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Sample records for human reproductive cloning

  1. The ethics of human reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  2. Human reproductive cloning: a conflict of liberties.

    PubMed

    Havstad, Joyce C

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.

  3. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, D A

    2008-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  4. Emotional reactions to human reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    May, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Extant surveys of people's attitudes towards human reproductive cloning focus on moral judgements alone, not emotional reactions or sentiments. This is especially important given that some (especially Leon Kass) have argued against such cloning on the ground that it engenders widespread negative emotions, like disgust, that provide a moral guide. To provide some data on emotional reactions to human cloning, with a focus on repugnance, given its prominence in the literature. This brief mixed-method study measures the self-reported attitudes and emotions (positive or negative) towards cloning from a sample of participants in the USA. Most participants condemned cloning as immoral and said it should be illegal. The most commonly reported positive sentiment was by far interest/curiosity. Negative emotions were much more varied, but anxiety was the most common. Only about a third of participants selected disgust or repugnance as something they felt, and an even smaller portion had this emotion come to mind prior to seeing a list of options. Participants felt primarily interested and anxious about human reproductive cloning. They did not primarily feel disgust or repugnance. This provides initial empirical evidence that such a reaction is not appropriately widespread. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Analysis of an epigenetic argument against human reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Anders

    2006-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning is a much disputed ethical issue. This technology is often condemned as being contrary to human dignity. However, there are also risk arguments. An ethical argument that is often put forward by scientists but seldom developed in more detail focuses on health risks in animal cloning. There is a high risk that animal clones exhibit abnormalities and these are increasingly believed to be due to errors in epigenetic reprogramming. The argument is that human reproductive cloning should not be carried out because human clones are also likely to exhibit abnormalities due to inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming. Different versions of this epigenetic argument are analysed, a categorical version and a non-categorical. The non-categorical version is suggested to be more well-considered. With regard to policy making on human reproductive cloning, the categorical version can be used to prescribe a permanent ban, while the non-categorical version can be used to prescribe a temporary ban. The implications of the precautionary principle--as interpreted in the European Union--are investigated. The conclusion is that it seems possible to support a temporary ban by reference to this principle.

  6. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O

    2006-01-01

    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  7. Cloning Mice and Men: Prohibiting the Use of iPS Cells for Human Reproductive Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation. PMID:20085739

  8. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-08

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The ethics of human reproductive cloning: when world views collide.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2004-01-01

    Two camps in bioethics with seemingly opposing world views have staked out conflicting positions regarding the ethics of human reproductive cloning. These camps do not appear to share common concepts or ways of reasoning through which to exchange views and come to a meeting of minds about uses of this technology. Yet analysis of their respective approaches to several issues surrounding reproductive cloning, such as where the ethical limits of individual reproductive choice lie, whether the use of this technology would violate human dignity, whether it would create risks to the resulting fetuses and children that would make its use intolerable, and whether it would challenge certain core social values, reveals that they are not wholly opposed to one another. Indeed, it displays that they hold certain beliefs, values, and concerns in common. Moreover, it indicates that the different world views that they each presuppose, while flawed in certain respects, do not collide in every respect, but can be reconciled in significant ways that provide fertile ground for agreement about several issues related to human reproductive cloning.

  10. Human reproductive cloning and related techniques: an overview of the legal environment and practitioner attitudes.

    PubMed

    Katayama, A

    2001-08-01

    This study provides an overview of the legal environment and assisted reproductive technology (ART) practitioner attitudes toward human reproductive cloning. A review of the law and a survey of ART practitioners and a comparison group of attorneys were undertaken. Human reproductive cloning has been prohibited in many countries, and may soon be prohibited in others. However, many ART practitioners support its use for limited indications. ART practitioners were surveyed concerning their views on human reproductive cloning and related techniques. A few had considered using or had used embryo splitting or germ cell nuclear transfer. Although they expressed some concerns about the present risk of reproductive cloning, most indicated that it did not violate their religious beliefs. More than three-quarters of ART practitioners responding indicated that they would be willing to provide human reproductive cloning in indicated cases if it were legally permissible to do so. A significant percentage of the group also indicated that they currently have the ability to provide this service.

  11. Reproductive cloning in humans and therapeutic cloning in primates: is the ethical debate catching up with the recent scientific advances?

    PubMed

    Camporesi, S; Bortolotti, L

    2008-09-01

    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so far, then discussing some of the ethical arguments in favour and against human cloning which are debated in the context of policy making and public consultation. Therapeutic cloning as a means to improve and save lives has uncontroversial moral value. As to human reproductive cloning, we consider and assess some common objections and failing to see them as conclusive. We do recognise, though, that there will be problems at the level of policy and regulation that might either impair the implementation of human reproductive cloning or make its accessibility restricted in a way that could become difficult to justify on moral grounds. We suggest using the time still available before human reproductive cloning is attempted successfully to create policies and institutions that can offer clear directives on its legitimate applications on the basis of solid arguments, coherent moral principles, and extensive public consultation.

  12. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.

    PubMed

    Strong, C

    2005-11-01

    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  13. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: a critique.

    PubMed

    Bowring, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.

  14. Safety, identity and consent: a limited defense of reproductive human cloning.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Some opponents of reproductive human cloning have argued that, because of its experimental nature, any attempt to create a child by way of cloning would risk serious birth defects or genetic abnormalities and would therefore be immoral. Some versions of this argument appeal to the consent of the person to be conceived in this way. In particular, they assume that if an experimental reproductive technology has not yet been shown to be safe, then, before we use it, we are morally obligated to get either the actual consent or the presumed consent of the person to be conceived. In this article, I attempt to explain the appeal of such consent-based arguments as deriving from a mistaken view of personal identity. I then argue that since this view is false, such arguments are unsound. Finally, I argue that even if reproductive cloning is unsafe, it may still be morally permissible in some circumstances.

  15. Human cloning 2001.

    PubMed

    Healy, David L; Weston, Gareth; Pera, Martin F; Rombauts, Luk; Trounson, Alan O

    2002-05-01

    This review summaries human cloning from a clinical perspective. Natural human clones, that is, monozygotic twins, are increasing in the general community. Iatrogenic human clones have been produced for decades in infertile couples given fertility treatment such as ovulation induction. A clear distinction must be made between therapeutic cloning using embryonic stem cells and reproductive cloning attempts. Unlike the early clinical years of in vitro fertilization, with cloning there is no animal model that is safe and dependable. Until there is such a model, 'Dolly'-style human cloning is medically unacceptable.

  16. What exactly is an exact copy? And why it matters when trying to ban human reproductive cloning in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gogarty, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the current Australian regulatory response to human reproductive cloning. The central consideration is the capacity of the current regulatory regime to effectively deter human cloning efforts. A legislative prohibition on human cloning must be both effective and clear enough to allow researchers to know what practices are acceptable. This paper asks whether the current Australian regime evinces these qualities and suggests that Australia should follow the example set in the UK by the enactment of the Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001. PMID:12672887

  17. What exactly is an exact copy? And why it matters when trying to ban human reproductive cloning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gogarty, B

    2003-04-01

    This paper examines the current Australian regulatory response to human reproductive cloning. The central consideration is the capacity of the current regulatory regime to effectively deter human cloning efforts. A legislative prohibition on human cloning must be both effective and clear enough to allow researchers to know what practices are acceptable. This paper asks whether the current Australian regime evinces these qualities and suggests that Australia should follow the example set in the UK by the enactment of the Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001.

  18. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  19. Statement on Human Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Tweet The American Association ... to implant a human cloned embryo for the purpose of reproduction. The scientific evidence documenting the serious ...

  20. Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.

    PubMed

    Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili

    2006-04-01

    The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

  1. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, D

    2006-01-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well‐being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are often overlooked in discussions about HRC. Furthermore, there are people who are willing to use the technology. Several scientists have been outspoken in their intent to pursue HRC. The importance of concerns about the physical safety of children created by HRC and comparisons with concerns about the safety of IVF are discussed. A model to be used to determine when it is acceptable to use HRC and other new assisted reproductive technologies, balancing reproductive freedom and safety concerns, is proposed. Justifications underpinning potential applications of HRC are discussed, and it is determined that these are highly analogous to rationalisations used to justify IVF treatment. It is concluded that people wishing to conceive using HRC should have a prima facie negative right to do so. PMID:17012502

  2. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure.

    PubMed

    Elsner, D

    2006-10-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well-being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are often overlooked in discussions about HRC. Furthermore, there are people who are willing to use the technology. Several scientists have been outspoken in their intent to pursue HRC. The importance of concerns about the physical safety of children created by HRC and comparisons with concerns about the safety of IVF are discussed. A model to be used to determine when it is acceptable to use HRC and other new assisted reproductive technologies, balancing reproductive freedom and safety concerns, is proposed. Justifications underpinning potential applications of HRC are discussed, and it is determined that these are highly analogous to rationalisations used to justify IVF treatment. It is concluded that people wishing to conceive using HRC should have a prima facie negative right to do so.

  3. [Cloning: applications in humans 2. Ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    de Wert, G M; Geraedts, J P

    2001-05-01

    Reproductive cloning in adults/children evokes unfavourable reactions. Direct objections are that cloning is unnatural, that it affects human dignity and violates the individual's right to genetic uniqueness. Consequential objections concern unjustified health risks for the progeny, unjustified psychosocial risks for the clone child and the risk of cloning for eugenetic purposes. There is consensus that reproductive cloning of existing persons is unjustify as yet because of the health risks for the offspring. Reproductive cloning of embryos is possible by means of nucleus transplantation and of embryo splitting. The ethical analysis of reproductive cloning of embryos depends on the purposes and applications. At least some of the moral objections against cloning of adults/children are not or not completely applicable to reproductive cloning of embryos. Conditions to be put to reproductive cloning of embryos are efficacy, safety and, at least for the time being, avoidance of asynchrony in transferring identical embryos. The ethical aspects of its application in the context of genetical reproductive techniques must be evaluated separately. Therapeutic cloning may be acceptable if alternatives are lacking.

  4. [Cloning: applications in humans. II. Ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    de Wert, G M; Geraedts, J P

    2000-05-13

    Reproductive cloning in adults/children evokes unfavourable reactions. Direct objections are that cloning is unnatural, that it affects human dignity and violates the individual's right to genetic uniqueness. Consequential objections concern unjustified health risks for the progeny, unjustified psychosocial risks for the clone child and the risk of cloning for eugenetic purposes. There is consensus that reproductive cloning of existing persons is unjustifiable as yet because of the health risks for the offspring. Reproductive cloning of embryos is possible by means of nucleus transplantation and of embryo splitting. The ethical analysis of reproductive cloning of embryos depends on the purposes and applications. At least some of the moral objections against cloning of adults/children are not or not completely applicable to reproductive cloning of embryos. Conditions to be put to reproductive cloning of embryos are efficacy, safety and, at least for the time being, avoidance of asynchrony in transferring identical embryos. The ethical aspects of its application in the context of genetical reproductive techniques must be evaluated separately. Therapeutic cloning may be acceptable if alternatives are lacking.

  5. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and reproductive cloning: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning," last published in Fertil Steril 2012;98:804-7. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-07-29

    The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws - the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  7. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  8. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive liberty.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Concern for "reproductive liberty" suggests that decisions about embryos should normally be made by the persons who would be the genetic parents of the child that would be brought into existence if the embryo were brought to term. Therapeutic cloning would involve creating and destroying an embryo, which, if brought to term, would be the offspring of the genetic parents of the person undergoing therapy. I argue that central arguments in debates about parenthood and genetics therefore suggest that therapeutic cloning would be prima facie unethical unless it occurred with the consent of the parents of the person being cloned. Alternatively, if therapeutic cloning is thought to be legitimate, this undermines the case for some uses of reproductive cloning by implying that the genetic relation it establishes between clones and DNA donors does not carry the same moral weight as it does in cases of normal reproduction.

  9. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    PubMed

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  10. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  11. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies. PMID:12887735

  12. Human cloning: category, dignity, and the role of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Evelyne

    2003-10-01

    Human cloning has been simultaneously a running joke for massive worldwide publicity of fringe groups like the Raelians, and the core issue of an international movement at the United Nations in support of a treaty to ban the use of cloning techniques to produce a child (so called reproductive cloning). Yet, even though debates on human cloning have greatly increased since the birth of Dolly, the clone sheep, in 1997, we continue to wonder whether cloning is after all any different from other methods of medically assisted reproduction, and what exactly makes cloning an 'affront to the dignity of humans.' Categories we adopt matter mightily as they inform but can also misinform and lead to mistaken and unproductive decisions. And thus bioethicists have a responsibility to ensure that the proper categories are used in the cloning debates and denounce those who try to win the ethical debate through well-crafted labels rather than well-reasoned argumentations. But it is as important for bioethicists to take a position on broad issues such as human cloning and species altering interventions. One 'natural question' would be, for example, should there be an international treaty to ban human reproductive cloning?

  13. Reproductive cloning and arguments from potential.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of human reproductive cloning has led some bioethicists to suggest that potentiality-based arguments for fetal moral status become untenable, as such arguments would be committed to making the implausible claim that any adult somatic cell is itself a potential person. In this article I defend potentiality-based arguments for fetal moral status against such a reductio. Starting from the widely-held claim that the maintenance of numerical identity throughout successive changes places constraints on what a given entity can plausibly be said to have the potential to become, I argue that the cell reprogramming that takes place in reproductive cloning is such that it produces a new individual, and so adult somatic cells cannot be potential persons.

  14. Reproductive cloning and a (kind of) genetic fallacy.

    PubMed

    Levy, Neil; Lotz, Mianna

    2005-06-01

    Many people now believe that human reproductive cloning--once sufficiently safe and effective--should be permitted on the grounds that it will allow the otherwise infertile to have children that are biologically closely related to them. However, though it is widely believed that the possession of a close genetic link to our children is morally significant and valuable, we argue that such a view is erroneous. Moreover, the claim that the genetic link is valuable is pernicious; it tends to give rise to highly undesirable consequences, and therefore should be combated rather than pandered to. The emphasis on the genetic is unwarranted and unfortunate; rather than giving us moral reason to support reproductive cloning in the case of infertility, the fact that cloning requests are likely to be motivated by the genetic argument gives us reason to oppose its availability.

  15. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  16. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    PubMed

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  17. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J

    1997-01-01

    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  18. Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Leyla

    2003-05-01

    Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue.

  19. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    PubMed

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  20. Japan. Human cloning ban allows some research.

    PubMed

    Normile, D

    2000-12-08

    TOKYO--Japanese legislators last week approved a ban on human cloning that leaves room for the use of certain techniques in basic research. The action comes at the same time officials in two other countries--China and France--aired similar proposals that would prohibit so-called reproductive cloning while recognizing the possible importance of the technology in combating disease and improving human health.

  1. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  2. The global governance of human cloning: the case of UNESCO.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Adèle

    2017-03-21

    Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting "all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life". It received only ambivalent support from UN member states. Given this unsatisfactory outcome, in 2008 UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) set up a Working Group to investigate the possibility of a legally binding convention to ban human reproductive cloning. The Working Group was made up of members of the International Bioethics Committee, established in 1993 as part of UNESCO's Bioethics Programme. It found that the lack of clarity in international law is unhelpful for those states yet to formulate national regulations or policies on human cloning. Despite this, member states of UNESCO resisted the idea of a convention for several years. This changed in 2015, but there has been no practical progress on the issue. Drawing on official records and first-hand observations at bioethics meetings, this article examines the human cloning debate at UNESCO from 2008 onwards, thus building on and advancing current scholarship by applying recent ideas on global governance to an empirical case. It concludes that, although human reproductive cloning is a challenging subject, establishing a robust global governance framework in this area may be possible via an alternative deliberative format, based on knowledge sharing and feasibility testing rather than the interest-based bargaining that is common to intergovernmental organizations and involving a wide range of stakeholders. This article is published as part of a collection on global governance.

  3. The global governance of human cloning: the case of UNESCO

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Adèle

    2017-01-01

    Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting “all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life”. It received only ambivalent support from UN member states. Given this unsatisfactory outcome, in 2008 UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) set up a Working Group to investigate the possibility of a legally binding convention to ban human reproductive cloning. The Working Group was made up of members of the International Bioethics Committee, established in 1993 as part of UNESCO’s Bioethics Programme. It found that the lack of clarity in international law is unhelpful for those states yet to formulate national regulations or policies on human cloning. Despite this, member states of UNESCO resisted the idea of a convention for several years. This changed in 2015, but there has been no practical progress on the issue. Drawing on official records and first-hand observations at bioethics meetings, this article examines the human cloning debate at UNESCO from 2008 onwards, thus building on and advancing current scholarship by applying recent ideas on global governance to an empirical case. It concludes that, although human reproductive cloning is a challenging subject, establishing a robust global governance framework in this area may be possible via an alternative deliberative format, based on knowledge sharing and feasibility testing rather than the interest-based bargaining that is common to intergovernmental organizations and involving a wide range of stakeholders. This article is published as part of a collection on global governance. PMID:28382210

  4. Ethical dimensions of therapeutic human cloning.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Michael J

    2002-09-11

    Therapeutic human cloning has the potential significantly to reduce human suffering and enhance human happiness. This is the main ethical argument in its favour. The main ethical arguments against it centre on questions to do with the moral status of the human embryo. A subsidiary set of arguments arises from the connections between therapeutic human cloning and reproductive cloning. Most of the ethical questions concerning the status of the human embryo have long been examined in the context of abortion, though they are being re-examined in the context of genetic screening and embryo research. A consensus on such matters seems extremely unlikely to result in the near future. The current role of ethicists may not, therefore, be so much to attempt to produce a definitive answer to the question of the status of the human embryo at the very early developmental stages at which therapeutic human cloning would take place, but more to help clarify arguments and indicate the implications of particular approaches. That is what this paper seeks to do.

  5. Human cloning and child welfare.

    PubMed Central

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  6. A resource-based version of the argument that cloning is an affront to human dignity.

    PubMed

    McDougall, R

    2008-04-01

    The claim that human reproductive cloning constitutes an affront to human dignity became a familiar one in 1997 as policymakers and bioethicists responded to the announcement of the birth of Dolly the sheep. Various versions of the argument that reproductive cloning is an affront to human dignity have been made, most focusing on the dignity of the child produced by cloning. However, these arguments tend to be unpersuasive and strongly criticised in the bioethical literature. In this paper I put forward a different argument that reproductive cloning is an affront to human dignity, one that looks beyond the dignity of the child produced. I suggest that allocating funds to such a pursuit can affront human dignity by diverting resources away from those existing people who lack sufficient health to enable them to exercise basic rights and liberties. This version of the argument posits cloning as an affront to human dignity in particular circumstances, rather than claiming the technology as intrinsically inconsistent with human dignity.

  7. Regulating (for the benefit of) future persons: a different perspective on the FDA's jurisdiction to regulate human reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Javitt, Gail H; Hudson, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has taken the position that human reproductive cloning falls within its regulatory jurisdiction. This position has been subject to criticism on both procedural and substantive grounds. Some have contended that the FDA has failed to follow administrative law principles in asserting its jurisdiction, while others claim the FDA is ill suited to the task of addressing the ethical and social implications of human cloning. This Article argues, that, notwithstanding these criticisms, the FDA could plausibly assert jurisdiction over human cloning as a form of human gene therapy, an area in which the FDA is already regarded as having primary regulatory authority. Such an assertion would require that the FDA's jurisdiction extend to products affecting future persons, i.e., those not yet born. This Article demonstrates, for the first time, that such jurisdiction was implicit in the enactment of the 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and that the FDA has historically relied on such authority in promulgating regulations for drugs and devices.

  8. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration should solidify the legal basis for its authority over reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Bernard; Friede, Arnold I

    2013-12-01

    The promise and potential of stem cell research is apparent. However, ethical questions still linger. There is as yet no consensus in the U.S. Congress on how to address the issue of reproductive cloning and media confusion of this and the quite separate issue of therapeutic cloning inhibits therapeutic advance. This paper outlines the need for the FDA to undertake a deliberate process, with input from all stakeholders, to authoritatively establish its jurisdiction over human reproductive cloning so as to foster the life-saving potential of therapeutic cloning.

  9. Attitudes towards human reproductive cloning, assisted reproduction and gene selection: a survey of 4600 British twins.

    PubMed

    Prainsack, B; Cherkas, L F; Spector, T D

    2007-08-01

    Surveys have shown opposition to human reproductive cloning (HRC) in many countries. Views of identical (monozygotic, MZ) twins are of particular interest, as they naturally share 100% of their genes. We investigated attitudes of British twins towards HRC in the context of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) and gene selection. About 4651 identical and non-identical (dizygotic, DZ) twins expressed their degree of agreement or disagreement to nine statements relating to ART, gene selection and HRC in a self-completion questionnaire. Most subjects (70% and 78% respectively) did not regard the use of medical technologies to treat infertility as interfering with either nature or God's will, despite believing that infertility is not a disease (54%). Attitudes to gene selection and HRC were context dependent, with more favourable views towards preventing serious diseases than towards enhancing traits. About 44% supported a permanent ban of HRC. MZ twins were significantly more likely to agree that HRC should be allowed for medical purposes, such as saving a sibling's life, than were DZ twins. Increasing religiosity generally correlated with more negative attitudes. Many attitudes are context dependent. More positive views of MZ twins towards HRC could be linked to their experience with being genetically identical.

  10. Islamic perspective on human cloning and stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Larijani, B; Zahedi, F

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hope for treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has been accompanied by enormous questions. Currently, cloning is a matter of public discussion. It is rare that a field of science causes debate and challenge not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. One important concern is religious arguments. Various religions have different attitudes toward the morality of these subjects; even within a particular religious tradition there is a diversity of opinions. The following article briefly reviews Islamic perspectives about reproductive/therapeutic cloning and stem cell research. The majority of Muslim jurists distinguish between reproductive and therapeutic cloning. The moral status of the human embryo, the most sensitive and disputed point in this debate, is also discussed according to Holy Quran teachings.

  11. Nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA disorders: revisiting the debate on reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Bredenoord, A L; Dondorp, W; Pennings, G; De Wert, G

    2011-02-01

    Preclinical experiments are currently performed to examine the feasibility of several types of nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders. Whereas the two most promising types of nuclear transfer to prevent mtDNA disorders, spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer, do not amount to reproductive cloning, one theoretical variant, blastomere transfer does. This seems the most challenging both technically and ethically. It is prohibited by many jurisdictions and also the scientific community seems to avoid it. Nevertheless, this paper examines the moral acceptability of blastomere transfer as a method to prevent mtDNA disorders. The reason for doing so is that most objections against reproductive cloning refer to reproductive adult cloning, while blastomere transfer would amount to reproductive embryo cloning. After clarifying this conceptual difference, this paper examines whether the main non-safety objections brought forward against reproductive cloning also apply in the context of blastomere transfer. The conclusion is that if this variant were to become safe and effective, dismissing it because it would involve reproductive cloning is unjustified. Nevertheless, as it may lead to more complex ethical appraisals than the other variants, researchers should initially focus on the development of the other types of nuclear transfer to prevent mtDNA disorders. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)," last published in Fertil Steril 2000;74:873-6. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  14. The topsy-turvy cloning law.

    PubMed

    Brassington, Iain; Oultram, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    In debates about human cloning, a distinction is frequently drawn between therapeutic and reproductive uses of the technology. Naturally enough, this distinction influences the way that the law is framed. The general consensus is that therapeutic cloning is less morally problematic than reproductive cloning--one can hold this position while holding that both are morally unacceptable--and the law frequently leaves the way open for some cloning for the sake of research into new therapeutic techniques while banning it for reproductive purposes. We claim that the position adopted by the law has things the wrong way around: if we accept a moral distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning, there are actually more reasons to be morally worried about therapeutic cloning than about reproductive cloning. If cloning is the proper object of legal scrutiny, then, we ought to make sure that we are scrutinising the right kind of clone.

  15. Preservation and Reproduction of Microminipigs by Cloning Technology.

    PubMed

    Enya, Satoko; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Otake, Masayoshi; Kangawa, Akihisa; Uenishi, Hirohide; Mikawa, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takashi; Kuwahawa, Yasushi; Shibata, Masatoshi

    Microminipigs have been maintained in small populations of closed colonies, involving risks of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. In order to avoid these risks, we assessed the applicability of cloning technology. Male and female clones were produced from a stock of cryopreserved somatic cells, obtaining offspring by means of natural mating. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of original microminipigs, clones and their offspring were analyzed and recorded. Clones presented characteristics similar to those of the cell-stock data. Although the body weight of clones tended to be heavier than that of the cell-stock data, body weights of their offspring were similar to those of previous reports. Thus, cloned microminipigs have the potential to be a valuable genetic resource for reproduction and breeding. Our proposed methodology might be useful to provide a large number of animals with adequate quality from a limited population with sufficient genetic diversity. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos: comments on Canadian legislation governing reproduction technologies.

    PubMed

    Bernier, L; Grégoire, D

    2004-12-01

    In Canada, the Assisted Human Reproduction Act received royal assent on 29 March 2004. The approach proposed by the federal government responds to Canadians' strong desire for an enforceable legislative framework in the field of reproduction technologies through criminal law. As a result of the widening gap between the rapid pace of technological change and governing legislation, a distinct need was perceived to create a regulatory framework to guide decisions regarding reproductive technologies. In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed.

  17. To clone or not to clone--a Jewish perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Lipschutz, J H

    1999-01-01

    Many new reproductive methods such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation, freezing of human embryos, and surrogate motherhood were at first widely condemned but are now seen in Western society as not just ethically and morally acceptable, but beneficial in that they allow otherwise infertile couples to have children. The idea of human cloning was also quickly condemned but debate is now emerging. This article examines cloning from a Jewish perspective and finds evidence to support the view that there is nothing inherently wrong with the idea of human cloning. A hypothesis is also advanced suggesting that even if a body was cloned, the brain, which is the essence of humanity, would remain unique. This author suggests that the debate should be changed from "Is cloning wrong?" to "When is cloning wrong?". PMID:10226913

  18. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  19. Regulating stem-cell research and human cloning in an Australian context: an exercise in protecting the status of the human subject.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    Over 12 months prior to the recent United Nations decision to defer a decision about what type of international treaty should be developed in the global stem-cell research and human cloning debate, the Federal Parliament of Australia passed two separate pieces of legislation relating to both these concerns. After a five-year long process of community consultation, media spectacle and parliamentary debate, reproductive cloning has been banned in Australia and only embryos considered to be excess to assisted reproductive technologies in existence on the 5th of April 2002 are currently valid research material. This paper argues that underpinning both pieces of legislation is a profound belief in the disruptive potential of all types of human cloning for the very nature and integrity of human species being. A belief, moreover, that is based on a presumption that it is apparently possible to conceptualise what being human even means for all Australians.

  20. Procreative liberty, enhancement and commodification in the human cloning debate.

    PubMed

    Shapshay, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to scrutinize a contemporary standoff in the American debate over the moral permissibility of human reproductive cloning in its prospective use as a eugenic enhancement technology. I shall argue that there is some significant and under-appreciated common ground between the defenders and opponents of human cloning. Champions of the moral and legal permissibility of cloning support the technology based on the right to procreative liberty provided it were to become as safe as in vitro fertilization and that it be used only by adults who seek to rear their clone children. However, even champions of procreative liberty oppose the commodification of cloned embryos, and, by extension, the resulting commodification of the cloned children who would be produced via such embryos. I suggest that a Kantian moral argument against the use of cloning as an enhancement technology can be shown to be already implicitly accepted to some extent by champions of procreative liberty on the matter of commodification of cloned embryos. It is in this argument against commodification that the most vocal critics of cloning such as Leon Kass and defenders of cloning such as John Robertson can find greater common ground. Thus, I endeavor to advance the debate by revealing a greater degree of moral agreement on some fundamental premises than hitherto recognized.

  1. Cloning goes to the movies.

    PubMed

    Cormick, Craig

    2006-10-01

    Public attitude research conducted by Biotechnology Australia shows that one of the major sources of information on human reproductive cloning is movies. Traditionally, understanding of new and emerging technologies has come through the mass media but human cloning, being so widely addressed through the popular culture of movies, is more effectively defined by Hollywood than the news media or science media. But how well are the science and social issues of cloning portrayed in box office hits such as The Island, Multiplicity, Star Wars: Attack of the Clones and Jurassic Park? These movies have enormous reach and undoubted influence, and are therefore worth analyzing in some detail. This study looks at 33 movies made between 1971 and 2005 that address human reproductive cloning, and it categorizes the films based on their genre and potential influence. Yet rather than simply rating the quality of the science portrayed, the study compares the key messages in these movies with public attitudes towards cloning, to examine the correlations.

  2. The Budapest Meeting 2005 intensified networking on ethics of science: the case of reproductive cloning, germline gene therapy and human dignity.

    PubMed

    Van Steendam, Guido; Dinnyés, András; Mallet, Jacques; Meloni, Rolando; Casabona, Carlos Romeo; González, Jorge Guerra; Kure, Josef; Szathmáry, Eörs; Vorstenbosch, Jan; Molnár, Péter; Edbrooke, David; Sándor, Judit; Oberfrank, Ferenc; Cole-Turner, Ron; Hargittai, István; Littig, Beate; Ladikas, Miltos; Mordini, Emilio; Roosendaal, Hans E; Salvi, Maurizio; Gulyás, Balázs; Malpede, Diana

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports on the meeting of the Sounding Board of the EU Reprogenetics Project that was held in Budapest, Hungary, 6-9 November 2005. The Reprogenetics Project runs from 2004 until 2007 and has a brief to study the ethical aspects of human reproductive cloning and germline gene therapy. Discussions during The Budapest Meeting are reported in depth in this paper as well as the initiatives to involve the participating groups and others in ongoing collaborations with the goal of forming an integrated network of European resources in the fields of ethics of science.

  3. The role of international institutions in the formation of international bioethical law: UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly attempt to govern human cloning.

    PubMed

    Kuppuswamy, Chamundeeswari

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the international governance of human reproductive cloning. Noting that bioethics is a new field of engagement for international lawyers, it recounts some of the institutional developments in bioethical law making. The role of UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly is scrutinized and the author discusses the relative merits of the institutions' governance of human reproductive cloning. The author suggests that some international institutions and mechanisms are better suited than others for bioethical law making. The 2005 General Assembly resolution on human cloning is analysed in this context.

  4. [Human cloning or cannibalism].

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, L M

    2001-01-01

    In this article I develop the idea presented in my previous work that human cloning would be of little practical use since almost any aim that one would like to attain by multiple cloning of a concrete man or a group of people, are unattainable or it might be achieved by easier, cheaper and more efficient traditional methods. For this reason cloning of a man is unlikely to occur on a larger scale and only few people will decide to clone themselves. In this sense no social effects of human cloning will be disastrous for the human population. Yet investigations in human genetics are very important since they may provide medical applications far more important than human cloning. It is argued that the main trend of modern medicine: organ transplantation from an alien donor, will become socially dangerous in near future since the number of donors will be drastically smaller than the number of potential patients waiting for transplantations. This in turn may cause social conflicts and a form of medical cannibalism may arise. These problems and conflicts will be avoided if organ transplantation from an alien donor is replaced by organ cloning, i.e. by transplanting an organ developed from the patient.

  5. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    PubMed

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non-human

  6. Canada's Assisted Human Reproductive Act: is it scientific censorship, or a reasoned approach to the regulation of rapidly emerging reproductive technologies?

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Colin

    2004-01-01

    After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.

  7. Human cloning: Eastern Mediterranean Region perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdur Rab, M; Khayat, M H

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics and biotechnology have ushered in a new era in health development. Therapeutic cloning possesses enormous potential for revolutionizing medical and therapeutic techniques. Cloning technology, however, is perceived as having the potential for reproductive cloning, which raises serious ethical and moral concerns. It is important that the Islamic countries come to a consensus on this vital issue. Developing science and technology for better health is a religious and moral obligation. There is an urgent need for Muslim scholars to discuss the issue of stem cell research and cloning rationally; such dialogue will not only consider the scientific merits but also the moral, ethical and legal implications.

  8. United Nations and human cloning: a slender and fortunate defence for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R G

    2003-12-01

    Numerous biomedical scientists have contributed to the wide knowledge on the growth of preimplantation human embryos in vitro, now improving every aspect of the form of clinical care. These data were gained ethically in many countries, to open new vistas including the alleviation of infertility, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and stem cells, combined with some recent reports on human reproductive cloning. After detailed consultations with scientists, clinicians, ethicists and lawyers, many governments passed legislation permitting research under their own particular socially-defined conditions. Virtually all of them rejected reproductive cloning; a few have accepted therapeutic cloning. These legislatures saluted the many biomedical scientists striving to improve IVF and its derivatives, recognizing their immense medical potential. A motion recently placed before the United Nations then recommended a worldwide ban on all forms of human cloning. Proponents included the Vatican and many Roman Catholic countries, the USA and others. Opponents included Belgium, China, Japan, Brazil, UK, Germany and France. Mediation was achieved by Iran and other Muslim nations, and led to a motion passed by single vote for a two-year delay. This may be the first-ever proposal to ban worldwide a particular form of research. It sounds the alarm bells for further research. It raises questions about the UN being an appropriate forum for ethical decisions affecting the entire world and its future medicine. Large blocs of nations committed to particular religions and outlooks confronted each other, a situation in total contrast to the detailed and widespread consultations made by individual governments when deciding their own individual ethics. This event was clearly a narrow escape for free research as defined by each country's own jurisprudence. It also places research on human embryology and reproductive biomedicine into a more critical situation than before. Current liberalism in

  9. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  10. Reproductive performance and expression of imprinted genes in somatic cell cloned boars.

    PubMed

    Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Enya, Satoko; Otake, Masayoshi; Shibata, Masatoshi; Mikawa, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    To assess the performance of boars derived by somatic cell cloning, we analyzed various aspects of their reproductive characteristics and the expression of two imprinted genes. Cloned boars (cloned Duroc × Jinhua) were analyzed for birth weight, growth rate, age at first ejaculation, semen characteristics and fertility, in comparison with naturally bred control boars of the same strain. The expression of imprinted genes was analyzed using the microsatellite marker SWC9 for the paternally expressed gene insulin-like growth factor -2 (IGF2) and with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the gene maternally expressed 3 (MEG3). The cloned boars had high production of semen and were nearly equal in level of fertility to conventional pigs; they showed similar characteristics as naturally bred boars of the same strains. The expression of IGF2 was partially disturbed, but this disturbed expression was not linked to a change in developmental fate or reproductive performance. These results indicate that use of cloned boars could be highly effective for proliferation of pigs with desirable characteristics, preservation of genetic resources and risk reduction against epidemic diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease, through storage of somatic cells as a precautionary measure for use in regenerating pig populations after a future pandemic. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Update on the First Cloned Dog and Outlook for Canine Cloning.

    PubMed

    Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun

    2015-10-01

    As man's best friend, dogs have an important position in human society. Ten years ago, we reported the first cloned dog, and his birth has raised various scientific issues, such as those related to health, reproduction, and life span. He has developed without any unique health issues. In this article, we summarize and present perspectives on canine cloning.

  12. Three concepts of cloning in human beings.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ke-Hui

    2005-07-01

    Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.

  13. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  14. Language and values in the human cloning debate: a web-based survey of scientists and Christian fundamentalist pastors.

    PubMed

    Weasel, Lisa H; Jensen, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Over the last seven years, a major debate has arisen over whether human cloning should remain legal in the United States. Given that this may be the 'first real global and simultaneous news story on biotechnology' (Einsiedel et al., 2002, p.313), nations around the world have struggled with the implications of this newly viable scientific technology, which is often also referred to as somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1997, and with increasing media attention paid to the likelihood of a successful human reproductive clone coupled with research suggesting the medical potential of therapeutic cloning in humans, members of the scientific community and Christian fundamentalist leaders have become increasingly vocal in the debate over U.S. policy decisions regarding human cloning (Wilmut, 2000). Yet despite a surfeit of public opinion polls and widespread opining in the news media on the topic of human cloning, there have been no empirical studies comparing the views of scientists and Christian fundamentalists in this debate (see Evans, 2002a for a recent study of opinion polls assessing religion and attitudes toward cloning). In order to further investigate the values that underlie scientists' and Christian fundamentalist leader's understanding of human cloning, as well as their differential use of language in communicating about this issue, we conducted an open-ended, exploratory survey of practicing scientists in the field of molecular biology and Christian fundamentalist pastors. We then analyzed the responses from this survey using qualitative discourse analysis. While this was not necessarily a representative sample (in quantitative terms, see Gaskell & Bauer, 2000) of each of the groups and the response rate was limited, this approach was informative in identifying both commonalities between the two groups, such as a focus on ethical concerns about reproductive cloning and the use of scientific terminology, as well

  15. Genomic clones for human cholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Kott, M.; Venta, P.J.; Larsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    A human genomic library was prepared from peripheral white blood cells from a single donor by inserting an MboI partial digest into BamHI poly-linker sites of EMBL3. This library was screened using an oligolabeled human cholinesterase cDNA probe over 700 bp long. The latter probe was obtained from a human basal ganglia cDNA library. Of approximately 2 million clones screened with high stringency conditions several positive clones were identified; two have been plaque purified. One of these clones has been partially mapped using restriction enzymes known to cut within the coded region of the cDNA for human serum cholinesterase. Hybridizationmore » of the fragments and their sizes are as expected if the genomic clone is cholinesterase. Sequencing of the DNA fragments in M13 is in progress to verify the identify of the clone and the location of introns.« less

  16. Cloning: can it be good for us? An overview of cloning technology and its moral implications.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, K

    2001-01-01

    Adequate answers to moral questions about cloning require a working knowledge of the science and technology involved, both present and anticipated. This essay presents an overview of the current state of somatic cell nuclear transfer technology (SCNT), the type of cloning that now permits whole organism reproduction from adult DNA. This essay explains the basic science and technology of SCNT and explores its potential uses. Next, this essay notes remaining scientific obstacles and unanswered moral questions that must be resolved before SCNT can be used for human reproduction. Attention is given to aspects related to cloning for therapeutic and research purposes.

  17. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M

    2007-02-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans.

  18. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, M

    2007-01-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans. PMID:17264194

  19. The Singapore approach to human stem cell research, therapeutic and reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Kian, Catherine Tay Swee; Leng, Tien Sim

    2005-06-01

    With the controversial ethical issues on the creation of human embryos through cloning for therapeutic research, which holds more promise of medical breakthroughs that the world could ever imagine and the acknowledgement by many scientists that this technology may not lead in the near future to therapies; this country report discusses the approach Singapore takes on human stem cell research, interjected with the authors' own arguments and suggestions especially on research compensation injuries, an often neglected important issue. International comparative viewpoints taken by the major countries in the world are also included in the appendix.

  20. [Right to life vs right to a determined quality of life. Reflections on human cloning].

    PubMed

    Maris Martínez, Stella

    2003-01-01

    This article studies the bioethic divergences appeared as a consequence of the use and therapeutic obtaining of stem cells. It also chronicles the development of the cloning techniques and then, following the parameters of Bioethics, it distinguishes a categorization of the cloning with reproductive aims and cloning with therapeutic aims. It emphasizes how this problematic takes us to the beginning of human life and to the determination of the moment where this one deserves ethic recognition and legal protection. It also marks that the impact that would have the development of the therapeutic-cloning over the quality of life of sick persons and old men changes the traditional points of view. It is necessary a urgent normative with intenational validity, nevertheless the real safeguard against abuses would only be possible by the respect to human dignity by all the people who are involve in the investigation of these techniques.

  1. Retrotransposon expression and incorporation of cloned human and mouse retroelements in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Lazaros, Leandros; Kitsou, Chrysoula; Kostoulas, Charilaos; Bellou, Sofia; Hatzi, Elissavet; Ladias, Paris; Stefos, Theodoros; Markoula, Sofia; Galani, Vasiliki; Vartholomatos, Georgios; Tzavaras, Theodore; Georgiou, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the expression of long interspersed element (LINE) 1, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K10, and short interspersed element-VNTR-Alu element (SVA) retrotransposons in ejaculated human spermatozoa by means of reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis as well as the potential incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm cell genome. Laboratory study. University research laboratories and academic hospital. Normozoospermic and oligozoospermic white men. RT-PCR analysis was performed to confirm the retrotransposon expression in human spermatozoa. Exogenous retroelements were tagged with a plasmid containing a green fluorescence (EGFP) retrotransposition cassette, and the de novo retrotransposition events were tested with the use of PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and confocal microscopy. Retroelement expression in human spermatozoa, incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm genome, and de novo retrotransposition events in human spermatozoa. RT-PCR products of expressed human LINE-1, HERV-K10, and SVA retrotransposons were observed in ejaculated human sperm samples. The incubation of human spermatozoa with either retrotransposition-active human LINE-1 and HERV-K10 or mouse reverse transcriptase-deficient VL30 retrotransposons tagged with an EGFP-based retrotransposition cassette led to EGFP-positive spermatozo; 16.67% of the samples were positive for retrotransposition. The respective retrotransposition frequencies for the LINE-1, HERV-K10, and VL30 retrotransposons in the positive samples were 0.34 ± 0.13%, 0.37 ± 0.17%, and 0.30 ± 0.14% per sample of 10,000 spermatozoa. Our results show that: 1) LINE-1, HERV-K10, and SVA retrotransposons are transcriptionally expressed in human spermatozoa; 2) cloned active retroelements of human and mammalian origin can be incorporated in human sperm genome; 3) active reverse transcriptases exist in human

  2. Cloning and adoption: a reply to Levy and Lotz.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2008-02-01

    In previous articles I discussed the ethics of human reproductive cloning, focusing on a possible future scenario in which reproductive cloning can be accomplished without an elevated risk of anomalies to the children who are created. I argued that in such a scenario it would be ethically permissible for infertile couples to use cloning as a way to have genetically related children and that such use should not be prohibited. In 'Reproductive Cloning and a (Kind of) Genetic Fallacy', Neil Levy and Mianna Lotz raise objections to my conclusions. They disagree with the view, for which I argued, that some couples can have defensible reasons for desiring genetically related children. They also offer several new arguments against reproductive cloning, including an argument that it would diminish the number of adoptions, thereby adversely affecting the welfare of children who need to be adopted. In this paper I point out that Levy and Lotz's criticisms misconstrue my arguments and that there are serious problems with their arguments for prohibiting infertile couples from using cloning, including their argument from adoption.

  3. Human reproduction: Jewish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish Law -- Halacha to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  4. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  5. Reproductive semi-cloning respecting biparental origin. A biologically unsound principle.

    PubMed

    Tateno, H; Latham, K E; Yanagimachi, R

    2003-03-01

    The original debate article proposed the use of "semi-cloning" as a viable method for assisted reproduction. This debate counters the proposal as being biologically unsound. Given the fundamental limitations of chromosomal segregation and genomic imprinting, the notion of using the MII oocyte to drive haploidization of a somatic cell genome and thereby obtain a substitute for authentic gametes is ill-conceived and untenable.

  6. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs. PMID:26435541

  7. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-09-30

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs.

  8. Cloning of non-human primates: the road "less traveled by".

    PubMed

    Sparman, Michelle L; Tachibana, Masahito; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M

    2010-01-01

    Early studies on cloning of non-human primates by nuclear transfer utilized embryonic blastomeres from preimplantation embryos which resulted in the reproducible birth of live offspring. Soon after, the focus shifted to employing somatic cells as a source of donor nuclei (somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT). However, initial efforts were plagued with inefficient nuclear reprogramming and poor embryonic development when standard SCNT methods were utilized. Implementation of several key SCNT modifications was critical to overcome these problems. In particular, a non-invasive method of visualizing the metaphase chromosomes during enucleation was developed to preserve the reprogramming capacity of monkey oocytes. These modifications dramatically improved the efficiency of SCNT, yielding high blastocyst development in vitro. To date, SCNT has been successfully used to derive pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from adult monkey skin fibroblasts. These remarkable advances have the potential for development of human autologous ESCs and cures for many human diseases. Reproductive cloning of nonhuman primates by SCNT has not been achieved yet. We have been able to establish several pregnancies with SCNT embryos which, so far, did not progress to term. In this review, we summarize the approaches, obstacles and accomplishments of SCNT in a non-human primate model.

  9. The pros and cons of human therapeutic cloning in the public debate.

    PubMed

    Nippert, Irmgard

    2002-09-11

    Few issues linked to genetic research have raised as much controversial debate as the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer technology to create embryos specifically for stem cell research. Whereas European countries unanimously agree that reproductive cloning should be prohibited there is no agreement to be found on whether or not research into therapeutic cloning should be permitted. Since the UK took the lead and voted in favour of regulations allowing therapeutic cloning the public debate has intensified on the Continent. This debate reflects the wide spectrum of diverse religious and secular moralities that are prevalent in modern multicultural European democratic societies. Arguments range from putting forward strictly utilitarian views that weight the moral issues involved against the potential benefits that embryonic stem cell research may harbour to considering the embryo as a human being, endowed with human dignity and human rights from the moment of its creation, concluding that its use for research is unethical and should be strictly prohibited. Given the current state of dissension among the various European states, it is difficult to predict whether 'non-harmonisation' will prevail or whether in the long run 'harmonisation' of legislation that will allow stem cell research will evolve in the EU.

  10. Human Cloning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-20

    parthenogenesis , to produce human embryos. ACT researchers obtained eggs from seven women, ages 24 to 32, who were paid $3,000 to $5,000. In the SCNT...cumulus cell nucleus began to divide but division stopped at the four-to-six-cell stage. In parthenogenesis , an egg cell is treated with chemicals...Human Subject Protection regulations] as of the date of enactment of this Act, that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis , cloning, or any

  11. Twins: A cloning experience.

    PubMed

    Prainsack, Barbara; Spector, Tim D

    2006-11-01

    Drawing upon qualitative interviews with monozygotic (identical) twins sharing 100% of their genes, and with dizygotic (fraternal) twins and singletons as control groups, this paper explores what it means to be genetically identical. (The twins interviewed were from the TwinsUK register in London.) In the context of the ongoing debate on human reproductive cloning, it examines questions such as: To what extent do identical twins perceive their emotional and physical bond to be a result of their genetic makeup? What would they think if they had been deliberately created genetically identical? How would they feel about being genetically identical to a person who was born a few years earlier or later? First, our respondents ascribed no great significance to the role of genes in their understanding of what it means to be identical twins. Second, the opinion that human reproductive cloning would "interfere with nature", or "contradict God's will", was expressed by our respondents exclusively on the abstract level. The more our respondents were able to relate a particular invented cloning scenario to their own life-worlds, the lower the prevalence of the argument. Third, for all three groups of respondents, the scenario of having been born in one of the other groups was perceived as strange. Fourth, the aspect that our respondents disliked about cloning scenarios was the potential motives of the cloners. Without equating monozygotic twins directly with "clones", these results from "naturally" genetically identical individuals add a new dimension to what a future cloning situation could entail: The cloned person might possibly (a) perceive a close physical and emotional connection to the progenitor as a blessing; (b) suffer from preconceptions of people who regard physical likeness as a sign of incomplete individuality; and (c) perceive the idea of not having been born a clone of a particular person as unpleasant.

  12. Growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in F1 and F2 progenies of somatic cell-cloned pigs.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Akiyuki; Miura, Narumi; Sunaga, Seiji; Oishi, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Oishi, Takatsugu; Iwamoto, Masaki; Hanada, Hirofumi; Kubo, Masanori; Onishi, Akira

    2014-04-24

    The objective of this study was to examine the health and meat production of cloned sows and their progenies in order to demonstrate the application of somatic cell cloning to the pig industry. This study compared the growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Landrace cloned sows, F1 progenies and F2 progenies. We measured their body weight, growth rate and feed conversion and performed a pathological analysis of their anatomy to detect abnormalities. Three of the five cloned pigs were used for a growth test. Cloned pigs grew normally and had characteristics similar to those of the control purebred Landrace pigs. Two cloned gilts were bred with a Landrace boar and used for a progeny test. F1 progenies had characteristics similar to those of the controls. Two of the F1 progeny gilts were bred with a Duroc or Large White boar and used for the progeny test. F2 progenies grew normally. There were no biological differences in growth, carcass characteristics and amino acid composition among cloned sows, F1 progenies, F2 progenies and conventional pigs. The cloned sows and F1 progenies showed normal reproductive performance. No specific abnormalities were observed by pathological analysis, with the exception of periarteritis in the F1 progenies. All pigs had a normal karyotype. These results demonstrate that cloned female pigs and their progenies have similar growth, reproductive performance and carcass quality characteristics and that somatic cell cloning could be a useful technique for conserving superior pig breeds in conventional meat production.

  13. Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in F1 and F2 Progenies of Somatic Cell-Cloned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Noritaka; YAMAGUCHI, Daisuke; WATANABE, Akiyuki; MIURA, Narumi; SUNAGA, Seiji; OISHI, Hitoshi; HASHIMOTO, Michiko; OISHI, Takatsugu; IWAMOTO, Masaki; HANADA, Hirofumi; KUBO, Masanori; ONISHI, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the health and meat production of cloned sows and their progenies in order to demonstrate the application of somatic cell cloning to the pig industry. This study compared the growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Landrace cloned sows, F1 progenies and F2 progenies. We measured their body weight, growth rate and feed conversion and performed a pathological analysis of their anatomy to detect abnormalities. Three of the five cloned pigs were used for a growth test. Cloned pigs grew normally and had characteristics similar to those of the control purebred Landrace pigs. Two cloned gilts were bred with a Landrace boar and used for a progeny test. F1 progenies had characteristics similar to those of the controls. Two of the F1 progeny gilts were bred with a Duroc or Large White boar and used for the progeny test. F2 progenies grew normally. There were no biological differences in growth, carcass characteristics and amino acid composition among cloned sows, F1 progenies, F2 progenies and conventional pigs. The cloned sows and F1 progenies showed normal reproductive performance. No specific abnormalities were observed by pathological analysis, with the exception of periarteritis in the F1 progenies. All pigs had a normal karyotype. These results demonstrate that cloned female pigs and their progenies have similar growth, reproductive performance and carcass quality characteristics and that somatic cell cloning could be a useful technique for conserving superior pig breeds in conventional meat production. PMID:24492641

  14. Cloning of non-human primates: the road “less traveled by”

    PubMed Central

    SPARMAN, MICHELLE L.; TACHIBANA, MASAHITO; MITALIPOV, SHOUKHRAT M.

    2011-01-01

    Early studies on cloning of non-human primates by nuclear transfer utilized embryonic blastomeres from preimplantation embryos which resulted in the reproducible birth of live offspring. Soon after, the focus shifted to employing somatic cells as a source of donor nuclei (somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT). However, initial efforts were plagued with inefficient nuclear reprogramming and poor embryonic development when standard SCNT methods were utilized. Implementation of several key SCNT modifications was critical to overcome these problems. In particular, a non-invasive method of visualizing the metaphase chromosomes during enucleation was developed to preserve the reprogramming capacity of monkey oocytes. These modifications dramatically improved the efficiency of SCNT, yielding high blastocyst development in vitro. To date, SCNT has been successfully used to derive pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from adult monkey skin fibroblasts. These remarkable advances have the potential for development of human autologous ESCs and cures for many human diseases. Reproductive cloning of nonhuman primates by SCNT has not been achieved yet. We have been able to establish several pregnancies with SCNT embryos which, so far, did not progress to term. In this review, we summarize the approaches, obstacles and accomplishments of SCNT in a non-human primate model. PMID:21404187

  15. Technological Literacy and Human Cloning. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how technology educators can deal with advances in human genetics, specifically, cloning. Includes a definition and history of cloning, discusses its benefits, and looks at social concerns and arguments for and against human cloning. Includes classroom activities and websites. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  16. Incidence of abnormal offspring from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jonathan R

    2014-02-01

    In animals produced by assisted reproductive technologies, two abnormal phenotypes have been characterized. Large offspring syndrome (LOS) occurs in offspring derived from in vitro cultured embryos, and the abnormal clone phenotype includes placental and fetal changes. LOS is readily apparent in ruminants, where a large calf or lamb derived from in vitro embryo production or cloning may weigh up to twice the expected body weight. The incidence of LOS varies widely between species. When similar embryo culture conditions are applied to nonruminant species, LOS either is not as dramatic or may even be unapparent. Coculture with serum and somatic cells was identified in the 1990s as a risk factor for abnormal development of ruminant pregnancies. Animals cloned from somatic cells may display a combination of fetal and placental abnormalities that are manifested at different stages of pregnancy and postnatally. In highly interventional technologies, such as nuclear transfer (cloning), the incidence of abnormal offspring continues to be a limiting factor to broader application of the technique. This review details the breadth of phenotypes found in nonviable pregnancies, together with the phenotypes of animals that survive the transition to extrauterine life. The focus is on animals produced using in vitro embryo culture and nuclear transfer in comparison to naturally occurring phenotypes.

  17. Meiosis completion and various sperm responses lead to unisexual and sexual reproduction modes in one clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Sun, Min; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xi-Yin; Liu, Xiao-Li; Liu, Wei; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-06-04

    Unisexual polyploid vertebrates are commonly known to reproduce by gynogenesis, parthenogenesis, or hybridogenesis. One clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio has been revealed to possess multiple modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, but the cytological and developmental mechanisms have remained unknown. In this study, normal meiosis completion was firstly confirmed by spindle co-localization of β-tubulin and Spindlin. Moreover, three types of various nuclear events and development behaviors were revealed by DAPI staining and BrdU-incorporated immunofluorescence detection during the first mitosis in the fertilized eggs by three kinds of different sperms. They include normal sexual reproduction in response to sperm from the same clone male, typical unisexual gynogenesis in response to sperm from the male of another species Cyprinus carpio, and an unusual hybrid-similar development mode in response to sperm from another different clone male. Based on these findings, we have discussed cytological and developmental mechanisms on multiple reproduction modes in the polyploid fish, and highlighted evolutionary significance of meiosis completion and evolutionary consequences of reproduction mode diversity in polyploid vertebrates.

  18. Meiosis completion and various sperm responses lead to unisexual and sexual reproduction modes in one clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Sun, Min; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xi-Yin; Liu, Xiao-Li; Liu, Wei; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Unisexual polyploid vertebrates are commonly known to reproduce by gynogenesis, parthenogenesis, or hybridogenesis. One clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio has been revealed to possess multiple modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, but the cytological and developmental mechanisms have remained unknown. In this study, normal meiosis completion was firstly confirmed by spindle co-localization of β-tubulin and Spindlin. Moreover, three types of various nuclear events and development behaviors were revealed by DAPI staining and BrdU-incorporated immunofluorescence detection during the first mitosis in the fertilized eggs by three kinds of different sperms. They include normal sexual reproduction in response to sperm from the same clone male, typical unisexual gynogenesis in response to sperm from the male of another species Cyprinus carpio, and an unusual hybrid-similar development mode in response to sperm from another different clone male. Based on these findings, we have discussed cytological and developmental mechanisms on multiple reproduction modes in the polyploid fish, and highlighted evolutionary significance of meiosis completion and evolutionary consequences of reproduction mode diversity in polyploid vertebrates. PMID:26042995

  19. Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Shaun D; Caulfield, Timothy

    2004-12-13

    No two countries have adopted identical regulatory measures on cloning. Understanding the complexity of these regulatory variations is essential. It highlights the challenges associated with the regulation of a controversial and rapidly evolving area of science and sheds light on a regulatory framework that can accommodate this reality. Using the most reliable information available, we have performed a survey of the regulatory position of thirty countries around the world regarding the creation and use of cloned embryos (see Table 1). We have relied on original and translated legislation, as well as published sources and personal communications. We have examined the regulation of both reproductive cloning (RC) and non-reproductive cloning (NRC). While most of the countries studied have enacted national legislation, the absence of legislation in seven of these countries should not be equated with the absence of regulation. Senator Morin was not correct in stating that the majority of recent legislation bans both RC and NRC. Recent regulatory moves are united only with regard to the banning of RC. While NRC is not permitted in seventeen of the countries examined, it could be permitted in up to thirteen countries. There is little consensus on the various approaches to cloning laws and policies, and the regulatory position in many countries remains uncertain.

  20. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  1. Ongoing research on mammalian cloning and embryo stem cell technologies: bioethics of their potential medical applications.

    PubMed

    Revel, M

    2000-07-01

    Reproduction by cloning has been achieved by transfer into enucleated oocytes of nuclei from embryonic cells and more recently from cells of adult animals. The efficiency at which embryos produced by such nuclear transfers will develop into healthy newborns is very low but has succeeded in producing some cloned bovines, ovines and mice. Since the first report of sheep cloning from an adult cell in 1997, the potential applications of reproductive cloning in human medicine have been envisaged amidst a flurry of moral debates. Although the technology is still far from being ready for any human use, it has been condemned up front. It has also led to irrational fantasies and fears, based mainly on the misconception that genetic identity means identical twin personalities. Scientific research is ongoing to refine the cloning technology for applications in the production of genetically homogeneous farm animals with useful nutritional or therapeutic genetic traits. A new area of research is non-reproductive therapeutic cloning for the purpose of producing autologous embryonic cells and tissues for transplantation.

  2. Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world

    PubMed Central

    Pattinson, Shaun D; Caulfield, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Background No two countries have adopted identical regulatory measures on cloning. Understanding the complexity of these regulatory variations is essential. It highlights the challenges associated with the regulation of a controversial and rapidly evolving area of science and sheds light on a regulatory framework that can accommodate this reality. Methods Using the most reliable information available, we have performed a survey of the regulatory position of thirty countries around the world regarding the creation and use of cloned embryos (see Table 1). We have relied on original and translated legislation, as well as published sources and personal communications. We have examined the regulation of both reproductive cloning (RC) and non-reproductive cloning (NRC). Results While most of the countries studied have enacted national legislation, the absence of legislation in seven of these countries should not be equated with the absence of regulation. Senator Morin was not correct in stating that the majority of recent legislation bans both RC and NRC. Recent regulatory moves are united only with regard to the banning of RC. While NRC is not permitted in seventeen of the countries examined, it could be permitted in up to thirteen countries. Conclusions There is little consensus on the various approaches to cloning laws and policies, and the regulatory position in many countries remains uncertain. PMID:15596013

  3. [Human cloning and the protection of women's interests].

    PubMed

    Canabes, Marcela Ahumada

    2008-01-01

    The Human Cloning, both therapeutic and full birth cloning, involves and affects women in a special way. The United Nation's Declaration on the Cloning of Human Beings includes a special clause referred to them. Also the Spanish law does it. This works pretend to analyse the meaning of the inclusion of women's interests in this document. At the same time, I will consider the foundations and the importance of the reference to the women.

  4. Animal cloning: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Wells, D N

    2005-04-01

    An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer

  5. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1987-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:3575113

  6. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1990-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:2333227

  7. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1988-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:3368330

  8. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1989-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:2654889

  9. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  10. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits. PMID:26195738

  11. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Production and Breeding of Transgenic Cloned Pigs Expressing Human CD73.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Chan; Lee, Haesun; Oh, Keon Bong; Hwang, In-Sul; Yang, Hyeon; Park, Mi-Ryung; Ock, Sun-A; Woo, Jae-Seok; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2017-06-01

    One of the reasons to causing blood coagulation in the tissue of xenografted organs was known to incompatibility of the blood coagulation and anti-coagulation regulatory system between TG pigs and primates. Thus, overexpression of human CD73 (hCD73) in the pig endothelial cells is considered as a method to reduce coagulopathy after pig-to-non-human-primate xenotransplantation. This study was performed to produce and breed transgenic pigs expressing hCD73 for the studies immune rejection responses and could provide a successful application of xenotransplantation. The transgenic cells were constructed an hCD73 expression vector under control porcine Icam2 promoter (pIcam2-hCD73) and established donor cell lines expressing hCD73. The numbers of transferred reconstructed embryos were 127 ± 18.9. The pregnancy and delivery rate of surrogates were 8/18 (44%) and 3/18 (16%). The total number of delivered cloned pigs were 10 (2 alive, 7 mummy, and 1 died after birth). Among them, three live hCD73-pigs were successfully delivered by Caesarean section, but one was dead after birth. The two hCD73 TG cloned pigs had normal reproductive ability. They mated with wild type (WT) MGH (Massachusetts General Hospital) female sows and produced totally 16 piglets. Among them, 5 piglets were identified as hCD73 TG pigs. In conclusion, we successfully generated the hCD73 transgenic cloned pigs and produced their litters by natural mating. It can be possible to use a mate for the production of multiple transgenic pigs such as α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out /hCD46 for xenotransplantation.

  13. The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001: vagueness and federalism.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Jonathan S

    2002-01-01

    On July 31, 2001, the U.S. House of Representatives passed The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001. The legislation proposes a complete ban on somatic cell nuclear transfer to create cloned human embryos; it threatens transgressors with criminal punishment and civil fines. House Bill 2505 is the first human cloning prohibition to pass either chamber of Congress. This note argues that the bill is unconstitutionally vague and inconsistent with the Supreme Court's recent Commerce Clause jurisprudence.

  14. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Recent progress and problems in animal cloning.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Y; Kato, Y

    2002-01-01

    It is remarkable that mammalian somatic cell nuclei can form whole individuals if they are transferred to enucleated oocytes. Advancements in nuclear transfer technology can now be applied for genetic improvement and increase of farm animals, rescue of endangered species, and assisted reproduction and tissue engineering in humans. Since July 1998, more than 200 calves have been produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei in Japan, but half of them were stillborn or died within several months of parturition. Morphologic abnormalities have also been observed in cloned calves and embryonic stem cell-derived mice. In this review, we discuss the present situation and problems with animal cloning and the possibility for its application to human medicine.

  16. Identifying the public's knowledge and intention to use human cloning in Greek urban areas.

    PubMed

    Tzamalouka, Georgia; Soultatou, Pelagia; Papadakaki, Maria; Chatzifotiou, Sevasti; Tarlatzis, Basil; El Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2005-02-01

    The understanding of the public's knowledge on human cloning (HC) and its acceptability are considered important for the development of evidence-based policy making. The aim of this research study was to investigate the demographic and socioeconomic variables that affect the public's knowledge and intention to use HC in urban areas of Greece. Additionally, the possible association of religiousness with the knowledge and the intention to use HC were also investigated. Individual interviews were conducted with 1020 men and women of urban areas in Greece. Stratified random sampling was performed to select the respondents. Several scientists, experts in HC, evaluated the content of the instrument initially developed. The final questionnaire was consequently the result of a pilot study. Almost half of the respondents (51.5%) believed that "HC is a sort of in vitro fertilization" and 42.9% that "it has already been applied to human being." They were not aware that "the cloned fetus grows in the woman's uterus" (41.5%) and that "HC could regenerate human organs" (41.7%). The acceptability of human cloning for the cure of terminal diseases and transplantation need is very high (70.7% and 58.6%, respectively). The public's intention to have recourse to cloning on the grounds of "bringing" back to life a loved person or because of reproductive disorders was reported as desire by 35% and 32.5%, respectively. The occupational category (scientists, self-employed, and artists), the Intention to use HC, and the number of children are highly significant predictors of valid knowledge about HC. Low rates of church attendance appeared to relate with high reported Intention to use HC, and increasing scores of valid knowledge about HC increased the public's Intention to use HC. A number of specific demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and high scores of knowledge provide a persuasive justification in demonstrating intention toward HC. The current study suggests that these

  17. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law].

    PubMed

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A

    2009-01-01

    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  18. [The status of human cloning in the international setting].

    PubMed

    Rey del Castillo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The General Assembly of the United Nations submitted a Declaration on Human Cloning in March 2005. The text of such Declaration was the result of a difficult and long process, taking more than three years. Being a Declaration instead of a Resolution, it has not legal capability in inforcing United Nations members to act according to its recommendations. This article begins with an explanation of several terms referred to cloning. Different countries' legislation on cloning is analyzed. Positions of the same countries at the Convention of the United Nations are as well analyzed. Comparing both countries' views shows that national legislation on cloning is independent and orientated by some countries' particular interests and biological and ethical views on these issues. Future developments on human cloning and its applications will be shared among all countries, both the ones currently allowing and supporting "therapeutic" cloning and the ones now banning it. In such case, it would be important to reach agreements on these issues at an international level. The article discusses possible legislative developments and offers some proposals to reach such agreements.

  19. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, A.; Kyle, J.W.; Miller, R.D.

    1987-02-01

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH/sub 2/-terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen ..beta..-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNAmore » sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human ..beta..-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human ..beta..-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for ..beta..-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length.« less

  20. Human reproductive issues in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  1. How to improve the success rate of mouse cloning technology.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Nguyen Van; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2010-02-01

    It has now been 13 years since the first cloned mammal Dolly the sheep was generated from somatic cells using nuclear transfer (SCNT). Since then, this technique has been considered an important tool not only for animal reproduction but also for regenerative medicine. However, the success rate is still very low and the mechanisms involved in genomic reprogramming are not yet clear. Moreover, the NT technique requires donated fresh oocyte, which raises ethical problems for production of human cloned embryo. For this reason, the use of induced pluripotent stem cells for genomic reprogramming and for regenerative medicine is currently a hot topic in this field. However, we believe that the NT approach remains the only valid way for the study of reproduction and basic biology. For example, only the NT approach can reveal dynamic and global modifications in the epigenome without using genetic modification, and it can generate offspring from a single cell or even a frozen dead body. Thanks to much hard work by many groups, cloning success rates are increasing slightly year by year, and NT cloning is now becoming a more applicable method. This review describes how to improve the efficiency of cloning, the establishment of clone-derived embryonic stem cells and further applications.

  2. [Product safety analysis of somatic cell cloned bovine].

    PubMed

    Hua, Song; Lan, Jie; Song, Yongli; Lu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yong

    2010-05-01

    Somatic cell cloning (nuclear transfer) is a technique through which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. It could be applied for the enhancement of reproduction rate and the improvement of food products involving quality, yield and nutrition. In recent years, the United States, Japan and Europe as well as other countries announced that meat and milk products made from cloned cattle are safe for human consumption. Yet, cloned animals are faced with a wide range of health problems, with a high death rate and a high incidence of disease. The precise causal mechanisms for the low efficiency of cloning remain unclear. Is it safe that any products from cloned animals were allowed into the food supply? This review focuses on the security of meat, milk and products from cloned cattle based on the available data.

  3. [The United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning of 03-08-05].

    PubMed

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2005-01-01

    Although the United Nation's Declaration on the Cloning of Human Beings has prohibited the cloning of human beings, the narration of the norm has not meant a strict and clear prohibition of the ban. Additionally, the text was not adopted by a wide majority of the member States and that means that it is a mere declaratory text that leaves open the debate on therapeutic cloning.

  4. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Džunková, Mária; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  5. Ethical attitudes on human cloning among professionals in Taiwan and the policy implications for regulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Che-Ming; Chung, Chun-Chih; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Chen, Jiun-Shyan

    2005-01-01

    This research focused on understanding the attitudes toward human cloning in Taiwan among professionals in healthcare, law, and religion. The study was conducted utilizing a structured questionnaire. 220 healthcare professionals from two regional hospitals located in Taipei, 351 religious professionals in the northern Taiwan and 711 legal professionals were selected by to receive questionnaires. The valid response rate is 42.1% The questions were generated by an expert panel and represented major arguments in the human cloning debate. There were a total of six Likert scaled questions in the questionnaire. The responses were coded from 1 to 5 with 1 representing strong opposition to human cloning, 3 representing a neutral attitude; and 5 representing a strong favorable attitude toward human cloning. Healthcare professionals had the highest overall average score of 2.14 and the religious professionals had the lowest average at 1.58. All three categories of respondents' attitude toward cloning ranged from mild opposition to strong opposition to human cloning. The religious professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Age, education, and religion significantly influenced attitudes toward cloning. Professionals between fifty-one and sixty years old, those with less education, and Roman Catholic professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Religious professionals were more strongly opposed to human cloning than professionals in healthcare or law. Younger professionals as an age group demonstrated less opposition to human cloning. Regulation of human cloning will be influenced by professionals in healthcare, law, and religion, and the regulatory environment chosen now will play a pivotal role in influencing the acceptance of human cloning in the future.

  6. Brain cDNA clone for human cholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    McTiernan, C.; Adkins, S.; Chatonnet, A.

    1987-10-01

    A cDNA library from human basal ganglia was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to portions of the amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase. Five overlapping clones, representing 2.4 kilobases, were isolated. The sequenced cDNA contained 207 base pairs of coding sequence 5' to the amino terminus of the mature protein in which there were four ATG translation start sites in the same reading frame as the protein. Only the ATG coding for Met-(-28) lay within a favorable consensus sequence for functional initiators. There were 1722 base pairs of coding sequence corresponding to the protein found circulating in human serum.more » The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA exactly matched the 574 amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase, as previously determined by Edman degradation. Therefore, our clones represented cholinesterase rather than acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the amino acid sequences of cholinesterase from two different tissues, human brain and human serum, were identical. Hybridization of genomic DNA blots suggested that a single gene, or very few genes coded for cholinesterase.« less

  7. The ethics of cloning and human embryo research.

    PubMed

    Saran, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    The successful cloning experiments that led to Dolly in 1997 have raised many ethical and policy questions. This paper will focus on cloning research in human embryonic cells. The possible gains of the research will be judged against the moral issues of doing research on a person. This paper concludes that while the embryo has some moral status, its moral status is outweighed by the multitude of benefits that embryonic stem cell research will bring to humanity. Policy suggestions are given for dealing with this new and developing field of stem cell research.

  8. Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.

    PubMed

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2007-03-01

    This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy.

  9. Reproductive cessation and post-reproductive lifespan in Asian elephants and pre-industrial humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Short post-reproductive lifespan is widespread across species, but prolonged post-reproductive life-stages of potential adaptive significance have been reported only in few mammals with extreme longevity. Long post-reproductive lifespan contradicts classical evolutionary predictions of simultaneous senescence in survival and reproduction, and raises the question of whether extreme longevity in mammals promotes such a life-history. Among terrestrial mammals, elephants share the features with great apes and humans, of having long lifespan and offspring with long dependency. However, little data exists on the frequency of post-reproductive lifespan in elephants. Here we use extensive demographic records on semi-captive Asian elephants (n = 1040) and genealogical data on pre-industrial women (n = 5336) to provide the first comparisons of age-specific reproduction, survival and post-reproductive lifespan in both of these long-lived species. Results We found that fertility decreased after age 50 in elephants, but the pattern differed from a total loss of fertility in menopausal women with many elephants continuing to reproduce at least until the age of 65 years. The probability of entering a non-reproductive state increased steadily in elephants from the earliest age of reproduction until age 65, with the longer living elephants continuing to reproduce until older ages, in contrast to humans whose termination probability increased rapidly after age 35 and reached 1 at 56 years, but did not depend on longevity. Post-reproductive lifespan reached 11–17 years in elephants and 26–27 years in humans living until old age (depending on method), but whereas half of human adult lifespan (of those reproductive females surviving to the age of 5% fecundity) was spent as post-reproductive, only one eighth was in elephants. Consequently, although some elephants have long post-reproductive lifespans, relatively few individuals reach such a phase and the

  10. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  11. Cloning, clones and clonal disease.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, L

    2000-01-01

    In the past, cloning has been familiar to plant breeders because many plants can be easily reproduced in this way, bypassing the lengthy process of cross-fertilisation. Recently, the concept of cloning has become popular in human biology and medicine on two accounts. First, individual genes can be cloned from the enormous complexity of the DNA that makes up the human genetic material. It is expected that, within a few years, all the estimated 100,000 human genes will be isolated by this approach. This should make it possible to identify all the genes that determine the individual characteristics of human beings, including those responsible for causing human diseases or for making people more or less susceptible to pick up diseases from the environment. Cloned genes made into pharmaceutical products are already in use for treating a variety of diseases, from hormonal deficiencies to certain types of anaemia.

  12. Progenitor cells for regenerative medicine and consequences of ART and cloning-associated epimutations.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Shari L

    2010-06-01

    The "holy grail" of regenerative medicine is the identification of an undifferentiated progenitor cell that is pluripotent, patient specific, and ethically unambiguous. Such a progenitor cell must also be able to differentiate into functional, transplantable tissue, while avoiding the risks of immune rejection. With reports detailing aberrant genomic imprinting associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and reproductive cloning, the idea that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from surplus in vitro fertilized embryos or nuclear transfer ESCs (ntESCs) harvested from cloned embryos may harbor dangerous epigenetic errors has gained attention. Various progenitor cell sources have been proposed for human therapy, from hESCs to ntESCs, and from adult stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS and piPS cells). This review highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each of these technologies, with particular emphasis on epigenetic stability.

  13. The Dao of human cloning: utopian/dystopian hype in the British press and popular films.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The issue of human cloning has featured in the national science policy agendas in both the United States and the United Kingdom since the announcement in 1997 of Dolly the cloned sheep's birth in Scotland. Such news stories suggesting the imminent cloning of humans have inspired fictional entertainment media over the years, including numerous popular films. Study 1 examines elite British press coverage of human cloning from 1997 to 2004 (n = 857). Study 2 focuses on five human cloning films released between 1978 and 2003. Two sharply divergent discourses emerged from these data. Unqualified hope and habitually hyped claims of future cures permeated the press discourse. In contrast, the films constructed human cloning as an inherently dangerous technology often wielded by hubristic scientists in the tradition of Frankenstein. Both the predominately positive hype in the broadsheet press and the largely negative hype in the films indicate an impoverished and "thin" public debate on the issue of human cloning.

  14. Expression cloning of human B cell immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Wardemann, Hedda; Kofer, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    The majority of lymphomas originate from B cells at the germinal center stage or beyond. Preferential selection of B cell clones by a limited set of antigens has been suggested to drive lymphoma development. However, little is known about the specificity of the antibodies expressed by lymphoma cells, and the role of antibody-specificity in lymphomagenesis remains elusive. Here, we describe a strategy to characterize the antibody reactivity of human B cells. The approach allows the unbiased characterization of the human antibody repertoire on a single cell level through the generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies from single primary human B cells of defined origin. This protocol offers a detailed description of the method starting from the flow cytometric isolation of single human B cells, to the RT-PCR-based amplification of the expressed Igh, Igκ, and Igλ chain genes, and Ig gene expression vector cloning for the in vitro production of monoclonal antibodies. The strategy may be used to obtain information on the clonal evolution of B cell lymphomas by single cell Ig gene sequencing and on the antibody reactivity of human lymphoma B cells.

  15. Humans are not cooperative breeders but practice biocultural reproduction.

    PubMed

    Bogin, Barry; Bragg, Jared; Kuzawa, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Alloparental care and feeding of young is often called "cooperative breeding" and humans are increasingly described as being a cooperative breeding species. To critically evaluate whether the human offspring care system is best grouped with that of other cooperative breeders. (1) Review of the human system of offspring care in the light of definitions of cooperative, communal and social breeding; (2) re-analysis of human lifetime reproductive effort. Human reproduction and offspring care are distinct from other species because alloparental behaviour is defined culturally rather than by genetic kinship alone. This system allows local flexibility in provisioning strategies and ensures that care and resources often flow between unrelated individuals. This review proposes the term "biocultural reproduction" to describe this unique human reproductive system. In a re-analysis of human life history data, it is estimated that the intense alloparenting typical of human societies lowers the lifetime reproductive effort of individual women by 14-29% compared to expectations based upon other mammals. Humans are not cooperative breeders as classically defined; one effect of the unique strategy of human biocultural reproduction is a lowering of human lifetime reproductive effort, which could help explain lifespan extension.

  16. Introduction: Microbiome in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has been termed the "second human genome" and data that has come about of late certainly makes it appear every bit as complex. The human body contains 10-fold more microbial cells than the human cells and accounts for 1%-3% of our total body mass. As we learn more about this symbiotic relationship, it appears this complex interaction occurs in nearly every part of the body, even those areas at one time considered to be sterile. Indeed, the microbiome in human reproduction has been investigated in terms of both the lower and upper reproductive tract and includes interactions even at the point of gametogenesis. What is all the more fascinating is that we have known about the importance of microbes for over 150 years, even before they existed in name. And now, with the assistance of an exciting technologic revolution which has pushed forward our understanding of the microbiome, we appear to stand on the precipice of a higher level of understanding of microbes, the biofilms they create, and their impact of health and disease in human reproduction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Savulescu, J

    1999-01-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910

  18. Endocannabinoids as biomarkers of human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Rapino, Cinzia; Battista, Natalia; Bari, Monica; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system that affects ∼10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. More than half of all cases of infertility are a result of female conditions, while the remaining cases can be attributed to male factors, or to a combination of both. The search for suitable biomarkers of pregnancy outcome is a challenging issue in human reproduction, aimed at identifying molecules with predictive significance of the reproductive potential of male and female gametes. Among the various candidates, endocannabinoids (eCBs), and in particular anandamide (AEA), represent potential biomarkers of human fertility disturbances. Any perturbation of the balance between synthesis and degradation of eCBs will result in local changes of their tone in human female and male reproductive tracts, which in turn regulates various pathophysiological processes, oocyte and sperm maturation included. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for papers using relevant keywords like 'biomarker', 'endocannabinoid', 'infertility', 'pregnancy' and 'reproduction'. In this review, we discuss different studies on the measurements of AEA and related eCBs in human reproductive cells, tissues and fluids, where the local contribution of these bioactive lipids could be critical in ensuring normal sperm fertilizing ability and pregnancy. Based on the available data, we suggest that the AEA tone has the potential to be exploited as a novel diagnostic biomarker of infertility, to be used in association with assays of conventional hormones (e.g. progesterone, β-chorionic gonadotrophin) and semen analysis. However further quantitative research of its predictive capacity is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita

    1986-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

  20. Cell biology solves mysteries of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sutovsky, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Reproduction and fertility have been objects of keen inquiry since the dawn of humanity. Medieval anatomists provided the first accurate depictions of the female reproductive system, and early microscopists were fascinated by the magnified sight of sperm cells. Initial successes were achieved in the in vitro fertilization of frogs and the artificial insemination of dogs. Gamete and embryo research was in the cradle of modern cell biology, providing the first evidence of the multi-cellular composition of living beings and pointing out the importance of chromosomes for heredity. In the 20th century, reproductive research paved the way for the study of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, and the cell cycle. In the last three decades, the advent of reproductive cell biology has brought us human in vitro fertilization, animal cloning, and human and animal embryonic stem cells. It has contributed to the development of transgenesis, proteomics, genomics, and epigenetics. This Special Issue represents a sample of the various areas of reproductive biology, with emphasis on molecular and cell biological aspects. Advances in spermatology, ovarian function, fertilization, and maternal-fetal interactions are discussed within the framework of fertility and diseases such as endometriosis and diabetes.

  1. Livestock Origin for a Human Pandemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Laura E.; McAdam, Paul R.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Kearns, Angela M.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert L.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The importance of livestock as a source of bacterial pathogens with the potential for epidemic spread in human populations is unclear. In recent years, there has been a global increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections of healthy humans, but an understanding of the different evolutionary origins of CA-MRSA clones and the basis for their recent expansion is lacking. Here, using a high-resolution phylogenetic approach, we report the discovery of two emergent clones of human epidemic CA-MRSA which resulted from independent livestock-to-human host jumps by the major bovine S. aureus complex, CC97. Of note, one of the new clones was isolated from human infections on four continents, demonstrating its global dissemination since the host jump occurred over 40 years ago. The emergence of both human S. aureus clones coincided with the independent acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance and human-specific mediators of immune evasion, consistent with an important role for these genetic events in the capacity to survive and transmit among human populations. In conclusion, we provide evidence that livestock represent a reservoir for the emergence of new human-pathogenic S. aureus clones with the capacity for pandemic spread. These findings have major public health implications highlighting the importance of surveillance for early identification of emergent clones and improved transmission control measures at the human-livestock interface. PMID:23943757

  2. Goldfish neurokinin B: Cloning, tissue distribution, and potential role in regulating reproduction.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Zhou, Wenyi; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Yun; Ye, Gang; Liu, Xiaochun; Peng, Chun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-09-15

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a member of the tackykinin (TAC) family known to play a critical role in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in mammals. However, its biological functions in teleosts are less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NKB in fish reproduction using goldfish as a model. Two transcripts, TAC3a and TAC3b, which encode several NKBs, including NKBa-13, NKBa-10, NKBb-13, and NKBb-11, were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NKBa-10 and NKBb-11 are closely related to mammalian NKB, while NKB-13s are more conserved in teleosts. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in various tissues showed that TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. In situ hybridization further detected TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs in several regions of the brain known to be involved in the regulation of reproduction and metabolism, as well as in the neurohypophysis of the pituitary. To investigate the potential role of NKBs in reproduction, goldfish were injected intraperitoneally with synthetic NKBa-13, -10, NKBb-13, or -11 peptides and the mRNA levels of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary gonadotropin subunits were measured. NKBa-13, -10, or NKBb-13, but not -11, significantly increased hypothalamic salmon GnRH and pituitary FSHβ and LHβ mRNA levels in both female and male goldfish. Finally, ovariectomy increased, while estradiol replacement reduced, TAC3a mRNA levels without affecting TAC3b expression in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that NKBa-13, -10, and NKBb-13 play a role in mediating the estrogen negative feedback regulation of gonadotropins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trial and error: how the unclonable human mitochondrial genome was cloned in yeast.

    PubMed

    Bigger, Brian W; Liao, Ai-Yin; Sergijenko, Ana; Coutelle, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Development of a human mitochondrial gene delivery vector is a critical step in the ability to treat diseases arising from mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Although we have previously cloned the mouse mitochondrial genome in its entirety and developed it as a mitochondrial gene therapy vector, the human mitochondrial genome has been dubbed unclonable in E. coli, due to regions of instability in the D-loop and tRNA(Thr) gene. We tested multi- and single-copy vector systems for cloning human mitochondrial DNA in E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including transformation-associated recombination. Human mitochondrial DNA is unclonable in E. coli and cannot be retained in multi- or single-copy vectors under any conditions. It was, however, possible to clone and stably maintain the entire human mitochondrial genome in yeast as long as a single-copy centromeric plasmid was used. D-loop and tRNA(Thr) were both stable and unmutated. This is the first report of cloning the entire human mitochondrial genome and the first step in developing a gene delivery vehicle for human mitochondrial gene therapy.

  4. Cloned ferrets produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiaoming; Wisely, Samantha M.; Zhou, Qi; Renard, Jean-Paul; Leno, Gregory H.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) offers great potential for developing better animal models of human disease. The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an ideal animal model for influenza infections and potentially other human respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where mouse models have failed to reproduce the human disease phenotype. Here, we report the successful production of live cloned, reproductively competent, ferrets using species-specific SCNT methodologies. Critical to developing a successful SCNT protocol for the ferret was the finding that hormonal treatment, normally used for superovulation, adversely affected the developmental potential of recipient oocytes. The onset of Oct4 expression was delayed and incomplete in parthenogenetically activated oocytes collected from hormone-treated females relative to oocytes collected from females naturally mated with vasectomized males. Stimulation induced by mating and in vitro oocyte maturation produced the optimal oocyte recipient for SCNT. Although nuclear injection and cell fusion produced mid-term fetuses at equivalent rates (~3–4%), only cell fusion gave rise to healthy surviving clones. Single cell fusion rates and the efficiency of SCNT were also enhanced by placing two somatic cells into the perivitelline space. These species-specific modifications facilitated the birth of live, healthy, and fertile cloned ferrets. The development of microsatellite genotyping for domestic ferrets confirmed that ferret clones were genetically derived from their respective somatic cells and unrelated to their surrogate mother. With this technology, it is now feasible to begin generating genetically defined ferrets for studying transmissible and inherited human lung diseases. Cloning of the domestic ferret may also aid in recovery and conservation of the endangered black-footed ferret and European mink. PMID:16584722

  5. Cloned ferrets produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiaoming; Wisely, Samantha M; Zhou, Qi; Renard, Jean-Paul; Leno, Gregory H; Engelhardt, John F

    2006-05-15

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) offers great potential for developing better animal models of human disease. The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an ideal animal model for influenza infections and potentially other human respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where mouse models have failed to reproduce the human disease phenotype. Here, we report the successful production of live cloned, reproductively competent, ferrets using species-specific SCNT methodologies. Critical to developing a successful SCNT protocol for the ferret was the finding that hormonal treatment, normally used for superovulation, adversely affected the developmental potential of recipient oocytes. The onset of Oct4 expression was delayed and incomplete in parthenogenetically activated oocytes collected from hormone-treated females relative to oocytes collected from females naturally mated with vasectomized males. Stimulation induced by mating and in vitro oocyte maturation produced the optimal oocyte recipient for SCNT. Although nuclear injection and cell fusion produced mid-term fetuses at equivalent rates (approximately 3-4%), only cell fusion gave rise to healthy surviving clones. Single cell fusion rates and the efficiency of SCNT were also enhanced by placing two somatic cells into the perivitelline space. These species-specific modifications facilitated the birth of live, healthy, and fertile cloned ferrets. The development of microsatellite genotyping for domestic ferrets confirmed that ferret clones were genetically derived from their respective somatic cells and unrelated to their surrogate mother. With this technology, it is now feasible to begin generating genetically defined ferrets for studying transmissible and inherited human lung diseases. Cloning of the domestic ferret may also aid in recovery and conservation of the endangered black-footed ferret and European mink.

  6. [Penal and non-penal legislative policy in relation to human biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2007-01-01

    The Spanish legislator has introduced a set of legislative novelties in the field of human biotechnology or is about to do so. This will be done either through the reform of some laws or through the approval of new laws, that is, without previous regulatory references available. The greater part of these novelties turn on research with cells or cell lines of human origin, specifically those from human embryos and through the use of diverse techniques, such as reproductive cloning and non-reproductive ('therapeutic') cloning.

  7. Protection of genetic heritage in the era of cloning

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Júnior, Eudes Quintino; de Oliveira, Pedro Bellentani Quintino

    2012-01-01

    Research on human beings has expanded greatly due to progress and the evolution of society as well as customs. Not only the unceasing development of research on human beings, but also interference in the beginning and end of life with homologous and heterogonous human reproduction, surrogate motherhood, cloning, gene therapies, eugenics, euthanasia, dysthanasia, orthothanasia, assisted suicide, genetic engineering, reassignment surgery in cases of transsexuality, the use of recombinant DNA technology and embryonic stem cells, transplantation of human organs and tissues, biotechnology and many other scientific advances. Scientific progress goes faster than the real needs of human beings, who are the final recipient of the entire evolutionary progress. Hence, there is the need to scrutinize whether new technologies are necessary, suitable and timely so that humanity can achieve its postulate of bene vivere. Human cloning, as an abrupt scientific fact, has presented itself to the world community as a procedure that can be performed with relative success and with little difficulty, since it achieved its objectives with the cloning of Dolly the sheep. This issue became the topic of discussion not only in the scientific community but in the lay population, and it received from both, global disapproval. The conclusion is that the human being is unique, with a life cycle defined by the rules of nature. Reversal will cause a violation of the genetic heritage and, above all, will confront the constitutional principle of human dignity. PMID:23323071

  8. Protection of genetic heritage in the era of cloning.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Júnior, Eudes Quintino; de Oliveira, Pedro Bellentani Quintino

    2012-01-01

    Research on human beings has expanded greatly due to progress and the evolution of society as well as customs. Not only the unceasing development of research on human beings, but also interference in the beginning and end of life with homologous and heterogonous human reproduction, surrogate motherhood, cloning, gene therapies, eugenics, euthanasia, dysthanasia, orthothanasia, assisted suicide, genetic engineering, reassignment surgery in cases of transsexuality, the use of recombinant DNA technology and embryonic stem cells, transplantation of human organs and tissues, biotechnology and many other scientific advances. Scientific progress goes faster than the real needs of human beings, who are the final recipient of the entire evolutionary progress. Hence, there is the need to scrutinize whether new technologies are necessary, suitable and timely so that humanity can achieve its postulate of bene vivere. Human cloning, as an abrupt scientific fact, has presented itself to the world community as a procedure that can be performed with relative success and with little difficulty, since it achieved its objectives with the cloning of Dolly the sheep.This issue became the topic of discussion not only in the scientific community but in the lay population, and it received from both, global disapproval. The conclusion is that the human being is unique, with a life cycle defined by the rules of nature. Reversal will cause a violation of the genetic heritage and, above all, will confront the constitutional principle of human dignity.

  9. Molecular cloning of an inducible serine esterase gene from human cytotoxic lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, J A; Klein, J L; White, P C; Dupont, B

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a human serine esterase gene was isolated from a library constructed from poly(A)+ RNA of allogeneically stimulated, interleukin 2-expanded peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The clone, designated HSE26.1, represents a full-length copy of a 0.9-kilobase mRNA present in human cytotoxic cells but absent from a wide variety of noncytotoxic cell lines. Clone HSE26.1 contains an 892-base-pair sequence, including a single 741-base-pair open reading frame encoding a putative 247-residue polypeptide. The first 20 amino acids of the polypeptide form a leader sequence. The mature protein is predicted to have an unglycosylated Mr of approximately equal to 26,000 and contains a single potential site for N-linked glycosylation. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of clone HSE26.1 are homologous with all murine and human serine esterases cloned thus far but are most similar to mouse granzyme B (70% nucleotide and 68% amino acid identity). HSE26.1 protein is expressed weakly in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells but is strongly induced within 6-hr incubation in medium containing phytohemagglutinin. The data suggest that the protein encoded by HSE26.1 plays a role in cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Images PMID:3261871

  10. Preparation and screening of an arrayed human genomic library generated with the P1 cloning system.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, N S; Pfrogner, B D; Coulby, J N; Ackerman, S L; Vaidyanathan, G; Sauer, R H; Balkenhol, T C; Sternberg, N

    1994-01-01

    We describe here the construction and initial characterization of a 3-fold coverage genomic library of the human haploid genome that was prepared using the bacteriophage P1 cloning system. The cloned DNA inserts were produced by size fractionation of a Sau3AI partial digest of high molecular weight genomic DNA isolated from primary cells of human foreskin fibroblasts. The inserts were cloned into the pAd10sacBII vector and packaged in vitro into P1 phage. These were used to generate recombinant bacterial clones, each of which was picked robotically from an agar plate into a well of a 96-well microtiter dish, grown overnight, and stored at -70 degrees C. The resulting library, designated DMPC-HFF#1 series A, consists of approximately 130,000-140,000 recombinant clones that were stored in 1500 microtiter dishes. To screen the library, clones were combined in a pooling strategy and specific loci were identified by PCR analysis. On average, the library contains two or three different clones for each locus screened. To date we have identified a total of 17 clones containing the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, human serum albumin-human alpha-fetoprotein, p53, cyclooxygenase I, human apurinic endonuclease, beta-polymerase, and DNA ligase I genes. The cloned inserts average 80 kb in size and range from 70 to 95 kb, with one 49-kb insert and one 62-kb insert. Images PMID:8146166

  11. microRNA in Human Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Iris; Kotaja, Noora; Goldman-Wohl, Debra; Imbar, Tal

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. microRNAs have been shown to play an important role in control of reproductive functions, especially in the processes of oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis, corpus luteum function, implantation, and early embryonic development. Knockout of Dicer, the cytoplasmic enzyme that cleaves the pre-miRNA to its mature form, results in postimplantation embryonic lethality in several animal models, attributing to these small RNA vital functions in reproduction and development. Another intriguing characteristic of microRNAs is their presence in body fluids in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity. In this chapter we will describe the current knowledge on microRNAs, specifically relating to human gonadal cells. We will focus on their role in the ovarian physiologic process and ovulation dysfunction, regulation of spermatogenesis and male fertility, and putative involvement in human normal and aberrant trophoblast differentiation and invasion through the process of placentation.

  12. Human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Woo Suk; Lee, Byeong Chun; Lee, Chang Kyu; Kang, Sung Keun

    2005-06-01

    The remarkable potential of embryonic stem (ES) cells is their ability to develop into many different cell types. ES cells make it possible to treat patients by transplanting specialized healthy cells derived from them to repair damaged and diseased cells or tissues, known as "stem cell therapy". However, the issue of immunocompatibility is one of considerable significance in ES cell transplantation. One approach to overcome transplant rejection of human ES (hES) cells is to derive hES cells from nuclear transfer of the patient's own cells. This concept is known as "therapeutic cloning". In this review, we describe the derivations of ES cells and cloned ES cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer, and their potential applications in transplantation medicine.

  13. Human Endothelial Cells: Use of Heparin in Cloning and Long-Term Serial Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Susan C.; Mueller, Stephen N.; Levine, Elliot M.

    1983-11-01

    Endothelial cells from human blood vessels were cultured in vitro, with doubling times of 17 to 21 hours for 42 to 79 population doublings. Cloned human endothelial cell strains were established for the first time and had similar proliferative capacities. This vigorous cell growth was achieved by addition of heparin to culture medium containing reduced concentrations of endothelial cell growth factor. The routine cloning and long-term culture of human endothelial cells will facilitate studying the human endothelium in vitro.

  14. Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Rushton, J P

    1996-02-01

    The international literature on racial differences is reviewed, novel data are reported, and a distinct pattern is found. People of east Asian ancestry and people of African ancestry average at opposite ends of a continuum, with people of European ancestry averaging intermediately, albeit with much variability within each major race. The racial matrix emerges from measures taken of reproductive behavior, sex hormones, twinning rate, speed of physical maturation, personality, family stability, brain size, intelligence, law abidingness, and social organization. An evolutionary theory of human reproduction is proposed, familiar to biologists as the r-K scale of reproductive strategies. At one end of this scale are r-strategies, which emphasize high reproductive rates; at the other end are K-strategies, which emphasize high levels of parental investment. This scale is generally used to compare the life histories of widely disparate species, but here it is used to describe the immensely smaller variations among human races. It is hypothesized that, again on average, Mongoloid people are more K-selected than Caucasoids, who are more K-selected than Negroids. The r-K scale of reproductive strategies is also mapped on to human evolution. Genetic distances indicate that Africans emerged from the ancestral hominid line about 200,000 years ago, with an African/non-African split about 110,000 years ago, and a Caucasoid/Mongoloid split about 41,000 years ago. Such an ordering fits with and explains how and why the variables cluster.

  15. [Cloning of human CD45 gene and its expression in Hela cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Xu, Tianyu; Wu, Lulin; Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Xiao; Zuo, Daming; Chen, Zhengliang

    2015-11-01

    To clone human CD45 gene PTPRC and establish Hela cells overexpressing recombinant human CD45 protein. The intact cDNA encoding human CD45 amplified using RT-PCR from the total RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a healthy donor was cloned into pMD-18T vector. The CD45 cDNA fragment amplified from the pMD-18T-CD45 by PCR was inserted to the coding region of the PcDNA3.1-3xflag vector, and the resultant recombinant expression vector PcDNA3.1-3xflag-CD45 was transfected into Hela cells. The expression of CD45 in Hela cells was detected by flow cytometry and Western blotting, and the phosphastase activity of CD45 was quantified using an alkaline phosphatase assay kit. The cDNA fragment of about 3 900 bp was amplified from human PBMCs and cloned into pMD-18T vector. The recombinant expression vector PcDNA3.1-3xflag-CD45 was constructed, whose restriction maps and sequence were consistent with those expected. The expression of CD45 in transfected Hela cells was detected by flow cytometry and Western blotting, and the expressed recombinant CD45 protein in Hela cells showed a phosphastase activity. The cDNA of human CD45 was successfully cloned and effectively expressed in Hela cells, which provides a basis for further exploration of the functions of CD45.

  16. [Human reproduction and environmental risk factors].

    PubMed

    Petrelli, G; Mantovani, A; Menditto, A

    1999-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a great cause of concern, in particular, growing attention is being paid to the potential of many chemicals to affect the reproductive system in humans. The key role of prevention and control of reproductive hazards is recognized world-wide. Many chemicals have been shown to impair fertility and/or prenatal and perinatal development in experimental studies. However, a sufficient evidence of an effect on human reproduction is available for some compounds only. The use of biological markers may improve the assessment of exposure to chemicals, contribute to identify mechanisms of action and put into evidence early, reversible, biological effects. Valid biological markers are also needed in epidemiological studies: without reliable data on the level of current and past exposures it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between a pollutant and the occurrence of adverse health effects. A multidisciplinary approach to risk assessment is required. Priorities for interdisciplinary research on environmental chemicals and reproduction include the identification of susceptible population subgroups and risk assessment of exposure to multiple chemicals.

  17. Effect of electromagnetic waves on human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, Artur; Mazurek, Paweł A; Wdowiak, Anita; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-31

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitting from the natural environment, as well as from the use of industrial and everyday appliances, constantly influence the human body. The effect of this type of energy on living tissues may exert various effects on their functioning, although the mechanisms conditioning this phenomenon have not been fully explained. It may be expected that the interactions between electromagnetic radiation and the living organism would depend on the amount and parameters of the transmitted energy and type of tissue exposed. Electromagnetic waves exert an influence on human reproduction by affecting the male and female reproductive systems, the developing embryo, and subsequently, the foetus. Knowledge concerning this problem is still being expanded; however, all the conditionings of human reproduction still remain unknown. The study presents the current state of knowledge concerning the problem, based on the latest scientific reports.

  18. Systematic cloning of human minisatellites from ordered array charomid libraries.

    PubMed

    Armour, J A; Povey, S; Jeremiah, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1990-11-01

    We present a rapid and efficient method for the isolation of minisatellite loci from human DNA. The method combines cloning a size-selected fraction of human MboI DNA fragments in a charomid vector with hybridization screening of the library in ordered array. Size-selection of large MboI fragments enriches for the longer, more variable minisatellites and reduces the size of the library required. The library was screened with a series of multi-locus probes known to detect a large number of hypervariable loci in human DNA. The gridded library allowed both the rapid processing of positive clones and the comparative evaluation of the different multi-locus probes used, in terms of both the relative success in detecting hypervariable loci and the degree of overlap between the sets of loci detected. We report 23 new human minisatellite loci isolated by this method, which map to 14 autosomes and the sex chromosomes.

  19. [Human rights, maternal mortality and reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Cook, R J

    1993-06-01

    This work examines reproductive health within the framework of human rights assured by various international conventions, and analyzes the high maternal mortality rates of developing countries as a violation of several guaranteed rights. The 1st of 3 main sections of the report discusses the failure of governments to make protection of women's reproductive health a priority. Historically, women's principal role has been to bear children, and no recognition was given to the cost in health of accomplishing this duty. Women's reproductive health has created controversies in many traditional juridical systems because of its relation to human sexuality and morals. WHO has estimated that some 500,000 maternal deaths occur each year, with 25-50% resulting from unsafe abortions. The causes of maternal mortality often have their roots in the poor nutrition or inadequate health care provided to the woman long before the 1st pregnancy. Early and frequent pregnancies and heavy physical labor are among the many factors that contribute to maternal death. Laws to protect women's health may be lacking or may not be applied. For example, many countries have no legal minimum age for marriage. To combat the traditional negligence, a new viewpoint is emerging which views women's reproductive health as a condition in which childbearing occurs in a state of physical, mental, and social wellbeing. It implies that women have the capacity to reproduce, regulate their fertility, and enjoy sexual relations. Laws that deny access to reproductive health services or place obstacles or conditions in the way are coming under question as violations of basic human rights of women protected by international conventions. The main such convention discussed in this article is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, although several other conventions are relevant to protecting women's reproductive health. If international law on human rights is to become truly

  20. The role of syncytins in human reproduction and reproductive organ cancers.

    PubMed

    Soygur, Bikem; Sati, Leyla

    2016-11-01

    Human life begins with sperm and oocyte fusion. After fertilization, various fusion events occur during human embryogenesis and morphogenesis. For example, the fusion of trophoblastic cells constitutes a key process for normal placental development. Fusion in the placenta is facilitated by syncytin 1 and syncytin 2. These syncytins arose from retroviral sequences that entered the primate genome 25 million and more than 40 million years ago respectively. About 8% of the human genome consists of similar human endogenous retroviral (HERVs) sequences. Many are inactive because of mutations or deletions. However, the role of the few that remain transcriptionally active has not been fully elucidated. Syncytin proteins maintain cell-cell fusogenic activity based on ENV: gene-mediated viral cell entry. In this review, we summarize how syncytins and their receptors are involved in fusion events during human reproduction. The significance of syncytins in tumorigenesis is also discussed. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wocławek-Potocka, Izabela; Rawińska, Paulina; Kowalczyk-Zieba, Ilona; Boruszewska, Dorota; Sinderewicz, Emilia; Waśniewski, Tomasz; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6) exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance. PMID:24744506

  2. Immunology and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Alecsandru, Diana; García-Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The immune system's role in recurrent reproductive failure is a controversial issue in assisted reproduction. New insight about maternal tolerance in assisted reproduction has been reported and could explain some of the recurrent miscarriage and/or recurrent implantation failure related causes named until now as unknown. Most of the previous studies about immune system implication in reproduction were focused on finding markers on peripheral blood. Maternal tolerance begins at the uterine level, so successful adaptation to the fetus happens after a complicated process. Insufficient invasion of the uterine lining by invading extravillous trophoblast is the primary defect in pregnancy disorders such as recurrent miscarriage, and this process is regulated by interaction between maternal killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed by the uterine natural killer cells and their ligand human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C expressed by extravillous trophoblast. Pregnancies are an increased risk of disorders in mothers with KIR AA when the fetus has paternal HLA-C2. Recently, it has been reported that the expression of more than one paternal HLA-C by extravillous trophoblast in assisted reproduction may affect placentation in mothers with KIR AA. The review provides insight about the immune tolerance process. These insights could have an impact on the selection of single embryo transfer and/or oocyte/sperm donor according to HLA-C in patients with recurrent miscarriage or recurrent implantation failure and a KIR AA haplotype.

  3. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  4. Technical advances and pitfalls on the way to human cloning.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Richard; Denham, Mark; Trounson, Alan

    2002-03-01

    There exists a widespread consensus that the cloning of human beings to term would be detrimental to both the mother and child and of little value to society. However, the ambition of a few organisations and the recent advances in cellular and molecular technologies that led to the cloning of Dolly the sheep, for example, have meant that such a procedure will be possible if not illegal in the near future. The science associated with the cloning technologies practiced in other mammalian species reported to date provide important advances in our understanding of how cells function during early developmental processes and commit themselves to specific developmental pathways. However, many technological insufficiencies remain. Both technological advances and several of the associated insufficiencies are outlined in this review.

  5. Folate and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tsunenobu; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2006-05-01

    The influence of folate nutritional status on various pregnancy outcomes has long been recognized. Studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s led to the recognition of prenatal folic acid supplementation as a means to prevent pregnancy-induced megaloblastic anemia. In the 1990s, the utility of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and folic acid food fortification emerged when they were proven to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. These distinctively different uses of folic acid may well be ranked among the most significant public health measures for the prevention of pregnancy-related disorders. Folate is now viewed not only as a nutrient needed to prevent megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy but also as a vitamin essential for reproductive health. This review focuses on the relation between various outcomes of human reproduction (ie, pregnancy, lactation, and male reproduction) and folate nutrition and metabolism, homocysteine metabolism, and polymorphisms of genes that encode folate-related enzymes or proteins, and we identify issues for future research.

  6. Love Influences Reproductive Success in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Butovskaya, Marina; Karwowski, Maciej; Groyecka, Agata; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2017-01-01

    As love seems to be universal, researchers have attempted to find its biological basis. However, no studies till date have shown its direct association with reproductive success, which is broadly known to be a good measure of fitness. Here, we show links between love, as defined by the Sternberg Triangular Theory of Love, and reproductive success among the Hadza—traditional hunter-gatherer population. We found that commitment and reproductive success were positively and consistently related in both sexes, with number of children showing negative and positive associations with intimacy and passion, respectively, only among women. Our study may shed new light on the meaning of love in humans' evolutionary past, especially in traditional hunter-gatherer societies in which individuals, not their parents, were responsible for partner choice. We suggest that passion and commitment may be the key factors that increase fitness, and therefore, that selection promoted love in human evolution. However, further studies in this area are recommended. PMID:29209243

  7. Vascular alterations underlie developmental problems manifested in cloned cattle before or after birth.

    PubMed

    Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Mess, Andrea Maria; dos Santos, Caio Rodrigues; Alberto, Miryan Lanca; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Although assisted reproductive techniques are commonly applied in humans and animals, they are frequently associated with major developmental deficits and reduced viability. To explore abnormalities associated with cloning or nuclear transfer (NT) as the most invasive of these methods, we used a bovine model to characterize abnormalities. Detailed necropsy examinations were done on 13 calves that died soon after birth; in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. Although alterations affected a variety of organs (e.g. heart, lung and liver), there was a clear association with abberant vascular developmental during the early intrauterine phase. Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications).

  8. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  9. Human cloning and embryo research: the 2003 John J. Conley Lecture on medical ethics.

    PubMed

    George, Robert P

    2004-01-01

    The author, a member of the U.S. President's Council on Bioethics, discusses ethical issues raised by human cloning, whether for purposes of bringing babies to birth or for research purposes. He first argues that every cloned human embryo is a new, distinct, and enduring organism, belonging to the species Homo sapiens, and directing its own development toward maturity. He then distinguishes between two types of capacities belonging to individual organisms belonging to this species, an immediately exerciseable capacity and a basic natural capacity that develops over time. He argues that it is the second type of capacity that is the ground for full moral respect, and that this capacity (and its concomitant degree of respect) belongs to cloned human embryos no less than to adult human beings. He then considers and rejects counter-arguments to his position, including the suggestion that the capacity of embryos is equivalent to the capacity of somatic cells, that full human rights are afforded only to human organisms with functioning brains, that the possibility of twinning diminishes the moral status of embryos, that the fact that people do not typically mourn the loss of early embryos implies that they have a diminished moral status, that the fact that early spontaneous abortions occur frequently diminishes the moral status of embryos, and that his arguments depend upon a concept of ensoulment. He concludes that if the moral status of cloned human embryos is equivalent to that of adults, then public policy should be based upon this assumption.

  10. Melatonin: a "Higgs boson" in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dragojevic Dikic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Ana Mitrovic; Dikic, Srdjan; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Jurisic, Aleksandar; Dobrosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    As the Higgs boson could be a key to unlocking mysteries regarding our Universe, melatonin, a somewhat mysterious substance secreted by the pineal gland primarily at night, might be a crucial factor in regulating numerous processes in human reproduction. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant which has an essential role in controlling several physiological reactions, as well as biological rhythms throughout human reproductive life. Melatonin, which is referred to as a hormone, but also as an autocoid, a chronobiotic, a hypnotic, an immunomodulator and a biological modifier, plays a crucial part in establishing homeostatic, neurohumoral balance and circadian rhythm in the body through synergic actions with other hormones and neuropeptides. This paper aims to analyze the effects of melatonin on the reproductive function, as well as to shed light on immunological and oncostatic properties of one of the most powerful hormones.

  11. Vascular Alterations Underlie Developmental Problems Manifested in Cloned Cattle before or after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; dos Santos, Caio Rodrigues; Alberto, Miryan Lanca; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Although assisted reproductive techniques are commonly applied in humans and animals, they are frequently associated with major developmental deficits and reduced viability. To explore abnormalities associated with cloning or nuclear transfer (NT) as the most invasive of these methods, we used a bovine model to characterize abnormalities. Detailed necropsy examinations were done on 13 calves that died soon after birth; in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. Although alterations affected a variety of organs (e.g. heart, lung and liver), there was a clear association with abberant vascular developmental during the early intrauterine phase. Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). PMID:25584533

  12. [Cloning: necessary reflections on the imaginary].

    PubMed

    Minahim, María Auxiliadora

    2009-01-01

    The article covers the innumerable reasons given for using cloning for therapeutic and reproductive purposes. The most commonly used argument in favour of the procedure has been that of preserving human dignity, which would include the wide exercising of personal autonomy without restrictions of an ethical nature. This view is countered by questions relating to the use of the technique, namely self-determination and the loss of the integrity of the species, which would include the transformation of a generation through the production of human beings and tissues. It must also be made clear that therapeutic cloning (which is carried out through the use of stem cells) is not yet a reality in the scientific world, with the result that the procedure that is supposedly necessary, which argues in favour of the destruction of the young embryo is misleading, as are also certain discourses used to refer to the theme and the science. Criminal law, on prohibiting this practice is anticipating it becoming a reality, protecting legal rights that affect supra-individual interests, such as the destruction of the young embryo, one of the issues of concern to ADIN (Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad en Brasil - Direct Action on Unconstitutionality in Brazil) 3510-0.

  13. A highly functional synthetic phage display library containing over 40 billion human antibody clones.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marcel; Bujak, Emil; Putelli, Alessia; Villa, Alessandra; Matasci, Mattia; Gualandi, Laura; Hemmerle, Teresa; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Several synthetic antibody phage display libraries have been created and used for the isolation of human monoclonal antibodies. The performance of antibody libraries, which is usually measured in terms of their ability to yield high-affinity binding specificities against target proteins of interest, depends both on technical aspects (such as library size and quality of cloning) and on design features (which influence the percentage of functional clones in the library and their ability to be used for practical applications). Here, we describe the design, construction and characterization of a combinatorial phage display library, comprising over 40 billion human antibody clones in single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format. The library was designed with the aim to obtain highly stable antibody clones, which can be affinity-purified on protein A supports, even when used in scFv format. The library was found to be highly functional, as >90% of randomly selected clones expressed the corresponding antibody. When selected against more than 15 antigens from various sources, the library always yielded specific and potent binders, at a higher frequency compared to previous antibody libraries. To demonstrate library performance in practical biomedical research projects, we isolated the human antibody G5, which reacts both against human and murine forms of the alternatively spliced BCD segment of tenascin-C, an extracellular matrix component frequently over-expressed in cancer and in chronic inflammation. The new library represents a useful source of binding specificities, both for academic research and for the development of antibody-based therapeutics.

  14. A Highly Functional Synthetic Phage Display Library Containing over 40 Billion Human Antibody Clones

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marcel; Bujak, Emil; Putelli, Alessia; Villa, Alessandra; Matasci, Mattia; Gualandi, Laura; Hemmerle, Teresa; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Several synthetic antibody phage display libraries have been created and used for the isolation of human monoclonal antibodies. The performance of antibody libraries, which is usually measured in terms of their ability to yield high-affinity binding specificities against target proteins of interest, depends both on technical aspects (such as library size and quality of cloning) and on design features (which influence the percentage of functional clones in the library and their ability to be used for practical applications). Here, we describe the design, construction and characterization of a combinatorial phage display library, comprising over 40 billion human antibody clones in single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format. The library was designed with the aim to obtain highly stable antibody clones, which can be affinity-purified on protein A supports, even when used in scFv format. The library was found to be highly functional, as >90% of randomly selected clones expressed the corresponding antibody. When selected against more than 15 antigens from various sources, the library always yielded specific and potent binders, at a higher frequency compared to previous antibody libraries. To demonstrate library performance in practical biomedical research projects, we isolated the human antibody G5, which reacts both against human and murine forms of the alternatively spliced BCD segment of tenascin-C, an extracellular matrix component frequently over-expressed in cancer and in chronic inflammation. The new library represents a useful source of binding specificities, both for academic research and for the development of antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:24950200

  15. Cloning and expression analysis of a transformer gene in Daphnia pulex during different reproduction stages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Xu, Shan-Liang; Zhou, Wei; Guo, Xiao-Ge; Wang, Chun-Lin; Wang, Dan-Li; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2014-05-01

    The full-length cDNA of a transformer gene (Dptra) was cloned from the cladoceran Daphnia pulex using RACE. Dptra expression was assessed by qPCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization in different reproductive stages. The Dptra cDNA, 1652bp in length, has a 1158-bp open reading frame that encodes a 385 amino acid polypeptide containing one Sex determination protein N terminal (SDP_N) superfamily, eight putative phosphorylation sites, and an arginine-serine (RS)-rich domain at the N-terminus. Dptra showed 81%, 53%, 51% and 45% identity to orthologous genes in Daphnia magna, Apis mellifera, Apis cerana and Bombus terrestris, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Dptra clustered in the hymenopteran clade and was most closely related to D. magna and A. mellifera. qPCR showed that Dptra expression increased significantly (P<0.05) in different reproductive stages in the following order: male, ephippial female, parthenogenetic female, resting egg and juvenile female. Dptra expression is significantly different between males and females and it is significantly greater in ephippial females and males than in parthenogenetic D. pulex (with summer eggs). Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that Dptra was expressed at different levels between males and females. In males, hybridization signals were found in the first antennae, second antennae and thoracic limb, whereas expression levels in the corresponding sites of parthenogenetic and ephippial females were relatively weak. This suggests that the Dptra gene plays significant roles in switching modes of reproduction and in sexual differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolutionary genetic relationships of clones of Salmonella serovars that cause human typhoid and other enteric fevers.

    PubMed Central

    Selander, R K; Beltran, P; Smith, N H; Helmuth, R; Rubin, F A; Kopecko, D J; Ferris, K; Tall, B D; Cravioto, A; Musser, J M

    1990-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was employed to measure chromosomal genotypic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 761 isolates of the serovars Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B, S. paratyphi C, and S. sendai, which are human-adapted agents of enteric fever, and S. miami and S. java, which are serotypically similar to S. sendai and S. paratyphi B, respectively, but cause gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. To determine the phylogenetic positions of the clones of these forms within the context of the salmonellae of subspecies I, comparative data for 22 other common serovars were utilized. Except for S. paratyphi A and S. sendai, the analysis revealed no close phylogenetic relationships among clones of different human-adapted serovars, which implies convergence in host adaptation and virulence factors. Clones of S. miami are not allied with those of S. sendai or S. paratyphi A, being, instead, closely related to strains of S. panama. Clones of S. paratyphi B and S. java belong to a large phylogenetic complex that includes clones of S. typhimurium, S. heidelberg, S. saintpaul, and S. muenchen. Most strains of S. paratyphi B belong to a globally distributed clone that is highly polymorphic in biotype, bacteriophage type, and several other characters, whereas strains of S. java represent seven diverse lineages. The flagellar monophasic forms of S. java are genotypically more similar to clones of S. typhimurium than to other clones of S. java or S. paratyphi B. Clones of S. paratyphi C are related to those of S. choleraesuis. DNA probing with a segment of the viaB region specific for the Vi capsular antigen genes indicated that the frequent failure of isolates of S. paratyphi C to express Vi antigen is almost entirely attributable to regulatory processes rather than to an absence of the structural determinant genes themselves. Two clones of S. typhisuis are related to those of S. choleraesuis and S. paratyphi C, but a third clone is not

  17. A Study of Seventh-Graders Comprehensions of Human Reproduction Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd Harley

    1977-01-01

    Study of an Iowa junior high school revealed that: (1) seventh grade pupils' knowledge levels were raised after studying human reproduction concepts and that (2) the pupils were of the opinion that human reproduction studies should be included in life science classes. (MB)

  18. Cloning mice and ES cells by nuclear transfer from somatic stem cells and fully differentiated cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2011-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer (NT) has been successful in several mammalian species. In addition to cloning live animals (reproductive cloning), this technique has also been used in several species to establish cloned embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from somatic cells. It is the latter application of this technique that has been heralded as being the potential means to produce isogenic embryonic stem cells from patients for cell therapy (therapeutic cloning). These two types of cloning differ only in the steps after cloned embryos are produced: for reproductive cloning the cloned embryos are transferred to surrogate mothers to allow them to develop to full term and for therapeutic cloning the cloned embryos are used to derive ntES cells. In this chapter, a detailed NT protocol in mouse by using somatic stem cells (neuron and skin stem cells) and fully differentiated somatic cells (cumulus cells and fibroblast cells) as nuclear donors is described.

  19. Large-scale production of functional human lysozyme from marker-free transgenic cloned cows.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Liu, Shen; Ding, Fangrong; Wang, Haiping; Li, Jing; Li, Ling; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2016-03-10

    Human lysozyme is an important natural non-specific immune protein that is highly expressed in breast milk and participates in the immune response of infants against bacterial and viral infections. Considering the medicinal value and market demand for human lysozyme, an animal model for large-scale production of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) is needed. In this study, we generated transgenic cloned cows with the marker-free vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ, which was shown to efficiently express rhLZ in cow milk. Seven transgenic cloned cows, identified by polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot, and western blot analyses, produced rhLZ in milk at concentrations of up to 3149.19 ± 24.80 mg/L. The purified rhLZ had a similar molecular weight and enzymatic activity as wild-type human lysozyme possessed the same C-terminal and N-terminal amino acid sequences. The preliminary results from the milk yield and milk compositions from a naturally lactating transgenic cloned cow 0906 were also tested. These results provide a solid foundation for the large-scale production of rhLZ in the future.

  20. Cloning and expression of follistatin gene in half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis during the reproduction cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haishen; Si, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanqing; He, Feng; Li, Jifang

    2015-03-01

    Follistatin (FST) is a monomeric glycoprotein highly enriched in cysteines and belongs to TGF-β superfamily. FST can suppress the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and plays a vital role in the reproduction of vertebrates. We used rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology to clone the FST gene of half-smooth tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis. We characterized its phylogenetic context and expression patterns to elucidate its function in the breeding season. The full-length sequence of FST is 1 455 bp and encodes a protein of 321 amino acids. We investigated the expression pattern of FST in C. semilaevis at different stages of reproduction using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). FST mRNA was expressed in all 13 tissues analyzed, and was expressed at high levels in gonad and at slightly lower levels in gill and brain. During the reproductive cycle of C. semilaevis, the transcript level of FST was the highest in the perinucleolus stage, decreased in the primary yolk stage, slightly increased in the tertiary yolk stage, and then reduced to a minimal level in the atretic follicles stage of the ovary. We concluded that FST suppressed follicle-stimulating hormone, which stimulated oocyte development. However, no significant variation was observed across all stages of testis development, although the expression level in the spermatogenesis stage was relatively low, which may result from the regulation of FST by aromatase.

  1. Literature and patent analysis of the cloning and identification of human functional genes in China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Tang, LiSha; Yao, Lei; Wan, Bo; Yang, XianMei; Yu, Long

    2012-03-01

    The Human Genome Project was launched at the end of the 1980s. Since then, the cloning and identification of functional genes has been a major focus of research across the world. In China too, the potentially profound impact of such studies on the life sciences and on human health was realized, and relevant studies were initiated in the 1990s. To advance China's involvement in the Human Genome Project, in the mid-1990s, Committee of Experts in Biology from National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) proposed the "two 1%" goal. This goal envisaged China contributing 1% of the total sequencing work, and cloning and identifying 1% of the total human functional genes. Over the past 20 years, tremendous achievement has been accomplished by Chinese scientists. It is well known that scientists in China finished the 1% of sequencing work of the Human Genome Project, whereas, there is no comprehensive report about "whether China had finished cloning and identifying 1% of human functional genes". In the present study, the GenBank database at the National Center of Biotechnology Information, the PubMed search tool, and the patent database of the State Intellectual Property Office, China, were used to retrieve entries based on two screening standards: (i) Were the newly cloned and identified genes first reported by Chinese scientists? (ii) Were the Chinese scientists awarded the gene sequence patent? Entries were retrieved from the databases up to the cut-off date of 30 June 2011 and the obtained data were analyzed further. The results showed that 589 new human functional genes were first reported by Chinese scientists and 159 gene sequences were patented (http://gene.fudan.sh.cn/introduction/database/chinagene/chinagene.html). This study systematically summarizes China's contributions to human functional genomics research and answers the question "has China finished cloning and identifying 1% of human functional genes?" in the affirmative.

  2. Molecular characterization of the human microbiome from a reproductive perspective.

    PubMed

    Mor, Amir; Driggers, Paul H; Segars, James H

    2015-12-01

    The process of reproduction inherently poses unique microbial challenges because it requires the transfer of gametes from one individual to the other, meanwhile preserving the integrity of the gametes and individuals from harmful microbes during the process. Advances in molecular biology techniques have expanded our understanding of the natural organisms living on and in our bodies, including those inhabiting the reproductive tract. Over the past two decades accumulating evidence has shown that the human microbiome is tightly related to health and disease states involving the different body systems, including the reproductive system. Here we introduce the science involved in the study of the human microbiome. We examine common methods currently used to characterize the human microbiome as an inseparable part of the reproductive system. Finally, we consider a few limitations, clinical implications, and the critical need for additional research in the field of human fertility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  4. Major advances associated with reproduction in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, K; Thatcher, W W

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this overview is to review some of the major advances in reproductive technologies, and how they may be applied to meet the challenge of enhancing reproductive efficiency in the high-producing dairy cow of the 21st century. The current population of high-producing dairy cows is considered to be subfertile, as characterized by low pregnancy rates and high rates of embryonic mortality. Coordinated systems of reproductive management have been developed based upon a thorough understanding of the endocrine, cellular, and molecular factors controlling ovarian and uterine function. These systems will partially restore herd reproductive performance. Advances in other reproductive technologies offer possibilities for wider use of superior germplasm. Technologies such as sexed semen, cloning, transgenesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis offer the potential to enhance the influence of superior animals on production of food for human consumption. However, at this time, additional research is needed to counteract the higher rates of embryonic and fetal mortality associated with some of these technologies. Furthermore, use of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics in the study of reproduction will undoubtedly provide investigators with a greater understanding of the limitations to efficient reproductive processes in the subfertile lactating dairy cow.

  5. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  6. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals

    PubMed Central

    Avise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety. PMID:26195735

  7. Spatial constraints govern competition of mutant clones in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M D; Lynch, C N S; Craythorne, E; Liakath-Ali, K; Mallipeddi, R; Barker, J N; Watt, F M

    2017-10-24

    Deep sequencing can detect somatic DNA mutations in tissues permitting inference of clonal relationships. This has been applied to human epidermis, where sun exposure leads to the accumulation of mutations and an increased risk of skin cancer. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting conclusions about the relative importance of positive selection and neutral drift in clonal evolution. Here, we sequenced larger areas of skin than previously, focusing on cancer-prone skin spanning five decades of life. The mutant clones identified were too large to be accounted for solely by neutral drift. Rather, using mathematical modelling and computational lattice-based simulations, we show that observed clone size distributions can be explained by a combination of neutral drift and stochastic nucleation of mutations at the boundary of expanding mutant clones that have a competitive advantage. These findings demonstrate that spatial context and cell competition cooperate to determine the fate of a mutant stem cell.

  8. Post-Death Cloning of Endangered Jeju Black Cattle (Korean Native Cattle): Fertility and Serum Chemistry in a Cloned Bull and Cow and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Eun Young; SONG, Dong Hwan; PARK, Min Jee; PARK, Hyo Young; LEE, Seung Eun; CHOI, Hyun Yong; MOON, Jeremiah Jiman; KIM, Young Hoon; MUN, Seong Ho; OH, Chang Eon; KO, Moon Suck; LEE, Dong Sun; RIU, Key Zung; PARK, Se Pill

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC. PMID:23955237

  9. Post-death cloning of endangered Jeju black cattle (Korean native cattle): fertility and serum chemistry in a cloned bull and cow and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Song, Dong Hwan; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Kim, Young Hoon; Mun, Seong Ho; Oh, Chang Eon; Ko, Moon Suck; Lee, Dong Sun; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2013-12-17

    To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC.

  10. [Therapeutic cloning in debate].

    PubMed

    de Wert, G

    2001-11-03

    Human embryos can be conceived by cell nuclear transfer in order to isolate human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) for research into autologous cell therapy (therapeutic cloning). However, this technique broaches the major ethical problem concerning the instrumental use of human preimplantation embryos. From the viewpoint of subsidiarity, it is argued that various potential alternatives for therapeutic cloning should first be investigated further. The question as to whether therapeutic cloning should be allowed only becomes apparent when research with surplus embryos obtained in the course of in-vitro fertilization suggests that usable transplants can be obtained in vitro from hES cells, and when the potential alternatives for therapeutic cloning are either less promising or need more time for development than is currently expected.

  11. The US FDA and animal cloning: risk and regulatory approach.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Larisa; Matheson, John C

    2007-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine issued a voluntary request to producers of livestock clones not to introduce food from clones or their progeny into commerce until the agency had assessed whether production of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) posed any unique risks to the animal(s) involved in the process, humans, or other animals by consuming food from those animals, compared with any other assisted reproductive technology (ART) currently in use. Following a comprehensive review, no anomalies were observed in animals produced by cloning that have not also been observed in animals produced by other ARTs and natural mating. Further systematic review on the health of, and composition of meat and milk from, cattle, swine, and goat clones and the progeny of cattle and sheep did not result in the identification of any food-consumption hazards. The agency therefore concluded that food from cattle, swine, and goat clones was as safe to eat as food from animals of those species derived by conventional means. The agency also concluded that food from the progeny of the clone of any species normally consumed for food is as safe to eat as those animals. The article also describes the methodology used by the agency to analyze data and draw these conclusions, the plans the agency has proposed to manage any identified risks, and the risk communication approaches the agency has used.

  12. Transgenic-cloned pigs systemically expressing red fluorescent protein, Kusabira-Orange.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Hitomi; Onodera, Masafumi; Tada, Norihiro; Mochizuki, Hideki; Karasawa, Satoshi; Haruyama, Erika; Nakayama, Naoki; Saito, Hitoshi; Ueno, Satoshi; Kurome, Mayuko; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    Genetically engineered pigs with cell markers such as fluorescent proteins are highly useful in lines of research that include the tracking of transplanted cells or tissues. In this study, we produced transgenic-cloned pigs carrying a gene for the newly developed red fluorescent protein, humanized Kusabira-Orange (huKO), which was cloned from the coral stone Fungia concinna. The nuclear transfer embryos, reconstructed with fetal fibroblast cells that had been transduced with huKO cDNA using retroviral vector D Delta Nsap, developed efficiently in vitro into blastocysts (28.0%, 37/132). Nearly all (94.6%, 35/37) of the cloned blastocysts derived from the transduced cells exhibited clear huKO gene expression. A total of 429 nuclear transfer embryos were transferred to four recipients, all of which became pregnant and gave birth to 18 transgenic-cloned offspring in total. All of the pigs highly expressed huKO fluorescence in all of the 23 organs and tissues analyzed, including the brain, eyes, intestinal and reproductive organs, skeletal muscle, bone, skin, and hoof. Furthermore, such expression was also confirmed by histological analyses of various tissues such as pancreatic islets, renal corpuscles, neuronal and glial cells, the retina, chondrocytes, and hematopoietic cells. These data demonstrate that transgenic-cloned pigs exhibiting systemic red fluorescence expression can be efficiently produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cells retrovirally transduced with huKO gene.

  13. Cloning in America: constitutional rights and limits.

    PubMed

    Erwin, C

    2000-01-01

    As readers of science fiction are well aware, the term "clone" refers to asexually produced offspring, that is, produced by a process of cell-division which does not begin with the union of two sex cells. A clone would be the genetic twin of the cell donor. Propagation of plants by this method is, of course, commonplace, but mammalian reproduction in this fashion would be indeed a revolutionary accomplishment, with profound and disturbing implications.

  14. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    PubMed Central

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  15. The effects of kisspeptin in human reproductive function - therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2013-03-01

    Kisspeptin is a 54-amino acid peptide which is encoded by the KiSS-1 gene and activates the G protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Evidence suggests that this system is a key regulator of mammalian and human reproduction. Animal studies have shown that GPR54-deficient mice have abnormal sexual development. Central and peripheral administration of kisspeptin stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis whilst pre-administration of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist abolishes this effect. In humans, inactivating GPR54 mutations cause normosmic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism whilst activation of GPR54 signalling is associated with premature puberty. In healthy human volunteers, the acute intravenous administration of kisspeptin potently increases plasma luteinising hormone (LH) levels and significantly increases plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone without side effects in both males and in females particularly in the preovulatatory phase of the menstrual cycle. In infertility due to hypothalamic amenorrhoea acute administration of kisspeptin results in stimulation of reproductive hormones. The kisspeptin/GPR54 system therefore appears to play an important role in the regulation of reproduction in humans. Hence kisspeptin has potential as a novel tool for the manipulation of the HPG axis and treatment of infertility in humans. This review discusses the evidence highlighting kisspeptin's key role in human reproduction.

  16. Infection of human T lymphotropic virus-I-specific immune T cell clones by human T lymphotropic virus-I.

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuya, H; Jarrett, R F; Cossman, J; Cohen, O J; Kao, C S; Guo, H G; Reitz, M S; Broder, S

    1986-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I)-specific T cell lines were established and cloned. K5, an OKT8+ clone bearing multiple proviral integration sites, retained its HTLV-I-specific cytotoxicity and a normal dependence on interleukin 2 (IL-2), indicating that there is a finite number of transforming integration sites. R2, an OKT4+ HTLV-I-infected clone, initially mounted a proliferative response to HTLV-I; but then its IL-2-independent proliferation increased and the antigen specificity was lost. All HTLV-I-infected clones tested including K7, another OKT8+ transformed cytotoxic clone that had lost its reactivity, expressed comparable levels of T cell receptor beta-chain (TCR-beta) messenger (m)RNA. Although clones K5 and K7 had different functional properties, they had the same rearrangement of the TCR-beta gene, suggesting that they had the same clonal origin. These data indicate that HTLV-I-specific T cells retain their immune reactivity for variable periods of time following infection, but then usually lose it; in some cases, however, no alteration in function can be detected. The data also suggest that different consequences can take place in the same clone depending on the pattern of retroviral infection. Images PMID:2877011

  17. Therapeutic cloning in Australia: one small stem from man, one giant leap for mankind.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Irene

    2008-08-01

    In 2002 the Australian Parliament enacted legislation which prohibited both therapeutic and reproductive embryonic cloning. Just four years later, in December 2006, this same legislation was amended, reversing the prohibition on therapeutic cloning, while retaining the ban on reproductive cloning. The Prime Minister, sensing the political mood, allowed a conscience vote. This contrasted with his decision several months earlier against introducing any changes to the 2002 Act, despite 54 recommendations having been made by a Statutory Review Committee. Approval of the legislation had as much to do with the careful drafting of the provisions as with any rational, social or scientific factor. The legislation is narrow in scope, retains an absolute prohibition on reproductive cloning and contains strict regulations with heavy criminal penalties. The Act requires a review after three years. A number of questions remain. Does stem cell research demand a global rather than a local approach, by way of an international Covenant? Does the legal status of a cloned embryo need further examination? Will the embryo have a separate legal standing recognised by law? These are some of the questions which will need addressing as the law tries to keep up with science.

  18. Application of microfluidic technologies to human assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

    2017-04-01

    Microfluidics can be considered both a science and a technology. It is defined as the study of fluid behavior at a sub-microliter level and the investigation into its application to cell biology, chemistry, genetics, molecular biology and medicine. There are at least two characteristics of microfluidics, mechanical and biochemical, which can be influential in the field of mammalian gamete and preimplantation embryo biology. These microfluidic characteristics can assist in basic biological studies on sperm, oocyte and preimplantation embryo structure, function and environment. The mechanical and biochemical characteristics of microfluidics may also have practical and/or technical application(s) to assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in rodents, domestic species, endangered species and humans. This review will consider data in mammals, and when available humans, addressing the potential application(s) of microfluidics to assisted reproduction. There are numerous sequential steps in the clinical assisted reproductive laboratory process that work, yet could be improved. Cause and effect relations of procedural inefficiencies can be difficult to identify and/or remedy. Data will be presented that consider microfluidic applications to sperm isolation, oocyte cumulus complex isolation, oocyte denuding, oocyte mechanical manipulation, conventional insemination, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo culture, embryo analysis and oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. While these studies have progressed in animal models, data with human gametes and embryos are significantly lacking. These data from clinical trials are requisite for making future evidence-based decisions regarding the application of microfluidics in human ART. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Comparison of the X-radiation, drug and ultraviolet-radiation responses of clones isolated from a human colorectal tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Qutob, Sami S; Multani, Asha S; Pathak, S; Feng, Y; Kendal, Wayne S; Ng, Cheng E

    2004-03-01

    We isolated several clones with a wide range of responses to X radiation from an unirradiated human colorectal (HCT 116) tumor cell line. The responses of one of these clones (HCT116-Clone10) and nine other clones to either fractionated or acute (i.e. single, nonfractionated doses) X irradiation in vitro was similar to that of the parental cell line. By contrast, after the same types of treatment, another clone (HCT116-Clone2) manifested a significantly increased survival whereas a third clone (HCT116-CloneK) manifested a significantly decreased survival relative to the parental cell line. This suggested that they were, respectively, a radioresistant and a radiosensitive clone. All three clones (clones 2, 10, K) retained their tumorigenic phenotype and formed tumors in nude mice. G-banding studies demonstrated that they were of human origin and were derived from the same parental cell line. The metaphases of HCT116-Clone2 demonstrated features commonly associated with genomic instability (i.e. mitotic catastrophe including chromosome and chromatid breaks, dicentrics and additional nonclonal markers). Data obtained by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q- FISH) analysis failed to demonstrate any apparent correlation between the radiosensitivity and the relative telomere content of these three clones. Interestingly, HCT116-CloneK was the most resistant to several chemotherapeutic drugs (topotecan, camptothecin, etoposide and cisplatin) with diverse mechanisms of action. Also, there were no significant differences in the survivals of the three clones after treatment with UV radiation. Because of the lack of overlap among the relative sensitivities of these clones to X radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs and UV radiation, these clones may be useful models for evaluating the genetic basis of the response of human tumor cells to these treatment agents both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae clones infecting humans were selected and fixed through the extensive use of tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, Violette; Davies, Mark R; Douarre, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Margarit, Immaculada; Spinali, Sebastien; Perkins, Tim; Lechat, Pierre; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Ma, Laurence; Romi, Benedetta; Tichit, Magali; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria-José; Descorps-Declere, Stéphane; Souche, Erika; Buchrieser, Carmen; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Moszer, Ivan; Clermont, Dominique; Maione, Domenico; Bouchier, Christiane; McMillan, David J; Parkhill, Julian; Telford, John L; Dougan, Gordan; Walker, Mark J; Holden, Matthew T G; Poyart, Claire; Glaser, Philippe

    2014-08-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a commensal of the digestive and genitourinary tracts of humans that emerged as the leading cause of bacterial neonatal infections in Europe and North America during the 1960s. Due to the lack of epidemiological and genomic data, the reasons for this emergence are unknown. Here we show by comparative genome analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction of 229 isolates that the rise of human GBS infections corresponds to the selection and worldwide dissemination of only a few clones. The parallel expansion of the clones is preceded by the insertion of integrative and conjugative elements conferring tetracycline resistance (TcR). Thus, we propose that the use of tetracycline from 1948 onwards led in humans to the complete replacement of a diverse GBS population by only few TcR clones particularly well adapted to their host, causing the observed emergence of GBS diseases in neonates.

  1. T-cell libraries allow simple parallel generation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones.

    PubMed

    Theaker, Sarah M; Rius, Cristina; Greenshields-Watson, Alexander; Lloyd, Angharad; Trimby, Andrew; Fuller, Anna; Miles, John J; Cole, David K; Peakman, Mark; Sewell, Andrew K; Dolton, Garry

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of peptide-specific T-cell clones is highly desirable for determining the role of T-cells in human disease, as well as for the development of therapies and diagnostics. However, generation of monoclonal T-cells with the required specificity is challenging and time-consuming. Here we describe a library-based strategy for the simple parallel detection and isolation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones from CD8(+) or CD4(+) polyclonal T-cell populations. T-cells were first amplified by CD3/CD28 microbeads in a 96U-well library format, prior to screening for desired peptide recognition. T-cells from peptide-reactive wells were then subjected to cytokine-mediated enrichment followed by single-cell cloning, with the entire process from sample to validated clone taking as little as 6 weeks. Overall, T-cell libraries represent an efficient and relatively rapid tool for the generation of peptide-specific T-cell clones, with applications shown here in infectious disease (Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A, and Ebola virus), autoimmunity (type 1 diabetes) and cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple births associated with assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jocelynn L; Geran, Leslie; Rotermann, Michelle

    2011-06-01

    Assisted human reproduction has been associated with increased rates of multiple births. Data suggest that twins and higher order multiple pregnancies are at risk for pre- and postnatal health complications that contribute to stress on both the family and the Canadian health care system. No published Canadian data estimate the contribution of assisted human reproduction to multiple birth rates. This study was designed to determine the contributions of age and assisted human reproduction to multiple birth rates in Canada. We performed analyses of existing Canadian databases, using a mathematical model from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More specifically, data from the Canadian Vital Statistics: Births and Stillbirths database were combined with data from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technologies Register collected by the Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society. Datasets were standardized to age distributions of mothers in 1978. RESULTS suggest that in vitro fertilization, ovulation induction, and age each contribute more to the rates of triplets than to twins. As expected, the contribution of natural factors was higher to twins than to triplets. These are the first Canadian data analyzed to separate and measure the contributions of age and assisted reproductive technologies to multiple birth rates. Our findings are important for guiding physician and patient education and informing the development of treatment protocols that will result in lower-risk pregnancies and improved long-term health for women and their offspring.

  3. Ethical and legal aspects in medically assisted human reproduction in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ioan, Beatrice; Astarastoae, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Up to the present, there have not been any specific norms regarding medically assisted human reproduction in Romanian legislation. Due to this situation the general legislation regarding medical assistance (law no. 95/2006, regarding the Reform in Health Care System), the Penal and Civil law and the provisions of the Code of Deontology of the Romanian College of Physicians are applied to the field of medically assisted human reproduction. By analysing the ethical and legal conflicts regarding medically assisted human reproduction in Romania, some characteristics cannot be set apart because they derive from religious, cultural and socio-economic aspects. In this article the authors identify the development stages of medically assisted human reproduction in Romania, beginning from these characteristics and insisting upon the failure of the legal system in this specific field. The authors consider that the law regarding medically assisted human reproduction cannot be effective because it did not take into account the ethical and cultural aspects that might appear. Furthermore, in this framework of the legal process, no public debate involving the representatives of civil society was undertaken although the Council of Europe Oviedo Convention approved by our country according to law no. 17/2001 stipulated exactly this working method.

  4. Selection bias in studies of human reproduction-longevity trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Helle, Samuli

    2017-12-13

    A shorter lifespan as a potential cost of high reproductive effort in humans has intrigued researchers for more than a century. However, the results have been inconclusive so far and despite strong theoretical expectations we do not currently have compelling evidence for the longevity costs of reproduction. Using Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown here that a common practice in human reproduction-longevity studies using historical data (the most relevant data sources for this question), the omission of women who died prior to menopausal age from the analysis, results in severe underestimation of the potential underlying trade-off between reproduction and lifespan. In other words, assuming that such a trade-off is expressed also during reproductive years, the strength of the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan is progressively weakened when women dying during reproductive ages are sequentially and non-randomly excluded from the analysis. In cases of small sample sizes (e.g. few hundreds of observations), this selection bias by reducing statistical power may even partly explain the null results commonly found in this field. Future studies in this field should thus apply statistical approaches that account for or avoid selection bias in order to recover reliable effect size estimates between reproduction and longevity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Generation of Five Human Lactoferrin Transgenic Cloned Goats Using Fibroblast Cells and Their Methylation Status of Putative Differential Methylation Regions of IGF2R and H19 Imprinted Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanyan; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Yang; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce transgenic cloned mammalian, including transgenic goats which may produce Human Lactoferrin (hLF). However, success percentage of SCNT is low, because of gestational and neonatal failure of transgenic embryos. According to the studies on cattle and mice, DNA methylation of some imprinted genes, which plays a vital role in the reprogramming of embryo in NT maybe an underlying mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings Fibroblast cells were derived from the ear of a two-month-old goat. The vector expressing hLF was constructed and transfected into fibroblasts. G418 selection, EGFP expression, PCR, and cell cycle distribution were applied sequentially to select transgenic cells clones. After NT and embryo transfer, five transgenic cloned goats were obtained from 240 cloned transgenic embryos. These transgenic goats were identified by 8 microsatellites genotyping and southern blot. Of the five transgenic goats, 3 were lived after birth, while 2 were dead during gestation. We compared differential methylation regions (DMR) pattern of two paternally imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2R) of the ear tissues from the lived transgenic goats, dead transgenic goats, and control goats from natural reproduction. Hyper-methylation pattern appeared in cloned aborted goats, while methylation status was relatively normal in cloned lived goats compared with normal goats. Conclusions/Significance In this study, we generated five hLF transgenic cloned goats by SCNT. This is the first time the DNA methylation of lived and dead transgenic cloned goats was compared. The results demonstrated that the methylation status of DMRs of H19 and IGF2R were different in lived and dead transgenic goats and therefore this may be potentially used to assess the reprogramming status of transgenic cloned goats. Understanding the pattern of gene imprinting may be useful to improve cloning techniques in future. PMID:24204972

  6. Clover-Tagged Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infectious Clones for Rapid Detection of Virus Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baicheng; Xiao, Xia; Xue, Biyun; Zhou, En-Min

    2018-06-24

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a widespread disease that affects domestic pigs of all ages. Accurate and rapid detection of PRRSV specific neutralizing antibodies levels in a pig herd is beneficial for the evaluation of the herd's immunity to combat the specific viral infection. However, the current methods for viral detection, including fluorescent focus neutralization (FFN) and cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction neutralizing assays, are subjective and time-consuming. Therefore, a Clover-tagged PRRSV virus neutralization assay were developed that instrumentally measures the fluorescence signal of Clover stably expressing by a PRRSV infectious clone for at least 10 passages. Herein, the results showed that the proposed Clover-tagged PRRSV neutralization assay is reliable using instrumental measurements of the fluorescence signal of Clover and allows for rapid detection of neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV. The assay was evaluated by testing swine sera from experimental and field samples, and comparisons were made with the traditional FFN and CPE reduction assays. These results suggest that the Clover-tagged PRRSV infectious clone offers a fast and reliable testing method for neutralizing antibodies and could permit high-throughput screening of new antiviral agents. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Telomeres and the ethics of human cloning.

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.

  8. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

  9. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  10. Are reproductive and somatic senescence coupled in humans? Late, but not early, reproduction correlated with longevity in historical Sami women

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Samuli; Lummaa, Virpi; Jokela, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary theory of senescence emphasizes the importance of intense selection on early reproduction owing to the declining force of natural selection with age that constrains lifespan. In humans, recent studies have, however, suggested that late-life mortality might be more closely related to late rather than early reproduction, although the role of late reproduction on fitness remains unclear. We examined the association between early and late reproduction with longevity in historical post-reproductive Sami women. We also estimated the strength of natural selection on early and late reproduction using path analysis, and the effect of reproductive timing on offspring survival to adulthood and maternal risk of dying at childbirth. We found that natural selection favoured both earlier start and later cessation of reproduction, and higher total fe cundity. Maternal age at childbirth was not related to offspring or maternal survival. Interestingly, females who produced their last offspring at advanced age also lived longest, while age at first reproduction and total fecundity were unrelated to female longevity. Our results thus suggest that reproductive and somatic senescence may have been coupled in these human populations, and that selection could have favoured late reproduction. We discuss alternative hypotheses for the mechanisms which might have promoted the association between late reproduction and longevity. PMID:15875567

  11. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  12. The ecology and evolutionary endocrinology of reproduction in the human female.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2009-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology (HRE) is the study of the mechanisms that link variation in reproductive traits with variation in local habitats. Empirical and theoretical contributions from biological anthropology, physiology, and demography have established the foundation necessary for developing a comprehensive understanding, grounded in life history theory (LHT), of temporal, individual, and populational variation in women's reproductive functioning. LHT posits that natural selection leads to the evolution of mechanisms that tend to allocate resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction, and survival such that fitness is locally maximized. (That is, among alternative allocation patterns exhibited in a population, those having the highest inclusive fitness will become more common over generational time.) Hence, strategic modulation of reproductive effort is potentially adaptive because investment in a new conception may risk one's own survival, future reproductive opportunities, and/or current offspring survival. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is the principal neuroendocrine pathway by which the human female modulates reproductive functioning according to the changing conditions in her habitat. Adjustments of reproductive investment in a potential conception are manifested in temporal and individual variation in ovarian cycle length, ovulation, hormone levels, and the probability of conception. Understanding the extent and causes of adaptive and non-adaptive variation in ovarian functioning is fundamental to ascertaining the proximate and remote determinants of human reproductive patterns. In this review I consider what is known and what still needs to be learned of the ecology of women's reproductive biology, beginning with a discussion of the principal explanatory frameworks in HRE and the biometry of ovarian functioning. Turning next to empirical studies, it is evident that marked variation between cycles, women, and populations is the

  13. Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones coding for cholinesterase from fetal human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Prody, C.A.; Zevin-Sonkin, D.; Gnatt, A.

    1987-06-01

    To study the primary structure and regulation of human cholinesterases, oligodeoxynucleotide probes were prepared according to a consensus peptide sequence present in the active site of both human serum pseudocholinesterase and Torpedo electric organ true acetylcholinesterase. Using these probes, the authors isolated several cDNA clones from lambdagt10 libraries of fetal brain and liver origins. These include 2.4-kilobase cDNA clones that code for a polypeptide containing a putative signal peptide and the N-terminal, active site, and C-terminal peptides of human BtChoEase, suggesting that they code either for BtChoEase itself or for a very similar but distinct fetal form of cholinesterase. Inmore » RNA blots of poly(A)/sup +/ RNA from the cholinesterase-producing fetal brain and liver, these cDNAs hybridized with a single 2.5-kilobase band. Blot hybridization to human genomic DNA revealed that these fetal BtChoEase cDNA clones hybridize with DNA fragments of the total length of 17.5 kilobases, and signal intensities indicated that these sequences are not present in many copies. Both the cDNA-encoded protein and its nucleotide sequence display striking homology to parallel sequences published for Torpedo AcChoEase. These finding demonstrate extensive homologies between the fetal BtChoEase encoded by these clones and other cholinesterases of various forms and species.« less

  14. The need for interaction between assisted reproduction technology and genetics: recommendations of the European Societies of Human Genetics and Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    Infertility and reproductive genetic risk are both increasing in our societies because of lifestyle changes and possibly environmental factors. Owing to the magnitude of the problem, they have implications not only at the individual and family levels but also at the community level. This leads to an increasing demand for access to assisted reproduction technology (ART) and genetic services, especially when the cause of infertility may be genetic in origin. The increasing application of genetics in reproductive medicine and vice versa requires closer collaboration between the two disciplines. ART and genetics are rapidly evolving fields where new technologies are currently introduced without sufficient knowledge of their potential long-term effects. As for any medical procedures, there are possible unexpected effects which need to be envisaged to make sure that the balance between benefits and risks is clearly on the benefit side. The development of ART and genetics as scientific activities is creating an opportunity to understand the early stages of human development, which is leading to new and challenging findings/knowledge. However, there are opinions against investigating the early stages of development in humans who deserve respect and attention. For all these reasons, these two societies, European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), have joined efforts to explore the issues at stake and to set up recommendations to maximize the benefit for the couples in need and for the community.

  15. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L

    2010-12-01

    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our

  16. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Dhai, A; Moodley, J; McQuoid-Mason, D J; Rodeck, C

    2004-11-01

    Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological development, gene action, and the production of transplantable tissue and organs that could be effective in reversing or curing currently irreversible disease processes. However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of reproductive cloning, and that promises made too early could lead to false hope among sick patients. It also raises the question of intellectual and actual property rights in human cell lines and the techniques by which they are produced. Review of legal systems internationally reveals that there is no global consensus on therapeutic embryonic stem cell research. Legal considerations are very much influenced by ethical deliberations on the moral status of the embryo. The South African parliament is promulgating legislation permitting therapeutic cloning, thereby demonstrating a commitment by the state to act in the best interests of patients and of regenerative medicine.

  17. [Mystery and problems of cloning].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V A

    2010-01-01

    The attention of investigators is attracted to the fact that, in spite of great efforts in mammalian cloning, advances that have been made in this area of research are not great, and cloned animals have developmental pathologies often incompatible with life and/or reproduction ability. It is yet not clear what technical or biological factors underlie this, and how they are connected or interact with each other, which is more realistic strategically. There is a great number of articles dealing with the influence of cloning with the nuclear transfer on genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. At the same time we can see the practical absence of analytical investigations concerning the technology of cloning as such, its weak points, and possible sources of cellular trauma in the course of microsurgery of nuclear transfer or twinning. This article discusses step by step several nuclear transfer techniques and the methods of dividing early preimplanted embryos for twinning with the aim to reveal possible sources of cell damage during micromanipulation that may have negative influence on the development of cloned organisms. Several new author's technologies based on the study of cell biophysical characteristics are described, which allow one to avoid cellular trauma during manipulation and minimize the possibility of cell damage at any rate.

  18. Review article: stem cells in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Caroline E

    2007-07-01

    The derivation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells heralds a new era in stem cell research, generating excitement for their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. Pioneering work of embryologists, developmental biologists, and reproductive medicine practitioners in in vitro fertilization clinics has facilitated hES cell research. This review summarizes current research focused on optimizing hES cell culture conditions for good manufacturing practice, directing hES cell differentiation toward trophectoderm and germ cells, and approaches used to reprogram cells for pluripotent cell derivation. The identification of germ stem cells in the testis and the recent controversy over their existence in the ovary raise the possibility of harnessing them for treating young cancer survivors. There is also the potential to harvest fetal stem cells with pluripotent cell-like properties from discarded placental tissues. The recent identification of adult stem/progenitor cell activity in the human endometrium offers a new understanding of common gynecological diseases. Discoveries resulting from research into embryonic, germ, fetal, and adult stem cells are highly relevant to human reproduction.

  19. Restoration of Viral Immunity in Immunodeficient Humans by the Adoptive Transfer of T Cell Clones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddell, Stanley R.; Watanabe, Kathe S.; Goodrich, James M.; Li, Cheng R.; Agha, Mounzer E.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    1992-07-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells to establish immunity is an effective therapy for viral infections and tumors in animal models. The application of this approach to human disease would require the isolation and in vitro expansion of human antigen-specific T cells and evidence that such T cells persist and function in vivo after transfer. Cytomegalovirus-specific CD8^+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clones could be isolated from bone marrow donors, propagated in vitro, and adoptively transferred to immunodeficient bone marrow transplant recipients. No toxicity developed and the clones provided persistent reconstitution of CD8^+ cytomegalovirus-specific CTL responses.

  20. Cloning of the transgenic pigs expressing human decay accelerating factor and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tatsuya; Kurome, Mayuko; Murakami, Hiroshi; Takahagi, Yoichi; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Shimanuki, Shinichi; Suzuki, Kohei; Miyagawa, Shuji; Shirakura, Ryota; Shigehisa, Tamotsu; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes production of cloned pigs from fibroblast cells of transgenic pigs expressing human decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) that remodels sugar-chain biosynthesis. Two nuclear transfer protocols were used: a two-step activation (TA) method and a delayed activation (DA) method. Enucleated in vitro-matured oocytes and donor cells were electrically fused in a calcium-containing medium by TA method or in a calcium-free medium by DA method, followed by electrical activation 1-1.5 h later, respectively. In vitro blastocyst formation rates of nuclear transferred embryos reconstructed by TA and DA method were 8% and 14%, respectively. As a result of embryo transfer of the reconstructed embryos made by each method into recipient pigs, both gave rise to cloned piglets. These cloned pigs expressed transgene as much as their nuclear donor cells. In conclusions, (1) pig cloning can be carried out by TA or DA nuclear transfer methods, (2) expression of transgenes can be maintained to cloned pigs from the nuclear donor cells derived from transgenic animals.

  1. Cancer metastasis: enactment of the script for human reproductive drama.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xichun; Liu, Xiwu

    2017-01-01

    Based on compelling evidence from many biological disciplines, we put forth a hypothesis for cancer metastasis. In the hypothesis, the metastatic cascade is depicted as human reproduction in miniature. Illustrated in a reproductive light, the staggering resemblance of cancer metastasis to human reproduction becomes evident despite some ostensible dis-similarities. In parallel to the appearance of primordial germ cells during early embryogenesis, the cancer reproductive saga starts with the separation of metastasis initiating cells (MICs) from cancer initiating cells when the primary cancer is still in its infancy. Prime MICs embark on a journey to the host bone marrow where they undergo further development and regulation. Migrating MICs are guided by the same CXCR4/CYCL12 axis as used in the migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge. Like the ovary, the host bone marrow features immune privileges, coolness, hypoxia and acidity which are essential for stemness maintenance and regulation. Opportune activation of the MICs via fusion with bone marrow stem cells triggers a frenzy of cellular proliferation and sets them on the move again. This scenario is akin to oocyte fertilization in the Fallopian tube and its subsequent journey towards the decidum. Just as the human reproductive process is plagued with undesirable outcomes so is the cancer metastasis highly inefficient. The climax of the cancer metastatic drama (colonization) is reached when proliferating MIC clusters attempt to settle down on decidum-like premetastatic sites. Successfully colonized clusters blossom into overt macrometastases only after the execution of sophisticated immunomodulation, angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Similarly, the implanted blastomere needs to orchestrate these feats before flourishing into a new life. What is more, the cancer reproductive drama seems to be directed by a primordial hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Pursuing this reproductive trail could lead to

  2. Human research cloning, embryos, and embryo-like artifacts.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Insoo; Jung, Kyu Won

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that cloning is incapable of producing a viable embryo when it is used on primate eggs. In fact, the entity created may not qualify as an embryo at all. If the results stand, cloning avoids the moral objections typically lodged against it, and cloning is itself an "alternative source" of stem cells.

  3. Application of microfluidic technologies to human assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Microfluidics can be considered both a science and a technology. It is defined as the study of fluid behavior at a sub-microliter level and the investigation into its application to cell biology, chemistry, genetics, molecular biology and medicine. There are at least two characteristics of microfluidics, mechanical and biochemical, which can be influential in the field of mammalian gamete and preimplantation embryo biology. These microfluidic characteristics can assist in basic biological studies on sperm, oocyte and preimplantation embryo structure, function and environment. The mechanical and biochemical characteristics of microfluidics may also have practical and/or technical application(s) to assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in rodents, domestic species, endangered species and humans. This review will consider data in mammals, and when available humans, addressing the potential application(s) of microfluidics to assisted reproduction. There are numerous sequential steps in the clinical assisted reproductive laboratory process that work, yet could be improved. Cause and effect relations of procedural inefficiencies can be difficult to identify and/or remedy. Data will be presented that consider microfluidic applications to sperm isolation, oocyte cumulus complex isolation, oocyte denuding, oocyte mechanical manipulation, conventional insemination, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo culture, embryo analysis and oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. While these studies have progressed in animal models, data with human gametes and embryos are significantly lacking. These data from clinical trials are requisite for making future evidence-based decisions regarding the application of microfluidics in human ART. PMID:28130394

  4. Revival of extinct species using nuclear transfer: hope for the mammoth, true for the Pyrenean ibex, but is it time for "conservation cloning"?

    PubMed

    Piña-Aguilar, Raul E; Lopez-Saucedo, Janet; Sheffield, Richard; Ruiz-Galaz, Lilia I; Barroso-Padilla, Jose de J; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Recent accomplishments in the fields of nuclear transfer and genomics, such as the cloned offspring production from frozen mouse cells, cryopreserved at not too low temperatures without cryoprotectors; or the sequencing of wooly mammoth genome, have opened the opportunity for the revival of extinct species. As expected, they are receiving a lot of publicity in the media and also scientific attention. Furthermore, it was recently published the "revival" of the first extinct subspecie: the Pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica), a wild goat extinct in 2000. This strengthens the field of cloning as it had been tarnished by induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) and other methods of reprogramming. However, for biological conservation purposes, cloning is not generally accepted as an alternative for animal conservation, and there is an ongoing debate between reproductive scientists and conservation specialists. Although we believe that nuclear transfer technologies have an opportunity in conservation efforts for some species that are on the brink of extinction and that population status, geographical isolation, reproductive characteristics, and human pressure create a situation that is almost unsustainable. In this article we discuss the barriers in cloning mammoths and cloning controversies in conservation from a zoological perspective, citing the species that might benefit from nuclear transfer techniques in the arduous journey so as not to disappear forever from this, our world.

  5. Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones coding for cholinesterase from fetal human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Prody, C A; Zevin-Sonkin, D; Gnatt, A; Goldberg, O; Soreq, H

    1987-01-01

    To study the primary structure and regulation of human cholinesterases, oligodeoxynucleotide probes were prepared according to a consensus peptide sequence present in the active site of both human serum pseudocholinesterase (BtChoEase; EC 3.1.1.8) and Torpedo electric organ "true" acetylcholinesterase (AcChoEase; EC 3.1.1.7). Using these probes, we isolated several cDNA clones from lambda gt10 libraries of fetal brain and liver origins. These include 2.4-kilobase cDNA clones that code for a polypeptide containing a putative signal peptide and the N-terminal, active site, and C-terminal peptides of human BtChoEase, suggesting that they code either for BtChoEase itself or for a very similar but distinct fetal form of cholinesterase. In RNA blots of poly(A)+ RNA from the cholinesterase-producing fetal brain and liver, these cDNAs hybridized with a single 2.5-kilobase band. Blot hybridization to human genomic DNA revealed that these fetal BtChoEase cDNA clones hybridize with DNA fragments of the total length of 17.5 kilobases, and signal intensities indicated that these sequences are not present in many copies. Both the cDNA-encoded protein and its nucleotide sequence display striking homology to parallel sequences published for Torpedo AcChoEase. These findings demonstrate extensive homologies between the fetal BtChoEase encoded by these clones and other cholinesterases of various forms and species. Images PMID:3035536

  6. Sexual and reproductive rights and the human rights agenda: controversial and contested.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Wanda

    2011-11-01

    In this paper I share some of my experience and observations, as an advocate for women's rights, of the last 20 years of struggles for sexual and reproductive health and rights, carried out in many key places where these issues have been debated and decided. I do not aspire to be comprehensive about the current status of human rights related to sexuality and reproduction. Given that my expertise is of a practical (rather than theoretical) nature, the complexity of the topic and contradictory events with regard to it, which take place almost everyday, I will highlight some selected achievements and setbacks in this area, particularly regarding abortion rights. I will provide examples of how human rights related to sexual and reproductive health have been addressed in UN policy-setting bodies, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and Commission on Population and Development, as well as in the UN human rights system such as Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Human Rights Council. Given my work with European institutions, I provide examples of important decisions by the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights. Lastly, I discuss growing opposition to a progressive human rights agenda and the universality of human rights. Despite significant successes, sexual and reproductive rights will long remain controversial and contested. Hence, it is crucial to try to find new ways to engage and new partners to work with. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral.

  8. [Cloning and characterization of genes differentially expressed in human dental pulp cells and gingival fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-dong; Wu, Ji-nan; Zhou, Lin; Ling, Jun-qi; Guo, Xi-min; Xiao, Ming-zhen; Zhu, Feng; Pu, Qin; Chai, Yu-bo; Zhao, Zhong-liang

    2007-02-01

    To study the biological properties of human dental pulp cells (HDPC) by cloning and analysis of genes differentially expressed in HDPC in comparison with human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HDPC and HGF were cultured and identified by immunocytochemistry. HPDC and HGF subtractive cDNA library was established by PCR-based modified subtractive hybridization, genes differentially expressed by HPDC were cloned, sequenced and compared to find homogeneous sequence in GenBank by BLAST. Cloning and sequencing analysis indicate 12 genes differentially expressed were obtained, in which two were unknown genes. Among the 10 known genes, 4 were related to signal transduction, 2 were related to trans-membrane transportation (both cell membrane and nuclear membrane), and 2 were related to RNA splicing mechanisms. The biological properties of HPDC are determined by the differential expression of some genes and the growth and differentiation of HPDC are associated to the dynamic protein synthesis and secretion activities of the cell.

  9. Lineage and the rights of cloned child in the islamic jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Moeinifar, Mohaddeseh; Ardebeli, Faezeh Azimzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Lineage in the Islamic law is one of the most basic human rights each individual inherits from his family. When modern assisted reproductive technologies appeared in recent decades, the issue of lineage and the child's rights did not encounter serious challenges. But with the advent of these technologies, the issue of the child's lineage resulting from new technologies has become the center of attention. These technologies have a large share in the field of medicine. A new technique known as cloning has entered the realm of science and technology. Considering the possibility of the widespread use of this technique, the subject of cloned child's lineage and his/her rights would be one of the major issues related to this subject. In this paper, the authors have examined the various aspects of the subject and the opinions of theologians in this regard in order to present a best solution to this issue. In fact, the fundamental concern in this paper is to figure out the relationship between the cloned child, the cell donor, the egg donor and the owner of the uterus. In this paper, after considering the concepts of the parentage and identical twins' relationship would be explored and then a detailed analysis of the parental relationship and the Shiite jurisprudence scholars' opinion on these issues would be presented. Finally, the rights of cloned children would be taken into consideration.

  10. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  11. Longitudinal Study of Reproductive Performance of Female Cattle Produced by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Polejaeva, Irina A.; Broek, Diane M.; Walker, Shawn C.; Zhou, Wenli; Walton, Mark; Benninghoff, Abby D.; Faber, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether or not reproductive performance in cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is significantly different from that of their genetic donors. To address this question, we directed two longitudinal studies using different embryo production procedures: (1) superovulation followed by artificial insemination (AI) and embryo collection and (2) ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro fertilization (OPU-IVF). Collectively, these two studies represent the largest data set available for any species on the reproductive performance of female clones and their genetic donors as measured by their embryo production outcomes in commercial embryo production program. The large-scale study described herein was conducted over a six-year period of time and provides a unique comparison of 96 clones to the 40 corresponding genetic donors. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study on the reproductive performance of cattle clones using OPU-IVF. With nearly 2,000 reproductive procedures performed and more than 9,200 transferable embryos produced, our observations show that the reproductive performance of cattle produced by SCNT is not different compared to their genetic donors for the production of transferable embryos after either AI followed by embryo collection (P = 0.77) or OPU-IVF (P = 0.97). These data are in agreement with previous reports showing that the reproductive capabilities of cloned cattle are equal to that of conventionally produced cattle. In conclusion, results of this longitudinal study once again demonstrate that cloning technology, in combination with superovulation, AI and embryo collection or OPU-IVF, provides a valuable tool for faster dissemination of superior maternal genetics. PMID:24391930

  12. Longitudinal study of reproductive performance of female cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Broek, Diane M; Walker, Shawn C; Zhou, Wenli; Walton, Mark; Benninghoff, Abby D; Faber, David C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether or not reproductive performance in cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is significantly different from that of their genetic donors. To address this question, we directed two longitudinal studies using different embryo production procedures: (1) superovulation followed by artificial insemination (AI) and embryo collection and (2) ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro fertilization (OPU-IVF). Collectively, these two studies represent the largest data set available for any species on the reproductive performance of female clones and their genetic donors as measured by their embryo production outcomes in commercial embryo production program. The large-scale study described herein was conducted over a six-year period of time and provides a unique comparison of 96 clones to the 40 corresponding genetic donors. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study on the reproductive performance of cattle clones using OPU-IVF. With nearly 2,000 reproductive procedures performed and more than 9,200 transferable embryos produced, our observations show that the reproductive performance of cattle produced by SCNT is not different compared to their genetic donors for the production of transferable embryos after either AI followed by embryo collection (P = 0.77) or OPU-IVF (P = 0.97). These data are in agreement with previous reports showing that the reproductive capabilities of cloned cattle are equal to that of conventionally produced cattle. In conclusion, results of this longitudinal study once again demonstrate that cloning technology, in combination with superovulation, AI and embryo collection or OPU-IVF, provides a valuable tool for faster dissemination of superior maternal genetics.

  13. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Within the Male Reproductive System: Implications for Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly by "priming" the woman's immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast cells in the placenta during pregnancy has been well described. Highly variable amounts of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in seminal plasma from different men have been reported, and the concentration of sHLA-G is associated with HLA-G genotype. A first pilot study indicates that the level of sHLA-G in seminal plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings.

  14. Introduction: MicroRNAs in human reproduction: small molecules with crucial regulatory roles.

    PubMed

    Imbar, Tal; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio; Laufer, Neri

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. In this issue's Views and Reviews, the authors present the current knowledge regarding the involvement of microRNAs in several aspects of human reproduction and discuss its future implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro maturation of human oocytes for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jurema, Marcus W; Nogueira, Daniela

    2006-11-01

    To describe and evaluate the current practice of in vitro maturation of oocytes for assisted reproduction. Review of the available and relevant literature regarding in vitro maturation of oocytes. In vitro maturation of human oocytes retrieved from antral ovarian follicles is an emerging procedure quickly being incorporated into the realm of assisted reproductive technologies. This new technology has several potential advantages over traditional controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF, such as reduction of costs by minimizing gonadotropin and GnRH analogue use, elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and simplicity of protocol. In vitro maturation of oocytes for assisted reproduction in human beings still is undergoing refinement but currently is providing efficacy and safety outcome comparable to that of traditional IVF in recent selected studies. Implementing in vitro maturation into an established IVF practice is feasible and requires only a few simple adjustments. Crucial to the advancement and optimization of the technology is a better understanding of how to maximize immature oocyte developmental competence and endometrial receptivity.

  16. Health status and productive performance of somatic cell cloned cattle and their offspring produced in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    Since the first somatic cell cloned calves were born in Japan in 1998, more than 500 cloned cattle have been produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and many studies concerning cloned cattle and their offspring have been conducted in this country. However, most of the results have been published in Japanese; thus, the data produced in this country is not well utilized by researchers throughout the world. This article reviews the 65 reports produced by Japanese researchers (62 written in Japanese and 3 written in English), which employed 171 clones and 32 offspring, and categorizes them according to the following 7 categories: (1) genetic similarities and muzzle prints, (2) hematology and clinical chemistry findings, (3) pathology, (4) growth performance, (5) reproductive performance, (6) meat production performance and (7) milk production performance. No remarkable differences in health status or reproductive performance were found among conventionally bred cattle, somatic cell cloned cattle surviving to adulthood and offspring of somatic cell cloned cattle. Similarities in growth performance and meat quality were observed between nuclear donor cattle and their clones. The growth curves of the offspring resembled those of their full siblings.

  17. Altered imprinted gene expression and methylation patterns in mid-gestation aborted cloned porcine fetuses and placentas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Dongxu; Han, Yang; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Li, Zhanjun

    2014-11-01

    To determine the expression patterns of imprinted genes and their methylation status in aborted cloned porcine fetuses and placentas. RNA and DNA were prepared from fetuses and placentas that were produced by SCNT and controls from artificial insemination. The expression of 18 imprinted genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR). Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was conducted to determine the methylation status of PRE-1 short interspersed repetitive element (SINE), satellite DNA and H19 differentially methylated region 3 (DMR3). The weight, imprinted gene expression and genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were compared between the mid-gestation aborted and normal control samples. The results showed hypermethylation of PRE-1 and satellite sequences, the aberrant expression of imprinted genes, and the hypomethylation of H19 DMR3 occurred in mid-gestation aborted fetuses and placentas. Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) showed a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than did normal controls because of the incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of the donor cells. Altered expression of imprinted genes and the hypermethylation profile of the repetitive regions (PRE-1 and satellite DNA) may be associated with defective development and early abortion of cloned pigs, emphasizing the importance of epigenetics during pregnancy and implications thereof for patient-specific embryonic stem cells for human therapeutic cloning and improvement of human assisted reproduction.

  18. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  19. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-05

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.

  20. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model. PMID:23166393

  1. Oocyte donation for reproduction and research cloning--the perils of commodification and the need for European and international regulation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ingrid

    2006-01-01

    The demand for women's egg cells is increasing and is leading to reproductive tourism and transnational oocyte trafficking. The article considers the regulatory landscape of oocyte donation in Europe and analyses different types, particularly whether oocytes are provided within or outside of the IVF context, and whether anonymity of the donor is legally possible or not. The bifurcation between different purposes of egg extraction, particularly the challenges raised by ova demands for cloning research (SCNT) are highlighted. In emphasizing the need for supranational regulation, nine rules for supranational minimum standards are proposed to protect both donor interests and the public good. A particular focus is directed to the commodification of oocytes with regard to the European principle of non-commercial, voluntary and altruistic donation.

  2. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. Copyright 2015 Morgan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  3. [Criminal code and assisted human reproduction].

    PubMed

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish Criminal Code punishes in the article 161 the crime of assisted reproduction of the woman without her assent as a form of crime relative to the genetic manipulation. The crime protects a specific area of the freedom of decision of the woman, which is the one that she has dealing with the right to the procreation at the moment of being fertilized. The sentence would include the damages to the health provoked by the birth or the abortion. The crime is a common one--everyone can commit it--and it is not required a result of pregnancy, but it is consumed by the mere intervention on the body of the woman, and its interpretation is contained on the Law 14/2006, of may 26, on technologies of human assisted reproduction. The aim of the work is to propose to consider valid the assent given by the sixteen-year-old women (and older) in coherence with the Project of Law about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of the pregnancy that is studied at this moment, in Spain, in order to harmonize the legal systems.

  4. The commodification of human reproductive materials.

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, D B

    1998-01-01

    This essay develops a framework for thinking about the moral basis for the commodification of human reproductive materials. It argues that selling and buying gametes and genes is morally acceptable although there should not be a market for zygotes, embryos, or genomes. Also a market in gametes and genes should be regulated in order to address concerns about the adverse social consequences of commodification. PMID:9873979

  5. A BAC clone fingerprinting approach to the detection of human genome rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Krzywinski, Martin; Bosdet, Ian; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Brebner, Jay; Chiu, Readman; Corbett, Richard; Field, Matthew; Lee, Darlene; Pugh, Trevor; Volik, Stas; Siddiqui, Asim; Jones, Steven; Schein, Jacquie; Collins, Collin; Marra, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method, called fingerprint profiling (FPP), that uses restriction digest fingerprints of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to detect and classify rearrangements in the human genome. The approach uses alignment of experimental fingerprint patterns to in silico digests of the sequence assembly and is capable of detecting micro-deletions (1-5 kb) and balanced rearrangements. Our method has compelling potential for use as a whole-genome method for the identification and characterization of human genome rearrangements. PMID:17953769

  6. [The discrete horror of cloning].

    PubMed

    Guibourg, Ricardo A

    2009-01-01

    The author raises the topic of cloning after the decision of the Argentine government, which concerned for the "dignity of the human person", passed a decree of need and urgency, No. 200/97 (Annex), prohibiting cloning experiments with human beings. Therefore, considering that the topic is so terribly urgent and necessary, the author feels it is timely to consider it.

  7. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    PubMed

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  8. (New hosts and vectors for genome cloning)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The main goal of our project remains the development of new bacterial hosts and vectors for the stable propagation of human DNA clones in E. coli. During the past six months of our current budget period, we have (1) continued to develop new hosts that permit the stable maintenance of unstable features of human DNA, and (2) developed a series of vectors for (a) cloning large DNA inserts, (b) assessing the frequency of human sequences that are lethal to the growth of E. coli, and (c) assessing the stability of human sequences cloned in M13 for large-scale sequencing projects.

  9. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  10. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Growth analysis on modules of Cynodon dactylon clones in Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Janar; Li, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2009-04-01

    By the method of randomly digging up whole ramet tuft while maintaining natural integrity, large samples of Cynodon dactylon clones were collected from a grape orchard abandoned for 2 years without any management in the Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang, aimed to quantitatively analyze the growth patterns of their modules. The results showed that the average ramet number of test 30 clones reached 272.6 +/- 186. 6, among which, vegetative ramets occupied 82.3%, being 4.3 times higher than reproductive ones. The total biomass of the clones was 45.4 +/- 40.0 g, in which, rhizomes accounted for 54.4%, while the vegetative ramets, stolons, and reproductive ramets occupied 21.0%, 14.8%, and 9.4% of the total, respectively. The accumulative length of rhizomes and stolons reached 5.1 + 4.7 m and 3.3 +/- 3.4 m, while the bud number on stolons and rhizomes was 291.5 +/- 246.8 and 78.8 +/- 87.4, respectively. The bud number on stolons and rhizomes was positively correlated to the quantitative characters of vegetative ramets, reproductive ramets, stolons, and rhizomes (P < 0.01), indicating that in Yili River Valley Plain, C. dactylon clone could achieve and maintain its continuous renovation via rhizome buds.

  12. Human body motion tracking based on quantum-inspired immune cloning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hong; Yue, Lichuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Xing

    2009-10-01

    In a static monocular camera system, to gain a perfect 3D human body posture is a great challenge for Computer Vision technology now. This paper presented human postures recognition from video sequences using the Quantum-Inspired Immune Cloning Algorithm (QICA). The algorithm included three parts. Firstly, prior knowledge of human beings was used, the key joint points of human could be detected automatically from the human contours and skeletons which could be thinning from the contours; And due to the complexity of human movement, a forecasting mechanism of occlusion joint points was addressed to get optimum 2D key joint points of human body; And then pose estimation recovered by optimizing between the 2D projection of 3D human key joint points and 2D detection key joint points using QICA, which recovered the movement of human body perfectly, because this algorithm could acquire not only the global optimal solution, but the local optimal solution.

  13. Prostasomes: Their Characterisation: Implications for Human Reproduction: Prostasomes and Human Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ronquist, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is a principal accessory genital gland that is vital for normal fertility. Epithelial cells lining the prostate acini release in a defined fashion (exocytosis) organellar nanosized structures named prostasomes. They are involved in the protection of sperm cells against immune response in the female reproductive tract by modulating the complement system and by inhibiting monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. The immunomodulatory function most probably involves small non-coding RNAs present in prostasomes. Prostasomes have also been proposed to regulate the timing of sperm cell capacitation and induction of the acrosome reaction, since they are rich in various transferable bioactive molecules (e.g. receptors and enzymes) that promote the fertilising ability of sperm cells. Antigenicity of sperm cells has been well documented and implicated in involuntary immunological infertility of human couples, and antisperm antibodies (ASA) occur in several body fluids. The propensity of sperm cells to carry attached prostasomes suggests that they are a new category of sperm antigens. Circulating human ASA recognise prostasomes, and among 12 identified prostasomal antigens, prolactin- inducible protein (95 %) and clusterin (85 %) were immunodominant at the expense of the other 10 that were sporadically occurring.

  14. A REVIEW OF HUMAN STUDIES ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many pesticides cxause reproductive or developmental toxicity at high doses in animal models, but effects in humans at environmental exposure levels are difficult to assess. Human data on reproductive and developmental outcomes for currently used pesticides may help to define ris...

  15. Effects of sexual reproduction of the inferior competitor Brachionus calyciflorus on its fitness against Brachionus angularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Niu, Cuijuan

    2015-03-01

    Sexual reproduction adversely affects the population growth of cyclic parthenogenetic animals. The density-dependent sexual reproduction of a superior competitor could mediate the coexistence. However, the cost of sex may make the inferior competitor more vulnerable. To investigate the effect of sexual reproduction on the inferior competitor, we experimentally paired the competition of one Brachionus angularis clone against three Brachionus calyciflorus clones. One of the B. calyciflorus clones showed a low propensity for sexual reproduction, while the other two showed high propensities. The results show that all B. calyciflorus clones were excluded in the competition for resources at low food level. The increased food level promoted the competition persistence, but the clones did not show a clear pattern. Both the cumulative population density and resting egg production increased with the food level. The cumulative population density decreased with the mixis investment, while the resting egg production increased with the mixis investment. A trade-off between the population growth and sexual reproduction was observed in this research. The results indicate that although higher mixis investment resulted in a lower population density, it would not determinately accelerate the exclusion process of the inferior competitor. On the contrary, higher mixis investment promoted resting egg production before being excluded and thus promised a long-term benefit. In conclusion, our results suggest that mixis investment, to some extent, favored the excluded inferior competitor under fierce competition or some other adverse conditions.

  16. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  17. Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Sado, Takashi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2009-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has many potential applications in the fields of basic and applied sciences. However, it has a disadvantage that can never be overcome technically-the inflexibility of the sex of the offspring. Here, we report an accidental birth of a female mouse following nuclear transfer using an immature Sertoli cell. We produced a batch of 27 clones in a nuclear transfer experiment using Sertoli cells collected from neonatal male mice. Among them, one pup was female. This "male-derived female" clone grew into a normal adult and produced offspring by natural mating with a littermate. Chromosomal analysis revealed that the female clone had a 39,X karyotype, indicating that the Y chromosome had been deleted in the donor cell or at some early step during nuclear transfer. This finding suggests the possibility of resuming sexual reproduction after a single male is cloned, which should be especially useful for reviving extinct or endangered species.

  18. [The influence of melatonin on human reproduction].

    PubMed

    Boczek-Leszczyk, Emilia; Juszczak, Marlena

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews the possible participation of melatonin in the process of human reproduction. The results of several studies have shown the clear correlation between melatonin and gonadotropins and/or sexual steroids, which suggest that melatonin may be involved in the sexual maturation, ovulation or menopause. Decreased secretion of melatonin which coexists with increased fertility in the summer is specific for women living on the north hemisphere. Moreover, abnormal levels of melatonin in the blood are associated with several disorders of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis activity, i.e., precocious or delayed pubertas, hypogonadotrophic or hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism or amenorrhoea. Melatonin binding sites have been demonstrated in the central nervous system (mainly in the pars dystalis of the pituitary and hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) as well as in the reproductive organs, e.g., human granulosa cells, prostate and spermatozoa. Melatonin can, therefore, influence the gonadal function indirectly--via its effect on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and/or gonadotropins secretion. It may also act directly; several data show that melatonin can be synthesized in gonads.

  19. Dissimilar distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi clones in humans after chemotherapy with allopurinol and itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Ximena; Zulantay, Inés; Rozas, Marlene; Apt, Werner; Sánchez, Gittith; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ortiz, Sylvia; Solari, Aldo

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi clones after treatment failure with itraconazole or allopurinol in infected humans. Blood samples from treated and untreated individuals were used to detect T. cruzi by PCR assays and were confirmed by hybridization tests using total kinetoplast DNA as a universal probe. Also, xenodiagnosis (XD) tests were performed with Triatoma infestans fed from the same group of patients. We performed Southern-blot analyses of PCR products from blood or XD samples using a panel of four genotype-specific probes: corresponding to T. cruzi clones TcI, TcIIb, TcIId and TcIIe. The membranes were hybridized with radiolabelled probes and exposed in a Personal Molecular Imager. When comparing the presence of T. cruzi clones in the allopurinol-treated group with the non-treated group significant differences were only observed for XD samples. Clone TcI was present in 9/13 (69.2%) of the XD samples of the treated group, but only in 8/27 (29.6%) in the non-treated group (P = 0.0178). When the itraconazole-treated group and the control group were compared, significant differences were found in both the blood and XD samples. In blood, the clone TcIIb was detected in 6/17 (35.5%) of the treated group and in 18/27 (66.7%) of the non-treated group (P = 0.0207). When XD samples were analysed, the clone TcI was observed in 14/17 (82.3%) of the itraconazole-treated group but only in 8/27 (29.6%) of the control group (P = 0.0006), which suggests resistance of this clone to itraconazole. We detected a dissimilar distribution of T. cruzi clones in treated and untreated groups of patients. The presence of TcI increased in patients treated with allopurinol and itraconazole, whereas the presence of TcIIb decreased in itraconazole-treated patients. The type of T. cruzi clone that prevails suggests that TcI is resistant to both drugs and that TcIIb is susceptible to itraconazole.

  20. Lineage and the Rights of Cloned Child in the Islamic Jurisprudence

    PubMed Central

    Moeinifar, Mohaddeseh; Ardebeli, Faezeh Azimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Lineage in the Islamic law is one of the most basic human rights each individual inherits from his family. When modern assisted reproductive technologies appeared in recent decades, the issue of lineage and the child's rights did not encounter serious challenges. But with the advent of these technologies, the issue of the child's lineage resulting from new technologies has become the center of attention. These technologies have a large share in the field of medicine. A new technique known as cloning has entered the realm of science and technology. Considering the possibility of the widespread use of this technique, the subject of cloned child's lineage and his/her rights would be one of the major issues related to this subject. In this paper, the authors have examined the various aspects of the subject and the opinions of theologians in this regard in order to present a best solution to this issue. In fact, the fundamental concern in this paper is to figure out the relationship between the cloned child, the cell donor, the egg donor and the owner of the uterus. In this paper, after considering the concepts of the parentage and identical twins’ relationship would be explored and then a detailed analysis of the parental relationship and the Shiite jurisprudence scholars' opinion on these issues would be presented. Finally, the rights of cloned children would be taken into consideration. PMID:23926545

  1. Construction and characterization of a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 infectious molecular clone.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Sébastien Alain; Ko, Nga Ling; Calattini, Sara; Mallet, Adeline; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Kehn, Kylene; Brady, John N; Kashanchi, Fatah; Gessain, Antoine; Mahieux, Renaud

    2008-07-01

    We and others have uncovered the existence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3). We have now generated an HTLV-3 proviral clone. We established that gag, env, pol, pro, and tax/rex as well as minus-strand mRNAs are present in cells transfected with the HTLV-3 clone. HTLV-3 p24(gag) protein is detected in the cell culture supernatant. Transfection of 293T-long terminal repeat (LTR)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells with the HTLV-3 clone promotes formation of syncytia, a hallmark of Env expression, together with the appearance of fluorescent cells, demonstrating that Tax is expressed. Viral particles are visible by electron microscopy. These particles are infectious, as demonstrated by infection experiments with purified virions.

  2. Characteristics of genomic instability in clones of TK6 human lymphoblasts surviving exposure to 56Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Helen H.; Horng, Min-Fen; Ricanati, Marlene; Diaz-Insua, Mireya; Jordan, Robert; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Genomic instability in the human lymphoblast cell line TK6 was studied in clones surviving 36 generations after exposure to accelerated 56Fe ions. Clones were assayed for 20 characteristics, including chromosome aberrations, plating efficiency, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, response to a second irradiation, and mutant frequency at two loci. The primary effect of the 56Fe-ion exposure on the surviving clones was a significant increase in the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations compared to the very low spontaneous frequency, along with an increase in the phenotypic complexity of the unstable clones. The radiation-induced increase in the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations was much greater than that observed previously in clones of the related cell line, WTK1, which in comparison to the TK6 cell line expresses an increased radiation resistance, a mutant TP53 protein, and an increased frequency of spontaneous unstable chromosome aberrations. The characteristics of the unstable clones of the two cell lines also differed. Most of the TK6 clones surviving exposure to 56Fe ions showed unstable cytogenetic abnormalities, while the phenotype of the WTK1 clones was more diverse. The results underscore the importance of genotype in the characteristics of instability after radiation exposure.

  3. Using therapeutic cloning to fight human disease: a conundrum or reality?

    PubMed

    Hall, Vanessa J; Stojkovic, Petra; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-07-01

    The development and transplantation of autologous cells derived from nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell (NT-ESC) lines to treat patients suffering from disease has been termed therapeutic cloning. Human NT is still a developing field, with further research required to improve somatic cell NT and human embryonic stem cell differentiation to deliver safe and effective cell replacement therapies. Furthermore, the implications of transferring mitochondrial heteroplasmic cells, which may harbor aberrant epigenetic gene expression profiles, are of concern. The production of human NT-ESC lines also remains plagued by ethical dilemmas, societal concerns, and controversies. Recently, a number of alternate therapeutic strategies have been proposed to circumvent the moral implications surrounding human nuclear transfer. It will be critical to overcome these biological, legislative, and moral restraints to maximize the potential of this therapeutic strategy and to alleviate human disease.

  4. Isolation and expression of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor cDNA clones: Homology to Epstein-Barr virus open reading frame BCRFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, P.; De Waal-Malefyt, R.; Dang, M.N.

    1991-02-15

    The authors demonstrated the existence of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (DSIF) (interleukin 10 (IL-10)). cDNA clones encoding human IL-10 (hIL-10) were isolated from a tetanus toxin-specific human T-cell clone. Like mouse IL-10, hIL-10 exhibits strong DNA and amino acid sequence homology to an open reading frame in the Epstein-Barr virus, BDRFL. hIL-10 and the BCRFI product inhibit cytokine synthesis by activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by a mouse Th1 clone. Both hIL-10 and mouse IL-10 sustain the viability of a mouse mast cell line in culture, but BCRFI lacks comparable activity in this way, suggesting that BCRFImore » may have conserved only a subset of hIL-10 activities.« less

  5. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  6. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  7. Therapeutic cloning: from consequences to contradiction.

    PubMed

    Coors, Marilyn

    2002-06-01

    The British Parliament legalized therapeutic cloning in December 2000 despite opposition from the European Union. The watershed event in Parliament's move was the active and unprecedented government support for the generation and destruction of human embryonic life merely as a means of medical advancement. This article contends that the utilitarian analysis of this procedure is necessary to identify the real world risks of therapeutic cloning but insufficient to identify the breach of defensible ethical limits that this procedure represents. A value-oriented approach to Kantian ethics demonstrates that the utilitarian endorsement of therapeutic cloning entails a contradiction of the necessity of human vulnerability and a faulty valuation of the human embryo. The concern is that a narrow utilitarian focus ultimately commodifies human embryonic life and preferences outcomes as the sole determinant of moral value.

  8. Alternatives in Human Reproduction for Involuntary Childless Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses human reproductive alternatives such as artificial insemination by husband and by donor, surrogate pregnancy, and in vitro fertilization in relation to involuntarily childless couples. Concludes by raising a number of questions for practice, policy, and research in the area of family life. (Author)

  9. A full-length cDNA infectious clone of North American type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: expression of green fluorescent protein in the Nsp2 region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Rowland, Raymond R R; Roof, Michael; Lunney, Joan K; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Nelson, Eric A

    2006-12-01

    The recent emergence of a unique group of North American type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in the United States presents new disease control problems for a swine industry that has already been impacted seriously by North American type 2 PRRSV. In this study, a full-length cDNA infectious clone was generated from a low-virulence North American type 1 PRRSV isolate, SD01-08. In vitro studies demonstrated that the cloned virus maintained growth properties similar to those of the parental virus. Virological, pathological, and immunological observations from animals challenged with cloned viruses were similar to those from animals challenged with the parental virus and a modified live virus vaccine. To further explore the potential use as a viral backbone for expressing foreign genes, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted into a unique deletion site located at amino acid positions 348 and 349 of the predicted Nsp2 region in the virus, and expression of the Nsp2-GFP fusion protein was visualized by fluorescent microscopy. The availability of this North American type 1 infectious clone provides an important research tool for further study of the basic viral biology and pathogenic mechanisms of this group of type 1 PRRSV in the United States.

  10. A Full-Length cDNA Infectious Clone of North American Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein in the Nsp2 Region▿

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ying; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Roof, Michael; Lunney, Joan K.; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Nelson, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent emergence of a unique group of North American type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in the United States presents new disease control problems for a swine industry that has already been impacted seriously by North American type 2 PRRSV. In this study, a full-length cDNA infectious clone was generated from a low-virulence North American type 1 PRRSV isolate, SD01-08. In vitro studies demonstrated that the cloned virus maintained growth properties similar to those of the parental virus. Virological, pathological, and immunological observations from animals challenged with cloned viruses were similar to those from animals challenged with the parental virus and a modified live virus vaccine. To further explore the potential use as a viral backbone for expressing foreign genes, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted into a unique deletion site located at amino acid positions 348 and 349 of the predicted Nsp2 region in the virus, and expression of the Nsp2-GFP fusion protein was visualized by fluorescent microscopy. The availability of this North American type 1 infectious clone provides an important research tool for further study of the basic viral biology and pathogenic mechanisms of this group of type 1 PRRSV in the United States. PMID:16971421

  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta-receptors and porcine muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Chung, F Z; Lentes, K U; Gocayne, J; Fitzgerald, M; Robinson, D; Kerlavage, A R; Fraser, C M; Venter, J C

    1987-01-26

    Two cDNA clones, lambda-CLFV-108 and lambda-CLFV-119, encoding for the beta-adrenergic receptor, have been isolated from a human brain stem cDNA library. One human genomic clone, LCV-517 (20 kb), was characterized by restriction mapping and partial sequencing. The human brain beta-receptor consists of 413 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 46480. The gene contains three potential glucocorticoid receptor-binding sites. The beta-receptor expressed in human brain was homology with rodent (88%) and avian (52%) beta-receptors and with porcine muscarinic cholinergic receptors (31%), supporting our proposal [(1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 272 276] that adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are structurally related. This represents the first cloning of a neurotransmitter receptor gene from human brain.

  12. Isolation and sequence of partial cDNA clones of human L1: homology of human and rodent L1 in the cytoplasmic region.

    PubMed

    Harper, J R; Prince, J T; Healy, P A; Stuart, J K; Nauman, S J; Stallcup, W B

    1991-03-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones coding for the human homologue of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA clones and the deduced primary amino acid sequence of the carboxy terminal portion of the human L1 are homologous to the corresponding sequences of mouse L1 and rat NILE glycoprotein, with an especially high sequences identity in the cytoplasmic regions of the proteins. There is also protein sequence homology with the cytoplasmic region of the Drosophila cell adhesion molecule, neuroglian. The conservation of the cytoplasmic domain argues for an important functional role for this portion of the molecule.

  13. Confirmation of germ-line transmission in the red fluorescence protein (RFP) transgenic cloned male cat.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su-Jin; Lee, Young S; Lee, Jae-Ik; Bang, Jae-Il; Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Kong, Il-Keun

    2010-12-01

    The production of transgenic animals is highly desirable for biotechnology and basic research. We investigated the reproductive ability of a red fluorescence protein (RFP) transgenic cloned male cat (RFP TG cat) by natural mating with a domestic female cat. The RFP expression levels were examined in early embryogenesis, tissues from 45-day-old two fetuses, and four RFP TG cat offspring. The RFP gene was detected in tissue samples from one dead kitten, including several organs and the skin. Also, under a fluorescent light source, we were able to directly detect the RFP expression of in in vitro-produced blastocysts derived with sperm from the RFP TG cat. These results indicate that the RFP TG cat exhibits normal reproductive fertility, stable germ-line transmission of the RFP transgene, and characteristic RFP expression in its offspring. We isolated feline neural progenitor cells from a 45-day-old fetus derived from the natural mating of the RFP TG cat with a domestic female cat. Isolated brain and retinal progenitor cells were successfully passaged at least four times post isolation (day 23), and showed a high RFP expression level. This method of producing genetically modified cloned cats will be important for generating biomedical models of human diseases.

  14. Food availability at birth limited reproductive success in historical humans.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Ian J; Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Helle, Samuli; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life can profoundly affect individual development and have consequences for reproductive success. Limited food availability may be one of the reasons for this, but direct evidence linking variation in early-life nutrition to reproductive performance in adulthood in natural populations is sparse. We combined historical agricultural data with detailed demographic church records to investigate the effect of food availability around the time of birth on the reproductive success of 927 men and women born in 18th-century Finland. Our study population exhibits natural mortality and fertility rates typical of many preindustrial societies, and individuals experienced differing access to resources due to social stratification. We found that among both men and women born into landless families (i.e., with low access to resources), marital prospects, probability of reproduction, and offspring viability were all positively related to local crop yield during the birth year. Such effects were generally absent among those born into landowning families. Among landless individuals born when yields of the two main crops, rye and barley, were both below median, only 50% of adult males and 55% of adult females gained any reproductive success in their lifetime, whereas 97% and 95% of those born when both yields were above the median did so. Our results suggest that maternal investment in offspring in prenatal or early postnatal life may have profound implications for the evolutionary fitness of human offspring, particularly among those for which resources are more limiting. Our study adds support to the idea that early nutrition can limit reproductive success in natural animal populations, and provides the most direct evidence to date that this process applies to humans.

  15. Human reproduction in art: from myths to history.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Felice; Bettini, Maurizio

    2010-08-01

    Conception, gestation, and birth, including maternal-fetal health, have been the subject of narrative and art since early human history. Myth and histories related to pregnancy were represented by sculptors and painters as well as the subject of several operas: the mystery of reproduction was always a fascinating theme. This mystery was commonly represented across cultures and time, in the old world, from Egypt to India, to Greece and Rome continuing until the Renaissance and the Modern period. To be an artist meant also to be a scientist in several societies. The current paper reports 12 examples of the fusion of art and reproductive science.

  16. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Tropf, Felix C; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F; Chasman, Daniel I; Nolte, Ilja M; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F; McMahon, George; Meddens, S Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M; de Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; Faul, Jessica D; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; de Haan, Hugoline G; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Ring, Susan M; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F; Zondervan, Krina T; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F; Lee, James J; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C

    2016-12-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.

  17. A study on current risk assessments and guidelines on the use of food animal products derived from cloned animals.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-10-01

    The author widely surveyed and analyzed the food safety issues, ethical issues, permits, and approval of animal products from animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer worldwide. As a result of a 2-year survey, the author found that there is no evidence that meat and milk derived from cloned animals or their progeny pose a risk to food safety in terms of genotoxicity, adverse reproductive effects, or allergic reactions. Most countries have not approved meat and milk derived from cloned animals, and their progeny are entering the food supply. To establish the guidelines, the author suggests four principles of safety assessment for meat and milk derived from cloned animals. The four main principles for safety assessment are similarities of chemical composition, adverse reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and allergic reactions under the influence of meat and milk from cloned animals and noncloned counterparts. This principle means that meat and milk derived from a cloned animal are safe if there are no differences in the four safety assessments of meat and milk between cloned animal's progeny and noncloned counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. cDNA cloning of rat and human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Y.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.

    MCAD is one of three mitochondrial flavoenzymes which catalyze the first step in the ..beta..-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. It is a tetramer with a subunit Mr of 45 kDa. MCAD is synthesized in the cytosol as a 49 kDa precursor polypeptide (pMCAD), imported into mitochondria, and cleaved to the mature form. Genetic deficiency of MCAD causes recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic coma accompanied by medium chain dicarboxylic aciduria. Employing a novel approach, the authors now report isolation of partial rat and human cDNA clones encoding pMCAD. mRNA encoding pMCAD was purified to near homogeneity by polysome immunoadsorption using polyclonalmore » monospecific antibody. Single-stranded (/sup 32/P)labeled cDNA probe was synthesized using the enriched mRNA as template, and was used to screen directly 16,000 colonies from a total rat liver cDNA library constructed in pBR322. One clone (600 bp) was detected by in situ hybridization. Hybrid-selected translation with this cDNA yielded a 49 kDa polypeptide indistinguishable in size from rat pMCAD and immunoprecipitable with anti-MCAD antibody. Using the rat cDNA as probe, 43,000 colonies from a human liver cDNA library were screened. Four identical positive clones (400 bp) were isolated and positively identified by hybrid-selected translation and immunoprecipitation. The sizes of rat and human mRNAs encoding pMCAD were 2.2 kb and 2.4 kb, respectively, as determined by Northern blotting.« less

  19. Predicting human cloning acceptability: a national Greek survey on the beliefs of the public.

    PubMed

    Tzamalouka, Georgia S; Papadakaki, Maria; Soultatou, Pelagia; Chatzifotiou, Sevasti; Tarlatzis, Basil; El Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2005-10-01

    In the era of human genome research, there is a large theoretical debate among scientists and authorities on the ethical dimension based on the moral liberty of the individuals and the scientific and economic dimension based on the freedom and the independence of the scientific and technological activities. Meanwhile, the understanding of beliefs on human cloning (HC) and its acceptability are important for the development of evidence-based policy making. However, previous research in the field of public beliefs towards human genetics is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of public beliefs as predictors of the acceptability of the respondents to use HC. Personal interviews were conducted with 1020 men and women of urban areas in Greece. Stratified random sampling was performed to select participants. Several scientists, experts in HC, evaluated the content of the instrument initially developed. The final questionnaire was the result of a pilot study. The acceptability of HC for the cure of incurable diseases and transplantation need is very high (70.7 and 58.6%, respectively). Public's intention to have recourse to HC because of "bringing" back to life a loved person or because of reproductive disorders was reported by 35 and 32.5%, respectively. With respect to the role of beliefs: increasing scores of reasons of social benefits, moral/religious reasons and legislative reasons increased the public's intention to have recourse to HC; inversely, decreasing scores of reasons of human commodification/exploitation increased public's intention to have recourse to HC. Additionally, low rates of church attendance appeared to be correlated with high reported acceptability of HC. There is great public concern regarding the application of HC, which probably reflects the existing ambivalence over the relationship between technology and society. Scientists and policymakers should take into account these indicators of public disquiet and should

  20. Bisphenol A and Reproductive Health: Update of Experimental and Human Evidence, 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Jackye; Vrooman, Lisa; Ricke, William A.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Hauser, Russ; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Taylor, Hugh S.; Swan, Shanna H.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, an expert panel reviewed associations between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and reproductive health outcomes. Since then, new studies have been conducted on the impact of BPA on reproduction. Objective: In this review, we summarize data obtained since 2007, focusing on a) findings from human and animal studies, b) the effects of BPA on a variety of reproductive end points, and c) mechanisms of BPA action. Methods: We reviewed the literature published from 2007 to 2013 using a PubMed search based on keywords related to BPA and male and female reproduction. Discussion: Because BPA has been reported to affect the onset of meiosis in both animal and in vitro models, interfere with germ cell nest breakdown in animal models, accelerate follicle transition in several animal species, alter steroidogenesis in multiple animal models and women, and reduce oocyte quality in animal models and women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we consider it an ovarian toxicant. In addition, strong evidence suggests that BPA is a uterine toxicant because it impaired uterine endometrial proliferation, decreased uterine receptivity, and increased implantation failure in animal models. BPA exposure may be associated with adverse birth outcomes, hyperandrogenism, sexual dysfunction, and impaired implantation in humans, but additional studies are required to confirm these associations. Studies also suggest that BPA may be a testicular toxicant in animal models, but the data in humans are equivocal. Finally, insufficient evidence exists regarding effects of BPA on the oviduct, the placenta, and pubertal development. Conclusion: Based on reports that BPA impacts female reproduction and has the potential to affect male reproductive systems in humans and animals, we conclude that BPA is a reproductive toxicant. Citation: Peretz J, Vrooman L, Ricke WA, Hunt PA, Ehrlich S, Hauser R, Padmanabhan V, Taylor HS, Swan SH, VandeVoort CA, Flaws JA. 2014. Bisphenol A and reproductive

  1. [Media, cloning, and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Costa, S I; Diniz, D

    2000-01-01

    This article was based on an analysis of three hundred articles from mainstream Brazilian periodicals over a period of eighteen months, beginning with the announcement of the Dolly case in February 1997. There were two main objectives: to outline the moral constants in the press associated with the possibility of cloning human beings and to identify some of the moral assumptions concerning scientific research with non-human animals that were published carelessly by the media. The authors conclude that there was a haphazard spread of fear concerning the cloning of human beings rather than an ethical debate on the issue, and that there is a serious gap between bioethical reflections and the Brazilian media.

  2. Development of high-throughput phenotyping of metagenomic clones from the human gut microbiome for modulation of eukaryotic cell growth.

    PubMed

    Gloux, Karine; Leclerc, Marion; Iliozer, Harout; L'Haridon, René; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Corthier, Gérard; Nalin, Renaud; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2007-06-01

    Metagenomic libraries derived from human intestinal microbiota (20,725 clones) were screened for epithelial cell growth modulation. Modulatory clones belonging to the four phyla represented among the metagenomic libraries were identified (hit rate, 0.04 to 8.7% depending on the screening cutoff). Several candidate loci were identified by transposon mutagenesis and subcloning.

  3. Molecular cloning of a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, tif, highly expressed in human ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Dai, W; Pan, H; Hassanain, H; Gupta, S L; Murphy, M J

    1994-03-01

    Using a combination of polymerase chain reaction and conventional cDNA library screening approaches, we have cloned and characterized a putative receptor tyrosine kinase termed tif. The extracellular domain of tif has an immunoglobulin-like loop and a fibronectin type III structure. The intracellular domain contains a tyrosine kinase domain. Compared with ryk, a ubiquitously expressed receptor tyrosine kinase, tif expression is tissue-specific with human ovary and testis containing the highest amount of tif mRNA. Many other tested human tissues such as heart, liver, pancreas and thymus do not contain detectable levels of tif mRNA. The molecular cloning and characterization of tif cDNA will facilitate the identification of a potential ligand(s) for the putative receptor and the study of its biological role.

  4. Cloning, Assembly, and Modification of the Primary Human Cytomegalovirus Isolate Toledo by Yeast-Based Transformation-Associated Recombination.

    PubMed

    Vashee, Sanjay; Stockwell, Timothy B; Alperovich, Nina; Denisova, Evgeniya A; Gibson, Daniel G; Cady, Kyle C; Miller, Kristofer; Kannan, Krishna; Malouli, Daniel; Crawford, Lindsey B; Voorhies, Alexander A; Bruening, Eric; Caposio, Patrizia; Früh, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Genetic engineering of cytomegalovirus (CMV) currently relies on generating a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) by introducing a bacterial origin of replication into the viral genome using in vivo recombination in virally infected tissue culture cells. However, this process is inefficient, results in adaptive mutations, and involves deletion of viral genes to avoid oversized genomes when inserting the BAC cassette. Moreover, BAC technology does not permit the simultaneous manipulation of multiple genome loci and cannot be used to construct synthetic genomes. To overcome these limitations, we adapted synthetic biology tools to clone CMV genomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Using an early passage of the human CMV isolate Toledo, we first applied transformation-associated recombination (TAR) to clone 16 overlapping fragments covering the entire Toledo genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Then, we assembled these fragments by TAR in a stepwise process until the entire genome was reconstituted in yeast. Since next-generation sequence analysis revealed that the low-passage-number isolate represented a mixture of parental and fibroblast-adapted genomes, we selectively modified individual DNA fragments of fibroblast-adapted Toledo (Toledo-F) and again used TAR assembly to recreate parental Toledo (Toledo-P). Linear, full-length HCMV genomes were transfected into human fibroblasts to recover virus. Unlike Toledo-F, Toledo-P displayed characteristics of primary isolates, including broad cellular tropism in vitro and the ability to establish latency and reactivation in humanized mice. Our novel strategy thus enables de novo cloning of CMV genomes, more-efficient genome-wide engineering, and the generation of viral genomes that are partially or completely derived from synthetic DNA. IMPORTANCE The genomes of large DNA viruses, such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), are difficult to manipulate using current genetic tools, and at this time, it is not possible to obtain

  5. Cloning, Assembly, and Modification of the Primary Human Cytomegalovirus Isolate Toledo by Yeast-Based Transformation-Associated Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Vashee, Sanjay; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Alperovich, Nina; Denisova, Evgeniya A.; Gibson, Daniel G.; Cady, Kyle C.; Miller, Kristofer; Kannan, Krishna; Malouli, Daniel; Crawford, Lindsey B.; Voorhies, Alexander A.; Bruening, Eric; Caposio, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic engineering of cytomegalovirus (CMV) currently relies on generating a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) by introducing a bacterial origin of replication into the viral genome using in vivo recombination in virally infected tissue culture cells. However, this process is inefficient, results in adaptive mutations, and involves deletion of viral genes to avoid oversized genomes when inserting the BAC cassette. Moreover, BAC technology does not permit the simultaneous manipulation of multiple genome loci and cannot be used to construct synthetic genomes. To overcome these limitations, we adapted synthetic biology tools to clone CMV genomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using an early passage of the human CMV isolate Toledo, we first applied transformation-associated recombination (TAR) to clone 16 overlapping fragments covering the entire Toledo genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Then, we assembled these fragments by TAR in a stepwise process until the entire genome was reconstituted in yeast. Since next-generation sequence analysis revealed that the low-passage-number isolate represented a mixture of parental and fibroblast-adapted genomes, we selectively modified individual DNA fragments of fibroblast-adapted Toledo (Toledo-F) and again used TAR assembly to recreate parental Toledo (Toledo-P). Linear, full-length HCMV genomes were transfected into human fibroblasts to recover virus. Unlike Toledo-F, Toledo-P displayed characteristics of primary isolates, including broad cellular tropism in vitro and the ability to establish latency and reactivation in humanized mice. Our novel strategy thus enables de novo cloning of CMV genomes, more-efficient genome-wide engineering, and the generation of viral genomes that are partially or completely derived from synthetic DNA. IMPORTANCE The genomes of large DNA viruses, such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), are difficult to manipulate using current genetic tools, and at this time, it is not possible to

  6. Cloning-free CRISPR

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each target locus. We introduce a self-cleaving palindromic sgRNA plasmid and a short double-stranded DNA sequence encoding the desired locus-specific sgRNA into target cells, allowing them to produce a locus-specific sgRNA plasmid through homologous recombination. scCRISPR enables efficient generation of gene knockouts (∼88% mutation rate) at approximately one-sixth the cost of plasmid-based sgRNA construction with only 2 hr of preparation for each targeted site. Additionally, we demonstrate efficient site-specific knockin of GFP transgenes without any plasmid cloning or genome-integrated selection cassette in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (2%–4% knockin rate) through PCR-based addition of short homology arms. scCRISPR substantially lowers the bar on mouse and human transgenesis. PMID:26527385

  7. Applications of quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomarico, E.; Sanguinetti, B.; Sekatski, P.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.

    2011-10-01

    Quantum Cloning Machines (QCMs) allow for the copying of information, within the limits imposed by quantum mechanics. These devices are particularly interesting in the high-gain regime, i.e., when one input qubit generates a state of many output qubits. In this regime, they allow for the study of certain aspects of the quantum to classical transition. The understanding of these aspects is the root of the two recent applications that we will review in this paper: the first one is the Quantum Cloning Radiometer, a device which is able to produce an absolute measure of spectral radiance. This device exploits the fact that in the quantum regime information can be copied with only finite fidelity, whereas when a state becomes macroscopic, this fidelity gradually increases to 1. Measuring the fidelity of the cloning operation then allows to precisely determine the absolute spectral radiance of the input optical source. We will then discuss whether a Quantum Cloning Machine could be used to produce a state visible by the naked human eye, and the possibility of a Bell Experiment with humans playing the role of detectors.

  8. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R. B.; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Panagiota, Kalafati Ioanna; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathy; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tonjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Daniela, Toniolo; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Geus, Eco JC.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Felicita, Sala Cinzia; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hopper, John; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Michela, Traglia; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tönjes, Anke; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior – age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) – has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report the largest genome-wide association study to date of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study, and four additional loci in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to play a role – either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression – in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing our understanding of these complex traits. PMID:27798627

  9. Reproduction and fertility in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, E; Prins, J M; Jurriaans, S; Boer, K; Reiss, P; Repping, S; van der Veen, F

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) affects mostly men and women in their reproductive years. For those who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the course of HIV-1 infection has shifted from a lethal to a chronic disease. As a result of this, many patients with HIV-1 consider having offspring, as do other patients of reproductive age with chronic illnesses. This article summarizes the current knowledge on the presence of HIV in the male and female genital tract, the effects of HIV-1 infection and HAART on male and female fertility and the results of various assisted reproduction techniques (ART) in HIV-1-infected men and women who wish to have offspring.

  10. Egg donation, surrogate mothering, and cloning: attitudes of men and women in Germany based on a representative survey.

    PubMed

    Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Goldschmidt, Susanne; Brähler, Elmar; Weidner, Kerstin; Beutel, Manfred

    2009-07-01

    To determine opinions and attitudes of the German general population toward the treatment methods of reproductive medicine: egg donation, surrogate mothering, and reproductive cloning. Representative survey. German general population: face-to-face interviews at home with 2,110 persons, aged 18-50 years. Patients were not included. No interventions took place. Approval and disapproval of treatment methods of reproductive medicine and preimplantation genetic diagnosis were assessed by questionnaires regarding medical, age, reasons, or general. Overall, the diverse treatment methods of reproductive medicine found comparable rates of approval and disapproval. Legalization of egg donation was approved by a slight majority (50.8%), particularly for medical reasons (35.9%). Surrogate mothering found lower overall rates of approval (43.7%), 28.5% supported an admission for medical reasons. Reproductive cloning was rejected by the vast majority (82.9%). Attitudes to reproductive medicine were affected by age and the individual reproductive experiences. New techniques in reproductive medicine and their development provide hope and health promises for affected couples but also entail long-term risks and ethical issues. Balancing the individual's right to a reproductive autonomy and choice and ethical standards will constitute a future challenge for society. Results demonstrate considerable uncertainty and information deficits in the community.

  11. Using human rights for sexual and reproductive health: improving legal and regulatory frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Kismodi, Eszter; Hilber, Adriane Martin; Lincetto, Ornella; Stahlhofer, Marcus; Gruskin, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the development of a tool that uses human rights concepts and methods to improve relevant laws, regulations and policies related to sexual and reproductive health. This tool aims to improve awareness and understanding of States’ human rights obligations. It includes a method for systematically examining the status of vulnerable groups, involving non-health sectors, fostering a genuine process of civil society participation and developing recommendations to address regulatory and policy barriers to sexual and reproductive health with a clear assignment of responsibility. Strong leadership from the ministry of health, with support from the World Health Organization or other international partners, and the serious engagement of all involved in this process can strengthen the links between human rights and sexual and reproductive health, and contribute to national achievement of the highest attainable standard of health. PMID:20616975

  12. Ultrastructural dynamics of human reproduction, from ovulation to fertilization and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Nottola, Stefania A; Sathananthan, A Henry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the updated, fine structure of human gametes, the human fertilization process, and human embryos, mainly derived from assisted reproductive technology (ART). As clearly shown, the ultrastructure of human reproduction is a peculiar multistep process, which differs in part from that of other mammalian models, having some unique features. Particular attention has been devoted to the (1) sperm ultrastructure, likely "Tygerberg (Kruger) strict morphology criteria"; (2) mature oocyte, in which the MII spindle is barrel shaped, anastral, and lacking centrioles; (3) three-dimensional microarchitecture of the zona pellucida with its unique supramolecular filamentous organization; (4) sperm-egg interactions with the peculiarity of the sperm centrosome that activates the egg and organizes the sperm aster and mitotic spindles of the embryo; and (5) presence of viable cumulus cells whose metabolic activity is closely related to egg and embryo behavior in in vitro as well as in vivo conditions, in a sort of extraovarian "microfollicular unit." Even if the ultrastructural morphodynamic features of human fertilization are well understood, our knowledge about in vivo fertilization is still very limited and the complex sequence of in vivo biological steps involved in human reproduction is only partially reproduced in current ART procedures.

  13. Contemporary issues in the regulation of artificial reproduction and embryology in the UK.

    PubMed

    Garwood-Gowers, Austen

    2004-01-01

    The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was one of the most comprehensive and flexible vehicles for regulation of artificial reproduction and embryology of its area. However, its serviceability has recently been brought into question by both the materialisation of unforeseen dilemmas and the response of legal actors to these dilemma's which has often been ethically and democratically deficient. Nowhere is this better demonstrated than in the reproach of the regulatory authority and judiciary to the use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and cloning by cell nuclear replacement.

  14. Italy enacts new law on medically assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    In 2004, the Italian Parliament enacted a law regulating medically assisted reproduction. Although the law recognizes as legal certain assisted reproduction techniques, several other procedures are implicitly or expressly banned: oocyte and sperm donation, using embryos for the scientific research purposes and reproductive cloning. In this article, I outline the new legal framework, pointing out some of the shortcomings of its provisions, such as the failure to define what an 'embryo' is, the contradictions between this law and the law on abortion, the opportunity for Italian couples to circumvent some of the prohibitions by resorting to 'reproductive tourism', and the central role that physicians play in the new legal framework.

  15. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  16. Biotechnology. Perseverance leads to cloned pig in Japan.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, E; Normile, D

    2000-08-18

    Low success rates and unpredictable results have plagued cloning researchers, particularly those trying to clone pigs. Now, on page 1188, Japanese researchers offer the first scientific report of a cloned pig, named Xena, raising hopes that pigs could one day provide an unlimited supply of organs for transplantation thanks to their close physiological relationship to humans. But this week those hopes were dealt a blow by more evidence suggesting that pig retroviruses can infect human cells.

  17. Effect of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction in humans: why the evidence is still lacking?

    PubMed

    Bliatka, D; Lymperi, S; Mastorakos, G; Goulis, D G

    2017-05-01

    The so-called "endocrine disruption hypothesis" suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction. Such characteristics include: (i) definition of the exposed and the non-exposed population, (ii) age, (iii) insufficient control for confounders, (iv) ED assay and threshold, (v) time parameters of ED exposure, and (vi) study outcomes. Additional issues are: (i) the late effect of an early exposure, (ii) the multiple exposure effect, and (iii) the fact the same ED may exhibit different modes of action. Unfortunately, the nature of the field precludes the conduction of randomized-controlled trials, which could result to etiological associations between EDs and human male reproduction. Consequently, there is a great need to conduct well-designed studies of case-control or cohort type to evaluate EDs effects on human male reproductive health, and apply possible measures that could limit dangerous exposures. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. [New hosts and vectors for genome cloning]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The main goal of our project remains the development of new bacterial hosts and vectors for the stable propagation of human DNA clones in E. coli. During the past six months of our current budget period, we have (1) continued to develop new hosts that permit the stable maintenance of unstable features of human DNA, and (2) developed a series of vectors for (a) cloning large DNA inserts, (b) assessing the frequency of human sequences that are lethal to the growth of E. coli, and (c) assessing the stability of human sequences cloned in M13 for large-scale sequencing projects.

  19. Therapeutic cloning research and ethical oversight.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, M

    2003-08-01

    Cloning Trevor, a story about therapeutic cloning research, appeared in the June issue of The Atlantic Monthly. The story gives a human face to the people whom therapeutic cloning could benefit. It presents an argument for government funding and it puts the usual calls for a moratorium on embryonic stem cell research to allow for more debate, in a less favourable light. The story also highlights some problems with ethical oversight.

  20. Advances in human reproductive ecology.

    PubMed

    Ellison, P T

    1994-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology pertains to reproduction biology and changes due to environmental influences. The research literature relies on clinical, epidemiological, and demographic analysis. The emphasis is on normal, nonpathological states and a broad range of ecological conditions. This review focused on the importance of age and energetic stress from ecological conditions rather than dieting or self-directed exercise in changing female fecundity. The literature on male reproductive ecology is still small but growing. J.W. Wood provided a comprehensive overview of the field. Natural fertility, as defined by Henry, is the lack of parity-specific fertility limitation. There is evidence that fertility can vary widely in natural fertility populations. There are consistent age patterns among different natural fertility populations. Doring found that there was higher frequency of anovulatory and luteal insufficiency in cycles during perimenarche and perimenopausal periods. Infertility studies have shown declines in pregnancy rates in women over the age of 30 years. Ovum donation evaluations have found both uterine age and ovarian and oocyte age to be related to the probability of a successful pregnancy. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and the endometrial thickness are important predictors of ovarian capacity and related to age and declining fecundity. Much of the literature on fecundity is derived from women with impaired reproductive physiology. In Lipson and Ellison's study of healthy women, average follicular and average luteal estradiol values declined with increasing subject age. Low follicular levels were correlated with smaller follicular size, low oocyte fertilizability, reduced endometrial thickness, and low pregnancy rates. Comparisons across populations have shown that populations experience declines in luteal function with age, but levels of luteal functions varied widely. Chronic conditions which slow growth and delay reproductive maturation may impact

  1. Applying human rights to improve access to reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Cook, Rebecca J

    2012-10-01

    Universal access to reproductive health is a target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5B, and along with MDG 5A to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, progress is currently too slow for most countries to achieve these targets by 2015. Critical to success are increased and sustainable numbers of skilled healthcare workers and financing of essential medicines by governments, who have made political commitments in United Nations forums to renew their efforts to reduce maternal mortality. National essential medicine lists are not reflective of medicines available free or at cost in facilities or in the community. The WHO Essential Medicines List indicates medicines required for maternal and newborn health including the full range of contraceptives and emergency contraception, but there is no consistent monitoring of implementation of national lists through procurement and supply even for basic essential drugs. Health advocates are using human rights mechanisms to ensure governments honor their legal commitments to ensure access to services essential for reproductive health. Maternal mortality is recognized as a human rights violation by the United Nations and constitutional and human rights are being used, and could be used more effectively, to improve maternity services and to ensure access to drugs essential for reproductive health. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human rights versus legal control over women's reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria

    2013-06-14

    States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. Copyright © 2013 Uberoi and de Bruyn. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  3. Differentiated cells are more efficient than adult stem cells for cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Sung, Li-Ying; Gao, Shaorong; Shen, Hongmei; Yu, Hui; Song, Yifang; Smith, Sadie L; Chang, Ching-Chien; Inoue, Kimiko; Kuo, Lynn; Lian, Jin; Li, Ao; Tian, X Cindy; Tuck, David P; Weissman, Sherman M; Yang, Xiangzhong; Cheng, Tao

    2006-11-01

    Since the creation of Dolly via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), more than a dozen species of mammals have been cloned using this technology. One hypothesis for the limited success of cloning via SCNT (1%-5%) is that the clones are likely to be derived from adult stem cells. Support for this hypothesis comes from the findings that the reproductive cloning efficiency for embryonic stem cells is five to ten times higher than that for somatic cells as donors and that cloned pups cannot be produced directly from cloned embryos derived from differentiated B and T cells or neuronal cells. The question remains as to whether SCNT-derived animal clones can be derived from truly differentiated somatic cells. We tested this hypothesis with mouse hematopoietic cells at different differentiation stages: hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells and granulocytes. We found that cloning efficiency increases over the differentiation hierarchy, and terminally differentiated postmitotic granulocytes yield cloned pups with the greatest cloning efficiency.

  4. Successful cloning of coyotes through interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer using domestic dog oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Insung; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Joung Joo; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Kang, Mina; Park, Kang Bae; Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yeun Wook; Kim, Woo Tae; Shin, Taeyoung; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is an emerging assisted reproductive technology (ART) for preserving Nature's diversity. The scarcity of oocytes from some species makes utilisation of readily available oocytes inevitable. In the present study, we describe the successful cloning of coyotes (Canis latrans) through iSCNT using oocytes from domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris or dingo). Transfer of 320 interspecies-reconstructed embryos into 22 domestic dog recipients resulted in six pregnancies, from which eight viable offspring were delivered. Fusion rate and cloning efficiency during iSCNT cloning of coyotes were not significantly different from those observed during intraspecies cloning of domestic dogs. Using neonatal fibroblasts as donor cells significantly improved the cloning efficiency compared with cloning using adult fibroblast donor cells (P<0.05). The use of domestic dog oocytes in the cloning of coyotes in the present study holds promise for cloning other endangered species in the Canidae family using similar techniques. However, there are still limitations of the iSCNT technology, as demonstrated by births of morphologically abnormal coyotes and the clones' inheritance of maternal domestic dog mitochondrial DNA.

  5. Assisted reproductive technology: perspectives in Halakha (Jewish religious law).

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2008-01-01

    The Jewish religion is characterized by a strict association between faith and practical precepts. In principle, Jewish law has two divisions, the Written and the Oral traditions. The foundation of the Written Law and the origin of authority is the Torah, the first five books of the Scripture. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish religion to assisted reproductive therapeutic procedures such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection and reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  6. Breeding of transgenic cattle for human coagulation factor IX by a combination of lentiviral system and cloning.

    PubMed

    Monzani, P S; Sangalli, J R; De Bem, T H C; Bressan, F F; Fantinato-Neto, P; Pimentel, J R V; Birgel-Junior, E H; Fontes, A M; Covas, D T; Meirelles, F V

    2013-02-28

    Recombinant coagulation factor IX must be produced in mammalian cells because FIX synthesis involves translational modifications. Human cell culture-based expression of human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) is expensive, and large-scale production capacity is limited. Transgenic animals may greatly increase the yield of therapeutic proteins and reduce costs. In this study, we used a lentiviral system to obtain transgenic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic animals. Lentiviral vectors carrying hFIX driven by 3 bovine β-casein promoters were constructed. Bovine epithelial mammary cells were transduced by lentivirus, selected with blasticidin, plated on extracellular matrix, and induced by lactogenic hormones; promoter activity was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Transcriptional activity of the 5.335-kb promoter was 6-fold higher than the 3.392- and 4.279-kb promoters, which did not significantly differ. Transgenic bovine fibroblasts were transduced with lentivirus carrying the 5.335-kb promoter and used as donor cells for SCNT. Cloned transgenic embryo production yielded development rates of 28.4%, similar to previous reports on cloned non-transgenic embryos. The embryos were transferred to recipient cows (N = 21) and 2 births of cloned transgenic cattle were obtained. These results suggest combination of the lentiviral system and cloning may be a good strategy for production of transgenic cattle.

  7. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6) by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals. PMID:21859467

  8. The evolution of human reproduction: a primatological perspective.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    Successful reconstruction of any aspect of human evolution ideally requires broad-based comparisons with other primates, as recognition of general principles provides a more reliable foundation for inference. Indeed, in many cases it is necessary to conduct comparisons with other placental mammals to test interpretations. This review considers comparative evidence with respect to the following topics relating to human reproduction: (1) size of the testes, sperm, and baculum; (2) ovarian processes and mating cyclicity; (3) placentation and embryonic membranes; (4) gestation period and neonatal condition; (5) brain development in relation to reproduction; and (6) suckling and age at weaning. Relative testis size, the size of the sperm midpiece, and perhaps the absence of a baculum indicate that humans are adapted for a mating system in which sperm competition was not a major factor. Because sizes of mammalian gametes do not increase with body size, they are increasingly dwarfed by the size of the female reproductive tract as body size increases. The implications of this have yet to be explored. Primates have long ovarian cycles and humans show an average pattern. Menstruation is completely lacking in strepsirrhine primates, possibly weakly present in tarsiers and variably expressed in simians. The only other mammals reliably reported to show menstruation are bats. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of menstruation (eliminating sperm-borne pathogens; reducing the metabolic cost of a prepared uterine lining; occurrence as a side-effect of physiological changes), but no consensus has emerged. Copulation at times other than the periovulatory period is not unique to humans, and its occurrence during pregnancy is widespread among mammals. Although the human condition is extreme, extended copulation during the ovarian cycle is the norm among simian primates, in stark contrast to prosimians, in which mating is typically restricted to a few days when

  9. Myths about Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have health problems all their lives. Myth: Cow clones make human pharmaceuticals in their milk. Myth: ... actual animal. For example, if they’re Holstein cows, the pattern of their spots, or the shape ...

  10. kappa-Opioid receptor in humans: cDNA and genomic cloning, chromosomal assignment, functional expression, pharmacology, and expression pattern in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, F; Gavériaux-Ruff, C; Befort, K; Matthes, H; Lannes, B; Micheletti, G; Mattéi, M G; Charron, G; Bloch, B; Kieffer, B

    1995-01-01

    Using the mouse delta-opioid receptor cDNA as a probe, we have isolated genomic clones encoding the human mu- and kappa-opioid receptor genes. Their organization appears similar to that of the human delta receptor gene, with exon-intron boundaries located after putative transmembrane domains 1 and 4. The kappa gene was mapped at position q11-12 in human chromosome 8. A full-length cDNA encoding the human kappa-opioid receptor has been isolated. The cloned receptor expressed in COS cells presents a typical kappa 1 pharmacological profile and is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase. The expression of kappa-opioid receptor mRNA in human brain, as estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, is consistent with the involvement of kappa-opioid receptors in pain perception, neuroendocrine physiology, affective behavior, and cognition. In situ hybridization studies performed on human fetal spinal cord demonstrate the presence of the transcript specifically in lamina II of the dorsal horn. Some divergences in structural, pharmacological, and anatomical properties are noted between the cloned human and rodent receptors. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624359

  11. [Stem cells and therapeutic cloning, medical perspectives under discussion].

    PubMed

    Manuel, Catherine; Lafon, Claude; Hairion, Dominique; Antoniotti, Stéphanie

    2004-03-13

    Innovative biotechnical progress over the past few years regards stem cells and therapeutic cloning, which open promising medical horizons for many presently incurable diseases. THE CURRENT DEBATE: The research work in France has been stalled because of the prohibitions listed in the so-called "bioethical" laws of 1994. The ongoing revision of these laws is based on a certain number of ethical questions and launches a disputable parlementary debate. Other than reproductive cloning and research on the embryo, the possibilities provided by stem cells and therapeutic cloning should be emphasized and the different positions advanced specified, showing an evolution in the laws in France. ABUSIVE LEGISLATIVE PROHIBITIONS: The proposed law, which maintains the prohibition for research on the embryo, with a 5-Year dispensation, and which explicitly prohibits therapeutic cloning, is not in keeping with the widening of in this field expected by research teams. Many scientists and physicians, supported by patients' associations, are aware of the importance of therapeutic progress attached to such research. They should not be stalled in their studies by the prohibitions maintained in the new law.

  12. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF THE TRANSLOCATOR PROTEIN (18 KDA), VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT ANION CHANNEL, AND DIAZEPAM BINDING INHIBITOR IN THE GONAD OF LARGEMOUTH BASS (MICROPTERUS SALMOIDES) ACROSS THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    PubMed Central

    Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membrane is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in vertebrates. Previous studies in fish have characterized expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, however the function and regulation of other genes and proteins involved in piscine cholesterol transport have not been evaluated. In the current study, mRNA sequences of the 18 kDa translocator protein (tspo; formerly peripheral benzodiazepine receptor), voltage-dependent anion channel (vdac), and diazepam binding inhibitor (dbi; also acyl-CoA binding protein) were cloned from largemouth bass. Gonadal expression was examined across reproductive stages to determine if expression is correlated with changes in steroid levels and with indicators of reproductive maturation. In testis, transcript abundance of tspo and dbi increased with reproductive maturation (6- and 23-fold maximal increase, respectively) and expression of tspo and dbi was positively correlated with reproductive stage, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and circulating levels of testosterone. Testis vdac expression was positively correlated with reproductive stage and GSI. In females, gonadal tspo and vdac expression was negatively correlated with GSI and levels of plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Ovarian dbi expression was not correlated with indicators of reproductive maturation. These studies represent the first investigation of the steroidogenic role of tspo, vdac, and dbi in fish. Findings suggest that cholesterol transport in largemouth bass testis, but not ovary, may be transcriptionally-regulated, however further investigation will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of these genes in largemouth bass steroidogenesis. PMID:21600210

  13. Donor cell differentiation, reprogramming, and cloning efficiency: elusive or illusive correlation?

    PubMed

    Oback, B; Wells, D N

    2007-05-01

    Compared to other assisted reproductive technologies, mammalian nuclear transfer (NT) cloning is inefficient in generating viable offspring. It has been postulated that nuclear reprogramming and cloning efficiency can be increased by choosing less differentiated cell types as nuclear donors. This hypothesis is mainly supported by comparative mouse cloning experiments using early blastomeres, embryonic stem (ES) cells, and terminally differentiated somatic donor cells. We have re-evaluated these comparisons, taking into account different NT procedures, the use of donor cells from different genetic backgrounds, sex, cell cycle stages, and the lack of robust statistical significance when post-blastocyst development is compared. We argue that while the reprogrammability of early blastomeres appears to be much higher than that of somatic cells, it has so far not been conclusively determined whether differentiation status affects cloning efficiency within somatic donor cell lineages. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. On making nursing undergraduate human reproductive physiology content meaningful and relevant: discussion of human pleasure in its biological context.

    PubMed

    McClusky, Leon Mendel

    2012-01-01

    The traditional presentation of the Reproductive Physiology component in an Anatomy and Physiology course to nursing undergraduates focuses on the broad aspects of hormonal regulation of reproduction and gonadal anatomy, with the role of the higher centres of the brain omitted. An introductory discussion is proposed which could precede the lectures on the reproductive organs. The discussion gives an overview of the biological significance of human pleasure, the involvement of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the role of pleasure in the survival of the individual and even species. Pleasure stimuli (positive and negative) and the biological significance of naturally-induced pleasurable experiences are briefly discussed in the context of reproduction and the preservation of genetic material with an aim to foster relevancy between subject material and human behaviour in any type of society. The tenderness of this aspect of the human existence is well-understood because of its invariable association with soul-revealing human expressions such as love, infatuation, sexual flirtations, all of which are underpinned by arousal, desire and/or pleasure. Assuming that increased knowledge correlates with increased confidence, the proposed approach may provide the nurse with an adequate knowledge base to overcome well-known barriers in communicating with their patients about matters of sexual health and intimacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clone wars: asexual reproduction dominates in the invasive range of Tubastraea spp. (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the South-Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Robert J.; Rachid, Caio T.C.C.; Creed, Joel C.; Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Forsman, Zac; Zilberberg, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Although the invasive azooxanthellate corals Tubastraea coccinea and T. tagusensis are spreading quickly and outcompeting native species in the Atlantic Ocean, there is little information regarding the genetic structure and path of introduction for these species. Here we present the first data on genetic diversity and clonal structure from these two species using a new set of microsatellite markers. High proportions of clones were observed, indicating that asexual reproduction has a major role in the local population dynamics and, therefore, represents one of the main reasons for the invasion success. Although no significant population structure was found, results suggest the occurrence of multiple invasions for T. coccinea and also that both species are being transported along the coast by vectors such as oil platforms and monobouys, spreading these invasive species. In addition to the description of novel microsatellite markers, this study sheds new light into the invasive process of Tubastraea. PMID:29018611

  16. Production of Cloned Miniature Pigs Expressing High Levels of Human Apolipoprotein(a) in Plasma.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Masayuki; Himaki, Takehiro; Ookutsu, Shoji; Mizobe, Yamato; Ogawa, Junki; Miyoshi, Kazuchika; Yabuki, Akira; Fan, Jianglin; Yoshida, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    High lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. However, because apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], the unique component of Lp(a), is found only in primates and humans, the study of human Lp(a) has been hampered due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) techniques, we produced transgenic miniature pigs expressing human apo(a) in the plasma. First, we placed the hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged cDNA of human apo(a) under the control of the β-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, and then introduced this construct into kidney epithelial cells. Immunostaining of cells with anti-HA antibody allowed identification of cells stably expressing apo(a); one of the positive clones was used to provide donor cells for SCNT, yielding blastocysts that expressed apo(a). Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections and RT-PCR analysis of total RNA from organs of cloned piglet revealed that apo(a) is expressed in various tissues/organs including heart, liver, kidney, and intestine. More importantly, a transgenic line exhibited a high level (>400 mg/dL) of Lp(a) in plasma, and the transgenic apo(a) gene was transmitted to the offspring. Thus, we generated a human apo(a)-transgenic miniature pig that can be used as a model system to study advanced atherosclerosis related to human disease. The anatomical and physiological similarities between the swine and human cardiovascular systems will make this pig model a valuable source of information on the role of apo(a) in the formation of atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms underlying vascular health and disease.

  17. Sequence Typing Confirms that a Predominant Listeria monocytogenes Clone Caused Human Listeriosis Cases and Outbreaks in Canada from 1988 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Aleisha; Verghese, Bindhu; Lok, Mei; Ziegler, Jennifer; Farber, Jeffrey; Pagotto, Franco; Graham, Morag; Nadon, Celine A.

    2012-01-01

    Human listeriosis outbreaks in Canada have been predominantly caused by serotype 1/2a isolates with highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) each identified a diverse population of Listeria monocytogenes isolates, and within that, both methods had congruent subtypes that substantiated a predominant clone (clonal complex 8; virulence type 59; proposed epidemic clone 5 [ECV]) that has been causing human illness across Canada for more than 2 decades. PMID:22337989

  18. Human environmental and occupational exposures to boric acid: reconciliation with experimental reproductive toxicity data.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçın

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive toxicity of boric acid and borates is a matter of current regulatory concern. Based on experimental studies in rats, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were found to be 17.5 mg boron (B)/kg body weight (b.w.) for male fertility and 9.6 mg B/kg b.w. for developmental toxicity. Recently, occupational human field studies in highly exposed cohorts were reported from China and Turkey, with both studies showing negative results regarding male reproduction. A comparison of the conditions of these studies with the experimental NOAEL conditions are based on reported B blood levels, which is clearly superior to a scaling according to estimated B exposures. A comparison of estimated daily B exposure levels and measured B blood levels confirms the preference of biomonitoring data for a comparison of human field studies. In general, it appears that high environmental exposures to B are lower than possible high occupational exposures. The comparison reveals no contradiction between human and experimental reproductive toxicity data. It clearly appears that human B exposures, even in the highest exposed cohorts, are too low to reach the blood (and target tissue) concentrations that would be required to exert adverse effects on reproductive functions.

  19. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    PubMed

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future. Breakthroughs in Bioscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Berardino, Marie A.

    This document explores the history of cloning by focusing on Dolly the Sheep, one of the first large animal clonings. The disadvantages and advantages of transgenic clones are discussed as well as the future implications of cloning from the perspective of human health. (Contains 10 resources.) (YDS)

  1. U.S. consumers attitudes toward farm animal cloning.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Kathleen R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2011-10-01

    In January 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded "meat and milk from cattle, swine, and goat clones or their offspring are as safe to eat as food we eat from those species now" (U.S. FDA, 2010). However, cloning remains a very controversial topic. A web-based survey administered by Knowledge Networks was used to determine U.S. consumers' awareness of and attitudes toward meat and milk from cloned cattle. Findings reveal consumers do not differentiate much between products from cloned animals and products from non-cloned animals. Overall consumers are concerned that animal cloning is an unnatural process and that it will lead to human cloning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogeny, diversity and host specialization in the phylum Synergistetes with emphasis on strains and clones of human origin.

    PubMed

    Marchandin, Hélène; Damay, Audrey; Roudière, Laurent; Teyssier, Corinne; Zorgniotti, Isabelle; Dechaud, Hervé; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2010-03-01

    Members of the phylum Synergistetes have been demonstrated in several environmental ecosystems and mammalian microflorae by culture-independent methods. In the past few years, the clinical relevance of some uncultivated phylotypes has been demonstrated in endodontic infections, and uncultured Synergistetes have been demonstrated in human mouth, gut and skin microbiota. However, Synergistetes are rarely cultured from human samples, and only 17 isolates are currently reported. Twelve members of Synergistetes isolated in the course of various infectious processes, including 3 Jonquetella anthropi, 2 Cloacibacillus evryensis, 2 Pyramidobacter piscolens and 5 unidentified strains, as well as 56 clones obtained by specific PCR from the normal vaginal microflora, were studied. 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny showed that the clones were grouped into 3 clusters, corresponding to the genus Jonquetella, P. piscolens and one novel Synergistetes taxon. The presence and diversity of Synergistetes were reported for the first time in the vaginal microflora. Synergistetes were found in healthy patients, suggesting that they could play a functional role in human microflorae, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. Studying the phylogenetic relationships between environmental and mammalian strains and clones revealed clearly delineated independent lineages according to the origin of the sequences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenotypic Plasticity in Reproductive Traits of the Perennial Shrub Ulex europaeus in Response to Shading: A Multi-Year Monitoring of Cultivated Clones.

    PubMed

    Atlan, Anne; Hornoy, Benjamin; Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Tarayre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous for plants to be able to rapidly cope with new and changing environments associated with climate change or during biological invasions. This is especially true for perennial plants, as they may need a longer period to respond genetically to selective pressures than annuals, and also because they are more likely to experience environmental changes during their lifespan. However, few studies have explored the plasticity of the reproductive life history traits of woody perennial species. This study focuses on a woody shrub, Ulex europaeus (common gorse), and on the response of its reproductive traits to one important environmental factor, shading. The study was performed on clones originating from western France (within the native range of this invasive species) and grown for seven years. We compared traits of plants grown in a shade treatment (with two successive shade levels) vs. full natural light. The traits monitored included flowering onset, pod production and seed predation. All traits studied responded to shading, exhibiting various levels of plasticity. In particular, dense shade induced a radical but reversible decrease in flower and pod production, while moderate shade had little effect on reproductive traits. The magnitude of the response to dense shade depended on the genotype, showing a genetically based polymorphism of plasticity. The level of plasticity also showed substantial variations between years, and the effect of environmental variations was cumulative over time. This suggests that plasticity can influence the lifetime fitness of U. Europaeus and is involved in the capacity of the species to grow under contrasting environmental conditions.

  4. Phenotypic Plasticity in Reproductive Traits of the Perennial Shrub Ulex europaeus in Response to Shading: A Multi-Year Monitoring of Cultivated Clones

    PubMed Central

    Atlan, Anne; Hornoy, Benjamin; Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Tarayre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous for plants to be able to rapidly cope with new and changing environments associated with climate change or during biological invasions. This is especially true for perennial plants, as they may need a longer period to respond genetically to selective pressures than annuals, and also because they are more likely to experience environmental changes during their lifespan. However, few studies have explored the plasticity of the reproductive life history traits of woody perennial species. This study focuses on a woody shrub, Ulex europaeus (common gorse), and on the response of its reproductive traits to one important environmental factor, shading. The study was performed on clones originating from western France (within the native range of this invasive species) and grown for seven years. We compared traits of plants grown in a shade treatment (with two successive shade levels) vs. full natural light. The traits monitored included flowering onset, pod production and seed predation. All traits studied responded to shading, exhibiting various levels of plasticity. In particular, dense shade induced a radical but reversible decrease in flower and pod production, while moderate shade had little effect on reproductive traits. The magnitude of the response to dense shade depended on the genotype, showing a genetically based polymorphism of plasticity. The level of plasticity also showed substantial variations between years, and the effect of environmental variations was cumulative over time. This suggests that plasticity can influence the lifetime fitness of U. Europaeus and is involved in the capacity of the species to grow under contrasting environmental conditions. PMID:26383627

  5. Identification of human antibody fragment clones specific for tetanus toxoid in a bacteriophage. lambda. immunoexpression library

    SciTech Connect

    Mullinax, R.L.; Gross, E.A.; Amberg, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    The authors have applied a molecular biology approach to the identification of human monoclonal antibodies. Human peripheral blood lymphocyte mRNA was converted to cDNA and a select subset was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. These products, containing coding sequences for numerous immunoglobulin heavy- and {kappa} light-chain variable and constant region domains, were inserted into modified bacteriophase {lambda} expression vectors and introduced into Escherichia coli by infection to yield a combinatorial immunoexpression library. Clones with binding activity to tetanus toxoid were identified by filter hybridization with radiolabeled antigen and appeared at a frequency of 0.2{percent} in the library. These humanmore » antigen binding fragments, consisting of a heavy-chain fragment covalently linked to a light chain, displayed high affinity of binding to tetanus toxoid with equilibrium constants in the nanomolar range but did not cross-react with other proteins tested. They estimate that this human immunoexpression library contains 20,000 clones with high affinity and specificity to our chosen antigen.« less

  6. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences. PMID:24141358

  7. [Action of human leukocyte interferon on poliomyelitis virus reproduction in resistant MIO(r) cells].

    PubMed

    Gulevich, N E; Orlova, N G; Pokidysheva, L N

    1981-01-01

    The effect of human leukocyte interferon on reproduction of poliomyelitis virus in MIO cells resistant to this virus (MIOr) and sensitive MIO cells was studied. Interferon was shown to exert a short-time protective effect in the sensitive cells and to induce virus reproduction in the resistant cells. It is suggested that poliomyelitis virus reproduction in the resistant cells is due to activation of lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D, in this system.

  8. Medicolegal and ethical issues of cloning: do we need to think again and again?

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2004-06-01

    Research on the cloning of human cells holds the promise of medical benefits, but cloning humans is a far more complex and ethically disturbing issue. Some have argued strenuously that human cloning should be banned permanently. They have called it immoral, repugnant, and abhorrent. Most European countries have already banned it, and others are considering a proscription. While allowing fundamental research in the field to progress, we need a wide debate on human cloning. We need to think about what, if any, circumstances might warrant cloning, as well as the circumstances under which it should never be allowed.

  9. Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Claudia Trigo Pedroso; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal; Campos, Angelica Cristine Almeida; Bosso, Patricia Alves; Lima, Hildener Nogueira; Stewien, Klaus Eberhard; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample. PMID:25742274

  10. Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Claudia Trigo Pedroso; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal; Campos, Angelica Cristine Almeida; Bosso, Patricia Alves; Lima, Hildener Nogueira; Stewien, Klaus Eberhard; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

  11. Exploring an Alternative Model of Human Reproductive Capability: A Creative Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Abour H.; Jedlicka, Dianne M.

    2012-01-01

    Biological and social evolutionary processes, along with social and cultural developments, have allowed humans to separate procreation from pleasurable/recreational sexual activity. As a class learning project, an alternative, hypothetical reproductive scenario is presented: "What if humans were biologically ready to conceive only during one…

  12. "Mitochondrial Replacement" Technologies and Human Germline Nuclear Modification.

    PubMed

    Lane, Alyssa; Nisker, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    In 2015 the United Kingdom became the first jurisdiction to approve "mitochondrial replacement techniques" (MRT), thereby dropping prohibitions against creating human embryos with a permanently altered genetic make-up for purposes of reproduction. MRT is a misnomer because in fact it is the nucleus of the oocyte of the woman who wants a genetically related child that is transferred to the enucleated oocyte of a woman paid to undergo IVF to provide the oocyte. MRT thus constitutes nuclear transfer, which is prohibited by criminal sanctions under sections of laws on reproductive cloning in Canada, the United States, Australia, and European countries that regulate assisted reproduction. By adopting policies permitting the use of MRT, the United Kingdom has become the first jurisdiction to counteract an international consensus prohibiting germline modification. Analyses of the legal, ethical, and societal implications of MRT in assisted human reproduction are essential. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Nielsen, Mette Weidinger; Svendsen, Signe Goul; Lindhard, Anette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2011-12-01

    One of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib proteins, HLA-G, is believed to exert important immunoregulatory functions, especially during pregnancy. The presence of HLA protein in paternal seminal fluid has been suggested to have an influence on the risk of developing pre-eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA-G in hyperplastic prostatic tissue. In summary, several of the findings reported in this study suggest an immunoregulatory role of HLA-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

  14. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  15. The kisspeptin-GnRH pathway in human reproductive health and disease.

    PubMed

    Skorupskaite, Karolina; George, Jyothis T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of kisspeptin as key central regulator of GnRH secretion has led to a new level of understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human reproduction. The related discovery of the kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin (KNDy) pathway in the last decade has further strengthened our understanding of the modulation of GnRH secretion by endocrine, metabolic and environmental inputs. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the physiological roles of these novel neuropeptides, and discuss the clinical relevance of these discoveries and their potential translational applications. A systematic literature search was performed using PUBMED for all English language articles up to January 2014. In addition, the reference lists of all relevant original research articles and reviews were examined. This review focuses mainly on published human studies but also draws on relevant animal data. Kisspeptin is a principal regulator of the secretion of gonadotrophins, and through this key role it is critical for the onset of puberty, the regulation of sex steroid-mediated feedback and the control of adult fertility. Although there is some sexual dimorphism, both neuroanatomically and functionally, these functions are apparent in both men and women. Kisspeptin acts upstream of GnRH and, following paracrine stimulatory and inhibitory inputs from neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy neuropeptides), signals directly to GnRH neurones to control pulsatile GnRH release. When administered to humans in different isoforms, routes and doses, kisspeptin robustly stimulates LH secretion and LH pulse frequency. Manipulation of the KNDy system is currently the focus of translational research with the possibility of future clinical application to regulate LH pulsatility, increasing gonadal sex steroid secretion in reproductive disorders characterized by decreased LH pulsatility, including hypothalamic amenorrhoea and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Conversely there may be scope to

  16. What justifies the United States ban on federal funding for nonreproductive cloning?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Thomas V

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores how current United States policies for funding nonreproductive cloning are justified and argues against that justification. I show that a common conceptual framework underlies the national prohibition on the use of public funds for cloning research, which I call the simple argument. This argument rests on two premises: that research harming human embryos is unethical and that embryos produced via fertilization are identical to those produced via cloning. In response to the simple argument, I challenge the latter premise. I demonstrate there are important ontological differences between human embryos (produced via fertilization) and clone embryos (produced via cloning). After considering the implications my argument has for the morality of publicly funding cloning for potential therapeutic purposes and potential responses to my position, I conclude that such funding is not only ethically permissible, but also humane national policy.

  17. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  18. Human Disturbance Influences Reproductive Success and Growth Rate in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)

    PubMed Central

    French, Susannah S.; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K.; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R.

    2011-01-01

    The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations. PMID:21436887

  19. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette

    2013-02-07

    Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model suitable for a diet-intervention study. Cloning of pigs may be an attractive way to reduce genetic influences when investigating the effect of diet and obesity on different physiological sites. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the composition of the gut microbiota of cloned vs. non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non-cloned control pigs (n= 6) was investigated biweekly over a period of 136 days, by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). A positive correlation was observed between body-weight at endpoint and percent body-fat in cloned (r=0.9, P<0.0001) and in non-cloned control pigs (r=0.9, P<0.0001). Shannon Weaver and principal component analysis (PCA) of the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) revealed no differences in the bacterial composition or variability of the fecal microbiota between the cloned pigs or between cloned and non-cloned control pigs. Body-weight correlated positively with the relative abundance of Firmicutes in both cloned (r=0.37; P<0.02) and non cloned-control pigs (r=0.45; P<0.006), and negatively with the abundance of Bacteroidetes in cloned pigs (r=-0.33, P<0.04), but not in the non-cloned control pigs. The cloned pigs did not have reduced inter-individual variation as compared to non-cloned pigs in regard to their gut microbiota in neither the obese nor the lean state. Diet-induced obesity was associated with an

  20. NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate (DBP).

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    TThe National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. DBP is one of 7 phthalate chemicals evaluated by the NTP CERHR Phthalates Expert Panel. These phthalates were selected for evaluation because of high production volume, extent of human exposures, use in children's products, and/or published evidence of reproductive or developmental toxicity. Unlike many phthalates, DBP is not currently used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride plastics. DBP is a component of latex adhesives and is used in cosmetics and other personal care products, as a plasticizer in cellulose plastics, and as a solvent for dyes. The results of this evaluation on DBP are published in a NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to DBP on human development and reproduction. First, although DBP could possibly affect human reproduction and development if exposures are sufficiently high, the NTP concludes that there is negligible concern for reproductive toxicity in exposed adults. Second, the NTP concludes that there is minimal concern for developmental effects when pregnant women are exposed to DBP levels estimated by the panel (2-10 mug/kg body weight/day). There is no direct evidence that exposure of people to DBP adversely affects reproduction or development, but studies reviewed by the expert panel show that oral exposure to high doses of DBP (>/=100 mg/kg body weight/day) may adversely affect the prenatal and early postnatal development in rodents. Finally, based on exposure estimates in women of reproductive age, the NTP

  1. Abrupt change in food environment induces cloning in plutei of Dendraster excentricus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kathryn A; Vaughn, Dawn

    2010-08-01

    Asexual reproduction, or cloning, of planktonic echinoderm larvae has been observed in the laboratory and in nature, but little is known about its ecology. Here we examine the effects of algal food density and of a change in food density on the incidence of cloning in larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus. Results indicate that a change in food concentration can induce cloning in plutei. Cultures transferred from a low to a high algal ration at the time when primary larvae were developing the third (posterodorsal) pair of larval arms showed decreased postoral arm length, unusual morphologies, and increased larval density in culture. These dense cultures of smaller plutei were produced within 48 h of the food pulse. The result is consistent with the occurrence of a burst of cloning, possibly through anterior autotomization. A second feeding experiment demonstrated that anterior autotomization does occur in 4- to 6-arm plutei. Rather than constituting a developmental rarity, cloning may happen early and often in D. excentricus cohorts when environmental conditions favor rapid growth.

  2. Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Balise, Victoria D; Meng, Chun-Xia; Cornelius-Green, Jennifer N; Kassotis, Christopher D; Kennedy, Rana; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-15

    This systematic review identified 45 original published research articles related to oil and gas extraction activities and human reproductive endpoints. Reproductive outcomes were categorized as [1] birth outcomes associated with maternal exposure, [2] semen quality, fertility, and birth outcomes associated with adult paternal exposure, [3] reproductive cancers, and [4] disruption of human sex steroid hormone receptors. The results indicate there is moderate evidence for an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, birth defects, decreased semen quality, and prostate cancer. The quality of the evidence is low and/or inadequate for stillbirth, sex ratio, and birth outcomes associated with paternal exposure, and testicular cancer, female reproductive tract cancers, and breast cancer, and the evidence is inconsistent for an increased risk of low birth weight; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn for these health effects. There is ample evidence for disruption of the estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors by oil and gas chemicals, which provides a mechanistic rationale for how exposure to oil and gas activities may increase the health risks we have outlined. The results from this systematic review suggest there is a negative impact on human reproduction from exposure to oil and gas activities. Many of the 45 studies reviewed identified potential human health effects. Most of these studies focused on conventional oil and gas activities. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of unconventional oil and gas operations on human health. The impact of unconventional oil and gas activities may be greater than that of conventional activity, given that unconventional activities employ many of the same approaches and use dozens of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals in hydraulic fracturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [New hosts and vectors for genome cloning]. Progress report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The main goal of our project remains the development of new bacterial hosts and vectors for the stable propagation of human DNA clones in E. coli. During the past six months of our current budget period, we have (1) continued to develop new hosts that permit the stable maintenance of unstable features of human DNA, and (2) developed a series of vectors for (a) cloning large DNA inserts, (b) assessing the frequency of human sequences that are lethal to the growth of E. coli, and (c) assessing the stability of human sequences cloned in M13 for large-scale sequencing projects.

  4. Cloned animal products in the human food chain: FDA should protect American consumers.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jennifer E F

    2009-01-01

    Animal cloning is "complex process that lets one exactly copy the genetic, or inherited, traits of an animal." In 1997, Dolly the sheep was the first animal cloned and since then "scientists have used animal cloning to breed dairy cows, beef cattle, poultry, hogs and other species of livestock." Cloned animals are highly attractive to livestock breeders because "cloning essentially produces an identical copy of an animal with superior traits." The main purpose of cloning livestock is "more focused on efficiency and economic benefits of the producer rather than the overall effect of cloning on an animal's physical and mental welfare." The focus of this article is threefold. First, the science behind animal cloning is explained and some potential uses and risks of this technology are explored. Second, FDA's historical evolution, current regulatory authority, and limitations of that authority, is described. Lastly, a new regulatory vision recognizes the realities of 21st century global markets and the dynamic evolution of scientific discovery and technology.

  5. Molecular cloning of a novel widely expressed human 80 kDa 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase IV.

    PubMed Central

    Adamski, J; Normand, T; Leenders, F; Monté, D; Begue, A; Stéhelin, D; Jungblut, P W; de Launoit, Y

    1995-01-01

    Reactions of oestrogens and androgens at position C-17 are catalysed by 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17 beta-HSDs). Cloning of the cDNA of a novel human 17 beta-HSD IV and expression of its mRNA are described. A probe derived from the recently discovered porcine 17 beta-oestradiol dehydrogenase (17 beta-EDH) was used to isolate a 2.6 kb human cDNA encoding a continuous protein of 736 amino acids of high (84%) similarity to the porcine 17 beta-EDH. The calculated molecular mass of the human enzyme is 79,595 Da. Other sequence similarities shared by the two enzymes are: an N-terminal sequence which is similar to that of members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family; amino acids 343-607 which are similar to the C-terminal domains of a trifunctional Candida tropicalis enzyme and the FOX2 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; amino acids 596-736 which are similar to human sterol carrier protein 2. The previously cloned human 17 beta-HSD I, II and III are less than 25% identical with 17 beta-HSD IV. mRNA for HSD IV is a single species of 3.0 kb, present in many tissues with highest concentrations in liver, heart, prostate and testes. When over-expressed in mammalian cells, the human 17 beta-HSD IV enzyme displays a specific unidirectional oxidative 17 beta-HSD activity. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7487879

  6. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  7. Cloning and expression of the translocator protein (18 kDa), voltage-dependent anion channel, and diazepam binding inhibitor in the gonad of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) across the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Doperalski, Nicholas J; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Barber, David S

    2011-08-01

    Cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membrane is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in vertebrates. Previous studies in fish have characterized expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, however the function and regulation of other genes and proteins involved in piscine cholesterol transport have not been evaluated. In the current study, mRNA sequences of the 18 kDa translocator protein (tspo; formerly peripheral benzodiazepine receptor), voltage-dependent anion channel (vdac), and diazepam binding inhibitor (dbi; also acyl-CoA binding protein) were cloned from largemouth bass. Gonadal expression was examined across reproductive stages to determine if expression is correlated with changes in steroid levels and with indicators of reproductive maturation. In testis, transcript abundance of tspo and dbi increased with reproductive maturation (6- and 23-fold maximal increase, respectively) and expression of tspo and dbi was positively correlated with reproductive stage, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and circulating levels of testosterone. Testis vdac expression was positively correlated with reproductive stage and GSI. In females, gonadal tspo and vdac expression was negatively correlated with GSI and levels of plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Ovarian dbi expression was not correlated with indicators of reproductive maturation. These studies represent the first investigation of the steroidogenic role of tspo, vdac, and dbi in fish. Findings suggest that cholesterol transport in largemouth bass testis, but not in ovary, may be transcriptionally-regulated, however further investigation will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of these genes in largemouth bass steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinically relevant known and candidate genes for obesity and their overlap with human infertility and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern now reaching epidemic status worldwide for children and adults due to multiple problems impacting on energy intake and expenditure with influences on human reproduction and infertility. A positive family history and genetic factors are known to play a role in obesity by influencing eating behavior, weight and level of physical activity and also contributing to human reproduction and infertility. Recent advances in genetic technology have led to discoveries of new susceptibility genes for obesity and causation of infertility. The goal of our study was to provide an update of clinically relevant candidate and known genes for obesity and infertility using high resolution chromosome ideograms with gene symbols and tabular form. We used computer-based internet websites including PubMed to search for combinations of key words such as obesity, body mass index, infertility, reproduction, azoospermia, endometriosis, diminished ovarian reserve, estrogen along with genetics, gene mutations or variants to identify evidence for development of a master list of recognized obesity genes in humans and those involved with infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols for known and candidate genes for obesity were plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms at the 850 band level. Both infertility and obesity genes were listed separately in alphabetical order in tabular form and those highlighted when involved with both conditions. By searching the medical literature and computer generated websites for key words, we found documented evidence for 370 genes playing a role in obesity and 153 genes for human reproduction or infertility. The obesity genes primarily affected common pathways in lipid metabolism, deposition or transport, eating behavior and food selection, physical activity or energy expenditure. Twenty-one of the obesity genes were also associated with human infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols were plotted on high resolution

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of the CRISP family of proteins in the boar.

    PubMed

    Vadnais, Melissa L; Foster, Douglas N; Roberts, Kenneth P

    2008-12-01

    The family of mammalian cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) have been well characterized in the rat, mouse, and human. Here we report the molecular cloning and expression analysis of CRISP1, CRISP2, and CRISP3 in the boar. A partial sequence published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database was used to derive the full-length sequences for CRISP1 and CRISP2 using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. RT-PCR confirmed the expression of these mRNAs in the boar reproductive tract, and real time RT-PCR showed CRISP1 to be highly expressed throughout the epididymis, with CRISP2 highly expressed in the testis. A search of the porcine genomic sequence in the NCBI database identified a BAC (CH242-199E6) encoding the CRISP1 gene. This BAC is derived from porcine Chromosome 7 and is syntenic with the regions of the mouse, rat, and human genomes encoding the CRISP gene family. This BAC was found to encode a third CRISP protein with a predicted amino acid sequence of high similarity to human CRISP3. Using RT-PCR we show that CRISP3 expression in the boar reproductive tract is confined to the prostate. Recombinant porcine (rp) CRISP2 protein was produced and purified. When incubated with capacitated boar sperm, rpCRISP2 induced an acrosome reaction, consistent with its demonstrated ability to alter the activity of calcium channels.

  10. Human cloning and stem cell research: engaging in the political process. (Legislation review: prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002 and the research involving Human Embryos Act).

    PubMed

    Skene, Loane

    2008-03-01

    Committees appointed by governments to inquire into specific policy issues often have no further role when the Committee's report is delivered to government, but that is not always so. This paper describes the activities of members of the Australian Committee on human cloning and embryo research (the Lockhart Committee) to inform Parliament and the community about the Committee's recommendations after its report was tabled in Parliament. It explains their participation in the political process as their recommendations were debated and amending legislation was passed by Parliament. It illustrates a method of communication about scientific and policy issues that explores people's concerns and what they 'need to know' to make a judgment; and then responds to questions they raise, with the aim of facilitating discussion, not arguing for one view. The paper considers whether this type of engagement and communication is appropriate and could be used in other policy discussions.

  11. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases.

  12. Catalytic site of human protein-glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine glucosidase: Three crucial carboxyl residues were determined by cloning and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, Hideaki; Hamazaki, Michiko Horikawa

    2016-01-15

    Protein-glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine glucosidase (PGGHG; EC3.2.1.107) cleaves glucose from disaccharide unit (Glc-α1,2-Gal) linked to hydroxylysine residues of collagen. In the present paper we first show that PGGHG is the product of ATHL1 gene as follows. (1) PGGHG was purified from chick embryos and digested with trypsin. LC-MS/MS analysis suggested the tryptic-peptides were from the ATHL1 gene product. (2) Chick embryo ATHL1 cDNA was cloned to a cloning and expression vector and two plasmid clones with different ATHL1 CDS insert were obtained. (3) Each plasmid DNA was transformed into Escherichia coli cells for expression and two isoforms of chicken PGGHG were obtained. (4) Both isoforms effectively released glucose from type IV collagen. Next, we searched for carboxyl residues crucial for catalytic activity as follows; human ATHL1 cDNA was cloned into a cloning and expression vector and 18 mutants were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis for 15 carboxyl residues conserved in ATHL1 of jawed vertebrates. The expression analysis indicated that substitutions of Asp301, Glu430 and Glu574 with sterically conservative (D301N, E430Q, E574Q) or functionally conservative (D301E, E430D, E574D) residues led to the complete elimination of enzyme activity. These findings lead us to the conclusion that PGGHG is encoded by ATHL1 and three carboxyl residues (corresponding to Asp301, Glu430 and Glu574 of human PGGHG) might be involved in the catalytic site of PGGHG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Telocytes in female reproductive system (human and animal).

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovych, Veronika; Walocha, Jerzy A; Gil, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a newly discovered type of cell with numerous functions. They have been found in a large variety of organs: heart (endo-, myo-, epi- and pericardium, myocardial sleeves, heart valves); digestive tract and annex glands (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, liver, gallbladder, salivary gland, exocrine pancreas); respiratory system (trachea and lungs); urinary system (kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra); female reproductive system (uterus, Fallopian tube, placenta, mammary gland); vasculature (blood vessels, thoracic duct); serous membranes (mesentery and pleura); and other organs (skeletal muscle, meninges and choroid plexus, neuromuscular spindles, fascia lata, skin, eye, prostate, bone marrow). Likewise, TCs are widely distributed in vertebrates (fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, including human). This review summarizes particular features of TCs in the female reproductive system, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Modern approaches to the treatment of human infertility through assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fernández Pelegrina, R; Kessler, A G; Rawlins, R G

    1991-08-01

    Medical statistics from the United States show approximately 15 percent of all couples of reproductive age are unable to conceive naturally. In recent years, the numbers of couples with reproductive problems has increased, principally due to changes in life style and delayed childbearing. Only 13 years after the birth of the first "test tube baby", advances in the field of human reproduction have created a wide range of alternatives to help infertile couples conceive a healthy infant. Together, these techniques are called Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and include: in vitro fertilization (IVF), intratubal transfer of gametes (GIFT), intratubal transfer of zygotes (ZIFT), tubal transfer of preimplantation embryos (TET), gamete or embryo donation, cryopreservtion, and micromanipulation. The application of these techniques is presented here. While much remains to be learned, the ability to fertilize ova in vitro and sustain early embryonic life outside the body is now a reality. Contrary to the idea that these techniques create life in vitro, they simply remove barriers caused by different forms of infertility which impede the creation of life. More than 30,000 infants have now been produced world-wide through ART. In the future, new developments in the field of assisted reproduction promise to bring new hope to the growing numbers of infertile couples around the world.

  15. [Between sancticity and value of human life: in perspective of human cloning].

    PubMed

    Dyk, W

    2001-01-01

    The more we know, the more duties and greater responsibility we have. The dynamic development of biology carries a lot of hope for the freeing of mankind from genetic diseases. But the introduction of scientific thought necessarily has to be bound with the development of technology. It is wrong when technology dictates science a direction of development; when technique comes before ethics; and when technology does not respect the essence of a human being. The uncritical introduction of eugenics, especially cloning of people and rejecting all moral arguments, recalls inglorious acts of science when the ideology of progress determined the range of problems that researchers focused on. The same ideology of progress, although originating from other sources, pushes science toward a second extreme, into utilitarianism. In the article the author wishes to substantiate the necessity for researchers to respect ethical norms. Recognition of natural laws alone does not provide science with full development if the rights of conscience are violated.

  16. Genomic stability and physiological assessments of live offspring sired by a bull clone, Starbuck II.

    PubMed

    Ortegon, H; Betts, D H; Lin, L; Coppola, G; Perrault, S D; Blondin, P; King, W A

    2007-01-01

    It appears that overt phenotypic abnormalities observed in some domestic animal clones are not transmitted to their progeny. The current study monitored Holstein heifers sired by a bull clone, Starbuck II, from weaning to puberty. Genomic stability was assessed by telomere length status and chromosomal analysis. Growth parameters, blood profiles, physical exams and reproductive parameters were assessed for 12 months (and compared to age-matched control heifers). Progeny sired by the clone bull did not differ (P>0.05) in weight, length and height compared to controls. However, progeny had lower heart rates (HR) (P=0.009), respiratory rates (RR) (P=0.007) and body temperature (P=0.03). Hematological profiles were within normal ranges and did not differ (P>0.05) between both groups. External and internal genitalia were normal and both groups reached puberty at expected ages. Progeny had two or three ovarian follicular waves per estrous cycle and serum progesterone concentrations were similar (P=0.99) to controls. Telomere lengths of sperm and blood cells from Starbuck II were not different (P>0.05) than those of non-cloned cattle; telomere lengths of progeny were not different (P>0.05) from age-matched controls. In addition, progeny had normal karyotypes in peripheral blood leukocytes compared to controls (89.1% versus 86.3% diploid, respectively). In summary, heifers sired by a bull clone had normal chromosomal stability, growth, physical, hematological and reproductive parameters, compared to normal heifers. Furthermore, they had moderate stress responses to routine handling and restraint.

  17. cDNA cloning of the human monocarboxylate transporter 1 and chromosomal localization of the SLC16A1 locus to 1p13.2-p12

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, C.K.; Li, X.; Luna, J.

    1994-09-15

    Lactate and pyruvate are transported across cell membranes by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Here, the authors use the recently cloned cDNA for hamster MCT1 to isolate cDNA and genomic clones for human MCT1. Comparison of the human and hamster amino acid sequences revealed that the proteins are 86% identical. The gene for human MCT1 (gene symbol, SLC16A1) was localized to human chromosome bands 1p13.2-p12 by PCR analysis of panels of human X rodent cell hybrid lines and by fluorescence chromosomal in situ hybridization. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Samuel

    2006-12-08

    Humans behave altruistically in natural settings and experiments. A possible explanation-that groups with more altruists survive when groups compete-has long been judged untenable on empirical grounds for most species. But there have been no empirical tests of this explanation for humans. My empirical estimates show that genetic differences between early human groups are likely to have been great enough so that lethal intergroup competition could account for the evolution of altruism. Crucial to this process were distinctive human practices such as sharing food beyond the immediate family, monogamy, and other forms of reproductive leveling. These culturally transmitted practices presuppose advanced cognitive and linguistic capacities, possibly accounting for the distinctive forms of altruism found in our species.

  19. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals: effects on the male and female reproductive systems.

    PubMed

    Sifakis, Stavros; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) comprise a group of chemical compounds that have been examined extensively due to the potential harmful effects in the health of human populations. During the past decades, particular focus has been given to the harmful effects of EDCs to the reproductive system. The estimation of human exposure to EDCs can be broadly categorized into occupational and environmental exposure, and has been a major challenge due to the structural diversity of the chemicals that are derived by many different sources at doses below the limit of detection used by conventional methodologies. Animal and in vitro studies have supported the conclusion that endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the hormone dependent pathways responsible for male and female gonadal development, either through direct interaction with hormone receptors or via epigenetic and cell-cycle regulatory modes of action. In human populations, the majority of the studies point towards an association between exposure to EDCs and male and/or female reproduction system disorders, such as infertility, endometriosis, breast cancer, testicular cancer, poor sperm quality and/or function. Despite promising discoveries, a causal relationship between the reproductive disorders and exposure to specific toxicants is yet to be established, due to the complexity of the clinical protocols used, the degree of occupational or environmental exposure, the determination of the variables measured and the sample size of the subjects examined. Future studies should focus on a uniform system of examining human populations with regard to the exposure to specific EDCs and the direct effect on the reproductive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the hibernation and reproductive periods of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruidong; Hu, Yuehong; Wang, Huan; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Rong; Wu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, is a critically endangered reptile species unique to China. Little is known about the mechanism of growth- and reproduction-related hormones gene expression in Chinese alligator. Estrogens play important roles in regulating multiple reproduction- and non-reproduction-related functions by binding to their corresponding receptors. Here, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) was cloned and sequenced from Chinese alligator for the first time, which comprises 1764bp nucleotides and encodes a predicted protein of 587 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of ESR1 showed that crocodilians and turtles were the sister-group of birds. The results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the ESR1 mRNA was widely expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues. In the brain and pituitary gland, ESR1 was most highly transcribed in the cerebellum. But in other peripheral tissues, ESR1 mRNA expression level was the highest in the ovary. Compared with hibernation period, ESR1 mRNA expression levels were increased significantly in the reproductive period (P<0.05) in cerebellum, pituitary gland, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and ovary, while no significant change in other examined tissues (P>0.05). The ESR1 mRNA expression levels changes during the two periods of different tissues suggested that ESR1 might play an important role in mediation of estrogenic multiple reproductive effects in Chinese alligator. Furthermore, it was the first time to quantify ESR1 mRNA level in the brain of crocodilians, and the distribution and expression of ESR1 mRNA in the midbrain, cerebellum and medulla oblongata was also reported for the first time in reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  2. "I am Your Mother and Your Father!" In Vitro Derived Gametes and the Ethics of Solo Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Cutas, Daniela; Smajdor, Anna

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we will discuss the prospect of human reproduction achieved with gametes originating from only one person. According to statements by a minority of scientists working on the generation of gametes in vitro, it may become possible to create eggs from men's non-reproductive cells and sperm from women's. This would enable, at least in principle, the creation of an embryo from cells obtained from only one individual: 'solo reproduction'. We will consider what might motivate people to reproduce in this way, and the implications that solo reproduction might have for ethics and policy. We suggest that such an innovation is unlikely to revolutionise reproduction and parenting. Indeed, in some respects it is less revolutionary than in vitro fertilisation as a whole. Furthermore, we show that solo reproduction with in vitro created gametes is not necessarily any more ethically problematic than gamete donation-and probably less so. Where appropriate, we draw parallels with the debate surrounding reproductive cloning. We note that solo reproduction may serve to perpetuate reductive geneticised accounts of reproduction, and that this may indeed be ethically questionable. However, in this it is not unique among other technologies of assisted reproduction, many of which focus on genetic transmission. It is for this reason that a ban on solo reproduction might be inconsistent with continuing to permit other kinds of reproduction that also bear the potential to strengthen attachment to a geneticised account of reproduction. Our claim is that there are at least as good reasons to pursue research towards enabling solo reproduction, and eventually to introduce solo reproduction as an option for fertility treatment, as there are to do so for other infertility related purposes.

  3. Cytokine-independent growth and clonal expansion of a primary human CD8+ T-cell clone following retroviral transduction with the IL-15 gene

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cary; Jones, Stephanie A.; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Zheng, Zhili; Kerstann, Keith; Zhou, Juhua; Robbins, Paul F.; Peng, Peter D.; Shen, Xinglei; Gomes, Theotonius J.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Munroe, David J.; Stewart, Claudia; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Malignancies arising from retrovirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells have been reported in animal models and human gene therapy trials. Whether mature lymphocytes are susceptible to insertional mutagenesis is unknown. We have characterized a primary human CD8+ T-cell clone, which exhibited logarithmic ex vivo growth in the absence of exogenous cytokine support for more than 1 year after transduction with a murine leukemia virus–based vector encoding the T-cell growth factor IL-15. Phenotypically, the clone was CD28−, CD45RA−, CD45RO+, and CD62L−, a profile consistent with effector memory T lymphocytes. After gene transfer with tumor-antigen–specific T-cell receptors, the clone secreted IFN-γ upon encountering tumor targets, providing further evidence that they derived from mature lymphocytes. Gene-expression analyses revealed no evidence of insertional activation of genes flanking the retroviral insertion sites. The clone exhibited constitutive telomerase activity, and the presence of autocrine loop was suggested by impaired cell proliferation following knockdown of IL-15Rα expression. The generation of this cell line suggests that nonphysiologic expression of IL-15 can result in the long-term in vitro growth of mature human T lymphocytes. The cytokine-independent growth of this line was a rare event that has not been observed in other IL-15 vector transduction experiments or with any other integrating vector system. It does not appear that the retroviral vector integration sites played a role in the continuous growth of this cell clone, but this remains under investigation. PMID:17353346

  4. Fire coral clones demonstrate phenotypic plasticity among reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Caroline E; Boissin, Emilie; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Planes, Serge

    2017-08-01

    Clonal populations are often characterized by reduced levels of genotypic diversity, which can translate into lower numbers of functional phenotypes, both of which impede adaptation. Study of partially clonal animals enables examination of the environmental settings under which clonal reproduction is favoured. Here, we gathered genotypic and phenotypic information from 3,651 georeferenced colonies of the fire coral Millepora platyphylla in five habitats with different hydrodynamic regimes in Moorea, French Polynesia. In the upper slope where waves break, most colonies grew as vertical sheets ("sheet tree") making them more vulnerable to fragmentation. Nearly all fire corals in the other habitats are encrusting or massive. The M. platyphylla population is highly clonal (80% of the colonies are clones), while characterized by the highest genotype diversity ever documented for terrestrial or marine populations (1,064 genotypes). The proportion of clones varies greatly among habitats (≥58%-97%) and clones (328 clonal lineages) are distributed perpendicularly from the reef crest, perfectly aligned with wave energy. There are six clonal lineages with clones dispersed in at least two adjacent habitats that strongly demonstrate phenotypic plasticity. Eighty per cent of the colonies in these lineages are "sheet tree" on the upper slope, while 80%-100% are encrusting or massive on the mid slope and back reef. This is a unique example of phenotypic plasticity among reef-building coral clones as corals typically have wave-tolerant growth forms in high-energy reef areas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Amyloid precursor protein interaction network in human testis: sentinel proteins for male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Yoon, Sooyeon; Domingues, Sara; Guimarães, Sofia; Goltsev, Alexander V; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar Figueiredo; Mendes, José Fernando F; da Cruz E Silva, Odete Abreu Beirão; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-01-16

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely recognized for playing a central role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Although APP is expressed in several tissues outside the human central nervous system, the functions of APP and its family members in other tissues are still poorly understood. APP is involved in several biological functions which might be potentially important for male fertility, such as cell adhesion, cell motility, signaling, and apoptosis. Furthermore, APP superfamily members are known to be associated with fertility. Knowledge on the protein networks of APP in human testis and spermatozoa will shed light on the function of APP in the male reproductive system. We performed a Yeast Two-Hybrid screen and a database search to study the interaction network of APP in human testis and sperm. To gain insights into the role of APP superfamily members in fertility, the study was extended to APP-like protein 2 (APLP2). We analyzed several topological properties of the APP interaction network and the biological and physiological properties of the proteins in the APP interaction network were also specified by gene ontologyand pathways analyses. We classified significant features related to the human male reproduction for the APP interacting proteins and identified modules of proteins with similar functional roles which may show cooperative behavior for male fertility. The present work provides the first report on the APP interactome in human testis. Our approach allowed the identification of novel interactions and recognition of key APP interacting proteins for male reproduction, particularly in sperm-oocyte interaction.

  6. Purification and characterization of recombinant human bile salt-stimulated lipase expressed in milk of transgenic cloned cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhang; Ding, Fangrong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Wenjie; Lindquist, Susanne; Hernell, Olle; Wang, Jianwu; Li, Jing; Li, Ling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is a lipolytic digestive enzyme with broad substrate specificity secreted from exocrine pancreas into the intestinal lumen in all species and from the lactating mammary gland into the milk of some species, notably humans but not cows. BSSL in breast milk facilitates digestion and absorption of milk fat and promotes growth of small for gestational age preterm infants. Thus, purified recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) can be used for treatment of patients with fat malabsorption and expressing rhBSSL in the milk of transgenic cloned cows would therefore be a mean to meet a medical need. In the present study, a vector pBAC-hLF-hBSSL was constructed, which efficiently expressed active rhBSSL in milk of transgenic cloned cows to a concentration of 9.8 mg/ml. The rhBSSL purified from cow milk had the same enzymatic activity, N-terminal amino acid sequence, amino acid composition and isoelectric point and similar physicochemical characteristics as human native BSSL. Our study supports the use of transgenic cattle for the cost-competitive, large-scale production of therapeutic rhBSSL.

  7. Purification and characterization of recombinant human bile salt-stimulated lipase expressed in milk of transgenic cloned cows

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fangrong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Wenjie; Lindquist, Susanne; Hernell, Olle; Wang, Jianwu; Li, Jing; Li, Ling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is a lipolytic digestive enzyme with broad substrate specificity secreted from exocrine pancreas into the intestinal lumen in all species and from the lactating mammary gland into the milk of some species, notably humans but not cows. BSSL in breast milk facilitates digestion and absorption of milk fat and promotes growth of small for gestational age preterm infants. Thus, purified recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) can be used for treatment of patients with fat malabsorption and expressing rhBSSL in the milk of transgenic cloned cows would therefore be a mean to meet a medical need. In the present study, a vector pBAC-hLF-hBSSL was constructed, which efficiently expressed active rhBSSL in milk of transgenic cloned cows to a concentration of 9.8 mg/ml. The rhBSSL purified from cow milk had the same enzymatic activity, N-terminal amino acid sequence, amino acid composition and isoelectric point and similar physicochemical characteristics as human native BSSL. Our study supports the use of transgenic cattle for the cost-competitive, large-scale production of therapeutic rhBSSL. PMID:28475629

  8. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  9. What is Cloning?

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Home Cloning What is Cloning What is Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. ... clones made through modern cloning technologies. How Is Cloning Done? Many people first heard of cloning when ...

  10. Molecular cloning of two human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzymes that are identical with chlordecone reductase and bile-acid binder.

    PubMed Central

    Deyashiki, Y; Ogasawara, A; Nakayama, T; Nakanishi, M; Miyabe, Y; Sato, K; Hara, A

    1994-01-01

    Human liver contains two dihydrodiol dehydrogenases, DD2 and DD4, associated with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. We have raised polyclonal antibodies that cross-reacted with the two enzymes and isolated two 1.2 kb cDNA clones (C9 and C11) for the two enzymes from a human liver cDNA library using the antibodies. The clones of C9 and C11 contained coding sequences corresponding to 306 and 321 amino acid residues respectively, but lacked 5'-coding regions around the initiation codon. Sequence analyses of several peptides obtained by enzymic and chemical cleavages of the two purified enzymes verified that the C9 and C11 clones encoded DD2 and DD4 respectively, and further indicated that the sequence of DD2 had at least additional 16 residues upward from the N-terminal sequence deduced from the cDNA. There was 82% amino acid sequence identity between the two enzymes, indicating that the enzymes are genetic isoenzymes. A computer-based comparison of the cDNAs of the isoenzymes with the DNA sequence database revealed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DD2 and DD4 are virtually identical with those of human bile-acid binder and human chlordecone reductase cDNAs respectively. Images Figure 1 PMID:8172617

  11. Incorporating human rights into reproductive health care provider education programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Zuniga, Karen Padilla; Billings, Deborah L; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2013-07-01

    Health care providers play a central role in the promotion and protection of human rights in patient care. Consequently, the World Medical Association, among others, has called on medical and nursing schools to incorporate human rights education into their training programs. This report describes the efforts of one Central American nongovernmental organization to include human rights - related content into reproductive health care provider training programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Baseline findings suggest that health care providers are not being adequately prepared to fulfill their duty to protect and promote human rights in patient care. Medical and nursing school administrators, faculty, and students recognize the need to strengthen training in this area and are enthusiastic about incorporating human rights content into their education programs. Evaluation findings suggest that exposure to educational materials and methodologies that emphasize the relationship between human rights and reproductive health may lead to changes in health care provider attitudes and behaviors that help promote and safeguard human rights in patient care.

  12. Metabolism of rutin and poncirin by human intestinal microbiota and cloning of their metabolizing α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium dentium.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seo-Hyeon; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Shim, Juwon; Hong, Sung-Woon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To understand the metabolism of flavonoid rhamnoglycosides by human intestinal microbiota, we measured the metabolic activity of rutin and poncirin (distributed in many functional foods and herbal medicine) by 100 human stool specimens. The average α-Lrhamnosidase activities on the p-nitrophenyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and poncirin subtrates were 0.10 ± 0.07, 0.25 ± 0.08, and 0.15 ± 0.09 pmol/min/mg, respectively. To investigate the enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria were isolated from the specimens, and the α-L-rhamnosidase gene was cloned from a selected organism, Bifidobacterium dentium, and expressed in E. coli. The cloned α-L-rhamnosidase gene contained a 2,673 bp sequcence encoding 890 amino acid residues. The cloned gene was expressed using the pET 26b(+) vector in E. coli BL21, and the expressed enzyme was purified using Ni(2+)-NTA and Q-HP column chromatography. The specific activity of the purified α-L-rhamnosidase was 23.3 μmol/min/mg. Of the tested natural product constituents, the cloned α-L-rhamnosidase hydrolyzed rutin most potently, followed by poncirin, naringin, and ginsenoside Re. However, it was unable to hydrolyze quercitrin. This is the first report describing the cloning, expression, and characterization of α-L-rhamnosidase, a flavonoid rhamnoglycosidemetabolizing enzyme, from bifidobacteria. Based on these findings, the α-L-rhamnosidase of intestinal bacteria such as B. dentium seem to be more effective in hydrolyzing (1-->6) bonds than (1-->2) bonds of rhamnoglycosides, and may play an important role in the metabolism and pharmacological effect of rhamnoglycosides.

  13. Cloning of aged animals: a medical model for tissue and organ regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tian, X C; Kubota, C; Yang, X

    2001-11-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer has great potential application in pharmaceutical protein production, xeno-transplantation, and perhaps most excitingly, therapeutic cloning. In therapeutic cloning a patient's own skin cells can be used to generate cloned embryos from which embryonic stem cells are isolated. Through targeted differentiation, embryonic stem cells can be directed to develop into the desired tissues/organs for replacement. The combination of homologous recombination of genes and nuclear transfer also offers the promise of correcting defective genes in humans. Demonstration of the successful cloning of aged animals is important for these future medical applications because degenerative diseases often afflict older adults. Our studies have demonstrated that skin fibroblast cells from aged adults, even after prolonged culture, provide nuclear donors equally as competent for cloning as cells from young adults or fetuses. These findings have paved the way for medically treating degenerative diseases of aged humans by tissue regeneration technologies made possible through cloning and homologous recombination.

  14. Production of transgenic-cloned pigs expressing large quantities of recombinant human lysozyme in milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Liu, Shen; Shang, Shengzhe; Wu, Fangfang; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Human lysozyme is a natural non-specific immune factor in human milk that plays an important role in the defense of breastfed infants against pathogen infection. Although lysozyme is abundant in human milk, there is only trace quantities in pig milk. Here, we successfully generated transgenic cloned pigs with the expression vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ-Neo and their first generation hybrids (F1). The highest concentration of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) with in vitro bioactivity was 2759.6 ± 265.0 mg/L in the milk of F0 sows. Compared with wild-type milk, rhLZ milk inhibited growth of Escherichia coli K88 during the exponential growth phase. Moreover, rhLZ in milk from transgenic sows was directly absorbed by the intestine of piglets with no observable anaphylactic reaction. Our strategy may provide a powerful tool for large-scale production of this important human protein in pigs to improve resistance to pathogen infection.

  15. Saving and Reproduction of Human Motion Data by Using Haptic Devices with Different Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunashima, Noboru; Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Recently, there has been increased focus on “haptic recording” development of a motion-copying system is an efficient method for the realization of haptic recording. Haptic recording involves saving and reproduction of human motion data on the basis of haptic information. To increase the number of applications of the motion-copying system in various fields, it is necessary to reproduce human motion data by using haptic devices with different configurations. In this study, a method for the above-mentioned haptic recording is developed. In this method, human motion data are saved and reproduced on the basis of work space information, which is obtained by coordinate transformation of motor space information. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by experiments. With the proposed method, saving and reproduction of human motion data by using various devices is achieved. Furthermore, it is also possible to use haptic recording in various fields.

  16. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2011-05-01

    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  17. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding human gastrin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Spindel, E R; Chin, W W; Price, J; Rees, L H; Besser, G M; Habener, J F

    1984-01-01

    We have prepared and cloned cDNAs derived from poly(A)+ RNA from a human pulmonary carcinoid tumor rich in immunoreactivity to gastrin-releasing peptide, a peptide closely related in structure to amphibian bombesin. Mixtures of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides corresponding to amphibian bombesin were used as hybridization probes to screen a cDNA library prepared from the tumor RNA. Sequencing of the recombinant plasmids shows that human gastrin-releasing peptide (hGRP) mRNA encodes a precursor of 148 amino acids containing a typical signal sequence, hGRP consisting of 27 or 28 amino acids, and a carboxyl-terminal extension peptide. hGRP is flanked at its carboxyl terminus by two basic amino acids, following a glycine used for amidation of the carboxyl-terminal methionine. RNA blot analyses of tumor RNA show a major mRNA of 900 bases and a minor mRNA of 850 bases. Blot hybridization analyses using human genomic DNA are consistent with a single hGRP-encoding gene. The presence of two mRNAs encoding the hGRP precursor protein in the face of a single hGRP gene raises the possibility of alternative processing of the single RNA transcript. Images PMID:6207529

  18. Divergent selection on, but no genetic conflict over, female and male timing and rate of reproduction in a human population

    PubMed Central

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Pettay, Jenni E.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    The sexes often have different phenotypic optima for important life-history traits, and because of a largely shared genome this can lead to a conflict over trait expression. In mammals, the obligate costs of reproduction are higher for females, making reproductive timing and rate especially liable to conflict between the sexes. While studies from wild vertebrates support such sexual conflict, it remains unexplored in humans. We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate sexual conflict over age at first and last reproduction, reproductive lifespan and reproductive rate. We found that the phenotypic selection gradients differed between the sexes. We next established significant heritabilities in both sexes for all traits. All traits, except reproductive rate, showed strongly positive intersexual genetic correlations and were strongly genetically correlated with fitness in both sexes. Moreover, the genetic correlations with fitness were almost identical in men and women. For reproductive rate, the intersexual correlation and the correlation with fitness were weaker but again similar between the sexes. Thus, in this population, an apparent sexual conflict at the phenotypic level did not reflect an underlying genetic conflict over the studied reproductive traits. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating genetic perspectives into studies of human life-history evolution. PMID:24107531

  19. Divergent selection on, but no genetic conflict over, female and male timing and rate of reproduction in a human population.

    PubMed

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-12-07

    The sexes often have different phenotypic optima for important life-history traits, and because of a largely shared genome this can lead to a conflict over trait expression. In mammals, the obligate costs of reproduction are higher for females, making reproductive timing and rate especially liable to conflict between the sexes. While studies from wild vertebrates support such sexual conflict, it remains unexplored in humans. We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate sexual conflict over age at first and last reproduction, reproductive lifespan and reproductive rate. We found that the phenotypic selection gradients differed between the sexes. We next established significant heritabilities in both sexes for all traits. All traits, except reproductive rate, showed strongly positive intersexual genetic correlations and were strongly genetically correlated with fitness in both sexes. Moreover, the genetic correlations with fitness were almost identical in men and women. For reproductive rate, the intersexual correlation and the correlation with fitness were weaker but again similar between the sexes. Thus, in this population, an apparent sexual conflict at the phenotypic level did not reflect an underlying genetic conflict over the studied reproductive traits. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating genetic perspectives into studies of human life-history evolution.

  20. A microfluidic culture model of the human reproductive tract and 28-day menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuo; Coppeta, Jonathan R.; Rogers, Hunter B.; Isenberg, Brett C.; Zhu, Jie; Olalekan, Susan A.; McKinnon, Kelly E.; Dokic, Danijela; Rashedi, Alexandra S.; Haisenleder, Daniel J.; Malpani, Saurabh S.; Arnold-Murray, Chanel A.; Chen, Kuanwei; Jiang, Mingyang; Bai, Lu; Nguyen, Catherine T.; Zhang, Jiyang; Laronda, Monica M.; Hope, Thomas J.; Maniar, Kruti P.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Avram, Michael J.; Sefton, Elizabeth C.; Getsios, Spiro; Burdette, Joanna E.; Kim, J. Julie; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2017-01-01

    The endocrine system dynamically controls tissue differentiation and homeostasis, but has not been studied using dynamic tissue culture paradigms. Here we show that a microfluidic system supports murine ovarian follicles to produce the human 28-day menstrual cycle hormone profile, which controls human female reproductive tract and peripheral tissue dynamics in single, dual and multiple unit microfluidic platforms (Solo-MFP, Duet-MFP and Quintet-MPF, respectively). These systems simulate the in vivo female reproductive tract and the endocrine loops between organ modules for the ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, cervix and liver, with a sustained circulating flow between all tissues. The reproductive tract tissues and peripheral organs integrated into a microfluidic platform, termed EVATAR, represents a powerful new in vitro tool that allows organ–organ integration of hormonal signalling as a phenocopy of menstrual cycle and pregnancy-like endocrine loops and has great potential to be used in drug discovery and toxicology studies. PMID:28350383

  1. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Valerie A.; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A.; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R.; Church, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  2. Human Hrs, a tyrosine kinase substrate in growth factor-stimulated cells: cDNA cloning and mapping of the gene to chromosome 17.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Komada, M; Kitamura, N

    1998-06-15

    Hrs is a 115kDa zinc finger protein which is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in cells stimulated with various growth factors. We previously purified the protein from a mouse cell line and cloned its cDNA. In the present study, we cloned a human Hrs cDNA from a human placenta cDNA library by cross-hybridization, using the mouse cDNA as a probe, and determined its nucleotide sequence. The human Hrs cDNA encoded a 777-amino-acid protein whose sequence was 93% identical to that of mouse Hrs. Northern blot analysis showed that the Hrs mRNA was about 3.0kb long and was expressed in all the human adult and fetal tissues tested. In addition, we showed by genomic Southern blot analysis that the human Hrs gene was a single-copy gene with a size of about 20kb. Furthermore, the human Hrs gene was mapped to chromosome 17 by Southern blotting of genomic DNAs from human/rodent somatic cell hybrids. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and cloning of a gamma 3 subunit splice variant of the human GABA(A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, C F; Christjansen, K N; Hastrup, S; Hartvig, L

    2000-05-31

    cDNA sequences encoding two forms of the GABA(A) gamma 3 receptor subunit were cloned from human hippocampus. The nucleotide sequences differ by the absence (gamma 3S) or presence (gamma 3L) of 18 bp located in the presumed intracellular loop between transmembrane region (TM) III and IV. The extra 18 bp in the gamma 3L subunit generates a consensus site for phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC). Analysis of human genomic DNA encoding the gamma 3 subunit reveals that the 18 bp insert is contiguous with the upstream proximal exon.

  4. Sex-linked strategies of human reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, K; Urribarri, D; Chacon, G C; Diaz, G; Torres, A; Herzog, G

    1993-01-01

    We present data on fertility characteristics in the Venezuelan population for each sex separately, allowing a detailed comparative analysis of the variance in fertility between males and females. We show that the fertility distribution for both sexes is discontinuous, that the average female has a larger number of offspring per individual than the average male, and that highly fertile males outnumber highly fertile females so that the total number of offspring produced by males and females is balanced. Results indicate that a few males are responsible for a relative higher fertility of the average female and that interactions between polyandric females with monogamic and polygynic males are common. Among the Yanomami, a relatively unacculturated hunter-gatherer-horticulturist tribe, similar differences in fertility distribution of both sexes are apparent. The data suggest that human populations contain statistically distinct subpopulations, with different reproductive strategies, suggesting the existence of complex interactions among human populations which are not evident from the study of individuals or groups.

  5. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos: comments on Canadian legislation governing reproduction technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, L; Gregoire, D

    2004-01-01

    In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed. PMID:15574437

  6. Currently recognized clinically relevant and known genes for human reproduction and related infertility with representation on high-resolution chromosome ideograms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G; Rafi, Syed K; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    To provide an update of currently recognized clinically relevant candidate and known genes for human reproduction and related infertility plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms (850 band level) and represented alphabetically in tabular form. Descriptive authoritative computer-based website and peer-reviewed medical literature searches used pertinent keywords representing human reproduction and related infertility along with genetics and gene mutations. A master list of genes associated with human reproduction and related infertility was generated with a visual representation of gene locations on high resolution chromosome ideograms. GeneAnalytics pathway analysis was carried out on the resulting list of genes to assess underlying genetic architecture for infertility. Advances in genetic technology have led to the discovery of genes responsible for reproduction and related infertility. Genes identified (N=371) in our search primarily impact ovarian steroidogenesis through sex hormone biology, germ cell production, genito-urinary or gonadal development and function, and related peptide production, receptors and regulatory factors. The location of gene symbols plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms forms a conceptualized image of the distribution of human reproduction genes. The updated master list can be used to promote better awareness of genetics of reproduction and related infertility and advance discoveries on genetic causes and disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrative Annotation of 21,037 Human Genes Validated by Full-Length cDNA Clones

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Tadashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yutaka; O'Donovan, Claire; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Koyanagi, Kanako O; Barrero, Roberto A; Tamura, Takuro; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Tanino, Motohiko; Yura, Kei; Miyazaki, Satoru; Ikeo, Kazuho; Homma, Keiichi; Kasprzyk, Arek; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Hirakawa, Mika; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Ashurst, Jennifer; Jia, Libin; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Thomas, Michael A; Mulder, Nicola; Karavidopoulou, Youla; Jin, Lihua; Kim, Sangsoo; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Lenhard, Boris; Eveno, Eric; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaki, Chisato; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Gough, Craig; Hilton, Phillip; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Susumu; Amid, Clara; Bellgard, Matthew; Bonaldo, Maria de Fatima; Bono, Hidemasa; Bromberg, Susan K; Brookes, Anthony J; Bruford, Elspeth; Carninci, Piero; Chelala, Claude; Couillault, Christine; de Souza, Sandro J.; Debily, Marie-Anne; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Dubchak, Inna; Endo, Toshinori; Estreicher, Anne; Eyras, Eduardo; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; R. Gopinath, Gopal; Graudens, Esther; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Han, Michael; Han, Ze-Guang; Hanada, Kousuke; Hanaoka, Hideki; Harada, Erimi; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki; Hinz, Ursula; Hirai, Momoki; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Hopkinson, Ian; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kanapin, Alexander; Kaneko, Yayoi; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kelso, Janet; Kersey, Paul; Kikuno, Reiko; Kimura, Kouichi; Korn, Bernhard; Kuryshev, Vladimir; Makalowska, Izabela; Makino, Takashi; Mano, Shuhei; Mariage-Samson, Regine; Mashima, Jun; Matsuda, Hideo; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Minoshima, Shinsei; Nagai, Keiichi; Nagasaki, Hideki; Nagata, Naoki; Nigam, Rajni; Ogasawara, Osamu; Ohara, Osamu; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Okada, Norihiro; Okido, Toshihisa; Oota, Satoshi; Ota, Motonori; Ota, Toshio; Otsuki, Tetsuji; Piatier-Tonneau, Dominique; Poustka, Annemarie; Ren, Shuang-Xi; Saitou, Naruya; Sakai, Katsunaga; Sakamoto, Shigetaka; Sakate, Ryuichi; Schupp, Ingo; Servant, Florence; Sherry, Stephen; Shiba, Rie; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Shimoyama, Mary; Simpson, Andrew J; Soares, Bento; Steward, Charles; Suwa, Makiko; Suzuki, Mami; Takahashi, Aiko; Tamiya, Gen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Taylor, Todd; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Unneberg, Per; Veeramachaneni, Vamsi; Watanabe, Shinya; Wilming, Laurens; Yasuda, Norikazu; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Stodolsky, Marvin; Makalowski, Wojciech; Go, Mitiko; Nakai, Kenta; Takagi, Toshihisa; Kanehisa, Minoru; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Quackenbush, John; Okazaki, Yasushi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hide, Winston; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Nishikawa, Ken; Sugawara, Hideaki; Tateno, Yoshio; Chen, Zhu; Oishi, Michio; Tonellato, Peter; Apweiler, Rolf; Okubo, Kousaku; Wagner, Lukas; Wiemann, Stefan; Strausberg, Robert L; Isogai, Takao; Auffray, Charles; Nomura, Nobuo; Sugano, Sumio

    2004-01-01

    The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene prediction remains a difficult task, as the varieties of transcripts of a gene may vary to a great extent. We thus performed an exhaustive integrative characterization of 41,118 full-length cDNAs that capture the gene transcripts as complete functional cassettes, providing an unequivocal report of structural and functional diversity at the gene level. Our international collaboration has validated 21,037 human gene candidates by analysis of high-quality full-length cDNA clones through curation using unified criteria. This led to the identification of 5,155 new gene candidates. It also manifested the most reliable way to control the quality of the cDNA clones. We have developed a human gene database, called the H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB; http://www.h-invitational.jp/). It provides the following: integrative annotation of human genes, description of gene structures, details of novel alternative splicing isoforms, non-protein-coding RNAs, functional domains, subcellular localizations, metabolic pathways, predictions of protein three-dimensional structure, mapping of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identification of polymorphic microsatellite repeats within human genes, and comparative results with mouse full-length cDNAs. The H-InvDB analysis has shown that up to 4% of the human genome sequence (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 34 assembly) may contain misassembled or missing regions. We found that 6.5% of the human gene candidates (1,377 loci) did not have a good protein-coding open reading frame, of which 296 loci are strong candidates for non-protein-coding RNA genes. In

  8. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte beta-spectrin.

    PubMed Central

    Prchal, J T; Morley, B J; Yoon, S H; Coetzer, T L; Palek, J; Conboy, J G; Kan, Y W

    1987-01-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical alpha (Mr 240,000) and beta (Mr 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. We report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific beta-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the beta-9 through beta-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the beta-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte beta-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the beta-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities. Images PMID:3478706

  9. Characterization and localization of cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) in the human male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Udby, Lene; Bjartell, Anders; Malm, Johan; Egesten, Arne; Lundwall, Ake; Cowland, Jack B; Borregaard, Niels; Kjeldsen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian members of the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family are expressed predominantly in the male reproductive tract and are implicated in the process of reproduction from spermiogenesis, posttesticular sperm maturation, and capacitation to oocyte-sperm fusion, and possibly also penetration of the zona pellucida. Rodents express only 2 CRISPs (CRISP-1 and CRISP-2) in their male reproductive system, whereas humans and horses express an additional third member named CRISP-3. We have previously demonstrated that this protein is present in human seminal plasma as well as in other exocrine secretions, in blood plasma, and in neutrophilic granulocytes. To characterize the protein in seminal plasma and localize the production of CRISP-3 in the human male reproductive tract, we performed immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurements of seminal plasma and immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of tissue specimens. We were able to show that human CRISP-3 is a quantitatively minor seminal plasma protein not associated with prostasomes. Furthermore, CRISP-3 expression was found in the secretory epithelium throughout the male genital tract, with particularly high expression in the cauda epididymis and ampulla vas deferens. Examination of seminal plasma from vasectomized males indicates that organs downstream of the epididymis are probably the major sources of seminal plasma CRISP-3.

  10. GnRH and GnRH receptors in the pathophysiology of the human female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Roberto; Cariboni, Anna Maria; Marelli, Marina Montagnani; Moretti, Roberta Manuela; Andrè, Valentina; Marzagalli, Monica; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-04-01

    Human reproduction depends on an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been recognized, since its identification in 1971, as the central regulator of the production and release of the pituitary gonadotrophins that, in turn, regulate the gonadal functions and the production of sex steroids. The characteristic peculiar development, distribution and episodic activity of GnRH-producing neurons have solicited an interdisciplinary interest on the etiopathogenesis of several reproductive diseases. The more recent identification of a GnRH/GnRH receptor (GnRHR) system in both the human endometrium and ovary has widened the spectrum of action of the peptide and of its analogues beyond its hypothalamic function. An analysis of research and review articles published in international journals until June 2015 has been carried out to comprehensively summarize both the well established and the most recent knowledge on the physiopathology of the GnRH system in the central and peripheral control of female reproductive functions and diseases. This review focuses on the role of GnRH neurons in the control of the reproductive axis. New knowledge is accumulating on the genetic programme that drives GnRH neuron development to ameliorate the diagnosis and treatment of GnRH deficiency and consequent delayed or absent puberty. Moreover, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the episodic release of GnRH during the onset of puberty and the ovulatory cycle has enabled the pharmacological use of GnRH itself or its synthetic analogues (agonists and antagonists) to either stimulate or to block the gonadotrophin secretion and modulate the functions of the reproductive axis in several reproductive diseases and in assisted reproduction technology. Several inputs from other neuronal populations, as well as metabolic, somatic and age-related signals, may greatly affect the functions of the GnRH pulse generator during

  11. Molecular cloning of a human Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule homologous to mouse placental cadherin: its low expression in human placental tissues

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    P-cadherin is a subclass of Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules present in mouse placenta, where its localization suggests a function of connecting the embryo to the uterus (Nose, A., and M. Takeichi. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103:2649-2658). We recently identified a human cadherin detected by an mAb capable of disrupting cell-cell adhesion of A-431 cells, and found that it was closely related immunochemically to mouse P-cadherin. Curiously, this cadherin was undetectable in human placenta by immunohistochemical examination (Shimoyama, Y., S. Hirohashi, S. Hirano, M. Noguchi, Y. Shimosato, M. Takeichi, and O. Abe. 1989. Cancer Res. 49:2128-2133). We here report the cloning and sequencing of cDNA clone encoding the human homologue of mouse P- cadherin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human P-cadherin consists of 829 amino acid and shows striking homology with mouse P- cadherin. On Northern blot analysis, human P-cadherin was scarcely expressed in human placenta in contrast to mouse P-cadherin, which was abundantly expressed in mouse placenta throughout pregnancy, and it was shown that E-cadherin, but not P-cadherin, was the major cadherin molecule in human placenta. Moreover, NIH3T3 cells transfected with human P-cadherin cDNA expressed the functional cadherin molecule, which was identical to the cadherin we had previously identified using the mAb, showing that this molecule really does mediate cell-cell adhesion and that the cadherin we detected immunochemically is undoubtedly human P-cadherin. The results obtained in this study support the idea that P- cadherin plays little role, if any, in Ca2+-dependent cell-cell binding in human placental tissue at least after several weeks of pregnancy. PMID:2793940

  12. Reproduction of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection and Pathogenesis in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with a variety of diseases including lymphoproliferative diseases, lymphomas, carcinomas, and autoimmune diseases. Humans are the only natural host of EBV and limited species of new-world monkeys can be infected with the virus in experimental conditions. Small animal models of EBV infection, required for evaluation of novel therapies and vaccines for EBV-associated diseases, have not been available. Recently the development of severely immunodeficient mouse strains enabled production of humanized mice in which human immune system components are reconstituted and express their normal functions. Humanized mice can serve as infection models for human-specific viruses such as EBV that target cells of the immune system. This review summarizes recent studies by the author's group addressing reproduction of EBV infection and pathogenesis in humanized mice. PMID:24605074

  13. The Cloning of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Judith E.; Dobson, Russell L.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that the U.S. school system purports to prize human variability, but many educators are engaged in activities that seek to homogenize students. Describes these activities, including diagnosis, labeling, ability grouping, and positive reinforcement. Presents suggestions for counselors to combat sources of cloning and self-validation. (RC)

  14. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  15. Using a moot to develop students’ understanding of human cloning and statutory interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    This article reports and analyses the method and findings from a 3-year interdisciplinary project investigating how the medium of law can support understanding of socio-scientific issues. Law represents one of the most important means by which society decides and communicates its values. Activities mirroring legal processes therefore have significant potential to inform, inspire and involve school students in exploring the conceptual, social and ethical issues relating to developments in biomedical science. This article focusses on an intervention-style study in which UK-based 16- to 17-year-old students role played a Supreme Court moot, developed by modifying a domestic appeal case concerned with whether the contemporary legislation covered the creation of cloned human embryos. We draw attention to how the science of cloning has been slightly misunderstood by the courts and in science materials provided to UK school students. We argue that moot-centred engagement activities offer great potential for science communication among post-16 students and, despite the limitations of the judicial process for addressing complex socio-scientific issues, such role plays aid development of scientific and sociolegal understanding, as well as enhancing students’ self-confidence and argumentation skills. PMID:28943724

  16. Quantum dot-based molecular imaging of cancer cell growth using a clone formation assay.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xia-Fei; Fang, Min; Liu, Shao-Ping; Li, Yan

    2016-10-01

    This aim of the present study was to investigate clonal growth behavior and analyze the proliferation characteristics of cancer cells. The MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line, SW480 human colon cancer cell line and SGC7901 human gastric cancer cell line were selected to investigate the morphology of cell clones. Quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques (which stained pan‑cytokeratin in the cytoplasm green and Ki67 in the cell nucleus yellow or red) were used to investigate the clone formation rate, cell morphology, discrete tendency, and Ki67 expression and distribution in clones. From the cell clone formation assay, the MCF‑7, SW480 and SGC7901 cells were observed to form clones on days 6, 8 and 12 of cell culture, respectively. These three types of cells had heterogeneous morphology, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios, and conspicuous pathological mitotic features. The cells at the clone periphery formed multiple pseudopodium. In certain clones, cancer cells at the borderline were separated from the central cell clusters or presented a discrete tendency. With quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques, cells with strong Ki67 expression were predominantly shown to be distributed at the clone periphery, or concentrated on one side of the clones. In conclusion, cancer cell clones showed asymmetric growth behavior, and Ki67 was widely expressed in clones of these three cell lines, with strong expression around the clones, or aggregated at one side. Cell clone formation assay based on quantum dots molecular imaging offered a novel method to study the proliferative features of cancer cells, thus providing a further insight into tumor biology.

  17. Phylogeography: English elm is a 2,000-year-old Roman clone.

    PubMed

    Gil, Luis; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Soto, Alvaro; Cervera, M Teresa; Collada, Carmen

    2004-10-28

    The outbreak of Dutch elm disease in the 1970s ravaged European elm populations, killing more than 25 million trees in Britain alone; the greatest impact was on Ulmus procera, otherwise known as the English elm. Here we use molecular and historical information to show that this elm derives from a single clone that the Romans transported from Italy to the Iberian peninsula, and from there to Britain, for the purpose of supporting and training vines. Its highly efficient vegetative reproduction and its inability to set seeds have preserved this clone unaltered for 2,000 years as the core of the English elm population--and the preponderance of this susceptible variety may have favoured a rapid spread of the disease.

  18. Generation of cloned mice from adult neurons by direct nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Eiji; Oikawa, Mami; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kimiko; Shiura, Hirosuke; Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Kamimura, Satoshi; Matoba, Shogo; Ogonuki, Narumi; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Abe, Kuniya; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Aiba, Atsu; Ogura, Atsuo

    2015-03-01

    Whereas cloning mammals by direct somatic cell nuclear transfer has been successful using a wide range of donor cell types, neurons from adult brain remain "unclonable" for unknown reasons. Here, using a combination of two epigenetic approaches, we examined whether neurons from adult mice could be cloned. First, we used a specific antibody to discover cell types with reduced amounts of a repressive histone mark-dimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2)-and identified CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum as candidates. Second, reconstructed embryos were treated with trichostatin A (TSA), a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor. Using CA1 cells, cloned offspring were obtained at high rates, reaching 10.2% and 4.6% (of embryos transferred) for male and female donors, respectively. Cerebellar Purkinje cell nuclei were too large to maintain their genetic integrity during nuclear transfer, leading to developmental arrest of embryos. However, gene expression analysis using cloned blastocysts corroborated a high rate of genomic reprogrammability of CA1 pyramidal and Purkinje cells. Neurons from the hippocampal dentate gyrus and cerebral cortex, which had higher amounts of H3K9me2, could also be used for producing cloned offspring, but the efficiencies were low. A more thorough analysis revealed that TSA treatment was essential for cloning adult neuronal cells. This study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, that adult neurons can be cloned by nuclear transfer. Furthermore, our data imply that reduced amounts of H3K9me2 and increased histone acetylation appear to act synergistically to improve the development of cloned embryos. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  19. The role of the prokineticin 2 pathway in human reproduction: evidence from the study of human and murine gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cecilia; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Dwyer, Andrew A; Au, Margaret G; Sidis, Yisrael; Kaiser, Ursula B; Seminara, Stephanie B; Pitteloud, Nelly; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Crowley, William F

    2011-04-01

    A widely dispersed network of hypothalamic GnRH neurons controls the reproductive axis in mammals. Genetic investigation of the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency has revealed several key genes crucial for GnRH neuronal ontogeny and GnRH secretion. Among these genes, prokineticin 2 (PROK2), and PROK2 receptor (PROKR2) have recently emerged as critical regulators of reproduction in both mice and humans. Both prok2- and prokr2-deficient mice recapitulate the human Kallmann syndrome phenotype. Additionally, PROK2 and PROKR2 mutations are seen in humans with Kallmann syndrome, thus implicating this pathway in GnRH neuronal migration. However, PROK2/PROKR2 mutations are also seen in normosmic GnRH deficiency, suggesting a role for the prokineticin signaling system in GnRH biology that is beyond neuronal migration. This observation is particularly surprising because mature GnRH neurons do not express PROKR2. Moreover, mutations in both PROK2 and PROKR2 are predominantly detected in the heterozygous state with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity frequently seen within and across pedigrees. In some of these pedigrees, a "second hit" or oligogenicity has been documented. Besides reproduction, a pleiotropic physiological role for PROK2 is now recognized, including regulation of pain perception, circadian rhythms, hematopoiesis, and immune response. Therefore, further detailed clinical studies of patients with PROK2/PROKR2 mutations will help to map the broader biological role of the PROK2/PROKR2 pathway and identify other interacting genes/proteins that mediate its molecular effects in humans.

  20. The Role of the Prokineticin 2 Pathway in Human Reproduction: Evidence from the Study of Human and Murine Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cecilia; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Dwyer, Andrew A.; Au, Margaret G.; Sidis, Yisrael; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Pitteloud, Nelly; Zhou, Qun-Yong

    2011-01-01

    A widely dispersed network of hypothalamic GnRH neurons controls the reproductive axis in mammals. Genetic investigation of the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency has revealed several key genes crucial for GnRH neuronal ontogeny and GnRH secretion. Among these genes, prokineticin 2 (PROK2), and PROK2 receptor (PROKR2) have recently emerged as critical regulators of reproduction in both mice and humans. Both prok2- and prokr2-deficient mice recapitulate the human Kallmann syndrome phenotype. Additionally, PROK2 and PROKR2 mutations are seen in humans with Kallmann syndrome, thus implicating this pathway in GnRH neuronal migration. However, PROK2/PROKR2 mutations are also seen in normosmic GnRH deficiency, suggesting a role for the prokineticin signaling system in GnRH biology that is beyond neuronal migration. This observation is particularly surprising because mature GnRH neurons do not express PROKR2. Moreover, mutations in both PROK2 and PROKR2 are predominantly detected in the heterozygous state with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity frequently seen within and across pedigrees. In some of these pedigrees, a “second hit” or oligogenicity has been documented. Besides reproduction, a pleiotropic physiological role for PROK2 is now recognized, including regulation of pain perception, circadian rhythms, hematopoiesis, and immune response. Therefore, further detailed clinical studies of patients with PROK2/PROKR2 mutations will help to map the broader biological role of the PROK2/PROKR2 pathway and identify other interacting genes/proteins that mediate its molecular effects in humans. PMID:21037178

  1. Birth of cloned mice from vaginal smear cells after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Hiroki; Tanabe, Yoshiaki; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kishigami, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Less invasive methods for donor cell collection will facilitate reproduction of wild animals using somatic-cell nuclear transfer. Stages of the estrous cycle in mice have long been studies using somatic cells that can be collected from vaginal walls using cotton tipped swabs in a relatively non-invasive manner. In this study, we examined the feasibility of these cells as sources of nuclei for somatic-cell cloning using nuclear transfer. Estrous cycles generally comprise proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages. In the present experiments, more than 60% of cells were nucleated in vaginal smears from all but the estrus stage. However, after somatic-cell nuclear transfer of cells from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages, 66%, 50%, and 72% of cloned embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, and cloned female mouse birth rates after embryo transfer were 1.5%, 0.3%, and 1%, respectively. These results show that noninvasively collected vaginal smears contain somatic cells that can be used to clone female mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of amphetamines.

    PubMed

    2005-07-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for amphetamines to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. Amphetamines evaluated were D- and D,L-amphetamine and methamphetamine. Amphetamine is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in persons over 3 years of age and narcolepsy; methamphetamine is approved for the treatment of ADHD in persons 6 years of age and older and for short-term treatment of obesity. Amphetamines were selected for evaluation because of 1) widespread usage in children, 2) availability of developmental studies in children and experimental animals, and 3) public concern about the effect of this stimulant on child development. The results of this evaluation on amphetamines are published in an NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Methylphenidate, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to methylphenidate on human development and reproduction. First, there is some concern for developmental effects, specifically for potential neurobehavioral alterations, from prenatal amphetamine exposure in humans both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic settings. After prenatal exposure to therapeutic doses of amphetamine, rat pups demonstrated neurobehavioral alterations. Data from human and animal studies were judged insufficient for an evaluation of the effect of amphetamine exposure on growth and other related developmental effects. Second, there is concern for methamphetamine-induced adverse developmental effects, specifically on growth and neurobehavioral development, in therapeutic and non-therapeutic settings. This conclusion is based

  3. Family Resemblances: Human Reproductive Cloning as an Example for Reconsidering the Mutual Relationships between Bioethics and Science Fiction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Solveig L

    2018-03-08

    In the traditions of narrative ethics and casuistry, stories have a well-established role. Specifically, illness narratives provide insight into patients' perspectives and histories. However, because they tend to see fiction as an aesthetic endeavour, practitioners in these traditions often do not realize that fictional stories are valuable moral sources of their own. In this paper I employ two arguments to show the mutual relationship between bioethics and fiction, specifically, science fiction. First, both discourses use imagination to set a scene and determine a perspective. Second, bioethics and science fiction share the family resemblance of expressing moral beliefs. I then consider how understanding bioethics and science fiction as interrelated discourses can be the basis of a methodology for inquiry into relational autonomy in the context of biotechnologies and medicine. As an example of this methodology, I analyse Fay Weldon's novel The Cloning of Joanna May (1989).

  4. Always follow your nose: the functional significance of social chemosignals in human reproduction and survival.

    PubMed

    Lübke, Katrin T; Pause, Bettina M

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction" Across phyla, chemosensory communication is crucial for mediating a variety of social behaviors, which form the basis for ontogenetic and phylogenetic survival. In the present paper, evidence on chemosensory communication in humans, with special reference to reproduction and survival, will be presented. First, the impact of chemosignals on human reproduction will be reviewed. Work will be presented, showing how chemosensory signals are involved in mate choice and partnership formation by communicating attractiveness and facilitating a partner selection, which is of evolutionary advantage, and furthermore providing information about the level of sexual hormones. In addition to direct effects on phylogenetic survival, chemosignals indirectly aid reproductive success by fostering harm protection. Results will be presented, showing that chemosensory communication aids the emotional bond between mother and child, which in turn motivates parental caretaking and protection, leading to infant survival. Moreover, the likelihood of group survival can be increased through the use of stress-related chemosignals. Stress-related chemosignals induce a stress-related physiology in the perceiver, thereby priming a fight-flight-response, which is necessary for an optimum adaption to environmental harm. Finally, effects of sexual orientation on chemosensory communication will be discussed in terms of their putative role in stabilizing social groups, which might indirectly provide harm protection and foster survival. An integrative model of the presented data will be introduced. In conclusion, an outlook, focusing on the involvement of chemosensory communication in human social behavior and illustrating a novel approach to the significance of chemosensory signals in human survival, will be given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tissue engineering of reproductive tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may soon offer new hope for patients with serious injuries and end-stage reproductive organ failure. Scientists are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured reproductive tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is advancing, and new discoveries in this field will lead to new therapeutic strategies. For example, newly discovered types of stem cells have been retrieved from uterine tissues such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous adult cells have already entered the clinic. This article discusses these tissue engineering strategies for various organs in the male and female reproductive tract. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human protoporphyrinogen oxidase: expression, purification, and characterization of the cloned enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, T. A.; Dailey, H. A.

    1996-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (E.C.1.3.3.4) catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. The enzyme from human placenta has been cloned, sequenced, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and characterized. Northern blot analysis of eight different human tissues show evidence for only a single transcript in all tissue types and the size of this transcript is approximately 1.8 kb. The human cDNA has been inserted into an expression vector for E. coli and the protein produced at high levels in these cells. The protein is found in both membrane and cytoplasmic fractions. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity in the presence of detergents using a metal chelate affinity column. The purified protein is a homodimer composed of subunits of molecular weight of 51,000. The enzyme contains one noncovalently bound FAD per dimer, has a monomer extinction coefficient of 48,000 at 270 nm and contains no detectable redox active metals. The apparent K(m) and Kcat for protoporphyrinogen IX are 1.7 microM and 10.5 min-1, respectively. The enzyme does not use coproporphyrinogen III as a substrate and is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the herbicide acifluorfen. Protein database searches reveal significant homology between protoporphyrinogen oxidase and monoamine oxidase. PMID:8771201

  7. Chromosomal localization and cDNA cloning of the human DBP and TEF genes

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, Z.A.; Inaba, T.; Valentine, M.

    1994-09-15

    The authors have isolated cDNA and genomic clones and determined the human chromosome positions of two genes encoding transcription factors expressed in the liver and the pituitary gland: albumin D-site-binding protein (DBP) and thyrotroph embryonic factor (TEF). Both proteins have been identified as members of the PAR (proline and acidic amino acid-rich) subfamily of bZIP transcription factors in the rat, but human homologues have not been characterized. Using a fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, the DBP locus was assigned to chromosome 19q13, and TEF to chromosome 22q13. Each assignment was confirmed by means of human chromosome segregation in somatic cellmore » hybrids. Coding sequences of DBP and TEF, extending beyond the bZIP domain to the PAR region, were highly conserved in both human-human and interspecies comparisons. Conservation of the exon-intron boundaries of each bZIP domain-encoding exon suggested derivation from a common ancestral gene. DBP and TEF mRNAs were expressed in all tissues and cell lines examined, including brain, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. Knowledge of the human chromosome locations of these PAR proteins will facilitate studies to assess their involvement in carcinogenesis and other fundamental biological processes. 37 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  8. Characterization of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of cloned transgenic cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-03-16

    There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale.

  9. Characterization of Bioactive Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Cloned Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Background There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. Methodology/Principal Findings We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. Conclusions/Significance Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale. PMID:21436886

  10. GnRH in the Human Female Reproductive Axis.

    PubMed

    Limonta, Patrizia; Marelli, Marina Montagnani; Moretti, Roberta; Marzagalli, Monica; Fontana, Fabrizio; Maggi, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is recognized as the central regulator of the functions of the pituitary-gonadal axis. The increasing knowledge on the mechanisms controlling the development and the function of GnRH-producing neurons is leading to a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for hypogonadotropic hypogonadisms and for alterations of the puberty onset. During female life span, the function of the GnRH pulse generator may be affected by a number of inputs from other neuronal systems, offering alternative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Moreover, the identification of a GnRH/GnRH receptor system in both human ovary and endometrium has widened the spectrum of action of the peptide outside its hypothalamic functions. The pharmacological use of GnRH itself or its synthetic analogs (agonists and antagonists) provides a valid tool to either stimulate or block gonadotropin secretion and to modulate the female fertility in several reproductive disorders and in assisted reproduction technology. The use of GnRH agonists in young female patients undergoing chemotherapy is also considered a promising therapeutic approach to counteract iatrogenic ovarian failure. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intergenerational and sibling conflict under patrilocality. A model of reproductive skew applied to human kinship.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ting; Xu, Jing-Jing; Mace, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Here we argue that models developed to examine cooperation and conflict in communal breeders, using a "tug-of-war" model of reproductive skew generated by incomplete control, are an appropriate way to model human kinship systems. We apply such models to understand the patterns of effort put into competition between father and son and between brothers in conflict over family resources in a patrilineal kinship system. Co-resident kin do not necessarily emerge with equal shares of the cake in terms of reproductive output. The models show that, depending on the efficiency with which they can gain more control of the resource, on the marriage system, and on the relatedness of the partners in conflict, individuals can do better to help their relatives breed rather than fight each other for the resources needed to reproduce. The models show that when a son's father is still breeding with his mother, sons should not compete for any share of reproduction. However, under polygyny, increased effort is spent on father/son and brother/brother conflict. Fathers will win the majority of reproduction if dominant to sons (in contrast to the finding that daughters-in-law win in conflict over mothers-in-law in patrilocal kinship systems, which has been suggested as explaining the evolution of menopause). Hence who wins in the sharing of reproduction depends not just on which sex disperses but also on the relative competitive ability of all individuals to exploit family resources. Anthropologists have long argued that cultural norms can reduce conflict. These formal evolutionary models help us to quantify the effects of reproductive conflict in families, throwing light on the evolutionary basis not just of patterns of reproductive scheduling, but also human kinship and marriage systems.

  12. Deficiency in clonogenic endometrial mesenchymal stem cells in obese women with reproductive failure--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keisuke; Bhandari, Harish; Lucas, Emma S; Takeda, Satoru; Gargett, Caroline E; Quenby, Siobhan; Brosens, Jan J; Tan, Bee K

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of obesity associated reproductive complications remain poorly understood. Endometrial mesenchymal stem-cells are critical for cyclic renewal and uterine function. Recently, W5C5(+) cells, with high clonogenicity, capable of producing endometrial stroma in vivo, have been described. We sought to investigate the abundance and cloning efficiency of W5C5(+) and W5C5(-) endometrial cells in relation to Body Mass Index, age and reproductive outcome. W5C5(+) and W5C5(-) cells were purified from mid-luteal endometrial biopsies (n = 54) by magnetic bead separation and subjected to in vitro colony-forming assays. First trimester pregnancy losses were significantly higher in obese subjects (n = 12) compared to overweight (n = 20) and subjects with normal Body Mass Index (n = 22) (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). W5C5(+) cells (%) were significantly lower in obese subjects compared to subjects with normal Body Mass Index (P<0.05). W5C5(+) cloning efficiency was significantly lower in obese subjects compared to overweight and subjects with normal Body Mass Index (P<0.05, respectively). W5C5(-) cloning efficiency was significantly lower in obese subjects compared to subjects with normal Body Mass Index (P<0.05). Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with W5C5(+) cloning efficiency and W5C5(-) cloning efficiency (P<0.01, respectively), and positively correlated with first trimester loss (P<0.01). We found no significant results with age (P>0.05). Our observations suggest that the regenerative capacity and plasticity of the endometrium of obese women is suboptimal, which in turn may account for the increased risk of reproductive complications associated with obesity.

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of complementary DNA encoding an aberrantly rearranged human T-cell gamma chain.

    PubMed Central

    Dialynas, D P; Murre, C; Quertermous, T; Boss, J M; Leiden, J M; Seidman, J G; Strominger, J L

    1986-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a human T-cell gamma chain has been cloned and sequenced. At the junction of the variable and joining regions, there is an apparent deletion of two nucleotides in the human cDNA sequence relative to the murine gamma-chain cDNA sequence, resulting simultaneously in the generation of an in-frame stop codon and in a translational frameshift. For this reason, the sequence presented here encodes an aberrantly rearranged human T-cell gamma chain. There are several surprising differences between the deduced human and murine gamma-chain amino acid sequences. These include poor homology in the variable region, poor homology in a discrete segment of the constant region precisely bounded by the expected junctions of exon CII, and the presence in the human sequence of five potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. Images PMID:3458221

  14. Human rights and human dignity in the resolution of certain ethical questions in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, S

    2001-01-01

    As medical technology develops, new issues are raised as to how the use of this technology may comply or conflict with existing human rights standards and values. This article considers the application of human rights standards, and in particular the jurisprudence under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, to the trade in human body organs, the selection of the sex of prospective children, and human reproductive cloning. The current domestic law and regulatory framework is examined, as well as international regulation of this area by the Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. The author considers how the balance is to be struck between the ethical objections to many developments in biomedicine, and individual self-determination. It is suggested that, in order to be justified, any limitations on individual self-determination in the use of this new medical technology, should have a basis in the protection of human dignity.

  15. Resource expenditure not resource allocation: response to McDougall on cloning and dignity.

    PubMed

    Williams, M J

    2009-05-01

    This paper offers some comments on bioethical debates about resource allocation in healthcare. It is stimulated by Rosalind McDougall's argument that it is an affront to the human dignity of people with below "liberties-level" health to fund human reproductive cloning. McDougall is right to underline the relevance of resource prioritisation to the ethics of research and provision of new biomedical technologies. This paper argues that bioethicists should be careful when offering comments about such issues. In particular, it emphasises the need to represent accurately the reality of the situation-especially when we are passing judgement on technologies that are in their infancy and whose practical application is yet to be confirmed. The paper also emphasises the importance of the actual context to bioethical debate, and note that it would be better to talk about resource expenditure rather than resource allocation when it comes to discussing the rights and wrongs of how money is spent. It also reiterates the claims made by other writers that social and political philosophy need to have a transparent and considered role in debates about resources.

  16. Ovulation Statuses of Surrogate Gilts Are Associated with the Efficiency of Excellent Pig Cloning.

    PubMed

    Huan, Yanjun; Hu, Kui; Xie, Bingteng; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Shichao; Huang, Bo; Zhu, Jiang; Liu, Zhongfeng; He, Yilong; Li, Jingyu; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an assisted reproductive technique that can produce multiple copies of excellent livestock. However, low cloning efficiency limits the application of SCNT. In this study, we systematically investigated the major influencing factors related to the overall cloning efficiency in pigs. Here, 13620 cloned embryos derived from excellent pigs were transferred into 79 surrogate gilts, and 119 live cloned piglets were eventually generated. During cloning, group of cloned embryos derived from excellent Landrace or Large white pigs presented no significant differences of cleavage and blastocyst rates, blastocyst cell numbers, surrogate pregnancy and delivery rates, average numbers of piglets born and alive and cloning efficiencies, and group of 101-150, 151-200 or 201-250 cloned embryos transferred per surrogate also displayed a similar developmental efficiency. When estrus stage of surrogate gilts was compared, group of embryo transfer on Day 2 of estrus showed significantly higher pregnancy rate, delivery rate, average number of piglets born, average alive piglet number or cloning efficiency than group on Day 1, Day 3, Day 4 or Day 5, respectively (P<0.05). And, in comparison with the preovulation and postovulation groups, group of surrogate gilts during periovulation displayed a significantly higher overall cloning efficiency (P<0.05). Further investigation of surrogate estrus stage and ovulation status displayed that ovulation status was the real factor underlying estrus stage to determine the overall cloning efficiency. And more, follicle puncture for preovulation, not transfer position shallowed for preovulation or deepened for postovulation, significantly improved the average number of piglets alive and cloning efficiency (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ovulation status of surrogate gilts was the fundamental factor determining the overall cloning efficiency of excellent pigs, and follicle puncture, not

  17. Ovulation Statuses of Surrogate Gilts Are Associated with the Efficiency of Excellent Pig Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Yanjun; Hu, Kui; Xie, Bingteng; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Shichao; Huang, Bo; Zhu, Jiang; Liu, Zhongfeng; He, Yilong; Li, Jingyu; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an assisted reproductive technique that can produce multiple copies of excellent livestock. However, low cloning efficiency limits the application of SCNT. In this study, we systematically investigated the major influencing factors related to the overall cloning efficiency in pigs. Here, 13620 cloned embryos derived from excellent pigs were transferred into 79 surrogate gilts, and 119 live cloned piglets were eventually generated. During cloning, group of cloned embryos derived from excellent Landrace or Large white pigs presented no significant differences of cleavage and blastocyst rates, blastocyst cell numbers, surrogate pregnancy and delivery rates, average numbers of piglets born and alive and cloning efficiencies, and group of 101–150, 151–200 or 201–250 cloned embryos transferred per surrogate also displayed a similar developmental efficiency. When estrus stage of surrogate gilts was compared, group of embryo transfer on Day 2 of estrus showed significantly higher pregnancy rate, delivery rate, average number of piglets born, average alive piglet number or cloning efficiency than group on Day 1, Day 3, Day 4 or Day 5, respectively (P<0.05). And, in comparison with the preovulation and postovulation groups, group of surrogate gilts during periovulation displayed a significantly higher overall cloning efficiency (P<0.05). Further investigation of surrogate estrus stage and ovulation status displayed that ovulation status was the real factor underlying estrus stage to determine the overall cloning efficiency. And more, follicle puncture for preovulation, not transfer position shallowed for preovulation or deepened for postovulation, significantly improved the average number of piglets alive and cloning efficiency (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ovulation status of surrogate gilts was the fundamental factor determining the overall cloning efficiency of excellent pigs, and follicle puncture

  18. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of hydroxyurea.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for hydroxyurea to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. Hydroxyurea is a drug used to treat cancer, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia. It is the only treatment for sickle cell disease in children, aside from blood transfusion and, in severe cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hydroxyurea is FDA-approved for use in adults with sickle cell anemia to reduce the frequency of painful crises and the need for blood transfusions. Hydroxyurea may be given to children and adults with sickle cell disease for an extended period of time or for repeated cycles of therapy. Treatment with hydroxyurea is associated with known side effects such as cytotoxicity and myelosuppression, and hydroxyurea is genotoxic (can damage DNA). CERHR selected hydroxyurea for evaluation because of: its increasing use for treatment of sickle cell disease in children and adults, knowledge that it inhibits DNA synthesis and is cytotoxic, and published evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in rodents. The results of this evaluation are published in the NTP-CERHR Monograph on Hydroxyurea, which includes the NTP Brief and Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Hydroxyurea. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including public comments received on the draft NTP Brief and the final expert panel report, are available on the CERHR website (http:// cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/). See hydroxyurea under "CERHR Chemicals" on the homepage or go directly to http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/chemicals/hydroxyurea/hydroxyurea-eval.html). The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to hydroxyurea on human reproduction or development. The possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern

  19. Male reproductive system parameters in a two-generation reproduction study of ammonium perfluorooctanoate in rats and human relevance.

    PubMed

    York, Raymond G; Kennedy, Gerald L; Olsen, Geary W; Butenhoff, John L

    2010-04-30

    Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (ammonium PFOA) is an industrial surfactant that has been used primarily as a processing aid in the manufacture of fluoropolymers. The environmental and metabolic stability of PFOA together with its presence in human blood and long elimination half-life have led to extensive toxicological studies in laboratory animals. Two recent publications based on observations from the Danish general population have reported: (1) a negative association between serum concentrations of PFOA in young adult males and their sperm counts and (2) a positive association among women with time to pregnancy. A two-generation reproduction study in rats was previously published (2004) in which no effects on functional reproduction were observed at doses up to 30mg ammonium PFOA/kg body weight. The article contained the simple statement: "In males, fertility was normal as were all sperm parameters". In order to place the recent human epidemiological data in perspective, herein we provide the detailed male reproductive parameters from that study, including sperm quality and testicular histopathology. Sperm parameters in rats from the two-generation study in all ammonium PFOA treatment groups were unaffected by treatment with ammonium PFOA. These observations reflected the normal fertility observations in these males. No evidence of altered testicular and sperm structure and function was observed in ammonium PFOA-treated rats whose mean group serum PFOA concentrations ranged up to approximately 50,000ng/mL. Given that median serum PFOA in the Danish cohorts was approximately 5ng/mL, it seems unlikely that concentrations observed in the general population, including those recently reported in Danish general population, could be associated causally with a real decrement in sperm number and quality.

  20. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    PubMed

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction.

  1. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  2. High level expression of bioactive recombinant human growth hormone in the milk of a cloned transgenic cow.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Daniel; Barañao, Lino; Santos, Claudio; Bussmann, Leonardo; Artuso, Jorge; Werning, Carlos; Prync, Aida; Carbonetto, Cesar; Dabsys, Susana; Munar, Carlos; Salaberry, Roberto; Berra, Guillermo; Berra, Ignacio; Fernández, Nahuel; Papouchado, Mariana; Foti, Marcelo; Judewicz, Norberto; Mujica, Ignacio; Muñoz, Luciana; Alvarez, Silvina Fenández; González, Eliseo; Zimmermann, Juan; Criscuolo, Marcelo; Melo, Carlos

    2006-07-13

    Transgenic farm animals have been proposed as an alternative to current bioreactors for large scale production of biopharmaceuticals. However, the efficiency of both methods in the production of the same protein has not yet been established. Here we report the production of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in the milk of a cloned transgenic cow at levels of up to 5 g l(-1). The hormone is identical to that currently produced by expression in E. coli. In addition, the hematological and somatometric parameters of the cloned transgenic cow are within the normal range for the breed and it is fertile and capable of producing normal offspring. These results demonstrate that transgenic cattle can be used as a cost-effective alternative for the production of this hormone.

  3. Transmission of molecularly undetectable circulating parasite clones leads to high infection complexity in mosquitoes post feeding.

    PubMed

    Grignard, Lynn; Gonçalves, Bronner P; Early, Angela M; Daniels, Rachel F; Tiono, Alfred B; Guelbéogo, Wamdaogo M; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; van Veen, Elke M; Lanke, Kjerstin; Diarra, Amidou; Nebie, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Targett, Geoff A; Volkman, Sarah K; Neafsey, Daniel E; Wirth, Dyann F; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris

    2018-05-05

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections often comprise multiple distinct parasite clones. Few datasets have directly assessed infection complexity in humans and mosquitoes they infect. Examining parasites using molecular tools may provide insights into the selective transmissibility of isolates. Using capillary electrophoresis genotyping and next generation amplicon sequencing, we analysed complexity of parasite infections in human blood and in the midguts of mosquitoes that became infected in membrane feeding experiments using the same blood material in two West African settings. Median numbers of clones in humans and mosquitoes were higher in samples from Burkina Faso (4.5, interquartile range 2-8 for humans; and 2, interquartile range 1-3 for mosquitoes) than in The Gambia (2, interquartile range 1-3 and 1, interquartile range 1-3, for humans and mosquitoes, respectively). Whilst the median number of clones was commonly higher in human blood samples, not all transmitted alleles were detectable in the human peripheral blood. In both study sample sets, additional parasite alleles were identified in mosquitoes compared with the matched human samples (10-88.9% of all clones/feeding assay, n = 73 feeding assays). The results are likely due to preferential amplification of the most abundant clones in peripheral blood but confirm the presence of low density clones that produce transmissible sexual stage parasites. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The case for regulating collaborative reproduction: a children's rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Alvare, Helen M

    2003-01-01

    There is little regulation of collaborative reproduction--the use of the eggs, sperm, or embryos of a third party to create a child biologically unrelated to at least one intending parent. This Article argues that the dearth of regulation should be assessed from a children's rights perspective and accordingly adjusted. After examining the effects of the experimental reproductive technologies, it concludes that traditional family law preferences and policies are undercut by the deliberate creation of collaboratively reproduced children. The lack of regulation might stem from constitutional protection afforded parents in the right of privacy and substantive due process cases. The author, however, contends that collaborative reproduction implicates the rights of children and requires a separate balancing of rights not contemplated in other cases. Collaborative reproduction also requires regulation because of its spill over effects on the acceptability of cloning. The Article concludes by offering several possible regulatory responses to the problems posed by collaborative reproduction.

  5. Advancing pig cloning technologies towards application in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, H; Matsunari, H; Nakano, K; Watanabe, M; Umeyama, K; Nagaya, M

    2012-08-01

    Regenerative medicine is expected to make a significant contribution by development of novel therapeutic treatments for intractable diseases and for improving the quality of life of patients. Many advances in regenerative medicine, including basic and translational research, have been developed and tested in experimental animals; pigs have played an important role in various aspects of this work. The value of pigs as a model species is being enhanced by the generation of specially designed animals through cloning and genetic modifications, enabling more sophisticated research to be performed and thus accelerating the clinical application of regenerative medicine. This article reviews the significant aspects of the creation and application of cloned and genetically modified pigs in regenerative medicine research and considers the possible future directions of the technology. We also discuss the importance of reproductive biology as an interface between basic science and clinical medicine. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Biomedicine and international human rights law: in search of a global consensus.

    PubMed

    Andorno, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a human rights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that human rights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning.

  7. Stem cell research: cloning, therapy and scientific fraud.

    PubMed

    Rusnak, A J; Chudley, A E

    2006-10-01

    Stem cell research has generated intense excitement, awareness, and debate. Events in the 2005-2006 saw the rise and fall of a South Korean scientist who had claimed to be the first to clone a human embryonic stem cell line. From celebration of the potential use of stem cells in the treatment of human disease to disciplinary action taken against the disgraced scientists, the drama has unfolded throughout the world media. Prompted by an image of therapeutic cloning presented on a South Korean stamp, a brief review of stem cell research and the events of the Woo-suk Hwang scandal are discussed.

  8. High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites. PMID:19797422

  9. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  10. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  11. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP

  12. Reduced costs of reproduction in females mediate a shift from a male-biased to a female-biased lifespan in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Lummaa, Virpi; Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi A.; Maklakov, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    The causes underlying sex differences in lifespan are strongly debated. While females commonly outlive males in humans, this is generally less pronounced in societies before the demographic transition to low mortality and fertility rates. Life-history theory suggests that reduced reproduction should benefit female lifespan when females pay higher costs of reproduction than males. Using unique longitudinal demographic records on 140,600 reproducing individuals from the Utah Population Database, we demonstrate a shift from male-biased to female-biased adult lifespans in individuals born before versus during the demographic transition. Only women paid a cost of reproduction in terms of shortened post-reproductive lifespan at high parities. Therefore, as fertility decreased over time, female lifespan increased, while male lifespan remained largely stable, supporting the theory that differential costs of reproduction in the two sexes result in the shifting patterns of sex differences in lifespan across human populations. Further, our results have important implications for demographic forecasts in human populations and advance our understanding of lifespan evolution. PMID:27087670

  13. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: Two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Bobak, D.A.; Nightingale, M.S.; Murtagh, J.J.

    1989-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A){sup +} RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A){sup +} RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two,more » and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFS also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs.« less

  15. Cloning of a human hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor transcription variant from a gastric cancer cell line HSC-39.

    PubMed

    Yokozaki, H; Tahara, H; Oue, N; Tahara, E

    2000-01-01

    A new transcription variant of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) was cloned from human gastric cancer cell line HSC-39. Northern blot analysis of eight human gastric cancer cell lines (TMK-1, MKN-1, MKN-7, MKN-28, MKN-45, MKN-74, KATO-III and HSC-39) demonstrated that HSC-39 cells expressed a 1.3 kb abnormal HGF/SF transcript. Screening of 1 x 10(6) colonies of cDNA library from HSC-39 constructed in pAP3neo mammalian expression vector selected four positive clones containing HGF/SF transcript. Among them, two contained a 1.3 kbp insert detecting the identical transcript to that obtained with HGF/SF probe by Northern blotting. Deoxynucleotide sequencing of the 1.3 kbp insert revealed that it was composed of a part of HGF/SF cDNA from exon 14 to exon 18, corresponding to the whole sequence of HGF/SF light chain, with 5' 75 nucleotides unrelated to any sequence involved in HGF/SF.

  16. Herpesvirus Saimiri Transforms Human T-Cell Clones to Stable Growth without Inducing Resistance to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Michael S.; Henning, Golo; Fickenscher, Helmut; Lengenfelder, Doris; Tschopp, Jürg; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Meinl, Edgar

    1998-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) transforms human T cells to stable growth in vitro. Since HVS codes for two different antiapoptotic proteins, growth transformation by HVS might be expected to confer resistance to apoptosis. We found that the expression of both viral antiapoptotic genes was restricted to cultures with viral replication and absent in growth-transformed human T cells. A comparative examination of HVS-transformed T-cell clones and their native parental clones revealed that the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bax, and members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily with a death domain, namely, TNF-RI, CD95, and TRAMP, were not modulated by HVS. Expression of CD30 was induced in HVS-transformed T cells, and these cells also expressed the CD30 ligand. Uninfected and transformed T cells were sensitive to CD95 ligation but resistant to apoptosis mediated by TRAIL or soluble TNF-α. CD95 ligand was constitutively expressed on transformed but not uninfected parental T cells. Both cell types showed similar sensitivity to cell death induction or inhibition of T-cell activation mediated by irradiation, oxygen radicals, dexamethasone, cyclosporine, and prostaglandin E2. Altogether, this study strongly suggests that growth transformation by HVS is based not on resistance to apoptosis but, rather, on utilization of normal cellular activation pathways. PMID:9525639

  17. Legal and ethical standards for protecting women's human rights and the practice of conscientious objection in reproductive healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Zampas, Christina

    2013-12-01

    The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental human rights. International ethical, health, and human rights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing human rights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international human rights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and human rights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and human rights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and human rights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [The 14/2006 law on human assisted reproduction techniques: scientific and ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Lacadena, Juan-Ramón

    2006-01-01

    The new Spanish Law on Artificial Human Reproduction Techniques is analyzed from the scientific, ethical and legal points of view, paying special attention to the preimplantational diagnosis and the experimental utilization of gametes and preembryos. Other items are also analyzed.

  19. Molecular cloning and long terminal repeat sequences of human endogenous retrovirus genes related to types A and B retrovirus genes

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, M.

    1986-06-01

    By using a DNA fragment primarily encoding the reverse transcriptase (pol) region of the Syrian hamster intracisternal A particle (IAP; type A retrovirus) gene as a probe, human endogenous retrovirus genes, tentatively termed HERV-K genes, were cloned from a fetal human liver gene library. Typical HERV-K genes were 9.1 or 9.4 kilobases in length, having long terminal repeats (LTRs) of ca. 970 base pairs. Many structural features commonly observed on the retrovirus LTRs, such as the TATAA box, polyadenylation signal, and terminal inverted repeats, were present on each LTR, and a lysine (K) tRNA having a CUU anticodon was identifiedmore » as a presumed primer tRNA. The HERV-K LTR, however, had little sequence homology to either the IAP LTR or other typical oncovirus LTRs. By filter hybridization, the number of HERV-K genes was estimated to be ca. 50 copies per haploid human genome. The cloned mouse mammary tumor virus (type B) gene was found to hybridize with both the HERV-K and IAP genes to essentially the same extent.« less

  20. Lessons From Biodiversity—The Value of Nontraditional Species to Advance Reproductive Science, Conservation, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    WILDT, DAVID E.; COMIZZOLI, PIERRE; PUKAZHENTHI, BUDHAN; SONGSASEN, NUCHARIN

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Reproduction is quintessential to species survival. But what is underappreciated for this discipline is the wondrous array of reproductive mechanisms among species—variations as diverse as the morphology of the species themselves (more than 55,000 vertebrate and 1.1 million invertebrate types). We have investigated only a tiny fraction of these species in reproductive science. Besides the need to fill enormous gaps in a scholarly database, this knowledge has value for recovering and genetically managing rare species as well as addressing certain reproductive issues in humans. This article provides examples, first to advise against oversimplifying reproduction and then to show how such knowledge can have practical use for managing whole animals, populations, or even saving an entire species. We also address the expected challenges and opportunities that could lead to creative shifts in philosophy and effective actions to benefit more species as well as a future generation of reproductive scientists. PMID:19967718

  1. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    PubMed

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  2. A Computer Clone of Human Expert for Mobility Management Scheme (E-MMS): Step toward Green Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resdiansyah; O. K Rahmat, R. A.; Ismail, A.

    2018-03-01

    Green transportation refers to a sustainable transport that gives the least impact in terms of social and environmental but at the same time is able to supply energy sources globally that includes non-motorized transport strategies deployment to promote healthy lifestyles, also known as Mobility Management Scheme (MMS). As construction of road infrastructure cannot help solve the problem of congestion, past research has shown that MMS is an effective measure to mitigate congestion and to achieve green transportation. MMS consists of different strategies and policies that subdivided into categories according to how they are able to influence travel behaviour. Appropriate selection of mobility strategies will ensure its effectiveness in mitigating congestion problems. Nevertheless, determining appropriate strategies requires human expert and depends on a number of success factors. This research has successfully developed a computer clone system based on human expert, called E-MMS. The process of knowledge acquisition for MMS strategies and the next following process to selection of strategy has been encode in a knowledge-based system using a shell expert system. The newly developed computer cloning system was successfully verified, validated and evaluated (VV&E) by comparing the result output with the real transportation expert recommendation in which the findings suggested Introduction

  3. Reproductive system, social organization, human disturbance and ecological dominance in native populations of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata.

    PubMed

    Foucaud, Julien; Orivel, Jérôme; Fournier, Denis; Delabie, Jacques H C; Loiseau, Anne; Le Breton, Julien; Cerdan, Philippe; Estoup, Arnaud

    2009-12-01

    The invasive ant species Wasmannia auropunctata displays both ecologically dominant and non-dominant populations within its native range. Three factors could theoretically explain the ecological dominance of some native populations of W. auropunctata: (i) its clonal reproductive system, through demographic and/or adaptive advantages; (ii) its unicolonial social organization, through lower intraspecific and efficient interspecific competition; (iii) the human disturbance of its native range, through the modification of biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. We used microsatellite markers and behavioural tests to uncover the reproductive modes and social organization of dominant and non-dominant native populations in natural and human-modified habitats. Microsatellite and mtDNA data indicated that dominant and non-dominant native populations (supercolonies as determined by aggression tests) of W. auropunctata did not belong to different evolutionary units. We found that the reproductive system and the social organization are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain W. auropunctata ecological dominance. Dominance rather seems to be set off by unknown ecological factors altered by human activities, as all dominant populations were recorded in human-modified habitats. The clonal reproductive system found in some populations of W. auropunctata may however indirectly contribute to its ecological dominance by allowing the species to expand its environmental niche, through the fixation over time of specific combinations of divergent male and female genotypes. Unicoloniality may rather promote the range expansion of already dominant populations than actually trigger ecological dominance. The W. auropunctata model illustrates the strong impact of human disturbance on species' ecological features and the adaptive potential of clonal reproductive systems.

  4. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) in humans: facts and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Ménézo, Y J; Veiga, A; Pouly, J L

    2000-01-15

    Since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human, the number of patients using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) has increased tremendously. ART technologies have increased in number and their spectrum has also widened. The first IVF babies are now more than 20 years old. All the retrospective analyses have demonstrated that the obstetrical and pediatrical impact has not really affected single births. The main problems observed occur with multiple pregnancies, including high costs for the couples and for society. The decrease in the number of embryos transferred has improved the situation and moreover does not impair the final results. IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a more debatable and questionable technique with a real negative genetic impact. The main problem is chromosome abnormalities more specifically related to the sex chromosomes. The question of a systematic genetic work-up on the patients entering ICSI programs is discussed. No negative impact of cryopreservation has been demonstrated even though some controversy arises from time to time. Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is now a interesting tool for patients carrying genetic defects. Blastocyst biopsy now has a future role in reproductive medicine. Gender selection through sperm sorting is also now a reality. As with the other developing bio-technologies related to reproduction, there are ethical questions. The decisions concerning these technologies do not belong solely to scientists but are rather a matter for society to decide.

  5. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  6. Vascular endothelium-specific overexpression of human catalase in cloned pigs

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, M.; Mahan, E.; Padilla, J.; Simmons, G. H.; Arce-Esquivel, A. A.; Bender, S. B.; Whitworth, K. M.; Hao, Y. H.; Murphy, C. N.; Walters, E. M.; Prather, R. S.; Laughlin, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop transgenic Yucatan minipigs that overexpress human catalase (hCat) in an endothelial-specific manner. Catalase metabolizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an important regulator of vascular tone that contributes to diseases such as atherosclerosis and preeclampsia. A large animal model to study reduced endothelium-derived H2O2 would therefore generate valuable translational data on vascular regulation in health and disease. Yucatan minipig fetal fibroblasts stably co-transfected with human catalase (Tie2-hCat) and eGFP expression constructs were isolated into single-cell populations. The presence of the Tie2-hCat transgene in individual colonies of fibroblasts was determined by PCR. Transgenic fibroblasts were used for nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes by electrofusion. A minimum of 140 cloned embryos were transferred per surrogate sow (n = 4). All four surrogates maintained pregnancies and piglets were delivered by cesarean section. Nine male piglets from three of the four litters carried the Tie2-hCat transgene. Expression of human catalase mRNA and overall elevated catalase protein in isolated umbilical endothelial cells from transgenic piglets were verified by RT–PCR and western blot, respectively, and endothelial localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Increased enzymatic activity of catalase in transgenic versus wild-type endothelial cells was inferred based on significantly reduced levels of H2O2 in culture. The similarities in swine and human cardiovascular anatomy and physiology will make this pig model a valuable source of information on the putative role of endothelium-derived H2O2 in vasodilation and in the mechanisms underlying vascular health and disease. PMID:21170678

  7. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  9. Role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Naghshineh, Elham; Khani, Parisa

    2018-01-01

    As new research reveals, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays an effective role in pregnancy success, considering that it not only affects the embryo implantation and ovarian function but also it promotes endometrial thickening and improves the pathophysiology of endometriosis, which all fundamentally lead to reducing pregnancy loss. In this review, we focus on the role of G-CSF in human reproduction. We summarized its role in ovulation, luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome, poor responders, improving repeated in vitro fertilization failure, endometrial receptivity and treatment of thin endometrium, and recurrent spontaneous abortion.

  10. Popular Theatre for Science Engagement: Audience Engagement with Human Cloning Following a Production of Caryl Churchill's "A Number"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkers, Martina; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the role of fiction in engaging people with science is a growing area, but a little studied medium in this respect is "popular theatre," or non-pedagogic theatre that exists primarily as a work of art. This study investigated audience engagement with human cloning issues after seeing a performance of Caryl Churchill's 2002…

  11. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  12. The kisspeptin-GnRH pathway in human reproductive health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Skorupskaite, Karolina; George, Jyothis T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The discovery of kisspeptin as key central regulator of GnRH secretion has led to a new level of understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human reproduction. The related discovery of the kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin (KNDy) pathway in the last decade has further strengthened our understanding of the modulation of GnRH secretion by endocrine, metabolic and environmental inputs. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the physiological roles of these novel neuropeptides, and discuss the clinical relevance of these discoveries and their potential translational applications. METHODS A systematic literature search was performed using PUBMED for all English language articles up to January 2014. In addition, the reference lists of all relevant original research articles and reviews were examined. This review focuses mainly on published human studies but also draws on relevant animal data. RESULTS Kisspeptin is a principal regulator of the secretion of gonadotrophins, and through this key role it is critical for the onset of puberty, the regulation of sex steroid-mediated feedback and the control of adult fertility. Although there is some sexual dimorphism, both neuroanatomically and functionally, these functions are apparent in both men and women. Kisspeptin acts upstream of GnRH and, following paracrine stimulatory and inhibitory inputs from neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy neuropeptides), signals directly to GnRH neurones to control pulsatile GnRH release. When administered to humans in different isoforms, routes and doses, kisspeptin robustly stimulates LH secretion and LH pulse frequency. Manipulation of the KNDy system is currently the focus of translational research with the possibility of future clinical application to regulate LH pulsatility, increasing gonadal sex steroid secretion in reproductive disorders characterized by decreased LH pulsatility, including hypothalamic amenorrhoea and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

  13. Sexual reproduction and gene flow in the pine pathogen Dothistroma septosporum in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Dale, A L; Lewis, K J; Murray, B W

    2011-01-01

    Dothistroma septosporum has caused a serious needle blight epidemic in the lodgepole pine forests in northwest British Columbia over the past several years. Although ascocarps had been observed in British Columbia, nothing was known about the contribution of sexual reproduction, gene flow and long-distance dispersal to the epidemic. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and mating-type markers in 19 sites were used to generate population and reproductive data. Overall, evidence suggests a mixed mode of reproduction. Haplotypic diversity was high, with 79 unique and 56 shared haplotypes (possible clones) identified from 192 fungal isolates. Overall, mating-type segregation did not differ significantly from 1:1; however, random mating was rejected in most populations in the index of association and parsimony tree-length permutation analyses using the full data set and, when using clone-corrected data sets, more of the smaller populations showed random mating. Two of the smaller populations consistently showed random mating for both tests using both clone-corrected and noncorrected data. High gene flow is suggested by no differentiation between 14 of the 19 sites, several of which came from young plantations where the pathogen was not likely present prior to the current outbreak. The remaining five sites showed some level of divergence, possibly due to historic separation and endemic pathogen populations. Results indicate a high evolutionary potential and long-distance dispersal in this pathogen, important to consider in future forest management.

  14. Molecular evidence for zoonotic transmission of an emergent, highly pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni clone in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Fitzgerald, Collette; Stroika, Steven; Zhao, Shaohua; Sippy, Rachel J; Kwan, Patrick; Plummer, Paul J; Han, Jing; Yaeger, Michael J; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those of 123 (9.03%) human C. jejuni isolates (total, 1,361) in the CDC database, among which 56 were associated with sporadic infections and 67 were associated with outbreaks that occurred in multiple states from 2003 to 2010. Most of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, while the sources for most of the sporadic cases were unknown. All clone SA isolates examined, including PFGE-matched human isolates, belong to sequence type 8 (ST-8) by MLST and serotype HS:1,8, further indicating the clonality of the related isolates from different host species. Additionally, C. jejuni clone SA was identified in raw milk, cattle feces, the feces and bile of healthy sheep, and abortion cases of cattle and goats, indicating the broad distribution of this pathogenic clone in ruminants. These results provide strong molecular and epidemiological evidence for zoonotic transmission of this emergent clone from ruminants to humans and indicate that C. jejuni clone SA is an important threat to public health.

  15. Molecular Evidence for Zoonotic Transmission of an Emergent, Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni Clone in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Orhan; Fitzgerald, Collette; Stroika, Steven; Zhao, Shaohua; Sippy, Rachel J.; Kwan, Patrick; Plummer, Paul J.; Han, Jing; Yaeger, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those of 123 (9.03%) human C. jejuni isolates (total, 1,361) in the CDC database, among which 56 were associated with sporadic infections and 67 were associated with outbreaks that occurred in multiple states from 2003 to 2010. Most of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, while the sources for most of the sporadic cases were unknown. All clone SA isolates examined, including PFGE-matched human isolates, belong to sequence type 8 (ST-8) by MLST and serotype HS:1,8, further indicating the clonality of the related isolates from different host species. Additionally, C. jejuni clone SA was identified in raw milk, cattle feces, the feces and bile of healthy sheep, and abortion cases of cattle and goats, indicating the broad distribution of this pathogenic clone in ruminants. These results provide strong molecular and epidemiological evidence for zoonotic transmission of this emergent clone from ruminants to humans and indicate that C. jejuni clone SA is an important threat to public health. PMID:22189122

  16. Reproductive medicine: the ethical issues in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2002-02-01

    Reproductive medicine has developed to such an extent that numerous moral questions arise about the boundaries of applications of new reproductive technology. It is possible to imagine a future in which 'designer babies' are created and in which cloning, sex selection and male pregnancy become the instruments of individual desire or social policy. In this article, the concept of 'natural' is explored but rejected as an insufficient moral criterion for deciding these complex questions. A case is made for the criterion of welfare of the child and for the concept of the child as gift rather than product.

  17. Genomic diversity of cercarial clones of Himasthla elongata (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) determined with AFLP technique.

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, N K; Podgornaya, O I; Strelkov, P P; Galaktionov, K V

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal genomic diversity formed during parthenogenetic reproduction of rediae of the trematode Himasthla elongata in its molluskan host Littorina littorea. We applied amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to determine the genomic diversity of individual cercariae within the clone, that is, the infrapopulation of parthenogenetic progeny in a single molluskan host. The level of genomic diversity of particular cercariae isolates from a single clone, detected with EcoR1/Mse1 AFLP reaction, was significantly lower than the variability of cercariae from different clones. The presence of intraclonal genomic diversity indicates a nonsexual shuffle of alleles during parthenogenesis in the rediae of H. elongata. The obtained polymorphic AFLP fragments were long enough to detect the sequences that may be responsible for clonal genomic variability. Based on this, AFLP can be recommended as a tool for the study of genetic mechanisms of this variability.

  18. Human rights and the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shubha; Gruskin, Sofia; Khosla, Rajat; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Even as the number of women living with HIV around the globe continues to grow, realization of their sexual and reproductive health and human rights remains compromised. The objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge on the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV to assess evidence and gaps. Relevant databases were searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature. Search terms included a combination of MeSH terms and keywords representing women, HIV/AIDS, ART, human rights, sexual and reproductive health. We included both qualitative and quantitative literature published in English, French, or Spanish between July 2011 and December 2014. The search yielded 2228 peer-reviewed articles, of which 40 met the inclusion criteria in the final review. The grey literature search yielded 2186 documents of which seven met the inclusion criteria in the final review. Of the articles and documents reviewed, not a single peer-reviewed article described the explicit implementation of rights in programming, and only two documents from the grey literature did so. With one possible exception, no articles or documents were found which addressed rights comprehensively, or addressed the majority of relevant rights (i.e. equality; non-discrimination; participation; privacy and confidentiality; informed decision making; availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (3AQ) of services individually or in their totality; and accountability). Additional findings indicate that the language of rights is used most often to describe the apparent neglect or violation of human rights and what does exist only addresses a few rights in the context of a few areas within sexual and reproductive health. Findings from this review suggest the need to better integrate rights into interventions, particularly with attention to provider training, service delivery, raising awareness and capacity building among the community of women living with

  19. Investigating Intergenerational Differences in Human PCB Exposure due to Variable Emissions and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Cristina L.; Wania, Frank; Czub, Gertje; Breivik, Knut

    2011-01-01

    Background Reproductive behaviors—such as age of childbearing, parity, and breast-feeding prevalence—have changed over the same historical time period as emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and may produce intergenerational differences in human PCB exposure. Objectives Our goal in this study was to estimate prenatal, postnatal, and lifetime PCB exposures for women at different ages according to year of birth, and to evaluate the impact of reproductive characteristics on intergenerational differences in exposure. Methods We used the time-variant mechanistic model CoZMoMAN to calculate human bioaccumulation of PCBs, assuming both hypothetical constant and realistic time-variant emissions. Results Although exposure primarily depends on when an individual was born relative to the emission history of PCBs, reproductive behaviors can have a significant impact. Our model suggests that a mother’s reproductive history has a greater influence on the prenatal and postnatal exposures of her children than it does on her own cumulative lifetime exposure. In particular, a child’s birth order appears to have a strong influence on their prenatal exposure, whereas postnatal exposure is determined by the type of milk (formula or breast milk) fed to the infant. Conclusions Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be delayed relative to the time of PCB emissions, particularly among those born after the PCB production phaseout. Consequently, the health repercussions of environmental PCBs can be expected to persist for several decades, despite bans on their production for > 40 years. PMID:21156396

  20. Inbreeding effects on fertility in humans: evidence for reproductive compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Ober, C; Hyslop, T; Hauck, W W

    1999-01-01

    The effects of inbreeding on prereproductive mortality have been demonstrated in many natural populations, including humans. However, little is known about the effects in inbred individuals who survive to adulthood. We have investigated the effects of inbreeding on fertility among inbred adult Hutterites and demonstrate significantly reduced fecundity among the most inbred Hutterite women, as evidenced by longer interbirth intervals (P=.024) and longer intervals to a recognized pregnancy (P=.010) but not by increased rates of fetal loss (P>.50). These data suggest the presence of recessive alleles that adversely affect fecundity among the population. In contrast, completed family sizes do not differ among the more and the less-inbred Hutterite women who were born after 1920, suggesting that reproductive compensation is occurring among the more-inbred and less-fecund women. This recent reproductive strategy would facilitate the maintenance of recessive alleles and contribute to an overall decline in fertility in the population. PMID:9915962

  1. Physical attractiveness and reproductive success in humans: Evidence from the late 20 century United States.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Physical attractiveness has been associated with mating behavior, but its role in reproductive success of contemporary humans has received surprisingly little attention. In the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (1244 women, 997 men born between 1937 and 1940) we examined whether attractiveness assessed from photographs taken at age ~18 predicted the number of biological children at age 53-56. In women, attractiveness predicted higher reproductive success in a nonlinear fashion, so that attractive (second highest quartile) women had 16% and very attractive (highest quartile) women 6% more children than their less attractive counterparts. In men, there was a threshold effect so that men in the lowest attractiveness quartile had 13% fewer children than others who did not differ from each other in the average number of children. These associations were partly but not completely accounted for by attractive participants' increased marriage probability. A linear regression analysis indicated relatively weak directional selection gradient for attractiveness (β=0.06 in women, β=0.07 in men). These findings indicate that physical attractiveness may be associated with reproductive success in humans living in industrialized settings.

  2. Positional cloning in mice and its use for molecular dissection of inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Abe, Koichiro; Yu, Philipp

    2009-02-01

    One of the upcoming next quests in the field of genetics might be molecular dissection of the genetic and environmental components of human complex diseases. In humans, however, there are certain experimental limitations for identification of a single component of the complex interactions by genetic analyses. Experimental animals offer simplified models for genetic and environmental interactions in human complex diseases. In particular, mice are the best mammalian models because of a long history and ample experience for genetic analyses. Forward genetics, which includes genetic screen and subsequent positional cloning of the causative genes, is a powerful strategy to dissect a complex phenomenon without preliminarily molecular knowledge of the process. In this review, first, we describe a general scheme of positional cloning in mice. Next, recent accomplishments on the patho-mechanisms of inflammatory arthritis by forward genetics approaches are introduced; Positional cloning effort for skg, Ali5, Ali18, cmo, and lupo mutants are provided as examples for the application to human complex diseases. As seen in the examples, the identification of genetic factors by positional cloning in the mouse have potential in solving molecular complexity of gene-environment interactions in human complex diseases.

  3. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sancilio, Amelia; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Klimek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive effort and maternal survivorship in energy-restricted environments. However, empirical evidence for the positive association between maternal mortality and reproductive effort from energetically challenged human populations are mixed and physiological mechanisms that may underlie this association are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increases in aerobic metabolism during repeated periods of pregnancy and lactation result in increased oxidative stress that may contribute to somatic deterioration, vulnerability to illness, and accelerated aging. We therefore predicted that lifetime gravidity and parity would be related to levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative defence enzymes in post-menopausal women. Our hypothesis was supported by positive linear associations between levels of 8-OHdG, a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage (β = 0.21, p<0.05), levels of antioxidative defence enzyme Cu-Zn SOD (β = 0.25, p<0.05), and number of lifetime pregnancies. Furthermore, independent of age and health status, post-menopausal women with higher gravidity and parity (> = 4 pregnancies per lifetime) had 20% higher levels of 8-OHdG and 60% higher levels of Cu-Zn SOD compared to women with lower gravidity and parity (<4 pregnancies per lifetime). Our results present the first evidence for oxidative stress as a possible cost of reproductive effort in humans. PMID:26761206

  4. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Sancilio, Amelia; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Klimek, Magdalena; Jasienska, Grazyna; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive effort and maternal survivorship in energy-restricted environments. However, empirical evidence for the positive association between maternal mortality and reproductive effort from energetically challenged human populations are mixed and physiological mechanisms that may underlie this association are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increases in aerobic metabolism during repeated periods of pregnancy and lactation result in increased oxidative stress that may contribute to somatic deterioration, vulnerability to illness, and accelerated aging. We therefore predicted that lifetime gravidity and parity would be related to levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative defence enzymes in post-menopausal women. Our hypothesis was supported by positive linear associations between levels of 8-OHdG, a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage (β = 0.21, p<0.05), levels of antioxidative defence enzyme Cu-Zn SOD (β = 0.25, p<0.05), and number of lifetime pregnancies. Furthermore, independent of age and health status, post-menopausal women with higher gravidity and parity (> = 4 pregnancies per lifetime) had 20% higher levels of 8-OHdG and 60% higher levels of Cu-Zn SOD compared to women with lower gravidity and parity (<4 pregnancies per lifetime). Our results present the first evidence for oxidative stress as a possible cost of reproductive effort in humans.

  5. Final progress report, Construction of a genome-wide highly characterized clone resource for genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, William C.

    At TIGR, the human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) end sequencing and trimming were with an overall sequencing success rate of 65%. CalTech human BAC libraries A, B, C and D as well as Roswell Park Cancer Institute's library RPCI-11 were used. To date, we have generated >300,000 end sequences from >186,000 human BAC clones with an average read length {approx}460 bp for a total of 141 Mb covering {approx}4.7% of the genome. Over sixty percent of the clones have BAC end sequences (BESs) from both ends representing over five-fold coverage of the genome by the paired-end clones. The average phredmore » Q20 length is {approx}400 bp. This high accuracy makes our BESs match the human finished sequences with an average identity of 99% and a match length of 450 bp, and a frequency of one match per 12.8 kb contig sequence. Our sample tracking has ensured a clone tracking accuracy of >90%, which gives researchers a high confidence in (1) retrieving the right clone from the BA C libraries based on the sequence matches; and (2) building a minimum tiling path of sequence-ready clones across the genome and genome assembly scaffolds.« less

  6. Postneonatal Mortality and Liver Changes in Cloned Pigs Associated with Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor I-Fc and Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geon A.; Jin, Jun-Xue; Lee, Sanghoon; Taweechaipaisankul, Anukul; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hwang, Joing-Ik; Ahn, Curie

    2017-01-01

    Soluble human tumor necrosis factor (shTNFRI-Fc) and human heme oxygenase 1 (hHO-1) are key regulators for protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury for xenotransplantation. Somatic cells with more than 10 copy numbers of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 were employed in somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cloned pigs, thereby resulting in seven cloned piglets. However, produced piglets were all dead within 24 hours after birth. Obviously, postnatal death with liver apoptosis was reported in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets. In liver, the transcript levels of ferritin heavy chain, light chain, transferrin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly highly expressed compared to those of lower copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets (P < 0.05). Also, H2O2 contents were increased, and superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets (P < 0.05). These results indicate that TNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 overexpression may apparently induce free iron in the liver and exert oxidative stress by enhancing reactive oxygen species production and block normal postneonatal liver metabolism. PMID:28503569

  7. Postneonatal Mortality and Liver Changes in Cloned Pigs Associated with Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor I-Fc and Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon A; Jin, Jun-Xue; Lee, Sanghoon; Taweechaipaisankul, Anukul; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hwang, Joing-Ik; Ahn, Curie; Saadeldin, Islam M; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2017-01-01

    Soluble human tumor necrosis factor (shTNFRI-Fc) and human heme oxygenase 1 (hHO-1) are key regulators for protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury for xenotransplantation. Somatic cells with more than 10 copy numbers of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 were employed in somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cloned pigs, thereby resulting in seven cloned piglets. However, produced piglets were all dead within 24 hours after birth. Obviously, postnatal death with liver apoptosis was reported in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets. In liver, the transcript levels of ferritin heavy chain, light chain, transferrin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly highly expressed compared to those of lower copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets ( P < 0.05). Also, H 2 O 2 contents were increased, and superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that TNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 overexpression may apparently induce free iron in the liver and exert oxidative stress by enhancing reactive oxygen species production and block normal postneonatal liver metabolism.

  8. High-resolution mapping and sequence analysis of 597 cDNA clones transcribed from the 1 Mb region in human chromosome 4q16.3 containing Huntington disease gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hadano, S.; Ishida, Y.; Tomiyasu, H.

    1994-09-01

    To complete a transcription map of the 1 Mb region in human chromosome 4p16.3 containing the Huntington disease (HD) gene, the isolation of cDNA clones are being performed throughout. Our method relies on a direct screening of the cDNA libraries probed with single copy microclones from 3 YAC clones spanning 1 Mbp of the HD gene region. AC-DNAs were isolated by a preparative pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, amplified by both a single unique primer (SUP)-PCR and a linker ligation PCR, and 6 microclone-DNA libraries were generated. Then, 8,640 microclones from these libraries were independently amplified by PCR, and arrayed onto themore » membranes. 800-900 microclones that were not cross-hybridized with total human and yeast genomic DNA, TAC vector DNA, and ribosomal cDNA on a dot hybridization (putatively carrying single copy sequences) were pooled to make 9 probe pools. A total of {approximately}1.8x10{sup 7} plaques from the human brain cDNA libraries was screened with 9 pool-probes, and then 672 positive cDNA clones were obtained. So far, 597 cDNA clones were defined and arrayed onto a map of the 1 Mbp of the HD gene region by hybridization with HD region-specific cosmid contigs and YAC clones. Further characterization including a DNA sequencing and Northern blot analysis is currently underway.« less

  9. DNA Methylation Errors in Cloned Mouse Sperm by Germ Line Barrier Evasion.

    PubMed

    Koike, Tasuku; Wakai, Takuya; Jincho, Yuko; Sakashita, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Hisato; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Sayaka; Miura, Fumihito; Ito, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro

    2016-06-01

    The germ line reprogramming barrier resets parental epigenetic modifications according to sex, conferring totipotency to mammalian embryos upon fertilization. However, it is not known whether epigenetic errors are committed during germ line reprogramming that are then transmitted to germ cells, and consequently to offspring. We addressed this question in the present study by performing a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using a target postbisulfite sequencing method in order to identify DNA methylation errors in cloned mouse sperm. The sperm genomes of two somatic cell-cloned mice (CL1 and CL7) contained significantly higher numbers of differentially methylated CpG sites (P = 0.0045 and P = 0.0116). As a result, they had higher numbers of differentially methylated CpG islands. However, there was no evidence that these sites were transmitted to the sperm genome of offspring. These results suggest that DNA methylation errors resulting from embryo cloning are transmitted to the sperm genome by evading the germ line reprogramming barrier. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  10. Reproduction and advances in reproductive studies in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse among species, even within the same phylogenetic clade. Due to this, it has been difficult to directly apply reproductive technologies developed in human and livestock to genetically manage ex situ wildlife, including carnivores. To date, more common, closely related species, e.g., domestic cats, dogs and ferrets have served as valuable models for developing reproductive technologies for managing rare, endangered carnivores. Artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation have already been successfully used to manage ex situ populations in some carnivore species, such as the black-footed ferret, cheetah and giant panda. However, technologies aiming at preserving genetics of valuable females have not been fully developed in carnivores, due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about reproductive anatomy and physiology, gamete development, embryogenesis and cryopreservation. The present chapter is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on current knowledge about carnivore reproduction, with emphasis on species diversity in reproductive mechanisms. The second part highlights the progress in reproductive science and related technologies made during the last decade. In addition, we provide examples of how reproductive technologies can contribute to carnivore management and conservation. Although carnivores are comprised of 19 families, we will only focus our attention on four taxonomic groups, including felids, canids, ursids and mustelids.

  11. Biomedicine and international human rights law: in search of a global consensus.

    PubMed Central

    Andorno, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a human rights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that human rights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning. PMID:12571724

  12. Effects of duration of electric pulse on in vitro development of cloned cat embryos with human artificial chromosome vector.

    PubMed

    Do, Ltk; Wittayarat, M; Terazono, T; Sato, Y; Taniguchi, M; Tanihara, F; Takemoto, T; Kazuki, Y; Kazuki, K; Oshimura, M; Otoi, T

    2016-12-01

    The current applications for cat cloning include production of models for the study of human and animal diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the optimal fusion protocol on in vitro development of transgenic cloned cat embryos by comparing duration of electric pulse. Cat fibroblast cells containing a human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector were used as genetically modified nuclear donor cells. Couplets were fused and activated simultaneously with a single DC pulse of 3.0 kV/cm for either 30 or 60 μs. Low rates of fusion and embryo development to the blastocyst stage were observed in the reconstructed HAC-transchromosomic embryos, when the duration of fusion was prolonged to 60 μs. In contrast, the prolongation of electric pulse duration improved the embryo development and quality in the reconstructed control embryos without HAC vector. Our results suggested that the optimal parameters of electric pulses for fusion in cat somatic cell nuclear transfer vary among the types used for donor cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Transgenic mammalian species, generated by somatic cell cloning, in biomedicine, biopharmaceutical industry and human nutrition/dietetics--recent achievements.