all models tested, likely due to its impact on sequence diversity. The implications of our findings on our current understanding of mtDNA recombination in humans are discussed. PMID:23665874

  18. Recombinant avian adeno-associated virus-mediated oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human tissue kallikrein.

    PubMed

    Wang, A P; Sun, H C; Wang, J Y; Wang, Y J; Yuan, W F

    2008-04-01

    Human tissue kallikrein (hK1) plays an important role in regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte and glucose transport, and renal function. To evaluate the feasibility of viral vector-mediated expression of recombinant human tissue kallikrein (rhK1) in the egg white of laying hens, human tissue kallikrein gene (hKLK1) cDNA-expression cassette was subcloned into avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) transfer vector pAITR and transfected into AAV-293 cells with AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC and adenovirus helper vector pHelper. The recombinant viral particles with a typical AAAV morphology and relatively high titer were generated and identified by PCR and electron microscopy. After 1 intravenous injection of each laying hen with 2 x 10(10) viral particles, oviduct-specific expression of hKLK1 cDNA was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Secretion of rhK1 into the egg white was detected by enzymatic assay from d 2, reaching the highest level of 107 U/mL in wk 3, and lasted for more than 6 wk after injection. Western blotting showed that the oviduct-expressed rhK1 had the same molecular mass with the natural enzyme. These data suggest that rAAAV can mediate high level and long-lasting transgene expression in oviduct cells, and the established expression system is useful for production of other recombinant proteins.

  19. Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Suayib; Müftüoğlu, Sevda; Cetin, Eren; Sarer, Banu; Yildirim, Berna Akkuş; Zeybek, Dilara; Orhan, Bülent

    2003-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is a potent nephrotoxin, and nephrotoxicity is its most important dose-limiting toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in the protection of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and compare its efficacy with the cell-protective agent amifostine. All experiments were conducted on female Wistar albino rats. Animals were randomly assigned to four groups, each including six rats. Group A received only CDDP, group B received CDDP plus rhEPO, group C received CDDP plus amifostine, and group D received only rhEPO. At the end of 7 wk, hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrite (Htc), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) levels were determined and kidneys of the rats were removed. The weights of the kidneys were measured and sent for histopathological examination. Proximal tubules from four areas of the kidney (outer cortex, inner cortex, the medullary ray, and outer stripe of outer medulla [OSOM]) were evaluated. There were statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of tubular scores, including overall renal tubular score, cortex, inner cortex, OSOM, and medullary ray tubular scores, and Htc levels. Group A rats had the worse tubular scores in all categories when compared to group D rats. When the results of groups B and C were compared, there were no differences in terms of BUN, Cr levels, and tubular scores, but the Htc level was significantly higher in group B. Group B rats had better overall and OSOM tubular scores when compared to group A. Group C also had better overall and OSOM tubular scores compared to group A. The present study showed for the first time that rhEPO plays an important role in the prevention of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and it is as effective as amifostine.

  20. Recombinant human erythropoietin improves neurological outcomes in very preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juan; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Falin; Kang, Wenqing; Gao, Liang; Guo, Jiajia; Zhang, Yanhua; Xia, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of repeated low‐dose human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) in the improvement of neurological outcomes in very preterm infants. Methods A total of 800 infants of ≤32‐week gestational age who had been in an intensive care unit within 72 hours after birth were included in the trial between January 2009 and June 2013. Preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive rhEPO (500IU/kg; n = 366) or placebo (n = 377) intravenously within 72 hours after birth and then once every other day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was death or moderate to severe neurological disability assessed at 18 months of corrected age. Results Death and moderate/severe neurological disability occurred in 91 of 338 very preterm infants (26.9%) in the placebo group and in 43 of 330 very preterm infants (13.0%) in the rhEPO treatment group (relative risk [RR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27–0.59, p < 0.001) at 18 months of corrected age. The rate of moderate/severe neurological disability in the rhEPO group (22 of 309, 7.1%) was significantly lower compared to the placebo group (57 of 304, 18.8%; RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.19–0.55, p < 0.001), and no excess adverse events were observed. Interpretation Repeated low‐dose rhEPO treatment reduced the risk of long‐term neurological disability in very preterm infants with no obvious adverse effects. Ann Neurol 2016;80:24–34 PMID:27130143

  1. Recombinant human erythropoietin dosing errors due to concentrated EPO.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, D M; Nemenoff, R A

    2010-06-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is widely used to treat anemia. A dialysis provider enacted a policy utilizing 20,000 U/ml multi-dose vials for rHuEPO dosing. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision in administering small rHuEPO doses from this vial. Ten registered nurses (RNs) were selected at random, supplied with a rHuEPO vial refilled with water, and instructed to withdraw the following amounts (1,200 U, 2,400 U, 3,600 U) using standard procedures and assuming the standard rHuEPO concentration of 20,000 U/ml. Samples were drawn up in duplicate and placed into 1.5 ml micro-centrifuge tubes. The volumes were measured using P-100 or P-200 microliter pipettes. The equivalent amount of rHuEPO was calculated by multiplying the volume by 20 U/microl. The rHuEPO dosing errors were large and on occasion greater than 100% at the 1,200 U dose. The variability for each RN, while large, was less than the inter-RN variability (within-RN % error 9.6% vs. 29.8% between-RN % error at the 1,200 unit dose). Errors occurred in both directions, both under- and overdosing. Utilizing concentrated rHuEPO resulted in significant dosing errors at low rHuEPO doses. The implications include inaccurate medication administration and disparity between administered and billed dosages. Policy decisions that effect medication administration need to be carefully evaluated to determine their impact on patient well-being and safety.

  2. Effects of Recombinant Human Prolactin on Breast Milk Composition

    PubMed Central

    Powe, Camille E.; Puopolo, Karen M.; Newburg, David S.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Chen, Ceng; Allen, Maureen; Merewood, Anne; Worden, Susan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of recombinant human prolactin (r-hPRL) on the nutritional and immunologic composition of breast milk. METHODS: We conducted 2 trials of r-hPRL treatment. In the first study, mothers with documented prolactin deficiency were given r-hPRL every 12 hours in a 28-day, open-label trial. In the second study, mothers with lactation insufficiency that developed while they were pumping breast milk for their preterm infants were given r-hPRL daily in a 7-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Breast milk characteristics were compared before and during 7 days of treatment. RESULTS: Among subjects treated with r-hPRL (N = 11), milk volumes (73 ± 36 to 146 ± 54 mL/day; P < .001) and milk lactose levels (155 ± 15 to 184 ± 8 mmol/L; P = .01) increased, whereas milk sodium levels decreased (12.1 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L; P = .02). Milk calcium levels increased in subjects treated with r-hPRL twice daily (2.8 ± 0.6 to 5.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L; P = .03). Total neutral (1.5 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.4 g/L; P = .04) and acidic (33 ± 4 to 60 ± 6 mg/L; P = .02) oligosaccharide levels increased in r-hPRL-treated subjects, whereas total daily milk immunoglobulin A secretionwas unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: r-hPRL treatment increased milk volume and induced changes in milk composition similar to those that occur during normal lactogenesis. r-hPRL also increased antimicrobially active oligosaccharide concentrations. These effects were achieved for women with both prolactin deficiency and lactation insufficiency. PMID:21262884

  3. S-Nitrosylation of secreted recombinant human glypican-1.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Gabriel; Mani, Katrin

    2009-12-01

    Glypican-1 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored cell surface S-nitrosylated heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is processed by nitric oxide dependent degradation of its side chains. Cell surface-bound glypican-1 becomes internalized and recycles via endosomes, where the heparan sulphate chains undergo nitric oxide and copper dependent autocleavage at N-unsubstituted glucosamines, back to the Golgi. It is not known if the S-nitrosylation occurs during biosynthesis or recycling of the protein. Here we have generated a recombinant human glypican-1 lacking the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor. We find that this protein is directly secreted into the culture medium both as core protein and proteoglycan form and is not subjected to internalization and further modifications during recycling. By using SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and radiolabeling experiments we show that the glypican-1 can be S-nitrosylated. We have measured the level of S-nitrosylation in the glypican-1 core protein by biotin switch assay and find that the core protein can be S-nitrosylated in the presence of copper II ions and NO donor. Furthermore the glypican-1 proteoglycan produced in the presence of polyamine synthesis inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine, was endogenously S-nitrosylated and release of nitric oxide induced deaminative autocleavage of the HS side chains of glypican-1. We also show that the N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues are formed during biosynthesis of glypican-1 and that the content increased upon inhibition of polyamine synthesis. It cannot be excluded that endogenous glypican-1 can become further S-nitrosylated during recycling.

  4. Myelostimulatory activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, J.E.; Schneider, M.; Keller, J.; Ruscetti, F.; Longo, D.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Tribble, H.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of studies designed to extend our understanding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to study the effect of biologic response modifiers on bone marrow, we observed that administering recombinant human (rH) IL-2 to normal mice resulted in an increase in the frequency of colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) in bone marrow. In addition, rH IL-2 was able to accelerate host recovery from cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or radiation-induced bone marrow depression and peripheral blood leukopenia. Not only can rH IL-2 accelerate, in a dose-dependent manner, the return of bone marrow, peripheral blood cellularity, and CFU-C frequency to normal levels following cytoreduction by CTX or irradiation, but it also significantly increases CFU-C frequency to greater than normal levels. Furthermore, rH IL-2 can significantly prolong survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of irradiation or CTX. Thus, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic therapeutic activity associated with rH IL-2 and CTX. rH IL-2 does not act only as an immunomodulatory agent in the presence or absence of suppressor T cells, but also accelerates host recovery from cytoreductive agents, resulting in decreased leukopenia and perhaps resistances to secondary infection. Thus, rH IL-2 plus chemotherapy may increase therapeutic activity against neoplastic disease, not only by adding immune stimulation to the direct antitumor effect of the drug but also by allowing delivery of higher, more effective doses of chemotherapy.

  5. Supercritical fluid precipitation of recombinant human immunoglobulin from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Nesta, D P; Elliott, J S; Warr, J P

    2000-02-20

    Supercritical carbon dioxide was used as an antisolvent for producing recombinant human immunoglobulin G (rIgG) particulate powders. Liquid carbon dioxide (CO(2)) was premixed with ethanol to create a single-phase, modified supercritical fluid (SCF). The modified SCF was then vigorously mixed with a pharmaceutically acceptable, aqueous formulation of rIgG, and the mixture was immediately atomized into a pressurized vessel where rapid expansion of the modified SCF extracted the aqueous phase, resulting in precipitation of the protein powder. The process was reproducible, and resulting powder products were characterized by their aqueous solubilities, and the spectroscopic profile, molecular integrity, and antigen binding activity of the individual soluble fractions. Molecular integrity was assessed via size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SEC), whereas antigen binding activity was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Attempts to characterize particle size and morphology were confounded due to the extremely deliquescent nature of the powders, causing them to absorb moisture rapidly and become gummy. Operational conditions were optimized to a point which yielded powders that were completely soluble, and had ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic and SEC profiles indistinguishable from those of the reference standard starting solution from which the powders were derived. Antigen binding activities of the powders, however, were

  6. Skeletal ligament healing using the recombinant human amelogenin protein.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, Salem; Ejzenberg, Ayala; Goren, Koby; Saba, Faris; Suki, Yarden; Sharon, Shay; Shilo, Dekel; Waxman, Jacob; Spitzer, Elad; Shahar, Ron; Atkins, Ayelet; Liebergall, Meir; Blumenfeld, Anat; Deutsch, Dan; Haze, Amir

    2016-05-01

    Injuries to ligaments are common, painful and debilitating, causing joint instability and impaired protective proprioception sensation around the joint. Healing of torn ligaments usually fails to take place, and surgical replacement or reconstruction is required. Previously, we showed that in vivo application of the recombinant human amelogenin protein (rHAM(+)) resulted in enhanced healing of the tooth-supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether amelogenin might also enhance repair of skeletal ligaments. The rat knee medial collateral ligament (MCL) was chosen to prove the concept. Full thickness tear was created and various concentrations of rHAM(+), dissolved in propylene glycol alginate (PGA) carrier, were applied to the transected MCL. 12 weeks after transection, the mechanical properties, structure and composition of transected ligaments treated with 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) were similar to the normal un-transected ligaments, and were much stronger, stiffer and organized than control ligaments, treated with PGA only. Furthermore, the proprioceptive free nerve endings, in the 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) treated group, were parallel to the collagen fibres similar to their arrangement in normal ligament, while in the control ligaments the free nerve endings were entrapped in the scar tissue at different directions, not parallel to the axis of the force. Four days after transection, treatment with 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) increased the amount of cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers at the injured site. In conclusion application of rHAM(+) dose dependently induced mechanical, structural and sensory healing of torn skeletal ligament. Initially the process involved recruitment and proliferation of cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers.

  7. Engineered Zinc Finger Nuclease–Mediated Homologous Recombination of the Human Rhodopsin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, David L.; Cashman, Siobhan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Novel zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) were designed to target the human rhodopsin gene and induce homologous recombination of a donor DNA fragment. Methods. Three-finger zinc finger nucleases were designed based on previously published guidelines. To assay for ZFN specificity, the authors generated human embryonic retinoblast cell lines stably expressing a Pro23His rhodopsin, the most common mutation associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in North America. They report quantification of these rhodopsin-specific ZFNs to induce a targeted double-strand break in the human genome, demonstrate their ability to induce homologous recombination of a donor DNA fragment, and report the quantification of the frequency of ZFN-mediated homologous recombination. Results. Compared with endogenous homologous recombination, the authors observed a 12-fold increase in homologous recombination and an absolute frequency of ZFN-directed homologous recombination as high as 17% in the human rhodopsin gene. Conclusions. ZFNs are chimeric proteins with significant potential for the treatment of inherited diseases. In this study, the authors report the design of novel ZFNs targeting the human rhodopsin gene. These ZFNs may be useful for the treatment of retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, one of the most common causes of inherited blindness in the developed world. Herein, they also report on several aspects of donor fragment design and in vitro conditions that facilitate ZFN-mediated homologous recombination. PMID:20671268

  8. Engineered zinc finger nuclease-mediated homologous recombination of the human rhodopsin gene.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, David L; Cashman, Siobhan M; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2010-12-01

    Novel zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) were designed to target the human rhodopsin gene and induce homologous recombination of a donor DNA fragment. Three-finger zinc finger nucleases were designed based on previously published guidelines. To assay for ZFN specificity, the authors generated human embryonic retinoblast cell lines stably expressing a Pro23His rhodopsin, the most common mutation associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in North America. They report quantification of these rhodopsin-specific ZFNs to induce a targeted double-strand break in the human genome, demonstrate their ability to induce homologous recombination of a donor DNA fragment, and report the quantification of the frequency of ZFN-mediated homologous recombination. Compared with endogenous homologous recombination, the authors observed a 12-fold increase in homologous recombination and an absolute frequency of ZFN-directed homologous recombination as high as 17% in the human rhodopsin gene. ZFNs are chimeric proteins with significant potential for the treatment of inherited diseases. In this study, the authors report the design of novel ZFNs targeting the human rhodopsin gene. These ZFNs may be useful for the treatment of retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, one of the most common causes of inherited blindness in the developed world. Herein, they also report on several aspects of donor fragment design and in vitro conditions that facilitate ZFN-mediated homologous recombination.

  9. Factors that contribute to the immmunogenicity of therapeutic recombinant human proteins.

    PubMed

    Mukovozov, Ilya; Sabljic, Thomas; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Ofosu, Frederick A

    2008-05-01

    Use of recombinant human proteins has revolutionized medicine by providing over 200 highly purified hormones and proteins that effectively treat many inherited and acquired peptide hormone and protein deficiencies. With the exception of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, these biological medicines are synthesized by cultured cells using DNA sequences that would yield proteins with identical amino acid sequences as endogenous human proteins. Therefore, there was the broad expectation that recombinant human biological medicines would be non-immunogenic in patients capable of synthesizing even sub-optimal levels of these therapeutic proteins to which they are innately tolerant. However, the widespread clinical use of recombinant human proteins has demonstrated that nearly all of them are immunogenic. This observation suggests that factors additional to differences in amino acid sequences of endogenous and biotherapeutic proteins contribute to the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins. The main aim of this review is to summarize some of the factors that are known to contribute to the immunogenicity of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

  10. Genetic recombination as a major cause of mutagenesis in the human globin gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Borg, Joseph; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Aleporou-Marinou, Vassiliki; Kollia, Panagoula; Patrinos, George P

    2009-12-01

    Homologous recombination is a frequent phenomenon in multigene families and as such it occurs several times in both the alpha- and beta-like globin gene families. In numerous occasions, genetic recombination has been previously implicated as a major mechanism that drives mutagenesis in the human globin gene clusters, either in the form of unequal crossover or gene conversion. Unequal crossover results in the increase or decrease of the human globin gene copies, accompanied in the majority of cases with minor phenotypic consequences, while gene conversion contributes either to maintaining sequence homogeneity or generating sequence diversity. The role of genetic recombination, particularly gene conversion in the evolution of the human globin gene families has been discussed elsewhere. Here, we summarize our current knowledge and review existing experimental evidence outlining the role of genetic recombination in the mutagenic process in the human globin gene families.

  11. 76 FR 65210 - Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human Erythropoetin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human Erythropoetin... sale within the United States after importation of certain products and pharmaceutical compositions...

  12. Expression, characterization, and biologic activity of recombinant human lactoferrin in rice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasushi A; Kelleher, Shannon L; Yalda, Dorice; Wu, Liying; Huang, Jianmin; Huang, Ning; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2003-02-01

    Lactoferrin has been suggested to have many biologic activities, such as facilitating iron absorption and having antimicrobial and antiinflammatory effects. In humans, several of these activities are likely to only be facilitated by human lactoferrin because they depend on the binding of human lactoferrin to specific receptors. Rice may be a useful vehicle to introduce recombinant human lactoferrin to infant foods because it has low allergenicity and is likely to be safer than using microorganisms or transgenic animals. Recombinant human lactoferrin was expressed in the rice cell culture system, and its biologic activity was assessed by iron-binding and -releasing properties, antimicrobial activity, and binding and uptake to Caco-2 cells. The authors also compared the stability of recombinant and native human lactoferrins against heat, low pH, and in vitro digestion. Biologic activity of rice-expressed recombinant human lactoferrin was similar to that of native human lactoferrin. Heat-treated proteins retained their functional activities except with severe treatment at 100 degrees C for 8 seconds, which disturbed the iron-binding capacity of recombinant human lactoferrin. Both types of proteins retained their functional activities between pH 2 and 7.4. After in vitro digestion, 50% of both proteins were detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The remaining native and recombinant lactoferrins retained antimicrobial and Caco-2 binding and uptake activities. The results indicate recombinant human lactoferrin has stability similar to native human lactoferrin when exposed to thermal treatment, pH treatment, and in vitro digestion, suggesting it may be active when added to infant formula.

  13. Production of recombinant human antithrombin by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kuwae, Shinobu; Ohyama, Masao; Ohya, Tomoshi; Ohi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2005-03-01

    This paper deals with the production of recombinant human antithrombin (rAT) by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. In preliminary methanol-limited fed-batch fermentation, the rAT concentration reached 324 mg/l at 192 h of cultivation, but the specific heparin cofactor (HC) activity of rAT in the culture supernatant was 10% of that of plasma-derived antithrombin (pAT). To improve the specific HC activity of rAT, effort was first focused on the optimization of culture pH and media composition, resulting in protection of rAT against pH-dependent instability and proteolytic degradation. However, even in the optimized methanol-limited fed-batch fermentation, the specific HC activity of rAT in the culture supernatant was still 20% that of pAT. To investigate the unknown mechanisms involved in the decreased specific HC activity of rAT, the culture supernatant of mock-transfected cells was prepared by methanol-limited fed-batch fermentation. When pAT was added to this supernatant, a rapid decrease in HC activity was observed; the residual HC activity was 26% after 24 h of incubation at 25 degrees C. The loss of pAT activity was prevented by addition of a formaldehyde scavenger, amino urea, to the supernatant. In addition, alcohol oxidase activity was observed in the supernatant, resulting in the accumulation of formaldehyde in the culture broth. These results suggest that the formaldehyde produced by methanol oxidation in the culture broth of P. pastoris might decrease the HC activity of rAT during fermentation. Replacing the methanol with glycerol as the carbon source improved the specific HC activity of rAT from 20% to above 40% of that of pAT. In the glycerol-limited fed-batch fermentation, rAT is expressed at 100 mg/l under the control of the truncated mutated AOX2 promoter.

  14. CHO expressed recombinant human lactoferrin as an adjuvant for BCG.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin (LF), an iron binding protein with immune modulatory activities, has adjuvant activity to enhance vaccine efficacy. Tuberculosis (TB) is a pulmonary disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Progressive TB disease is clinically defined by damaging pulmonary pathology, a result of inflammation due to immune reactivity. The current vaccine for TB, an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), has only limited efficacy to prevent adult pulmonary TB. This study examines a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) expressed recombinant human LF (rHLF) to boost efficacy of the BCG vaccine and delay early pathology post infectious challenge. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with BCG, or BCG admixed with either rHLF or bovine LF (bLF; internal control), or remained unvaccinated. Mice were then aerosol challenged with Erdman MTB. All vaccinated mice demonstrated decreased organ bacterial load up to 19 weeks post infection compared with non-vaccinated controls. Furthermore, mice receiving bLF or rHLF supplemented BCG vaccines showed a modest decrease in lung pathology developed over time, compared to the BCG vaccine alone. While mice vaccinated with BCG/rHLF demonstrated increased general lung inflammation at day 7, it occurred without noticeable increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. At later times, decreased pathology in the rHLF groups correlated with decreased inflammatory cytokines. Splenic recall to BCG antigens showed BCG/rHLF vaccination increased production of IFN-γ, IL-6, and GM-CSF compared to naïve, BCG, and BCG/bLF groups. Analysis of T cell stimulating functions of bone marrow derived macrophages and dendritic cells treated with BCG/bLF or BCG/rHLF showed decreases in IL-10 production when co-cultured with sensitized CD4 and CD8 T cells, compared to those cultured with macrophages/dendritic cells treated with BCG without LF. These results indicate that addition of rHLF to the BCG vaccine can modulate development

  15. Transmission distortion affecting human noncrossover but not crossover recombination: a hidden source of meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Odenthal-Hesse, Linda; Berg, Ingrid L; Veselis, Amelia; Jeffreys, Alec J; May, Celia A

    2014-02-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures the correct segregation of homologous chromosomes during gamete formation and contributes to DNA diversity through both large-scale reciprocal crossovers and very localised gene conversion events, also known as noncrossovers. Considerable progress has been made in understanding factors such as PRDM9 and SNP variants that influence the initiation of recombination at human hotspots but very little is known about factors acting downstream. To address this, we simultaneously analysed both types of recombinant molecule in sperm DNA at six highly active hotspots, and looked for disparity in the transmission of allelic variants indicative of any cis-acting influences. At two of the hotspots we identified a novel form of biased transmission that was exclusive to the noncrossover class of recombinant, and which presumably arises through differences between crossovers and noncrossovers in heteroduplex formation and biased mismatch repair. This form of biased gene conversion is not predicted to influence hotspot activity as previously noted for SNPs that affect recombination initiation, but does constitute a powerful and previously undetected source of recombination-driven meiotic drive that by extrapolation may affect thousands of recombination hotspots throughout the human genome. Intriguingly, at both of the hotspots described here, this drive favours strong (G/C) over weak (A/T) base pairs as might be predicted from the well-established correlations between high GC content and recombination activity in mammalian genomes.

  16. Factors influencing recombination frequency and distribution in a human meiotic crossover hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about the factors that influence the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination events within human crossover hotspots. We now describe the detailed analysis of sperm recombination in the NID1 hotspot. Like the neighbouring MS32 hotspot, the NID1 hotspot is associated with a minisatellite, suggesting that hotspots predispose DNA to tandem repetition. Unlike MS32, crossover resolution breakpoints in NID1 avoid the minisatellite, producing a cold spot within the hotspot. This avoidance may be related to the palindromic nature of the minisatellite interfering with the generation and/or processing of recombination intermediates. The NID1 hotspot also contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) close to the centre, which appears to directly influence the frequency of crossover initiation. Quantitative gene conversion assays show that this SNP affects the frequency of gene conversion and crossover to a very similar extent, providing evidence that conversions and crossovers are triggered by the same recombination initiating events. The recombination-suppressing allele is over-transmitted to recombinant progeny, and provides the most dramatic example to date of recombination-mediated meiotic drive, of a magnitude sufficient to virtually guarantee that the recombination suppressor will eventually replace the more active allele in human populations.

  17. Artificial restriction DNA cutters to promote homologous recombination in human cells.

    PubMed

    Katada, Hitoshi; Komiyama, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    Homologous recombination is almost the only way to modify the genome in a predetermined fashion, despite its quite low frequency in mammalian cells. It has been already reported that the frequency of this biological process can be notably increased by inducing a double strand break (DSB) at target site. This article presents completely chemistry-based artificial restriction DNA cutter (ARCUT) for the promotion of homologous recombination in human cells. This cutter is composed of Ce(IV)/EDTA complex (molecular scissors) and two strands of peptide nucleic acid (PNA), and contains no proteins. Its scission site in the genome is determined simply by Watson-Crick rule so that ARCUT for desired homologous recombination is easily and straightforwardly designed and synthesized. The site-specificity of the scission is high enough to cut human genome at one target site. The DSB induced by this cutter is satisfactorily recognized by the repair system in human cells and promotes the targeted homologous recombination.

  18. A calorimetric study of thermal denaturation of recombinant human lactoferrin from rice.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; Sánchez, Lourdes; Pérez, María-Dolores; Calvo, Miguel

    2007-06-13

    Thermal denaturation of recombinant human lactoferrin from transgenic rice with different degrees of iron saturation has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The maximum temperature, enthalpy change, and activation energy of denaturation were higher when recombinant lactoferrin was more saturated with iron, indicating an increase in the stability of the protein structure. Maximum temperature and activation energy values for apo- and holo-lactoferrins were practically identical to those reported for the same forms of lactoferrin from human milk, which indicates a similar thermal stability. However, the value of enthalpy change for denaturation of the recombinant lactoferrin was 2.5-3-fold lower than that found for the human milk protein. This finding may reflect the influence that the different glycosylation pattern may have in the relationship between lactoferrin domains. Denaturation of recombinant lactoferrin in milk was compared with denaturation in phosphate buffer, and results indicated that the protein was more heat-sensitive when treated in milk than in buffer.

  19. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human transferrin from rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deshui; Nandi, Somen; Bryan, Paula; Pettit, Steve; Nguyen, Diane; Santos, Mary Ann; Huang, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Transferrin is an essential ingredient used in cell culture media due to its crucial role in regulating cellular iron uptake, transport, and utilization. It is also a promising drug carrier used to increase a drug’s therapeutic index via the unique transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. Due to the high risk of contamination with blood-borne pathogens from the use of human- or animal plasma-derived transferrin, recombinant transferrin is preferred for use as a replacement for native transferrin. We expressed recombinant human transferrin in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at a high level of 1% seed dry weight (10 g/kg). The recombinant human transferrin was able to be extracted with saline buffers and then purified by a one step anion exchange chromatographic process to greater than 95% purity. The rice-derived recombinant human transferrin was shown to be not only structurally similar to the native human transferrin, but also functionally the same as native transferrin in terms of reversible iron binding and promoting cell growth and productivity. These results indicate that rice-derived recombinant human transferrin should be a safe and low cost alternative to human or animal plasma-derived transferrin for use in cell culture-based biopharmaceutical production of protein therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:20447458

  20. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human transferrin from rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deshui; Nandi, Somen; Bryan, Paula; Pettit, Steve; Nguyen, Diane; Santos, Mary Ann; Huang, Ning

    2010-11-01

    Transferrin is an essential ingredient used in cell culture media due to its crucial role in regulating cellular iron uptake, transport, and utilization. It is also a promising drug carrier used to increase a drug's therapeutic index via the unique transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. Due to the high risk of contamination with blood-borne pathogens from the use of human or animal plasma-derived transferrin, recombinant transferrin is preferred for use as a replacement for native transferrin. We expressed recombinant human transferrin in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at a high level of 1% seed dry weight (10 g/kg). The recombinant human transferrin was able to be extracted with saline buffers and then purified by a one step anion exchange chromatographic process to greater than 95% purity. The rice-derived recombinant human transferrin was shown to be not only structurally similar to the native human transferrin, but also functionally the same as native transferrin in terms of reversible iron binding and promoting cell growth and productivity. These results indicate that rice-derived recombinant human transferrin should be a safe and low cost alternative to human or animal plasma-derived transferrin for use in cell culture-based biopharmaceutical production of protein therapeutics and vaccines. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth of human hemopoietic colonies in response to recombinant gibbon interleukin 3: comparison with human recombinant granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, H.A.; Yamasaki, K.; Jamal, N.; Minden, M.M.; Yang, Y.C.; Wong, G.G.; Clark, S.C.

    1987-10-01

    Supernatants of COS-1 cells transfected with gibbon cDNA encoding interleukin 3 (IL-3) with homology to sequences for human IL-3 were tested for ability to promote growth of various human hemopoietic progenitors. The effect of these supernatants as a source of recombinant IL-3 was compared to that of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as well as to that of medium conditioned by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocytes. The frequency of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies in cultures containing the COS-1 cell supernatant was equivalent to the frequency observed in the controls and significantly higher than found in cultures plated with recombinant GM-CSF. G-CSF did not support the formation of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies. In contrast, growth of granulocyte-macrophage colonies was best supported with GM-CSF, while recombinant IL-3 yielded colonies at lower or at best equivalent frequency. The simultaneous addition of higher concentrations of GM-CSF to cultures containing IL-3 in optimal amounts did not enhance the formation of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies. However, the frequency of such colonies and bursts increased with GM-CSF when cultures were plated with suboptimal concentrations of IL-3. Growth of colonies within the granulocyte-macrophage lineage is optimally supported by GM-CSF and does not increase with further addition of IL-3.

  2. Genetic recombination pathways and their application for genome modification of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Mikko; Tuuri, Timo; Savilahti, Harri

    2010-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from early human embryo and retain a potential to differentiate into all adult cell types. They provide vast opportunities in cell replacement therapies and are expected to become significant tools in drug discovery as well as in the studies of cellular and developmental functions of human genes. The progress in applying different types of DNA recombination reactions for genome modification in a variety of eukaryotic cell types has provided means to utilize recombination-based strategies also in human embryonic stem cells. Homologous recombination-based methods, particularly those utilizing extended homologous regions and those employing zinc finger nucleases to boost genomic integration, have shown their usefulness in efficient genome modification. Site-specific recombination systems are potent genome modifiers, and they can be used to integrate DNA into loci that contain an appropriate recombination signal sequence, either naturally occurring or suitably pre-engineered. Non-homologous recombination can be used to generate random integrations in genomes relatively effortlessly, albeit with a moderate efficiency and precision. DNA transposition-based strategies offer substantially more efficient random strategies and provide means to generate single-copy insertions, thus potentiating the generation of genome-wide insertion libraries applicable in genetic screens. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Specificity of recombination of H and L chains from human gamma-G-myeloma proteins.

    PubMed

    Grey, H M; Mannik, M

    1965-09-01

    Dissociated H and L chains of human gammaG-myeloma proteins were recombined by removal of conditions interrupting non-covalent interactions. In the process of recombination 7S molecules were formed. It was demonstrated that the H chains from individual gammaG-myeloma proteins recombine with their own L chains but also with L chains derived from other myeloma proteins. In some instances, however, the L chains from other myeloma proteins did not recombine as avidly with the H chains as the autologous L chains. The specificity of the non-covalent interactions of H and L chains was particularly well brought out by competitive recombination experiments where an individual H chain had a choice of recombining with its own L chain or with the L chain obtained from another myeloma protein. In this manner a spectrum of affinities between individual H chains and several L chains was demonstrated. In the vast majority of recombinations there was a clearcut preference for recombination to take place between the H and L chains derived from the same protein. It is postulated that this specificity is related to differences in the primary structure, which cause differences in configuration of these homogeneous H and L chains and that these configurations then dictate on thermodynamic grounds the pairing of H chains with particular L chains.

  4. DNA induces conformational changes in a recombinant human minichromosome maintenance complex.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Emma L; Parker-Manuel, Richard P; Chaban, Yuriy; Satti, Rabab; Coverley, Dawn; Orlova, Elena V; Chong, James P J

    2015-03-20

    ATP-dependent DNA unwinding activity has been demonstrated for recombinant archaeal homohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complexes and their yeast heterohexameric counterparts, but in higher eukaryotes such as Drosophila, MCM-associated DNA helicase activity has been observed only in the context of a co-purified Cdc45-MCM-GINS complex. Here, we describe the production of the recombinant human MCM (hMCM) complex in Escherichia coli. This protein displays ATP hydrolysis activity and is capable of unwinding duplex DNA. Using single-particle asymmetric EM reconstruction, we demonstrate that recombinant hMCM forms a hexamer that undergoes a conformational change when bound to DNA. Recombinant hMCM produced without post-translational modifications is functional in vitro and provides an important tool for biochemical reconstitution of the human replicative helicase.

  5. Expression of Recombinant Human BChE in the Milk of Transgenic Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    of transgenic animals . A DNA expression vector containing the huBChE cDNA under the control of the goat ß-casein promoter was used to generate...documented that the mammary gland of transgenic animals is an alternative system for recombinant protein production [17]. A variety of recombinant...human proteins have been expressed and secreted into the milk of transgenic animals [17, 18]. We report herein on the generation of transgenic mice

  6. Production and purification of recombinant human hepcidin-25 with authentic N and C-termini.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Vignesh Narasimhan; Cabanne, Charlotte; Dieryck, Wilfrid; Hocquellet, Agnès; Joucla, Gilles; Le Senechal, Caroline; Chaignepain, Stephane; Costaglioli, Patricia; Santarelli, Xavier; Garbay, Bertrand; Noubhani, Abdelmajid

    2015-02-10

    Hepcidin was first identified as an antimicrobial peptide present in human serum and urine. It was later demonstrated that hepcidin is the long-sought hormone that regulates iron homeostasis in mammals. Recombinant human Hepcidin-25 (Hepc25) was expressed in Pichia pastoris using a modified version of the pPICZαA vector. Hepc25 was then purified by a simple two-step chromatographic process to obtain 1.9 mg of soluble recombinant human Hepc25 per liter of culture at 96% purity. The sequence of Hepc25 and the presence of four disulfide bridges were confirmed by mass spectrometry analyses, and the recombinant Hepc25 exhibited antibacterial activity. This protocol of production and purification is the first step toward the production of human Hepc25 at a greater scale.

  7. Recombination among human non-polio enteroviruses: implications for epidemiology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Pliaka, Vaia; Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Markoulatos, Panayotis

    2015-04-01

    Human enteroviruses (EV) belong to the Picornaviridae family and are among the most common viruses infecting humans. They consist of up to 100 immunologically and genetically distinct types: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses A and B, echoviruses, and the more recently characterized 43 EV types. Frequent recombinations and mutations in enteroviruses have been recognized as the main mechanisms for the observed high rate of evolution, thus enabling them to rapidly respond and adapt to new environmental challenges. The first signs of genetic exchanges between enteroviruses came from polioviruses many years ago, and since then recombination has been recognized, along with mutations, as the main cause for reversion of vaccine strains to neurovirulence. More recently, non-polio enteroviruses became the focus of many studies, where recombination was recognized as a frequent event and was correlated with the appearance of new enterovirus lineages and types. The accumulation of multiple inter- and intra-typic recombination events could also explain the series of successive emergences and disappearances of specific enterovirus types that could in turn explain the epidemic profile of circulation of several types. This review focuses on recombination among human non-polio enteroviruses from all four species (EV-A, EV-B, EV-C, and EV-D) and discusses the recombination effects on enterovirus epidemiology and evolution.

  8. High-level expression and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen as biopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Masaki; Imamura, Takayuki; Yano, Kentaro; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Meta, Akihiro; Tokieda, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Fibrinogen is a large and complex glycoprotein containing two sets of each of three different chains (α, β and γ). There have been no reports of high-level expression of fibrinogen at commercial levels using mammalian cultured cells such as CHO cells because of the difficulty in highly expressing a protein with such a complex structure. We achieved high-level (1.3 g/l or higher) expression of recombinant human fibrinogen using CHO DG44 cells by optimizing the expression system and culture conditions. We also succeeded in establishing a high-recovery preparation method for recombinant fibrinogen that rarely yields degraded products. To characterize the properties of the recombinant human fibrinogen, we performed SDS-PAGE; western blotting of the α, β and γ chains using specific antibodies and scanning electron microscopy observations of fibrin fibres. We also evaluated the functional equivalence between recombinant fibrinogen and plasma fibrinogen with respect to the release of fibrinopeptides initiated by thrombin and its cross-linking properties. The basic properties of recombinant fibrinogen showed no apparent differences from those of plasma fibrinogen. Here, we report the development of methods for the culture and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen of satisfactory quality that can be scaled up to the commercial level. PMID:26475674

  9. High-level expression and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen as biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Masaki; Imamura, Takayuki; Yano, Kentaro; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Meta, Akihiro; Tokieda, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Fibrinogen is a large and complex glycoprotein containing two sets of each of three different chains (α, β and γ). There have been no reports of high-level expression of fibrinogen at commercial levels using mammalian cultured cells such as CHO cells because of the difficulty in highly expressing a protein with such a complex structure. We achieved high-level (1.3 g/l or higher) expression of recombinant human fibrinogen using CHO DG44 cells by optimizing the expression system and culture conditions. We also succeeded in establishing a high-recovery preparation method for recombinant fibrinogen that rarely yields degraded products. To characterize the properties of the recombinant human fibrinogen, we performed SDS-PAGE; western blotting of the α, β and γ chains using specific antibodies and scanning electron microscopy observations of fibrin fibres. We also evaluated the functional equivalence between recombinant fibrinogen and plasma fibrinogen with respect to the release of fibrinopeptides initiated by thrombin and its cross-linking properties. The basic properties of recombinant fibrinogen showed no apparent differences from those of plasma fibrinogen. Here, we report the development of methods for the culture and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen of satisfactory quality that can be scaled up to the commercial level.

  10. The remarkable frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genetic recombination.

    PubMed

    Onafuwa-Nuga, Adewunmi; Telesnitsky, Alice

    2009-09-01

    The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) results from a combination of point mutations and genetic recombination, and rates of both processes are unusually high. This review focuses on the mechanisms and outcomes of HIV-1 genetic recombination and on the parameters that make recombination so remarkably frequent. Experimental work has demonstrated that the process that leads to recombination--a copy choice mechanism involving the migration of reverse transcriptase between viral RNA templates--occurs several times on average during every round of HIV-1 DNA synthesis. Key biological factors that lead to high recombination rates for all retroviruses are the recombination-prone nature of their reverse transcription machinery and their pseudodiploid RNA genomes. However, HIV-1 genes recombine even more frequently than do those of many other retroviruses. This reflects the way in which HIV-1 selects genomic RNAs for coencapsidation as well as cell-to-cell transmission properties that lead to unusually frequent associations between distinct viral genotypes. HIV-1 faces strong and changeable selective conditions during replication within patients. The mode of HIV-1 persistence as integrated proviruses and strong selection for defective proviruses in vivo provide conditions for archiving alleles, which can be resuscitated years after initial provirus establishment. Recombination can facilitate drug resistance and may allow superinfecting HIV-1 strains to evade preexisting immune responses, thus adding to challenges in vaccine development. These properties converge to provide HIV-1 with the means, motive, and opportunity to recombine its genetic material at an unprecedented high rate and to allow genetic recombination to serve as one of the highest barriers to HIV-1 eradication.

  11. International Validation of Two Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor (ERa) Binding Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international validation study has been successfully completed for 2 competitive binding assays using human recombinant ERa. Assays evaluated included the Freyberger-Wilson (FW) assay using a full length human ER, and the Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute (CERI) assay...

  12. International Validation of Two Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor (ERa) Binding Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international validation study has been successfully completed for 2 competitive binding assays using human recombinant ERa. Assays evaluated included the Freyberger-Wilson (FW) assay using a full length human ER, and the Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute (CERI) assay...

  13. Biologic activities of recombinant human-beta-defensin-4 toward cultured human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gerashchenko, O L; Zhuravel, E V; Skachkova, O V; Khranovska, N N; Filonenko, V V; Pogrebnoy, P V; Soldatkina, M A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was in vitro analysis of biological activity of recombinant human beta-defensin-4 (rec-hBD-4). hBD-4 cDNA was cloned into pGEX-2T vector, and recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. To purify soluble fusion GST-hBD-4 protein, affinity chromatography was applied. Rec-hBD-4 was cleaved from the fusion protein with thrombin, and purified by reverse phase chromatography on Sep-Pack C18. Effects of rec-hBD-4 on proliferation, viability, cell cycle distribution, substrate-independent growth, and mobility of cultured human cancer cells of A431, A549, and TPC-1 lines were analyzed by direct cell counting technique, MTT assay, flow cytofluorometry, colony forming assay in semi-soft medium, and wound healing assay. Rec-hBD-4 was expressed in bacterial cells as GST-hBD-4 fusion protein, and purified by routine 3-step procedure (affine chromatography on glutathione-agarose, cleavage of fusion protein by thrombin, and reverse phase chromatography). Analysis of in vitro activity of rec-hBD-4 toward three human cancer cell lines has demonstrated that the defensin is capable to affect cell behaviour in concentration-dependent manner. In 1-100 nM concentrations rec-hBD-4 significantly stimulates cancer cell proliferation and viability, and promotes cell cycle progression through G2/M checkpoint, greatly enhances colony-forming activity and mobility of the cells. Treatment of the cells with 500 nM of rec-hBD-4 resulted in opposite effects: significant suppression of cell proliferation and viability, blockage of cell cycle in G1/S checkpoint, significant inhibition of cell migration and colony forming activity. Recombinant human beta-defensin-4 is biologically active peptide capable to cause oppositely directed effects toward biologic features of cancer cells in vitro dependent on its concentration.

  14. Exogenous administration of recombinant human FSH does not improve germ cell survival in human prepubertal xenografts.

    PubMed

    Van Saen, Dorien; Goossens, Ellen; Haentjens, Patrick; Baert, Yoni; Tournaye, Herman

    2013-03-01

    In a previous study, meiotic activity was observed in human intratesticular xenografts from peripubertal patients. However, full spermatogenesis could not be established. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the administration of recombinant human FSH could improve the spermatogonial survival and the establishment of full spermatogenesis in intratesticular human xenografts. Human testicular tissue was obtained from six boys (aged 2.5-12.5years). The testicular biopsy was fragmented and one fragment of 1.5-3.0mm(3) was transplanted to the testis of immunodeficient nude mice. Transplanted mice were assigned to different experimental groups to enable evaluation of the effects of FSH administration and freezing. The structural integrity of the seminiferous tubules, the spermatogonial survival and the presence of differentiated cells were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Freezing or administration of FSH did not influence tubule integrity and germ cell survival in human xenografts. Meiotic germ cells were observed in the xenografts. More tubules containing only Sertoli cells were observed in frozen-thawed grafts, and more tubules with meiotic cells were present in fresh grafts. There was no clear influence of FSH treatment on meiotic differentiation. Administration of FSH did not improve the establishment of full spermatogenesis after intratesticular tissue grafting. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of intrachromosomal homologous recombination in human cells by raltitrexed, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Barbara Criscuolo; Wang, Yibin; Kilaru, Kasturi; Yang, Zhengguan; Bhasin, Alaukik; Wyatt, Michael D; Waldman, Alan S

    2008-10-01

    Thymidylate deprivation brings about "thymineless death" in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the precise mechanism for thymineless death has remained elusive, inhibition of the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS), which catalyzes the de novo synthesis of TMP, has served for many years as a basis for chemotherapeutic strategies. Numerous studies have identified a variety of cellular responses to thymidylate deprivation, including disruption of DNA replication and induction of DNA breaks. Since stalled or collapsed replication forks and strand breaks are generally viewed as being recombinogenic, it is not surprising that a link has been demonstrated between recombination induction and thymidylate deprivation in bacteria and lower eukaryotes. A similar connection between recombination and TS inhibition has been suggested by studies done in mammalian cells, but the relationship between recombination and TS inhibition in mammalian cells had not been demonstrated rigorously. To gain insight into the mechanism of thymineless death in mammalian cells, in this work we undertook a direct investigation of recombination in human cells treated with raltitrexed (RTX), a folate analog that is a specific inhibitor of TS. Using a model system to study intrachromosomal homologous recombination in cultured fibroblasts, we provide definitive evidence that treatment with RTX can stimulate accurate recombination events in human cells. Gene conversions not associated with crossovers were specifically enhanced several-fold by RTX. Additional experiments demonstrated that recombination events provoked by a double-strand break (DSB) were not impacted by treatment with RTX, nor was error-prone DSB repair via nonhomologous end-joining. Our work provides evidence that thymineless death in human cells is not mediated by corruption of DSB repair processes and suggests that an increase in chromosomal recombination may be an important element of cellular responses leading to thymineless death.

  16. Single-Batch Production of Recombinant Human Polyclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Lars S.; Baer, Alexandra; Müller, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Mønster, Nina T.; Rasmussen, Søren K.; Weilguny, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    We have previously described the development and implementation of a strategy for production of recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) in single batches employing CHO cells generated by site-specific integration, the SympressTM I technology. The SympressTM I technology is implemented at industrial scale, supporting a phase II clinical development program. Production of recombinant proteins by site-specific integration, which is based on incorporation of a single copy of the gene of interest, makes the SympressTM I technology best suited to support niche indications. To improve titers while maintaining a cost-efficient, highly reproducible single-batch manufacturing mode, we have evaluated a number of different approaches. The most successful results were obtained using random integration in a new producer cell termed ECHO, a CHO DG44 cell derivative engineered for improved productivity at Symphogen. This new expression process is termed the SympressTM II technology. Here we describe proof-of-principle data demonstrating the feasibility of the SympressTM II technology for single-batch rpAb manufacturing using two model systems each composed of six target-specific antibodies. The compositional stability and the batch-to-batch reproducibility of rpAb produced by the ECHO cells were at least as good as observed previously using site-specific integration technology. Furthermore, the new process had a significant titer increase. PMID:20306237

  17. Single-batch production of recombinant human polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lars S; Baer, Alexandra; Müller, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Mønster, Nina T; Rasmussen, Søren K; Weilguny, Dietmar; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2010-07-01

    We have previously described the development and implementation of a strategy for production of recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) in single batches employing CHO cells generated by site-specific integration, the Sympress I technology. The Sympress I technology is implemented at industrial scale, supporting a phase II clinical development program. Production of recombinant proteins by site-specific integration, which is based on incorporation of a single copy of the gene of interest, makes the Sympress I technology best suited to support niche indications. To improve titers while maintaining a cost-efficient, highly reproducible single-batch manufacturing mode, we have evaluated a number of different approaches. The most successful results were obtained using random integration in a new producer cell termed ECHO, a CHO DG44 cell derivative engineered for improved productivity at Symphogen. This new expression process is termed the Sympress II technology. Here we describe proof-of-principle data demonstrating the feasibility of the Sympress II technology for single-batch rpAb manufacturing using two model systems each composed of six target-specific antibodies. The compositional stability and the batch-to-batch reproducibility of rpAb produced by the ECHO cells were at least as good as observed previously using site-specific integration technology. Furthermore, the new process had a significant titer increase.

  18. Recombinant Human Adenovirus: Targeting to the Human Transferrin Receptor Improves Gene Transfer to Brain Microcapillary Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Haibin; Anderson, Brian; Mao, Qinwen; Davidson, Beverly L.

    2000-01-01

    Some inborn errors of metabolism due to deficiencies of soluble lysosomal enzymes cause global neurodegenerative disease. Representative examples include the infantile and late infantile forms of the ceroid lipofuscinoses (CLN1 or CLN2 deficiency, respectively) and mucopolysaccharidoses type VII (MPS VII), a deficiency of β-glucuronidase. Treatment of the central nervous system component of these disorders will require widespread protein or enzyme replacement, either through dissemination of the protein or through dissemination of a gene encoding it. We hypothesize that transduction of brain microcapillary endothelium (BME) with recombinant viral vectors, with secretion of enzyme product basolaterally, could allow for widespread enzyme dissemination. To achieve this, viruses should be modified to target the BME. This requires (i) identification of a BME-resident target receptor, (ii) identification of motifs targeted to that molecule, (iii) the construction of modified viruses to allow for binding to the target receptor, and (iv) demonstrated transduction of receptor-expressing cells. In proof of principal experiments, we chose the human transferrin receptor (hTfR), a molecule found at high density on human BME. A nonamer phage display library was panned for motifs which could bind hTfR. Forty-three clones were sequenced, most of which contained an AKxxK/R, KxKxPK/R, or KxK motif. Ten peptides representative of the three motifs were cloned into the HI loop of adenovirus type 5 fiber. All motifs tested retained their ability to trimerize and bind transferrin receptor, and seven allowed for recombinant adenovirus production. Importantly, the fiber-modified viruses facilitated increased gene transfer (2- to 34-fold) to hTfR expressing cell lines and human brain microcapillary endothelia expressing high levels of endogenous receptor. Our data indicate that adenoviruses can be modified in the HI loop for expanded tropism to the hTfR. PMID:11070036

  19. Stimulation of intrachromosomal homologous recombination in human cells by electroporation with site-specific endonucleases.

    PubMed Central

    Brenneman, M; Gimble, F S; Wilson, J H

    1996-01-01

    In somatic mammalian cells, homologous recombination is a rare event. To study the effects of chromosomal breaks on frequency of homologous recombination, site-specific endonucleases were introduced into human cells by electroporation. Cell lines with a partial duplication within the HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) gene were created through gene targeting. Homologous intrachromosomal recombination between the repeated regions of the gene can reconstruct a functioning, wild-type gene. Treatment of these cells with the restriction endonuclease Xba I, which has a recognition site within the repeated region of HPRT homology, increased the frequency or homologous recombination bv more than 10-fold. Recombination frequency was similarly increased by treatment with the rare-cutting yeast endonuclease PI-Sce I when a cleavage site was placed within the repeated region of HPRT. In contrast, four restriction enzymes that cut at positions either outside of the repeated regions or between them produced no change in recombination frequency. The results suggest that homologous recombination between intrachromosomal repeats can be specifically initiated by a double-strand break occurring within regions of homology, consistent with the predictions of a model. PMID:8622983

  20. Crystallization and X-ray structure of full-length recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Ngamelue, Michelle N.; Homma, Kohei; Lockridge, Oksana; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2007-09-01

    The first crystals and the 2.8 Å X-ray structure of full-length recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase are reported. Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been shown to function as an endogenous scavenger of diverse poisons. BChE is a 340 kDa tetrameric glycoprotein that is present in human serum at a concentration of 5 mg l{sup −1}. The well documented therapeutic effects of BChE on cocaine toxicity and organophosphorus agent poisoning has increased the need for effective methods of producing recombinant therapeutic BChE. In order to be therapeutically useful, BChE must have a long circulatory residence time or associate as tetramers. Full-length recombinant BChE produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or human embryonic kidney cells has been shown to associate as monomers, with a shorter circulatory residence time than the naturally occurring tetrameric serum protein. Based on the preceding observation as well as the need to develop novel methodologies to facilitate the mass production of therapeutic recombinant BChE, studies have been initiated to determine the structural basis of tetramer formation. Towards these ends, full-length monomeric recombinant BChE has been crystallized for the first time. A 2.8 Å X-ray structure was solved in space group P42{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 156, c = 146 Å.

  1. PRDM9 is a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Baudat, F; Buard, J; Grey, C; Fledel-Alon, A; Ober, C; Przeworski, M; Coop, G; de Massy, B

    2010-02-12

    Meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow segments of the genome, defined as hotspots. Here, we demonstrate that a major player for hotspot specification is the Prdm9 gene. First, two mouse strains that differ in hotspot usage are polymorphic for the zinc finger DNA binding array of PRDM9. Second, the human consensus PRDM9 allele is predicted to recognize the 13-mer motif enriched at human hotspots; this DNA binding specificity is verified by in vitro studies. Third, allelic variants of PRDM9 zinc fingers are significantly associated with variability in genome-wide hotspot usage among humans. Our results provide a molecular basis for the distribution of meiotic recombination in mammals, in which the binding of PRDM9 to specific DNA sequences targets the initiation of recombination at specific locations in the genome.

  2. Human immunoglobulin 10 % with recombinant human hyaluronidase: replacement therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Human immunoglobulin is an established replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) is a spreading factor that temporarily digests hyaluronan in the skin interstitium enabling large volumes of fluid or drug solutions to be infused and absorbed subcutaneously. HyQvia® (IGHy) is a new combination product whereby rHuPH20 is injected subcutaneously, followed by human immunoglobulin 10 % infused through the same needle. Thus, IGHy can be administered at a reduced frequency compared with non-facilitated subcutaneous injection of human immunoglobulin, and with a lower frequency of infusion reactions than with intravenous administration. Home-based administration of IGHy is also feasible for adequately trained patients. IGHy was compared with intravenous human immunoglobulin 10 % in a non-randomized, open-label, phase 3 study in patients aged ≥2 years with PIDs who were receiving human immunoglobulin replacement therapy (n = 87). In this study, trough IgG concentrations, acute serious bacterial infection rates (primary endpoint) and occurrences of adverse events during the IGHy treatment period were generally similar to those observed during an intravenous treatment period. IGHy was associated with a numerically lower rate of systemic adverse events and a numerically higher rate of localized adverse events than those observed with intravenous treatment. Compared with intravenous administration, IGHy was administered at a significantly higher maximum flow rate and at a similar frequency. Most patients preferred IGHy over intravenous administration. IGHy offers a new method for subcutaneous delivery of human immunoglobulin replacement therapy in patients with PIDs.

  3. In vitro glucuronidation kinetics of deoxynivalenol by human and animal microsomes and recombinant human UGT enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maul, Ronald; Warth, Benedikt; Schebb, Nils Helge; Krska, Rudolf; Koch, Matthias; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic data on the in vitro metabolism as well as investigations on the specific enzymes responsible for DON glucuronidation in human are lacking. In the present study, the DON metabolism was investigated using human microsomal fractions and uridine-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) as well as liver microsomes from five animal species. Only two of the twelve tested human recombinant UGTs led to the formation of DON glucuronides with a different regiospecificity. UGT2B4 predominantly catalyzed the formation of DON-15-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA), while for UGT2B7 the DON-3-O-glucuronide (DON-3GlcA) metabolite prevailed. For human UGTs, liver, and intestinal microsomes, the glucuronidation activities were low. The estimated apparent intrinsic clearance (Clapp,int) for all human UGT as well as tissue homogenates was <1 mL/min mg protein. For the animal liver microsomes, moderate Clapp,int between 1.5 and 10 mL/min mg protein were calculated for carp, trout, and porcine liver. An elevated glucuronidation activity was detected for rat and bovine liver microsomes leading to Clapp,int between 20 and 80 mL/min mg protein. The obtained in vitro data points out that none of the animal models is suitable for estimating the human DON metabolism with respect to the metabolite pattern and formation rate.

  4. In vitro and in vivo modifications of recombinant and human IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongcheng; Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Zhang, Hui-Min; Nowak, Christine; Neill, Alyssa; Gonzalez-Lopez, Nidia; Patel, Rekha; Cheng, Guilong; Kita, Adriana Z; Andrien, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous knowledge has been gained in the understanding of various modifications of IgG antibodies, driven mainly by the fact that antibodies are one of the most important groups of therapeutic molecules and because of the development of advanced analytical techniques. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics expressed in mammalian cell lines and endogenous IgG molecules secreted by B cells in the human body share some modifications, but each have some unique modifications. Modifications that are common to recombinant mAb and endogenous IgG molecules are considered to pose a lower risk of immunogenicity. On the other hand, modifications that are unique to recombinant mAbs could potentially pose higher risk. The focus of this review is the comparison of frequently observed modifications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to those of endogenous IgG molecules.

  5. In vitro and in vivo modifications of recombinant and human IgG antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongcheng; Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Zhang, Hui-Min; Nowak, Christine; Neill, Alyssa; Gonzalez-Lopez, Nidia; Patel, Rekha; Cheng, Guilong; Kita, Adriana Z; Andrien, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous knowledge has been gained in the understanding of various modifications of IgG antibodies, driven mainly by the fact that antibodies are one of the most important groups of therapeutic molecules and because of the development of advanced analytical techniques. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics expressed in mammalian cell lines and endogenous IgG molecules secreted by B cells in the human body share some modifications, but each have some unique modifications. Modifications that are common to recombinant mAb and endogenous IgG molecules are considered to pose a lower risk of immunogenicity. On the other hand, modifications that are unique to recombinant mAbs could potentially pose higher risk. The focus of this review is the comparison of frequently observed modifications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to those of endogenous IgG molecules. PMID:25517300

  6. Immunogenicity analysis following human immunodeficiency virus recombinant DNA and recombinant vaccinia virus Tian Tan prime-boost immunization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cunxia; Du, Shouwen; Li, Chang; Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Maopeng; Li, Yi; Yin, Ronglan; Li, Xiao; Ren, Dayong; Qin, Yanqing; Ren, Jingqiang; Jin, Ningyi

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed and compared the immunogenicity of various immunization strategies in mice using combinations of recombinant DNA (pCCMp24) and recombinant attenuated vaccinia virus Tian Tan (rddVTT-CCMp24). Intramuscular immunization was performed on days 0 (prime) and 21 (boost). The immunogenicity of the vaccine schedules was determined by measuring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific binding antibody levels and cytokine (interleukin-2 and interleukin-4) concentrations in peripheral blood, analyzing lymphocyte proliferation capacity against HIV epitopes and CD4(+)/CD8(+) cell ratio, and monitoring interferon-gamma levels at different times post-immunization. The results showed that pCCMp24, rddVTT-CCMp24 and their prime-boost immunization induced humoral and cellular immune responses. The pCCMp24/rddVTT-CCMp24 immunization strategy increased CD8(+) T cells and induced more IFN-γ-secreting cells compared with single-shot rDNA. The prime-boost immunization strategy also induced the generation of cellular immunological memory to HIV epitope peptides. These results demonstrated that prime-boost immunization with rDNA and rddVTT-CCMp24 had a tendency to induce greater cellular immune response than single-shot vaccinations, especially IFN-γ response, providing a basis for further studies.

  7. Expression and purification of biologically active recombinant human paraoxonase 1 from a Drosophila S2 stable cell line.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyeongseok; Yu, Jiyeon; Kim, Sumi; Lee, Nari; Lee, Jinhee; Lee, Sungrae; Kim, Nam Doo; Yu, Chiho; Rho, Jaerang

    2017-03-01

    Many pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents are highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs), which inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has demonstrated significant potential for use as a catalytic bioscavenger capable of hydrolyzing a broad range of OPs. However, there are several limitations to the use of human PON1 as a catalytic bioscavenger, including the relatively difficult purification of PON1 from human plasma and its dependence on the presence of hydrophobic binding partners to maintain stability. Therefore, research efforts to efficiently produce recombinant human PON1 are necessary. In this study, we developed a Drosophila S2 stable cell line expressing recombinant human PON1. The recombinant human PON1 was fused with the human immunoglobulin Fc domain (PON1-hFc) to improve protein stability and purification efficiency. We purified the recombinant human PON1-hFc from the S2 stable cell line and characterized its enzymatic properties for OP hydrolysis. We purified the recombinant human PON1-hFc from the S2 stable cell line and characterized its enzymatic properties for OP hydrolysis compared with those of the recombinant human PON1 derived from E. coli. We observed that the recombinant human PON1-hFc is functionally more stable for OP hydrolyzing activities compared to the recombinant human PON1. The catalytic efficiency of the recombinant PON1-hFc towards diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, 0.26 × 10(6) M(-1) min(-1)) and paraoxon hydrolysis (0.015 × 10(6) M(-1) min(-1)) was 1.63- and 1.24-fold higher, respectively, than the recombinant human PON1. Thus, we report that the recombinant PON1-hFc exerts hydrolytic activity against paraoxon and DFP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conjugation of gold nanoparticles and recombinant human endostatin modulates vascular normalization via interruption of anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fan; Yang, Wende; Li, Wei; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shuhao; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Ding, Hui; Qin, Li; Pan, Yunlong

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have revealed the potential of normalizing tumor vessels in anti-angiogenic treatment. Recombinant human endostatin is an anti-angiogenic agent which has been applied in clinical tumor treatment. Our previous research indicated that gold nanoparticles could be a nanoparticle carrier for recombinant human endostatin delivery. The recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle conjugates normalized vessels, which improved chemotherapy. However, the mechanism of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle-induced vascular normalization has not been explored. Anterior gradient 2 has been reported to be over-expressed in many malignant tumors and involved in tumor angiogenesis. To date, the precise efficacy of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles on anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis or anterior gradient 2-related signaling cohort remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could normalize vessels in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts, and we further elucidated whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could interrupt anterior gradient 2-induced angiogenesis. In vivo, it was indicated that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles increased pericyte expression while inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and anterior gradient 2 expression in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts. In vitro, we uncovered that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles reduced cell migration and tube formation induced by anterior gradient 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Treatment with recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles attenuated anterior gradient 2-mediated activation of MMP2, cMyc, VE-cadherin, phosphorylation of p38, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrated recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles might normalize

  9. Characterization of Bioactive Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Cloned Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Background There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. Methodology/Principal Findings We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. Conclusions/Significance Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale. PMID:21436886

  10. Combination effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha with antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, S; Minami, A; Fujimoto, K; Kojima, T

    1989-01-01

    Combination effects of recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha with ceftazidime, moxalactam, gentamicin, enoxacin, amphotericin B, miconazole, or an immunoglobulin preparation were evaluated in systemic infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida albicans in normal mice and systemic infection with P. aeruginosa in mice with leukopenia induced by preadministration of cyclophosphamide. Synergistic effects were generally observed at interleukin-1 alpha doses as low as 1 to 30 ng per mouse with most combinations. The results show the possibility that recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha could be of help for treating obstinate infections not successfully treated with antimicrobial agents alone. PMID:2589847

  11. Recombination affects accumulation of damaging and disease-associated mutations in human populations.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Julie G; Hodgkinson, Alan; Idaghdour, Youssef; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Gbeha, Elias; Hip-Ki, Elodie; Awadalla, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Many decades of theory have demonstrated that, in non-recombining systems, slightly deleterious mutations accumulate non-reversibly, potentially driving the extinction of many asexual species. Non-recombining chromosomes in sexual organisms are thought to have degenerated in a similar fashion; however, it is not clear the extent to which damaging mutations accumulate along chromosomes with highly variable rates of crossing over. Using high-coverage sequencing data from over 1,400 individuals in the 1000 Genomes and CARTaGENE projects, we show that recombination rate modulates the distribution of putatively deleterious variants across the entire human genome. Exons in regions of low recombination are significantly enriched for deleterious and disease-associated variants, a signature varying in strength across worldwide human populations with different demographic histories. Regions with low recombination rates are enriched for highly conserved genes with essential cellular functions and show an excess of mutations with demonstrated effects on health, a phenomenon likely affecting disease susceptibility in humans.

  12. Human Prostate Side Population Cells Demonstrate Stem Cell Properties in Recombination with Urogenital Sinus Mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Barbara A.; Gangavarapu, Kalyan J.; Mathew, Grinu; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Morrison, Carl D.; Miller, Austin; Huss, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell enrichment provides a tool to examine prostate stem cells obtained from benign and malignant tissue. Functional assays can enrich stem cells based on common stem cell phenotypes, such as high ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated efflux of Hoechst substrates (side population assay). This functional assay is based upon mechanisms that protect cells from environmental insult thus contributing to the survival and protection of the stem cell population. We have isolated and analyzed cells digested from twelve clinical prostate specimens based on the side population assay. Prostate stem cell properties of the isolated cells were tested by serial recombination with rat urogenital mesenchyme. Recombinants with side population cells demonstrate an increase in the frequency of human ductal growth and the number of glands per recombinant when compared to recombinants with non-side population cells. Isolated cells were capable of prostatic growth for up to three generations in the recombination assay with as little as 125 sorted prostate cells. The ability to reproducibly use cells isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting from human prostate tissue is an essential step to a better understanding of human prostate stem cell biology. ABC transporter G2 (ABCG2) was expressed in recombinants from side population cells indicating the side population cells have self-renewal properties. Epithelial cell differentiation of recombinants was determined by immunohistochemical analysis for expression of the basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine markers, p63, androgen receptor, prostate specific antigen, and chromogranin A, respectively. Thus, the ABCG2 expressing side population demonstrates multipotency and self-renewal properties indicating stem cells are within this population. PMID:23383057

  13. Crystallization And Preliminary Crystallographic Analysis of Recombinant Human Galectin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.A.; Scott, K.; Blanchard, H.

    2009-06-04

    Human galectin-1 has been cloned, expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of both lactose (ligand) and {beta}-mercaptoethanol under six different conditions. The X-ray diffraction data obtained have enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for two novel crystal forms of human galectin-1.

  14. Recombinant production and characterization of human anti-influenza virus monoclonal antibodies identified from hybridomas fused with human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Misaki, Ryo; Fukura, Natsuko; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Yasugi, Mayo; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Momota, Masatoshi; Ono, Ken-Ichiro; Ohashi, Takao; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2016-09-01

    In previous studies, hybridomas producing human immunoglobulin G, the antibodies 5E4 and 5A7 against influenza A and B virus were established using a novel human lymphocyte fusion partner, SPYMEG. In the present study, we succeeded in achieving the recombinant production and secretion of 5E4 and 5A7 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Our N-glycan analysis by intact-mass detection and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry showed that recombinant 5E4 and 5A7 have one N-glycan and the typical mammalian-type N-glycan structures similar to those in hybridomas. However, the glycan distribution was slightly different among these antibodies. The amount of high-mannose-type structures was under 10% of the total N-glycans of recombinant 5E4 and 5A7, compared to 20% of the 5E4 and 5A7 produced in hybridomas. The amount of galactosylated N-glycans was increased in recombinants. Approximately 80% of the N-glycans of all antibodies was fucosylated, and no sialylated N-glycan was found. Recombinant 5E4 and 5A7 neutralized pandemic influenza A virus specifically, and influenza B virus broadly, quite similar to the 5E4 and 5A7 produced in hybridomas, respectively. Here we demonstrated that recombinants of antibodies identified from hybridomas fused with SPYMEG have normal N-glycans and that their neutralizing activities bear comparison with those of the original antibodies.

  15. Long-term self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells on human recombinant laminin-511.

    PubMed

    Rodin, Sergey; Domogatskaya, Anna; Ström, Susanne; Hansson, Emil M; Chien, Kenneth R; Inzunza, José; Hovatta, Outi; Tryggvason, Karl

    2010-06-01

    We describe a system for culturing human embryonic stem (hES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells on a recombinant form of human laminin-511, a component of the natural hES cell niche. The system is devoid of animal products and feeder cells and contains only one undefined component, human albumin. The hES cells self-renewed with normal karyotype for at least 4 months (20 passages), after which the cells could produce teratomas containing cell lineages of all three germ layers. When plated on laminin-511 in small clumps, hES cells spread out in a monolayer, maintaining cellular homogeneity with approximately 97% OCT4-positive cells. Adhesion of hES cells was dependent on alpha6beta1 integrin. The use of homogeneous monolayer hES or iPS cell cultures provides more controllable conditions for the design of differentiation methods. This xeno-free and feeder-free system may be useful for the development of cell lineages for therapeutic purposes.

  16. Recombinant human lactoferrin modulates human PBMC derived macrophage responses to BCG and LPS.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2016-12-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein found in mammalian mucosal secretions and granules of neutrophils, possesses several immune modulatory properties. Published reports indicate that lactoferrin enhances the efficacy of the tuberculosis vaccine, BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin), both by increasing macrophage and dendritic cell ability to stimulate receptive T cells and by modulating the inflammatory response. This report is the first to demonstrate the effects of a recombinant human lactoferrin (10 μg/mL) on human PBMC derived CD14(+) and CD16(+) macrophages stimulated with a strong (LPS, 10 ng/mL) or weaker (BCG, MOI 1:1) stimulator of inflammation. After 3 days culture, LPS and human lactoferrin treated CD14(+) cells significantly increased production of IL-10, IL-6, and MCP-1 compared to the LPS only group. In contrast, similarly treated CD16(+) macrophages increased production of IL-12p40 and IL-10 and decreased TNF-α. Limited changes were observed in BCG stimulated CD14(+) and CD16(+) macrophages with and without lactoferrin. Analysis of surface expression of antigen presentation and co-stimulatory molecules demonstrated that CD14(+) macrophages, when stimulated with BCG or LPS and cultured with lactoferrin, increased expression of CD86. CD16(+) macrophages treated with lactoferrin showed a similar trend of increase in CD86 expression, but only when stimulated with BCG.

  17. Recombination analysis and structure prediction show correlation between breakpoint clusters and RNA hairpins in the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 unique recombinant forms.

    PubMed

    Galli, Andrea; Lai, Alessia; Corvasce, Stefano; Saladini, Francesco; Riva, Chiara; Dehò, Lorenzo; Caramma, Ilaria; Franzetti, Marco; Romano, Laura; Galli, Massimo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    Recombination is recognized as a primary force in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolution, increasing viral diversity through reshuffling of genomic portions. The strand-switching activity of reverse transcriptase is required to complete HIV-1 replication and can occur randomly throughout the genome, leading to viral recombination. Some recombination hotspots have been identified and found to correlate with RNA structure or sequence features. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of recombination hotspots in the pol gene of HIV-1 and to assess their correlation with the underlying RNA structure. Analysis of the recombination pattern and breakpoint distribution in a group of unique recombinant forms (URFs) detected two recombination hotspots in the pol region. Two stable and conserved hairpins were consistently predicted corresponding to the identified hotspots using six different RNA-folding algorithms on the URF parental strains. These findings suggest that such hairpins may play a role in the higher recombination rates detected at these positions.

  18. The 8p23 inversion polymorphism determines local recombination heterogeneity across human populations.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joao M; Chikhi, Lounès; Amorim, António; Lopes, Alexandra M

    2014-04-01

    For decades, chromosomal inversions have been regarded as fascinating evolutionary elements as they are expected to suppress recombination between chromosomes with opposite orientations, leading to the accumulation of genetic differences between the two configurations over time. Here, making use of publicly available population genotype data for the largest polymorphic inversion in the human genome (8p23-inv), we assessed whether this inhibitory effect of inversion rearrangements led to significant differences in the recombination landscape of two homologous DNA segments, with opposite orientation. Our analysis revealed that the accumulation of genetic differentiation is positively correlated with the variation in recombination profiles. The observed recombination dissimilarity between inversion types is consistent across all populations analyzed and surpasses the effects of geographic structure, suggesting that both structures (orientations) have been evolving independently over an extended period of time, despite being subjected to the very same demographic history. Aside this mainly independent evolution, we also identified a short segment (350 kb, <10% of the whole inversion) in the central region of the inversion where the genetic divergence between the two structural haplotypes is diminished. Although it is difficult to demonstrate it, this could be due to gene flow (possibly via double-crossing over events), which is consistent with the higher recombination rates surrounding this segment. This study demonstrates for the first time that chromosomal inversions influence the recombination landscape at a fine-scale and highlights the role of these rearrangements as drivers of genome evolution.

  19. Recombinant expression of human nerve growth factor beta in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bo-Sheng; Lou, Ji-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is required for the differentiation and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons. In the present study, the recombinant expression of human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-β) gene in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) was undertaken. Recombinant vector containing hNGF-β was constructed and transferred into rMSCs, the expressions of the exogenous in rMSCs were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), ELISA and Western blot, whereas the biological activity of recombinant hNGF-β was confirmed using PC12 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. The results showed that the hNGF-β gene expressed successfully in the rMSCs, a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa was detected. The maximal expression level of recombinant hNGF-β in rMSCs reached 126.8012 pg/10(6) cells, the mean concentration was 96.4473 pg/10(6) cells. The recombinant hNGF-β in the rMSCs showed full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-β.

  20. Robotics for recombinant DNA and human genetics research

    SciTech Connect

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    In October of 1989, molecular biologists throughout the world formally embarked on ultimately determining the set of genetic instructions for a human being. Called by some the Manhattan Project'' a molecular biology, pursuit of this goal is projected to require approximately 3000 man years of effort over a 15-year period. The Humane Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the structure of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and determining the location of all human genes. The Department of Energy (DOE) has designated three of its national laboratories as centers for the Human Genome Project. These are Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). These laboratories are currently working on different, but complementary technology development areas in support of the Human Genome Project. The robotics group at LANL is currently working at developing the technologies that address the problems associated with physical mapping. This article describes some of these problems and discusses some of the robotics approaches and engineering tolls applicable to their solution. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Genetic battle between Helicobacter pylori and humans. The mechanism underlying homologous recombination in bacteria, which can infect human cells.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Katsuhiro; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that colonises the human stomach. The chronic infection it causes results in peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. H. pylori can easily establish a chronic infection even if the immune system attacks this pathogen with oxidative stress agents and immunoglobulins. This is attributed to bacterial defence mechanisms against these stresses. As a defence mechanism against oxidative stresses, in bacterial genomes, homologous recombination can act as a repair pathway of DNA's double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, homologous recombination is also involved in the antigenic variation in H. pylori. Gene conversion alters genomic structures of babA and babB (encoding outer membrane proteins), resulting in escape from immunoglobulin attacks. Thus, homologous recombination in bacteria plays an important role in the maintenance of a chronic infection. In addition, H. pylori infection causes DSBs in human cells. Homologous recombination is also involved in the repair of DSBs in human cells. In this review, we describe the roles of homologous recombination with an emphasis on the maintenance of a chronic infection. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease caused by leishmania species. Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir of VL. A number of methods and antigen-based assays are used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. However, currently available methods are mainly based on direct examination of tissues for the presence of parasites, which is highly invasive. A variety of serological tests are commonly applied for VL diagnosis, including indirect fluorescence antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, direct agglutination test, Western-blotting, and immunochromatographic test. However, when soluble antigens are used, serological tests are less specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. Several studies have attempted to replace soluble antigens with recombinant proteins to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of the immunodiagnostic tests. Major technological advances in recombinant antigens as reagents for the serological diagnosis of VL have led to high sensitivity and specificity of these serological tests. A great number of recombinant proteins have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of leishmania infection in dogs, the major reservoir of L. infantum. Although few recombinant proteins with high efficacy provide reasonable results for the diagnosis of human and canine VL, more optimization is still needed for the appropriate antigens to provide high-throughput performance. This review aims to explore the application of different recombinant proteins for the serodiagnosis of VL in humans and dogs. PMID:26883952

  3. Application of Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease caused by leishmania species. Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir of VL. A number of methods and antigen-based assays are used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. However, currently available methods are mainly based on direct examination of tissues for the presence of parasites, which is highly invasive. A variety of serological tests are commonly applied for VL diagnosis, including indirect fluorescence antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, direct agglutination test, Western-blotting, and immunochromatographic test. However, when soluble antigens are used, serological tests are less specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. Several studies have attempted to replace soluble antigens with recombinant proteins to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of the immunodiagnostic tests. Major technological advances in recombinant antigens as reagents for the serological diagnosis of VL have led to high sensitivity and specificity of these serological tests. A great number of recombinant proteins have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of leishmania infection in dogs, the major reservoir of L. infantum. Although few recombinant proteins with high efficacy provide reasonable results for the diagnosis of human and canine VL, more optimization is still needed for the appropriate antigens to provide high-throughput performance. This review aims to explore the application of different recombinant proteins for the serodiagnosis of VL in humans and dogs.

  4. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY RECOMBINANT RAT AND HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450S

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We report quantitative estimates of the parameters for metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by recombinant preparations of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) from rat and human. BDCM is a drinking water disinfectant byproduct that has been implicated in liver, kidn...

  5. Expression of the human multidrug transporter in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Germann, U.A.; Willingham, M.C.; Pastan, I.; Gottesman, M.M. )

    1990-03-06

    The plasma membrane associated human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene product, known as the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein or the multidrug transporter, acts as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for various cytotoxic agents. The authors expressed recombinant human multidrug transporter in a baculovirus expression system to obtain large quantities and further investigate its structure and mechanism of action. MDR1 cDNA was inserted into the genome of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells synthesized high levels of recombinant multidrug transporter 2-3 days after infection. The transporter was localized by immunocytochemical methods on the external surface of the plasma membranes, in the Golgi apparatus, and within the nuclear envelope. The human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is not susceptible to endoglycosidase F treatment and has a lower apparent molecular weight of 140,000, corresponding to the nonglycosylated precursor of its authentic counterpart expressed in multidrug-resistant cells. Labeling experiments showed that the recombinant multidrug transporter is phosphorylated and can be photoaffinity labeled by ({sup 3}H)azidopine, presumably at the same two sites as the native protein. Various drugs and reversing agents compete with the ({sup 3}H)azidopine binding reaction when added in excess, indicating that the recombinant human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is functionally similar to its authentic counterpart.

  6. Strategy to tether organometallic ruthenium-arene anticancer compounds to recombinant human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ang, Wee Han; Daldini, Elisa; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Dyson, Paul J

    2007-10-29

    In order to utilize macromolecules for drug targeting and delivery, a strategy to tether organometallic ruthenium-arene drugs to carrier protein molecules was developed. The approach involves the design of a drug fragment capable of conjugating to linker molecules on a modified carrier protein via hydrazone bond formation. The proof-of-concept using recombinant human serum albumin is described.

  7. Human native kappa opioid receptor functions not predicted by recombinant receptors: Implications for drug design

    PubMed Central

    Broad, John; Maurel, Damien; Kung, Victor W. S.; Hicks, Gareth A.; Schemann, Michael; Barnes, Michael R.; Kenakin, Terrence P.; Granier, Sébastien; Sanger, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    If activation of recombinant G protein-coupled receptors in host cells (by drugs or other ligands) has predictive value, similar data must be obtained with native receptors naturally expressed in tissues. Using mouse and human recombinant κ opioid receptors transfected into a host cell, two selectively-acting compounds (ICI204448, asimadoline) equi-effectively activated both receptors, assessed by measuring two different cell signalling pathways which were equally affected without evidence of bias. In mouse intestine, naturally expressing κ receptors within its nervous system, both compounds also equi-effectively activated the receptor, inhibiting nerve-mediated muscle contraction. However, whereas ICI204448 acted similarly in human intestine, where κ receptors are again expressed within its nervous system, asimadoline was inhibitory only at very high concentrations; instead, low concentrations of asimadoline reduced the activity of ICI204448. This demonstration of species-dependence in activation of native, not recombinant κ receptors may be explained by different mouse/human receptor structures affecting receptor expression and/or interactions with intracellular signalling pathways in native environments, to reveal differences in intrinsic efficacy between receptor agonists. These results have profound implications in drug design for κ and perhaps other receptors, in terms of recombinant-to-native receptor translation, species-dependency and possibly, a need to use human, therapeutically-relevant, not surrogate tissues. PMID:27492592

  8. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY RECOMBINANT RAT AND HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450S

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We report quantitative estimates of the parameters for metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by recombinant preparations of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) from rat and human. BDCM is a drinking water disinfectant byproduct that has been implicated in liver, kidn...

  9. Recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) produced in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Sánchez, Jhonnathan; Moreno, Jefferson; Beltran, Laura; Díaz, Dennis; Pardo, Andrea; Ramírez, Aura María; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J.; Pimentel, Luisa; Barrera, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A (MPS IV A, Morquio A disease) is a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) produced by mutations on N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Recently an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for this disease was approved using a recombinant enzyme produced in CHO cells. Previously, we reported the production of an active GALNS enzyme in Escherichia coli that showed similar stability properties to that of a recombinant mammalian enzyme though it was not taken-up by culture cells. In this study, we showed the production of the human recombinant GALNS in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 (prGALNS). We observed that removal of native signal peptide and co-expression with human formylglycine-generating enzyme (SUMF1) allowed an improvement of 4.5-fold in the specific GALNS activity. prGALNS enzyme showed a high stability at 4 °C, while the activity was markedly reduced at 37 and 45 °C. It was noteworthy that prGALNS was taken-up by HEK293 cells and human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner through a process potentially mediated by an endocytic pathway, without any additional protein or host modification. The results show the potential of P. pastoris in the production of a human recombinant GALNS for the development of an ERT for Morquio A. PMID:27378276

  10. Recombinant Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) RL13 Binds Human Immunoglobulin G Fc

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Mirko; Calò, Stefano; D'Aurizio, Romina; Lilja, Anders; Pacchiani, Nicola; Merola, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein RL13 has recently been described to be present in all primary isolates but rapidly mutated in culture adapted viruses. Although these data suggest a crucial role for this gene product in HCMV primary infection, no function has so far been assigned to this protein. Working with RL13 expressed in isolation in transfected human epithelial cells, we demonstrated that recombinant RL13 from the clinical HCMV isolates TR and Merlin have selective human immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding properties towards IgG1 and IgG2 subtypes. An additional Fc binding protein, RL12, was also identified as an IgG1 and IgG2 binding protein but not further characterized. The glycoprotein RL13 trafficked to the plasma membrane where it bound and internalized exogenous IgG or its constant fragment (Fcγ). Analysis of RL13 ectodomain mutants suggested that the RL13 Ig-like domain is responsible for the Fc binding activity. Ligand-dependent internalization relied on a YxxL endocytic motif located in the C-terminal tail of RL13. Additionally, we showed that the tyrosine residue could be replaced by phenylalanine but not by alanine, indicating that the internalization signal was independent from phosphorylation events. In sum, RL13 binds human IgG and may contribute to HCMV immune evasion in the infected host, but this function does not readily explain the instability of the RL13 gene during viral propagation in cultured cells. PMID:23226246

  11. Recombinant human laminin isoforms can support the undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Futaki, Sugiko; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Kawasaki, Miwa; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Kawase, Eihachiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi Nakatsuji, Norio; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2008-10-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be a promising cell source for cell transplantation therapy. For such a clinical application, the hESCs should be manipulated using appropriate and qualified materials. In this study, we examined the efficacy of recombinant human laminin (rhLM) isoforms on the undifferentiated growth of hESCs. We first determined the major integrins expressed on the hESCs to reveal the preference of the hESCs for rhLMs, and found that the hESCs mainly expressed integrin {alpha}6{beta}1, which binds predominantly to laminin-111, -332 and -511/-521. When the hESCs were seeded onto rhLMs, the cells indeed adhered markedly to rhLM-332, and to rhLM-511 and rhLM-111 to a lesser extent. The hESCs proliferated on these three rhLMs for several passages while preserving their pluripotency. These results show that rhLM-111, -332, and -511 are good substrates to expand undifferentiated hESCs due to their high affinity to integrin {alpha}6{beta}1 expressed on hESCs.

  12. A gene responsible for prolyl-hydroxylation of moss-produced recombinant human erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Juliana; Altmann, Friedrich; Graf, Manuela; Stadlmann, Johannes; Reski, Ralf; Decker, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant production of pharmaceutical proteins is crucial, not only for personalized medicine. While most biopharmaceuticals are currently produced in mammalian cell culture, plant-made pharmaceuticals gain momentum. Post-translational modifications in plants are similar to those in humans, however, existing differences may affect quality, safety and efficacy of the products. A frequent modification in higher eukaryotes is prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H)-catalysed prolyl-hydroxylation. P4H sequence recognition sites on target proteins differ between humans and plants leading to non-human posttranslational modifications of recombinant human proteins produced in plants. The resulting hydroxyprolines display the anchor for plant-specific O-glycosylation, which bears immunogenic potential for patients. Here we describe the identification of a plant gene responsible for non-human prolyl-hydroxylation of human erythropoietin (hEPO) recombinantly produced in plant (moss) bioreactors. Targeted ablation of this gene abolished undesired prolyl-hydroxylation of hEPO and thus paves the way for plant-made pharmaceuticals humanized via glyco-engineering in moss bioreactors. PMID:24145658

  13. A gene responsible for prolyl-hydroxylation of moss-produced recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Juliana; Altmann, Friedrich; Graf, Manuela; Stadlmann, Johannes; Reski, Ralf; Decker, Eva L

    2013-10-22

    Recombinant production of pharmaceutical proteins is crucial, not only for personalized medicine. While most biopharmaceuticals are currently produced in mammalian cell culture, plant-made pharmaceuticals gain momentum. Post-translational modifications in plants are similar to those in humans, however, existing differences may affect quality, safety and efficacy of the products. A frequent modification in higher eukaryotes is prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H)-catalysed prolyl-hydroxylation. P4H sequence recognition sites on target proteins differ between humans and plants leading to non-human posttranslational modifications of recombinant human proteins produced in plants. The resulting hydroxyprolines display the anchor for plant-specific O-glycosylation, which bears immunogenic potential for patients. Here we describe the identification of a plant gene responsible for non-human prolyl-hydroxylation of human erythropoietin (hEPO) recombinantly produced in plant (moss) bioreactors. Targeted ablation of this gene abolished undesired prolyl-hydroxylation of hEPO and thus paves the way for plant-made pharmaceuticals humanized via glyco-engineering in moss bioreactors.

  14. Oral recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis TDM induced granulomatous lung pathology.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose 6'6-dimycolate (TDM) is the most abundant glycolipid on the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). TDM is capable of inducing granulomatous pathology in mouse models that resembles those induced by MTB infection. Using the acute TDM model, this work investigates the effect of recombinant human and mouse lactoferrin to reduce granulomatous pathology. C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with TDM at a dose of 25 μg·mouse(-1). At day 4 and 6, recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin (1 mg·(100 μL)(-1)·mouse(-1)) were delivered by gavage. At day 7 after TDM injection, mice were evaluated for lung pathology, cytokine production, and leukocyte populations. Mice given human or mouse lactoferrin had reduced production of IL-12p40 in their lungs. Mouse lactoferrin increased IL-6 and KC (CXCL1) in lung tissue. Increased numbers of macrophages were observed in TDM-injected mice given human or mouse lactoferrin. Granulomatous pathology, composed of mainly migrated leukocytes, was visually reduced in mice that received human or mouse lactoferrin. Quantitation of granulomatous pathology demonstrated a significant decrease in mice given human or mouse lactoferrin compared with TDM control mice. This report is the first to directly compare the immune modulatory effects of both heterologous recombinant human and homologous mouse lactoferrin on the development of TDM-induced granulomas.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant human galectin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Stacy A.; Scott, Ken; Blanchard, Helen

    2007-11-01

    Human galectin-1 has been cloned, expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of both lactose (ligand) and β-mercaptoethanol under six different conditions. The X-ray diffraction data obtained have enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for two novel crystal forms of human galectin-1. Galectin-1 is considered to be a regulator protein as it is ubiquitously expressed throughout the adult body and is responsible for a broad range of cellular regulatory functions. Interest in galectin-1 from a drug-design perspective is founded on evidence of its overexpression by many cancers and its immunomodulatory properties. The development of galectin-1-specific inhibitors is a rational approach to the fight against cancer because although galectin-1 induces a plethora of effects, null mice appear normal. X-ray crystallographic structure determination will aid the structure-based design of galectin-1 inhibitors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of human galectin-1 crystals generated under six different conditions is reported. X-ray diffraction data enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for crystals grown under two conditions, one belongs to a tetragonal crystal system and the other was determined as monoclinic P2{sub 1}, representing two new crystal forms of human galectin-1.

  16. Limited infection upon human exposure to a recombinant raccoon pox vaccine vector.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Dein, F Joshua; Fuchsberger, Martina; Fox, Barry C; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2004-07-29

    A laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of Yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. Within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. Raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (F1) and RCN. This is the first documented case of human exposure to RCN.

  17. An unusual symmetric recombinant between adenovirus type 12 DNA and human cell DNA

    PubMed Central

    Deuring, Renate; Klotz, Günther; Doerfler, Walter

    1981-01-01

    On purification of human adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) by equilibrium sedimentation in CsCl density gradients, two bands of particles, Ad12-3 and Ad12-3a, are observed. The particles from band Ad12-3a contain a recombinant of human host cell DNA and of Ad12 DNA. The human cell DNA sequences contain repetitive DNA recurring 200 to 500 times in cellular DNA. Ad12 DNA and the recombinant genomes exhibit the same or similar lengths. This finding suggests that a constant amount of DNA is packaged into complete Ad12 particles. On cleavage of KB cellular DNA with EcoRI, BamHI, HinfI, Msp I, Mbo I Pst I, or Bgl II, the 32P-labeled cellular DNA from Ad12-3a particles hybridizes on Southern blots to distinct bands of KB DNA. There is also less-specific background hybridization that is not observed in the control. The cellular DNA from Ad12-3a particles is not methylated, whereas the same cellular sequences in KB cell DNA appear to be extensively methylated. On denaturation and renaturation, the recombinant DNA molecules are converted to molecules half as long as Ad12 DNA, as determined by gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The recombinant DNA molecules were terminally labeled by exonuclease III treatment and subsequent refilling of the depleted segments with [32P]dNTPs by using DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment). When these molecules were cleaved with EcoRI, BamHI, Msp I, or Pst I, only one terminal DNA fragment was found to be labeled. The results of partial digestion experiments using Msp I, HinfI, or Mbo I are consistent with a model in which 700-1150 base pairs from the left terminus of Ad12 DNA are linked to host cell DNA containing repetitious sequences, and this structure is symmetrically duplicated as a large inverted repeat of the type ABCDD′C′B′A′. The Ad12 DNA sequences are flanking the entire molecule, which consists mainly of human KB cell DNA. The recombinants appear to be stable on serial passage of the virus preparation for many years, although

  18. Development and characterization of new monoclonal antibodies against human recombinant CA XII.

    PubMed

    Dekaminaviciute, Dovile; Lasickiene, Rita; Parkkila, Seppo; Jogaite, Vaida; Matuliene, Jurgita; Matulis, Daumantas; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are enzymes that catalyse the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate. CA XII is considered a potential biomarker of tumor cells and a promising target for specific therapies. The aim of the current study was to develop new monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against human recombinant CA XII and evaluate their diagnostic potential. An extracellular catalytic domain of human CA XII was expressed in E. coli and used as an immunogen. Seven stable hybridoma cell lines producing high-affinity IgG antibodies against human CA XII were generated. The majority of MAbs were highly specific to CA XII and did not cross-react with human recombinant CA I, CA II, CA VII, and CA XIII. In order to demonstrate the diagnostic value of the MAbs, they were employed for the immunohistochemistry analysis of CA XII expression in tissues. Two MAbs (15A4 and 4A6) demonstrated a strong and specific immunostaining of CA XII in human tissue specimens. Flow cytometry analysis of 5 human tumor cell lines with the MAb 15A4 revealed its immunoreactivity with cellular CA XII. In conclusion, the MAbs raised against recombinant catalytic domain of CA XII recognize cellular CA XII and represent a promising diagnostic tool for the immunodetection of CA XII-expressing cells.

  19. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bomholt, Julie; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C-terminally tagged with yeast enhanced GFP for quantification of functional expression, determination of sub-cellular localization, estimation of in vivo folding efficiency and establishment of a purification protocol. Aquaporin-1 was found to constitute 8.5 percent of total membrane protein content after expression at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction of the expression temperature to 15°C almost completely prevented Aquaporin-1 mal-folding. Bioimaging of live yeast cells revealed that recombinant Aquaporin-1 accumulated in the yeast plasma membrane. A detergent screen for solubilization revealed that CYMAL-5 was superior in solubilizing recombinant Aquaporin-1 and generated a monodisperse protein preparation. A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain almost pure Aquaporin-1. Recombinant Aquaporin-1 produced in S. cerevisiae was not N-glycosylated in contrast to the protein found in human erythrocytes. PMID:23409185

  20. Evaluation of liver fluke recombinant cathepsin B-1 protease as a serodiagnostic antigen for human opisthorchiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach

    2011-01-01

    A cathepsin B-like cysteine protease belonging to family C1 is abundantly expressed in the transcriptome and proteome of the carcinogenic liver fluke of humans, Opisthorchis viverrini. This enzyme is present in excretory/secretory (ES) products released by parasites cultured in vitro. This study evaluated the performance of recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin B1 (rOv-CB-1) as an antigen for immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis. The full length Ov-CB-1 cDNA was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in catalytically active form in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Ov-CB-1 (rOv-CB-1) was affinity purified via nickel-NTA chromatography and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with human sera from an opisthorchiasis endemic area. Sera from egg-positive O. viverrini infections produced a strong IgG antibody response to rOv-CB-1 both in ELISA and immunoblot analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was 67% and 81%, respectively. These findings support the feasibility of using recombinant Ov-CB-1 in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. PMID:21704728

  1. Evaluation of liver fluke recombinant cathepsin B-1 protease as a serodiagnostic antigen for human opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach

    2012-03-01

    A cathepsin B-like cysteine protease belonging to family C1 is abundantly expressed in the transcriptome and proteome of the carcinogenic liver fluke of humans, Opisthorchis viverrini. This enzyme is present in excretory/secretory (ES) products released by parasites cultured in vitro. This study evaluated the performance of recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin B1 (rOv-CB-1) as an antigen for immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis. The full length Ov-CB-1 cDNA was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in catalytically active form in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Ov-CB-1 (rOv-CB-1) was affinity purified via nickel-NTA chromatography and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with human sera from an opisthorchiasis endemic area. Sera from egg-positive O. viverrini infections produced a strong IgG antibody response to rOv-CB-1 both in ELISA and immunoblot analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was 67% and 81%, respectively. These findings support the feasibility of using recombinant Ov-CB-1 in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the oligomer structure of recombinant human mannan-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia H; Weilguny, Dietmar; Matthiesen, Finn; McGuire, Kirsten A; Shi, Lei; Højrup, Peter

    2005-03-25

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) belongs to a family of proteins called the collectins, which show large differences in their ultrastructures. These differences are believed to be determined by different N-terminal disulfide-bonding patterns. So far only the bonding pattern of two of the simple forms (recombinant rat MBL-C and bovine CL-43) have been determined. Recombinant MBL expressed in human cells was purified, and the structure of the N-terminal region was determined. Preliminary results on human plasma-derived MBL revealed high similarity to the recombinant protein. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal part of recombinant human MBL and present a model to explain the oligomerization pattern. Using a strategy of consecutive enzymatic digestions and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, we succeeded in identifying a number of disulfide-linked peptides from the N-terminal cysteine-rich region. Based on these building blocks, we propose a model that can explain the various oligomeric forms found in purified MBL preparations. Furthermore, the model was challenged by the production of cysteine to serine mutants of the three N-terminally situated cysteines. The oligomerization patterns of these mutants support the proposed model. The model indicates that the polypeptide dimer is the basic unit in the oligomerization.

  3. Crystallization and X-ray structure of full-length recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Ngamelue, Michelle N; Homma, Kohei; Lockridge, Oksana; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A

    2007-09-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been shown to function as an endogenous scavenger of diverse poisons. BChE is a 340 kDa tetrameric glycoprotein that is present in human serum at a concentration of 5 mg l(-1). The well documented therapeutic effects of BChE on cocaine toxicity and organophosphorus agent poisoning has increased the need for effective methods of producing recombinant therapeutic BChE. In order to be therapeutically useful, BChE must have a long circulatory residence time or associate as tetramers. Full-length recombinant BChE produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or human embryonic kidney cells has been shown to associate as monomers, with a shorter circulatory residence time than the naturally occurring tetrameric serum protein. Based on the preceding observation as well as the need to develop novel methodologies to facilitate the mass production of therapeutic recombinant BChE, studies have been initiated to determine the structural basis of tetramer formation. Towards these ends, full-length monomeric recombinant BChE has been crystallized for the first time. A 2.8 A X-ray structure was solved in space group P42(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 156, c = 146 A.

  4. Crystallization and X-ray structure of full-length recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Ngamelue, Michelle N.; Homma, Kohei; Lockridge, Oksana; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2007-01-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been shown to function as an endogenous scavenger of diverse poisons. BChE is a 340 kDa tetrameric glycoprotein that is present in human serum at a concentration of 5 mg l−1. The well documented therapeutic effects of BChE on cocaine toxicity and organophosphorus agent poisoning has increased the need for effective methods of producing recombinant therapeutic BChE. In order to be therapeutically useful, BChE must have a long circulatory residence time or associate as tetramers. Full-length recombinant BChE produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or human embryonic kidney cells has been shown to associate as monomers, with a shorter circulatory residence time than the naturally occurring tetrameric serum protein. Based on the preceding observation as well as the need to develop novel methodologies to facilitate the mass production of therapeutic recombinant BChE, studies have been initiated to determine the structural basis of tetramer formation. Towards these ends, full-length monomeric recombinant BChE has been crystallized for the first time. A 2.8 Å X-ray structure was solved in space group P4212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 156, c = 146 Å. PMID:17768338

  5. Frequency and genetic characterization of V(DD)J recombinants in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Briney, Bryan S; Willis, Jordan R; Hicar, Mark D; Thomas, James W; Crowe, James E

    2012-09-01

    Antibody heavy-chain recombination that results in the incorporation of multiple diversity (D) genes, although uncommon, contributes substantially to the diversity of the human antibody repertoire. Such recombination allows the generation of heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) regions of extreme length and enables junctional regions that, because of the nucleotide bias of N-addition regions, are difficult to produce through normal V(D)J recombination. Although this non-classical recombination process has been observed infrequently, comprehensive analysis of the frequency and genetic characteristics of such events in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire has not been possible because of the rarity of such recombinants and the limitations of traditional sequencing technologies. Here, through the use of high-throughput sequencing of the normal human peripheral blood antibody repertoire, we analysed the frequency and genetic characteristics of V(DD)J recombinants. We found that these recombinations were present in approximately 1 in 800 circulating B cells, and that the frequency was severely reduced in memory cell subsets. We also found that V(DD)J recombination can occur across the spectrum of diversity genes, indicating that virtually all recombination signal sequences that flank diversity genes are amenable to V(DD)J recombination. Finally, we observed a repertoire bias in the diversity gene repertoire at the upstream (5') position, and discovered that this bias was primarily attributable to the order of diversity genes in the genomic locus.

  6. An integrative 'omics' solution to the detection of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood doping.

    PubMed

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Durussel, Jérôme; Rabin, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHumanEPO) improves sporting performance and hence is frequently subject to abuse by athletes, although rHumanEPO is prohibited by the WADA. Approaches to detect rHumanEPO doping have improved significantly in recent years but remain imperfect. A new transcriptomic-based longitudinal screening approach is being developed that has the potential to improve the analytical performance of current detection methods. In particular, studies are being funded by WADA to identify a 'molecular signature' of rHumanEPO doping and preliminary results are promising. In the first systematic study to be conducted, the expression of hundreds of genes were found to be altered by rHumanEPO with numerous gene transcripts being differentially expressed after the first injection and further transcripts profoundly upregulated during and subsequently downregulated up to 4 weeks postadministration of the drug; with the same transcriptomic pattern observed in all participants. The identification of a blood 'molecular signature' of rHumanEPO administration is the strongest evidence to date that gene biomarkers have the potential to substantially improve the analytical performance of current antidoping methods such as the Athlete Biological Passport for rHumanEPO detection. Given the early promise of transcriptomics, research using an 'omics'-based approach involving genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics should be intensified in order to achieve improved detection of rHumanEPO and other doping substances and methods difficult to detect such a recombinant human growth hormone and blood transfusions.

  7. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human proinsulin.

    PubMed

    Cowley, D J; Mackin, R B

    1997-02-03

    We have recently developed a method to produce native human proinsulin using a bacterial expression system. A proinsulin fusion protein was recovered from inclusion bodies and cleaved using cyanogen bromide. The released proinsulin polypeptide was S-sulfonated and purified by anion exchange chromatography. Following refolding, proinsulin was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Combined peptide mapping and mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the proinsulin contained the correct disulfide bridging pattern. This proinsulin will be used to study the specificity of the furin/PC family of converting enzymes by using it as a substrate in a recently developed assay.

  8. [How safe is the recombinant human growth hormone?

    PubMed

    Calzada-León, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, several aspects related to the safety of the use of biosynthetic human growth hormone are reviewed. For example, its classification as a biosynthetic drug, the phases that need to be performed in Mexico to verify its safety (obtaining, purification, preclinical studies, clinical trials, and finally observational clinical studies), as well as the evidence that exists in relation to the association of intracranial hypertension, muscular events, scoliosis, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, obstructive sleep apnea, pancreatitis, alterations in cortisol, thyroid hormones alterations, cardiovascular disease, metabolic risk, mortality and cancer, adverse events not related to its use, and finally dosing and safety.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant human galectin-1

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacy A.; Scott, Ken; Blanchard, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Galectin-1 is considered to be a regulator protein as it is ubiquitously expressed throughout the adult body and is responsible for a broad range of cellular regulatory functions. Interest in galectin-1 from a drug-design perspective is founded on evidence of its overexpression by many cancers and its immunomodulatory properties. The development of galectin-1-specific inhibitors is a rational approach to the fight against cancer because although galectin-1 induces a plethora of effects, null mice appear normal. X-ray crystallographic structure determination will aid the structure-based design of galectin-1 inhibitors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of human galectin-1 crystals generated under six different conditions is reported. X-ray diffraction data enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for crystals grown under two conditions, one belongs to a tetragonal crystal system and the other was determined as monoclinic P21, representing two new crystal forms of human galectin-1. PMID:18007053

  10. Human recombinant monoamine oxidase B as reliable and efficient enzyme source for inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Novaroli, Laura; Reist, Marianne; Favre, Elisabeth; Carotti, Angelo; Catto, Marco; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2005-11-15

    Interest in inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type B (MAO B) has grown in recent years, due to their therapeutic potential in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This study is devoted to the use of human recombinant MAO B obtained from a Baculovirus expression system (Supersomes MAO B, BD Gentest, MA, USA) as reliable and efficient enzyme source for MAO B inhibitor screening. Comparison of inhibition potencies (pIC50 values) determined with human cloned and human platelet MAO B for the two series of MAO B inhibitors, coumarin and 5H-indeno[1,2-c]pyridazin-5-one derivatives, showed that the difference between pIC50 values obtained with the two enzyme sources was not significant (P>0.05, Student's t-test). Hence, recombinant enzyme is validated as convenient enzyme source for MAO B inhibitor screening.

  11. RI-1: a chemical inhibitor of RAD51 that disrupts homologous recombination in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Brian; Logan, Hillary L.; Kalin, Jay H.; Zelivianskaia, Anna S.; Cameron McGuire, William; Miller, Luke L.; Stark, Jeremy M.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Bishop, Douglas K.; Connell, Philip P.

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination serves multiple roles in DNA repair that are essential for maintaining genomic stability. We here describe RI-1, a small molecule that inhibits the central recombination protein RAD51. RI-1 specifically reduces gene conversion in human cells while stimulating single strand annealing. RI-1 binds covalently to the surface of RAD51 protein at cysteine 319 that likely destabilizes an interface used by RAD51 monomers to oligomerize into filaments on DNA. Correspondingly, the molecule inhibits the formation of subnuclear RAD51 foci in cells following DNA damage, while leaving replication protein A focus formation unaffected. Finally, it potentiates the lethal effects of a DNA cross-linking drug in human cells. Given that this inhibitory activity is seen in multiple human tumor cell lines, RI-1 holds promise as an oncologic drug. Furthermore, RI-1 represents a unique tool to dissect the network of reaction pathways that contribute to DNA repair in cells. PMID:22573178

  12. Maintenance of Hepatic Functions in Primary Human Hepatocytes Cultured on Xeno-Free and Chemical Defined Human Recombinant Laminins.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Zemack, Helen; Johansson, Helene; Hagbard, Louise; Jorns, Carl; Li, Meng; Ellis, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Refined methods for maintaining specific functions of isolated hepatocytes under xeno-free and chemical defined conditions is of great importance for the development of hepatocyte research and regenerative therapy. Laminins, a large family of heterotrimeric basement membrane adhesion proteins, are highly cell and tissue type specific components of the extracellular matrix and strongly influence the behavior and function of associated cells and/or tissues. However, detailed biological functions of many laminin isoforms are still to be evaluated. In this study, we determined the distribution of laminin isoforms in human liver tissue and isolated primary human hepatocytes by western blot analysis, and investigated the efficacy of different human recombinant laminin isoforms on hepatic functions during culture. Protein expressions of laminin-chain α2, α3, α4, β1, β3, γ1, and γ2 were detected in both isolated human hepatocytes and liver tissue. No α1 and α5 expression could be detected in liver tissue or hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from five different individual livers, and cultured on human recombinant laminin isoforms -111, -211, -221, -332, -411, -421, -511, and -521 (Biolamina AB), matrigel (extracted from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma), or collagen type IV (Collagen). Hepatocytes cultured on laminin showed characteristic hexagonal shape in a flat cell monolayer. Viability, double stranded DNA concentration, and Ki67 expression for hepatocytes cultured for six days on laminin were comparable to those cultured on EHS and Collagen. Hepatocytes cultured on laminin also displayed production of human albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, bile acids, and gene expression of liver-enriched factors, such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, glucose-6-phosphate, cytochrome P450 3A4, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. We conclude that all forms of human recombinant laminin tested maintain cell viability and liver-specific functions of primary human

  13. Expression of GPI anchored human recombinant erythropoietin in CHO cells is devoid of glycosylation heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Devasahayam, Mercy; Devi, Sobita

    2015-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycohormone involved in the regulation of the blood cell levels. It is a 166 amino acid protein having 3 N-glycosylation and one O-linked glycosylation sites, and is used to treat anaemia related illness. Though human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) is produced in CHO cells, the loss in quality control is 80% due to incomplete glycosylation of the rEPO with low levels of fully glycosylated active rEPO. Here, we describe the expression from CHO cells of fully glycosylated human rEPO when expressed as a GPI anchored molecule (rEPO-g). The results demonstrated the production of a homogenous completely glycosylated human rEPO-g as a 42 kD band without any low molecular weight glycoform variants as shown by affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE and anti-human EPO specific western blot. The western blot using specific monoclonal antibody is the available biochemical technique to prove the presence of homogeneity in the expressed recombinant protein. The GPI anchor can be removed during the purification process to yield a therapeutically relevant recombinant erythropoietin molecule cells with a higher in vivo biological activity due to its high molecular weight of 40 kD. This is possibly the first report on the production of a homogenous and completely glycosylated human rEPO from CHO cells for efficient therapy.

  14. Recombinant human Fab fragments neutralize human type 1 immunodeficiency virus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, C F; Björling, E; Chiodi, F; Dunlop, N; Cababa, D; Jones, T M; Zebedee, S L; Persson, M A; Nara, P L; Norrby, E

    1992-01-01

    A panel of 20 recombinant Fab fragments reactive with the surface glycoprotein gp120 of human type 1 immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) were examined for their ability to neutralize MN and IIIB strains of the virus. Neutralization was determined as the ability of the Fab fragments to inhibit infection as measured in both a p24 ELISA and a syncytium-formation assay. One group of closely sequence-related Fab fragments was found to neutralize virus in both assays with a 50% neutralization titer at approximately 1 micrograms/ml. Another Fab neutralized in the p24 ELISA but not in the syncytium assay. The other Fab fragments showed weak or no neutralizing ability. The results imply that virion aggregation or crosslinking of gp120 molecules on the virion surface is not an absolute requirement for HIV-1 neutralization. Further, all of the Fab fragments were shown to be competitive with soluble CD4 for binding to gp120 and yet few neutralized the virus effectively, implying that the mechanism of neutralization in this case may not involve receptor blocking. The observation of a preponderance of high-affinity Fab fragments with poor or no neutralizing ability could have implications for vaccine strategies. PMID:1384050

  15. The recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin prefilled pen: results of patient and nurse human factors usability testing.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Helen; Schertz, Joan C; Hecker, Clara; Lang, Barbara; Arriagada, Pablo

    2012-08-01

    The first prefilled pen for administration of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (r-hCG) has been developed. Usability testing was undertaken to evaluate the risk of dosing errors versus the existing r-hCG prefilled syringe, and assess function and handling of the pen. Infertile women who were trying to conceive, and specialist nurses, were recruited in Germany. Usability goals were defined and categorized as critical or functional operational goals. Individual, non-interventional, standardized, usability tests (including ease-of-use assessment) were performed with patients and nurses. Cumulative test scores for critical operations were compared. Non-standardized qualitative analyses of nurse-patient training sessions were performed. The cumulative test score for the r-hCG prefilled pen was better than that of the existing prefilled syringe, so it was concluded that the overall risk of dosing errors was not higher with the pen. The ease of use of the pen was rated favorably by patients and nurses. Both user groups were confident that they could inject the correct dose using the pen. The overall risk of dosing errors was not higher with the r-hCG prefilled pen than the existing prefilled syringe. The ease-of-use of the r-hCG prefilled pen was rated favorably by patients and nurses.

  16. Generating recombinant antibodies to the complete human proteome.

    PubMed

    Dübel, Stefan; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J; Hust, Michael

    2010-07-01

    In vitro antibody generation technologies have now been available for two decades. Research reagents prepared via phage display are becoming available and several recent studies have demonstrated that these technologies are now sufficiently advanced to facilitate generation of a comprehensive renewable resource of antibodies for any protein encoded by the approximately 22,500 human protein-coding genes. Antibody selection in vitro offers properties not available in animal-based antibody generation methods. By adjusting the biochemical milieu during selection, it is possible to control the antigen conformation recognized, the antibody affinity or unwanted cross-reactivity. For larger-scale antibody generation projects, the handling, transport and storage logistics and bacterial production offer cost benefits. Because the DNA sequence encoding the antibody is available, modifications, such as site-specific in vivo biotinylation and multimerization, are only a cloning step away. This opinion article summarizes opportunities for the generation of antibodies for proteome research using in vitro technologies.

  17. Recombinant Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Cementogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hexiu; Choung, Han-Wool; Lim, Ki-Taek; Jin, Bin; Jin, Chengbiao; Chung, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The periodontium, consisting of gingiva, periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and alveolar bone, is necessary for the maintenance of tooth function. Specifically, the regenerative abilities of cementum with inserted PDL are important for the prevention of tooth loss. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which are located in the connective tissue PDL between the cementum and alveolar bone, are an attractive candidate for hard tissue formation. We investigated the effects of recombinant human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rhPAI-1) on cementogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Untreated and rhPAI-1-treated hPDLSCs mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) and dentin matrix were transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of immunocompromised mice to assess their capacity for hard tissue formation at 8 and 10 weeks posttransplantation. rhPAI-1 accelerated mineral nodule formation and increased the mRNA expression of cementoblast-associated markers in hPDLSCs. We also observed that rhPAI-1 upregulated the levels of osterix (OSX) and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) through Smad2/3 and p38 pathways, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad3 and p38 inhibited the enhancement of mineralization of hPDLSCs by rhPAI-1. Furthermore, transplantation of hPDLSCs with rhPAI-1 showed a great ability to promote cementogenic differentiation. Notably, rhPAI-1 induced hPDLSCs to regenerate cementum-like tissue with PDL fibers inserted into newly formed cementum-like tissue. These results suggest that rhPAI-1 may play a key role in cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. rhPAI-1 with hPDLSCs may be a good candidate for future clinical applications in periodontal tissue regeneration and possibly in tooth root bioengineering. PMID:25808697

  18. Complete genome sequence analysis of novel human bocavirus reveals genetic recombination between human bocavirus 2 and human bocavirus 4.

    PubMed

    Khamrin, Pattara; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological surveillance of human bocavirus (HBoV) was conducted on fecal specimens collected from hospitalized children with diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. By partial sequence analysis of VP1 gene, an unusual strain of HBoV (CMH-S011-11), was initially identified as HBoV4. The complete genome sequence of CMH-S011-11 was performed and analyzed further to clarify whether it was a recombinant strain or a new HBoV variant. Analysis of complete genome sequence revealed that the coding sequence starting from NS1, NP1 to VP1/VP2 was 4795 nucleotides long. Interestingly, the nucleotide sequence of NS1 gene of CMH-S011-11 was most closely related to the HBoV2 reference strains detected in Pakistan, which contradicted to the initial genotyping result of the partial VP1 region in the previous study. In addition, comparison of NP1 nucleotide sequence of CMH-S011-11 with those of other HBoV1-4 reference strains also revealed a high level of sequence identity with HBoV2. On the other hand, nucleotide sequence of VP1/VP2 gene of CMH-S011-11 was most closely related to those of HBoV4 reference strains detected in Nigeria. The overall full-length sequence analysis revealed that this CMH-S011-11 was grouped within HBoV4 species, but located in a separate branch from other HBoV4 prototype strains. Recombination analysis revealed that CMH-S011-11 was the result of recombination between HBoV2 and HBoV4 strains with the break point located near the start codon of VP2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Generation of polyclonal antibodies against recombinant human glucocerebrosidase produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Novo, Juliana Branco; Oliveira, Maria Leonor Sarno; Magalhães, Geraldo Santana; Morganti, Ligia; Raw, Isaías; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2010-11-01

    Deficiency of the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GCR) enzyme results in Gaucher's disease, the most common inherited storage disorder. Treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by the administration of recombinant GCR produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The production of anti-GCR antibodies has already been described with placenta-derived human GCR that requires successive chromatographic procedures. Here, we report a practical and efficient method to obtain anti-GCR polyclonal antibodies against recombinant GCR produced in Escherichia coli and further purified by a single step through nickel affinity chromatography. The purified GCR was used to immunize BALB/c mice and the induction of anti-GCR antibodies was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specificity of the antiserum was also evaluated by western blot analysis against recombinant GCR produced by COS-7 cells or against endogenous GCR of human cell lines. GCR was strongly recognized by the produced antibodies, either as cell-associated or as secreted forms. The detected molecular masses of 59-66 kDa are in accordance to the expected size for glycosylated GCR. The GCR produced in E. coli would facilitate the production of polyclonal (shown here) and monoclonal antibodies and their use in the characterization of new biosimilar recombinant GCRs coming in the near future.

  20. No increase in female recombination frequency in the distal part of the human pseudoautosomal region

    SciTech Connect

    Vergnaud, G.

    1994-12-01

    In human, the genetic map is larger in female than in male. However, for unknown reasons, a reversed situation is observed toward at least some telomeres, where recombination in males can be 10-fold that observed in females. Henke et al. report that male and female recombination rates are equal in the very distal part of the human pseudoautosomal region (PAR), thus suggesting that the telomeric excess of male recombination, when observed, may not exist right to the tip of chromosomes. Such an observation is of importance for the genetic mapping of chromosome ends, for both practical and biological reasons. Thus, I have examined in detail our own data for this region and failed to confirm the previous report. I will explain here the origin of the discrepancy, in the CEPH family K1333 presented in detail in the Henke et al. report, which accounts for half (3/6) of the maternal recombination events detected in the most distal interval of the PAR. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Structural and functional characterisation of recombinant human haemoglobin A expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, D; Jones, G; Denton, K A; Wilson, M T; Chan, B; Harris, R; Woodrow, J R; Ogden, J E

    1992-08-01

    Recombinant human HbA, produced by co-expressing alpha-globin and beta-globin chains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been characterised extensively both physically and functionally. Structural studies using N-terminal sequence analysis, peptide mapping, amino acid composition analysis and electrospray MS demonstrated that the recombinant protein was identical to standard HbA purified from erythrocytes. The functional properties of the recombinant protein were assessed using equilibrium and kinetic measurements of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding. The oxygen-binding studies demonstrated that the yeast-derived HbA behaved as a fully functional, cooperative tetramer (Hill coefficient, 2.9), exhibited a normal Bohr effect and response to phosphate, and displayed a rate of oxygen dissociation identical to that of the native human molecule. The recombinant protein also showed the same characteristics of carbon monoxide combination as the standard protein. These studies demonstrate that yeast provides an ideal system for the production of Hb for structural and functional analysis and a potentially useful source of HbA for formulation into a Hb-based oxygen carrier.

  2. Protection of Non-Human Primates against Rabies with an Adenovirus Recombinant Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H. C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. PMID:24503087

  3. Recombinant human Tat-Hsp70-2: A tool for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Pamela; Binda, Elisa; Tunesi, Marta; Albani, Diego; Giordano, Carmen; Molla, Gianluca; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2017-10-01

    Human Hsp70-2 is a chaperone expressed mainly in the nervous system. Up to now, no study has reported on the recombinant expression of this important human chaperone. Herein, we describe the successful purification and characterization of recombinant human Hsp70-2 in Escherichia coli in both the full-length and the chimeric protein containing the protein transduction domain corresponding to the trans-activator of transcription (Tat) from HIV. Under optimized conditions, the Tat-Hsp70-2 was expressed in a soluble form and purified by two chromatographic steps (in a 3.6 mg/L fermentation broth yield): recombinant Tat-Hsp70-2 was folded and showed ATPase activity. In contrast, the full-length recombinant protein was only expressed in the form of inclusion bodies and thus was purified following a refolding procedure. The refolded Hsp70-2 protein was inactive and the protein conformation slightly altered as compared to the corresponding Tat-fused variant. The Tat-Hsp70-2 protein (100 nM), when added to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells subjected to hydrogen peroxide or 6-hydroxydopamine stress, partially protected from the deleterious effect of these treatments. This work describes an approach for the functional expression of human Tat-Hsp70-2 that provides sufficient material for detailed structure-function studies and for testing its ability to protect neuroblastoma cells from oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Preparation of human recombinant kringle 1-5 and its bioactivity].

    PubMed

    Hou, Wei-Hong; Chai, Yu-Rong; Wang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Jian-Min; Jia, Yan-Long; Xue, Le-Xun

    2005-07-01

    To investigate antiangiogenesis activity and effects on endothelial cell proliferation of human recombinant K1-5 expressed in E.coli BL21, the cDNA of human K1-5 obtained from a cloning vector pUC57K1-5 by PCR, was inserted into an expression vector pET30(+) to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pET-K1-5. Recombinant K1-5 efficiently expressed in E.coli BL21 after IPTG induction was monitored by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with an anti-angiostatin monoclonal antibody. The expressed K1-5 accounted for approximately 32% of the total bacterial proteins as estimated by densitometry, and existed mainly as inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were washed, lysed and purified to a purity of 96% by the nickel affinity chromatography. Refoled K1-5 protein was tested on chicken CAMs, and a large number of newly formed blood vessels were significantly regressed. In the present study, we demonstrated that bacterial-expressed K1-5 effectively inhibited angiogenesis of the chicken embryo in a dose-dependent manner through CAM assay. In addition, human recombinant K1-5 potently inhibited endothelial cell proliferation with no inhibition on non-endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that human recombinant K1-5 effectively inhibited angiogenesis of the chicken embryo in a dose-dependent manner and specially suppressed in vitro the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  5. [Safety of human papillomavirus 6, 11, 16 and 18 (recombinant): systematic review and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Pedro Luiz Spinelli; da Silva Calestini, Gustavo Lacerda; Alvo, Fernando Salgueiro; de Moura Freitas, Jefferson Michel; Castro, Paula Marcela Vilela; Konstantyner, Tulio

    2015-12-01

    To identify and quantify the adverse effects associated with the recombinant human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccine in adolescents. Systematic review of randomized clinical trials from PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases. Articles investigating the safety of the vaccine in subjects under 18 years and comparing the recombinant human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 vaccine with a control group were included. Meta-analyses were performed for the outcomes of pain, erythema, swelling and fever, using clinical trials with maximum Jadad score. Fourteen studies were included. The most commons adverse effects related to the human papillomavirus vaccine were effects with no severity (pain, erythema, edema, and fever). Five studies were used for the meta-analyses: Pain-Risk Difference (RD)=11% (p<0.001); edema-RD=8% (p<0.001); erythema-RD=5% (p<0.001); fever-RD=2% (p<0.003). The recombinant human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 vaccine was safe and well tolerated. The main adverse effects related to vaccination were pain, erythema, edema and fever. The low frequency of severe adverse effects encourages the administration of the vaccine in the population at risk. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety of human papillomavirus 6, 11, 16 and 18 (recombinant): systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Pedro Luiz Spinelli; Calestini, Gustavo Lacerda da Silva; Alvo, Fernando Salgueiro; Freitas, Jefferson Michel de Moura; Castro, Paula Marcela Vilela; Konstantyner, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify and quantify the adverse effects associated with the recombinant human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccine in adolescents. Data source: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials from PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases. Articles investigating the safety of the vaccine in subjects under 18 years and comparing the recombinant human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 vaccine with a control group were included. Meta-analyses were performed for the outcomes of pain, erythema, swelling and fever, using clinical trials with maximum Jadad score. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies were included. The most common adverse effects related to the human papillomavirus vaccine were effects with no severity (pain, erythema, edema, and fever). Five studies were used for the meta-analyses: pain-risk difference (RD)=11% (p<0.001); edema-RD=8% (p<0.001); erythema-RD=5% (p<0.001); fever-RD=2% (p<0.003). Conclusions: The recombinant human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 vaccine was safe and well tolerated. The main adverse effects related to vaccination were pain, erythema, edema and fever. The low frequency of severe adverse effects encourages the administration of the vaccine in the population at risk. PMID:26376359

  7. Acid-induced unfolding mechanism of recombinant human endostatin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Qianjie; Luo, Yongzhang

    2004-03-09

    Endostatin is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. The structure of endostatin is unique in that its secondary structure is mainly irregular loops and beta-sheets and contains only a small fraction of alpha-helices with two pairs of disulfide bonds in a nested pattern. We choose human endostatin as a model system to study the folding mechanism of this kind. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), tryptophan emission fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) were used to monitor the unfolding process of endostatin upon acid titration. Urea-induced unfolding was used to measure the stability of endostatin under different conditions. Our results show that endostatin is very acid-resistant; some native structure still remains even at pH 2 as evidenced by (1)H NMR. Trifluoroethanol (TFE) destabilizes native endostatin, while it makes endostatin even more acid-resistant in the low pH region. Stability measurement of endostatin suggests that endostatin is still in native structure at pH 3.5 despite the decreased stability. Acid-induced unfolding of endostatin is reversible, although it requires a long time to reach equilibrium below pH 3. Surprisingly, the alpha-helical content of endostatin is increased when it is unfolded at pH 1.6, and the alpha-helical content of the polypeptide chain of unfolded endostatin increases linearly with TFE concentration in the range of 0-30%. This observation indicates that the polypeptide chain of unfolded endostatin has an intrinsic alpha-helical propensity. Our discoveries may provide clues for refolding endostatin more efficiently. The acid-resistance property of endostatin may have biological significance in that it cannot be easily digested by proteases in an acidic environment such as in a lysosome in the cell.

  8. Aberrant recombination and repair during immunoglobulin class switching in BRCA1-deficient human B cells.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Andrea; Qvist, Per; Du, Likun; Bartish, Margarita; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Georgiou, Konstantinos; Børglum, Anders D; Gatti, Richard A; Törngren, Therese; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang

    2015-02-17

    Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) has a multitude of functions that contribute to genome integrity and tumor suppression. Its participation in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during homologous recombination (HR) is well recognized, whereas its involvement in the second major DSB repair pathway, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), remains controversial. Here we have studied the role of BRCA1 in the repair of DSBs in switch (S) regions during immunoglobulin class switch recombination, a physiological, deletion/recombination process that relies on the classical NHEJ machinery. A shift to the use of microhomology-based, alternative end-joining (A-EJ) and increased frequencies of intra-S region deletions as well as insertions of inverted S sequences were observed at the recombination junctions amplified from BRCA1-deficient human B cells. Furthermore, increased use of long microhomologies was found at recombination junctions derived from E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF168-deficient, Fanconi anemia group J protein (FACJ, BRIP1)-deficient, or DNA endonuclease RBBP8 (CtIP)-compromised cells, whereas an increased frequency of S-region inversions was observed in breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein (BRCA2)-deficient cells. Thus, BRCA1, together with its interaction partners, seems to play an important role in repairing DSBs generated during class switch recombination by promoting the classical NHEJ pathway. This may not only provide a general mechanism underlying BRCA1's function in maintaining genome stability and tumor suppression but may also point to a previously unrecognized role of BRCA1 in B-cell lymphomagenesis.

  9. Abaloparatide: Recombinant human PTHrP (1-34) anabolic therapy for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Chew, Chee Kian; Clarke, Bart L

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is generally either by inhibition of bone resorption with antiresorptive agents or by stimulation of bone formation with anabolic agents. Currently, teriparatide (recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-34 [rhPTH (1-34)]) is the only available approved anabolic agent in the U.S. Other anabolic agents are under investigation however. Abaloparatide is recombinant human parathyroid hormone-related peptide 1-34. This agent is an anabolic agent that appears more potent than teriparatide, and it may have more rapid onset of fracture reduction than teriparatide. It is currently undergoing FDA review, with approval expected in 2017. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant Antigens as Tools for Serodiagnosis of Human Toxoplasmosis: Current Status of Studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan which is the cause of toxoplasmosis. Although human toxoplasmosis in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic, serious disease can occur in the case of congenital infections and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, despite the exact recognition of its etiology, it still presents a diagnostic problem. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on the results of serological tests detecting anti-T. gondii-specific antibodies in the patient's serum sample. The specificities and sensitivities of serology tests depend mostly on the diagnostic antigen(s) used. Most of the commercial serological kits currently available are based on Toxoplasma lysate antigens (TLAs). In recent years, many studies showed that recombinant antigenic proteins of T. gondii may be an alternative source of antigens which are very useful for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This article presents a review of current studies on the application and usefulness of different T. gondii recombinant antigens in serological tests for the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. PMID:23784855

  11. Production of recombinant human apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Volynets, Galyna P; Gorbatiuk, Oksana B; Kukharenko, Oleksandr P; Usenko, Mariya O; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M

    2016-10-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mediator of the MAPK signaling cascade, which regulates different cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, and differentiation. The increased activity of ASK1 is associated with a number of human diseases and this protein kinase is considered as promising therapeutic target. In the present study, the kinase domain of human ASK1 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in soluble form. The expression level of ASK1 was around 0.3-0.47 g per 1 L after using auto-induction protocol or IPTG induction. A one-step on column method for the efficient purification of recombinant ASK1 was performed. Our approach yields sufficient amount of recombinant ASK1, which can be used for inhibitor screening assays and different crystallographic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Coordination study of recombinant human-like collagen and zinc (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Dai-Di

    2011-10-01

    In the present investigation, the complex of recombinant human-like collagen (r-HLC) with zinc (II) has been synthesized in aqueous solution and was analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. It can be concluded from UV-vis spectra that there exists interaction between r-HLC and zinc, and the complex is a new chemical compound different from pure r-HLC. In the complex of Zn, recombinant human-like collagen acts as ligand, linking the zinc ion via both groups of C dbnd O and N-H. Besides, the results of TG and DSC confirm that the complex was significantly different from ligand, and the former is more thermally stable in comparison with the latter. The results obtained from the current investigation are of crucial importance to understand the r-HLC-Zn complex and provide theoretical evidence for the further study.

  13. Coordination study of recombinant human-like collagen and zinc (II).

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Dai-Di

    2011-10-15

    In the present investigation, the complex of recombinant human-like collagen (r-HLC) with zinc (II) has been synthesized in aqueous solution and was analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. It can be concluded from UV-vis spectra that there exists interaction between r-HLC and zinc, and the complex is a new chemical compound different from pure r-HLC. In the complex of Zn, recombinant human-like collagen acts as ligand, linking the zinc ion via both groups of C=O and N-H. Besides, the results of TG and DSC confirm that the complex was significantly different from ligand, and the former is more thermally stable in comparison with the latter. The results obtained from the current investigation are of crucial importance to understand the r-HLC-Zn complex and provide theoretical evidence for the further study.

  14. Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B.

    PubMed

    Nandigama, Ravi K; Newton-Vinson, Paige; Edmondson, Dale E

    2002-03-01

    Recent studies with rat tissue preparations have suggested that the anorectic drug phentermine inhibits serotonin degradation by inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A with a K(I) value of 85-88 microM, a potency suggested to be similar to that of other reversible MAO inhibitors (Ulus et al., Biochem Pharmacol 2000;59:1611-21). Since there are known differences between rats and humans in substrate and inhibitor specificities of MAOs, the interactions of phentermine with recombinant human purified preparations of MAO A and MAO B were determined. Human MAO A was competitively inhibited by phentermine with a K(I) value of 498+/-60 microM, a value approximately 6-fold weaker than that observed for the rat enzyme. Phentermine was also observed to be a competitive inhibitor of recombinant human liver MAO B with a K(I) value of 375+/-42 microM, a value similar to that observed with the rat enzyme (310-416 microM). In contrast to the behavior with rat tissue preparations, no slow time-dependent behavior was observed for phentermine inhibition of purified soluble human MAO preparations. Difference absorption spectral studies showed similar perturbations of the covalent FAD moieties of both human MAO A and MAO B, which suggests a similar mode of binding in both enzymes. These data suggest that phentermine inhibition of human MAO A (or of MAO B) is too weak to be of pharmacological relevance.

  15. Antiapoptotic properties of recombinant human erythropoietin protects against tubular cyclosporine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Bouvier, Nicolas; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Choukroun, Gabriel; Martinez, Frank

    2010-01-01

    During the early post transplant period, the tubular epithelium is the main target of injuries including ischemia reperfusion and toxicity effects from calcineurin inhibitors. Taking into account the tissue protective effects of erythropoietin mediated through its antiapoptotic properties, we tested whether administration of recombinant human erythropoietin protects against acute cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Four groups of five rats were intraperitoneally treated over 28 days with 100UI/Kg/48h Epoetin beta (15mg/kg/day CsA diluted in olive oil, 100UI/Kg/48h Epoetin beta+15mg/kg/day CsA, or olive oil. Histological changes due to tubular necrosis were evaluated with Masson'Trichrome staining. Apoptotic nuclei in kidneys were detected using the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) method. Phospho-Akt, Akt, cleaved caspase 3 and non cleaved caspase 3 expression were evaluated using immunblotting. We demonstrate that recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin beta) improves renal function and protects against acute tubular injury. Our data suggest that this nephroprotective effect is mediated by Akt activation and inhibition of tubular apoptosis. Indeed, western blotting analysis of caspase 3 cleavage and Akt phosphorylation demonstrates that rhEPO activate Akt signaling and inhibits caspase 3 cleavage induced by CsA. TUNEL staining confirms that rhEPO inhibits CsA-induced tubular apoptosis. In conclusion, we describe here a new potential target of recombinant human erythropoietin and our results provide an interesting framework for further nephroprotective therapies based on recombinant human erythropoietin. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of recombinant erythropoietin on functional activity of cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Emel'yanova, E A; Kosykh, A V; Sukhanov, Yu V; Vorotelyak, E A; Vasil'ev, A V

    2012-08-01

    We studied the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on functional activity of skin cells in vitro. It was found that erythropoietin stimulated proliferation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells and effectively protected epidermal HaCaT cells from apoptosis. Insignificant effect of erythropoietin on contraction of collagen gel by mesenchymal cells was revealed. These findings suggest that erythropoietin can be a promising component of wound-healing preparations.

  17. Prevention of murine experimental autoimmune orchitis by recombinant human interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Itoh, Masahiro; Ablake, Maila; Macrì, Battesimo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2002-02-01

    We studied the effect of exogenously administered recombinant human interleukin (IL)-6 on the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in C3H/Hej mice. IL-6 significantly reduced histological signs of EAO and appearance of delayed type hypersensitivity against the immunizing testicular germinal cells. The effect was seen even though the cytokine was administered for only 6 consecutive days and 2 weeks after immunization.

  18. Recombinant human hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous infusion of human immunoglobulins for primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Richard L; Melamed, Isaac; Stein, Mark R; Gupta, Sudhir; Puck, Jennifer; Engl, Werner; Leibl, Heinz; McCoy, Barbara; Empson, Victoria G; Gelmont, David; Schiff, Richard I

    2012-10-01

    Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IGSC) replacement therapy for primary immunodeficiency (PI) is equally efficacious to intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV), induces fewer systemic reactions, and may be self-infused. Limited SC infusion volumes and reduced bioavailability, however, necessitate multiple infusion sites, more frequent treatment, and dose adjustment to achieve pharmacokinetic equivalence. Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) increases SC tissue permeability and facilitates dispersion and absorption, enabling administration of monthly doses in one site. This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of rHuPH20-facilitated IGSC (IGHy) in patients with PI. In this open-label, multicenter phase III study, 87 patients with PI aged ≥2 years received 10% IGIV for 3 months, then IGHy (n = 83) for approximately 14 to 18 months at 108% of the IGIV dose. IGHy infusions began weekly, increasing to 3- or 4-week intervals. The majority (94.0%) of IGHy infusions were administered every 3 or 4 weeks, using one site (median, 1.09/month), with a mean volume of 292.2 mL. The bioavailability of IGHy measured by area under the concentration versus time curve was 93.3% of IGIV, which is pharmacokinetically equivalent. Systemic reactions were less frequent with IGHy than with IGIV (8.3% vs 25.0% of infusions). Local reactions to IGHy were generally mild to moderate, with a rate of 0.203 per infusion. The acute serious bacterial infection rate per subject-year for IGHy was low (0.025; upper 99% CI limit, 0.046). Overall infection rates per subject-year were 2.97 for IGHy and 4.51 for IGIV. IGHy was effective, safe, and pharmacokinetically equivalent to IGIV at the same administration intervals, but it caused fewer systemic reactions. Tolerability was good despite high infusion volumes and rates. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the N-glycans of recombinant human Factor IX purified from transgenic pig milk

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Geun-Cheol; Velander, William H; Van Cott, Kevin E

    2008-01-01

    Glycosylation of recombinant proteins is of particular importance because it can play significant roles in the clinical properties of the glycoprotein. In this work, the N-glycan structures of recombinant human Factor IX (tg-FIX) produced in the transgenic pig mammary gland were determined. The majority of the N-glycans of transgenic pig-derived Factor IX (tg-FIX) are complex, bi-antennary with one or two terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) moieties. We also found that the N-glycan structures of tg-FIX produced in the porcine mammary epithelial cells differed with respect to N-glycans from glycoproteins produced in other porcine tissues. tg-FIX contains no detectable Neu5Gc, the sialic acid commonly found in porcine glycoproteins produced in other tissues. Additionally, we were unable to detect glycans in tg-FIX that have a terminal Galα(1,3)Gal disaccharide sequence, which is strongly antigenic in humans. The N-glycan structures of tg-FIX are also compared to the published N-glycan structures of recombinant human glycoproteins produced in other transgenic animal species. While tg-FIX contains only complex structures, antithrombin III (goat), C1 inhibitor (rabbit), and lactoferrin (cow) have both high mannose and complex structures. Collectively, these data represent a beginning point for the future investigation of species-specific and tissue/cell-specific differences in N-glycan structures among animals used for transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:18456721

  20. Analysis of the N-glycans of recombinant human Factor IX purified from transgenic pig milk.

    PubMed

    Gil, Geun-Cheol; Velander, William H; Van Cott, Kevin E

    2008-07-01

    Glycosylation of recombinant proteins is of particular importance because it can play significant roles in the clinical properties of the glycoprotein. In this work, the N-glycan structures of recombinant human Factor IX (tg-FIX) produced in the transgenic pig mammary gland were determined. The majority of the N-glycans of transgenic pig-derived Factor IX (tg-FIX) are complex, bi-antennary with one or two terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) moieties. We also found that the N-glycan structures of tg-FIX produced in the porcine mammary epithelial cells differed with respect to N-glycans from glycoproteins produced in other porcine tissues. tg-FIX contains no detectable Neu5Gc, the sialic acid commonly found in porcine glycoproteins produced in other tissues. Additionally, we were unable to detect glycans in tg-FIX that have a terminal Galalpha(1,3)Gal disaccharide sequence, which is strongly antigenic in humans. The N-glycan structures of tg-FIX are also compared to the published N-glycan structures of recombinant human glycoproteins produced in other transgenic animal species. While tg-FIX contains only complex structures, antithrombin III (goat), C1 inhibitor (rabbit), and lactoferrin (cow) have both high mannose and complex structures. Collectively, these data represent a beginning point for the future investigation of species-specific and tissue/cell-specific differences in N-glycan structures among animals used for transgenic animal bioreactors.

  1. Recombinant leukemia inhibitory factor suppresses human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Singh, Nishant K; Jensen, Davin R; Peterson, Francis C; Park, Jong-In

    2013-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neoplasm of the endocrine system, which originates from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland. For MTC therapy, the Food and Drug Administration recently approved vandetanib and cabozantinib, multi-kinase inhibitors targeting RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, or hepatocyte growth factor. Nevertheless, not all patients with the progressive MTC respond to these drugs, requiring the development of additional therapeutic modalities that have distinct activity. Previously, we reported that expression of activated Ras or Raf in the human MTC cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, can induce growth arrest and RET downregulation via a leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-mediated autocrine/paracrine loop. In this study, we aimed to evaluate bacterially-produced recombinant human LIF for its efficacy to suppress human MTC xenografts in mice. Here, we report that, consistent with its effects in vitro, locally or systemically administered recombinant LIF effectively suppressed growth of TT and MZ-CRC-1 xenografts in mice. Further, as predicted from its effects in TT and MZ-CRC-1 cell cultures in vitro, recombinant LIF activated the JAK/STAT pathway and downregulated RET and E2F1 expression in tumors in mice. These results suggest that LIF is a potent cytostatic agent for MTC cells, which regulates unique mechanisms that are not targeted by currently available therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transduction of human recombinant proteins into mitochondria as a protein therapeutic approach for mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Lefkothea C; Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S

    2011-11-01

    Protein therapy is considered an alternative approach to gene therapy for treatment of genetic-metabolic disorders. Human protein therapeutics (PTs), developed via recombinant DNA technology and used for the treatment of these illnesses, act upon membrane-bound receptors to achieve their pharmacological response. On the contrary, proteins that normally act inside the cells cannot be developed as PTs in the conventional way, since they are not able to "cross" the plasma membrane. Furthermore, in mitochondrial disorders, attributed either to depleted or malfunctioned mitochondrial proteins, PTs should also have to reach the subcellular mitochondria to exert their therapeutic potential. Nowadays, there is no effective therapy for mitochondrial disorders. The development of PTs, however, via the Protein Transduction Domain (PTD) technology offered new opportunities for the deliberate delivery of human recombinant proteins inside eukaryotic subcellular organelles. To this end, mitochondrial disorders could be clinically encountered with the delivery of human mitochondrial proteins (engineered via recombinant DNA and PTD technologies) at specific intramitochondrial sites to exert their function. Overall, PTD-mediated Protein Replacement Therapy emerges as a suitable model system for the therapeutic approach for mitochondrial disorders.

  3. Recombinant Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (aFGF) Expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana Potentially Inhibits Skin Photoaging.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jang-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neul; Moon, Ki-Beom; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Jung, Dai-Hyun; Kim, Su-Jung; Mason, Hugh S; Shin, Seo-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Park, Kyung-Mok

    2017-07-01

    Responding to the need for recombinant acidic fibroblast growth factor in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, we established a scalable expression system for recombinant human aFGF using transient and a DNA replicon vector expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Recombinant human-acidic fibroblast growth factor was recovered following Agrobacterium infiltration of N. benthamiana. The optimal time point at which to harvest recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor expressing leaves was found to be 4 days post-infiltration, before necrosis was evident. Commassie-stained SDS-PAGE gels of His-tag column eluates, concentrated using a 10 000 molecular weight cut-off column, showed an intense band at the expected molecular weight for recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor. An immunoblot confirmed that this band was recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor. Up to 10 µg recombinant human-acidic fibroblast growth factor/g of fresh leaves were achieved by a simple affinity purification protocol using protein extract from the leaves of agroinfiltrated N. benthamiana. The purified recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor improved the survival rate of UVB-irradiated HaCaT and CCD-986sk cells approximately 89 and 81 %, respectively. N. benthamiana-derived recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor showed similar effects on skin cell proliferation and UVB protection compared to those of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor. Additionally, N. benthamiana-derived recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor increased type 1 procollagen synthesis up to 30 % as well as reduced UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in fibroblast (CCD-986sk) cells.UVB is a well-known factor that causes various types of skin damage and premature aging. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that N. benthamiana-derived recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor

  4. Synthesis of recombinant human parainfluenza virus 1 and 3 nucleocapsid proteins in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite, Indre; Sezaite, Indre; Slibinskas, Rimantas; Coiras, Mayte; de Ory Manchon, Fernando; López-Huertas, María Rosa; Pérez-Breña, Pilar; Staniulis, Juozas; Narkeviciute, Irena; Sasnauskas, Kestutis

    2008-05-01

    Human parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 (HPIV1 and HPIV3, respectively), members of the virus family Paramyxoviridae, are common causes of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. In order to synthesize recombinant HPIV1 and HPIV3 nucleocapsid proteins, the coding sequences were cloned into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression vector pFGG3 under control of GAL7 promoter. A high level of recombinant virus nucleocapsid proteins expression (20-24 mg l(-1) of yeast culture) was obtained. Electron microscopy demonstrated the assembly of typical herring-bone structures of purified recombinant nucleocapsid proteins, characteristic for other paramyxoviruses. These structures contained host RNA, which was resistant to RNase treatment. The nucleocapsid proteins were stable in yeast and were easily purified by caesium chloride gradient ultracentrifugation. Therefore, this system proved to be simple, efficient and cost-effective, suitable for high-level production of parainfluenza virus nucleocapsids as nucleocapsid-like particles. When used as coating antigens in an indirect ELISA, the recombinant N proteins reacted with sera of patients infected with HPIV1 or 3. Serological assays to detect HPIV-specific antibodies could be designed on this basis.

  5. Refined genetic maps reveal sexual dimorphism in human meiotic recombination at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhérer, Claude; Campbell, Christopher L.; Auton, Adam

    2017-04-01

    In humans, males have lower recombination rates than females over the majority of the genome, but the opposite is usually true near the telomeres. These broad-scale differences have been known for decades, yet little is known about differences at the fine scale. By combining data sets, we have collected recombination events from over 100,000 meioses and have constructed sex-specific genetic maps at a previously unachievable resolution. Here we show that, although a substantial fraction of the genome shows some degree of sexually dimorphic recombination, the vast majority of hotspots are shared between the sexes, with only a small number of putative sex-specific hotspots. Wavelet analysis indicates that most of the differences can be attributed to the fine scale, and that variation in rate between the sexes can mostly be explained by differences in hotspot magnitude, rather than location. Nonetheless, known recombination-associated genomic features, such as THE1B repeat elements, show systematic differences between the sexes.

  6. Characterization and biological activities of recombinant human plasminogen kringle 1-3 produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    You, Weon-Kyoo; So, Seung-Ho; Sohn, Young-Doug; Lee, Hyosil; Park, Doo-Hong; Chung, Soo-Il; Chung, Kwang-Hoe

    2004-07-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from preexisting blood vessels, is involved in many pathological conditions, for example, tumorigenesis, diabetic retinopathy, and rheumatoid arthritis. Angiostatin, which contains the kringle 1-4 domains of plasminogen, is known to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and a strong suppressor of various solid tumors. In this study, we expressed recombinant protein containing the kringle 1-3 domains of human plasminogen in Escherichia coli and investigated its biological activities. The protein was successfully refolded from inclusion bodies and purified at a 30% overall yield, as a single peak by HPLC. The purified recombinant protein had biochemical properties that were similar to those of the native form, which included molecular size, lysine-binding capacity, and immunoreactivity with a specific antibody. The recombinant protein was also found to strongly inhibit the proliferation of bovine capillary endothelial cells in vitro, and the formation of new capillaries on chick embryos. In addition, it suppressed the growth of primary Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma in an in vivo mouse model. Our findings suggest that the recombinant kringle 1-3 domains in a prokaryote expression system have anti-angiogenic activities, which may be useful in clinical and basic research in the field of angiogenesis.

  7. Selection of LNA-containing DNA aptamers against recombinant human CD73.

    PubMed

    Elle, Ida C; Karlsen, Kasper K; Terp, Mikkel G; Larsen, Niels; Nielsen, Ronni; Derbyshire, Nicola; Mandrup, Susanne; Ditzel, Henrik J; Wengel, Jesper

    2015-05-01

    LNA-containing DNA aptamers against CD73 (human ecto-5'-nucleotidase), a protein frequently overexpressed in solid tumours, were isolated by SELEX. A pre-defined stem-loop library, containing LNA in the forward primer region, was enriched with CD73 binding sequences through six rounds of SELEX with recombinant his-tagged CD73 immobilised on anti-his plates. Enriched pools isolated from rounds one, three and six were subjected to next-generation sequencing and analysed for enrichment using custom bioinformatics software. The software identified aptamer sequences via the primers and then performed several steps including sequence unification, clustering and alignment to identify enriched sequences. Three enriched sequences were synthesised for further analysis, two of which showed sequence similarities. These sequences exhibited binding to the recombinant CD73 with KD values of 10 nM and 3.5 nM when tested by surface plasmon resonance. Truncated variants of these aptamers and variants where the LNA nucleotides were substituted for the DNA equivalent also exhibited affinity for the recombinant CD73 in the low nanomolar range. In enzyme inhibition assays with recombinant CD73 the aptamer sequences were able to decrease the activity of the protein. However, the aptamers exhibited no binding to cellular CD73 by flow cytometry analysis likely since the epitope recognised by the aptamer was not available for binding on the cellular protein.

  8. Recombinant human hemoglobin does not affect renal function in humans: analysis of safety and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Viele, M K; Weiskopf, R B; Fisher, D

    1997-04-01

    Recombinant human hemoglobin (OptroD; rHb1.1) is a genetically engineered protein produced in Escherichia coli. The two alpha-globin polypeptides are genetically joined, resulting in a stable tetramer that does not dissociate into dimers or monomers. Historically, infusion in humans of acellular hemoglobin preparations has resulted in renal toxicity. This study was performed to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of rHb1.1 when infused in humans. After giving informed consent, 48 healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 0.015-0.32 g/kg 5% rHb1.1 (n = 34) or an equivalent amount of 5% human serum albumin (HSA; n = 14) infused intravenously over 0.8-1.9 h. Serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, urine N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, and serum rHb1.1 concentrations were measured before and at timed intervals after infusion. Postinfusion urine N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity did not exceed preinfusion values at any interval in either group. Serum creatinine did not differ from preinfusion values at 1 day, 2-3 days, or 7 days after infusion for either group. Creatinine clearance increased significantly for the HSA group 12 h after infusion (138 +/- 16 ml/min, means +/- SE) and in the rHb1.1 group 1 day after infusion (112 +/- 5 ml/min; P < 0.05). Values for creatinine clearance did not differ from preinfusion values for either group at any other postinfusion interval; serum creatinine and creatinine clearance did not differ between groups at any time. The amount of hemoglobin excreted in the urine did not exceed approximately 0.04% of the administered rHb1.1 dose in any volunteer. Plasma clearance of rHb1.1 decreased and half-life increased as a function of increasing plasma concentration (e.g., the half-life was 2.8 h at a plasma concentration of 0.5 mg/ml and 12 h at 5 mg/ml). The incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, and chills was greater after infusion of rHb1.1 than after HSA (P < 0.05). No evidence for rHb1.1-mediated

  9. Recombination rates and genomic shuffling in human and chimpanzee--a new twist in the chromosomal speciation theory.

    PubMed

    Farré, Marta; Micheletti, Diego; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2013-04-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology concerns the effect of recombination in shaping the genomic architecture of organisms and, in particular, how this impacts the speciation process. Despite efforts employed in the last decade, the role of chromosomal reorganizations in the human-chimpanzee speciation process remains unresolved. Through whole-genome comparisons, we have analyzed the genome-wide impact of genomic shuffling in the distribution of human recombination rates during the human-chimpanzee speciation process. We have constructed a highly refined map of the reorganizations and evolutionary breakpoint regions in the human and chimpanzee genomes based on orthologous genes and genome sequence alignments. The analysis of the most recent human and chimpanzee recombination maps inferred from genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data revealed that the standardized recombination rate was significantly lower in rearranged than in collinear chromosomes. In fact, rearranged chromosomes presented significantly lower recombination rates than chromosomes that have been maintained since the ancestor of great apes, and this was related with the lineage in which they become fixed. Importantly, inverted regions had lower recombination rates than collinear and noninverted regions, independently of the effect of centromeres. Our observations have implications for the chromosomal speciation theory, providing new evidences for the contribution of inversions in suppressing recombination in mammals.

  10. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink.

    PubMed

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F

    2016-07-31

    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration.

  11. A murine-ES like state facilitates transgenesis and homologous recombination in human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Buecker, Christa; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Polo, Jose; Daheron, Laurence; Bu, Lei; Barakat, Tahsin Stefan; Okwieka, Patricia; Porter, Andrew; Gribnau, Joost; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Geijsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells have been shown to exist in two functionally distinct pluripotent states, embryonic stem cells (ES cell)- and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), which are defined by the culture growth factor conditions. Human ES cells appear to exist in an epiblast-like state, which in comparison to their murine counterparts, is relatively difficult to propagate and manipulate. As a result, gene targeting is difficult and to-date only a handful of human knock-in or knock-out cell lines exist. We explored whether an alternative stem cell state exists for human stem cells as well, and demonstrate that manipulation of the growth factor milieu allows the derivation of a novel human stem cell type that displays morphological, molecular and functional properties of murine ES cells and facilitates gene targeting. As such, the murine ES-like state provides a powerful tool for the generation of recombinant human pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:20569691

  12. [Immunoenzyme method of determining trace amounts of proinsulin in recombinant human insulin].

    PubMed

    Britsyna, N S; Prokop'ev, A A; Kulikov, S V; Samartsev, M A

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for the detection of human proinsulin has been developed based on the interaction of the absorbed proinsulin with the antiserum against the synthetic proinsulin C-peptide. In the presence of high concentrations of insulin, the sensitivity of the assay slightly decreases due to the competitive adsorption of insulin onto the polystyrene carrier with the binding constant 800-1000 times less than that of proinsulin. A method is proposed for the interpretation of ELISA data based on analysis of a weighed dry insulin sample, which enables the detection of a 0.02-0.1% admixture of proinsulin in the chromatographically purified recombinant human insulin.

  13. Maxillary anterior ridge augmentation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Ryan K; Mealey, Brian L; Mills, Michael P; Thoma, Daniel S; Schoolfield, John; Cochran, David L; Mellonig, Jim

    2014-01-01

    No human studies exist on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as a sole graft material for lateral ridge augmentation in large ridge defect sites. This series evaluates the treatment outcome of maxillary anterior lateral ridge augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS. Twenty patients were treated with rhBMP-2/ACS and fixation screws for space maintenance. Cone beam volumetric tomography measurements were used to determine gain in ridge width, and a bone core biopsy was obtained. The mean horizontal ridge gain was 1.2 mm across sites, and every site gained width.

  14. Homologous recombination intermediates between two duplex DNA catalysed by human cell extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, B; Rousset, S; Coppey, J

    1987-01-01

    Using as substrates, 1: the replicative form (RF) of phage M13 mp8 in which the reading frame of the lac Z' gene was disrupted by insertion of an octonucleotide, and 2: a restriction fragment one kb long, containing the functional lac Z' gene (isolated from wild type M13 mp8), we show that nuclear extracts from human cells (3 lines tested) promote the targeted replacement of the altered sequence by the functional one. Following incubation with the extracts, the DNA's were introduced in JM 109 bacteria (rec A- and lac Z'-) which were grown in presence of a colorimetric indicator of beta-galactosidase activity. Homologous recombination gives rise to the genotypical modification: lac Z'+ instead of lac Z'- in the bacteriophage DNA. This is revealed by phenotypical expression of the lac Z' gene product in replicating bacteriophage, i.e. the formation of blue instead of white plaques. The frequency of recombination (blue/total plaques) is increased by a factor of 50-80 as a function of protein concentration and of incubation time. The maximal frequency observed is 5 X 10(-5). There is no increase over the background when extracts are boiled. Electrophoresis and electron microscopy of DNA's incubated with the extracts show the formation of recombination intermediates with single strand exchange. Restriction analysis of recombined DNA confirms that the process corresponds to targeted sequence exchange. These data allow to propose three steps for homologous recombination between two duplex DNA's: i) unpairing of the two duplexes; ii) single-strand exchange and synaptic pairing; iii) resolution of the cross-junctions. The three steps correspond to those predicted by the gene conversion model of Holliday. Images PMID:3302944

  15. Genome-scale metabolic model of Pichia pastoris with native and humanized glycosylation of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Irani, Zahra Azimzadeh; Kerkhoven, Eduard J; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-05-01

    Pichia pastoris is used for commercial production of human therapeutic proteins, and genome-scale models of P. pastoris metabolism have been generated in the past to study the metabolism and associated protein production by this yeast. A major challenge with clinical usage of recombinant proteins produced by P. pastoris is the difference in N-glycosylation of proteins produced by humans and this yeast. However, through metabolic engineering, a P. pastoris strain capable of producing humanized N-glycosylated proteins was constructed. The current genome-scale models of P. pastoris do not address native nor humanized N-glycosylation, and we therefore developed ihGlycopastoris, an extension to the iLC915 model with both native and humanized N-glycosylation for recombinant protein production, but also an estimation of N-glycosylation of P. pastoris native proteins. This new model gives a better prediction of protein yield, demonstrates the effect of the different types of N-glycosylation of protein yield, and can be used to predict potential targets for strain improvement. The model represents a step towards a more complete description of protein production in P. pastoris, which is required for using these models to understand and optimize protein production processes.

  16. Preparation of Tc-99m-macroaggregated albumin from recombinant human albumin for lung perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A P; Frier, M; Johnson, R A; Berezenko, S; Perkins, A C

    2006-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) extracted from pooled blood taken from human donors is used in the production of (99m)Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin (MAA) for lung perfusion imaging. However, concerns for the safety of blood-derived products due to potential contamination by infective agents (e.g. new variant CJD), make alternative production methods necessary. Recombinant DNA technology is a promising method of albumin production avoiding problems associated with human-derived HSA. This paper presents results comparing MAA prepared from recombinant human albumin (rHA, Recombumin) (rMAA) with in-house produced HSA MAA (hMAA) and commercially available MAA (cMAA). (99m)Tc-MAA was prepared using previously published production methods by heating a mixture of albumin and stannous chloride in acetate buffer (pH 5.4) at 70 degrees C for 20 min. Parameters investigated include aggregate size, radiolabelling efficiency, radiochemical and aggregate stability at 4 degrees C and in vitro (in whole human blood) at 37 degrees C and biodistribution studies. Results showed that rMAA could be produced with similar morphology, labelling efficiency and stability to hMAA and cMAA. Our findings confirm that rHA shows significant potential as a direct replacement for HSA in commercially available MAA.

  17. One-step purification of soluble recombinant human 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chan, Barden; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2013-11-01

    6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), the third enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, was recently identified as a novel target in human lung cancer. In this report, we present an expression and purification scheme of recombinant human 6PGD from Escherichia coli. Using a DE3 derivative strain expressing tRNAs for seven rare codons in E. coli called Rosetta2 (DE3), a large quantity of soluble human 6PGD can be expressed with an N-terminal histidine tag and purified by a one-step purification procedure to near homogeneity without denaturants or refolding. Three to seven milligrams of purified protein could be obtained from 100 ml of culture. This recombinant human 6PGD follows classic Michaelis-Menton saturation kinetics with respect to both substrates NADP(+) and 6-phosphogluconate. The respective k(cat) and K(m) were comparable to those of 6PGDs purified from mammalian tissues. Using this purified 6PGD enzyme, we devised an endpoint colorimetric assay suitable for high-throughput screening for human 6PGD inhibitors.

  18. Recombination networks as genetic markers in a human variation study of the Old World.

    PubMed

    Javed, Asif; Melé, Marta; Pybus, Marc; Zalloua, Pierre; Haber, Marc; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Jin, Li; Yang, Yajun; Arunkumar, Ganeshprasad; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Calafell, Francesc; Parida, Laxmi

    2012-04-01

    We have analyzed human genetic diversity in 33 Old World populations including 23 populations obtained through Genographic Project studies. A set of 1,536 SNPs in five X chromosome regions were genotyped in 1,288 individuals (mostly males). We use a novel analysis employing subARG network construction with recombining chromosomal segments. Here, a subARG is constructed independently for each of five gene-free regions across the X chromosome, and the results are aggregated across them. For PCA, MDS and ancestry inference with STRUCTURE, the subARG is processed to obtain feature vectors of samples and pairwise distances between samples. The observed population structure, estimated from the five short X chromosomal segments, supports genome-wide frequency-based analyses: African populations show higher genetic diversity, and the general trend of shared variation is seen across the globe from Africa through Middle East, Europe, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia in broad patterns. The recombinational analysis was also compared with established methods based on SNPs and haplotypes. For haplotypes, we also employed a fixed-length approach based on information-content optimization. Our recombinational analysis suggested a southern migration route out of Africa, and it also supports a single, rapid human expansion from Africa to East Asia through South Asia.

  19. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Recombination regulator PRDM9 influences the instability of its own coding sequence in humans.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Cotton, Victoria E; Neumann, Rita; Lam, Kwan-Wood Gabriel

    2013-01-08

    PRDM9 plays a key role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspot locations in humans and mice via recognition of hotspot sequence motifs by a variable tandem-repeat zinc finger domain in the protein. We now explore germ-line instability of this domain in humans. We show that repeat turnover is driven by mitotic and meiotic mutation pathways, the latter frequently resulting in substantial remodeling of zinc fingers. Turnover dynamics predict frequent allele switches in populations with correspondingly fast changes of the recombination landscape, fully consistent with the known rapid evolution of hotspot locations. We found variation in meiotic instability between men that correlated with PRDM9 status. One particular "destabilizer" variant caused hyperinstability not only of itself but also of otherwise-stable alleles in heterozygotes. PRDM9 protein thus appears to regulate the instability of its own coding sequence. However, destabilizer variants are strongly self-limiting in populations and probably have little impact on the evolution of the recombination landscape.

  1. Structural and functional characterization of recombinant human cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Crabb, J. W.; Carlson, A.; Chen, Y.; Goldflam, S.; Intres, R.; West, K. A.; Hulmes, J. D.; Kapron, J. T.; Luck, L. A.; Horwitz, J.; Bok, D.

    1998-01-01

    Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) is abundant in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Müller cells of the retina where it is thought to function in retinoid metabolism and visual pigment regeneration. The protein carries 11-cis-retinal and/or 11-cis-retinol as endogenous ligands in the RPE and retina and mutations in human CRALBP that destroy retinoid binding functionality have been linked to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. CRALBP is also present in brain without endogenous retinoids, suggesting other ligands and physiological roles exist for the protein. Human recombinant cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (rCRALBP) has been over expressed as non-fusion and fusion proteins in Escherichia coli from pET3a and pET19b vectors, respectively. The recombinant proteins typically constitute 15-20% of the soluble bacterial lysate protein and after purification, yield about 3-8 mg per liter of bacterial culture. Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry, amino acid analysis, and Edman degradation were used to demonstrate that rCRALBP exhibits the correct primary structure and mass. Circular dichroism, retinoid HPLC, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and solution state 19F-NMR were used to characterize the secondary structure and retinoid binding properties of rCRALBP. Human rCRALBP appears virtually identical to bovine retinal CRALBP in terms of secondary structure, thermal stability, and stereoselective retinoid-binding properties. Ligand-dependent conformational changes appear to influence a newly detected difference in the bathochromic shift exhibited by bovine and human CRALBP when complexed with 9-cis-retinal. These recombinant preparations provide valid models for human CRALBP structure-function studies. PMID:9541407

  2. Expression and partial purification of a recombinant secretory form of human liver carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Scott, D F; Chacko, T L; Maxwell, D M; Schlager, J J; Lanclos, K D

    1999-10-01

    Serine-dependent carboxylesterases (EC 3.1.1.1) are found in a variety of tissues with high activity detected in the liver. Carboxylesterases (CaE) hydrolyze aliphatic and aromatic esters, and aromatic amides, and play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotic chemicals that contain organophosphate (OP) compounds. The detoxifying ability of CaE is limited by its low concentration in serum where it encounters OP compounds. Studies in our laboratory have shown that a pRC/CMV-hCaE plasmid construct, stably integrated into 293T cells, expresses a human liver CaE in culture. However, the enzyme remained inside the cell and reached a low steady-state level of expression. The goals of this study were to overexpress a functional human liver CaE from a recombinant cDNA in a human cell line and to isolate and purify the recombinant protein. To accomplish these goals, a single amino acid change was made in the C-terminal retrieval signal, HIEL (His-Ile-Glu-Leu), of human liver CaE. The mutation produced a unique Eco47III restriction site, which aided in clone selection. The recombinant plasmid, pRc/CMV-mhCaE, was isolated and stably integrated into human 293T cells. Expression of the altered cDNA resulted in secretion of an active CaE up to levels of 500 enzyme units per liter of growth medium. Secretory CaE displayed isoelectric focusing patterns similar to those of the native enzyme with no observable changes in activity. The secreted enzyme was partially purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and Cibacron blue affinity chromatography. Partial enzyme purification was achieved, and CaE retained a high level of enzymatic activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. [Analysis of genetic recombination between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2].

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazushi

    2009-03-01

    It is estimated that one million people are dually infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-I (HIV-1) and type-II (HIV-2) in West Africa and parts of India. HIV-1 and HIV-2 use the same receptor and coreceptors for entry into cells, and thus target the same cell populations in the host. Additionally, we first examined whether RNAs from HIV-1 and HIV-2 can be copackaged into the same virion. Therefore these properties suggest that in the dually infected population, it is likely that some cells can be infected by both HIV-1 and HIV-2, thereby providing opportunities for these two viruses to interact with each other. We constructed recombination assay system for measurement recombination frequencies and analyzed recombination rate between HIV-1 and HIV-2. We used modified near-full-length viruses that each contained a green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) with a different inactivating mutation. Thus, a functional gfp could be reconstituted via recombination, which was used to detect copackaging of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNAs. In this study, approximately 0.2% of infection events generated the GFP phenotype. Therefore, the appearance of the GFP+ phenotype in the current system is approximately 35-fold lower than that between two homologous HIV-1 or HIV-2 viruses. We then mapped the general structures of the recombinant viruses and characterized the recombination junctions by DNA sequencing. We observed several different recombination patterns including those only had crossovers in gfp. The most common hybrid genomes had heterologous LTRs. Although infrequent, crossovers were also identified in the viral sequences. Such chimeric HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses have yet to be observed in the infected population. It is unclear whether the lack of observed chimeras is due to the divergence between HIV-1 and HIV-2 being too great for such an event to occur, or whether such events could occur but have not yet been observed. Given the number of coinfected people, the potential for

  4. Subcutaneous administration of human C1 inhibitor with recombinant human hyaluronidase in patients with hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc A; Lumry, William R; Li, H Henry; Banerji, Aleena; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Ba, Murat; Bjrkander, Janne; Magerl, Markus; Maurer, Marcus; Rockich, Kevin; Chen, Hongzi; Schranz, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    The currently approved method of C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) administration for patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 INH deficiency (HAE) is by intravenous injection. A C1 INH subcutaneous formulation may provide an attractive mode of administration for some patients. To evaluate efficacy and safety of two doses of subcutaneous, plasma-derived C1 INH with the dispersing agent, recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) to prevent angioedema attacks in patients with HAE. A randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging, crossover study, patients 12 years of age (n = 47) with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections of 1000 U C1 INH with 24,000 U rHuPH20 or 2000 U C1 INH with 48,000 U rHuPH20 every 3 or 4 days for 8 weeks and then crossed-over for another 8-week period. The primary efficacy end point was the number of angioedema attacks during each treatment period. The study was terminated early as a precaution related to non-neutralizing antibodies to rHuPH20 in 45% of patients. The mean standard deviation number of angioedema attacks during the 8-week treatment periods were 1.58 1.59 with 1000 U C1 INH and 0.97 1.26 with 2000 U. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) within-patient difference (2000 U-1000 U, respectively) was 0.61 (95% CI, 1.23 to 0.01) attacks per month (p = 0.0523), and 0.56 (95% CI, 1.06 to 0.05) attacks that required acute treatment, (p = 0.0315). No deaths or other serious adverse events were reported. Injection-site reaction was the most common adverse event. Despite early termination, this study demonstrated a clinically and statistically significant difference in burden of disease, which favored 2000 U C1 INH, without associated serious adverse events.

  5. Human olfactory receptors: recombinant expression in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system, functional characterization, and odorant identification.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Valéry; Ronin, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface expression of recombinant olfactory receptors (ORs) is a major limitation in characterizing their functional nature. We have shown that the recombinant expression of a human OR, OR 17-210, in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system allows this protein to be expressed at the cell surface. We used Ca(2+) imaging to demonstrate that recombinant OR 17-210 produces cellular activities upon odorant stimulation with ketones. Furthermore, this expression and functional system has been used to show that the preincubation of Human Odorant Binding Protein 2A decrease the calcium response of OR 17-210 following stimulation by acetophenone and beta ionone.

  6. Structural characterization and biological activity of recombinant human epidermal growth factor proteins with different N-terminal sequences.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, M; Bauhofer, A; Schwind, P; Bade, E; Rasched, I; Przybylski, M

    1994-05-18

    The primary structures and molecular homogeneity of recombinant human epidermal growth factors from different suppliers were characterized and their biological activities evaluated by a standard DNA synthesis assay. Molecular weight determinations using 252Cf-plasma-desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry in combination with N- and C-terminal sequence analysis and determination of intramolecular disulfide bridges revealed that one recombinant protein had the correct human-identical structure (54 aa residues; 6347 Da). In contrast, a second recombinant protein (7020 Da) was found to contain a pentapeptide (KKYPR) insert following its N-terminal methionine. This structural variant showed a significant reduction in its capacity to stimulate DNA synthesis.

  7. Enzymatic cross-linking of human recombinant elastin (HELP) as biomimetic approach in vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Giuliano, Liliana; Altomare, Lina; Petrini, Paola; Bandiera, Antonella; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Farè, Silvia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The use of polymers naturally occurring in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine. If compared to natural ECM proteins, proteins obtained by recombinant DNA technology have intrinsic advantages including reproducible macromolecular composition, sequence and molecular mass, and overcoming the potential pathogens transmission related to polymers of animal origin. Among ECM-mimicking materials, the family of recombinant elastin-like polymers is proposed for drug delivery applications and for the repair of damaged elastic tissues. This work aims to evaluate the potentiality of a recombinant human elastin-like polypeptide (HELP) as a base material of cross-linked matrices for regenerative medicine. The cross-linking of HELP was accomplished by the insertion of cross-linking sites, glutamine and lysine, in the recombinant polymer and generating ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine links through the enzyme transglutaminase. The cross-linking efficacy was estimated by infrared spectroscopy. Freeze-dried cross-linked matrices showed swelling ratios in deionized water (≈2500%) with good structural stability up to 24 h. Mechanical compression tests, performed at 37°C in wet conditions, in a frequency sweep mode, indicated a storage modulus of 2/3 kPa, with no significant changes when increasing number of cycles or frequency. These results demonstrate the possibility to obtain mechanically resistant hydrogels via enzymatic crosslinking of HELP. Cytotoxicity tests of cross-linked HELP were performed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, by use of transwell filter chambers for 1-7 days, or with its extracts in the opportune culture medium for 24 h. In both cases no cytotoxic effects were observed in comparison with the control cultures. On the whole, the results suggest the potentiality of this genetically engineered HELP for regenerative medicine applications, particularly for vascular tissue regeneration.

  8. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  9. Generation of Recombinant Human IgG Monoclonal Antibodies from Immortalized Sorted B Cells.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Saxena, Abhishek; Hoffmann, Carolin; Hounjet, Judith; Coenen, Daniëlle; Molenaar, Peter; Losen, Mario; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar

    2015-06-05

    Finding new methods for generating human monoclonal antibodies is an active research field that is important for both basic and applied sciences, including the development of immunotherapeutics. However, the techniques to identify and produce such antibodies tend to be arduous and sometimes the heavy and light chain pair of the antibodies are dissociated. Here, we describe a relatively simple, straightforward protocol to produce human recombinant monoclonal antibodies from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells using immortalization with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Toll-like receptor 9 activation. With an adequate staining, B cells producing antibodies can be isolated for subsequent immortalization and clonal expansion. The antibody transcripts produced by the immortalized B cell clones can be amplified by PCR, sequenced as corresponding heavy and light chain pairs and cloned into immunoglobulin expression vectors. The antibodies obtained with this technique can be powerful tools to study relevant human immune responses, including autoimmunity, and create the basis for new therapeutics.

  10. Human sphingosine kinase: purification, molecular cloning and characterization of the native and recombinant enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Pitson, S M; D'andrea, R J; Vandeleur, L; Moretti, P A; Xia, P; Gamble, J R; Vadas, M A; Wattenberg, B W

    2000-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a novel lipid messenger that has important roles in a wide variety of mammalian cellular processes including growth, differentiation and death. Basal levels of S1P in mammalian cells are generally low, but can increase rapidly and transiently when cells are exposed to mitogenic agents and other stimuli. This increase is largely due to increased activity of sphingosine kinase (SK), the enzyme that catalyses its formation. In the current study we have purified, cloned and characterized the first human SK to obtain a better understanding of its biochemical activity and possible activation mechanisms. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from human placenta using ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography, calmodulin-affinity chromatography and gel-filtration chromatography. This resulted in a purification of over 10(6)-fold from the original placenta extract. The enzyme was cloned and expressed in active form in both HEK-293T cells and Escherichia coli, and the recombinant E. coli-derived SK purified to homogeneity. To establish whether post-translational modifications lead to activation of human SK activity we characterized both the purified placental enzyme and the purified recombinant SK produced in E. coli, where such modifications would not occur. The premise for this study was that post-translational modifications are likely to cause conformational changes in the structure of SK, which may result in detectable changes in the physico-chemical or catalytic properties of the enzyme. Thus the enzymes were characterized with respect to substrate specificity and kinetics, inhibition kinetics and various other physico-chemical properties. In all cases, both the native and recombinant SKs displayed remarkably similar properties, indicating that post-translational modifications are not required for basal activity of human SK. PMID:10947957

  11. Experimental studies of a vaccine formulation of recombinant human VEGF antigen with aluminum phosphate.

    PubMed

    Pérez Sánchez, Lincidio; Morera Díaz, Yanelys; Bequet-Romero, Mónica; Ramses Hernández, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Yadira; Castro Velazco, Jorge; Puente Pérez, Pedro; Ayala Avila, Marta; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2015-01-01

    CIGB-247 is a cancer vaccine that is a formulation of a recombinant protein antigen representative of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with a bacterially-derived adjuvant (VSSP). The vaccine has shown an excellent safety profile in mice, rats, rabbits, not-human primates and in recent clinical trials in cancer patients. Response to the vaccine is characterized by specific antibody titers that neutralize VEGF/VEGFR2 binding and a cytotoxic tumor-specific response. To expand our present anti-VEGF active immunotherapy strategies, we have now studied in mice and non-human primates the effects of vaccination with a formulation of our recombinant VEGF antigen and aluminum phosphate adjuvant (hereafter denominated CIGB-247-A). Administered bi-weekly, CIGB-247-A produces high titers of anti-VEGF IgG blocking antibodies in 2 mice strains. Particularly in BALB/c, the treatment impaired subcutaneous F3II mammary tumor growth and reduced the number of spontaneous lung macro metastases, increasing animals' survival. Spleen cells from specifically immunized mice directly killed F3II tumor cells in vitro. CIGB-247-A also showed to be immunogenic in non-human primates, which developed anti-VEGF blocking antibodies and the ability for specific direct cell cytotoxic responses, all without impairing the healing of deep skin wounds or other side effect. Our results support consideration of aluminum phosphate as a suitable adjuvant for the development of new vaccine formulations using VEGF as antigen.

  12. Recombinant expression of human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hong, In-Pyo; Lee, Sung-Jae; Kim, Yong-Seok; Choi, Shin-Geon

    2007-01-01

    The constitutive expression of human cathelicidin LL-37 antimicrobial peptide was achieved using the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. An LL-37 cDNA clone was amplified by PCR using human fetal cDNA library as template. The 111 bp fragment encoding mature LL-37 gene was subcloned into pGAPZ-E, an episomal form of the pGAPZB vector incorporating PARS1. It was then transformed into the P. pastoris X-33 strain for intracellular expression. A small peptide with a molecular mass of about 5 kDa was detected by 17% peptide-PAGE analysis. The recombinant LL-37 peptide was purified from the gel and its amino acid sequence was determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The initiating amino acid, methionine, was still attached to the N-terminal region of recombinant LL-37. LL-37 crude extract from P. pastoris showed an antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus as the test strain. The successful expression of human LL-37 indicates that the system may be applicable to the expression of other human defensins without resorting to fusion protein constructions.

  13. Experimental studies of a vaccine formulation of recombinant human VEGF antigen with aluminum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Sánchez, Lincidio; Morera Díaz, Yanelys; Bequet-Romero, Mónica; Ramses Hernández, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Yadira; Castro Velazco, Jorge; Puente Pérez, Pedro; Ayala Avila, Marta; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2015-01-01

    CIGB-247 is a cancer vaccine that is a formulation of a recombinant protein antigen representative of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with a bacterially-derived adjuvant (VSSP). The vaccine has shown an excellent safety profile in mice, rats, rabbits, not-human primates and in recent clinical trials in cancer patients. Response to the vaccine is characterized by specific antibody titers that neutralize VEGF/VEGFR2 binding and a cytotoxic tumor-specific response. To expand our present anti-VEGF active immunotherapy strategies, we have now studied in mice and non-human primates the effects of vaccination with a formulation of our recombinant VEGF antigen and aluminum phosphate adjuvant (hereafter denominated CIGB-247-A). Administered bi-weekly, CIGB-247-A produces high titers of anti-VEGF IgG blocking antibodies in 2 mice strains. Particularly in BALB/c, the treatment impaired subcutaneous F3II mammary tumor growth and reduced the number of spontaneous lung macro metastases, increasing animals' survival. Spleen cells from specifically immunized mice directly killed F3II tumor cells in vitro. CIGB-247-A also showed to be immunogenic in non-human primates, which developed anti-VEGF blocking antibodies and the ability for specific direct cell cytotoxic responses, all without impairing the healing of deep skin wounds or other side effect. Our results support consideration of aluminum phosphate as a suitable adjuvant for the development of new vaccine formulations using VEGF as antigen. PMID:25891359

  14. Production of recombinant human annexin V by fed-batch cultivation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Annexin V, a 35.8 kDa intracellular protein, is a Ca+2- dependent phospholipid binding protein with high affinity to phosphatidylserine (PS), which is a well-known hallmark of apoptosis. Annexin V is a sensitive probe for PS exposure upon the cell membrane, and used for detection of apoptotic cells both in vivo and in vitro. Large-scale production of recombinant human annexin V is worth optimization, because of its wide use in nuclear medicine, radiolabeled with 99mTc, for the evaluation of cancer chemotherapy treatments, and its use in identification of apoptotic cells in histologic studies. Here we describe the high-yield production of a tag-free version of human annexin V recombinant protein by linear fed-batch cultivation in a bioreactor. Results We cloned the human ANXA5 coding sequence into the pET-30a (+) expression vector and expressed rhANXA5 in batch and fed-batch cultures. Using E. coli BL21 (DE3) in a semi-defined medium at 37°C, pH 7 in fed-batch cultures, we obtained a 45-fold increase in biomass production, respective to shaker cultivations. We developed a single-step protocol for rhANXA5 purification using a strong anion-exchange column (MonoQ HR16/10). Using these procedures, we obtained 28.5 mg of homogeneous, nontagged and biologically functional human annexin V recombinant protein from 3 g wet weight of bacterial cells from bioreactor cultures. The identity and molecular mass of rhANXA5 was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Moreover, the purified rhANXA5 protein was functionally evaluated in a FITC-annexin V binding experiment and the results demonstrated that rhANXA5 detected apoptotic cells similarly to a commercial kit. Conclusions We describe a new fed-batch method to produce recombinant human annexin V in large scale, which may expand the commercial utilities for rhANXAV to applications such as in vivo imaging studies. PMID:24766778

  15. Recombination Rates and Genomic Shuffling in Human and Chimpanzee—A New Twist in the Chromosomal Speciation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Farré, Marta; Micheletti, Diego; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology concerns the effect of recombination in shaping the genomic architecture of organisms and, in particular, how this impacts the speciation process. Despite efforts employed in the last decade, the role of chromosomal reorganizations in the human–chimpanzee speciation process remains unresolved. Through whole-genome comparisons, we have analyzed the genome-wide impact of genomic shuffling in the distribution of human recombination rates during the human–chimpanzee speciation process. We have constructed a highly refined map of the reorganizations and evolutionary breakpoint regions in the human and chimpanzee genomes based on orthologous genes and genome sequence alignments. The analysis of the most recent human and chimpanzee recombination maps inferred from genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data revealed that the standardized recombination rate was significantly lower in rearranged than in collinear chromosomes. In fact, rearranged chromosomes presented significantly lower recombination rates than chromosomes that have been maintained since the ancestor of great apes, and this was related with the lineage in which they become fixed. Importantly, inverted regions had lower recombination rates than collinear and noninverted regions, independently of the effect of centromeres. Our observations have implications for the chromosomal speciation theory, providing new evidences for the contribution of inversions in suppressing recombination in mammals. PMID:23204393

  16. [Genetic evidence for recombination and mutation in the emergence of human enterovirus 71].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Tan, Hui; Xie, Qun; Chen, Bai-Tang; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-09-01

    We wished to understand the genetic recombination and phylogenetic characteristics of human en- terovirus A71 (EV-A71) and to explore its potential virulence-related sites. Full-length genomes of three EV-A71 strains isolated from patients in Chenzhou City (China) were sequenced and analyzed. Possible re- combination events and crossover sites were analyzed with Recombination Detection Program v4. 1. 6 by comparison with the complete genome sequences of 231 strains of EV-A71. Similarly, plot and bootscanning analyses were undertaken with SimPlot v3. 5. 1. Phylogenetic trees based on the sequences of VP1 regions were constructed with MEGA v5. 2 using the Kimura two-parameter model and neighbor-joining method. Results suggested that recombination events were detected among the three EV-A71 isolates from Chenzhou City. The common main parent sequence was from JF799986 isolated from samples in Guang- zhou City (China) in 2009, and the minor parent sequence was TW/70516/08. Intertypic recombination e- vents were found in the C4b strain (strain SHZH98 isolated in 1998) and C4a strain (Fuyang strain isola- ted in 2008) with the prototype strains of CVA4 and CVA14 in the 3D region. The chi-square test was used to screen-out potential virulence-related sites with nucleotide substitutions of different types of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases using SPSS v19.0. Results suggested that there were no significant nucleotide substitutions between death cases and severe-HFMD cases. Eighteen significant nucleotide substitutions were found between death/severe-HFMD cases and mild-HFMD cases, and all these 18 substitutions were distributed only in P2 and P3 regions. Intertypic recombination among the predominant circulating EV-A71 strains in the Chinese mainland and other EV-A strains probably dates before 1998, and intratypic recombination might have occurred frequently in the HFMD outbreak from 2008 to 2012. Substitutions in the non-capsid region may be correlated with the

  17. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimizing Production of Antigens and Fabs in the Context of Generating Recombinant Antibodies to Human Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nan; Loppnau, Peter; Seitova, Alma; Ravichandran, Mani; Fenner, Maria; Jain, Harshika; Bhattacharya, Anandi; Hutchinson, Ashley; Paduch, Marcin; Lu, Vincent; Olszewski, Michal; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.; Dowdell, Evan; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Huang, Haiming; Nadeem, Vincent; Sidhu, Sachdev S.; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Marcon, Edyta; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Edwards, Aled M.; Gräslund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We developed and optimized a high-throughput project workflow to generate renewable recombinant antibodies to human proteins involved in epigenetic signalling. Three different strategies to produce phage display compatible protein antigens in bacterial systems were compared, and we found that in vivo biotinylation through the use of an Avi tag was the most productive method. Phage display selections were performed on 265 in vivo biotinylated antigen domains. High-affinity Fabs (<20nM) were obtained for 196. We constructed and optimized a new expression vector to produce in vivo biotinylated Fabs in E. coli. This increased average yields up to 10-fold, with an average yield of 4 mg/L. For 118 antigens, we identified Fabs that could immunoprecipitate their full-length endogenous targets from mammalian cell lysates. One Fab for each antigen was converted to a recombinant IgG and produced in mammalian cells, with an average yield of 15 mg/L. In summary, we have optimized each step of the pipeline to produce recombinant antibodies, significantly increasing both efficiency and yield, and also showed that these Fabs and IgGs can be generally useful for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols. PMID:26437229

  19. Construction and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus type 6b L1 recombinant plasmid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Jia-bi; Zuo, Ya-gang; Liu, Yue-hua; Ma, Dong-lai

    2004-09-01

    To construct a DNA vaccine as a prophylactic model to prevent condyloma acuminatum and detect its immunogenicity in mice. The major capsid protein (L1) gene of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6b was inserted into an eukaryotic expression plasmid (pcDNA3.1). The recombinant plasmid was transfected into COS-7 cells. Western blot were performed to detect whether L1 protein can be expressed in eukaryotic cells. Eighteen female BALB/c mice were tested for immunogenicity study. The recombinant plasmid (pcDNA3.1-HPV6bL1) was verified as HPV6b L1 gene by sequencing. Western blot showed specific strip. Anti-L1 protein antibodies could be detected in the mice's sera inoculated with pcDNA3.1-HPV6bL1. Similarly, IL-4, IL-2, and IFN-gamma were increased in the same mice. HPV6b L1 recombinant plasmid was constructed successfully which had immunogenicity for BALB/c mice. It provided experimental evidence for the research of DNA vaccine of condyloma acuminata.

  20. rhEPO (recombinant human eosinophil peroxidase): expression in Pichia pastoris and biochemical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Chiara; Gambacurta, Alessandra; Sanctis, Giampiero DE; Spagnolo, Domenico; Sakarikou, Christina; Petrella, Giovanni; Coletta, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    A Pichia pastoris expression system has for the first time been successfully developed to produce rhEPO (recombinant human eosinophil peroxidase). The full-length rhEPO coding sequence was cloned into the pPIC9 vector in frame with the yeast α-Factor secretion signal under the transcriptional control of the AOX (acyl-CoA oxidase) promoter, and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. Evidence for the production of rhEPO by P. pastoris as a glycosylated dimer precursor of approx. 80 kDa was determined by SDS/PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. Recombinant hEPO undergoes proteolytic processing, similar to that in the native host, to generate two chains of approx. 50 and 20 kDa. A preliminary biochemical characterization of purified rhEPO demonstrated that the spectral and kinetic properties of the recombinant wild-type EPO are comparable with those of the native enzyme and are accompanied by oxidizing activity towards several physiological anionic substrates such as SCN−, Br− and Cl−. On the basis of the estimated Km and kcat values it is evident that the pseudohalide SCN− is the most specific substrate for rhEPO, consistent with the catalytic properties of other mammalian EPOs purified from blood. PMID:16396635

  1. Optimizing Production of Antigens and Fabs in the Context of Generating Recombinant Antibodies to Human Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nan; Loppnau, Peter; Seitova, Alma; Ravichandran, Mani; Fenner, Maria; Jain, Harshika; Bhattacharya, Anandi; Hutchinson, Ashley; Paduch, Marcin; Lu, Vincent; Olszewski, Michal; Kossiakoff, Anthony A; Dowdell, Evan; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Huang, Haiming; Nadeem, Vincent; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Greenblatt, Jack F; Marcon, Edyta; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Edwards, Aled M; Gräslund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We developed and optimized a high-throughput project workflow to generate renewable recombinant antibodies to human proteins involved in epigenetic signalling. Three different strategies to produce phage display compatible protein antigens in bacterial systems were compared, and we found that in vivo biotinylation through the use of an Avi tag was the most productive method. Phage display selections were performed on 265 in vivo biotinylated antigen domains. High-affinity Fabs (<20nM) were obtained for 196. We constructed and optimized a new expression vector to produce in vivo biotinylated Fabs in E. coli. This increased average yields up to 10-fold, with an average yield of 4 mg/L. For 118 antigens, we identified Fabs that could immunoprecipitate their full-length endogenous targets from mammalian cell lysates. One Fab for each antigen was converted to a recombinant IgG and produced in mammalian cells, with an average yield of 15 mg/L. In summary, we have optimized each step of the pipeline to produce recombinant antibodies, significantly increasing both efficiency and yield, and also showed that these Fabs and IgGs can be generally useful for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols.

  2. A system for assaying homologous recombination at the endogenous human thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, M.B.; Little, J.B. ); Potter, H. ); Yandell, D.W. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-08-01

    A system for assaying human interchromosomal recombination in vitro was developed, using a cell line containing two different mutant thymidine kinase genes (TK) on chromosomes 17. Heteroalleles were generated in the TK{sup +/+} parent B-lymphoblast cell line WIL-2 by repeated exposure to the alkylating nitrogen mustard ICR-191, which preferentially causes +1 or {minus}1 frameshifts. Resulting TK{sup {minus}/{minus}} mutants were selected in medium containing the toxic thymidine analog trifluorothymidine. In two lines, heterozygous frameshifts were located in exons 4 and 7 of the TK gene separated by {approx}8 kilobases. These lines undergo spontaneous reversion to TK{sup +} at a frequency of < 10{sup {minus}7}, and revertants can be selected in cytidine/hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium. The nature and location of these heteroallelic mutations make large deletions, rearrangements, nondisjunction, and reduplication unlikely mechanisms for reversion to TK{sup +}. The mode of reversion to TK{sup +} was specifically assessed by DNA sequencing, use of single-strand conformation polymorphisms, and analysis of various restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the TK gene on chromosome 17. The data suggest that a proportion of revertants has undergone recombination and gene conversion at the TK locus, with concomitant loss of frameshifts and allele loss at linked RFLPs. Models are presented for the origin of two recombinants.

  3. Towards a More Precise Serological Diagnosis of Human Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Using Leishmania Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Costa, Jackson M. L.; Boaventura, Viviane S.; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to Leishmania induces a humoral immune response that can be used as a marker of parasite exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, ELISA was used to screen sera from patients with Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) against different L. infantum-chagasi-derived recombinant proteins (rHSP70, rH2A, rH2B, rH3, rH4 and rKMP11). Among the recombinant proteins, rHSP70 and rH2A showed the best reactivity against human sera obtained from endemic areas of TL. Receiver-Operator Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the effectiveness of these proteins for serodiagnosis of TL. ROC curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP70 and rH2A, in comparison to the other tested recombinant proteins. Additionally, we evaluated the specificity of the response to rHSP70 and rH2A by testing sera obtained from patients with Chagas' disease, Tuberculosis, Leprosy or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. In this case, rHSP70 displayed an increased ability to discriminate diseases, in comparison to SLA. Conclusion Our results raise possibility of using rHSP70 for the serodiagnosis of TL PMID:23776617

  4. A human recombinant Fab identifies a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced conformational change in cell surface-expressed CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Bachelder, R E; Bilancieri, J; Lin, W; Letvin, N L

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of the CD4 molecule in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection following initial virus-CD4 binding, we have characterized CD4-specific antibodies raised by immunizing an HIV-1-infected human with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). Fabs were selected from a human recombinant Fab library constructed from the bone marrow of this immunized individual. Here, we describe a human rsCD4-specific recombinant Fab clone selected by panning the library over complexes of human rsCD4 and recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein. While this Fab does not bind to CD4-positive T-cell lines or to human T lymphocytes, it recognizes cell surface-expressed CD4 following the incubation of these cells with a recombinant form of HIV-1 gp120 or with HIV-1 virions. The Fab is not HIV-1 envelope specific, since it does not bind to recombinant gp120 or to native cell surface-expressed HIV-1 envelope proteins. As confirmation of its CD4 specificity, we show that this Fab immunoprecipitates a 55-kDa protein, corresponding to the molecular mass of cellular CD4, from an H9 cell lysate. The specificity of this human Fab provides evidence for a virus-induced conformational change in cell surface-expressed on CD4. The characterization of this altered CD4 conformation and its effects on the host cell will be important in defining postbinding events in HIV infection. PMID:7637018

  5. Use of recombination-mediated genetic engineering for construction of rescue human cytomegalovirus bacterial artificial chromosome clones.

    PubMed

    Dulal, Kalpana; Silver, Benjamin; Zhu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning.

  6. Recombination gives a new insight in the effective population size and the history of the old world human populations.

    PubMed

    Melé, Marta; Javed, Asif; Pybus, Marc; Zalloua, Pierre; Haber, Marc; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Jin, Li; Yang, Yajun; Pitchappan, R M; Arunkumar, G; Parida, Laxmi; Calafell, Francesc; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    The information left by recombination in our genomes can be used to make inferences on our recent evolutionary history. Specifically, the number of past recombination events in a population sample is a function of its effective population size (Ne). We have applied a method, Identifying Recombination in Sequences (IRiS), to detect specific past recombination events in 30 Old World populations to infer their Ne. We have found that sub-Saharan African populations have an Ne that is approximately four times greater than those of non-African populations and that outside of Africa, South Asian populations had the largest Ne. We also observe that the patterns of recombinational diversity of these populations correlate with distance out of Africa if that distance is measured along a path crossing South Arabia. No such correlation is found through a Sinai route, suggesting that anatomically modern humans first left Africa through the Bab-el-Mandeb strait rather than through present Egypt.

  7. PRM-151 (recombinant human serum amyloid P/pentraxin 2) for the treatment of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Jeremy S; Lupher, Mark L

    2010-06-01

    Serum amyloid P or pentraxin 2 (PTX2) is a highly phylogenetically conserved, naturally circulating plasma protein and a soluble pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system. The unique binding activities of PTX2 suggest that it may localize specifically to sites of injury and function to aid in the removal of damaged tissue. The recent discovery of its ability to regulate certain monocyte differentiation states has identified PTX2 as a novel and potentially powerful antifibrotic agent. A fully recombinant form of the human PTX2 protein, designated PRM-151, has recently initiated human clinical trials. Here we review the molecular, cellular and structural biology of PRM-151/PTX2 in vitro and in several in vivo preclinical models of fibrotic disease that demonstrate its potential as a first-in-class natural modulator of fibrotic pathology with significant potential to treat a wide variety of human diseases.

  8. Recombinant Dense Granular Protein (GRA5) for Detection of Human Toxoplasmosis by Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.). PMID:24987700

  9. Recombinant tandem multi-linear neutralizing epitopes of human enterovirus 71 elicited protective immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as the leading cause of viral encephalitis in children, especially in the Asia-Pacific regions. EV71 vaccine development is of high priority at present, and neutralization antibodies have been documented to play critical roles during in vitro and in vivo protection against EV71 infection. Results In this study, a novel strategy to produce EV71 vaccine candidate based on recombinant multiple tandem linear neutralizing epitopes (mTLNE) was proposed. The three well identified EV71 linear neutralizing epitopes in capsid proteins, VP1-SP55, VP1-SP70 and VP2-SP28, were sequentially linked by a Gly-Ser linker ((G4S)3), and expressed in E.coli in fusion with the Trx and His tag at either terminal. The recombinant protein mTLNE was soluble and could be purified by standard affinity chromatography. Following three dosage of immunization in adult mice, EV71-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies were readily induced by recombinant mTLNE. IgG subtyping demonstrated that lgG1 antibodies dominated the mTLNE-induced humoral immune response. Especially, cytokine profiling in spleen cells from the mTLNE-immunized mice revealed high production of IL-4 and IL-6. Finally, in vivo challenge experiments showed that passive transfer with anti-mTLNE sera conferred full protection against lethal EV71 challenge in neonatal mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that this rational designed recombinant mTLNE might have the potential to be further developed as an EV71 vaccine in the future. PMID:24885030

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin beta based recombinant antibodies and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Talwar, G P; Vyas, Hemant K; Purswani, Shilpi; Gupta, Jagdish C

    2009-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are unique targets for the control of fertility. Immunological approaches to neutralizing these hormones have additional utility in cancer treatment. Vaccines have been developed against both GnRH and hCG and these have undergone Phase I/II clinical trials documenting their safety, reversibility and efficacy. The heterospecies dimer hCG vaccine prevented pregnancy in women of proven fertility without impairment of ovulation or derangement of menstrual regularity and bleeding profiles. The protective threshold of antibody titers to achieve efficacy was determined in these first-ever trials. Recently, a recombinant vaccine against the beta subunit of hCG linked to the B subunit of heat labile enterotoxin has been made and expressed as a glycosylated conjugate in Pichia pastoris. Experiments indicate its ability to generate antibodies above the protective threshold in all immunized Balb/c mice. Ectopic expression of hCG/hCGbeta is observed in many advanced stage cancers of various origins. A chimeric high affinity and specific recombinant antibody against hCGbeta linked to curcumin kills hCGbeta expressing T lymphoblastic leukemia cells without any deleterious effect. Several synthetic and recombinant vaccines have been developed against GnRH. These reduce serum testosterone to castration levels causing atrophy of the prostate. Three Phase I/II clinical trials conducted in India and Austria have shown that these vaccines elicit non-surgical reduction of testosterone, a fall in prostate specific antigen and clinical improvement of prostate carcinoma patients. A multimer recombinant vaccine against GnRH has high efficacy for sterilization of pigs and other animals.

  11. Prevalence analysis of different human bocavirus genotypes in pediatric patients revealed intra-genotype recombination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Zhu, Runan; Qian, Yuan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Dong, Huijin; Liu, Liying; Jia, Liping; Zhao, Linqing

    2014-10-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) genotypes 1-4 have been detected worldwide in respiratory samples and stool samples, and are increasingly associated with respiratory and intestinal infections of previously unknown etiology in young children. Several studies revealed evidence of extensive recombination among HBoV genotypes at the NP1 and VP1 gene boundary region. This study explored the prevalence of HBoV genotypes in pediatric patients in Beijing, and studied their phylogeny. A total of 4941 respiratory specimens and 1121 fecal specimens were collected from pediatric patients with respiratory infections from January 2006 to December 2013, or with acute diarrhea from October 2010 to December 2012. Conventional PCR was used to detect HBoV1-4 within these samples. Gene fragments at the NP1 and VP1 gene boundary were amplified from HBoV-positive specimens, sequenced, and their phylogenetic inferences constructed using MEGA 6.0 software. Recombination events were identified with SimPlot software. Human bocavirus 1, 2, and 3 were detected in 9 (0.80%), 15 (1.33%), and 1 (0.08%) of 1121 stool samples, respectively. However, only HBoV1 (82, 1.65%) was detected in respiratory specimens. Phylogenetic analysis of gene fragments at the HBoV NP1 and VP1 gene boundary indicated that HBoV1 sequences obtained from fecal or respiratory specimens across 8years were highly conserved (99-100%), while 15 HBoV2 sequences collected across 2years in Beijing were more diverse with up to 4.40% variation. Of the 15 HBoV2 sequences, 14 clustered into a new lineage divergent from other HBoV2 sequences in GenBank. Five HBoV2 genomic sequences were analyzed for recombination, revealing intra-genotype recombination between HBoV2A and HBoV2B. More HBoV1 were detected in children with respiratory tract diseases, and HBoV2 in patients with acute diarrhea. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new cluster of HBoV2 was prevalent in China, which may be the result of intra-genotype recombination between HBoV2A and

  12. Expression and purification of recombinant human Mig in Escherichia coli and its comparison with murine Mig.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lan; Zhu, Shunying; Shen, Jiaqing; Han, Xiaodong; Gao, Jin; Wu, Mingyuan; Yu, Yan; Lu, Huili; Han, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Monokine induced by IFN-γ (Mig) is a member of CXC-chemokines and recruits T-lymphocytes to activate the immune response. In recent years, it has raised much interest in the areas of autoimmune disease and allograft rejection, as the production of recombinant human Mig (rHuMig) would be of considerable significance for both research and potential clinical use. Here we report the expression, preparation and characterization of non-tagged recombinant human Mig (rHuMig) using a prokaryotic expression system. Following expression in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21, the 103 amino acid residue of rHuMig was purified from bacteria inclusion bodies with a one-step S-Sepharose cation exchange chromatography. The product was immunologically characterized via Western blot and its purity was determined via SDS-PAGE and silver staining to be above 99%, with an endotoxin level <0.5EU/μg via a chemotaxis assay, rHuMig demonstrated chemotactic activity on mouse spleen lymphocytes with an ED50 of 15 ng/mL. Additionally, using a proliferation assay, rHuMig significantly inhibited proliferation of the human bladder cell line T24. In vivo experiments revealed that rHuMig could inhibit mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells cycling into the S-phase and reduced intestinal cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that rHuMig is fully functional in the mouse model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Harald; Schmittner, Maria; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU). When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002-2 ng/ml). We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14.

  14. Expression of Recombinant Human Mast Cell Chymase with Asn-linked Glycans in Glycoengineered Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eliot T.; Perry, Evan T.; Sears, Megan B.; Johnson, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant human mast cell chymase (rhChymase) was expressed in secreted form as an active enzyme in the SuperMan5 strain of GlycoSwitch® Pichia pastoris, which is engineered to produce proteins with (Man)5(GlcNAc)2 Asn-linked glycans. Cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography yielded 5 mg of active rhChymase per liter of fermentation medium. Purified rhChymase migrated on SDSPAGE as a single band of 30 kDa and treatment with peptide N-glycosidase F decreased this to 25 kDa, consistent with the established properties of native human chymase (hChymase). Polyclonal antibodies against hChymase detected rhChymase by Western blot. Active site titration with Eglin C, a potent chymase inhibitor, quantified the concentration of purified active enzyme. Kinetic analyses with succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe (suc-AAPF) p-nitroanilide and thiobenzyl ester synthetic substrates showed that heparin significantly reduced Km, whereas heparin effects on kcat were minor. Pure rhChymase with Asn-linked glycans closely resembles hChymase. This bioengineering approach avoided hyperglycosylation and provides a source of active rhChymase for other studies as well as a foundation for production of recombinant enzyme with human glycosylation patterns. PMID:25131858

  15. Biologically active recombinant human progastrin(6-80) contains a tightly bound calcium ion.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, G S; Hollande, F; Yang, Z; Karelina, Y; Paterson, A; Strang, R; Fourmy, D; Neumann, G; Shulkes, A

    2001-03-16

    Evidence is accumulating that gastrin precursors may act as growth factors for the colonic mucosa in vivo. The aims of this study were to prepare recombinant human progastrin(6-80) and to investigate its structure and biological activities in vitro. Human progastrin(6-80) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. After thrombin cleavage progastrin(6-80) was purified by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography and characterized by radioimmunoassay, amino acid sequencing, and mass spectrometry. Assays for metal ions by atomic emission spectroscopy revealed the presence of a single tightly bound calcium ion. Progastrin(6-80) at concentrations in the pm to nm range stimulated proliferation of the conditionally transformed mouse colon cell line YAMC. The observations that progastrin(6-80) did not bind to either the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A or the gastrin/CCK-B receptor expressed in COS cells and that antagonists selective for either receptor did not reverse the proliferative effects of progastrin(6-80) suggested that progastrin(6-80) stimulated proliferation independently of either the CCK-A or the gastrin/CCK-B receptor. We conclude that recombinant human progastrin(6-80) is biologically active and contains a single calcium ion. With the exception of the well known zinc-dependent polymerization of insulin and proinsulin, this is the first report of selective, high affinity binding of metal ions to a prohormone.

  16. The neutralizing human recombinant antibodies to pathogenic Orthopoxviruses derived from a phage display immune library.

    PubMed

    Tikunova, Nina; Dubrovskaya, Viktoriya; Morozova, Vera; Yun, Tatiana; Khlusevich, Yana; Bormotov, Nikolai; Laman, Aleksandr; Brovko, Fedor; Shvalov, Aleksandr; Belanov, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    A panel of recombinant human antibodies to orthopoxviruses was isolated from a combinatorial phage display library of human scFv antibodies constructed from the Vh and Vl genes cloned from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of Vaccinia virus (VACV) immune donors. Plaque-reduction neutralization tests showed that seven selected phage-displaying scFv antibodies (pdAbs) neutralized both CPXV and VACV, and five of them neutralized Monkeypox virus (MPXV). Western blot analysis of VACV and CPXV proteins demonstrated that seven neutralizing antibodies recognized a 35 kDa protein. To identify this target protein, we produced a recombinant J3L protein of CPXV and showed that all the selected neutralizing antibodies recognized this protein. Neutralizing pdAb b9 was converted into fully human mAb b9 (fh b9), and scFv b9 displayed high binding affinities (K(d) of 0.7 and 3.2 nM). The fh b9 reduced VACV plaque formation in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. Characterization of four monoclonal antibodies to recombinant human tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Hokari, Shigeru; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2002-06-01

    In this study we produced a recombinant human Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) enzyme from baculovirus-infected insect cells, generated four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 15A4, 13B9, 1C6 and 3G7, to the enzyme, and characterized these antibodies. In the human serum and lung specimen, all four antibodies appeared to have a high specificity for native TRAP enzyme in western blot analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and enzyme immunoassay. These antibodies may react with respective conformational determinants, therefore, they may be useful for detection of active TRAP. Only one of the antibodies, 15A4 also reacted with a denatured epitope, therefore, it is suitable for western blot analysis, enzyme immunoassay and for immunohistochemistry in the rat. Taken together, having characterized properties of four monoclonal antibodies against recombinant human TRAP enzyme may be useful for development of TRAP specific immunoassays in pathology and hematology of the bone. They will certainly be of use for the study of biosynthesis, regulation and function of the TRAP enzyme.

  18. Optimizing conditions for production of high levels of soluble recombinant human growth hormone using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Savari, Marzieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Edalati, Masoud; Biria, Davoud

    2015-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is synthesized and stored by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and can effect on body metabolism. This protein can be used to treat hGH deficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome and Turner syndrome. The limitations in current technology for soluble recombinant protein production, such as inclusion body formation, decrease its usage for therapeutic purposes. To achieve high levels of soluble form of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) we used suitable host strain, appropriate induction temperature, induction time and culture media composition. For this purpose, 32 experiments were designed using Taguchi method and the levels of produced proteins in all 32 experiments were evaluated primarily by ELISA and dot blotting and finally the purified rhGH protein products assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. Our results indicate that media, bacterial strains, temperature and induction time have significant effects on the production of rhGH. The low cultivation temperature of 25°C, TB media (with 3% ethanol and 0.6M glycerol), Origami strain and a 10-h induction time increased the solubility of human growth hormone.

  19. Preparation and Activity Analysis of Recombinant Human High-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Su, Manman; Chang, Weiqin; Shi, Kaiyao; Wang, Dingding; Wang, Mingxing; Yan, Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Population studies have consistently shown a highly inverse correlation between plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in humans. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) as a therapeutic target is an intense area of ongoing investigation. Aiming to solve the shortcomings of native HDL application, we prepared recombinant human HDL (rhHDL) that contains a similar composition and has similar functions with native HDL. Six kinds of recombinant human apolipoproteins (rhapo)—rhapoA-I, rhapoA-II, rhapoA-IV, rhapoC-I, rhapoC-II, and rhapoE—were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified with chromatography. By the facilitation of cholate, six kinds of rhapo penetrated among the phosphatidylcholine acyl chains. After purification by density-gradient centrifugation, rhHDL was acquired. Based on morphological observation, we confirmed that the micellar complexes of rhapo with phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were prepared. We carried on comparative studies in vitro and in vivo between native HDL and rhHDL. Cellular cholesterol efflux assays showed that rhHDL could promote the efflux of excess cholesterol from macrophages. Furthermore, rhHDL has similar effects with native HDL on the blood lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic mice. In conclusion, rhHDL has similar effects on antiatherosclerosis with native HDL through reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidative, and antithrombotic properties. It could be used as a therapeutic HDL-replacement agent. PMID:22897450

  20. Treatment of lobar atelectasis with bronchoscopically administered recombinant human deoxyribonuclease in cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Anne Marie; McGrath, Emmet; Barry, Rupert; Egan, Jim J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-04-01

    Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) reduces sputum viscosity and improves pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF). The objective of this study was to describe our experience in which rhDNase (Pulmozyme; Roche, Basel, Switzerland) was administered by bronchoscopic instillation into atelectatic lobes in five adults with CF. We found this method successful in treating lobar atelectasis, which was resistant to conventional therapy with antibiotics and physiotherapy. In all but one of the cases we described, administration of DNase in this manner resulted in a radiographic and clinical improvement of the atelectasis. We recommend that respiratory physicians consider this as a second line treatment in the management of atelectasis.

  1. A yeast-based genetic screening to identify human proteins that increase homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Collavoli, Anita; Comelli, Laura; Rainaldi, Giuseppe; Galli, Alvaro

    2008-05-01

    To identify new human proteins implicated in homologous recombination (HR), we set up 'a papillae assay' to screen a human cDNA library using the RS112 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing an intrachromosomal recombination substrate. We isolated 23 cDNAs, 11 coding for complete proteins and 12 for partially deleted proteins that increased HR when overexpressed in yeast. We characterized the effect induced by the overexpression of the complete human proteasome subunit beta 2, the partially deleted proteasome subunits alpha 3 and beta 8, the ribosomal protein L12, the brain abundant membrane signal protein (BASP1) and the human homologue to v-Ha-RAS (HRAS), which elevated HR by 2-6.5-fold over the control. We found that deletion of the RAD52 gene, which has a key role in most HR events, abolished the increase of HR induced by the proteasome subunits and HRAS; by contrast, the RAD52 deletion did not affect the high level of HR due to BASP1 and RPL12. This suggests that the proteins stimulated yeast HR via different mechanisms. Overexpression of the complete beta 2 human proteasome subunit or the partially deleted alpha 3 and beta 8 subunits increased methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) resistance much more in the rad52 Delta mutant than in the wild-type. Overexpression of RPL12 and BASP1 did not affect MMS resistance in both the wild-type and the rad52 Delta mutant, whereas HRAS decreased MMS resistance in the rad52 Delta mutant. The results indicate that these proteins may interfere with the pathway(s) involved in the repair of MMS-induced DNA damage. Finally, we provide further evidence that yeast is a helpful tool to identify human proteins that may have a regulatory role in HR.

  2. Frequency of intrachromosomal homologous recombination induced by UV radiation in normally repairing and excision repair-deficient human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimura, T.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. ); Godwin, A.R.; Liskay, R.M. )

    1990-02-01

    To investigate the role of DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair in intrachromosomal homologous recombination, a plasmid containing duplicated copies of the gene coding for hygromycin resistance was introduced into the genome of a repair-proficient human cell line, KMST-6, and two repair-deficient lines, XP2OS(SV) from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A and XP2YO(SV) from complementation group F. Neither hygromycin-resistance gene codes for a functional enzyme because each contains an insertion/deletion mutation at a unique site, but recombination between the two defective genes can yield hygromycin-resistant cells. The rates of spontaneous recombination in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cell strains containing the recombination substrate were found to be similar. The frequency of UV-induced recombination was determined for three of these cell strains. At low doses, the group A cell strain and the group F cell strain showed a significant increase in frequency of recombinants. The repair-proficient cell strain required 10-to 20-fold higher doses of UV to exhibit comparable increases in frequency of recombinants. These results suggest that unexcised DNA damage, rather than the excision repair process per se, stimulates such recombination.

  3. Human RecQ Helicases in DNA Repair, Recombination, and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Deborah L.; Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Opresko, Patricia L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2015-01-01

    RecQ helicases are an important family of genome surveillance proteins conserved from bacteria to humans. Each of the five human RecQ helicases plays critical roles in genome maintenance and stability, and the RecQ protein family members are often referred to as guardians of the genome. The importance of these proteins in cellular homeostasis is underscored by the fact that defects in BLM, WRN, and RECQL4 are linked to distinct heritable human disease syndromes. Each human RecQ helicase has a unique set of protein-interacting partners, and these interactions dictate its specialized functions in genome maintenance, including DNA repair, recombination, replication, and transcription. Human RecQ helicases also interact with each other, and these interactions have significant impact on enzyme function. Future research goals in this field include a better understanding of the division of labor among the human RecQ helicases and learning how human RecQ helicases collaborate and cooperate to enhance genome stability. PMID:24606147

  4. Human RecQ helicases in DNA repair, recombination, and replication.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Deborah L; Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Opresko, Patricia L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2014-01-01

    RecQ helicases are an important family of genome surveillance proteins conserved from bacteria to humans. Each of the five human RecQ helicases plays critical roles in genome maintenance and stability, and the RecQ protein family members are often referred to as guardians of the genome. The importance of these proteins in cellular homeostasis is underscored by the fact that defects in BLM, WRN, and RECQL4 are linked to distinct heritable human disease syndromes. Each human RecQ helicase has a unique set of protein-interacting partners, and these interactions dictate its specialized functions in genome maintenance, including DNA repair, recombination, replication, and transcription. Human RecQ helicases also interact with each other, and these interactions have significant impact on enzyme function. Future research goals in this field include a better understanding of the division of labor among the human RecQ helicases and learning how human RecQ helicases collaborate and cooperate to enhance genome stability.

  5. Stable high volumetric production of glycosylated human recombinant IFNalpha2b in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Loignon, Martin; Perret, Sylvie; Kelly, John; Boulais, Denise; Cass, Brian; Bisson, Louis; Afkhamizarreh, Fatemeh; Durocher, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells are becoming the prevailing expression system for the production of recombinant proteins because of their capacity for proper protein folding, assembly, and post-translational modifications. These systems currently allow high volumetric production of monoclonal recombinant antibodies in the range of grams per litre. However their use for large-scale expression of cytokines typically results in much lower volumetric productivity. Results We have engineered a HEK293 cell clone for high level production of human recombinant glycosylated IFNα2b and developed a rapid and efficient method for its purification. This clone steadily produces more than 200 mg (up to 333 mg) of human recombinant IFNα2b per liter of serum-free culture, which can be purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography following media acidification and clarification. This rapid procedure yields 98% pure IFNα2b with a recovery greater than 70%. Purified IFNα2b migrates on SDS-PAGE as two species, a major 21 kDa band and a minor 19 kDa band. N-terminal sequences of both forms are identical and correspond to the expected mature protein. Purified IFNα2b elutes at neutral pH as a single peak with an apparent molecular weight of 44,000 Da as determined by size-exclusion chromatography. The presence of intramolecular and absence of intermolecular disulfide bridges is evidenced by the fact that non-reduced IFNα2b has a greater electrophoretic mobility than the reduced form. Treatment of purified IFNα2b with neuraminidase followed by O-glycosidase both increases electrophoretic mobility, indicating the presence of sialylated O-linked glycan. A detailed analysis of glycosylation by mass spectroscopy identifies disialylated and monosialylated forms as the major constituents of purified IFNα2b. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) shows that the glycans are linked to the expected threonine at position 106. Other minor glycosylated forms and non-sialylated species are

  6. Synthesis of recombinant human procollagen II in a stably transfected tumour cell line (HT1080).

    PubMed Central

    Fertala, A; Sieron, A L; Ganguly, A; Li, S W; Ala-Kokko, L; Anumula, K R; Prockop, D J

    1994-01-01

    Apparently because the biosynthetic pathways involve eight or more highly specific post-translational enzymes, it has been difficult to obtain expression of genes for fibrillar collagens in recombinant systems. Here two constructs of the human gene for procollagen II (COL2A1) were prepared, one with about 0.5 kb of a promoter for a procollagen I gene (COL1A1) and the other with about 4 kb of the promoter for the procollagen II gene. The constructs, together with a neomycin-resistant gene, were transfected into a human tumour cell line (HT1080) that synthesizes the collagen IV found in basement membranes, but does not synthesize any fibrillar collagen. About two per 100 clones resistant to the neomycin analogue G418 synthesized and secreted human procollagen II. Milligram quantities of the recombinant procollagen II were readily isolated from the cultured medium. The recombinant procollagen II had the expected amino acid sequence as defined by nucleotide sequencing of mRNA-derived cDNA and the expected amino acid composition as defined by analysis of procollagen II that was converted into collagen II by digestion with procollagen N- and C-proteinases. Also, analysis of the carbohydrate content indicated that there was glycosylation of some of the hydroxylysine residues but no evidence of post-translational overmodification of the residues. In addition, the protein was shown to have a native conformation as assayed by a series of protease digestions. No essential differences were found between clones transfected with the COL2A1 gene construct containing the COL1A1 promoter and the similar construct containing the COL2A1 promoter in terms of number of clones synthesizing recombinant procollagen II and the levels of expression. With both constructs, the expression of the COL2A1 gene was closely related to copy number. The results demonstrated therefore that it is not essential to use a promoter for a gene normally expressed in a host cell in order to obtain gene copy

  7. The synaptonemal complex and meiotic recombination in humans: new approaches to old questions.

    PubMed

    Vallente, Rhea U; Cheng, Edith Y; Hassold, Terry J

    2006-06-01

    Meiotic prophase serves as an arena for the interplay of two important cellular activities, meiotic recombination and synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Synapsis is mediated by the synaptonemal complex (SC), originally characterized as a structure linked to pairing of meiotic chromosomes (Moses (1958) J Biophys Biochem Cytol 4:633-638). In 1975, the first electron micrographs of human pachytene stage SCs were presented (Moses et al. (1975) Science 187:363-365) and over the next 15 years the importance of the SC to normal meiotic progression in human males and females was established (Jhanwar and Chaganti (1980) Hum Genet 54:405-408; Pathak and Elder (1980) Hum Genet 54:171-175; Solari (1980) Chromosoma 81:315-337; Speed (1984) Hum Genet 66:176-180; Wallace and Hulten (1985) Ann Hum Genet 49(Pt 3):215-226). Further, these studies made it clear that abnormalities in the assembly or maintenance of the SC were an important contributor to human infertility (Chaganti et al. (1980) Am J Hum Genet 32:833-848; Vidal et al. (1982) Hum Genet 60:301-304; Bojko (1983) Carlsberg Res Commun 48:285-305; Bojko (1985) Carlsberg Res Commun 50:43-72; Templado et al. (1984) Hum Genet 67:162-165; Navarro et al. (1986) Hum Reprod 1:523-527; Garcia et al. (1989) Hum Genet 2:147-53). However, the utility of these early studies was limited by lack of information on the structural composition of the SC and the identity of other SC-associated proteins. Fortunately, studies of the past 15 years have gone a long way toward remedying this problem. In this minireview, we highlight the most important of these advances as they pertain to human meiosis, focusing on temporal aspects of SC assembly, the relationship between the SC and meiotic recombination, and the contribution of SC abnormalities to human infertility.

  8. Hydrolysis potential of recombinant human skin and kidney prolidase against diisopropylfluorophosphate and sarin by in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Costante, Michael; Biggemann, Lionel; Alamneh, Yonas; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Short, Radley; Nigam, Savita; Garcia, Gregory; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2012-02-01

    Human prolidase (PROL), which has structural homology to bacterial organophosphate acid anhydrolase that hydrolyze organophosphates and nerve agents has been proposed recently as a potential catalytic bioscavenger. To develop PROL as a catalytic bioscavenger, we evaluated the in vitro hydrolysis efficiency of purified recombinant human PROL against organophosphates and nerve agents. Human liver PROL was purified by chromatographic procedures, whereas recombinant human skin and kidney PROL was expressed in Trichoplusia ni larvae, affinity purified and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. The catalytic efficiency of PROL against diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and nerve agents was evaluated by acetylcholinesterase back-titration assay. Partially purified human liver PROL hydrolyzed DFP and various nerve agents, which was abolished by specific PROL inhibitor showing the specificity of hydrolysis. Both the recombinant human skin and kidney PROL expressed in T. ni larvae showed ∼99% purity and efficiently hydrolyzed DFP and sarin. In contrast to human liver PROL, both skin and kidney PROL showed significantly low hydrolyzing potential against nerve agents soman, tabun and VX. In conclusion, compared to human liver PROL, recombinant human skin and kidney PROL hydrolyze only DFP and sarin showing the substrate specificity of PROL from various tissue sources.

  9. Production of recombinant human DNA polymerase delta in a Bombyx mori bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yajing; Chen, Huiqing; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yujue; Chen, Keping; Zhang, Sufang; Meng, Xiao; Lee, Ernest Y C; Lee, Marietta Y W T

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA polymerase δ (pol δ) plays a crucial role in chromosomal DNA replication and various DNA repair processes. It is thought to consist of p125, p66 (p68), p50 and p12 subunits. However, rigorous isolation of mammalian pol δ from natural sources has usually yielded two-subunit preparations containing only p125 and p50 polypeptides. While recombinant pol δ isolated from infected insect cells have some problems of consistency in the quality of the preparations, and the yields are much lower. To address these deficiencies, we have constructed recombinant BmNPV baculoviruses using MultiBac system. This method makes the generation of recombinant forms of pol δ containing mutations in any one of the subunits or combinations thereof extremely facile. From about 350 infected larvae, we obtained as much as 4 mg of pol δ four-subunit complex. Highly purified enzyme behaved like the one of native form by rigorous characterization and comparison of its activities on poly(dA)/oligo(dT) template-primer and singly primed M13 DNA, and its homogeneity on FPLC gel filtration. In vitro base excision repair (BER) assays showed that pol δ plays a significant role in uracil-intiated BER and is more likely to mediate LP BER, while the trimer lacking p12 is more likely to mediate SN BER. It seems likely that loss of p12 modulates the rate of SN BER and LP BER during the repair process. Thus, this work provides a simple, fast, reliable and economic way for the large-scale production of human DNA polymerase δ with a high activity and purity, setting up a new platform for our further research on the biochemical properties of pol δ, its regulation and the integration of its functions, and how alterations in pol δ function could contribute to the etiology of human cancer or other diseases that can result from loss of genomic stability.

  10. A role for XLF in DNA repair and recombination in human somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Fattah, Farjana Jahan; Kweon, Junghun; Wang, Yongbao; Lee, Eu Han; Kan, Yinan; Lichter, Natalie; Weisensel, Natalie; Hendrickson, Eric A

    2014-03-01

    Classic non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) is required for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells and plays a critical role in lymphoid V(D)J recombination. A core C-NHEJ component is the DNA ligase IV co-factor, Cernunnos/XLF (hereafter XLF). In patients, mutations in XLF cause predicted increases in radiosensitivity and deficits in immune function, but also cause other less well-understood pathologies including neural disorders. To characterize XLF function(s) in a defined genetic system, we used a recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene targeting strategy to inactivate both copies of the XLF locus in the human HCT116 cell line. Analyses of XLF-null cells (which were viable) showed that they were highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and a radiomimetic DNA damaging agent, etoposide. XLF-null cells had profound DNA DSB repair defects as measured by in vivo plasmid end-joining assays and were also dramatically impaired in their ability to form either V(D)J coding or signal joints on extrachromosomal substrates. Thus, our somatic XLF-null cell line recapitulates many of the phenotypes expected from XLF patient cell lines. Subsequent structure:function experiments utilizing the expression of wild-type and mutant XLF cDNAs demonstrated that all of the phenotypes of an XLF deficiency could be rescued by the overexpression of a wild-type XLF cDNA. Unexpectedly, mutant forms of XLF bearing point mutations at amino acid positions L115 and L179, also completely complemented the null phenotype suggesting, in contrast to predictions to the contrary, that these mutations do not abrogate XLF function. Finally, we demonstrate that the absence of XLF causes a small, but significant, increase in homologous recombination, implicating XLF in DSB pathway choice regulation. We conclude that human XLF is a non-essential, but critical, C-NHEJ-repair factor.

  11. Human MutL-complexes monitor homologous recombination independently of mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Siehler, Simone Yasmin; Schrauder, Michael; Gerischer, Ulrike; Cantor, Sharon; Marra, Giancarlo; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2009-02-01

    The role of mismatch repair proteins has been well studied in the context of DNA repair following DNA polymerase errors. Particularly in yeast, MSH2 and MSH6 have also been implicated in the regulation of genetic recombination, whereas MutL homologs appeared to be less important. So far, little is known about the role of the human MutL homolog hMLH1 in recombination, but recently described molecular interactions suggest an involvement. To identify activities of hMLH1 in this process, we applied an EGFP-based assay for the analysis of different mechanisms of DNA repair, initiated by a targeted double-stranded DNA break. We analysed 12 human cellular systems, differing in the hMLH1 and concomitantly in the hPMS1 and hPMS2 status via inducible protein expression, genetic reconstitution, or RNA interference. We demonstrate that hMLH1 and its complex partners hPMS1 and hPMS2 downregulate conservative homologous recombination (HR), particularly when involving DNA sequences with only short stretches of uninterrupted homology. Unexpectedly, hMSH2 is dispensable for this effect. Moreover, the damage-signaling kinase ATM and its substrates BLM and BACH1 are not strictly required, but the combined effect of ATM/ATR-signaling components may mediate the anti-recombinogenic effect. Our data indicate a protective role of hMutL-complexes in a process which may lead to detrimental genome rearrangements, in a manner which does not depend on mismatch repair.

  12. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  13. Production of recombinant human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor (rM/NEI).

    PubMed

    Cooley, J; Mathieu, B; Remold-O'Donnell, E; Mandle, R J

    1998-10-01

    Recombinant human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor (rM/NEI) was expressed with a baculovirus expression system. The purified recombinant protein was shown to inhibit human neutrophil elastase by the formation of a stable equimolar complex, as had been shown for M/NEI isolated from monocyte-derived cell lines. rM/NEI was remarkably stable in aqueous buffers from pH 6 to pH 8, but not in buffers below pH 6. rM/NEI activity was stable when subjected to freeze-thaw cycles and low temperature storage in Tris or phosphate buffers. rM/NEI could also be lyophilized without significant loss of activity. A 1.6-g batch of greater than 95% purity in rM/NEI was obtained by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with yields of 7 to 8 mg per liter of cultured insect cells. Methods and protocols were chosen for compatibility with large-scale cGMP production and were suitable for biochemical characterization and preclinical evaluation of rM/NEI as a therapeutic agent for cystic fibrosis. The availability of large amounts of purified rM/NEI will facilitate clinical evaluation of rM/NEI for prevention of the elastase-mediated destruction of lung tissue associated with the morbidity and mortality of cystic fibrosis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    PubMed

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-04

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  15. Benefits and risks of anemia correction with recombinant human erythropoietin in children maintained by hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Montini, G; Zacchello, G; Baraldi, E; Zanconato, S; Suppiej, A; Fabris, F; Andreetta, B; Pavanello, L; Zacchello, F

    1990-10-01

    Ten children with renal failure (age range 2 years 6 months to 18 years 9 months; median 11 years 10 months), maintained by long-term hemodialysis, had successful correction of their anemia after intravenous administration of recombinant human erythropoietin in a dosage escalating every 2 weeks (75 to 150 to 300 to 450 IU/kg/wk). Mean hemoglobin concentration increased from 6.4 +/- 0.9 to 11.5 +/- 1.0 gm/dl. Blood cell counts used to evaluate the correction of anemia were done after dialysis; this was especially important for children less compliant with water restriction. The higher hemoglobin concentration resulted in improvement of the quality of life, a greater tolerance for physical effort (exercise tolerance doubled and the ventilatory anaerobic threshold increased significantly), correction of some subclinical central nervous system abnormalities detected by evoked potentials testing, and reduction of bleeding time. Few side effects were noted; severe hypertension developed in one patient when postdialysis hematocrit was only 28%, and there were two episodes of hypertransaminasemia with no other evidence of liver dysfunction. We conclude that in children with renal failure the use of recombinant human erythropoietin to correct anemia is safe and strongly advisable, because of the resolution of many of the symptoms correlated with anemia.

  16. Benefits and risks of protracted treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin in patients having haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Casati, S; Passerini, P; Campise, M R; Graziani, G; Cesana, B; Perisic, M; Ponticelli, C

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen patients with uraemic anaemia and having regular haemodialysis were given human recombinant erythropoietin in increasing doses, beginning with 24 U/kg thrice weekly. One patient was dropped from the study because of recurrent thrombosis of vascular access sites. In the other 13 patients, followed up for a mean of 9.1 months (range 8-11), haemoglobin concentrations increased from 62 (SD 8) to 105 (9) g/l. No antierythropoietin antibodies were detected during the study. The correction of anaemia was associated with a tendency to hyperkalaemia and a mild increase of unconjugated bilirubinaemia. In eight previously hypertensive patients antihypertensive treatment had to be reinforced, but in normotensive patients blood pressure did not change. Thrombosis of arteriovenous fistulas occurred in two patients and a cerebral ischaemic lesion in one. Protracted treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin evidently can maintain normal haemoglobin concentrations in uraemic patients over time. Full correction of anaemia, however, may trigger some vascular problems, particularly in hypertensive patients and those with a tendency to thromboembolism. PMID:3120854

  17. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Liu, Tongxin; Zhao, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies.

  18. Ability of recombinant human catalase to suppress inflammation of the murine lung induced by influenza A.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xunlong; Shi, Zhihui; Huang, Hai; Zhu, Hongguang; Zhou, Pei; Zhu, Haiyan; Ju, Dianwen

    2014-06-01

    Influenza A virus pandemics and emerging antiviral resistance highlight the urgent need for novel generic pharmacological strategies that reduce both viral replication and inflammation of the lung. We have previously investigated the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant human catalase (rhCAT) against viral pneumonia in mice, but the protection mechanisms involved were not explored. In the present study, we have performed a more in-depth analysis covering survival, lung inflammation, immune cell responses, production of cytokines, and inflammation signaling pathways in mice. Male imprinting control region mice were infected intranasally with high pathogenicity (H1N1) influenza A virus followed by treatment with recombinant human catalase. The administration of rhCAT resulted in a significant reduction in inflammatory cell infiltration (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils), inflammatory cytokine levels (e.g., IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ), the level of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 chemokine and the mRNA levels of toll-like receptors TLR-4, TLR-7, and NF-κB, as well as partially maintaining the activity of the antioxidant enzymes system. These findings indicated that rhCAT might play a key protective role in viral pneumonia of mice via suppression of inflammatory immune responses.

  19. In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant monoamine oxidase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajbir; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhateria, Manisha; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2014-09-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant that has been used worldwide for its nootropic action. Chemically standardized extract of B. monniera is now available as over the counter herbal remedy to enhance memory in children and adults. Considering the nootropic action of B. monniera, we evaluated the effect of clinically available B. monniera extract and six of B. monniera constituents (bacoside A3, bacopaside I, bacopaside II, bacosaponin C, bacosine, and bacoside A mixture) on recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. The effect of B. monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes was evaluated using MAO-Glo(TM) assay kit (Promega Corporation, USA), following the instruction manual. IC50 and mode of inhibition were measured for MAO enzymes. Bacopaside I and bacoside A mixture inhibited the MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes. Bacopaside I exhibited mixed mode of inhibition with IC50 and Ki values of 17.08 ± 1.64 and 42.5 ± 3.53 µg/mL, respectively, for MAO-A enzyme. Bacopaside I is the major constituent of B. monniera, which inhibited the MAO-A enzyme selectively.

  20. Refolded Recombinant Human Paraoxonase 1 Variant Exhibits Prophylactic Activity Against Organophosphate Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Datusalia, Ashok K; Sharma, Shyam S; Pande, Abhay H

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are neurotoxic chemicals, and current treatments available for OP-poisoning are considered as unsatisfactory and inadequate. There is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment(s) for OP-poisoning. Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is known to hydrolyze a variety of OP-compounds and is a leading candidate for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic agent against OP-poisoning in humans. Non-availability of effective system(s) for the production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) makes it hard to produce improved variant(s) of this enzyme and analyze their in vivo efficacy in animal models. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop variant(s) of h-PON1. Recently, we have developed a procedure to produce active rh-PON1 enzymes by using E. coli expression system. In this study, we have characterized the OP-hydrolyzing properties of refolded rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant. Our results show that refolded rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant exhibit enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity in in vitro and ex vivo assays and exhibited prophylactic activity in mouse model of OP-poisoning, suggesting that refolded rh-PON1 can be developed as a therapeutic candidate.

  1. Expression, purification and enzymatic characterization of a recombinant human ubiquitin-specific protease 47.

    PubMed

    Piao, Jinhua; Tashiro, Aika; Nishikawa, Minako; Aoki, Yutaka; Moriyoshi, Eiko; Hattori, Akira; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the physicochemical and enzymatic properties of recombinant human ubiquitin (Ub)-specific protease (USP) 47, a novel member of the C19 family of de-ubiquitinating enzymes (DUB), were characterized for the first time. Recombinant human USP47 was expressed in a baculovirus expression system and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of ∼146 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. USP47 released Ub from Ub-aminoacyl-4-metheylcoumaryl-7-amide and Ub-tagged granzyme B. The substitution of the potential nucleophile Cys109 with Ser severely abrogated the Ub-releasing activity of USP47, indicating that USP47 is indeed a cysteine DUB. An assay using Ub dimer substrates showed that the enzyme cleaved a variety of isopeptide bonds between 2 Ub molecules, including the Lys48- and Lys63-linked isopeptide bonds. USP47 also released a Ub moiety from Lys48- and Lys63-linked polyUb chains. Of the inhibitors tested, N-ethylmaleimide, Zn ion and Ub aldehyde revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of USP47. In this study, clear differences in the enzymatic properties between USP47 and USP7 (the most closely related proteins among DUBs) were also found. Therefore, our results suggest that USP47 may play distinct roles in Ub-mediated cellular processes via DUB activity.

  2. Antibodies induced with recombinant VP1 from human rhinovirus exhibit cross-neutralisation.

    PubMed

    Edlmayr, J; Niespodziana, K; Popow-Kraupp, T; Krzyzanek, V; Focke-Tejkl, M; Blaas, D; Grote, M; Valenta, R

    2011-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of the common cold and account for 30-50% of all acute respiratory illnesses. Although HRV infections are usually harmless and invade only the upper respiratory tract, several studies demonstrate that HRV is involved in the exacerbation of asthma. VP1 is one of the surface-exposed proteins of the viral capsid that is important for the binding of rhinoviruses to the corresponding receptors on human cells. Here we investigated its potential usefulness for vaccination against the common cold. We expressed VP1 proteins from two distantly related HRV strains, HRV89 and HRV14, in Escherichia coli. Mice and rabbits were immunised with the purified recombinant proteins. The induced antibodies reacted with natural VP1 and with whole virus particles as shown by immunoblotting and immunogold electron microscopy. They exhibited strong cross-neutralising activity for different HRV strains. Therefore, recombinant VP1 may be considered a candidate HRV vaccine to prevent HRV-induced asthma exacerbations.

  3. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

  4. Human recombinant antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P2β protein.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Vanina; Niborski, Leticia L; Gomez, Karina A; Levin, Mariano J

    2011-05-01

    Patients with chronic Chagas' Heart Disease (cChHD) develop an antibody response that is suspected to be involved in the cardiac pathogenesis. The response against Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P proteins is of particular interest, as these antibodies can cross-react with host cardiac receptors causing electrophysiological alterations. To better understand the humoral anti-P response we constructed a single-chain variable fragment library derived from a cChHD patient. The variable heavy and light regions were amplified from bone-marrow RNA and subcloned into the vector pComb3X. The phage library was subsequently panned against T. cruzi ribosomal P2β protein (TcP2β). We obtained 3 different human recombinant antibodies that specifically reacted with TcP2β in ELISA and Western blots. Two of them reacted with the C-terminal region of TcP2β, peptide R13, as the recombinant autoanti-P antibodies from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients. Interestingly, the third one was specific for TcP2β but did not recognize R13, confirming the specific nature of the anti-P response in Chagas disease. Neither sequence nor VH usage similarities between Chagas and SLE anti-P autoantibodies were observed. Herein, the first human mAbs against TcP2β have been obtained and characterized showing that the humoral anti-P response is directed against the parasite and does not include an autoimmune component.

  5. No response to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I.

    PubMed

    Tamary, H; Shalev, H; Pinsk, V; Zoldan, M; Zaizov, R

    1999-01-01

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) type I is a rare inherited bone marrow disorder characterized by moderate to severe macrocytic anemia with pathognomonic cytopathology of nucleated red blood cells. Previous studies have suggested that serum erythropoietin levels in affected patients are lower than expected for the degree of anemia. An earlier study demonstrated a substantial increase in the number of CFU-E in CDA type I pattern on addition of exogenous erythropoietin. The present study reports on the response to recombinant human erythropoietin in 8 patients with CDA type I. Eighteen weeks of treatment, starting at 300 IU/kg twice a week and gradually increasing to 500 IU/kg three times a week, did not have a substantial effect on the mean hemoglobin value. These results indicate that recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) is not beneficial to patients with CDA type I and that the relatively low levels of serum erythropoietin probably play no major role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  6. Recovery from severe hematopoietic suppression using recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, R.L.; Skelly, R.R.; Taylor, P.; Dubois, A.; Donahue, R.E.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1988-06-01

    The ability of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) to enhance recovery of a radiation-suppressed hematopoietic system was evaluated in a nonuniform radiation exposure model using the rhesus monkey. Recombinant human GM-CSF treatment for 7 days after a lethal, nonuniform radiation exposure of 800 cGy was sufficient to enhance hematopoietic reconstitution, leading to an earlier recovery. Monkeys were treated with 72,000 U/kg/day of rhGM-CSF delivered continuously through an Alzet miniosmotic pump implanted subcutaneously on day 3. Treated monkeys demonstrated effective granulocyte and platelet levels in the peripheral blood, 4 and 7 days earlier, respectively, than control monkeys. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) activity in the bone marrow was monitored to evaluate the effect of rhGM-CSF on marrow recovery. Treatment with rhGM-CSF led to an early recovery of CFU-GM activity suggesting that rhGM-CSF acted on an earlier stem cell population to generate CFU-GM. Thus, the effect of rhGM-CSF on hematopoietic regeneration, granulocyte recovery, and platelet recovery are evaluated in this paper.

  7. Recovery from severe hematopoietic suppression using recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, R.L.; Skelly, R.R.; Taylor, P.; Dubois, A.; Donahue, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of recombinant human granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) to enhance recovery of a radiation-suppressed hematopoietic system was evaluated in a nonuniform radiation-exposure model using the rhesus monkey. Recombinant human GM-CSF treatment for 7 days after a lethal, nonuniform radiation exposure of 800 cGy was sufficient to enhance hematopoietic reconstitution, leading to an earlier recovery. Monkeys were treated with 72,000 U/kg/day of rhGm-CSF delivered continuously through an Alzet mini-osmotic pump implanted subcutaneously on day 3. Treated monkeys demonstrated effective granulocyte and platelet levels in the peripheral blood, 4 and 7 days earlier, respectively, than control monkeys. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) activity in the bone marrow was monitored to evaluate the effect of rhGM-CSF on marrow recovery. Treatment with rhGM-CSF led to an early recovery of CFU-GM activity suggesting that rhGM-CSF acted on an earlier stem cell population to generate CFU-GM. Thus, the effect of rhGM-CSF on hematopoietic regeneration, granulocyte recovery, and platelet recovery are evaluated.

  8. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Jordan, Luke R; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O; Warrington, Arthur E; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-01-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

  9. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-01-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks. PMID:23881231

  10. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Lysozyme from Eggs of Transgenic Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Liu, Tongxin; Zhao, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic chickens as bioreactors have several advantages, such as the simple establishment procedure, correct glycosylation profile of expressed proteins, etc. Lysozyme is widely used in food industry, livestock farming, and medical field as a replacement of antibiotics because of its antibacterial and complement system-modulating activity. In this study, we used RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) in the transgenic chicken. We demonstrated that the transgene of rhLY was genetically stable across different generations. We next optimized the purification procedure of rhLY from the transgenic eggs by utilizing two steps of cation-exchange chromatography and one gel-filtration chromatography. About 6 mg rhLY with the purity exceeding 90% was obtained from ten eggs, and the purification efficiency was about 75%. The purified rhLY had similar physicochemical and biological properties in molecular mass and antibacterial activity compared to the commercial human lysozyme. Additionally, both of them exhibited thermal stability at 60°C and tolerated an extensive pH range of 2 to 11. In conclusion, our study proved that the transgenic chickens we have previously generated were genetically stable and suitable for the production of active rhLY. We also provided a pipeline for purifying the recombinant proteins from transgenic eggs, which could be useful for other studies. PMID:26713728

  11. Purification, enzymatic activity and inhibitor discovery for recombinant human carbonic anhydrase XIV.

    PubMed

    Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Bartkutė, Brigita; Michailovienė, Vilma; Zakšauskas, Audrius; Baranauskienė, Lina; Satkūnė, Sandra; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-12-20

    Human carbonic anhydrase XIV (CA XIV), a transmembrane protein, highly expressed in the central nervous system, is difficult to recombinantly express and purify in large scale for the measurements of inhibitor binding and drug design. CA XIV belongs to the family of twelve catalytically active CA isoforms in the human body. Disorders in the expression of CA XIV cause serious diseases and CA XIV has been described as a possible drug target for the treatment of epilepsy, some retinopathies, and skin tumors. In this study, the effect of different promoters, E. coli strains, and the length of recombinant CA XIV protein construct were analyzed for the production CA XIV in large scale by using affinity purification. Active site titration by inhibitors and the isothermal titration calorimery revealed over 96% purity of the protein. Enzymatic activity of the purified CA XIV was determined by following the CO2 hydration using the stopped-flow technique. Several inhibitors were discovered that exhibited selectivity towards CA XIV over other CA isoforms and could be developed as drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 effectively inhibits angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinliang; Shi, Minglei; Xi, Yongyi; Gao, Lihua; Zhang, Guanyi; Shao, Yong; Chen, Huipeng; Hu, Xianwen

    2015-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF receptor‑1 (VEGFR‑1) acts as a decoy VEGF receptor that enables the regulation of VEGF on the vascular endothelium. In the present study, the recombinant human VEGFR1D1‑3/Fc (rhVEGFR‑1), which contains key domains for VEGF binding, was cloned and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The rhVEGFR‑1 protein was purified using protein‑A affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of rhVEGFR‑1 was found to be ~162 and 81 kD in non‑reducing and reducing SDS‑PAGE, respectively. The majority of the final protein products were in the dimeric conformation. Western blot analysis revealed that rhVEGFR‑1 was only capable of binding to the full glycan form of rhVEGF‑165 and rhVEGF‑121. The dissociation constant for the binding of rhVEGFR‑1 to VEGF‑165, detected using Biacore, was 285 pM. In addition, rhVEGFR‑1 inhibited the proliferation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. In vivo experiments also demonstrated that rhVEGFR‑1 inhibited chicken chorioallantoic membrane neovascularization and angiogenesis in nude mice. In conclusion, an anti‑angiogenic recombinant soluble VEGFR was expressed (up to 5 mg/l) in CHO cells and was shown to be capable of inhibiting neovascularization in vivo and in vitro.

  13. Visualization of human Bloom's syndrome helicase molecules bound to homologous recombination intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Gyimesi, Máté; Pires, Ricardo H.; Billington, Neil; Sarlós, Kata; Kocsis, Zsuzsa S.; Módos, Károly; Kellermayer, Miklós S. Z.; Kovács, Mihály

    2013-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a key process in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) that can initiate cancer or cell death. Human Bloom's syndrome RecQ-family DNA helicase (BLM) exerts complex activities to promote DSB repair while avoiding illegitimate HR. The oligomeric assembly state of BLM has been a key unresolved aspect of its activities. In this study we assessed the structure and oligomeric state of BLM, in the absence and presence of key HR-intermediate DNA structures, by using single-molecule visualization (electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic single-particle analysis) and solution biophysical (dynamic light scattering, kinetic and equilibrium binding) techniques. Besides full-length BLM, we used a previously characterized truncated construct (BLM642–1290) as a monomeric control. Contrary to previous models proposing a ring-forming oligomer, we found the majority of BLM molecules to be monomeric in all examined conditions. However, BLM showed a tendency to form dimers when bound to branched HR intermediates. Our results suggest that HR activities requiring single-stranded DNA translocation are performed by monomeric BLM, while complex DNA structures encountered and dissolved by BLM in later stages of HR induce partial oligomerization of the helicase.—Gyimesi, M., Pires, R.H., Billington, N., Sarlós, K., Kocsis, Z.S. Módos, K., Kellermayer, M. S. Z., Kovács, M. Visualization of human Bloom's syndrome helicase molecules bound to homologous recombination intermediates. PMID:24005907

  14. Improving expression of recombinant human IGF-1 using IGF-1R knockout CHO cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romand, Sandrine; Jostock, Thomas; Fornaro, Mara; Schmidt, Joerg; Ritter, Anett; Wilms, Burkhard; Laux, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for the large-scale production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals. However, attempts to express IGF-1 (a mutated human Insulin-like growth factor 1 Ea peptide (hIGF-1Ea mut)) in CHO cells resulted in poor cell growth and low productivity (0.1-0.2 g/L). Human IGF-1 variants negatively impacted CHO cell growth via the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Therefore knockout (KO) of the IGF-1R gene in two different CHO cell lines as well as knockdown (KD) of IGF-1R in one CHO cell line were performed. These cell line engineering approaches decreased significantly the hIGF-1 mediated cell growth inhibition and increased productivity of both KO CHO cell lines as well as of the KD CHO cell line. A productivity increase of 10-fold at pool level and sevenfold at clone level was achieved, resulting in a titer of 1.3 g/L. This data illustrate that cell line engineering approaches are powerful tools to improve the yields of recombinant proteins which are difficult to produce in CHO cells.

  15. Isolation of the functional human excision repair gene ERCC5 by intercosmid recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Mudgett, J.S.; MacInnes, M.A. )

    1990-12-01

    The complete human nucleotide exicision repair gene ERCC5 was isolated as a functional gene on overlapping cosmids. ERCC5 corrects the excision repair deficiency of Chinese hamster ovary cell line UV135, of complementation group 5. Cosmids that contained human sequences were obtained from a UV-resistant cell line derived from UV135 cells transformed with human genomic DNA. Individually, none of the cosmids complemented the UV135 repair defect; cosmid groups were formed to represent putative human genomic regions, and specific pairs of cosmids that effectively transformed UV135 cells to UV resistance were identified. Analysis of transformants derived from the active cosmid pairs showed that the functional 32-kbp ERCC5 gene was reconstructed by homologous intercosmid recombination. The cloned human sequences exhibited 100% concordance with the locus designated genetically as ERCC5 located on human chromosome 13q. Cosmid-transformed UV135 host cells repaired cytotoxic damage to levels about 70% of normal and repaired UV-irradiated shuttle vector DNA to levels about 82% of normal.

  16. Physical Characterization of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Larionov, Ph D

    2007-06-05

    A special interest in the organization of human centromeric DNA was stimulated a few years ago when two independent groups succeeded in reconstituting a functional human centromere, using constructs carrying centromere-specific alphoid DNA arrays. This work demonstrated the importance of DNA components in mammalian centromeres and opened a way for studying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation and for construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with therapeutic potential. To elucidate the structural requirements for formation of HACs with a functional kinetochore, we developed a new method for cloning of large DNA fragments for human centromeric regions that can be used as a substrate for HAC formation. This method exploits in vivo recombination in yeast (TAR cloning). In addition, a new strategy for the construction of alphoid DNA arrays was developed in our lab. The strategy involves the construction of uniform or hybrid synthetic alphoid DNA arrays by the RCA-TAR technique. This technique comprises two steps: rolling circle amplification of an alphoid DNA dimer and subsequent assembling of the amplified fragments by in vivo homologous recombination in yeast (Figure 1). Using this system, we constructed a set of different synthetic alphoid DNA arrays with a predetermined sequence varying in size from 30 to 140 kb and demonstrated that some of the arrays are competent in HAC formation. Because any nucleotide can be changed in a dimer before its amplification, this new technique is optimal for identifying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation in HACs. Moreover, the technique makes possible to introduce into alphoid DNA arrays recognition sites for DNA-binding proteins. We have made the following progress on the studying of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology: i) minimal size of alphoid DNA array required for de novo kinetochore formation was estimated; ii

  17. [A study of recombinant human sestrin 1 and sestrin 2 proteins produced in a prokaryotic system].

    PubMed

    Rai, N; Kumar, R; Haque, Md A; Hassan, Md I; Dey, S

    2017-01-01

    Sestrins are highly conserved stress-inducible proteins capable of suppressing the production of ROS and signalling through mTORC1. Here we report a study of human sestrin1 (sesn1) and sestrin2 (sesn2) proteins produced in a pET28^(+) vector based prokaryotic system. Mass spectrometry analysis, western blot and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of affinity purified sesn1 and sesn2 proteins confirmed their identity; biophysical characteristics were observed using circular dichroism (CD) showing that sesn1 and sesn2 have a predominant α-helical structure. Here we describe a simple, one step purification process to purify a large amount of sestrin proteins with significant yield. Further study of recombinant human sestrins may further facilitate the understanding of their roles in eukaryotic cells.

  18. Expression and characterization of bioactive recombinant human alpha-lactalbumin in the milk of transgenic cloned cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yang, P; Tang, B; Sun, X; Zhang, R; Guo, C; Gong, G; Liu, Y; Li, R; Zhang, L; Dai, Y; Li, N

    2008-12-01

    Improvement of the nutritional value of cow milk with transgenic expression of recombinant human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) has been previously attempted. However, the detailed characterization of the recombinant protein and analysis of the transgenic milk components are not explored yet. Here, we first report production of healthy transgenic cows by somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which expression of up to 1.55 g/L of recombinant human alpha-LA was achieved. The recombinant human alpha-LA was purified from transgenic milk and displayed physicochemical properties similar to its natural counterpart with respect to molecular weight, structure, and regulatory activity for beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Additionally, no N-glycosylation was found in the recombinant human alpha-LA, whereas the endogenous bovine alpha-LA was glycosylated at the unusual site (71)Asn-Ile-(73)Cys. Compared with milk from nontransgenic cows, expression of the transgene did not materially alter milk composition, such as fat and protein content. Our research thus provides scientific evidence supporting the feasibility of humanizing cow milk.

  19. Partial white and grey matter protection with prolonged infusion of recombinant human erythropoietin after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Wassink, Guido; Davidson, Joanne O; Dhillon, Simerdeep K; Fraser, Mhoyra; Galinsky, Robert; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal asphyxia in preterm infants remains a significant contributor to abnormal long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recombinant human erythropoietin has potent non-haematopoietic neuroprotective properties, but there is limited evidence for protection in the preterm brain. Preterm (0.7 gestation) fetal sheep received sham asphyxia (sham occlusion) or asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min, followed by an intravenous infusion of vehicle (occlusion-vehicle) or recombinant human erythropoietin (occlusion-Epo, 5000 international units by slow push, then 832.5 IU/h), starting 30 min after asphyxia and continued until 72 h. Recombinant human erythropoietin reduced neuronal loss and numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the striatal caudate nucleus, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and thalamic medial nucleus ( P < 0.05 vs. occlusion-vehicle). In the white matter tracts, recombinant human erythropoietin increased total, but not immature/mature oligodendrocytes ( P < 0.05 vs. occlusion-vehicle), with increased cell proliferation and reduced induction of activated caspase-3, microglia and astrocytes ( P < 0.05). Finally, occlusion-Epo reduced seizure burden, with more rapid recovery of electroencephalogram power, spectral edge frequency, and carotid blood flow. In summary, prolonged infusion of recombinant human erythropoietin after severe asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep was partially neuroprotective and improved electrophysiological and cerebrovascular recovery, in association with reduced apoptosis and inflammation.

  20. Expression of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Egg Whites of Transgenic Hens

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications. PMID:25706123

  1. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  2. Albinism-Causing Mutations in Recombinant Human Tyrosinase Alter Intrinsic Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dolinska, Monika B.; Kovaleva, Elena; Backlund, Peter; Wingfield, Paul T.; Brooks, Brian P.; Sergeev, Yuri V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tyrosinase (TYR) catalyzes the rate-limiting, first step in melanin production and its gene (TYR) is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1), an autosomal recessive cause of childhood blindness. Patients with reduced TYR activity are classified as OCA1B; some OCA1B mutations are temperature-sensitive. Therapeutic research for OCA1 has been hampered, in part, by the absence of purified, active, recombinant wild-type and mutant human enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (residues 19–469) and two OCA1B related temperature-sensitive mutants, R422Q and R422W were expressed in insect cells and produced in T. ni larvae. The short trans-membrane fragment was deleted to avoid potential protein insolubility, while preserving all other functional features of the enzymes. Purified tyrosinase was obtained with a yield of >1 mg per 10 g of larval biomass. The protein was a monomeric glycoenzyme with maximum enzyme activity at 37°C and neutral pH. The two purified mutants when compared to the wild-type protein were less active and temperature sensitive. These differences are associated with conformational perturbations in secondary structure. Conclusions/Significance The intramelanosomal domains of recombinant wild-type and mutant human tyrosinases are soluble monomeric glycoproteins with activities which mirror their in vivo function. This advance allows for the structure – function analyses of different mutant TYR proteins and correlation with their corresponding human phenotypes; it also provides an important tool to discover drugs that may improve tyrosinase activity and treat OCA1. PMID:24392141

  3. Albinism-causing mutations in recombinant human tyrosinase alter intrinsic enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Dolinska, Monika B; Kovaleva, Elena; Backlund, Peter; Wingfield, Paul T; Brooks, Brian P; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase (TYR) catalyzes the rate-limiting, first step in melanin production and its gene (TYR) is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1), an autosomal recessive cause of childhood blindness. Patients with reduced TYR activity are classified as OCA1B; some OCA1B mutations are temperature-sensitive. Therapeutic research for OCA1 has been hampered, in part, by the absence of purified, active, recombinant wild-type and mutant human enzymes. The intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (residues 19-469) and two OCA1B related temperature-sensitive mutants, R422Q and R422W were expressed in insect cells and produced in T. ni larvae. The short trans-membrane fragment was deleted to avoid potential protein insolubility, while preserving all other functional features of the enzymes. Purified tyrosinase was obtained with a yield of >1 mg per 10 g of larval biomass. The protein was a monomeric glycoenzyme with maximum enzyme activity at 37°C and neutral pH. The two purified mutants when compared to the wild-type protein were less active and temperature sensitive. These differences are associated with conformational perturbations in secondary structure. The intramelanosomal domains of recombinant wild-type and mutant human tyrosinases are soluble monomeric glycoproteins with activities which mirror their in vivo function. This advance allows for the structure - function analyses of different mutant TYR proteins and correlation with their corresponding human phenotypes; it also provides an important tool to discover drugs that may improve tyrosinase activity and treat OCA1.

  4. Optimization of the secretory expression of recombinant human C-reactive protein in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Junming; Sun, Chengming; Chen, Lei; Sun, Lihui; Duan, Lijun; Zheng, Qing; Hu, Xuejun

    2017-10-01

    Human C-reactive protein (CRP), a classical human acute-phase plasma protein, is not only a sensitive systemic inflammatory marker but also an independent risk predictor of cardiovascular diseases. However, existing heterologous expression systems for expressing CRP is not efficient and cost-effective for large-scale industrial production of CRP to meet the growing market demand for CRP. This study aims to improve the secretion of recombinant CRP by Pichia pastoris via optimizing signal peptides, promoters and carbon sources. The CRP genes with encoding four different signal peptides were designed and synthesized. The genes were cloned into pPICZαA or pPICZ B, respectively via splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (SOE-PCR) technology and expressed in P. pastoris X-33, regulated by the alcohol oxidase I promoter (pAOX1). The CRP led by the α-mating factor secretion signal peptide (α-MF) was secreted at the highest level in these signal peptides. Then, a constitutive construct and expression of the CRP genes were achieved by switching to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (pGAP). Subsequently, different carbon sources and at different concentrations were used to further improve the secretion of CRP. The expression of CRP with the α-MF driven by the pGAP gave the highest yield of secreted CRP, about 3 mg/l of culture on the optimized culture conditions. The purified recombinant CRP exhibited good immunoreactivity determined by ELISA with anti-human CRP monoclonal antibody. The efficient engineering strategy established in this work might provide potential uses in large-scale industrial production of human CRP in the future.

  5. Recombinant Human Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Promoter Drives Selective AAV-Mediated Transgene Expression in Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Fröhlich, Dominik; Klugmann, Claudia B; Wen, Xin; Harasta, Anne E; Ramkumar, Roshini; Spencer, Ziggy H T; Housley, Gary D; Klugmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are hereditary central white matter disorders caused by oligodendrocyte dysfunction. Recent clinical trials for some of these devastating neurological conditions have employed an ex vivo gene therapy approach that showed improved endpoints because cross-correction of affected myelin-forming cells occurred following secretion of therapeutic proteins by transduced autologous grafts. However, direct gene transfer to oligodendrocytes is required for the majority of leukodystrophies with underlying mutations in genes encoding non-secreted oligodendroglial proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are versatile tools for gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) and proof-of-concept studies in rodents have shown that the use of cellular promoters is sufficient to target AAV-mediated transgene expression to glia. The potential of this strategy has not been exploited. The major caveat of the AAV system is its limited packaging capacity of ~5 kb, providing the rationale for identifying small yet selective recombinant promoters. Here, we characterize the human myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) promoter for reliable targeting of AAV-mediated transgene expression to oligodendrocytes in vivo. A homology screen revealed highly conserved genomic regions among mammalian species upstream of the transcription start site. Recombinant AAV expression cassettes carrying the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by truncated versions of the recombinant MAG promoter (2.2, 1.5 and 0.3 kb in size) were packaged as cy5 vectors and delivered into the dorsal striatum of mice. At 3 weeks post-injection, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes expressing the reporter were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Our results revealed that both 2.2 and 1.5 kb MAG promoters targeted more than 95% of transgene expression to oligodendrocytes. Even the short 0.3 kb fragment conveyed high oligodendroglial specific transgene

  6. Recombinant Human Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Promoter Drives Selective AAV-Mediated Transgene Expression in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Fröhlich, Dominik; Klugmann, Claudia B.; Wen, Xin; Harasta, Anne E.; Ramkumar, Roshini; Spencer, Ziggy H. T.; Housley, Gary D.; Klugmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are hereditary central white matter disorders caused by oligodendrocyte dysfunction. Recent clinical trials for some of these devastating neurological conditions have employed an ex vivo gene therapy approach that showed improved endpoints because cross-correction of affected myelin-forming cells occurred following secretion of therapeutic proteins by transduced autologous grafts. However, direct gene transfer to oligodendrocytes is required for the majority of leukodystrophies with underlying mutations in genes encoding non-secreted oligodendroglial proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are versatile tools for gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) and proof-of-concept studies in rodents have shown that the use of cellular promoters is sufficient to target AAV-mediated transgene expression to glia. The potential of this strategy has not been exploited. The major caveat of the AAV system is its limited packaging capacity of ~5 kb, providing the rationale for identifying small yet selective recombinant promoters. Here, we characterize the human myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) promoter for reliable targeting of AAV-mediated transgene expression to oligodendrocytes in vivo. A homology screen revealed highly conserved genomic regions among mammalian species upstream of the transcription start site. Recombinant AAV expression cassettes carrying the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by truncated versions of the recombinant MAG promoter (2.2, 1.5 and 0.3 kb in size) were packaged as cy5 vectors and delivered into the dorsal striatum of mice. At 3 weeks post-injection, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes expressing the reporter were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Our results revealed that both 2.2 and 1.5 kb MAG promoters targeted more than 95% of transgene expression to oligodendrocytes. Even the short 0.3 kb fragment conveyed high oligodendroglial specific transgene

  7. Recombinant human prothrombin reduced blood loss in a porcine model of dilutional coagulopathy with uncontrolled bleeding.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Kenny M; Johansson, Karin J; Wingren, Cecilia; Fries, Dietmar; Nelander, Karin; Lövgren, Ann

    2017-04-01

    : Uncontrolled bleeding remains one of the leading causes of trauma-induced death. Treatment recommendations focus on fresh frozen plasma and blood cell transfusions, whereas plasma concentrates or single coagulation factors have been studied in recent years. The effect of recombinant human prothrombin factor II (rhFII, 8 mg/kg), activated recombinant human factor VII (rhFVIIa, 300 μg/kg), plasma-derived human fibrinogen (pdhFib) (200 mg/kg), activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC, 40 IU/kg), a three-factor combination intended as a minimal PCC (8 mg/kg rhFII, 640 μg/kg recombinant human factor X (rhFX), and 12 μg/kg rhFVIIa), and vehicle were investigated in a porcine model of dilutional coagulopathy with uncontrolled bleeding. Survival time and blood loss were determined up to 120 min after induction of liver injury. Rotational thromboelastometry EXTEM coagulation time and maximum clot firmness, prothrombin time, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), thrombin generation (endogenous thrombin potential, ETP) were measured at baseline, after dilution, drug administration, and end of experiment. rhFII, the three-factor combination, and aPCC significantly (P < 0.01) decreased blood loss vs. vehicle and rhFII also vs. fibrinogen (P < 0.05). Survival times increased significantly for rhFII, aPCC, rhFVIIa, and pdhFib vs. vehicle (P < 0.05), and, coagulation time, maximum clot firmness, and prothrombin time improved in all groups. TAT and ETP increased transiently for rhFII and three-factor combination, whereas persistently increased for aPCC. PdhFib and rhFVIIa did not increase TAT and ETP. rhFII decreased blood loss and improved hemostatic markers and survival. In vivo, thrombin generation (TAT) and potential to form thrombin (ETP) were transiently elevated by rhFII. Addition of rhFVIIa and rhFX to rhFII did not further improve hemostatic efficacy.

  8. Sequences of human immunoglobulin switch regions: implications for recombination and transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, F C; Brooker, J S; Camerini-Otero, R D

    1990-01-01

    We have sequenced the entire human S mu and S gamma 4 immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch regions, and have also completed the sequence of human S epsilon. S mu is composed predominantly of GAGCT and GGGCT pentameric repeats, with these units also being found in S epsilon at a much lower density. S mu-S gamma 4 matches are infrequent, but S gamma 4 contains a cluster of repeated sequences similar to units in mouse gamma switch sites and unrelated to the S mu repeats, suggesting that S mu-S gamma homology is not important in mu-gamma switching. We examined our epsilon and gamma 4 sequences for features that could regulate production of 'sterile' transcripts preceding switch recombination. There is an Evolutionarily Conserved Sequence (ECS) upstream from the human and mouse S epsilon regions that overlaps and extends 5' to the start sites for human and mouse epsilon sterile transcripts. Similarly, an ECS upstream from S gamma 4 is homologous to a mouse sequence that overlaps and extends 5' to the start sites for mouse gamma 2b sterile transcripts. The epsilon and gamma 4 conserved segments contain potential Interferon Stimulable Response Elements (ISRE's) that are identical between human epsilon and gamma 4. PMID:2124350

  9. Production of Transgenic-Cloned Pigs Expressing Large Quantities of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shengzhe; Wu, Fangfang; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Human lysozyme is a natural non-specific immune factor in human milk that plays an important role in the defense of breastfed infants against pathogen infection. Although lysozyme is abundant in human milk, there is only trace quantities in pig milk. Here, we successfully generated transgenic cloned pigs with the expression vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ-Neo and their first generation hybrids (F1). The highest concentration of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) with in vitro bioactivity was 2759.6 ± 265.0 mg/L in the milk of F0 sows. Compared with wild-type milk, rhLZ milk inhibited growth of Escherichia coli K88 during the exponential growth phase. Moreover, rhLZ in milk from transgenic sows was directly absorbed by the intestine of piglets with no observable anaphylactic reaction. Our strategy may provide a powerful tool for large-scale production of this important human protein in pigs to improve resistance to pathogen infection. PMID:25955256

  10. Complete genome sequencing of a recombinant strain between human astrovirus antigen types 2 and 8 isolated from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Jin, Ji-Young; Lee, Jae Woong; Paik, Soon-Yong

    2016-04-01

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) occur worldwide and are known to the causative agents of diarrhea in infants and elderly patients with immune dysfunction. This study aimed to identify recombinant HAstV strains and characterize rare genotypes. The full-length genome of a recombinant HAstV strain isolated from the stool sample of a patient with acute gastroenteritis from South Korea was amplified using three pairs of previously designed primers and seven newly designed primers. The recombinant HAstV was 6757-bp long and contained three sequential open reading frames (ORFs), designated as ORF1a (2781 bp), ORF1b (1548 bp), and ORF2 (2349 bp). Our findings suggested that a recombination event had occurred between ORF1b and ORF2 of the isolated strain, with a recombination breakpoint at 4081 bp. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the complete nucleotide sequence of a recombinant HAstV strain from South Korea. Our study findings might be useful for identifying other recombinant HAstV strains and for developing vaccines against this pathogenic virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence for Within-Host Genetic Recombination among the Human Pegiviral Strains in HIV Infected Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haoming; Padhi, Abinash; Xu, Junqiang; Gong, Xiaoyan; Tien, Po

    2016-01-01

    The non-pathogenic Human Pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C/HGV), the most prevalent RNA virus worldwide, is known to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. Although previous studies documented its ubiquity and important role in HIV-infected individuals, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms that maintain high genetic diversity of HPgV within the HIV-infected individuals. To assess the within-host genetic diversity of HPgV and forces that maintain such diversity within the co-infected hosts, we performed phylogenetic analyses taking into account 229 HPgV partial E1-E2 clonal sequences representing 15 male and 8 female co-infected HIV patients from Hubei province of central China. Our results revealed the presence of eleven strongly supported clades. While nine clades belonged to genotype 3, two clades belonged to genotype 2. Additionally, four clades that belonged to genotype 3 exhibited inter-clade recombination events. The presence of clonal sequences representing multiple clades within the HIV-infected individual provided the evidence of co-circulation of HPgV strains across the region. Of the 23 patients, six patients (i.e., five males and one female) were detected to have HPgV recombinant sequences. Our results also revealed that while male patients shared the viral strains with other patients, viral strains from the female patients had restricted dispersal. Taken together, the present study revealed that multiple infections with divergent HPgV viral strains may have caused within-host genetic recombination, predominantly in male patients, and therefore, could be the major driver in shaping genetic diversity of HPgV.

  12. Expression and antigenicity of recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins having different affinity tags.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Saem; Kim, A-Reum; Kim, Kisoon; Lee, Wan-Ji; Kim, Sung Soon; Kim, You-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly. Glycoprotein (G) is major antigen on the viral surface, and plays a key role for virus entry. Therefore, purification of the glycoprotein of HRSV is critical for the development of HRSV vaccine and serological diagnosis. In this study, we report the design and characterization of glycoprotein engineered rationally to enhance the protein solubility and to facilitate efficient purification. We permuted HRSV glycoproteins with two tags: (i) an immunoglobulin (Ig) M signal peptide and a protein A B domain tag to render HRSV glycoprotein secret into the culture media and (ii) a foldon and 6 × histidine tag with or without transmembrane domain. Three recombinant baculoviruses were constructed: (i) transmembrane-truncated HRSV glycoprotein (amino acid positions 66-298) inserted with the N-terminal IgM signal peptide and protein A B domain (MG-GΔTM), (ii) truncated HRSV glycoprotein (amino acid positions 66-298) fused with a C-terminal foldon and 6 × histidine tag (GΔTM-FH), and (iii) full-length HRSV glycoprotein (amino acid positions 1-298) fused with a C-terminal foldon and 6 × histidine tag (G-FH). Highly soluble recombinant MG-GΔTM protein was clearly purified using one-step affinity chromatography with IgG-sepharose resin, whereas the recombinant G-FH protein and truncated GΔTM-FH were purified partially using nickel-resin. Although, the antigenicity of GΔTM-FH was stronger than highly mannose-rich MG-GΔTM protein, MG-GΔTM induced neutralizing antibodies efficiently in the mice to protect from infectious HRSV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human recombinant RNASET2-induced inflammatory response and connective tissue remodeling in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Baranzini, Nicolò; Pedrini, Edoardo; Girardello, Rossana; Tettamanti, Gianluca; de Eguileor, Magda; Taramelli, Roberto; Acquati, Francesco; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2017-01-09

    In recent years, several studies have demonstrated that the RNASET2 gene is involved in the control of tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, a role in establishing a functional cross-talk between cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment has been unveiled for this gene, based on its ability to act as an inducer of the innate immune response. Although several studies have reported on the molecular features of RNASET2, the details on the mechanisms by which this evolutionarily conserved ribonuclease regulates the immune system are still poorly defined. In the effort to clarify this aspect, we report here the effect of recombinant human RNASET2 injection and its role in regulating the innate immune response after bacterial challenge in an invertebrate model, the medicinal leech. We found that recombinant RNASET2 injection induces fibroplasias, connective tissue remodeling and the recruitment of numerous infiltrating cells expressing the specific macrophage markers CD68 and HmAIF1. The RNASET2-mediated chemotactic activity for macrophages has been further confirmed by using a consolidated experimental approach based on injection of the Matrigel biomatrice (MG) supplemented with recombinant RNASET2 in the leech body wall. One week after injection, a large number of CD68(+) and HmAIF-1(+) macrophages massively infiltrated MG sponges. Finally, in leeches challenged with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with the environmental bacteria pathogen Micrococcus nishinomiyaensis, numerous macrophages migrating to the site of inoculation expressed high levels of endogenous RNASET2. Taken together, these results suggest that RNASET2 is likely involved in the initial phase of the inflammatory response in leeches.

  14. Chimeric mitochondrial minichromosomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus: evidence for homologous and non-homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C

    2011-02-15

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, consists of 18 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3 to 4 kb long and has 1 to 3 genes. There is unequivocal evidence for recombination between different mt minichromosomes in P. humanus. It is not known, however, how these minichromosomes recombine. Here, we report the discovery of eight chimeric mt minichromosomes in P. humanus. We classify these chimeric mt minichromosomes into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I chimeric minichromosomes contain parts of two different protein-coding genes that are from different minichromosomes. The two parts of protein-coding genes in each Group I chimeric minichromosome are joined at a microhomologous nucleotide sequence; microhomologous nucleotide sequences are hallmarks of non-homologous recombination. Group II chimeric minichromosomes contain all of the genes and the non-coding regions of two different minichromosomes. The conserved sequence blocks in the non-coding regions of Group II chimeric minichromosomes resemble the "recombination repeats" in the non-coding regions of the mt genomes of higher plants. These repeats are essential to homologous recombination in higher plants. Our analyses of the nucleotide sequences of chimeric mt minichromosomes indicate both homologous and non-homologous recombination between minichromosomes in the mitochondria of the human body louse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular mapping of a recombination hotspot located in the second intron of the human TAP2 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.; Carrington, M.; Erlich, H.

    1995-06-01

    Recombination across the HLA class II region is not randomly distributed, as indicated by both strong linkage disequilibrium within the 100 kb encompassing the DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 loci and complete equilibrium between TAP1 and TAP2, the closest variant sites of which are <15 kb. In an attempt to explain these observations, 39 novel polymorphic markers in a region encompassing the TAP, LMP, and DOB genes were used to delineate the site of crossover in 11 class II recombinant chromosomes. SSCP demonstrated that two recombination events occurred within an 850-bp interval in the second intron of TAP2, which separates the variant sites of TAP1 and TAP2. These data indicate the presence of a recombination hotspot, the first to be identified from the analysis of familial transmission in the human major histocompatibility complex. The region of crossover was cloned and sequenced from one of the recombinants, further defining the crossover site to a 138-bp segment nested within the 850-bp region. This represents the most precisely defined region of recombination in the human genome. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Efficient and scalable culture of single dissociated human pluripotent stem cells using recombinant E8 fragments of human laminin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Kawase, Eihachiro

    2015-02-02

    This unit describes a protocol for efficient expansion of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). A key feature of this method is subculture of hPSCs by single-cell dissociation passaging on substrates coated with recombinant E8 fragments of human laminin isoforms (LM-E8s). LM-E8s, provide superior adhesion over intact laminin isoforms and Matrigel. Single hPSCs seeded on LM-E8s show accelerated migration and rapid reconstruction of clusters, resulting in robust survival and proliferation. This protocol yields 200-fold more hPSCs than conventional subculture methods in 1 month of culture. Furthermore, this protocol can be easily adapted to most hPSC lines in combination with the use of various xeno-free, defined culture media, and large-scale expansion of hPSCs is easily achievable to facilitate the practical applications of hPSCs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL effectively targets B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Qazi, Sanjive; Ozer, Zahide; Rose, Rebecca; D’Cruz, Osmond J.; Ma, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL) respond well to chemotherapy at initial diagnosis; however, therapeutic options are limited for individuals with BPL who relapse. Almost all BPL cells express CD19, and we recently cloned the gene encoding a natural ligand of the human CD19 receptor (CD19L). We hypothesized that fusion of CD19L to the soluble extracellular domain of proapoptotic TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) would markedly enhance the potency of sTRAIL and specifically induce BPL cell apoptosis due to membrane anchoring of sTRAIL and simultaneous activation of the CD19 and TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) apoptosis signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL was substantially more potent than sTRAIL and induced apoptosis in primary leukemia cells taken directly from BPL patients. CD19L-sTRAIL effectively targeted and eliminated in vivo clonogenic BPL xenograft cells, even at femtomolar-picomolar concentrations. In mice, CD19L-sTRAIL exhibited a more favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profile than sTRAIL and was nontoxic at doses ranging from 32 fmol/kg to 3.2 pmol/kg. CD19L-sTRAIL showed potent in vivo antileukemic activity in NOD/SCID mouse xenograft models of relapsed and chemotherapy-resistant BPL at nontoxic fmol/kg dose levels. Together, these results suggest that recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL has clinical potential as a biotherapeutic agent against BPL. PMID:25621496

  18. Recombinant human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 produces dose-dependent benefits in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kavin G; Wu, Rongqian; Jacob, Asha; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Animal milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) has been shown to be beneficial in attenuating the inflammatory response in sepsis. In this study, we examined the effect of recombinant human MFG-E8 (rhMFG-E8) in an animal model of sepsis in an effort to develop it as a potential therapy against sepsis in humans. Rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and at 5 h post-CLP, they were given different doses of rhMFG-E8 (20, 40, 80, 160 μg/kg BW) in normal saline. At 20 h post-CLP, samples were collected for further analysis. A 10-day survival study was also performed. At 20 h after CLP, organ injury indicators, serum IL-6 and TNF-α, and plasma HMGB-1 levels were significantly increased as compared to sham-operated animals. Treatment with 20 μg/kg rhMFG-E8 significantly reduced these levels. With higher doses, further reductions in AST and ALT (59-62%), creatinine (65-68%), and lactate (46-57%), and serum IL-6 and TNF-α were obtained. The 160 μg/kg dose produced the greatest reduction in serum TNF-α. With treatment with 20 μg/kg rhMFG-E8, HMGB-1 levels decreased by 80%, returning back to sham values. In a 10-day survival study, vehicle-treated animals produced a 36% survival rate, while rhMFG-E8 significantly improved the survival rate to 68-72%. Treatment with increasing doses of rhMFG-E8 significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells detected and markedly attenuated the tissue damages observed in the lungs. These data suggest that recombinant human MFG-E8 is beneficial in ameliorating sepsis in an animal model of sepsis.

  19. Overexpression of Recombinant Human Beta Interferon (rhINF-β) in Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Rajabi-Memari, Hamid; Vahidi, Hossein; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Human Interferon β (INF-β) is a member of cytokines family which different studies have shown its immunomodulatory and antiviral activities. In this study an expression vector was designed and constructed for expression of human INF-β-1b either in shake flasks or bench top bioreactor. The designed vector was constructed based upon pET-25b(+) with T7 promoter. Recombinant human beta interferon (rhINF-β) was codon optimized and overexpressed as a soluble, N-terminal pelB fusion protein and secreted into the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The sugar, Isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) was used as a chemical inducer for rhINF-β production in the shake flasks and bench top bioreactor. Timing of beta interferon expression was controlled by using the T7 promoter. The rhINF-β protein was extracted from periplasmic space by osmotic shock treatment and the expression of the beta interferon encoding gene in random selected transformants, was confirmed by western and dot blot methods. The maximum of product formation achieved at the OD600nm = 3.42 was found to be 35 % of the total protein content of the strain which translates to 0.32 g L-1. The constructed vector could efficiently overexpress the rhINF-β into the periplasmic space of E. coli. The obtained yield of the produced rhINF-β was more than previous reports. The system is easily adapted to include other vectors, tags or fusions and therefore has the potential to be broadly applicable to express other recombinant proteins. PMID:24711841

  20. Recombinant measles viruses expressing single or multiple antigens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) induce cellular and humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Liniger, Matthias; Zuniga, Armando; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Combardiere, Behazine; Marty, Rene; Wiegand, Marian; Ilter, Orhan; Knuchel, Marlyse; Naim, Hussein Y

    2009-05-26

    Recombinant measles viruses (rMV) based on the live attenuated measles vaccine strain (MVb) expressing antigens of HIV-1 clade B were generated by reverse genetics. Recombinants expressing single or double antigens of HIV-1 (rMV-HIV) were genetically highly stable on human diploid cells. The production process of these viruses was essentially similar to the parental MV strain, yielding comparative end titers. Immunization of tg-mice by different regimens and formulations showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses against MV and HIV antigens. Recombinant MV-HIV expressing Gag protein conferred protective immunity in tg-mice after a high-dose pseudochallenge with recombinant vaccinia virus. In addition, rMV-HIV boosted anti-HIV antibodies, in the presence of pre-existing anti-vector antibodies.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 challenge of chimpanzees immunized with recombinant envelope glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, P W; Groopman, J E; Gregory, T; Clapham, P R; Weiss, R A; Ferriani, R; Riddle, L; Shimasaki, C; Lucas, C; Lasky, L A

    1988-01-01

    The major envelope glycoprotein, gp120, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was purified from a Chinese hamster ovary cell line transfected with a truncated form of the HIV-1 env gene. The recombinant glycoprotein (rgp120) was formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and was used to immunize chimpanzees. The recombinant preparation was effective in eliciting cellular and humoral immunity as well as immunologic memory. Anti-rgp 120 antibodies reacted with authentic viral gp120 in immunological blot assays and were able to neutralize HIV-1 infectivity in vitro. Sera from the rgp120-immunized animals were able to neutralize HIV-1 pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus prepared from the IIIB isolate, from which the gene encoding rgp120 was derived, as well as two heterologous isolates, ARV-2 and RF. The immune response elicited against the rgp120 was not effective in preventing viral infection after intravenous challenge with HIV-1. The implications of these results on HIV-1 vaccine development are discussed. Images PMID:2455898

  2. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    PubMed Central

    Novo, Juliana Branco; Morganti, Ligia; Moro, Ana Maria; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Raw, Isaias; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR) results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher's patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr−) cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa) and secreted (63–69 kDa) form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources. PMID:23091360

  3. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-11-16

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a "safe harbor" locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons.

  4. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons. PMID:26567460

  5. Overexpression of c-fos increases recombination frequency in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, S; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P; Kaina, B

    1993-05-01

    We have shown previously that overexpression of c-Ha-ras, v-mos or c-fos increases the spontaneous level of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations in NIH 3T3 cells, and that reduction of the Fos protein level inhibits aberration induction by c-Ha-ras and v-mos and also by irradiation with ultraviolet light (van den Berg et al., Mol. Carcinogenesis, 4, 460-466). In order to examine whether fos is also involved in DNA recombination, thymidine kinase (tk) deficient human osteosarcoma cells containing two versions of the herpes simplex virus tk gene inactivated by base insertion were either transiently or stably transfected with various fos expression plasmids. The frequency of tk+ revertants was significantly enhanced both upon transient transfection with RSV-promoter-fos gene constructs and by stimulation of Fos synthesis in stably transfected cells harbouring an inducible metallothionein promoter-fos construct. No such increases were observed in cells transfected with plasmids containing a truncated version of c-fos. The data indicate that c-fos is involved in generating various types of genetic changes including homologous recombination; a role of c-fos in genetic instability may contribute to its action in tumor promotion and progression.

  6. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons.

  7. Pichia pastoris: a recombinant microfactory for antibodies and human membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, A M; Pedro, A Q; Maia, C; Sousa, F; Queiroz, J A; Passarinha, L A

    2013-05-01

    During the last few decades, it has become evident that the compatibility of the yeast biochemical environment with the ability to process and translate the RNA transcript, along with its capacity to modify a translated protein, are relevant requirements for selecting this host cell for protein expression in several pharmaceutical and clinical applications. In particular, Pichia pastoris is used as an industrial host for recombinant protein and metabolite production, showing a powerful capacity to meet required biomolecular target production levels in high-throughput assays for functional genomics and drug screening. In addition, there is a great advantage to using P. pastoris for protein secretion, even at high molecular weights, since the recovery and purification steps are simplified owing to relatively low levels of endogenous proteins in the extracellular medium. Clearly, no single microexpression system can provide all of the desired properties for human protein production. Moreover, chemical and physical bioprocess parameters, including culture medium formulation, temperature, pH, agitation, aeration rates, induction, and feeding strategies, can highly influence product yield and quality. In order to benefit from the currently available wide range of biosynthesis strategies using P. pastoris, this mini review focuses on the developments and technological fermentation achievements, providing both a comparative and an overall integration analysis. The main aim is to highlight the relevance and versatility of the P. pastoris biosystem to the design of more cost-effective microfactories to meet the increasing demands for recombinant membrane proteins and clinical antibodies for several therapeutic applications.

  8. Differential immunogenicity and allergenicity of native and recombinant human lactoferrins: role of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Almond, Rachael J; Flanagan, Brian F; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2013-01-01

    Human native milk lactoferrin (LF) and recombinant forms of lactoferrin (rLF) are available with identical aa sequences, but different glycosylation patterns. Native lactoferrin (NLF) possesses the intrinsic ability to stimulate vigorous IgG and IgE antibody responses in BALB/c mice, whereas recombinant forms (Aspergillus or rice) are 40-fold less immunogenic and 200-fold less allergenic. Such differences are independent of endotoxin or iron content and the glycans do not contribute to epitope formation. A complex glycoprofile is observed for NLF, including sialic acid, fucose, mannose, and Lewis (Le)(x) structures, whereas both rLF species display a simpler glycoprofile rich in mannose. Although Le(x) type sugars play a Th2-type adjuvant role, endogenous expression of Le(x) on NLF did not completely account for the more vigorous IgE responses it provoked. Furthermore, coadminstration of rLF downregulated IgE and upregulated IgG2a antibody responses provoked by NLF, but was without effect on responses to unrelated peanut and chicken egg allergens. These results suggest glycans on rLF impact the induction phase to selectively inhibit IgE responses and that differential glycosylation patterns may impact on antigen uptake, processing and/or presentation, and the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses.

  9. Enterokinase cleavage of fusion proteins for preparation of recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-34.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Zhao-Yang; Zhou, He-Yue; Yu, Ying; Dai, Jin-Feng; Chen, Chang-Qing

    2002-07-01

    An engineering E.coli strain, BL21 (DE3)/pGEX-4T hPTH (1-34), was constructed by oligonucleotide annealing and PCR amplifying the target gene, then ligating it with pGEX-4T-3 vector and transferring into BL21 host. The yield of soluble fusion protein of GST-hPTH(1-34) expressed from BL21(DE3)/pGEX-4T hPTH(1-34) is about 10 g/L after high-density, high expression culture and purification by affinity chromatography. Following the simple digestion of enterokinase, about 0.6 g/L intact hPTH (1-34) was harvested. The product is checked by HPLC MS and N-terminus sequence analysis. The purified recombinant hPTH(1-34) stimulated adenylate cyclase in rabbit renal cortical cell membranes to exactly the same extent as synthetic human parathyroid hormone standards, indicating that the recombinant product has full biological activity.

  10. Involvement of recombination in x-ray mutagenesis of human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, S.A.; Xia, F.; Liber, H.L.

    1993-06-01

    Closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from WI-L2 differ greatly in their responses to X-irradiation. Compared with TK6 (ATCC CRL 8015), WI-L2-NS (ATCC CRL 8155) has an enhanced X-ray survival. The induction of mutation by X-rays is also markedly different. The hemizygous hprt locus is slightly more mutable in WI-L2-NS than in TK6, and the dose response fits best to a linear-quadratic curve rather than the linear fit of TK6X-ray induced mutation at the autosomal tk locus in heterozygotes derived from WI-L2-NS is 20-50 fold higher than in heterozygotes derived from TK6. A larger proportion of WI-L2-NS mutants had lost heterozygosity compared with mutants of TK6. , Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that loss of heterozygosity was due almost uniformly to deletion of an allele in mutants of TK6, and to recombination or gene conversion in mutants of WI-L2-NS. These results indicate that recombinational repair contributes to both cell survival and mutation following exposure to ionizing radiation.

  11. Quantitation of the residual DNA from rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Dai, Huixia; Liu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Liping; Pang, Jianlei; Ou, Jiquan; Yang, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    Residual DNA in recombinant protein pharmaceuticals can potentially cause safety issues in clinical applications; thus, maximum residual limit has been established by drug safety authorities. Assays for residual DNA in Escherichia coli, yeast, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression systems have been established, but no rice residual DNA assay for rice expression systems has been designed. To develop an assay for the quantification of residual DNA that is produced from rice seed, we established a sensitive assay using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on the 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We found that a 40-cycle qPCR exhibited a linear response when the template concentration was in the range of 2×10(4) to 0.2pg of DNA per reaction in TaqMan and SYBR Green I assays. The amplification efficiency was 103 to 104%, and the amount of residual DNA from recombinant human serum albumin from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA) was less than 3.8ng per dosage, which was lower than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our results indicate that the current purification protocol could efficiently remove residual DNA during manufacturing and processing. Furthermore, this protocol could be viable in other cereal crop endosperm expression systems for developing a residual DNA quantitation assay using the highly conserved 5S rRNA gene of the crops.

  12. Unveiling a glycation hot spot in a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boyan; Yang, Yi; Yuk, Inn; Pai, Roger; McKay, Patrick; Eigenbrot, Charles; Dennis, Mark; Katta, Viswanatham; Francissen, Kathleen Champion

    2008-04-01

    Biotechnological companies and regulatory agencies are pursuing the complete characterization of protein therapeutics in every detail as a means to mitigate risks of product quality related safety issues. During the characterization of a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody (referred to as rhuMAb), electrospray mass spectrometric analysis suggested that the light chain was highly glycated. The glycated and unglycated materials, separated using boronate affinity chromatography, were fully characterized using tryptic peptide mapping and tandem mass spectrometry. Using an automatic SEQUEST search of the single protein database for this antibody and extensive manual investigations of the mass spectra of the matched peptides, multiple tentative glycation sites in the light and heavy chains were observed in the highly glycated (>53%) samples. A predominant glycation site was identified and confirmed to be lysine 49 on the light chain, by performing extensive sequence analysis on an isolated glycated peptide utilizing Edman degradation analysis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Sequence alignments of rhuMAb with 12 other recombinant monoclonal antibodies and computer modeling of the Fab part of rhuMAb suggest that the unusually high level of glycation of lysine residue 49, which is located adjacent to the second complementarity-determining region (CDR2) in the light chain, is due to a spatial proximity effect in catalyzing the Amadori rearrangement by aspartic acid residue 31 in the CDR1 on the light chain.

  13. Involvement of recombination in x-ray mutagenesis of human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, S.A. ); Xia, F.; Liber, H.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from WI-L2 differ greatly in their responses to X-irradiation. Compared with TK6 (ATCC CRL 8015), WI-L2-NS (ATCC CRL 8155) has an enhanced X-ray survival. The induction of mutation by X-rays is also markedly different. The hemizygous hprt locus is slightly more mutable in WI-L2-NS than in TK6, and the dose response fits best to a linear-quadratic curve rather than the linear fit of TK6X-ray induced mutation at the autosomal tk locus in heterozygotes derived from WI-L2-NS is 20-50 fold higher than in heterozygotes derived from TK6. A larger proportion of WI-L2-NS mutants had lost heterozygosity compared with mutants of TK6. , Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that loss of heterozygosity was due almost uniformly to deletion of an allele in mutants of TK6, and to recombination or gene conversion in mutants of WI-L2-NS. These results indicate that recombinational repair contributes to both cell survival and mutation following exposure to ionizing radiation.

  14. Construction and characterization of human rotavirus recombinant VP8* subunit parenteral vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaobo; Cao, Dianjun; Jones, Ronald W; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka

    2012-09-21

    Two currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, the efficacy of such vaccines in selected low-income African and Asian countries is much lower than that in middle or high-income countries. Additionally, these two vaccines have recently been associated with rare case of intussusception in vaccinated infants. We developed a novel recombinant subunit parenteral rotavirus vaccine which may be more effective in low-income countries and also avert the potential problem of intussusception. Truncated recombinant VP8* (ΔVP8*) protein of human rotavirus strain Wa P[8], DS-1 P[4] or 1076 P[6] expressed in Escherichia coli was highly soluble and was generated in high yield. Guinea pigs hyperimmunized intramuscularly with each of the ΔVP8* proteins (i.e., P[8], P[4] or P[6]) developed high levels of homotypic as well as variable levels of heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the selected ΔVP8* proteins when administered to mice at a clinically relevant dosage, route and schedule, elicited high levels of serum anti-VP8* IgG and/or neutralizing antibodies. Our data indicated that the ΔVP8* proteins may be a plausible additional candidate as new parenteral rotavirus vaccines.

  15. A soluble recombinant form of human leucocyte antigen-G 6 (srHLA-G6).

    PubMed

    Pelá, Flávia Porto; Rustiguel, Joane Kathelen; Rodrigues, Lilian Cataldi; Mendonça, Jacqueline Nakau; Andrade, Camillo Del Cistia; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Rosa, José Cesar; Nonato, Maria Cristina; Favier, Benoit; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo

    2017-05-20

    Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule that through RNA splicing can encode seven isoforms which are membrane bound (-G1, -G2, -G3 and -G4) and soluble (-G5, -G6 and -G7). HLA-G is described as important immune suppressor endogenous molecule to favor maternal-fetal tolerance, transplant survival and tumor immune scape. HLA-G shows low protein variability and a unique structural complexity that is related with the expression of different isoforms followed by biochemical processes, such as, proteolytic cleavage, molecular interactions, and protein ubiquitination. Studies with HLA-G have shown difficult to assess the role of the individual isoforms. Thus, the aim of this work was to obtain a HLA-G6 recombinant form. The results indicated the production of high homogeneous preparations of soluble recombinant HLA-G6 (srHLA-G6) with molecular mass 23,603.76 Da, determined by MALD-TOF/TOF. In addition, native and denatured srHLA-G6 were detected by ELISA, using commercial monoclonal antibodies. Finally, we developed a suitable methodology to express srHLA-G6 that could contribute in structural and functional studies involving specific isoforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Construction and Characterization of Human Rotavirus Recombinant VP8* Subunit Parenteral Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaobo; Cao, Dianjun; Jones, Ronald W.; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka

    2012-01-01

    Two currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, the efficacy of such vaccines in selected low-income African and Asian countries is much lower than that in middle or high-income countries. Additionally, these two vaccines have recently been associated with rare case of intussusception in vaccinated infants. We developed a novel recombinant subunit parenteral rotavirus vaccine which may be more effective in low-income countries and also avert the potential problem of intussusception. Truncated recombinant VP8* (ΔVP8*) protein of human rotavirus strain Wa P[8], DS-1 P[4] or 1076 P[6] expressed in E. coli was highly soluble and was generated in high yield. Guinea pigs hyperimmunized intramuscularly with each of the ΔVP8* proteins (i.e., (P[8], P[4] or P[6]) developed high levels of homotypic as well as variable levels of heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the selected ΔVP8* proteins when administered to mice at a clinically relevant dosage, route and schedule, elicited high levels of serum anti-VP8* IgG and/or neutralizing antibodies. Our data indicated that the ΔVP8* proteins may be a plausible additional candidate as new parenteral rotavirus vaccines. PMID:22885016

  17. Evolutionary dynamics and temporal/geographical correlates of recombination in the human enterovirus echovirus types 9, 11, and 30.

    PubMed

    McWilliam Leitch, E C; Cabrerizo, M; Cardosa, J; Harvala, H; Ivanova, O E; Kroes, A C M; Lukashev, A; Muir, P; Odoom, J; Roivainen, M; Susi, P; Trallero, G; Evans, D J; Simmonds, P

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between virus evolution and recombination in species B human enteroviruses was investigated through large-scale genetic analysis of echovirus type 9 (E9) and E11 isolates (n = 85 and 116) from 16 European, African, and Asian countries between 1995 and 2008. Cluster 1 E9 isolates and genotype D5 and A E11 isolates showed evidence of frequent recombination between the VP1 and 3Dpol regions, the latter falling into 23 (E9) and 43 (E11) clades interspersed phylogenetically with 46 3Dpol clades of E30 and with those of other species B serotypes. Remarkably, only 2 of the 112 3Dpol clades were shared by more than one serotype (E11 and E30), demonstrating an extremely large and genetically heterogeneous recombination pool of species B nonstructural-region variants. The likelihood of recombination increased with geographical separation and time, and both were correlated with VP1 divergence, whose substitution rates allowed recombination half-lives of 1.3, 9.8, and 3.1 years, respectively, for E9, E11, and E30 to be calculated. These marked differences in recombination dynamics matched epidemiological patterns of periodic epidemic cycles of 2 to 3 (E9) and 5 to 6 (E30) years and the longer-term endemic pattern of E11 infections. Phylotemporal analysis using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which placed recombination events within the evolutionary reconstruction of VP1, showed a close relationship with VP1 lineage expansion, with defined recombination events that correlated with their epidemiological periodicity. Whether recombination events contribute directly to changes in transmissibility that drive epidemic behavior or occur stochastically during periodic population bottlenecks is an unresolved issue vital to future understanding of enterovirus molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.

  18. Evolutionary Dynamics and Temporal/Geographical Correlates of Recombination in the Human Enterovirus Echovirus Types 9, 11, and 30▿

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam Leitch, E. C.; Cabrerizo, M.; Cardosa, J.; Harvala, H.; Ivanova, O. E.; Kroes, A. C. M.; Lukashev, A.; Muir, P.; Odoom, J.; Roivainen, M.; Susi, P.; Trallero, G.; Evans, D. J.; Simmonds, P.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between virus evolution and recombination in species B human enteroviruses was investigated through large-scale genetic analysis of echovirus type 9 (E9) and E11 isolates (n = 85 and 116) from 16 European, African, and Asian countries between 1995 and 2008. Cluster 1 E9 isolates and genotype D5 and A E11 isolates showed evidence of frequent recombination between the VP1 and 3Dpol regions, the latter falling into 23 (E9) and 43 (E11) clades interspersed phylogenetically with 46 3Dpol clades of E30 and with those of other species B serotypes. Remarkably, only 2 of the 112 3Dpol clades were shared by more than one serotype (E11 and E30), demonstrating an extremely large and genetically heterogeneous recombination pool of species B nonstructural-region variants. The likelihood of recombination increased with geographical separation and time, and both were correlated with VP1 divergence, whose substitution rates allowed recombination half-lives of 1.3, 9.8, and 3.1 years, respectively, for E9, E11, and E30 to be calculated. These marked differences in recombination dynamics matched epidemiological patterns of periodic epidemic cycles of 2 to 3 (E9) and 5 to 6 (E30) years and the longer-term endemic pattern of E11 infections. Phylotemporal analysis using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which placed recombination events within the evolutionary reconstruction of VP1, showed a close relationship with VP1 lineage expansion, with defined recombination events that correlated with their epidemiological periodicity. Whether recombination events contribute directly to changes in transmissibility that drive epidemic behavior or occur stochastically during periodic population bottlenecks is an unresolved issue vital to future understanding of enterovirus molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis. PMID:20610722

  19. Coexpression of the simian immunodeficiency virus Env and Rev proteins by a recombinant human adenovirus host range mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S M; Lee, S G; Ronchetti-Blume, M; Virk, K P; Mizutani, S; Eichberg, J W; Davis, A; Hung, P P; Hirsch, V M; Chanock, R M

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human adenoviruses (Ads) that replicate in the intestinal tract offer a novel, yet practical, means of immunoprophylaxis against a wide variety of viral and bacterial pathogens. For some infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the potential for residual infectious material in vaccine preparations must be eliminated. Therefore, recombinant human Ads that express noninfectious HIV or other microbial proteins are attractive vaccine candidates. To test such an approach for HIV, we chose an experimental model of AIDS based on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques. Our data demonstrate that the SIV Env gene products are expressed in cultured cells after infection with a recombinant Ad containing both SIV env and rev genes. An E3 deletion vector derived from a mutant of human Ad serotype 5 that efficiently replicates in both human and monkey cells was used to bypass the usual host range restriction of Ad infection. In addition, we show that the SIV rev gene is properly spliced from a single SIV subgenomic DNA fragment and that the Rev protein is expressed in recombinant Ad-SIV-infected human as well as monkey cells. The expression of SIV gene products in suitable live Ad vectors provides an excellent system for studying the regulation of SIV gene expression in cultured cells and evaluating the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of SIV proteins in macaques. Images PMID:1404612

  20. Review of the recombinant human interferon gamma as an immunotherapeutic: Impacts of production platforms and glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Razaghi, Ali; Owens, Leigh; Heimann, Kirsten

    2016-12-20

    Human interferon gamma is a cytokine belonging to a diverse group of interferons which have a crucial immunological function against mycobacteria and a wide variety of viral infections. To date, it has been approved for treatment of chronic granulomatous disease and malignant osteopetrosis, and its application as an immunotherapeutic agent against cancer is an increasing prospect. Recombinant human interferon gamma, as a lucrative biopharmaceutical, has been engineered in different expression systems including prokaryotic, protozoan, fungal (yeasts), plant, insect and mammalian cells. Human interferon gamma is commonly expressed in Escherichia coli, marketed as ACTIMMUNE(®), however, the resulting product of the prokaryotic expression system is unglycosylated with a short half-life in the bloodstream; the purification process is tedious and makes the product costlier. Other expression systems also did not show satisfactory results in terms of yields, the biological activity of the protein or economic viability. Thus, the review aims to synthesise available information from previous studies on the production of human interferon gamma and its glycosylation patterns in different expression systems, to provide direction to future research in this field.

  1. PRDM9 variation strongly influences recombination hot-spot activity and meiotic instability in humans.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ingrid L; Neumann, Rita; Lam, Kwan-Wood G; Sarbajna, Shriparna; Odenthal-Hesse, Linda; May, Celia A; Jeffreys, Alec J

    2010-10-01

    PRDM9 has recently been identified as a likely trans regulator of meiotic recombination hot spots in humans and mice. PRDM9 contains a zinc finger array that, in humans, can recognize a short sequence motif associated with hot spots, with binding to this motif possibly triggering hot-spot activity via chromatin remodeling. We now report that human genetic variation at the PRDM9 locus has a strong effect on sperm hot-spot activity, even at hot spots lacking the sequence motif. Subtle changes within the zinc finger array can create hot-spot nonactivating or enhancing variants and can even trigger the appearance of a new hot spot, suggesting that PRDM9 is a major global regulator of hot spots in humans. Variation at the PRDM9 locus also influences aspects of genome instability-specifically, a megabase-scale rearrangement underlying two genomic disorders as well as minisatellite instability-implicating PRDM9 as a risk factor for some pathological genome rearrangements.

  2. Selective Elimination of Human Regulatory T Lymphocytes In Vitro With the Recombinant Immunotoxin LMB-2

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Peter; Powell, Daniel J.; Maker, Ajay V.; Kreitman, Robert J.; Pastan, Ira; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory cells (Treg) can inhibit the proliferation and cytokine secretion of CD4+CD25− helper T cells in mice and humans. In murine tumor models, the presence of these Treg cells can inhibit the antitumor effectiveness of T-cell transfer and active immunization approaches. We have thus initiated efforts to eliminate Treg cells selectively from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to potentially bolster antitumor responses. LMB-2 is a recombinant immunotoxin that is a fusion of a single-chain Fv fragment of the anti-Tac anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody to a truncated form of the bacterial Pseudomonas exotoxin A. In vitro incubation of human PBMCs with LMB-2 reduced the levels of CD4+CD25+ and Foxp3-expressing cells without impairing the function of the remaining lymphocytes. The short in vivo half-life of LMB-2 makes it an attractive candidate for reducing human Treg cells in vivo before the administration of cancer vaccine or cell transfer immunotherapy approaches. PMID:16531821

  3. Accessing of recombinant human monoclonal antibodies from patient libraries by eukaryotic ribosome display.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Wang, Lin; Markiv, Anatoliy; Jeffs, Simon A; Dreja, Hanna; McKnight, Áine; He, Mingyue; Kang, Angray S

    2012-01-01

    What are effective antibodies and when do they arise to prevent or delay disease onset during a natural infection or in the course of vaccination? To address these questions at a molecular level requires longitudinal studies, capturing and analyzing the antibody repertoire at regular intervals following exposure or sero-conversion. Such studies require a method that allows the rapid generation and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies from relatively small volumes of blood. Here we describe an approach for rapidly generating human monoclonal antibodies in vitro by directly screening single-chain antibody repertories derived from donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells using ribosome display. Two single-chain antibody libraries were constructed using RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of two HIV-1 long-term non-progressor donors (K530 and M325). Both libraries were subjected to a single round of in vitro ribosome display for enrichment of human monoclonal antibodies against recombinant gp120(K530), derived from virus isolated from donor K530. This study has validated a novel, in vitro method for the rapid generation of human monoclonal antibodies. An antibody library could be constructed from as little as 3 μg of total RNA, the equivalent of 3-5 mL of human blood.

  4. Targeting gene expression to cones with human cone opsin promoters in recombinant AAV.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, A M; Alexander, J J; Cooper, A E; Chiodo, V A; Glushakova, L G; Acland, G M; Hauswirth, W W; Aguirre, G D

    2008-07-01

    Specific cone-directed therapy is of high priority in the treatment of human hereditary retinal diseases. However, not much information exists about the specific targeting of photoreceptor subclasses. Three versions of the human red cone opsin promoter (PR0.5, 3LCR-PR0.5 and PR2.1), and the human blue cone opsin promoter HB569, were evaluated for their specificity and robustness in targeting green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression to subclasses of cones in the canine retina when used in recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 5. The vectors were administered by subretinal injection. The promoter PR2.1 led to most effective and specific expression of GFP in the long- and medium-wavelength-absorbing cones (L/M cones) of normal and diseased retinas. The PR0.5 promoter was not effective. Adding three copies of the 35-bp LCR in front of PR0.5 lead to weak GFP expression in L/M cones. The HB569 promoter was not specific, and GFP was expressed in a few L/M cones, some rods and the retinal pigment epithelium. These results suggest that L/M cones, the predominant class of cone photoreceptors in the retinas of dogs and most mammalian species can be successfully targeted using the human red cone opsin promoter.

  5. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 6 Efficiently Transduces Primary Human Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, Daniel; Chen, Jennifer; Taylor, John A.; Dunbar, P. Rod

    2013-01-01

    The study of melanocyte biology is important to understand their role in health and disease. However, current methods of gene transfer into melanocytes are limited by safety or efficacy. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has been extensively investigated as a gene therapy vector, is safe and is associated with persistent transgene expression without genome integration. There are twelve serotypes and many capsid variants of rAAV. However, a comparative study to determine which rAAV is most efficient at transducing primary human melanocytes has not been conducted. We therefore sought to determine the optimum rAAV variant for use in the in vitro transduction of primary human melanocytes, which could also be informative to future in vivo studies. We have screened eight variants of rAAV for their ability to transduce primary human melanocytes and identified rAAV6 as the optimal serotype, transducing 7–78% of cells. No increase in transduction was seen with rAAV6 tyrosine capsid mutants. The number of cells expressing the transgene peaked at 6–12 days post-infection, and transduced cells were still detectable at day 28. Therefore rAAV6 should be considered as a non-integrating vector for the transduction of primary human melanocytes. PMID:23646140

  6. Recombinant human gelatin substitute with photoreactive properties for cell culture and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Takashi; Obuse, Sei; Adachi, Takahiro; Tomita, Masahiro; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2011-10-01

    The human recombinant collagen I α1 chain monomer (rh-gelatin) was modified by the incorporation of an azidophenyl group to prepare photoreactive human gelatin (Az-rh-gelatin), with approximately 90% of the lysine residues conjugated with azidobenzoic acid. Slight changes in conformation (circular dichroism spectra) and thermal properties (gelation and melting points) were noticed after modification. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation could immobilize the Az-rh-gelatin on polymer surfaces, such as polystyrene and polytetrafluoroethylene. Az-rh-gelatin was stably retained on the polymer surfaces, while unmodified gelatin was mostly lost by brief washing. Human mesenchymal cells grew more efficiently on the immobilized surface than on the coated surface. The immobilized Az-rh-gelatin on the polymer surfaces was able to capture engineered growth factors with collagen affinity, and the bound growth factors stimulated the growth of cells dose-dependently. It was also possible to immobilize Az-rh-gelatin in micropatterns (stripe, grid, and so on) using photomasks, and the cells grew according to the patterns. These results suggest that the photoreactive human gelatin, in combination with collagen-binding growth factors, will be clinically useful for surface modification of synthetic materials for cell culture systems and tissue engineering.

  7. Recombinant human thyrotropin in veterinary medicine: current use and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; van Hoek, I; Peremans, K; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) was developed after bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was no longer commercially available. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) as an aid to diagnostic follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in humans and for thyroid remnant ablation with radioiodine. In addition, rhTSH is used in human medicine to evaluate thyroid reserve capacity and to enhance radioiodine uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter. Likewise, rhTSH has been used in veterinary medicine over the last decade. The most important veterinary use of rhTSH is thyroidal functional reserve testing for the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism. Recent pilot studies performed at Ghent University in Belgium have investigated the use of rhTSH to optimize radioiodine treatment of canine thyroid carcinoma and feline hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine treatment optimization may allow a decreased therapeutic dosage of radioiodine and thus may improve radioprotection. This review outlines the current uses of rhTSH in human and veterinary medicine, emphasizing research performed in dogs and cats, as well as potential future applications.

  8. Characterization of full-length recombinant human Proteoglycan 4 as an ocular surface boundary lubricant.

    PubMed

    Samsom, Michael L; Morrison, Sheila; Masala, Nemanja; Sullivan, Benjamin D; Sullivan, David A; Sheardown, Heather; Schmidt, Tannin A

    2014-10-01

    Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, or lubricin) is a lubricating mucin-like glycoprotein recently discovered at the ocular surface, where it functions as a boundary lubricant and appears to play a protective role. Recent technological advances have enabled abundant expression of full-length recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4). The objectives of this study were to 1) biochemically characterize the gross structure and glycosylations of full-length rhPRG4, and 2) assess the ocular surface boundary lubricating ability of rhPRG4 at both human cornea-eyelid and human cornea-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) biointerfaces. rhPRG4 expressed by a Chinese hamster ovary cell line was characterized and compared to native bovine PRG4 by SDS-PAGE western blotting, and protein identity was assessed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Human corneas were articulated against PDMS or human eyelids, at effective sliding velocities of 0.3-30 mm/s under physiological loads of ∼15 kPa, to assess and compare the ocular lubricating ability of rhPRG4 to PRG4. Samples were tested serially in PRG4, rhPRG4 (both 300 μg/ml), then saline. Western blotting indicated that rhPRG4 had immunoreactivity at the appropriate apparent molecular weight, and possessed O-linked glycosylation consistent with that of PRG4. rhPRG4 protein identity was confirmed by MS/MS. Both PRG4 and rhPRG4 significantly, and similarly, reduced friction compared to saline at both human cornea - PDMS and human cornea-eyelid biointerfaces. In conclusion, the rhPRG4 studied here demonstrated appropriate higher order structure, O-linked glycosylations, and ocular surface boundary lubricating. Purified rhPRG4 may have clinical utility as a topical treatment of dry eye disease or contact lens biomaterial coating to promote more comfortable wear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recombinant Mouse-Human Chimeric Antibodies as Calibrators in Immunoassays That Measure Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, John; Hoff-Velk, Jane; Golden, Alan; Brashear, Jeff; Robinson, John; Rapp, Margaret; Klass, Michael; Ostrow, David H.; Mandecki, Wlodek

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the feasibility of using recombinant antibodies containing murine variable regions and human constant regions as calibrators or controls in immunoassays. As a model system, we chose the Abbott IMx Toxo immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Toxo IgG assays designed to detect antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies were selected based on their reactivity to the T. gondii antigens P30 and P66. Heavy- and light-chain variable-region genes were cloned from both hybridomas and transferred into immunoglobulin expression vectors containing human kappa and IgG1 or IgM constant regions. The constructs were stably transfected into Sp2/0-Ag14 cells. In the IMx Toxo IgG assay, immunoreactivity of the anti-P30 chimeric IgG1 antibody paralleled that of the positive human plasma-derived assay calibrators. Signal generated with the anti-P66 chimeric IgG1 antibody was observed to plateau below the maximal reactivity observed for the assay calibrator. Examination of the IgM chimeric antibodies in the IMx Toxo IgM assay revealed that both the anti-P30 and anti-P66 antibodies matched the assay index calibrator manufactured with human Toxo IgM-positive plasma. When evaluated with patient samples, the correlation between results obtained with the chimeric antibody calibrators and the positive human plasma calibrators was ≥0.985. These data demonstrate that chimeric mouse-human antibodies are a viable alternative to high-titer positive human plasma for the manufacture of calibrators and controls for diagnostic assays. PMID:9574691

  10. Update on human health concerns of recombinant bovine somatotropin use in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2014-04-01

    The 20 yr of commercial use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in the United States provide the backdrop for reviewing the outcome of use on human health issues by the upcoming 78th meeting of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. These results and further advancements in scientific knowledge indicate there are no new human health issues related to the use of rbST by the dairy industry. Use of rbST has no effect on the micro- and macrocomposition of milk. Also, no evidence exists that rbST use has increased human exposure to antibiotic residues in milk. Concerns that IGF-I present in milk could have biological effects on humans have been allayed by studies showing that oral consumption of IGF-I by humans has little or no biological activity. Additionally, concentrations of IGF-I in digestive tract fluids of humans far exceed any IGF-I consumed when drinking milk. Furthermore, chronic supplementation of cows with rbST does not increase concentrations of milk IGF-I outside the range typically observed for effects of farm, parity, or stage of lactation. Use of rbST has not affected expression of retroviruses in cattle or posed an increased risk to human health from retroviruses in cattle. Furthermore, risk for development of type 1 or type 2 diabetes has not increased in children or adults consuming milk and dairy products from rbST-supplemented cows. Overall, milk and dairy products provide essential nutrients and related benefits in health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  11. Recombinant human monoclonal antibodies to human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B neutralize virus in a complement-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Akane; Fujita, Ayano; Murayama, Tsugiya; Iba, Yoshitaka; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Asano, Yoshizo

    2009-11-01

    Human antibodies specific for HCMV are currently considered as potential anti-HCMV therapeutic agents. In this study, we used a combinatorial human antibody library to isolate and characterize complete human monoclonal antibodies that effectively neutralize HCMV in a complement-dependent manner. One hundred and six clones were isolated in two independent screens using HCMV virions and recombinant glycoprotein B, gB654, as antigens. All of the clones recognized the same molecule gB and were classified into 14 groups based on the amino acid sequence of the V(H) region. Seven representative clones from these 14 groups had a strong gB654 binding affinity by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). A pairwise binding competition analysis suggested that there were three groups based on differences in the gB recognition sites. Although Fab fragments of the seven groups showed strong affinity for gB, none of the Fab fragments neutralized HCMV infectivity in vitro. In contrast, complete human IgG(1) antibodies of at least three groups neutralized HCMV in a complement-dependent manner. These data suggest that potent therapeutic antibodies can be obtained from a human antibody library, including most of the functional antibodies that mediate humoral immunity to the selected pathogen.

  12. Biochemical analysis of the human ENA/VASP-family proteins, MENA, VASP and EVL, in homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Takaku, Motoki; Ueno, Hiroyuki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2011-06-01

    MENA, VASP and EVL are members of the ENA/VASP family of proteins and are involved in cytoplasmic actin remodeling. Previously, we found that EVL directly interacts with RAD51, an essential protein in the homologous recombinational repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stimulates the RAD51-mediated recombination reactions in vitro. The EVL-knockdown MCF7 cells exhibited a clear reduction in RAD51-foci formation, suggesting that EVL may function in the DSB repair pathway through RAD51-mediated homologous recombination. However, the DSB repair defects were less significant in the EVL-knockdown cells, implying that two EVL paralogues, MENA and VASP, may complement the EVL function in human cells. Therefore, in the present study, we purified human MENA, VASP and EVL as recombinant proteins, and compared their biochemical activities in vitro. We found that all three proteins commonly exhibited the RAD51 binding, DNA binding and DNA-annealing activities. Stimulation of the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing was also observed with all three proteins. In addition, surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that MENA, VASP and EVL mutually interacted. These results support the ideas that the ENA/VASP-family proteins are functionally redundant in homologous recombination, and that all three may be involved in the DSB repair pathway in humans.

  13. Recombinant GABAC receptors expressed in rat hippocampal neurons after infection with an adenovirus containing the human ρ1 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Filippova, Natalia; Sedelnikova, Anna; Tyler, William J; Whitworth, Terri L; Fortinberry, Henry; Weiss, David S

    2001-01-01

    A recombinant adenovirus was generated with the human ρ1 GABAC receptor subunit (adeno-ρ). Patch-clamp and antibody staining were employed to confirm functional expression of recombinant ρ1 receptors after infection of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 cell line), human embryonic retinal cells (911 cell line), dissociated rat hippocampal neurons and cultured rat hippocampal slices. Standard whole-cell recording and Western blot analysis using ρ1 GABAC receptor antibodies revealed that recombinant ρ1 receptors were expressed in HEK293 and 911 cells after adeno-ρ infection and exhibited properties similar to those of ρ1 receptors after standard transfection. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons (postnatal day (P)3-P5) did not show a native GABAC-like current. After adeno-ρ infection, however, a GABAC-like current appeared in 70-90 % of the neurons. Five days after infection, expression of GABAC receptors in hippocampal neurons significantly decreased native GABAA receptor currents from 1200 ± 300 to 150 ± 70 pA (n = 10). The native glutamate-activated current was unchanged. Hippocampal slices (P8) did not show a native GABAC-like current, although recombinant ρ1 receptors could be expressed in cultured hippocampal slices after adeno-ρ infection. These data indicate that an adenovirus can be used to express recombinant GABAC receptors in hippocampal neurons. This finding could represent an important step towards the gene therapy of CNS receptor-related diseases. PMID:11507165

  14. Recombinant human midkine stimulates proliferation and decreases dedifferentiation of auricular chondrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanying; Zhang, Zhonghui; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhu, Shunying; Gao, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yunsheng; Zhang, Kejian; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2011-11-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is widely used for the repair of cartilage defects. However, due to the lack of chondrocyte growth factor and dedifferentiation of the cultured primary chondrocytes, cell source has limited the clinical potential of ACI. Auricular cartilage is an attractive potential source of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Here we demonstrated that recombinant human midkine (rhMK) significantly promoted proliferation of rat primary auricular chondrocytes cultured and passaged in monolayer, which was mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. Furthermore, rhMK attenuated the dedifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes by maintaining the expression of chondrocyte-specific matrix proteins during culture expansion and passage. Importantly, rhMK-expanded chondrocytes reserved their full chondrogenic potential and redifferentiated into elastic chondrocytes after being cultured in high density. The results suggest that rhMK may be used for the preparation of chondrocytes in cartilage tissue engineering.

  15. [Neuronal toxicity of human recombinant interleukin-2 in rats. Morphological and behavioral validation].

    PubMed

    Robinson, M A; Veliz, Y; Bergado, J; Serrano, T; Rosillo, J C; Ivett, C; Araña, M; Quijano, Z; Castellano, O; Tellería, A

    1997-03-01

    The memory impairment which accompanies the aging process is a manifestation of diminished cognitive function. This is intimately related to neuropathological and biochemical changes in cholinergic areas of central nervous system (CNS). Cytokines, first described as immunoregulators, are also implied in defense reactions of the brain. Some studies on the action of IL-2 on the CNS suggest an action blocking the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. We have studied the possible central neurotoxic effect of this soluble factor using the chronic intraperitoneal infusion of human recombinant IL-2 (hr-IL 2) to young and old Sprague Dawley rats. The results do not show an in vivo action of IL-2 on the cholinergic function but are consistent with the probable role of this cytokine in the senescent cognitive impairment, in particular the age-related loss of spatial memory and/or during the evolution of neurodegenerative related process.

  16. Allosteric interaction of the neuromuscular blockers vecuronium and pancuronium with recombinant human muscarinic M2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Cembala, Thor M; Forde, Steven C O; Appadu, Balraj L; Lambert, David G

    2007-08-13

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs produce muscle weakness by interaction with nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors. Cardiovascular side effects have been reported. In this study the neuromuscular blocking drug vecuronium and the controls gallamine and pancuronium slowed the rate of atropine induced [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine dissociation from Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing recombinant human muscarinic M2 receptors K(off) values min(-1); vecuronium (125 nM), atropine 0.45+/-0.07+blocker 0.04+/-0.02; gallamine (21 nM), atropine 0.42+/-0.05+blocker 0.15+/-0.04; pancuronium(21 nM), atropine 0.36+/-0.03+blocker 0.03+/-0.01). These data indicate that vecuronium, gallamine and pancuronium interact with an allosteric site on the muscarinic M2 receptor (located on the heart) and this may explain some of their cardiac side effects.

  17. Human elastin-based recombinant biopolymers improve mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Betül; Cloutier, Maxime; Rabelo, Rodrigo B; Balloni, Rodrigo; Mantovani, Diego; Bandiera, Antonella

    2012-11-01

    Elastin-based polypeptides are a class of smart biopolymers representing an important model in the design of biomaterials. The combination of biomimetic materials with cells that have great plasticity provides a promising strategy for the realization of highly engineered cell-based constructs for regenerative medicine and tissue repair applications. Two recombinant biopolymers inspired by human elastin are assessed as coating agents to prepare biomimetic surfaces for cell culture. These substrates are assayed for hBM MSC culture. The coated surfaces are also characterized with AFM to evaluate the topographical features of the deposited biopolymers. The results suggest that the elastin-derived biomimetic surfaces play a stimulatory role on osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Modulation of Endogenous Hormone Action by Recombinant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Robert S.; Donner, David B.; Fletcher Starnes, H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1987-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the toxic manifestations of overwhelming bacterial infection and in the tissue wasting that often accompanies prolonged infections and malignancy. We have examined a possible role of TNF in the early metabolic alterations following acute tissue injury or sepsis. Recombinant human TNF stimulated rat liver amino acid uptake up to 5-fold in vivo and there was a concomitant increase in plasma glucagon. In vitro TNF had no direct effect on hepatocyte amino acid uptake, but it markedly enhanced the stimulation of amino acid transport by glucagon, without an alteration in binding of glucagon to hepatocytes. This permissive effect of TNF on glucagon action represents an interrelationship between the immune and endocrine systems, and it may help to explain the mechanism of hormonal regulation of both the anabolic and catabolic responses to acute injury.

  19. Recombinant Human DNase I Reduces the Viscosity of Cystic Fibrosis Sputum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shak, Steven; Capon, Daniel J.; Hellmiss, Renate; Marsters, Scot A.; Baker, Carrie L.

    1990-12-01

    Respiratory distress and progressive lung destruction in cystic fibrosis can be attributed to bacterial persistence and the accumulation of viscous purulent secretions in the airways. More than 30 yr ago it was suggested that the large amounts of DNA in purulent secretions contribute to its viscosity and that bovine pancreatic DNase I could reduce the viscosity. To evaluate the potential clinical utility of recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase) in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed rhDNase. Catalytic amounts of rhDNase greatly reduce the viscosity of purulent cystic fibrosis sputum, transforming it within minutes from a nonflowing viscous gel to a flowing liquid. The reduction in viscosity is associated with a decrease in size of DNA in the sputum. Inhalation of a rhDNase aerosol may be a simple direct approach that will help individuals with cystic fibrosis and other patients with pneumonia or bronchitis to clear their airways of purulent secretions.

  20. A Simplified Method for the Efficient Refolding and Purification of Recombinant Human GM-CSF

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Christy A.; Olson, Melanie; Jackson, Linda M.; Schrader, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) is a haematopoietic growth factor and proinflammatory cytokine. Recombinant hGM-CSF is important not only as a research tool but also as a biotherapeutic. However, rhGM-CSF expressed in E. coli is known to form inclusion bodies of misfolded, aggregated protein. Refolding and subsequent purification of rhGM-CSF from inclusion bodies is difficult with low yields of bioactive protein being produced. Here we describe a method for the isolation, refolding and purification of bioactive rhGM-CSF from inclusion bodies. The method is straightforward, not requiring extensive experience in protein refolding nor purification and using standard laboratory equipment. PMID:23166789

  1. Enzyme therapy for pompe disease with recombinant human alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk.

    PubMed

    Van den Hout, J M; Reuser, A J; de Klerk, J B; Arts, W F; Smeitink, J A; Van der Ploeg, A T

    2001-04-01

    Pompe disease is a metabolic myopathy caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. In this report we review the first 36 weeks of a clinical study on the safety and efficacy of enzyme therapy aimed at correcting the deficiency. Four patients with infantile Pompe disease were enrolled. They received recombinant human alpha-glucosidase from transgenic rabbit milk. The product is generally well tolerated and reaches the primary target tissues. Normalization of alpha-glucosidase activity in skeletal muscle was obtained and degradation of PAS-positive material was seen in tissue sections. The clinical condition of all patients improved. The effect on heart was most significant, with an impressive reduction of the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Motor function improved. The positive preliminary results stimulate continuation and extension of efforts towards the realization of enzyme therapy for Pompe disease.

  2. Preparation and characterization of human interleukin-5 expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Proudfoot, A E; Fattah, D; Kawashima, E H; Bernard, A; Wingfield, P T

    1990-01-01

    The gene coding for human interleukin-5 was synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli under control of a heat-inducible promoter. High-level expression, 10-15% of total cellular protein, was achieved in E. coli. The protein was produced in an insoluble state. A simple extraction, renaturation and purification scheme is described. The recombinant protein was found to be a homodimer, similar to the natural murine-derived protein. Despite the lack of glycosylation, high specific activities were obtained in three 'in vitro' biological assays. Physical characterization of the protein showed it to be mostly alpha-helical, supporting the hypothesis that a conformational similarity exists among certain cytokines. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2205201

  3. Recombinant human dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyl-transferase characterization as an integral monotopic membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Piano, Valentina; Nenci, Simone; Magnani, Francesca; Aliverti, Alessandro; Mattevi, Andrea

    2016-12-02

    Although the precise functions of ether phospholipids are still poorly understood, significant alterations in their physiological levels are associated either to inherited disorders or to aggressive metastatic cancer. The essential precursor, alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), for all ether phospholipids species is synthetized in two consecutive reactions performed by two enzymes sitting on the inner side of the peroxisomal membrane. Here, we report the characterization of the recombinant human DHAP acyl-transferase, which performs the first step in alkyl-DHAP synthesis. By exploring several expression systems and designing a number of constructs, we were able to purify the enzyme in its active form and we found that it is tightly bound to the membrane through the N-terminal residues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of a recombinant human growth hormone purification process using quality by design.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Enriquez, Carolina; Romero-Díaz, Alexis de Jesús; Hernández-Moreno, Ana V; Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; Miranda-Hernández, Mariana P; López-Morales, Carlos A; Pérez, Néstor O; Salazar-Ceballos, Rodolfo; Cruz-García, Norberto; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2016-11-16

    This work describes a strategy to optimize a downstream processing of a recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) by incorporating a quality by design approach toward meeting higher quality specifications. The optimized process minimized the presence of impurities and degradation by-products during manufacturing by the establishment of in-process controls. Capillary zone electrophoresis, reverse phase, and size-exclusion chromatographies were used as analytical techniques to establish new critical process parameters for the solubilization, capture, and intermediate purification steps aiming to maintain rhGH quality by complying with pharmacopeial specifications. The results indicated that the implemented improvements in the process allowed the optimization of the specific recovery and purification of rhGH without compromising its quality. In addition, this optimization facilitated the stringent removal of the remaining impurities in further polishing stages, as demonstrated by the analysis of the obtained active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  5. [Optimization of fermentation of recombinant human Endostatin (rh-Endostatin) expression in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Chang, Guo-Dong; Li, Zhuang-Lin; Qin, Jia-Yang; Ma, Cui-Qing; Luo, Yong-Zhang; Xu, Ping

    2005-07-01

    The fermentation process of recombinant human Endostatin expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) was studied. The effects of factors such as concentration of IPTG, induction time, cultivation temperature and feeding strategies were investigated. Beside that, by changing the temperature to 40 degrees C after induction, the high-density cultivation finished in a much shorter period. After 9 hours cultivation, the optical density (OD) at 600 nm reached 140 and the yield of inclusion body was 3 g/L. While E. coli system was used, protein with better activity and stability was obtained. The cost was much lower and the producing process was much steadier. It will meet the demands of the industrial production.

  6. A Child with Local Lipohypertrophy following Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; de Kruiff, Chris C.

    2016-01-01

    Local lipohypertrophy due to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration is a rare phenomenon. Here, we report a case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with a paraumbilical swelling, approximately one year after the start of rhGH treatment for short stature due to the presumed diagnosis of partial growth hormone insensitivity. Ultrasound imaging revealed an asymmetric distribution of subcutaneous fat tissue at the rhGH administration site, indicating local lipohypertrophy. After sparing her routine injection site and alternating other sites, the swelling disappeared within 6 months. Although the precise cause of local lipohypertrophy resulting from rhGH administration is still unclear, it might be related to the presumed diagnosis of partial growth hormone insensitivity. PMID:27803832

  7. Expression of a bioactive recombinant human interleukin-11 in chicken HD11 cell line.

    PubMed

    Léon, Arnaud; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Champion-Arnaud, Patrick; Sobczyk, André; Pain, Bertrand; Content, Jean; Jacques, Yannick; Valarché, Isabelle

    2005-06-21

    To direct the synthesis and secretion of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) in chicken HD11 cells, a plasmid targeting the c-lysozyme gene has been constructed which contains the mature cytokine cDNA in frame with the lysozyme leader sequence. The upregulation of rhIL-11 mediated by LPS proves the knock-in of hIL-11 cDNA in the lysozyme gene. The bioactivity of the expressed protein is demonstrated and quantified with the hIL-11 dependent 7TD1 and B9 cell lines. The electrophoretic mobility, receptor binding properties and growth promoting effect of the chicken-derived cytokine are identical to those of a rhIL-11 expressed in Escherichia coli. These results describe the secretion of a biologically active rhIL-11 expressed by an avian cellular machinery.

  8. Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as treatment for chronic leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Borbolla-Escoboza, J R; María-Aceves, R; López-Hernández, M A; Collados-Larumbe, M T

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a single subcutaneous perilesional administration of 300 micrograms of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rHGM-CSF) for the treatment of chronic leg ulcers. Prospective, descriptive evaluation in an outpatient group. The Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE, Mexico City. 10 patients with chronic leg ulcers. Ulcer diameter and side effects. After 4 weeks observation, 8 of the 10 ulcers had healed; the other two had a mean diameter decrease of 21%. The only side effect was found in a 58 year old female who complained of moderate perilesional pain two days after having received treatment: it was successfully treated with paracetamol. We believe that a single perilesional subcutaneous administration of rhGM-CSF is safe and effective for the treatment of chronic leg ulcers.

  9. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in augmentation procedures: case reports.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Jaques; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Claudino, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients.

  10. Purification of a recombinant human growth hormone by an integrated IMAC procedure.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Jane T; Fredericks, Dale P; Zhang, Chunfang; Christensen, Thorkild; Jespergaard, Christina; Schiødt, Christine Bruun; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-02-01

    In this study, integration of three discrete process aspects of the IMAC purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant proteins has been investigated. To this end, novel N-terminally tagged human growth hormone variants (tagged-vhGHs) have been expressed in E. coli by tank fermentation and captured directly from the cell lysate by a new IMAC approach. The chelating ligands used were 1,4,7-triaza-cyclononane (tacn) and bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononyl)-propane (dtnp) with copper(II) as the immobilised metal ion. The N-terminal tags were specifically selected for their potential to bind to these immobilised complexes and also for their ease of removal from the tagged protein by the dipeptidyl peptidase, DAP-1. Low levels of detergents in the binding buffer did not dramatically affect the purification, but increased concentrations of NaCl in the loading buffer improved the binding performance. The same IMAC systems, operated in the 'negative' adsorption chromatographic mode, could be used to obtain the purified mature human growth hormone variant, as assessed by MALDI-TOF and N-terminal sequencing studies, following removal of the affinity tag by the dipeptidyl peptidase 1. Western immunoblot analysis of the eluted fractions of both the tagged and de-tagged vhGH demonstrated significant clearance of E. coli host cell proteins (HCPs). Further, these IMAC resins can be used multiple times without the need for metal ion re-charging between runs. This study thus documents an integrated approach for the purification of specifically tagged recombinant proteins expressed in genetically modified E. coli.

  11. Constitutive expression of recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Sabrina, Sabrina; El-Safory, Nermeen S; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2016-12-01

    PH20 is known as sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) and also has hyaluronidase function to preferentially hydrolyze the glycosidic linkage of hyaluronic acid (HA). A DNA fragment containing core domain of human PH20 gene was cloned into a constitutive expression plasmid (pGAPZαC) of Pichia pastoris to produce a fusion protein with α factor signal in the N-terminus and 6 × His as well as c-Myc tags in the C-terminus. The resulting plasmid pGAPZαC-PH20 was integrated into the genome of P. pastoris strain GS115. Functional recombinant human PH20 (rHuPH20) was successfully expressed and secreted by the recombinant P. pastoris transformant. Highest hyaluronidase activity of 2 mU/mL could be obtained at 3 day in an YPD culture. After purified by phenylboronic acid resin adsorption, rHuPH20 with a specific activity of 230 mU/mg was obtained. Via periodic acid-Schiff staining and zymogram analysis, the partially purified rHuPH20 was determined to be highly glycosylated to various extents with molecular mass in the range of 100-300 kDa. The enzyme showed a maximal activity at pH 5.0 but no appreciable activity at pH ≤3 and pH ≥8. The hyaluronidase activity could be stably maintained at 4°C but lost 40% after incubating at 30°C for 4 h. Both N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8 mM against rHuPH20.

  12. Addition of recombinant human growth hormone to in vitro maturation medium of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pozzobon, S E; Lagares, M A; Brum, D S; Leivas, F G; Rubin, M I B

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the bovine embryonic development rate, adding recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to maturation medium of bovine oocytes. Oocytes were matured for 24 h in TCM 199 Earle's salts and five treatments were developed: T1, 0.01 IU/ml of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH); T2, 0.01 IU/ml of rhFSH + 100 ng/ml of rhGH; T3, 0.01 IU/ml of rhFSH + 1000 ng/ml of rhGH; T4, 100 ng/ml of rhGH; and T5, 1000 ng/ml of rhGH at 39 degrees C and 5% of CO(2) in air and saturated humidity. In vitro fertilization from cumulus-oocyte complexes was conducted in TALP-Fert medium (18-22 h) and spermatozoa were selected by Percoll gradient. Zygotes were incubated in SOFaaci medium in 5% of CO(2) in air, 5% of O(2) at 39 degrees C and saturated humidity for 11 days. There was no statistical difference in cleavage rate and embryo production on day 7 and day 9 among treatments. However, the hatching rate increased significantly in the T4 and T5 treatments (11.0 and 12.8%, respectively), compared with the T1 treatment (4.6%) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the rhGH addition to the oocyte maturation medium showed beneficial effects on the hatching rate of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

  13. Structure and Dynamics of Single-isoform Recombinant Neuronal Human Tubulin*♦

    PubMed Central

    Vemu, Annapurna; Atherton, Joseph; Spector, Jeffrey O.; Szyk, Agnieszka; Moores, Carolyn A.; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are polymers that cycle stochastically between polymerization and depolymerization, i.e. they exhibit “dynamic instability.” This behavior is crucial for cell division, motility, and differentiation. Although studies in the last decade have made fundamental breakthroughs in our understanding of how cellular effectors modulate microtubule dynamics, analysis of the relationship between tubulin sequence, structure, and dynamics has been held back by a lack of dynamics measurements with and structural characterization of homogeneous isotypically pure engineered tubulin. Here, we report for the first time the cryo-EM structure and in vitro dynamics parameters of recombinant isotypically pure human tubulin. α1A/βIII is a purely neuronal tubulin isoform. The 4.2-Å structure of post-translationally unmodified human α1A/βIII microtubules shows overall similarity to that of heterogeneous brain microtubules, but it is distinguished by subtle differences at polymerization interfaces, which are hot spots for sequence divergence between tubulin isoforms. In vitro dynamics assays show that, like mosaic brain microtubules, recombinant homogeneous microtubules undergo dynamic instability, but they polymerize slower and have fewer catastrophes. Interestingly, we find that epitaxial growth of α1A/βIII microtubules from heterogeneous brain seeds is inefficient but can be fully rescued by incorporating as little as 5% of brain tubulin into the homogeneous α1A/βIII lattice. Our study establishes a system to examine the structure and dynamics of mammalian microtubules with well defined tubulin species and is a first and necessary step toward uncovering how tubulin genetic and chemical diversity is exploited to modulate intrinsic microtubule dynamics. PMID:27129203

  14. Evaluation of three recombinant Leishmania infantum antigens in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Aliani Moura; Faria, Angélica Rosa; Rodrigues, Fernandes Tenório Gomes; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Magalhães, Rubens Daniel Miserani; Cunha, João Luís Reis; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; de Andrade, Hélida Monteiro

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected disease and is fatal if untreated. Dogs serve as reservoirs for Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) due to their susceptibility to infection and high skin parasitism. Therefore, VL control in Brazil involves the elimination of seropositive dogs, among other actions. However, the most frequently used serological tests have limitations regarding sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we have selected three Leishmania antigens (C1, C8 and C9) and have produced them as recombinant proteins using pET-28a-TEV vector and Escherichia coli BL-21 as expression system. When tested in ELISA with human samples, the C9 antigen was the one showing the most promising results, with 68% sensitivity and 78% specificity. When testing canine samples, the C1, C8 and C9 antigens showed a sensitivity range from 70% to 80% and specificity range from 60% to 90%. The C1 antigen presented higher sensitivity (80%) and the C8 antigen presented higher specificity (90%). Due to it, we decided to mix and test C1 and C8 antigens together, resulting in the C18 antigen. The mix also yielded high percentages of detected symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs however it did not improve the performance of the diagnostic. Comparison of our tests with the tests recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health revealed that our antigens' sensitivities and the percentage of detected asymptomatic dogs were much higher. Our results suggest that the C1, C8, C18 and C9 recombinant proteins are good antigens to diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis and could potentially be used in screening tests. To diagnose human visceral leishmaniasis, the C9 antigen presented reasonable results, but more optimization must be performed for this antigen to provide better performance.

  15. Genetic Modification in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by Homologous Recombination and CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Xue, Haipeng; Wu, Jianbo; Li, Shenglan; Rao, Mahendra S; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Genetic modification is an indispensable tool to study gene function in normal development and disease. The recent breakthrough of creating human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors (Takahashi et al., Cell 131:861-872, 2007) provides a renewable source of patient autologous cells that not only retain identical genetic information but also give rise to many cell types of the body including neurons and glia. Meanwhile, the rapid advancement of genome modification tools such as gene targeting by homologous recombination (Capecchi, Nat Rev Genet 6:507-512, 2005) and genome editing tools such as CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system, TALENs (Transcription activator-like effector nucleases), and ZFNs (Zinc finger nucleases) (Wang et al., Cell 153:910-918, 2013; Mali et al., Science 339:823-826, 2013; Hwang et al., Nat Biotechnol 31:227-229, 2013; Friedland et al., Nat Methods 10(8):741-743, 2013; DiCarlo et al., Nucleic Acids Res 41:4336-4343, 2013; Cong et al., Science 339:819-823, 2013) has greatly accelerated the development of human genome manipulation at the molecular level. This chapter describes the protocols for making neural lineage reporter lines using homologous recombination and the CRISPR/Cas system-mediated genome editing, including construction of targeting vectors, guide RNAs, transfection into hPSCs, and selection and verification of successfully targeted clones. This method can be applied to various needs of hPSC genetic engineering at high efficiency and high reliability.

  16. Recombinant Ad35 adenoviral proteins as potent modulators of human T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Joanne; Carter, Darrick; Lieber, André; Astier, Anne L

    2015-01-01

    The protein CD46 protects cells from complement attack by regulating cleavage of C3b and C3d. CD46 also regulates the adaptive immune response by controlling T-cell activation and differentiation. Co-engagement of the T-cell receptor and CD46 notably drives T-cell differentiation by switching production of interferon-γ to secretion of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. This regulatory pathway is altered in several chronic inflammatory diseases, highlighting its key role for immune homeostasis. The manipulation of the CD46 pathway may therefore provide a powerful means to regulate immune responses. Herein, we investigated the effect of recombinant proteins derived from the fibre knob of the adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) that uses CD46 as its entry receptor, on human T-cell activation. We compared the effects of Ad35K++, engineered to exhibit enhanced affinity to CD46, and of Ad35K−, mutated in the binding site for CD46. Ad35K++ profoundly affects T-cell activation by decreasing the levels of CD46 at the surface of primary T cells, and impairing T-cell co-activation, shown by decreased CD25 expression, reduced proliferation and lower secretion of interleukin-10 and interferon-γ. In contrast, Ad35K− acts a potent co-activator of T cells, enhancing T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. These data show that recombinant Ad35 proteins are potent modulators of human T-cell activation, and support their further development as potential drugs targeting T-cell responses. PMID:25251258

  17. Historical review on the use of recombinant human erythropoietin in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Winearls, C G

    1995-01-01

    The success of maintenance haemodialysis in the 1960s was blighted by the problem of anaemia. Treatment with iron, folic acid, androgens and transfusions did no more than minimize its effects. The need for a renewable source of erythropoietin was appreciated very early but the hope took 25 years to realize. Cloning and expression of the human gene was achieved in 1984 and clinical trials planned even before the descriptions of the recombinant hormone were published. The Amgen material was tested in parallel studies in Seattle and England and by the end of 1986 the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) given in large intravenous bolus doses in reversing the anaemia of uraemia was established. The benefits were immediately obvious: relief from transfusion dependence was the unequivocal evidence but the effect on 'wellbeing' though subjective was remarkable. Large clinical trials were completed in Europe and the USA so that r-HuEPO was licensed as a therapeutic drug less than two years later. The pilot studies flagged a number of key issues: hypertension, sometimes with encephalopathy, occurred in patients whose blood pressure was labile before treatment; vascular access failure seemed more frequent and hyperkalaemia was thought to reflect less efficient dialysis. Failure to respond focused attention on iron balance as well as on factors such as infection, aluminium, and hyperparathyroidism. A more clear understanding of the pathogenesis of the anaemia of uraemia was made possible by dissection of the specific effects of the exogenous erythropoietin on erythroid function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Recombinant human BMP-2 for the treatment of open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shijun; Cai, Xianhua; Huang, Jifeng; Xu, Feng; Liu, Ximing; Wang, Qing

    2012-06-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) improves healing of open tibial fractures treated with intramedullary nail fixation. However, routine use has not occurred. The purposes of the current study were to provide a systematic review of the literature using rhBMP-2 in the treatment of acute open tibial fractures treated with intramedullary nail fixation and to provide a meta-analysis of the randomized, controlled trials. Multiple databases, reference lists of relative articles, and main orthopedic journals were searched. The basic information and major results were compared. Four studies with a total of 609 patients were included.The secondary intervention rate in the standard-of-care (SOC) group was significantly higher than in the rhBMP-2 combined with absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS) group (27.1% vs 17.5%, respectively; P<.01). The treatment failure rate in the SOC group was significantly higher (34.3% vs. 21.4%, respectively; P<.01). No significant differences were found in infection rate, hardware failure rate, fracture healing rate at 20 weeks, and postoperative pain level. For patients treated with reamed intramedullary nail fixation, only the treatment failure rate in the SOC group was significantly higher (21.5% vs 14.2%, respectively; P=.02); no other significant difference was observed. Adding rhBMP-2 to the treatment of Gustilo-Anderson grade IIIA and B open tibial fractures led to net savings of approximately $6000 per case.Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 added to intramedullary nail fixation of open tibial fractures could reduce the frequency of secondary interventions and total health care costs. For reamed patients, adding rhBMP-2 reduced treatment failure. This analysis supports the clinical efficacy of rhBMP-2/ACS for the treatment of these severe fractures. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  20. Novel monoclonal antibodies broadly reactive to human recombinant sapovirus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Li, Tian-Cheng; Takeda, Naokazu; Kato, Yoji; Miyoshi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Tomoyuki

    2012-11-01

    Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an important cause of acute epidemic gastroenteritis in humans. Human SaV is genetically and antigenically diverse and can be classified into four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) and 16 genotypes (7 GI [GI.1-7], 7 GII, [GII.1-7], 1 GIV and 1 GV), based on capsid sequence similarities. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are powerful tools for examining viruses and proteins. PAI myeloma cells were fused with spleen cells from mice immunized with a single type of recombinant human SaV virus-like particles (VLPs) (GI.1, GI.5, GI.6, GII.3, GIV, or GV). Sixty-five hybrid clones producing MAbs were obtained. Twenty-four MAbs were characterized by ELISA, according to their cross-reactivity to each VLP (GI.1, GI.5, GI.6, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.7, GIV, and GV). The MAbs were classified by this method into: (i) MAbs broadly cross-reactive to all GI, GII, GIV and GV strains; (ii) those reactive in a genogroup-specific; and (iii) those reactive in a genotype-specific manner. Further analysis of three broadly cross-reactive MAbs with a competitive ELISA demonstrated that at least two different common epitopes are located on the capsid protein of human SaVs in the four genogroups. The MAbs generated and characterized in this study will be useful tools for further study of the antigenic and structural topography of the human SaV virion and for developing new diagnostic assays for human SaV.

  1. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of recombination restriction in the envelope gene of the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Galetto, Roman; Hamoudi, Meriem; Archer, John; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Martin, Darren P; Robertson, David L; Negroni, Matteo

    2009-05-01

    The ability of pathogens to escape the host's immune response is crucial for the establishment of persistent infections and can influence virulence. Recombination has been observed to contribute to this process by generating novel genetic variants. Although distinctive recombination patterns have been described in many viral pathogens, little is known about the influence of biases in the recombination process itself relative to selective forces acting on newly formed recombinants. Understanding these influences is important for determining how recombination contributes to pathogen genome and proteome evolution. Most previous research on recombination-driven protein evolution has focused on relatively simple proteins, usually in the context of directed evolution experiments. Here, we study recombination in the envelope gene of HIV-1 between primary isolates belonging to subtypes that recombine naturally in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. By characterizing the early steps in the generation of recombinants, we provide novel insights into the evolutionary forces that shape recombination patterns within viral populations. Specifically, we show that the combined effects of mechanistic processes that determine the locations of recombination breakpoints across the HIV-1 envelope gene, and purifying selection acting against dysfunctional recombinants, can explain almost the entire distribution of breakpoints found within this gene in nature. These constraints account for the surprising paucity of recombination breakpoints found in infected individuals within this highly variable gene. Thus, the apparent randomness of HIV evolution via recombination may in fact be relatively more predictable than anticipated. In addition, the dominance of purifying selection in localized areas of the HIV genome defines regions where functional constraints on recombinants appear particularly strong, pointing to vulnerable aspects of HIV biology.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Recombination Restriction in the Envelope Gene of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Galetto, Roman; Hamoudi, Meriem; Archer, John; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Martin, Darren P.; Robertson, David L.; Negroni, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to escape the host's immune response is crucial for the establishment of persistent infections and can influence virulence. Recombination has been observed to contribute to this process by generating novel genetic variants. Although distinctive recombination patterns have been described in many viral pathogens, little is known about the influence of biases in the recombination process itself relative to selective forces acting on newly formed recombinants. Understanding these influences is important for determining how recombination contributes to pathogen genome and proteome evolution. Most previous research on recombination-driven protein evolution has focused on relatively simple proteins, usually in the context of directed evolution experiments. Here, we study recombination in the envelope gene of HIV-1 between primary isolates belonging to subtypes that recombine naturally in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. By characterizing the early steps in the generation of recombinants, we provide novel insights into the evolutionary forces that shape recombination patterns within viral populations. Specifically, we show that the combined effects of mechanistic processes that determine the locations of recombination breakpoints across the HIV-1 envelope gene, and purifying selection acting against dysfunctional recombinants, can explain almost the entire distribution of breakpoints found within this gene in nature. These constraints account for the surprising paucity of recombination breakpoints found in infected individuals within this highly variable gene. Thus, the apparent randomness of HIV evolution via recombination may in fact be relatively more predictable than anticipated. In addition, the dominance of purifying selection in localized areas of the HIV genome defines regions where functional constraints on recombinants appear particularly strong, pointing to vulnerable aspects of HIV biology. PMID:19424420

  4. Human insulin prepared by recombinant DNA techniques and native human insulin interact identically with insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, L M; Piron, M A; De Meyts, P

    1981-01-01

    Human insulin synthesized from A and B chains separately produced in Escherichia coli from cloned synthetic genes (prepared by the Eli Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN) was characterized by examining its interaction with human cultured lymphocytes, human circulating erythrocytes in vitro, and isolated rat fat cells. The binding behavior of the biosynthetic insulin with human cells was indistinguishable from that of native human or porcine insulins, with respect to affinity, association and dissociation kinetics, negative cooperativity, and the down-regulation of lymphocyte receptors. Similarly, the biosynthetic insulin was as potent as the native insulins in stimulating lipogenesis in isolated rat fat cells. We also examined the receptor binding characteristics of 125I-labeled human and porcine insulins monoiodinated solely at Tyr-A14, which were obtained by means of high-performance liquid chromatography of the iodination reaction mixture (this material was prepared by B. Frank, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories). In all aspects studied, the pure [TyrA14-125I]iodoinsulins were superior as tracers to the monoiodoinsulin purified by the more conventional method of gel filtration. PMID:7015337

  5. Large-Scale Recombinant Expression and Purification of Human Tyrosinase Suitable for Structural Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xuelei; Soler-Lopez, Montserrat; Wichers, Harry J.

    2016-01-01

    Human tyrosinase (TYR) is a glycoprotein that initiates the first two reactions in the melanin biosynthesis pathway. Mutations in its encoding gene cause Oculocutaneous Albinism type I (OCA1), the most severe form of albinism, which is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by reduced or absent production of melanin in skin, hair and eyes. Despite extensive structural and characterization studies of its homologues in lower eukaryotic organisms, the catalytic mechanism of human TYR and the molecular basis of OCA1 are largely unknown. In this work, we have carried out a large-scale recombinant expression of TYR that has enabled us to obtain high yields of pure and active protein, required for crystallization trials and screening of skin whitening agents, which is highly demanded in the cosmetic industry. Addition of an N-terminal honeybee melittin signal peptide for secretion of the produced protein into the (protein-free) medium, as well as a cleavable His-tag at the C-terminus, was crucial for increasing the yield of pure protein. We have successfully crystallized two TYR variants, in both glycosylated and deglycosylated forms, showing preliminary X-ray diffraction patterns at 3.5 Å resolution. Hence, we have established an expression and purification protocol suitable for the crystal structure determination of human TYR, which will give unique atomic insight into the nature and conformation of the residues that shape the substrate binding pocket that will ultimately lead to efficient compound design. PMID:27551823

  6. Recombinant synthesis of human ABCG2 expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an experimental methodological study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Anna; Emmert, Dana; Wieschrath, Svenja; Hrycyna, Christine A; Wiese, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Human ABCG2 is an efflux protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. It is expressed in the plasma membrane of different cell types performing various physiological functions. It is the most recently discovered MDR transporter and its structure and function are still not well understood. Thus, expression and functional reconstitution of the protein in different variants and from different sources are important steps for its further investigation. In this work we describe a recombinant synthesis of human ABCG2 R482G from S. cerevisiae. We expressed the human ABCG2 R482G variant in S. cerevisiae and purified the protein from total yeast membranes. Using a panel of sixteen detergents, we analyzed the efficiency of extraction of ABCG2 from membranes by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Based on these results, three detergents were selected for further purification studies and two of them, n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, yielded functional protein after reconstitution into liposomes. We show here the first example of purified and reconstituted ABCG2 expressed in S. cerevisiae retaining drug-stimulated ATPase activity.

  7. Evidence of native starch degradation with human small intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (recombinant).

    PubMed

    Ao, Zihua; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Sim, Lyann; Nichols, Buford L; Rose, David R; Sterchi, Erwin E; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2007-05-29

    Action of human small intestinal brush border carbohydrate digesting enzymes is thought to involve only final hydrolysis reactions of oligosaccharides to monosaccharides. In vitro starch digestibility assays use fungal amyloglucosidase to provide this function. In this study, recombinant N-terminal subunit enzyme of human small intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (rhMGAM-N) was used to explore digestion of native starches from different botanical sources. The susceptibilities to enzyme hydrolysis varied among the starches. The rate and extent of hydrolysis of amylomaize-5 and amylomaize-7 into glucose were greater than for other starches. Such was not observed with fungal amyloglucosidase or pancreatic alpha-amylase. The degradation of native starch granules showed a surface furrowed pattern in random, radial, or tree-like arrangements that differed substantially from the erosion patterns of amyloglucosidase or alpha-amylase. The evidence of raw starch granule degradation with rhMGAM-N indicates that pancreatic alpha-amylase hydrolysis is not a requirement for native starch digestion in the human small intestine.

  8. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which {sup 125}I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity.

  9. Correlations between Synaptic Initiation and Meiotic Recombination: A Study of Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Jennifer R.; Al-Asmar, Nasser; Fasnacht, Rachael; Maylor-Hagen, Heather; Peinado, Vanessa; Rubio, Carmen; Broman, Karl W.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Hassold, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double strand breaks (DSBs), only a small subset of which are resolved into crossovers (COs). The mechanism determining the location of these COs is not well understood. Studies in plants, fungi, and insects indicate that the same genomic regions are involved in synaptic initiation and COs, suggesting that early homolog alignment is correlated with the eventual resolution of DSBs as COs. It is generally assumed that this relationship extends to mammals, but little effort has been made to test this idea. Accordingly, we conducted an analysis of synaptic initiation sites (SISs) and COs in human and mouse spermatocytes and oocytes. In contrast to our expectation, we observed remarkable sex- and species-specific differences, including pronounced differences between human males and females in both the number and chromosomal location of SISs. Further, the combined data from our studies in mice and humans suggest that the relationship between SISs and COs in mammals is a complex one that is not dictated by the sites of synaptic initiation as reported in other organisms, although it is clearly influenced by them. PMID:26749305

  10. Enhanced resistance of mice to bacterial infection induced by recombinant human interleukin-1a.

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Y; Ohashi, T; Minami, A; Nakamura, S

    1987-01-01

    The effect of recombinant human interleukin-1a on the survival rate of Std-ddY male mice systemically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 or Klebsiella pneumoniae P-5709 was evaluated. In P. aeruginosa infection, interleukin-1a given intramuscularly twice, 3 days and 1 day before inoculation of bacteria, most effectively protected animals from death due to infection. The effect was dose dependent, with a maximum survival rate of 92.5% at 10 micrograms per mouse, while only 8.3% of the control group survived until the end of the observation period. The 50% effective dose of interleukin-1a was 0.261 microgram per mouse. In K. pneumoniae infection, interleukin-1a given intramuscularly twice, simultaneously with and 1 day after the inoculation of bacteria, was most effective. The protective effect of interleukin-1a was again dose dependent and was generally more marked than in P. aeruginosa infection. The 50% effective dose was 0.034 microgram per mouse. In both infections, there was no significant increase in the survival rates of animals injected with human albumin or heat-inactivated interleukin-1a. These observations raise the possibility that human interleukin-1a could serve as a therapeutic tool for patients with bacterial infections. Images PMID:3553002

  11. Selective differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells induced by recombinant human interleukins.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Hatake, K; Dvorak, A M; Leiferman, K M; Donnenberg, A D; Arai, N; Ishizaka, K; Ishizaka, T

    1988-01-01

    Effects of recombinant human interleukins on hematopoiesis were explored by using suspension cultures of mononuclear cells of human umbilical-cord blood and bone marrow. The results showed that interleukin 5 induced the selective differentiation and proliferation of eosinophils. After 3 weeks in culture with interleukin 5, essentially all nonadherent cells in both bone marrow and cord blood cell cultures became eosinophilic myelocytes. Culture of the same cells with interleukin 4 resulted in the selective growth of OKT3+ lymphocytes. However, OKT3+ cells did not develop if the bone marrow cells were depleted of OKT3+/OKT11+ cells prior to the culture, indicating that interleukin 4 induced the proliferation of a subpopulation of resting T cells present in cord blood and bone marrow cell preparations. In suspension cultures of bone marrow cells and cord blood cells grown in the presence of interleukin 3, basophilic, eosinophilic, and neutrophilic myelocytes and macrophages developed within 2 weeks. By 3 weeks, however, the majority of nonadherent cells became eosinophilic myelocytes. In contrast to mouse bone marrow cell cultures, neither interleukin 3 nor a combination of interleukins 3 and 4 induced the differentiation of mast cells in human bone marrow or cord blood cell cultures. Images PMID:3258425

  12. Detection of recombinant human lactoferrin and lysozyme produced in a bitransgenic cow.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Germán G; Mucci, Nicolás C; González, Vega; Sánchez, Lourdes; Parrón, José A; Pérez, María D; Calvo, Miguel; Aller, Juan F; Hozbor, Federico A; Mutto, Adrián A

    2017-03-01

    Lactoferrin and lysozyme are 2 glycoproteins with great antimicrobial activity, being part of the nonspecific defensive system of human milk, though their use in commercial products is difficult because human milk is a limited source. Therefore, many investigations have been carried out to produce those proteins in biological systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, or plants. Mammals seem to be more suitable as expression systems for human proteins, however, especially for those that are glycosylated. In the present study, we developed a bicistronic commercial vector containing a goat β-casein promoter and an internal ribosome entry site fragment between the human lactoferrin and human lysozyme genes to allow the introduction of both genes into bovine adult fibroblasts in a single transfection. Embryos were obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer, and, after 6 transferences to recipients, 3 pregnancies and 1 viable bitransgenic calf were obtained. The presence of the vector was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization of skin cells. At 13 mo of life and after artificial induction of lactation, both recombinant proteins were found in the colostrum and milk of the bitransgenic calf. Human lactoferrin concentration in the colostrum was 0.0098 mg/mL and that in milk was 0.011 mg/mL; human lysozyme concentration in the colostrum was 0.0022 mg/mL and that in milk was 0.0024 mg/mL. The molar concentration of both human proteins revealed no differences in protein production of the internal ribosome entry site upstream and downstream protein. The enzymatic activity of lysozyme in the transgenic milk was comparable to that of human milk, being 6 and 10 times higher than that of bovine lysozyme present in milk. This work represents an important step to obtain multiple proteins or enhance single protein production by using animal pharming and fewer regulatory and antibiotic-resistant foreign sequences, allowing the design of humanized milk with added biological value for

  13. Intertypic modular exchanges of genomic segments by homologous recombination at universally conserved segments in human adenovirus species D.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Gabriel; Koyanagi, Kanako O; Aoki, Koki; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ohno, Shigeaki; Kaneko, Hisatoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Watanabe, Hidemi

    2014-08-15

    Human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D), which is composed of clinically and epidemiologically important pathogens worldwide, contains more taxonomic "types" than any other species of the genus Mastadenovirus, although the mechanisms accounting for the high level of diversity remain to be disclosed. Recent studies of known and new types of HAdV-D have indicated that intertypic recombination between distant types contributes to the increasing diversity of the species. However, such findings raise the question as to how homologous recombination events occur between diversified types since homologous recombination is suppressed as nucleotide sequences diverge. In order to address this question, we investigated the distribution of the recombination boundaries in comparison with the landscape of intergenomic sequence conservation assessed according to the synonymous substitution rate (dS). The results revealed that specific genomic segments are conserved between even the most distantly related genomes; we call these segments "universally conserved segments" (UCSs). These findings suggest that UCSs facilitate homologous recombination, resulting in intergenomic segmental exchanges of UCS-flanking genomic regions as recombination modules. With the aid of such a mechanism, the haploid genomes of HAdV-Ds may have been reshuffled, resulting in chimeric genomes out of diversified repertoires in the HAdV-D population analogous to the MHC region reshuffled via crossing over in vertebrates. In addition, some HAdVs with chimeric genomes may have had the opportunity to avoid host immune responses thereby causing epidemics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of different media composition and temperatures on the production of recombinant human growth hormone by CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, M; Zarkesh-Esfahani, S H; Gharagozloo, M

    2013-07-01

    Cell lines derived from mammalian are dominant systems for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins because of their capacity for correct protein folding, assembly and post-translational modification. In the search of an efficient method for the production of a recombinant protein using animal cell culture, we investigated the effects of different treatment including fetal calf serum concentration, glycerol and culture temperature on a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line on the production of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) viability. The GH production was assessed using ELISA and western blotting methods and cell viability was determined by flow cytometry. The production of recombinant protein increased by 2-fold when stimulatory chemical such as glycerol was added in two stages, first cells were cultured without glycerol for a period of time in order to obtain enough cell density and then glycerol was added to achieve high specific productivity.. Moreover, glycerol addition increased cell viability. Low culture temperature (below 37°C) led to enhanced cellular productivity of the rhGH by 3-fold but decreased cell viability. These findings indicate that quite simple factors such as culture temperature and addition of simple chemicals may lead to the improvement of industrial process for the production of recombinant proteins such as rhGH.

  15. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins based on human prostate stem cell antigen and heat shock protein-70

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LEI; ZHANG, XIAOPENG; YU, CHANGMING; REN, JUN; HOU, LIHUA; FU, LING; YI, SHAOQIONG; CHEN, WEI

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to express and purify recombinant proteins based on human prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and heat shock protein-70 (HSP70). The PSCA gene and various structural domains of HSP70 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the respective primers. Then, the PSCA was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET21a(+) with the amino-terminus, carboxyl-terminus and overall length of HSP70, by enzyme digestion to construct the recombinant plasmids pET21-PSCA-HSPN, pET21-PSCA-HSPC and pET21-PSCA-HSP, respectively. After being expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, recombinant fusion proteins were purified. Western blotting was performed to confirm the expression of the recombinant proteins. The results revealed that recombinant plasmids were successfully constructed. The PSCA-HSPC and PSCA-HSP expressed in E. coli existed in soluble form, as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purity of the recombinant proteins PSCA-HSPC and PSCA-HSP reached >95% following purification with the nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) resin, Phenyl-Sepharose Fast Flow and Superdex 75, which lays a foundation for the development of vaccines for prostate cancer. PMID:23596484

  16. Preclinical and first-in-human evaluation of PRX-105, a PEGylated, plant-derived, recombinant human acetylcholinesterase-R

    SciTech Connect

    Atsmon, Jacob; Brill-Almon, Einat; Nadri-Shay, Carmit; Chertkoff, Raul; Alon, Sari; Shaikevich, Dimitri; Volokhov, Inna; Haim, Kirsten Y.; Bartfeld, Daniel; Shulman, Avidor; Ruderfer, Ilya; Ben-Moshe, Tehila; Shilovitzky, Orit; Soreq, Hermona; Shaaltiel, Yoseph

    2015-09-15

    PRX-105 is a plant-derived recombinant version of the human ‘read-through’ acetylcholinesterase splice variant (AChE-R). Its active site structure is similar to that of the synaptic variant, and it displays the same affinity towards organophosphorus (OP) compounds. As such, PRX-105 may serve as a bio-scavenger for OP pesticides and chemical warfare agents. To assess its potential use in prophylaxis and treatment of OP poisoning we conducted several preliminary tests, reported in this paper. Intravenous (IV) PRX-105 was administered to mice either before or after exposure to an OP toxin. All mice who received an IV dose of 50 nmol/kg PRX-105, 2 min before being exposed to 1.33 × LD{sub 50} and 1.5 × LD{sub 50} of toxin and 10 min after exposure to 1.5 × LD{sub 50} survived. The pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles of PRX-105 were evaluated in mice and mini-pigs. Following single and multiple IV doses (50 to 200 mg/kg) no deaths occurred and no significant laboratory and histopathological changes were observed. The overall elimination half-life (t{sub ½}) in mice was 994 (± 173) min. Additionally, a first-in-human study, to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the compound, was conducted in healthy volunteers. The t{sub ½} in humans was substantially longer than in mice (average 26.7 h). Despite the small number of animals and human subjects who were assessed, the fact that PRX-105 exerts a protective and therapeutic effect following exposure to lethal doses of OP, its favorable safety profile and its relatively long half-life, renders it a promising candidate for treatment and prophylaxis against OP poisoning and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • PRX-105 is a PEGylated plant-derived recombinant human acetylcholinesterase-R. • PRX-105 is a promising bio-scavenger for organophosphorous toxins at lethal doses. • PRX-105 was shown to protect animals both prophylactically and post-poisoning. • First-in-human study

  17. Genome-wide analysis of human hotspot intersected genes highlights the roles of meiotic recombination in evolution and disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Hu, Zhibin; Zhou, Zuomin; Guo, Xuejiang; Sha, Jiahao

    2013-01-31

    Meiotic recombination events are not randomly located, but rather cluster at hotspot regions. Recently, the fine-scale mapping of genome-wide human recombination hotspots was performed. Here, we systematically analyzed the evolutionary and disease-associated features of hotspots that overlapped with protein-coding genes. In this study, we defined hotspot intersected genes as HI genes. We found that HI genes were prone to be located in the extracellular part and were functionally enriched in cell-to-cell communication. Tissue-specific genes and secreted protein encoding genes were overrepresented in HI genes, while housekeeping genes were underrepresented. Compared to slowly evolving housekeeping genes and random genes with lower recombination rates, HI genes evolved faster. The fact that brain and blood specific genes were overrepresented in HI genes indicates that they may be involved in the evolution of human intelligence and the immune system. We also found that genes related to disease were enriched in HI genes, especially genes with disease-associated chromosomal rearrangements. Hotspot sequence motifs were overrepresented in common sequences of HI genes and genes with disease-associated chromosomal rearrangements. We further listed repeat elements that were enriched both in hotspots and genes with disease-associated chromosomal rearrangements. HI genes are evolving and may be involved in the generation of key features of human during evolution. Disease-associated genes may be by-products of meiotic recombination. In addition, hotspot sequence motifs and repeat elements showed the connection between meiotic recombination and genes with disease-associated chromosomal rearrangements at the sequence level. Our study will enable us to better understand the evolutionary and biological significance of human meiotic recombination.

  18. Hydroxylation of Human Type III Collagen Alpha Chain by Recombinant Coexpression with a Viral Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingjing; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Yuan; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Mi, Yu; Xue, Wenjiao

    2017-08-01

    High-level expression of recombinant collagen by genetic engineering is urgently required. Recombinant collagen is different from natural collagen in its hydroxyproline (Hyp) content and thermal stability. To obtain hydroxylated collagen for applications in biomedicine and biomaterials, the human collagen α1(III) chain was co-expressed with the viral prolyl 4-hydroxylase A085R in Escherichia coli. Unlike previous reports using human prolyl 4-hydroxylase, this study examined the hydroxylation of full-length human collagen α1(III) chain (COL3A1) by viral prolyl 4-hydroxylase. The genes encoding these two proteins were controlled by different promoters, Ptac and PRPL, on a recombinant pKK223-3 plasmid. The sequencing results verified that the target genes were successfully inserted into the recombinant vector. Based on quantitative PCR, SDS-PAGE, and western blotting, successful expression by E. coli BL21(DE3) was detected at the mRNA and protein levels for both loci. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results suggested that the highest Hyp yield was obtained when the two proteins were induced with 0.5 mM IPTG and heat-shock treatment at 50 °C, corresponding to high enzyme expression and low human collagen α1(III) chain expression levels. A biological activity analysis indicated that the recombinant collagen with the highest hydroxylation level supported the growth of baby hamster kidney cells, similar to observations for native collagen. The production of hydroxylated collagen in this study establishes a new method for collagen hydroxylation and provides a basis for the application of recombinant collagen expressed in E. coli.

  19. Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant human thrombin: a pooled analysis of results from 10 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neil K; Foster, Kevin N; Alexander, W Allan; Pribble, John P

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant human thrombin (rThrombin), an active topical stand-alone hemostatic agent. Analysis of pooled data from 10 rThrombin clinical trials. A total of 644 adult and pediatric patients treated with rThrombin; 609 patients were included in the immunogenicity analysis. In all studies, rThrombin was applied during a single surgical procedure (day 1); the procedures consisted of spinal procedures, major hepatic resection, peripheral arterial bypass, arteriovenous graft formation for hemodialysis access, and synchronous burn wound excision and skin grafting. A dosage of 1000 IU/ml of rThrombin was administered for more than 99% of patients. Adverse events and clinical laboratory values were monitored through day 29. Blood samples were obtained for immunogenicity analyses before the procedure and on day 29. Adverse events were mild or moderate in severity for the majority of patients; no patients discontinued from an rThrombin study due to adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events in the 644 patients were incision site pain (305 patients [47.4%]), procedural pain (215 patients [33.4%]), and nausea (170 patients [26.4%]). Five patients (0.8%) died during the studies; all deaths were considered unrelated to rThrombin treatment. Antibodies to the rThrombin product developed in 5 (0.8%, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.8%) of 609 patients by day 29, approximately 1 month after treatment; these antibodies did not neutralize the activity of native human thrombin. The development of antibodies did not appear to differ substantively by type of surgical procedure, amount of rThrombin administered, or patient age. Recombinant human thrombin was well tolerated, and adverse events were consistent with those reported in the postoperative setting in the surgical populations studied. Approximately 1 month after treatment, less than 1% of the patients had developed antibodies to the rThrombin product, and these

  20. Efficient soluble expression of active recombinant human cyclin A2 mediated by E. coli molecular chaperones.

    PubMed

    Grigoroudis, Asterios I; McInnes, Campbell; Premnath, Padmavathy Nandha; Kontopidis, George

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial expression of human proteins continues to present a critical challenge in protein crystallography and drug design. While human cyclin A constructs have been extensively characterized in complex with cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), efforts to express the monomeric human cyclin A2 in Escherichia coli in a stable form, without the kinase subunit, have been laden with technical difficulties, including solubility, yield and purity. Here, optimized conditions are described with the aim of generating for first time, sufficient quantities of human recombinant cyclin A2 in a soluble and active form for crystallization and ligand characterization purposes. The studies involve implementation of a His-tagged heterologous expression system under conditions of auto-induction and mediated by molecular chaperone-expressing plasmids. A high yield of human cyclin A2 was obtained in natively folded and soluble form, through co-expression with groups of molecular chaperones from E. coli in various combinations. A one-step affinity chromatography method was utilized to purify the fusion protein products to homogeneity, and the biological activity confirmed through ligand-binding affinity to inhibitory peptides, representing alternatives for the key determinants of the CDK2 substrate recruitment site on the cyclin regulatory subunit. As a whole, obtaining the active cyclin A without the CDK partner (referred to as monomeric in this work) in a straightforward and facile manner will obviate protein--production issues with the CDK2/cyclin A complex and enable drug discovery efforts for non-ATP competitive CDK inhibition through the cyclin groove. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient Soluble Expression of Active Recombinant Human Cyclin A2 Mediated by E. coli Molecular Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Grigoroudis, Asterios I.; McInnes, Campbell; Premnath, Padmavathy Nandha; Kontopidis, George

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial expression of human proteins continues to present a critical challenge in protein crystallography and drug design. While human cyclin A constructs have been extensively characterized in complex with cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), efforts to express the monomeric human cyclin A2 in Escherichia coli in a stable form, without the kinase subunit, have been laden with technical difficulties, including solubility, yield and purity. Here, optimized conditions are described with the aim of generating for first time, sufficient quantities of human recombinant cyclin A2 in a soluble and active form for crystallization and ligand characterization purposes. The studies involve implementation of a His-tagged heterologous expression system under conditions of auto-induction and mediated by molecular chaperone-expressing plasmids. A high yield of human cyclin A2 was obtained in natively folded and soluble form, through co-expression with groups of molecular chaperones from E. coli in various combinations. A one-step affinity chromatography method was utilized to purify the fusion protein products to homogeneity, and the biological activity confirmed through ligand-binding affinity to inhibitory peptides, representing alternatives for the key determinants of the CDK2 substrate recruitment site on the cyclin regulatory subunit. As a whole, obtaining the active cyclin A without the CDK partner (referred as monomeric in this work) in a straightforward and facile manner will obviate protein –production issues with the CDK2/cyclin A complex and enable drug discovery efforts for non-ATP competitive CDK inhibition through the cyclin groove. PMID:25956535

  2. Human Recombinant Apyrase Therapy Protects Against Canine Pulmonary Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohsen; Wang, Xingan; Puyo, Carlos A.; Montecalvo, Alessandro; Huang, Howard J.; Hachem, Ramsey R.; Andreetti, Claudio; Menna, Cecilia; Chen, Ridong; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Kreisel, Daniel; Rendina, Erino A.; Gelman, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is accumulating evidence that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) promotes many of the underlying mechanisms that exacerbate acute lung injury. However, much of this data is from inbred rodent models indicating the need for further investigation in higher vertebrates to better establish clinical relevance. To this end we evaluated a human recombinant apyrase therapy in a canine warm pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model and measured eATP levels in human lung recipients with or without primary lung allograft dysfunction (PGD). METHODS Warm ischemia was induced for 90 minutes in the left lung of 14 mongrel dogs. Seven minutes after reperfusion, the apyrase APT102 (1 mg/kg, N=7) or saline vehicle (N=7) was injected into the pulmonary artery. Arterial blood gases were obtained every 30 minutes up to 180 minutes after reperfusion. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for eATP concentration, cellularity and inflammatory mediator accumulation. Thirty bilateral human lung transplant recipients were graded for immediate early PGD and assessed for BALF eATP levels. RESULTS APT102-treated dogs had progressively better lung function and less pulmonary edema over the 3-hour reperfusion period when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Protection from IRI was observed with lower BALF eATP levels, fewer airway leukocytes and blunted inflammatory mediator expression. Additionally, human lung recipients with moderate to severe PGD had significantly higher eATP levels when compared to recipients without this injury. CONCLUSIONS Extracellular ATP accumulates in acutely injured canine and human lungs. Strategies that target eATP reduction may help protect lung recipients from IRI. PMID:25455749

  3. Novel recombinant human lactoferrin: differential activation of oxidative stress related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K; Zimecki, Michał; Wise, Jasen; Płoszaj, Paulina; Mirza, Shaper; Kruzel, Mark; Hwang, Shen-An; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-12-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammalian exocrine secretions, is an important component of the host defense system. It is also a major protein of the secondary granules of neutrophils from which is released upon activation. Due to its potential clinical utility, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been produced in various eukaryotic expression systems; however, none of these are fully compatible with humans. Most of the biopharmaceuticals approved by the FDA for use in humans are produced in mammalian expression systems. The Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) have become the system of choice for proteins that require post-translational modifications, such as glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to scale-up expression and purification of rhLF in a CHO expression system, verify its glycan primary structure, and assess its biological properties in cell culture models. A stable CHO cell line producing >200mg/L of rhLF was developed and established. rhLF was purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography procedure. The highly homogenous rhLF has a molecular weight of approximately 80 kDa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis revealed N-linked, partially sialylated glycans at two glycosylation sites, typical for human milk LF. This novel rhLF showed a protective effect against oxidative stress in a similar manner to its natural counterpart. In addition, rhLF revealed a modulatory effect on cellular redox via upregulation of key antioxidant enzymes. These data imply that the CHO-derived rhLF is fully compatible with the native molecule, thus it has promise for human therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying recombinants in human and primate immunodeficiency virus sequence alignments using quartet scanning

    PubMed Central

    Lemey, Philippe; Lott, Martin; Martin, Darren P; Moulton, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background Recombination has a profound impact on the evolution of viruses, but characterizing recombination patterns in molecular sequences remains a challenging endeavor. Despite its importance in molecular evolutionary studies, identifying the sequences that exhibit such patterns has received comparatively less attention in the recombination detection framework. Here, we extend a quartet-mapping based recombination detection method to enable identification of recombinant sequences without prior specifications of either query and reference sequences. Through simulations we evaluate different recombinant identification statistics and significance tests. We compare the quartet approach with triplet-based methods that employ additional heuristic tests to identify parental and recombinant sequences. Results Analysis of phylogenetic simulations reveal that identifying the descendents of relatively old recombination events is a challenging task for all methods available, and that quartet scanning performs relatively well compared to the triplet based methods. The use of quartet scanning is further demonstrated by analyzing both well-established and putative HIV-1 recombinant strains. In agreement with recent findings, we provide evidence that the presumed circulating recombinant CRF02_AG is a 'pure' lineage, whereas the presumed parental lineage subtype G has a recombinant origin. We also demonstrate HIV-1 intrasubtype recombination, confirm the hybrid origin of SIV in chimpanzees and further disentangle the recombinant history of SIV lineages in a primate immunodeficiency virus data set. Conclusion Quartet scanning makes a valuable addition to triplet-based methods for identifying recombinant sequences without prior specifications of either query and reference sequences. The new method is available in the VisRD v.3.0 package . PMID:19397803

  5. Human meiotic recombination products revealed by sequencing a hotspot for homologous strand exchange in multiple HNPP deletion patients.

    PubMed

    Reiter, L T; Hastings, P J; Nelis, E; De Jonghe, P; Van Broeckhoven, C; Lupski, J R

    1998-05-01

    The HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) deletion and CMT1A (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A) duplication are the reciprocal products of homologous recombination events between misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP repeats on chromosome 17p11. 2-p12. A 1.7-kb hotspot for homologous recombination was previously identified wherein the relative risk of an exchange event is 50 times higher than in the surrounding 98.7% identical sequence shared by the CMT1A-REPs. To refine the region of exchange further, we designed a PCR strategy to amplify the recombinant CMT1A-REP from HNPP patients as well as the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs from control individuals. By comparing the sequences across recombinant CMT1A-REPs to that of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs, the exchange was mapped to a 557-bp region within the previously identified 1.7-kb hotspot in 21 of 23 unrelated HNPP deletion patients. Two patients had recombined sequences suggesting an exchange event closer to the mariner-like element previously identified near the hotspot. Five individuals also had interspersed patches of proximal or distal repeat specific DNA sequence indicating potential gene conversion during the exchange of genetic material. Our studies provide a direct observation of human meiotic recombination products. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that minimum efficient processing segments, which have been characterized in Escherichia coli, yeast, and cultured mammalian cells, may be required for efficient homologous meiotic recombination in humans.

  6. CHO expression of a novel human recombinant IgG1 anti-RhD antibody isolated by phage display.

    PubMed

    Miescher, S; Zahn-Zabal, M; De Jesus, M; Moudry, R; Fisch, I; Vogel, M; Kobr, M; Imboden, M A; Kragten, E; Bichler, J; Mermod, N; Stadler, B M; Amstutz, H; Wurm, F

    2000-10-01

    Replacement of the hyperimmune anti-Rhesus (Rh) D immunoglobulin, currently used to prevent haemolytic disease of the newborn, by fully recombinant human anti-RhD antibodies would solve the current logistic problems associated with supply and demand. The combination of phage display repertoire cloning with precise selection procedures enables isolation of specific genes that can then be inserted into mammalian expression systems allowing production of large quantities of recombinant human proteins. With the aim of selecting high-affinity anti-RhD antibodies, two human Fab libraries were constructed from a hyperimmune donor. Use of a new phage panning procedure involving bromelin-treated red blood cells enabled the isolation of two high-affinity Fab-expressing phage clones. LD-6-3 and LD-6-33, specific for RhD. These showed a novel reaction pattern by recognizing the D variants D(III), D(IVa), D(IVb), D(Va), D(VI) types I and II. D(VII), Rh33 and DFR. Full-length immunoglobulin molecules were constructed by cloning the variable regions into expression vectors containing genomic DNA encoding the immunoglobulin constant regions. We describe the first, stable, suspension growth-adapted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a high affinity recombinant human IgG1 anti-RhD antibody adapted to pilot-scale production. Evaluation of the Fc region of this recombinant antibody by either chemiluminescence or antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays demonstrated macrophage activation and lysis of red blood cells by human lymphocytes. A consistent source of recombinant human anti-RhD immunoglobulin produced by CHO cells is expected to meet the stringent safety and regulatory requirements for prophylactic application.

  7. Surveillance of Bat Coronaviruses in Kenya Identifies Relatives of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E and Their Recombination History.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ying; Shi, Mang; Chommanard, Christina; Queen, Krista; Zhang, Jing; Markotter, Wanda; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Holmes, Edward C; Tong, Suxiang

    2017-03-01

    Bats harbor a large diversity of coronaviruses (CoVs), several of which are related to zoonotic pathogens that cause severe disease in humans. Our screening of bat samples collected in Kenya from 2007 to 2010 not only detected RNA from several novel CoVs but, more significantly, identified sequences that were closely related to human CoVs NL63 and 229E, suggesting that these two human viruses originate from bats. We also demonstrated that human CoV NL63 is a recombinant between NL63-like viruses circulating in Triaenops bats and 229E-like viruses circulating in Hipposideros bats, with the breakpoint located near 5' and 3' ends of the spike (S) protein gene. In addition, two further interspecies recombination events involving the S gene were identified, suggesting that this region may represent a recombination "hot spot" in CoV genomes. Finally, using a combination of phylogenetic and distance-based approaches, we showed that the genetic diversity of bat CoVs is primarily structured by host species and subsequently by geographic distances.IMPORTANCE Understanding the driving forces of cross-species virus transmission is central to understanding the nature of disease emergence. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats are the ultimate reservoir hosts for a number of coronaviruses (CoVs), including ancestors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and human CoV 229E (HCoV-229E). However, the evolutionary pathways of bat CoVs remain elusive. We provide evidence for natural recombination between distantly related African bat coronaviruses associated with Triaenops afer and Hipposideros sp. bats that resulted in a NL63-like virus, an ancestor of the human pathogen HCoV-NL63. These results suggest that interspecies recombination may play an important role in CoV evolution and the emergence of novel CoVs with zoonotic potential.

  8. GH safety workshop position paper: A critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, t...

  9. Integrated Summary Report: Validation of Two Binding Assays Using Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor Alpha (hrERa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Integrated Summary Report (ISR) summarizes, in a single document, the results from an international multi-laboratory validation study conducted for two in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) binding assays. These assays both use human recombinant estrogen receptor, alpha subtype (h...

  10. Integrated Summary Report: Validation of Two Binding Assays Using Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor Alpha (hrERa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Integrated Summary Report (ISR) summarizes, in a single document, the results from an international multi-laboratory validation study conducted for two in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) binding assays. These assays both use human recombinant estrogen receptor, alpha subtype (h...

  11. Recombination analysis of intermediate human adenovirus type 53 in Japan by complete genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hisatoshi; Aoki, Koki; Ishida, Susumu; Ohno, Shigeaki; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Tsuguto; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Masako; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Koyanagi, Kanako O; Watanabe, Hidemi; Suzutani, Tatsuo

    2011-06-01

    Human adenovirus type 53 (HAdV-53) has commonly been detected in samples from epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) patients in Japan since 1996. HAdV-53 is an intermediate virus, containing hexon-chimeric, penton base and fiber structures similar to HAdV-22 and -37, HAdV-37 and HAdV-8, respectively. HAdV-53-like intermediate strains were first isolated from EKC samples in Japan in the 1980s. Here, the complete genome sequences of three such HAdV-53-like intermediate strains (870006C, 880249C and 890357C) and four HAdV-53 strains were determined, and their relationships were analysed. The seven HAdV strains were classified into three groups, 870006C/880249C, 890357C and the four HAdV-53 strains, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of the partial and complete genome sequences. HAdV strains within the same group showed the highest nucleotide identities (99.87-100.00 %). Like HAdV-53, the hexon loop 1 and 2 regions of 870006C, 880249C and 890357C showed the highest identity with HAdV-22. However, these strains did not show a hexon-chimeric structure similar to HAdV-22 and -37, or a penton base similar to HAdV-37. The fiber genes of 870006C and 880249C were identical to that of HAdV-37, but not HAdV-8. Thus, the three intermediate HAdVs isolated in the 1980s were similar to each other but not to HAdV-53. The recombination breakpoints were inferred by the Recombination Detection Program (rdp) using whole-genome sequences of these seven HAdV and of 12 HAdV-D strains from GenBank. HAdV-53 may have evolved from intermediate HAdVs circulating in the 1980s, and from HAdV-8, -22 and -37, by recombination of sections cut at the putative breakpoints.

  12. Immunogenicity assessment of recombinant human c1-inhibitor: an integrated analysis of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Hack, C Erik; Mannesse, Maurice; Baboeram, Aartie; Oortwijn, Beatrijs; Relan, Anurag

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) is used to treat acute angioedema attacks in hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to a genetic C1INH deficiency. Recombinant proteins in general may induce antibody responses and therefore evaluation of such responses in the target population is an essential step in the clinical development program of a recombinant protein. Here we report the assessment of the immunogenicity of rhC1INH in symptomatic HAE patients. Blood samples collected before and after administration of rhC1INH were tested for antibodies against plasma-derived (pd) or rhC1INH, or against host-related impurities (HRI). Above cut-off screening results were confirmed with displacement assays, and also tested for neutralizing anti-C1INH antibodies. Finally, the relation of antibodies to clinical efficacy and safety of rhC1INH was analyzed. Data from 155 HAE patients who received 424 treatments with rhC1INH were analyzed. 1.5% of all pre-exposure tests and 1.3% of all post-exposure tests were above the cut-off level in the screening assay for anti-C1INH antibodies. Six patients (3.9%) had anti-rhC1INH antibodies positive in the confirmatory assay. In two patients, confirmed antibodies were pre-existing with no increase post-exposure; in three patients, the antibodies occurred on a single occasion post-exposure; and in one patient, on subsequent occasions post-exposure. Neutralizing anti-pdC1INH antibodies were not found. Anti-HRI antibodies in the screening assay occurred in <0.7% of the tests before exposure to rhC1INH, in <1.9% after first exposure and in <3.1% after repeat treatment with rhC1INH. Five patients had anti-HRI antibodies positive in the confirmatory assay. In one patient, the antibodies were pre-existing, whereas in three of the 155 rhC1INH-treated patients (1.9%), confirmed anti-HRI antibodies occurred at more time points. Antibody findings were not associated with altered efficacy of rhC1INH or adverse events. These results indicate a reassuring

  13. Physical and kinetic characterization of recombinant human cholesteryl ester transfer protein.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, D T; McIntyre, J; Heuvelman, D; Remsen, E E; McKinnie, R E; Vu, L; Melton, M; Monsell, R; Krul, E S; Glenn, K

    1996-01-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the exchange of triglycerides (TGs), cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids (PLs) between lipoproteins in the plasma. In order to better understand the lipid transfer process, we have used recombinant human CETP expressed in cultured mammalian cells, purified to homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography. Purified recombinant CETP had a weight-average relative molecular mass (MW) of 69561, determined by sedimentation equilibrium, and a specific absorption coefficient of 0.83 litre.g-1.cm-1. The corresponding hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) of the protein, determined by dynamic light scattering, was 14 nm, which is nearly twice the expected value for a spheroidal protein of this molecular mass. These data suggest that CETP has a non-spheroidal shape in solution. The secondary structure of CETP was estimated by CD to contain 32% alpha-helix, 35% beta-sheet, 17% turn and 16% random coil. Like the natural protein from plasma, the recombinant protein consisted of several glycoforms that could be only partially deglycosylated using N-glycosidase F. Organic extraction of CETP followed by TLC showed that CE, unesterified cholesterol (UC), PL, TG and fatty acids (FA) were associated with the pure protein. Quantitative analyses verified that each mol of CETP contained 1.0 mol of cholesterol, 0.5 mol of TG and 1.3 mol of PL. CETP mediated the transfer of CE, TG, PL, and UC between lipoproteins, or between protein-free liposomes. In dual-label transfer experiments, the transfer rates for CE or TG from HDL to LDL were found to be proportional to the initial concentrations of the respective ligands in the donor HDL particles. Kinetic analysis of CE transfer was consistent with a carrier mechanism, having a Km of 700 nM for LDL particles and of 2000 nM for HDL particles, and a kcat of 2 s-1. The Km values were thus in the low range of the normal physiological concentration for each substrate. The carrier mechanism was verified

  14. Inter-telomeric recombination is present in telomerase-positive human cells

    PubMed Central

    Dlaska, Margit; Schöffski, Patrick; Bechter, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    Immortal cells require a mechanism of telomere length control in order to divide infinitely. One mechanism is telomerase, an enzyme that compensates the loss of telomeric DNA. The second mechanism is the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. In ALT pathway cells, homologous recombination between telomeric DNA is the mechanism by which telomere homeostasis is achieved. We developed a novel homologous recombination reporter system that is able to measure inter-telomeric recombination in a sensitive manner. We asked the fundamental question if homologous recombination between different telomeres is present in telomerase-positive cells. In this in vitro study, we showed that homologous recombination between telomeres is detectable in ALT cells with the same frequency as in cells that utilize the telomerase pathway. We further described an ALT cell clone that showed peaks of recombination which were not detected in telomerase-positive clones. In telomerase-positive cells the frequency of inter-telomeric recombination was not increased by shortened telomeres or by a fragile telomere phenotype induced with aphidicolin. ALT cells, in contrast, responded to aphidicolin with an increase in the frequency of recombination. Our results indicate that inter-telomeric recombination is present in both pathways of telomere length control, but the factors that increase recombination are different in ALT and telomerase-positive cells. PMID:23759591

  15. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human choline acetyltransferase: phosphorylation of the enzyme regulates catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dobransky, T; Davis, W L; Xiao, G H; Rylett, R J

    2000-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase synthesizes acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons and, in humans, may be produced in 82- and 69-kDa forms. In this study, recombinant choline acetyltransferase from baculovirus and bacterial expression systems was used to identify protein isoforms by two-dimensional SDS/PAGE and as substrate for protein kinases. Whereas hexa-histidine-tagged 82- and 69-kDa enzymes did not resolve as individual isoforms on two-dimensional gels, separation of wild-type choline acetyltransferase expressed in insect cells revealed at least nine isoforms for the 69-kDa enzyme and at least six isoforms for the 82-kDa enzyme. Non-phosphorylated wild-type choline acetyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli yielded six (69 kDa) and four isoforms (82 kDa) respectively. Immunofluorescent labelling of insect cells expressing enzyme showed differential subcellular localization with the 69-kDa enzyme localized adjacent to plasma membrane and the 82-kDa enzyme being cytoplasmic at 24 h. By 64 h, the 69-kDa form was in cytoplasm and the 82-kDa form was only present in nucleus. Studies in vitro showed that recombinant 69-kDa enzyme was a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC), casein kinase II (CK2) and alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaM kinase), but not for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); phosphorylation by PKC and CK2 enhanced enzyme activity. The 82-kDa enzyme was a substrate for PKC and CK2 but not for PKA or alpha-CaM kinase, with only PKC yielding increased enzyme activity. Dephosphorylation of both forms of enzyme by alkaline phosphatase decreased enzymic activity. These studies are of functional significance as they report for the first time that phosphorylation enhances choline acetyltransferase catalytic activity. PMID:10861222

  16. Recombinant human factor VIIa prevents hysterectomy in severe postpartum hemorrhage: single center study.

    PubMed

    Huber, Alexander W; Raio, Luigi; Alberio, Lorenzo; Ghezzi, Fabio; Surbek, Daniel V

    2011-10-24

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human recombinant activated factor VII (rhFVIIa, NovoSeven) in avoiding hysterectomy postpartum in the management of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). We performed a prospective cohort study at our university tertiary care center. Patients with severe post partum hemorrhage (blood loss >2000 mL) and failed medical and uterus-preserving surgical management, were treated with intravenous bolus administration of rhVIIa. Main outcome measures were cessation of bleeding, postpartum hysterectomy and thromboembolic events. In 20/22 patients included, PPH was caused primarily by uterine atony, including 7 (32%) with additional lower genital tract lesion; in two women, it was due to pathologic placentation (placenta increta, 9%). One case of amniotic fluid embolism and one woman with uterine inversion were included. Recombinant hFVIIa was successful in stopping the PPH and in preventing a hysterectomy in 20/22 women (91%). The remaining two patients with persistent bleeding despite rhFVIIa treatment, who underwent postpartum hysterectomy, had placenta increta. No thromboembolic event was noticed. This study describes the largest single center series of rhFVIIa treatment for fertility preservation in severe postpartum hemorrhage published to date. Our data suggest that administration of rhFVIIa is effective in avoiding postpartum hysterectomy after conservative medical and surgical measures have failed. Although randomized studies are lacking, rhFVIIa should be considered as a second-line therapeutic option of life-threatening postpartal bleeding, in particular if preservation of fertility is warranted and hysterectomy is to be avoided.

  17. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Recombinant Human Serum Transferrin from Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Steere, Ashley N.; Bobst, Cedric E.; Zhang, Deshui; Pettit, Steve; Kaltashov, Igor A.; Huang, Ning; Mason, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    The Fe3+ binding protein human serum transferrin (hTF) is well known for its role in cellular iron delivery via the transferrin receptor (TFR). A new application is the use of hTF as a therapy and targeted drug delivery system for a number of diseases. Recently, production of hTF in plants has been reported; such systems provide a relatively inexpensive, animal-free (eliminating potential contamination by animal pathogens) method to produce large amounts of recombinant proteins for such biopharmaceutical applications. Specifically, the production of Optiferrin™ (hTF produced in rice, Oryza sativa, from InVitria) has been shown to yield large amounts of functional protein for use in culture medium for cellular iron delivery to promote growth. In the present work we describe further purification (by gel filtration) and characterization of hTF produced in rice (purified Optiferrin™) to determine its suitability in biopharmaceutical applications. The spectral, mass spectrometric, urea gel and kinetic analysis shows that purified Optiferrin™ is similar to recombinant nonglycosylated N-His tagged hTF expressed by baby hamster kidney cells and/or serum derived glycosylated hTF. Additionally, in a competitive immunoassay, iron-loaded Optiferrin™ is equivalent to iron-loaded N-His hTF in its ability to bind to the soluble portion of the TFR immobilized in an assay plate. As an essential requirement for any functional hTF, both lobes of purified Optiferrin™ bind Fe3+ tightly yet reversibly. Although previously shown to be capable of delivering Fe3+ to cells, the kinetics of iron release from iron-loaded Optiferrin™/sTFR and iron-loaded N-His hTF/sTFR complexes differ somewhat. We conclude that the purified Optiferrin™ might be suitable for consideration in biopharmaceutical applications. PMID:23010327

  18. Biochemical and structural characterization of recombinant human serum transferrin from rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Steere, Ashley N; Bobst, Cedric E; Zhang, Deshui; Pettit, Steve C; Kaltashov, Igor A; Huang, Ning; Mason, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The Fe(3+) binding protein human serum transferrin (hTF) is well known for its role in cellular iron delivery via the transferrin receptor (TFR). A new application is the use of hTF as a therapy and targeted drug delivery system for a number of diseases. Recently, production of hTF in plants has been reported; such systems provide a relatively inexpensive, animal-free (eliminating potential contamination by animal pathogens) method to produce large amounts of recombinant proteins for such biopharmaceutical applications. Specifically, the production of Optiferrin (hTF produced in rice, Oryza sativa, from InVitria) has been shown to yield large amounts of functional protein for use in culture medium for cellular iron delivery to promote growth. In the present work we describe further purification (by gel filtration) and characterization of hTF produced in rice (purified Optiferrin) to determine its suitability in biopharmaceutical applications. The spectral, mass spectrometric, urea gel and kinetic analysis shows that purified Optiferrin is similar to recombinant nonglycosylated N-His tagged hTF expressed by baby hamster kidney cells and/or serum derived glycosylated hTF. Additionally, in a competitive immunoassay, iron-loaded Optiferrin is equivalent to iron-loaded N-His hTF in its ability to bind to the soluble portion of the TFR immobilized in an assay plate. As an essential requirement for any functional hTF, both lobes of purified Optiferrin bind Fe(3+) tightly yet reversibly. Although previously shown to be capable of delivering Fe(3+) to cells, the kinetics of iron release from iron-loaded Optiferrin™/sTFR and iron-loaded N-His hTF/sTFR complexes differ somewhat. We conclude that the purified Optiferrin might be suitable for consideration in biopharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient expression and purification of recombinant therapeutic protein candidates, human midkine and pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Murasugi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor that promotes cell growth, survival, and migration. Externally added midkine prevents ventricular remodeling and improves long-term survival after myocardial infarction in the mouse. Preclinical testing of this protein is in progress. Externally added pleiotrophin, a member of the midkine protein family, promotes functional recovery after neural transplantation in rats. Thus, pleiotrophin is also a candidate therapeutic protein. Large amounts of these proteins were obtained by using the heterologous protein expression system of Pichia pastoris, and the recombinant P. pastoris clones were cultured in a controlled fermentor. Intracellular expression yielded about 300 mg/L recombinant human (rh)-midkine, which was extracted, renatured, and purified. From 1 L of the culture, 64 mg of rh-midkine was purified. Secretory expression induced by the midkine secretion signal resulted in about 100 mg of rhmidkine in 1 L of the culture supernatant, but over 70% of the rh-midkine had yeast-specific glycosylation. Three threonyl residues that are targets for glycosylation were substituted with alanyl residues, and nonglycosylated, active rh-midkine was obtained. In secretory expression using α-mating factor prepro-sequence, about 640 mg/L rh-midkine was obtained, but it was partially truncated. Therefore, a protease-deficient host was used, and about 360 mg/L intact rh-midkine was then obtained. The rh-midkine was recovered and purified, with 70% final yield. All purified rh-midkine, regardless of expression method, was able to promote mammalian cell proliferation. In secretory expression of rh-pleiotrophin using α- mating factor prepro-sequence, 260 mg/L rh-pleiotrophin could be secreted. The rh-pleiotrophin was recovered and efficiently purified with 72% final yield.

  20. Expression of soluble, biologically active recombinant human endostatin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han-Mei; Zhang, Guo-Yuan; Ji, Xiao-Dan; Cao, Lin; Shu, Luan; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2005-06-01

    Endostatin, a 20kDa C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent anti-angiogenic protein and inhibitor of tumor growth. Recombinant endostatin was prepared from Escherichia coli deposited as insoluble, inactive inclusion bodies. In the present study, we produced soluble and biologically active recombinant human endostatin (rhEndostatin) in E. coli by employing both co-expression of the molecular chaperones and lower temperature fermentation. Two groups of chaperones Trigger factor and GroEL-GroES (GroEL/ES), DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE and GroEL/ES, were co-expressed, respectively, with rhEndostatin at different temperatures (37, 25, and 16 degrees C). It revealed that low temperature or molecular chaperones alone could enhance the production of active rhEndostatin; meanwhile, combinational employment of low temperature cultivation (16 degrees C) together with co-expression of DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE and GroEL/ES was more effective to prevent aggregation of rhEndostatin. The production of soluble rhEndostatin was about 36 mg/L, and at least 16 mg of rhEndostatin was purified from 1L flask culture. The purified rhEndostatin specifically inhibited the proliferation of endothelial cell-bovine capillary endothelial cell in a dose-dependent manner, and it showed potent anti-angiogenic capability on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo in vivo. Our study provides a feasible and convenient approach to produce soluble and biologically active rhEndostatin.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human erythropoietin in athletes. Blood sampling and doping control

    PubMed Central

    SOUILLARD, AGNES; AUDRAN, MICHEL; BRESSOLLE, FRANÇOISE; GAREAU, RAYNALD; DUVALLET, ALAIN; CHANAL, JEAN-LOUIS

    1996-01-01

    1The pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) were initially determined in two healthy volunteers after a single subcutaneous dose (50 u kg−1). Twenty subjects then received repeated subcutaneous administrations of high dose (200 u kg−1) rHuEpo and 10 subjects received placebo. An immunoradiometric assay was used to measure the concentrations of erythropoietin (Epo) in serum and urine. 2Serum Epo concentration-time profiles were best described by a one-compartment open model with zero-order input. The mean elimination half-life (±s.d.) was 42.0±34.2 h. Clearance, uncorrected for bioavailability, was 0.05±0.01 l h−1 kg& minus;1. Erythropoietin concentrations returned to normal values in serum and urine, 7 and 4 days after the last administration, respectively. 3The recombinant hormone was well tolerated. Significant changes in reticulocytes and red blood cells, haemoglobin concentrations and haematocrit were observed after administration of rHuEpo. In the control group, these parameters remained unchanged. 4The change in reticulocytes was used as an index of the therapeutic effect of rHuEpo. The concentration-effect relationship was best described by an exponential model. 5These data show the limitations of the measurement of Epo concentrations in blood and urine samples, collected in athletes during competition, for antidoping control. Epo doping can be detected only during or within 4 to 7 days of ending, a course of rHuEpo. PMID:8877027

  2. [Phase I trial of a recombinant human interleukin 2. Results in patients with disseminated solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Tursz, T; Dorval, T; Berthaud, P; Jouve, M; Avril, M F; Garcia-Giralt, E; Le Chevalier, T; Spielmann, M; Sevin, D; Palangie, T

    1991-02-16

    A phase I trial of Roussel-Uclaf recombinant human interleukin 2 (IL 2) was performed on 31 cancer bearing patients of the Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, and the Institut Curie, Paris. This study allowed to define a schedule for administration of IL 2 in continuous infusion over 5 day cycles. This schedule is manageable in patients without major visceral failure. It is reproducibly feasible in conventional medical oncology units, without specialized intensive care facilities. Toxicities, although numerous, are acceptable for IL 2 doses below 24,000,000 IU/m2/day. There is a close relationship between secondary effect severity and IL 2 doses received. Main toxicities were: fever with chills, fatigue and general discomfort in 23 patients, nauseas and vomiting in 12, diarrhea in 10 and cutaneous rashes with erythema and dermal vascularitis in 13. One peculiar feature of this study was the minimal occurrence of manifestation related to leaky capillary syndrome prominant in other studies. Oliguria, functional renal failure and edema were observed in only 4 patients with functionally unique kidney. Five patients had severe anemia, 2 grade III thrombocytopenia, 1 grade IV hepatic cytolysis, 4 severe confusion episodes and 2 hypothyroidism with anti-thyroid microsome auto-antibodies. All these toxicities were reversible after withdrawal of IL 2 treatment. During this phase I trial, 3 therapeutic objective responses were observed, all 3 occurring in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with IL 2 doses equal to, or above 16,000,00 IU/m2/d. Recombinant IL 2 Roussel-Uclaf thus can be administered through a simple, manageable and efficient regimen.

  3. Examining the influence of ultraviolet C irradiation on recombinant human γD-crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wen-Sing

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Human γD crystallin is a principal protein component of the human eye lens and associated with the development of juvenile and mature-onset cataracts. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is thought to perturb protein structure and eventually lead to aggregation. This work is aimed at exploring the effects of UV-C irradiation on recombinant human γD-crystallin (HGDC). Methods Recombinant HGDC proteins were expressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) harboring plasmid pEHisHGDC and purified using chromatographic methods. The proteins were then exposed to UV-C light (λmax=254 nm, 15 W) at the intensity of 420, 800, or 1850 μW/cm2. The UV-C-unexposed, supernatant fraction of UV-C-exposed, and re-dissolved precipitated fraction of UV-C exposed preparations were characterized by SDS–PAGE, turbidity measurement, CD spectroscopy, tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy, acrylamide fluorescence quenching analysis, and sulfhydryl group measurements. Results The turbidity of the HGDC sample solution was found to be positively correlated with HGDC concentration, UV-C irradiation intensity, and UV-C irradiation duration. When exposed to UV-C, HGDC sample solutions became visibly turbid and a noticeable amount of larger protein particle, perceptible to the naked eye, was observed upon prolonged irradiation. The precipitated fraction of irradiated HGDC sample was found to be re-dissolved by guanidine hydrochloride. Electrophoresis, acrylamide fluorescence quenching, and spectroscopic analyses revealed differences in structures among the non-irradiated HGDC, the supernatant fraction of irradiated HGDC, and the re-dissolved precipitated fraction of irradiated HGDC. Through the use of L-cysteine, the measurements of sulfhydryl contents, and the reducing as well as non-reducing SDS–PAGE, our data further suggested that disulfide bond formation and/or cleavage probably play an important role in aggregation and/or precipitation of HGDC elicited by UV-C irradiation. Conclusions

  4. Comparative Assessment of Glycosylation of a Recombinant Human FSH and a Highly Purified FSH Extracted from Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yan; Yin, Hongrui; Shao, Hong; Chen, Gang

    2016-03-04

    Glycosylation is an important PTM and is critical for the manufacture and efficacy of therapeutic glycoproteins. Glycan significantly influences the biological properties of human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH). Using a glycoproteomic strategy, this study compared the glycosylation of a putative highly purified FSH (uhFSH) obtained from human urine with that of a recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) obtained from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Intact and subunit masses, N-glycans, N-glycosylation sites, and intact N- and O-glycopeptides were analyzed and compared by mass spectrometry. Classic and complementary analytical methods, including SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, and the Steelman-Pohley bioassay were also employed to compare their intact molecular weights, charge variants, and specific activities. Results showed that highly sialylated, branched, and macro-heterogeneity glycans are predominant in the uhFSH compared with those in rhFSH. The O-glycopeptides of both hFSHs, which have not been described previously, were characterized herein. A high degree of heterogeneity was observed in the N-glycopeptides of both hFSHs. The differences in glycosylation provide useful information in elucidating and in further investigation the critical glycan structures of hFSH.

  5. Study on the expression of human lysozyme in oviduct bioreactor mediated by recombinant avian adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, A P; Wang, Y J; Wu, S; Zuo, W Y; Guo, C M; Hong, W M; Zhu, S Y

    2017-07-01

    Due to its antimicrobial properties and low toxicity, human lysozyme (hLYZ) has broad application in the medical field and as a preservative used by the food industry. However, limited availability hinders its widespread use. Hence, we constructed a recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) that would specifically express hLYZ in the chicken oviduct and harvested hLYZ from the egg whites of laying hens. The oviduct-specific human lysozyme expression cassette flanked by avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) was subcloned into the modified baculovirus transfer vector pFBX, and then the recombinant baculovirus rBac-ITRLYZ was generated. The recombinant avian adeno-associated virus was produced by co-infecting Sf9 cells with rBac-ITRLYZ and the other 2 baculoviruses containing AAAV functional genes and structural genes, respectively. Electron microscopy and real-time PCR revealed that the recombinant viral particles were generated successfully with a typical AAAV morphology and a high titer. After one intravenous injection of each laying hen with 2 × 1011 viral particles, oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLYZ) was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. The expression level of rhLYZ in the first wk increased to 258 ± 11.5 μg/mL, reached a maximum of 683 ± 16.4 μg/mL at the fifth wk, and then progressively declined during the succeeding 7 wk of the study. Western blotting indicated that the oviduct-expressed rhLYZ had the same molecular weight as the natural enzyme. These results indicate that an efficient and convenient oviduct bioreactor mediated by rAAAV has been established, and it is useful for production of other recombinant proteins. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Recombinant human prion protein fragment 90-231, a useful model to study prion neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Alessandro; Thellung, Stefano; Villa, Valentina; Nizzari, Mario; Aceto, Antonio; Florio, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), or prion diseases, are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders of animals and humans. Human diseases include Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSSD) diseases, fatal familial insomnia, and Kuru. Human and animal TSEs share a common histopathology with a pathognomonic triad: spongiform vacuolation of the grey matter, neuronal death, glial proliferation, and, more inconstantly, amyloid deposition. According to the "protein only" hypothesis, TSEs are caused by a unique post-translational conversion of normal, host-encoded, protease-sensitive prion protein (PrP(sen) or PrP(C)) to an abnormal disease-associated isoform (PrP(res) or PrP(Sc)). To investigate the molecular mechanism of neurotoxicity induced by PrP(Sc) we developed a protocol to obtain millimolar amounts of soluble recombinant polypeptide encompassing the amino acid sequence 90-231 of human PrP (hPrP90-231). This protein corresponds to the protease-resistant prion protein fragment that originates after amino-terminal truncation. Importantly, hPrP90-231 has a flexible backbone that, similar to PrP(C), can undergo to structural rearrangement. This peptide, structurally resembling PrP(C), can be converted in a PrP(Sc)-like conformation, and thus represents a valuable model to study prion neurotoxicity. In this article we summarized our experimental evidence on the molecular and structural mechanisms responsible of hPrP90-231 neurotoxicity on neuroectodermal cell line SHSY5Y and the effects of some PrP pathogen mutations identified in familial TSE.

  7. Characterization of recombinant human lactoferrin N-glycans expressed in the milk of transgenic cows

    PubMed Central

    Rouquié, Camille; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is one of the most abundant bioactive glycoproteins in human milk. Glycans attached through N-glycosidic bonds may contribute to Lactoferrin functional activities. In contrast, LF is present in trace amounts in bovine milk. Efforts to increase LF concentration in bovine milk led to alternative approaches using transgenic cows to express human lactoferrin (hLF). This study investigated and compared N-glycans in recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and human lactoferrin by Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF Mass Spectrometry. The results revealed a high diversity of N-glycan structures, including fucosylated and sialylated complex glycans that may contribute additional bioactivities. rhLF, bLF and hLF had 23, 27 and 18 N-glycans respectively with 8 N-glycan in common overall. rhLF shared 16 N-glycan with bLF and 9 N-glycan with hLF while bLF shared 10 N-glycan with hLF. Based on the relative abundances of N-glycan types, rhLF and hLF appeared to contain mostly neutral complex/hybrid N-glycans (81% and 52% of the total respectively) whereas bLF was characterized by high mannose glycans (65%). Interestingly, the majority of hLF N-glycans were fucosylated (88%), whereas bLF and rhLF had only 9% and 20% fucosylation, respectively. Overall, this study suggests that rhLF N-glycans share more similarities to bLF than hLF. PMID:28170415

  8. Preparation of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibody Fab Fragments Specific for Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Watanabe, Katsuomi; Takekoshi, Masataka; Maeda, Fumiko; Aotsuka, Satoshi; Kaneda, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ihara, Seiji

    1999-01-01

    Genes coding for human antibody Fab fragments specific for Entamoeba histolytica were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Lymphocytes were separated from the peripheral blood of a patient with an amebic liver abscess. Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from the lymphocytes, and then genes coding for the light chain and Fd region of the heavy chain were amplified by a reverse transcriptase PCR. The amplified DNA fragments were ligated with a plasmid vector and were introduced into Escherichia coli. Three thousand colonies were screened for the production of antibodies to E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS by an indirect fluorescence-antibody (IFA) test. Lysates from five Escherichia coli clones were positive. Analysis of the DNA sequences of the five clones showed that three of the five heavy-chain sequences and four of the five light-chain sequences differed from each other. When the reactivities of the Escherichia coli lysates to nine reference strains of E. histolytica were examined by the IFA test, three Fab fragments with different DNA sequences were found to react with all nine strains and another Fab fragment was found to react with seven strains. None of the four human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments reacted with Entamoeba dispar reference strains or with other enteric protozoan parasites. These results indicate that the bacterial expression system reported here is effective for the production of human monoclonal antibodies specific for E. histolytica. The recombinant human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments may be applicable for distinguishing E. histolytica from E. dispar and for use in the serodiagnosis of amebiasis. PMID:10225840

  9. Novel SLA-DQ alleles and their recombinant molecules in xenogeneic stimulation of human T cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuxiang; Xie, Jin; Li, Ningli; Zhou, Yun; Xin, Lijun; Chou, Kuang-Yen

    2005-06-01

    MHC class II antigens DR and DQ are essential for graft rejection both in allo- and xeno-transplantation. The antigens, especially the DQA and DQB gene-coencoded DQ molecules, are also involved in transplantation tolerance induced by activation of regulatory T cells. Here we report six novel DQ alleles from three properly inbred Chinese pig strains Gz, Bm and Yn. In our study, cDNA of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DQA and -DQB were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced for each strain. The ORF-containing SLA-DQA and -DQB genes are composed of 768 (or 765) and 786 nucleotides, encoding antigen molecules of 255 (or 254) and 261 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequences of both SLA-DQA and -DQB alleles showed disparities when compared either among the three pig strains or with available SLA data, which allows our novel alleles receiving their accession numbers from GenBank. The sequence analysis further revealed a phylogenic connection of our SLA-DQ alleles with SLA-DQ(c) haplotype. In addition, the homologies of MHC DQ or DQ-like molecules between Chinese pigs (SLA) and human (HLA) are higher than those between pigs and mice (H-2). By co-transfection of Bm pig DQA and DQB genes into L929 cells, the Bm-DQ heterodimer-expressed cells could effectively stimulate the human lymphoproliferation in presence of human APCs with a mean stimulation index (SI) 9.9+/-1.4. This functional assay indicated that our recombinant DQ antigens are capable of initiating human lymphoproliferation in a xeno-MLR.

  10. Production and purification of recombinant human BLyS mutant from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaochang; Wang, Zenglu; Yan, Zhen; Shi, Jihong; Han, Wei; Zhang, Yingqi

    2005-07-01

    B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is an important regulator of B cell homeostasis. In BLyS-deficient mice, B cell development is severely perturbed. On the other hand, mice transgenic for BLyS developed autoimmune disorders, such as increased germinal center formation, production of autoantibodies, and Ig deposition in kidneys. The overexpression of BLyS was found in some human autoimmune diseases. These findings suggest that BLyS has a crucial role in the humoral immune response and may be a therapeutic target for some human autoimmune diseases. To construct and express the therapeutic vaccine BLyS, we coupled a foreign immunodominant T-helper epitope to the N terminus of BLyS (named recombinant BLyS mutant, rBLySM) and expressed rBLySM in Escherichia coli. We have developed a purification process of rBLySM from inclusion bodies. A step-down urea concentration strategy was applied to the rBLySM renaturation process. By this strategy, a stable yield of 4.5mg purified rBLySM per gram of cell paste could be obtained.

  11. Phosphorylation and activation of a transducible recombinant form of human HSP20 in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Charles R.; Smoke, Christopher C.; Furnish, Elizabeth; Komalavilas, Padmini; Thresher, Jeffrey; Yi, Zhengping; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Brophy, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Protein based cellular therapeutics have been limited by getting the molecules into cells and the fact that many proteins require post-translational modifications for activation. Protein transduction domains (PTDs), including that from the HIV TAT protein (TAT), are small arginine rich peptides that carry molecules across the cell membrane. We have shown that the heat shock-related protein, HSP20 is a downstream mediator of cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and is activated by phosphorylation. In this study, we co-expressed in E. coli the cDNAs encoding the catalytic subunit of protein kinase G and a TAT-HSP20 fusion protein composed of the TAT PTD (-YGRKKRRQRRR-) fused to the N-terminus of human HSP20. Immunoblot and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the purified TAT-HSP20 demonstrated that it was phosphorylated at serine 40 (equivalent to serine 16 in wild-type human HSP20). This phosphorylated TAT-HSP20 was physiologically active in intact smooth muscles in that it inhibited 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contractions by 57% ± 4.5. The recombinant phosphorylated protein also led to changes in actin cytoskeletal morphology in 3T3 cells. These results delineate strategies for the expression and activation of therapeutic molecules for intracellular protein based therapeutics. PMID:17084643

  12. Transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin modulates the intestinal flora in piglets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Yu, Tian; Wang, Jing; Li, Ning

    2012-06-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a beneficial multifunctional protein in milk. The objective of this study was to determine whether bovine transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) can modulate intestinal flora in the neonatal pig as an animal model for the human infant. We fed 7-day-old piglets (i) ordinary whole milk (OM), (ii) a 1:1 mixture of OM and rhLF milk (MM), or (iii) rhLF milk (LFM). LFM provided better average daily mass gain than OM (P = 0.007). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the LFM piglets exhibited more diversity of the intestinal flora than the OM group. Except for the colon in the LFM group, an increasing trend in microbial diversity occurred from the duodenum to the colon. Fecal flora was not different across different ages or different treatment groups, but a cluster analysis showed that the fecal flora of OM- and MM-fed piglets had a higher degree of similarity than that of LFM-fed piglets. Based on culture-based bacterial counts of intestinal content samples, concentrations of Salmonella spp. in the colon and of Escherichia coli throughout the intestine were reduced with LFM (P < 0.01). Concentrations of Bifidobacterium spp. in the ileum and of Lactobacillus spp. throughout the intestine were also increased with LFM (P ≤ 0.01). We suggest that rhLF can modulate the intestinal flora in piglets.