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Sample records for human retrovirology htlv

  1. 12th international conference on human retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, Michael D; Fujii, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    The 12th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, was held at the Half Moon Hotel in Montego Bay, Jamaica, from June 22nd to June 25th 2005. The scientific conference, sponsored by the International Retrovirology Association, is held biennially at rotating international venues around the world. The meeting brings together basic scientists, epidemiologists and clinical researchers to discuss findings to prevent HTLV infection or develop new therapies against HTLV-mediated diseases. The Association fosters the education and training of young scientists to bring new approaches to the complex problems of HTLV research, such as translational research to bring findings from the laboratory into clinical trials that benefit HTLV-infected patients. The breadth and quality of research presentations and workshops at the 12th International Conference indicate that these goals are being accomplished. As HTLV research enters its third decade a new generation of scientists face many challenges. However, HTLV scientists and clinicians displayed exciting new approaches and discoveries during plenary talks and poster sessions. The conference encouraged research in HTLV infections and disease, fostered collaborations, and stimulated new partnerships between clinicians and scientists to encourage clinical trials and novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:16202161

  2. The 14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses (July 1–4, 2009; Salvador, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The "14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses" was held in Salvador, Bahia, from July 1st to July 4th 2009. The aim of this biennial meeting is to promote discussion and share new findings between researchers and clinicians for the benefit of patients infected by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). HTLV infects approximately 15–20 million individuals worldwide and causes a broad spectrum of diseases including neurodegeneration and leukemia. The scientific program included a breadth of HTLV research topics: epidemiology, host immune response, basic mechanisms of protein function, virology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment. Exciting new findings were presented in these different fields, and the new advances have led to novel clinical trials. Here, highlights from this conference are summarized. PMID:19686596

  3. Retrovirology highlights a quarter century of HTLV-I research.

    PubMed

    Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2005-03-02

    In 1977, Takatsuki and co-workers described in Japan a human malignant disease termed adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Three years later, in 1980, Gallo and colleagues reported the identification of the first human retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), in a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This month, Retrovirology commemorates these two land mark findings by publishing separate personal recollections by Takatsuki and Gallo respectively on the discovery of ATL and HTLV.

  4. Conference Highlights of the 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, 26–30 June 2013, Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses was held in Montreal, Québec from June 26th to June 30th, 2013 and was therefore hosted by a Canadian city for the first time. The major topic of the meeting was human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) and was covered through distinct oral and poster presentation sessions: clinical research, animal models, immunology, molecular and cellular biology, human endogenous and emerging exogenous retroviruses and virology. In this review, highlights of the meeting are provided by different experts for each of these research areas. PMID:24558960

  5. Human histocultures (tissue explants) in retrovirology

    PubMed Central

    Arakelyan, Anush; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Summary Viral pathogenesis is studied predominantly in cultures of primary isolated cells or cell lines. Many retroviruses efficiently replicate only in activated cells. Therefore, in order to become efficient viral producers cells should be artificially activated, a procedure which significantly changes cell physiology. However, for many viral diseases, like HIV-1 and other retroviruses’ diseases, critical pathogenic events occur in tissues and cell isolation from their native microenvironment prevents single cell cultures from faithfully reflecting important aspects of cell-cell and cell-pathogen interactions that occur in the context of complex tissue cytoarchitecture. Tissue explants (histocultures) that retain tissue cytoarchitecture and many aspects of cell-cell interactions more faithfully represent in vivo tissue features. Human histocultures constitute an adequate model for studying viral pathogenesis under controlled laboratory conditions. Protocols for various human histocultures as applied to study retroviral pathogenesis, in particular of HIV-1, have been refined by our laboratory and are described in the present publication. Human histocultures of human tonsils and lymph nodes, as well as of recto-sigmoid and cervico-vaginal tissues can be used to study viral transmission, pathogenesis and as a pre-clinical platform for antivirals evaluation. PMID:24158827

  6. Infection with human retroviruses other than HIV-1: HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4.

    PubMed

    Nicolás, David; Ambrosioni, Juan; Paredes, Roger; Marcos, M Ángeles; Manzardo, Christian; Moreno, Asunción; Miró, José M

    2015-08-01

    HIV-1 is the most prevalent retrovirus, with over 30 million people infected worldwide. Nevertheless, infection caused by other human retroviruses like HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 is gaining importance. Initially confined to specific geographical areas, HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are becoming a major concern in non-endemic countries due to international migration flows. Clinical manifestations of retroviruses range from asymptomatic carriers to life-threatening conditions, such as AIDS in HIV-2 infection or adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia or tropical spastic paraparesis in HTLV-1 infection. HIV-2 is naturally resistant to some antiretrovirals frequently used to treat HIV-1 infection, but it does have effective antiretroviral therapy options. Unfortunately, HTLV still has limited therapeutic options. In this article, we will review the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects of infections caused by these human retroviruses.

  7. [New human retroviruses: HTLV-3 and HTLV-4].

    PubMed

    Mahieux, R; Gessain, A

    2005-11-01

    Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus Type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2), together with their simian counterparts (STLV-1, STLV-2 and STLV-3), belong to the Primate T lymphotropic viruses group (PTLV). HTLV-1 infects 15 to 20 million people worldwide, while STLV-1 is endemic in a number of simian species living in the Old World. Due to the high percentage of homologies between HTLV-1 and STLV-1 strains, it has now been widely accepted that most HTLV-1 subtypes arose from interspecies transmission between monkeys and humans. On the opposite, there is no close human homolog of the two STLV-2 strains that have been discovered in African bonobos chimpanzees. These results suggest that the interspecies transmission that lead to the present day HTLV-2 must have occurred in a distant past. STLV-3 viruses are very divergent, both from HTLV-1 and from HTLV-2. They are endemic in several monkey species that live in west, central and east Africa. Recently, two laboratories independently reported the discovery of the human homolog (HTLV-3) of STLV-3 in two inhabitants from south Cameroon whose sera exhibited HTLV indeterminate serologies. Together with STLV-3, these two viruses belong therefore to the PTLV-3 group. In addition, a fourth HTLV type (HTLV-4) was also discovered in the same geographical area. Current studies are aimed at determining the molecular characterization of these viruses. In particular, the possible oncogenic properties of their viral transactivator Tax is being investigated, as well as their modes of transmission and their possible association with human diseases.

  8. Comparative biology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2.

    PubMed

    Feuer, Gerold; Green, Patrick L

    2005-09-05

    HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are highly related complex retroviruses that have been studied intensely for nearly three decades because of their association with neoplasia, neuropathology, and/or their capacity to transform primary human T lymphocytes. The study of HTLV also represents an attractive model that has allowed investigators to dissect the mechanism of various cellular processes, several of which may be critical steps in HTLV-mediated pathogenesis. Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 can efficiently immortalize and transform T lymphocytes in cell culture and persist in infected individuals or experimental animals. However, the clinical manifestations of these two viruses differ significantly. HTLV-1 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a variety of immune-mediated disorders including the chronic neurological disease termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In contrast, HTLV-2 is much less pathogenic with reports of only a few cases of variant hairy cell leukemia and neurological disease associated with infection. The limited number of individuals shown to harbor HTLV-2 in association with specific diseases has, to date, precluded convincing epidemiological demonstration of a definitive etiologic role of HTLV-2 in human disease. Therefore, it has become clear that comparative studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 determine distinct outcomes are likely to provide fundamental insights into the initiation of multistep leukemogenesis.

  9. New strain of human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 3 in a Pygmy from Cameroon with peculiar HTLV serologic results.

    PubMed

    Calattini, Sara; Betsem, Edouard; Bassot, Sylviane; Chevalier, Sébastien Alain; Mahieux, Renaud; Froment, Alain; Gessain, Antoine

    2009-02-15

    A search for human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 and related viruses was performed by serological and molecular means on samples obtained from 421 adult villagers from the southern Cameroon forest areas. One individual (a 56-year-old Baka Pygmy hunter) was found to be HTLV-3 infected; however, there was a low proviral load in blood cells. Complete sequence analysis of this virus (HTLV-3Lobak18) indicated a close relationship to human HTLV-3Pyl43 and simian STLV-3CTO604 strains. Plasma samples from Lobak18, the HTLV-3 infected individual, exhibited a peculiar "HTLV-2-like" pattern on Western blot analysis and were serologically untypeable by line immunoassay. These results were different from those for the 2 previously reported HTLV-3 strains, raising questions about serological confirmation of infection with such retroviruses.

  10. Detection of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) tax sequences in New York City blood donors seronegative for HTLV types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Guenthner, Patricia C; Daniel, Sylvester; Utz, Ursula; Cabrera, Thania; Marshall, James H; Bianco, Celso; Lal, Renu B; Cowan, Elliot P

    2003-07-01

    A potential public health concern is the reported detection of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) tax gene in the lymphocytes of up to 11% of a low-risk group of New York City blood donors (NYBD). This study aimed to independently confirm the prevalence of HTLV tax sequences in 293 NYBD. All NYBD tested negative for antibodies to HTLV types 1 and 2 and HTLV Tax. HTLV tax sequences were not detected in the NYBD lymphocytes. These data demonstrate the lack of HTLV-1 tax in this group of NYBD at low risk for HTLV infection.

  11. Detection of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) tax Sequences in New York City Blood Donors Seronegative for HTLV Types 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Guenthner, Patricia C.; Daniel, Sylvester; Utz, Ursula; Cabrera, Thania; Marshall, James H.; Bianco, Celso; Lal, Renu B.; Cowan, Elliot P.

    2003-01-01

    A potential public health concern is the reported detection of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) tax gene in the lymphocytes of up to 11% of a low-risk group of New York City blood donors (NYBD). This study aimed to independently confirm the prevalence of HTLV tax sequences in 293 NYBD. All NYBD tested negative for antibodies to HTLV types 1 and 2 and HTLV Tax. HTLV tax sequences were not detected in the NYBD lymphocytes. These data demonstrate the lack of HTLV-1 tax in this group of NYBD at low risk for HTLV infection. PMID:12853410

  12. Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1): Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kannian, Priya; Green, Patrick L

    2010-09-01

    Human T lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) are complex deltaretroviruses that do not contain a proto-oncogene in their genome, yet are capable of transforming primary T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. There are four known strains of HTLV including HTLV type 1 (HTLV-1), HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4. HTLV-1 is primarily associated with adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-2 is rarely pathogenic and is sporadically associated with neurological disorders. There have been no diseases associated with HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 to date. Due to the difference in the disease manifestation between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, a clear understanding of their individual pathobiologies and the role of various viral proteins in transformation should provide insights into better prognosis and prevention strategies. In this review, we aim to summarize the data accumulated so far in the transformation and pathogenesis of HTLV-1, focusing on the viral Tax and HBZ and citing appropriate comparisons to HTLV-2.

  13. The discovery of HTLV-1, the first pathogenic human retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, John M.

    2015-01-01

    After the discovery of retroviral reverse transcriptase in 1970, there was a flurry of activity, sparked by the “War on Cancer,” to identify human cancer retroviruses. After many false claims resulting from various artifacts, most scientists abandoned the search, but the Gallo laboratory carried on, developing both specific assays and new cell culture methods that enabled them to report, in the accompanying 1980 PNAS paper, identification and partial characterization of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV; now known as HTLV-1) produced by a T-cell line from a lymphoma patient. Follow-up studies, including collaboration with the group that first identified a cluster of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cases in Japan, provided conclusive evidence that HTLV was the cause of this disease. HTLV-1 is now known to infect at least 4–10 million people worldwide, about 5% of whom will develop ATL. Despite intensive research, knowledge of the viral etiology has not led to improvement in treatment or outcome of ATL. However, the technology for discovery of HTLV and acknowledgment of the existence of pathogenic human retroviruses laid the technical and intellectual foundation for the discovery of the cause of AIDS soon afterward. Without this advance, our ability to diagnose and treat HIV infection most likely would have been long delayed. PMID:26696625

  14. Distinct transformation tropism exhibited by human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 is the result of postinfection T cell clonal expansion.

    PubMed

    Kannian, Priya; Yin, Han; Doueiri, Rami; Lairmore, Michael D; Fernandez, Soledad; Green, Patrick L

    2012-04-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are related but pathogenically distinct viruses. HTLV-1 mainly causes adult T cell leukemia, while HTLV-2 is not associated with leukemia. In vitro, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 predominantly transform CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, respectively: the genetic determinant maps to the viral envelope. Herein, we investigate whether this transformation tropism occurs during initial infection or subsequently during the cellular transformation process. Since most individuals are chronically infected at the time of detection, we utilized an established rabbit model to longitudinally measure the early HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and replication kinetics in purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells within 1 week postinoculation. In HTLV-1-infected rabbit CD4(+) T cells, proviral burden and tax/rex mRNA expression peaked early, and expression levels were directly proportional to each other. The late expression of the antisense transcript (Hbz or Aph-2) correlated directly with a late proviral burden peak in HTLV-1- or HTLV-2-infected rabbit CD8(+) T cells, respectively. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that these viruses do not exhibit cellular preference during initial infection. We further evaluated the transformation tropism of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 over a 9-week period using in vitro cell growth/immortalization assays. At the early weeks, both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 showed proportionate growth of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. However, beyond week 5, the predominance of one particular T cell type emerged, supporting the conclusion that transformation tropism is a postinfection event due to selective clonal expansion over time.

  15. African Origin of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 (HTLV-2) Supported by a Potential New HTLV-2d Subtype in Congolese Bambuti Efe Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Salemi, Marco; Van Brussel, Marianne; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Van Laethem, Kristel; Van Ranst, Marc; Michels, Ludovic; Desmyter, Jan; Goubau, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    We identified a potential new subtype within human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), HTLV-2d, present in members of an isolated Efe Bambuti Pygmy tribe. Two of 23 Efe Pygmies were HTLV-2 seropositive, with HTLV-2 Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivities. From one of them the entire genome of the HTLV-2 strain Efe2 could be amplified and sequenced. In all gene regions analyzed, this strain was the most divergent HTLV-2 strain, differing by 2.4% (tax/rex) to 10.7% (long terminal repeat) from both subtypes HTLV-2a and HTLV-2b, yet major functional elements are conserved. The similarity between the HTLV-2 Efe2 Gag and Env proteins and the corresponding HTLV-2a and -2b proteins is consistent with the observed serological reactivity. In the proximal pX region, one of the two alternative splice acceptor sites is abolished in HTLV-2 Efe2. Another interesting feature of this potential new subtype is that it has a Tax protein of 344 amino acids (aa), which is intermediate in length between the HTLV-2a Tax protein (331 aa) and the HTLV-2b and -2c Tax proteins (356 aa) and similar to the simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (STLV-2) PP1664 Tax protein. Together these two findings suggest a different phenotype for the HTLV-2 Efe2 strain. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Pygmy Efe2 strain potentially belonged to a new and quite divergent subtype, HTLV-2d. When the STLV-2 bonobo viruses PP1664 and PanP were used as an outgroup, it was clear that the Pygmy HTLV-2 Efe2 strain had the longest independent evolution and that HTLV-2 evolution is consistent with an African origin. PMID:9557723

  16. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated lichenoid dermatitis induced by CD8+ T cells in HTLV-1 carrier, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Yoshiki; Ito, Taisuke; Kawakami, Chika; Sugita, Kazunari; Kasuya, Akira; Tatsuno, Kazuki; Sawada, Yu; Nakamura, Motonobu; Shimauchi, Takatoshi

    2015-10-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and carrier. ATLL is a mature CD4+ CD25+ CCR4+ T-cell neoplasm, and approximately half of patients have direct skin involvement manifesting patch, plaque, tumor, multiple papules, erythroderma and purpura. However, there exist secondary eruptions without tumor cell infiltration in patients with ATLL or HAM/TSP and carriers of HTLV-1. To clarify the presence of reactive skin eruptions in HTLV-1-infected individuals, we reviewed our patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases. In 2002-2012, we saw 50 ATLL or HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1 carriers presenting with skin lesions. We retrospectively selected cases that histologically showed lichenoid tissue reactions with predominant infiltration of CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ tumor cells. The cases included erythroderma (HTLV-1 carrier), lichen planus (HTLV-1 carrier), alopecia areata (HAM/TSP), chronic actinic dermatitis (HTLV-1 carrier to acute ATLL conversion) and discoid lupus erythematosus (smoldering ATLL). They were graft-versus-host disease-like, major secondary lesions and seen in HTLV-1 carriers and patients with HAM/TSP and smoldering ATLL. We coin the term HTLV-1-associated lichenoid dermatitis (HALD) to encompass the conditions. HALD may occur in association with the elevated immunity toward HTLV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, thus sharing the pathogenetic role of cytotoxic T cells with HAM/TSP.

  17. Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, T

    1997-01-01

    HTLV-I infection is causally associated with a variety of human diseases including leukemia/lymphoma, myelopathy, uveitis, and arthropathy. Tax protein of HTLV-I, which is considered oncogenic, binds to transcription factors or other cytoplasmic cellular molecules involved in the fundamental cell function and thereby induces cellular changes. The interaction between HTLV-I-infected cells with dysregulated function and different kinds of cells in the host, such as lymphocytes and vascular endothelial cells through viral peptides, antigen receptors cell adhesion molecules, and cytokines, appears to be one of the basic mechanisms underlying the development of HTLV-I-associated diseases. This interaction may play a major role in determining tumorigenicity and in forming clinical features of the diseases. The in vivo cell proliferation model of HTLV-I-infected cells using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice can differentiate tumorigenicity from cell immortalization in vitro. The OX40 and its ligand gp34, which are induced by HTLV-I infection and directly mediate the adhesion between HTLV-I-infected T cells and vascular endothelial cells, may be critically involved in the localization and proliferation of HTLV-I-infected cells in vivo.

  18. Demonstration of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) from an HTLV-I seronegative south Indian patient with chronic, progressive spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, M; Mingioli, E; McFarlin, D E; Jacobson, S

    1993-12-01

    Here we describe a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) seronegative patient from South India with a chronic, progressive spastic paraparesis from which HTLV-I has been isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. HTLV-I pol and tax viral sequences were detected in DNA from fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and liquid hybridization techniques. Southern blot analysis of the PCR products demonstrated a low copy number of HTLV-I at the level of one viral copy per 10,000 fresh PBL. A long-term CD4+ T-cell line was established from PBL of this patient using recombinant interleukin-2, OKT3, and feeder cells. DNA from these cultured lines was amplified and portions of the HTLV-I long terminal repeat (U3), pol, env, and tax regions were sequenced (a total of 1,115 bp). The sequence data showed that the HTLV-I associated with this patient was 98.8% homologous to prototype HTLV-I. Southern blot analysis also confirmed the presence of full-length HTLV-I. These results indicate that HTLV-I can be demonstrated in an HTLV-I seronegative patient from South India with a chronic progressive neurological disorder.

  19. ORIGIN AND PREVALENCE OF HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE 1 (HTLV-1) AND TYPE 2 (HTLV-2) AMONG INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS IN THE AMERICAS

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events. PMID:25651320

  20. Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events.

  1. Envelope is a major viral determinant of the distinct in vitro cellular transformation tropism of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Green, Patrick L

    2005-12-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are related deltaretroviruses but are distinct in their disease-inducing capacity. These viruses can infect a variety of cell types, but only T lymphocytes become transformed, which is defined in vitro as showing indefinite interleukin-2-independent growth. Studies have indicated that HTLV-1 has a preferential tropism for CD4+ T cells in vivo and is associated with the development of leukemia and neurological disease. Conversely, the in vivo T-cell tropism of HTLV-2 is less clear, although it appears that CD8+ T cells preferentially harbor the provirus, with only a few cases of disease association. The difference in T-cell transformation tropism has been confirmed in vitro as shown by the preferential transformation of CD4+ T cells by HTLV-1 versus the transformation of CD8+ T cells by HTLV-2. Our previous studies showed that Tax and overlapping Rex do not confer the distinct T-cell transformation tropisms between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Therefore, for this study HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 recombinants were generated to assess the contribution of LTR and env sequences in T-cell transformation tropism. Both sets of proviral recombinants expressed p19 Gag following transfection into cells. Furthermore, recombinant viruses were replication competent and had the capacity to transform T lymphocytes. Our data showed that exchange of the env gene resulted in altered T-cell transformation tropism compared to wild-type virus, while exchange of long terminal repeat sequences had no significant effect. HTLV-2/Env1 preferentially transformed CD4+ T cells similarly to wild-type HTLV-1 (wtHTLV-1), whereas HTLV-1/Env2 had a transformation tropism similar to that of wtHTLV-2 (CD8+ T cells). These results indicate that env is a major viral determinant for HTLV T-cell transformation tropism in vitro and provides strong evidence implicating its contribution to the distinct pathogenesis resulting from HTLV-1 versus HTLV-2 infections.

  2. Comparative host protein interactions with HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28: insights into difference in pathobiology of human retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are closely related human retroviruses, but have unique disease associations. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of an aggressive T-cell leukemia known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other inflammatory diseases. HTLV-2 infection has not been clearly associated with any disease condition. Although both viruses can transform T cells in vitro, the HTLV-1 provirus is mainly detected in CD4+ T cells whereas HTLV-2 is mainly detected in CD8+ T cells of infected individuals. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 encode accessory proteins p30 and p28, respectively, which share partial amino acid homology and are required for viral persistence in vivo. The goal of this study was to identify host proteins interacting with p30 and p28 in order to understand their role in pathogenesis. Results Affinity-tag purification coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) analyses revealed 42 and 22 potential interacting cellular partners of p30 and p28, respectively. Of these, only three cellular proteins, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), hnRNP K and 60 S ribosomal protein L8 were detected in both p30 and p28 fractions. To validate the proteomic results, four interacting proteins were selected for further analyses using immunoblot assays. In full agreement with the MS analysis two cellular proteins REGγ and NEAF-interacting protein 30 (NIP30) selectively interacted with p30 and not with p28; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (hnRNP H1) bound to p28 and not to p30; and PRMT5 interacted with both p30 and p28. Further studies demonstrated that reduced levels of PRMT5 resulted in decreased HTLV-2 viral gene expression whereas the viral gene expression of HTLV-1 was unchanged. Conclusion The comparisons of p30 and p28 host protein interaction proteome showed striking differences with some degree of overlap. PRMT5, one of the host proteins that

  3. Modulation of innate immune responses during human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Olière, Stéphanie; Douville, Renée; Sze, Alexandre; Belgnaoui, S Mehdi; Hiscott, John

    2011-08-01

    Infection with the Human T-cell Leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) retrovirus results in a number of diverse pathologies, including the aggressive, fatal T-cell malignancy adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and the chronic, progressive neurologic disorder termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Worldwide, it is estimated there are 15-20 million HTLV-1-infected individuals; although the majority of HTLV-1-infected individuals remain asymptomatic carriers (AC) during their lifetime, 2-5% of AC develops either ATL or HAM/TSP, but never both. Regardless of asymptomatic status or clinical outcome, HTLV-1 carriers are at high risk of opportunistic infection. The progression to pathological HTLV-1 disease is in part attributed to the failure of the innate and adaptive immune system to control virus spread. The innate immune response against retroviral infection requires recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) dependent pathways, leading to the induction of host antiviral and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have begun to characterize the interplay between HTLV-1 infection and the innate immune response and have identified distinct gene expression profiles in patients with ATL or HAM/TSP--upregulation of growth regulatory pathways in ATL and constitutive activation of antiviral and inflammatory pathways in HAM/STP. In this review, we provide an overview of the replicative lifecycle of HTLV-1 and the distinct pathologies associated with HTLV-1 infection. We also explore the innate immune mechanisms that respond to HTLV-1 infection, the strategies used by HTLV-1 to subvert these defenses and their contribution to HTLV-1-associated diseases.

  4. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3) in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Calattini, Sara; Chevalier, Sébastien Alain; Duprez, Renan; Bassot, Sylviane; Froment, Alain; Mahieux, Renaud; Gessain, Antoine

    2005-05-09

    Human T-cell Leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are pathogenic retroviruses that infect humans and cause severe hematological and neurological diseases. Both viruses have simian counterparts (STLV-1 and STLV-2). STLV-3 belongs to a third group of lymphotropic viruses which infect numerous African monkeys species. Among 240 Cameroonian plasma tested for the presence of HTLV-1 and/or HTLV-2 antibodies, 48 scored positive by immunofluorescence. Among those, 27 had indeterminate western-blot pattern. PCR amplification of pol and tax regions, using HTLV-1, -2 and STLV-3 highly conserved primers, demonstrated the presence of a new human retrovirus in one DNA sample. tax (180 bp) and pol (318 bp) phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the strong relationships between the novel human strain (Pyl43) and STLV-3 isolates from Cameroon. The virus, that we tentatively named HTLV-3, originated from a 62 years old Bakola Pygmy living in a remote settlement in the rain forest of Southern Cameroon. The plasma was reactive on MT2 cells but was negative on C19 cells. The HTLV 2.4 western-blot exhibited a strong reactivity to p19 and a faint one to MTA-1. On the INNO-LIA strip, it reacted faintly with the generic p19 (I/II), but strongly to the generic gp46 (I/II) and to the specific HTLV-2 gp46. The molecular relationships between Pyl43 and STLV-3 are thus not paralleled by the serological results, as most of the STLV-3 infected monkeys have an "HTLV-2 like" WB pattern. In the context of the multiple interspecies transmissions which occurred in the past, and led to the present-day distribution of the PTLV-1, it is thus very tempting to speculate that this newly discovered human retrovirus HTLV-3 might be widespread, at least in the African continent.

  5. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection--dermatological implications.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masahiro; Setoyama, Mitsuru; Grant, Annika; Kerdel, Francisco A

    2011-08-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a type C retrovirus primarily endemic to Japan, Central and South America, the Middle East, regions of Africa, and the Caribbean. Currently, an estimated 10-20 million people worldwide are infected with this virus. Although the majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic, HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a number of disorders, notably adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and a progressive demyelinating neurological disorder, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In addition to ATLL and HAM/TSP, HTLV-1 has been associated with a spectrum of skin disorders, such as infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1, crusted scabies, and leprosy. The understanding of the interaction between virus and host response has improved markedly, but there are still few treatment options.

  6. HTLV-associated diseases: human retroviral infection and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, K; Goldman, B; Oseroff, A R; Glenister, N; Jaffe, E S; Bisaccia, E; Pincus, S; Greenberg, S J

    1997-01-01

    An array of neurologic, oncologic, and autoimmune disorders are associated with infection with the human pathogenic retroviruses human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II (HTLV-I, II), as well as the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). The cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, mycosis fungoides (MF) and its hematogenous variant Sezary Syndrome (SS), share similar clinical and pathological features to HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and speculation of a retroviral link to MF and SS, especially in areas non-endemic for ATL, has lead to an intensified search for HTLV- and HIV-like agents in these diseases. To further explore a potential role for human retroviruses in MF and SS, skin biopsy-derived or peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived DNA from 17 patients (MF, n = 7; erythrodermic MF (EMF), n = 5; SS, n = 5) from the North Eastern United States were screened using gene amplification by PCR and a liquid hybridization detection assay. Previously published primers and probes for HTLV-I (LTR, gag, pol, env, and pX), and our own primers and probes for HTLV-I (gag, pol, and env), HTLV-II (pol and env) and HIV-I (gag and pol) were employed. Serum antibodies to HTLV-I were negative in all but one EMF patient. The single HTLV-I seropositive patient carrying a diagnosis of EMF generated positive amplified signals for all of the eight HTLV-I regions tested. Ultimately, this individual evolved to exhibit clinical manifestations indistinguishable from ATL. The other 16 patients were negative for all 12 HTLV and HIV retroviral regions. Our findings suggest that none of the known prototypic human retroviruses are associated with seronegative MF and SS. The uniformly positive results for HTLV-I in the seropositive patient suggests that this patient initially presented with a smoldering form of ATL and illustrates the difficulty that sometimes may be encountered in the differential diagnosis of MF, SS, and ATL based solely on clinical and histopathological criteria.

  7. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) in individuals from public health centers in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Costa, Emanuela Avelar Silva; Manuel, Rolanda Carmen Rafael

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) in Mozambique is not known. The present study examined blood samples from 208, 226, and 318 individuals from Northern, Central, and Southern Mozambique, respectively, of all socioeconomic and demographic strata attending public health centers in Mozambique for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies. Serum samples were assessed for HIV- and HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies by using enzyme immunoassays, and infections with HTLV-1 and -2 were confirmed by using Western blot. An overall HTLV-1/2 prevalence of 2.3% (2.9% in female and 1.1% in male subjects) was observed, and the prevalence of infection increased with age. Regional variation in the prevalence of HIV and HTLV-1/2 was observed; 32.2%, 65.5%, and 44% of individuals tested HIV positive in Northern, Central, and Southern Mozambique, respectively, and 2.4%, 3.9%, and 0.9% tested HTLV-1/2 positive in the same regions. HTLV-1 infection was confirmed in these individuals. No association between HTLV-1 infection and sociodemographic variables or HIV status was detected, although the low number of HTLV-1-positive cases did not allow robust statistical analyses. The results obtained suggest different risk factors and epidemiologic correlates of HIV and HTLV-1 transmission in Mozambique. Furthermore, our results suggested that North and Central Mozambique should be considered endemic regions for HTLV-1 infection. As no cases of HTLV-2 were detected, HTLV-2 appears to have not been introduced into Mozambique.

  8. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-28

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  9. Crystal Structures of Inhibitir Complexes of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-1) Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  10. Differences in the ability of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 tax to inhibit p53 function.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, R; Pise-Masison, C A; Lambert, P F; Nicot, C; De Marchis, L; Gessain, A; Green, P; Hall, W; Brady, J N

    2000-08-01

    We have analyzed the functional activity of the p53 tumor suppressor in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2)-transformed cells. Abundant levels of the p53 protein were detected in both HTLV-2A and -2B virus-infected cell lines. The p53 was functionally inactive, however, both in transient-transfection assays using a p53 reporter plasmid and in induction of p53-responsive genes in response to gamma irradiation. We further investigated HTLV-2A Tax and HTLV-2B Tax effects on p53 activity. Interestingly, although Tax-2A and -2B inactivate p53, the Tax-2A protein appears to inhibit p53 function less efficiently than either Tax-1 or Tax-2B. In transient-cotransfection assays, Tax-1 and Tax-2B inactivated p53 by 80%, while Tax2A reduced p53 activity by 20%. In addition, Tax-2A does not increase the steady-state level of cellular p53 as well as Tax-1 or -2B does in the same assays. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that Tax-2A could efficiently transactivate CREB-responsive promoters to the same level as Tax-1 and Tax-2B, indicating that the protein was functional. This report provides evidence of the first functional difference between the HTLV-2A and -2B subtypes. This comparison of the action of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax proteins on p53 function will provide important insights into the mechanism of HTLV transformation.

  11. Differences in the Ability of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 Tax To Inhibit p53 Function

    PubMed Central

    Mahieux, Renaud; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A.; Lambert, Paul F.; Nicot, Christophe; De Marchis, Laura; Gessain, Antoine; Green, Patrick; Hall, William; Brady, John N.

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed the functional activity of the p53 tumor suppressor in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2)-transformed cells. Abundant levels of the p53 protein were detected in both HTLV-2A and -2B virus-infected cell lines. The p53 was functionally inactive, however, both in transient-transfection assays using a p53 reporter plasmid and in induction of p53-responsive genes in response to gamma irradiation. We further investigated HTLV-2A Tax and HTLV-2B Tax effects on p53 activity. Interestingly, although Tax-2A and -2B inactivate p53, the Tax-2A protein appears to inhibit p53 function less efficiently than either Tax-1 or Tax-2B. In transient-cotransfection assays, Tax-1 and Tax-2B inactivated p53 by 80%, while Tax2A reduced p53 activity by 20%. In addition, Tax-2A does not increase the steady-state level of cellular p53 as well as Tax-1 or -2B does in the same assays. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that Tax-2A could efficiently transactivate CREB-responsive promoters to the same level as Tax-1 and Tax-2B, indicating that the protein was functional. This report provides evidence of the first functional difference between the HTLV-2A and -2B subtypes. This comparison of the action of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax proteins on p53 function will provide important insights into the mechanism of HTLV transformation. PMID:10888626

  12. Accumulation of human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I-specific T cell clones in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.

    PubMed

    Höger, T A; Jacobson, S; Kawanishi, T; Kato, T; Nishioka, K; Yamamoto, K

    1997-08-15

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraperesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive neurologic disorder following infection with HTLV-I. It is characterized by spasticity and hyper-reflexia of the lower extremities, urinary bladder disturbance, lower extremity muscle weakness, and sensory disturbances. HTLV-I, as an inducer of a strong humoral and cytotoxic response, is a well-known pathogenic factor for the progression of HAM/TSP. Peptides derived from proviral tax and env genes provide epitopes recognized by T cells. We herein report an accumulation of distinct clonotypes of alpha/beta TCR+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes from HAM/TSP patients in comparison with that observed in both asymptomatic carriers and healthy controls, using the reverse-transcriptase PCR/single-strand conformation polymorphism method. We also found that some of the accumulated T cell clones in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid are HTLV-I Tax(11-19) peptide specific. Such clones were found to expand strongly after being cultured with an HTLV-I Tax(11-19) peptide. Moreover, the cultured samples exhibited a strong MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic activity against HTLV-I Tax(11-19) peptide-expressing targets, and therefore most likely also include the disease-associated T cell clones observed in the patients. This is the first report of a direct assessment of Ag-specific T cell responses in fresh PBL and cerebrospinal fluid.

  13. Defective human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus in seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) patients.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, E; Fernandez, J; Cartier, L; Villota, C; Rios, M

    2003-02-01

    Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) have been associated with the development of the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We studied the presence of HTLV-I provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 72 Chilean patients with progressive spastic paraparesis by polymerase chain reaction: 32 seropositive and 40 seronegative cases. We amplified different genomic regions of HTLV-I using primers of 5' ltr, tax, env/tax, pX, pol and env genes. These genes were detected from all seropositive patients. The seronegative patients were negative with 5' ltr, pol, env, and pX primers. However, amplified product of tax and env/tax genes was detected from 16 and four seronegative patients, respectively. Three of them were positive with both genetic regions. The results of this study show that the complete HTLV-I provirus is found in 100% of seropositive cases. In seronegative cases, clinically very similar of seropositive cases, was found only tax gene in 42.5% (17/40) of patients. These results suggest the presence of a defective HTLV-I provirus in some seronegative patients with progressive spastic paraparesis, and suggest a pathogenic role of this truncate provirus for a group of TSP/HAM.

  14. The retrovirus HTLV-1 inserts an ectopic CTCF-binding site into the human genome.

    PubMed

    Satou, Yorifumi; Miyazato, Paola; Ishihara, Ko; Yaguchi, Hiroko; Melamed, Anat; Miura, Michi; Fukuda, Asami; Nosaka, Kisato; Watanabe, Takehisa; Rowan, Aileen G; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Bangham, Charles R M

    2016-03-15

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes malignant and inflammatory diseases in ∼10% of infected people. A typical host has between 10(4) and 10(5) clones of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes, each clone distinguished by the genomic integration site of the single-copy HTLV-1 provirus. The HTLV-1 bZIP (HBZ) factor gene is constitutively expressed from the minus strand of the provirus, whereas plus-strand expression, required for viral propagation to uninfected cells, is suppressed or intermittent in vivo, allowing escape from host immune surveillance. It remains unknown what regulates this pattern of proviral transcription and latency. Here, we show that CTCF, a key regulator of chromatin structure and function, binds to the provirus at a sharp border in epigenetic modifications in the pX region of the HTLV-1 provirus in T cells naturally infected with HTLV-1. CTCF is a zinc-finger protein that binds to an insulator region in genomic DNA and plays a fundamental role in controlling higher order chromatin structure and gene expression in vertebrate cells. We show that CTCF bound to HTLV-1 acts as an enhancer blocker, regulates HTLV-1 mRNA splicing, and forms long-distance interactions with flanking host chromatin. CTCF-binding sites (CTCF-BSs) have been propagated throughout the genome by transposons in certain primate lineages, but CTCF binding has not previously been described in present-day exogenous retroviruses. The presence of an ectopic CTCF-BS introduced by the retrovirus in tens of thousands of genomic locations has the potential to cause widespread abnormalities in host cell chromatin structure and gene expression.

  15. HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 (HTLV-1) AND HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 (HTLV-2): GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH TRENDS AND COLLABORATION NETWORKS (1989-2012)

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ-ALCAIDE, Gregorio; RAMOS, José Manuel; HUAMANÍ, Charles; de MENDOZA, Carmen; SORIANO, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    Publications are often used as a measure of research work success. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1 and 2 are human retroviruses, which were discovered in the early 1980s, and it is estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. This article describes a bibliometric review and a coauthorship network analysis of literature on HTLV indexed in PubMed in a 24-year period. A total of 7,564 documents were retrieved, showing a decrease in the number of documents from 1996 to 2007. HTLV manuscripts were published in 1,074 journals. Japan and USA were the countries with the highest contribution in this field (61%) followed by France (8%). Production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalized by population (Dominican Republic and Japan), by gross domestic product (Guinea-Bissau and Gambia), and by gross national income per capita (Brazil and Japan). The present study has shed light on some of the defining features of scientific collaboration performed by HTLV research community, such as the existence of core researchers responsible for articulating the development of research in the area, facilitating wider collaborative relationships and the integration of new authors in the research groups. PMID:26910450

  16. HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 (HTLV-1) AND HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 (HTLV-2): GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH TRENDS AND COLLABORATION NETWORKS (1989-2012).

    PubMed

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Ramos, José Manuel; Huamaní, Charles; Mendoza, Carmen de; Soriano, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    Publications are often used as a measure of research work success. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1 and 2 are human retroviruses, which were discovered in the early 1980s, and it is estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. This article describes a bibliometric review and a coauthorship network analysis of literature on HTLV indexed in PubMed in a 24-year period. A total of 7,564 documents were retrieved, showing a decrease in the number of documents from 1996 to 2007. HTLV manuscripts were published in 1,074 journals. Japan and USA were the countries with the highest contribution in this field (61%) followed by France (8%). Production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalized by population (Dominican Republic and Japan), by gross domestic product (Guinea-Bissau and Gambia), and by gross national income per capita (Brazil and Japan). The present study has shed light on some of the defining features of scientific collaboration performed by HTLV research community, such as the existence of core researchers responsible for articulating the development of research in the area, facilitating wider collaborative relationships and the integration of new authors in the research groups.

  17. An animal model of adult T-cell leukemia: humanized mice with HTLV-1-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenta; Xun, Runze; Tei, Mami; Ueno, Takaharu; Tanaka, Masakazu; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-16

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causally associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy with a poor prognosis. To elucidate ATL pathogenesis in vivo, a variety of animal models have been established; however, the mechanisms driving this disorder remain poorly understood due to deficiencies in each of these animal models. Here, we report a novel HTLV-1-infected humanized mouse model generated by intra-bone marrow injection of human CD133(+) stem cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγc null (NOG) mice (IBMI-huNOG mice). Upon infection, the number of CD4(+) human T cells in the periphery increased rapidly, and atypical lymphocytes with lobulated nuclei resembling ATL-specific flower cells were observed 4 to 5 months after infection. Proliferation was seen in both CD25(-) and CD25(+) CD4 T cells with identical proviral integration sites; however, a limited number of CD25(+)-infected T-cell clones eventually dominated, indicating an association between clonal selection of infected T cells and expression of CD25. Additionally, HTLV-1-specific adaptive immune responses were induced in infected mice and might be involved in the control of HTLV-1-infected cells. Thus, the HTLV-1-infected IBMI-huNOG mouse model successfully recapitulated the development of ATL and may serve as an important tool for investigating in vivo mechanisms of ATL leukemogenesis and evaluating anti-ATL drug and vaccine candidates.

  18. C-terminal region of human T cell lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV) p19 core protein is immunogenic in humans and contains an HTLV/sub I/-specific epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Palker, T.J.; Scearce, R.M.; Copeland, T.D.; Oroszlan, S.; Haynes, B.F.

    1986-04-01

    To study the human host response to viral structural proteins during HTLV type I infection, five synthetic peptides matching the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of HTLV/sub I/ p19 core protein were used to identify antigenic sites on p19 that were immunogenic in man. In radioimmunoassay and immunoprecipitation experiments, antibodies in 16 of 18 HTLV/sub I//sup +/ patient sera reacted with a synthetic peptide matching the C-terminal 11-amino acid sequence of p19, whereas only two sera contained antibodies that reacted with other N- or C-terminal region p19 synthetic peptides. Polyclonal rabbit antisera to N- and C-terminal peptides reacted with a native viral protein of 19,000 daltons and with gagencoded precursors of p19. Six monoclonal antibodies against native viral p19 were screened for reactivity to the five synthetic peptides. One of six antibodies (13B12) reacted with the C-terminal synthetic peptide of p19. Antibody 13B12 did not react with HTLV/sub II/ or HTLV/sub III/ proteins or with HTLV/sub III/-infected cells, nor did it cross-react with a wide variety of HTLV-uninfected normal host tissues. Thus, the C-terminus of p19 contains an antigen that is highly immunogenic in most HTLV/sub 1/-infected patients and is HTLV/sub I/ specific.

  19. From Immunodeficiency to Humanization: The Contribution of Mouse Models to Explore HTLV-1 Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pérès, Eléonore; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; This, Sébastien; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review will focus on the recent advances in the generation of immunodeficient and human hemato-lymphoid system mice with a particular emphasis on the development of mouse models for HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, their present limitations and the challenges yet to be addressed. PMID:26690200

  20. From Immunodeficiency to Humanization: The Contribution of Mouse Models to Explore HTLV-1 Leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pérès, Eléonore; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; This, Sébastien; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2015-12-07

    The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review will focus on the recent advances in the generation of immunodeficient and human hemato-lymphoid system mice with a particular emphasis on the development of mouse models for HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, their present limitations and the challenges yet to be addressed.

  1. Genetic control and dynamics of the cellular immune response to the human T-cell leukaemia virus, HTLV-I.

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, C R; Hall, S E; Jeffery, K J; Vine, A M; Witkover, A; Nowak, M A; Wodarz, D; Usuku, K; Osame, M

    1999-01-01

    About 1% of people infected with the human T-cell leukaemia virus, type 1 (HTLV-I) develop a disabling chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Patients with HAM/TSP have a vigorous immune response to HTLV-I, and it has been widely suggested that this immune response, particularly the HTLV-I-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response, causes the tissue damage that is seen in HAM/TSP. In this paper we summarize recent evidence that a strong CTL response to HTLV-I does in fact protect against HAM/TSP by reducing the proviral load of HTLV-I. We conclude that HTLV-I is persistently replicating at a high level, despite the relative constancy of its genome sequence. These results imply that antiretroviral drugs could reduce the risk of HAM/TSP by reducing the viral load, and that an effective anti-HTLV-I vaccine should elicit a strong CTL response to the virus. The dynamic nature of the infection also has implications for the epidemiology and the evolution of HTLV-I. PMID:10365395

  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II), subtype B, from a healthy Pygmy living in a remote area of Cameroon: an ancient origin for HTLV-II in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Gessain, A; Mauclère, P; Froment, A; Biglione, M; Le Hesran, J Y; Tekaia, F; Millan, J; de Thé, G

    1995-01-01

    We report characterization of a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) isolated from an interleukin 2-dependent CD8 T-cell line derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy, HTLV-II-seropositive female Bakola Pygmy, aged 59, living in a remote equatorial forest area in south Cameroon. This HTLLV-II isolate, designated PYGCAM-1, reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence assay with HTLV-II and HTLV-I polyclonal antibodies and with an HTLV-I/II gp46 monoclonal antibody but not with HTLV-I gag p19 or p24 monoclonal antibodies. The cell line produced HTLV-I/II p24 core antigen and retroviral particles. The entire env gene (1462 bp) and most of the long terminal repeat (715 bp) of the PYGCAM-1 provirus were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using HTLV-II-specific primers. Comparison with the long terminal repeat and envelope sequences of prototype HTLV-II strains indicated that PYGCAM-1 belongs to the subtype B group, as it has only 0.5-2% nucleotide divergence from HTLV-II B strains. The finding of antibodies to HTLV-II in sera taken from the father of the woman in 1984 and from three unrelated members of the same population strongly suggests that PYGCAM-1 is a genuine HTLV-II that has been present in this isolated population for a long time. The low genetic divergence of this African isolate from American isolates raises questions about the genetic variability over time and the origin and dissemination of HTLV-II, hitherto considered to be predominantly a New World virus. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7732027

  3. Human Immune Responses to HTLV-III Virus Infections in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-10

    in western blots in the antibodies to HIV-1 structural antigens between this serum and the other sera which neutralize HIV at low dilutions but enhance...n3est AvailabCe AD N T== HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSE TO HTLV -III VIRUS INFECTION IN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME N ANNUAL REPORT FRANCIS A. ENNIS D...Stimulation of HIV-1 specific T cells. We have stimulated the PBL of 20 HIV antibody-positive donors with live HIV-1 ( HTLV -IIIB) virus, and only 30% respond

  4. Detection and characterization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated T-cell neoplasms in an HTLV-I nonendemic region by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chadburn, A; Athan, E; Wieczorek, R; Knowles, D M

    1991-06-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) occurs endemically in southwestern Japan, the Caribbean, and West Africa, but occurs sporadically in most of the rest of the world. However, because ATLL and non-HTLV-I associated T-cell neoplasms share overlapping clinicopathologic features, the prevalence of ATLL in nonendemic regions is unknown. In this study, 75 T-cell neoplasms randomly procured from the metropolitan New York City area were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of integrated HTLV-I proviral sequences. HTLV-I genomic sequences were detected by PCR in 6 of the 75 cases (8%); this result was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. The clinicopathologic features of the HTLV-I positive and HTLV-I negative T-cell neoplasms were then compared. Although the clinicopathologic features of patients from these two groups overlapped, some findings were more commonly associated with HTLV-I positive neoplasms. Five of the six patients with HTLV-I positive neoplasms were from HTLV-I endemic areas, five were black, five were women, and five were less than 45 years of age, while the majority of the patients with HTLV-I negative T-cell malignancies were elderly white men. The incidence of hypercalcemia and lytic bone lesions was significantly more common among patients with HTLV-I positive T-cell neoplasms (P less than .001 and P = .004, respectively). The immunophenotypes of the HTLV-I positive and negative tumors were similar; however, all HTLV-I positive neoplasms were CD7 negative (P less than .001). In summary, our findings: (1) demonstrate the special clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic features of HTLV-I positive T-cell neoplasms, (2) suggest that most of the rare cases of HTLV-I-associated T-cell neoplasms occurring in HTLV-I nonendemic areas are actually endemic cases; and (3) that PCR is a sensitive, clinically useful technique for identifying HTLV-I associated T-cell neoplasms.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) Brazil: the predominant HTLV-1s in South America differ from HTLV-ls of Japan and Africa, as well as those of Japanese immigrants and their relatives in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Veronesi, R; Menna-Barreto, M; Harrington, W J; Sampio, C; Brites, C; Badaro, R; Andrade-Filho, A S; Okhura, S; Igarashi, T; Takehisa, J; Miura, T; Chamone, D; Bianchini, O; Jardim, C; Sonoda, S; Hayami, M

    1999-08-15

    To better understand the origin of human T-cell leukemia virus type l (HTLV-l) in South America, we conducted a phylogenetic study on 27 new HTLV-ls in Brazil. These were obtained from Brazilians of various ethnic origins, such as Japanese immigrants, whites, blacks and mulattos. We amplified and sequenced proviral DNAs of a part of the long terminal repeats. Phylogenetic trees revealed that all but 6 of the new isolates were not only similar to each other but also similar to HTLV-ls of other South American countries, including those from Amerindians. However, the isolates differed from the HTLV-ls of Africa and Japan. The other six isolates were from Japanese immigrants and were phylogenetically almost identical to HTLV-ls in Japan but different from the majority of South American HTLV-ls, including the other new Brazilian HTLV-ls. These findings indicate that the recent introduction of HTLV-1 from Japan is limited to Japanese immigrants. In addition, the results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that HTLV-ls in South America were introduced by blacks who were brought from Africa as slaves. Rather, these results suggest that the majority of HTLV-1s prevailing in South America have spread from Amerindians, some of whom are likely to have possessed this human retrovirus from the beginning of their settlement in South America.

  6. High prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in immigrant male-to-female transsexual sex workers with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Colasante, Chiara; De Maddalena, Chiara; Bernini, Flavia; Savasi, Valeria; Persico, Tiziana; Merli, Stefania; Ridolfo, Annalisa; Santambrogio, Sara; Moroni, Mauro; Galli, Massimo

    2004-10-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) infections in Europe are limited to intravenous drug users and migrants coming from areas in which they are endemic. A survey was undertaken of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections in 393 recent immigrants: 167 HIV-1 positive subjects (including 52 male-to-female transsexual sex workers) and 226 pregnant HIV-1 negative women. The prevalence of HTLV-1 was 3.6% in the HIV-1 positive group and 0.9% in the HIV-1 negative group. The highest HTLV-1 prevalence in both groups was found in persons from Latin America, particularly those born in Peru (up to 26% in the HIV-1 positive group). All of the HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infected individuals were male-to-female transsexual sex workers in whom the overall prevalence of HTLV-1 infection was 11.5%. HTLV-2 was only found in the HIV-1 positive group (prevalence 1.2%); all of the infected subjects were transsexual sex workers from Brazil (overall prevalence 6.4%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the HTLV-1 isolates were of the cosmopolitan type, clustering with other strains circulating in the patients' birthplaces; the HTLV-2 isolates were of subtype 2a, and clustered significantly with other Brazilian strains. These results suggest the independent origin of each infection in the patient's birthplace. The data raise concerns about the further spread of HTLV infections mainly through the sexual route.

  7. Factors secreted by human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells can enhance or inhibit replication of HIV-1 in HTLV-I-uninfected cells: implications for in vivo coinfection with HTLV-I and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, H; Moriuchi, M; Fauci, A S

    1998-05-18

    It remains controversial whether human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) coinfection leads to more rapid progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in dually infected individuals. To investigate whether HTLV-I infection of certain cells can modulate HIV-1 infection of surrounding cells, primary CD4(+) T cells were treated with cell-free supernatants from HTLV-I-infected MT-2 cell cultures. The primary CD4+ T cells became resistant to macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1 but highly susceptible to T cell (T)-tropic HIV-1. The CC chemokines RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, and MIP-1beta in the MT-2 cell supernatants were identified as the major suppressive factors for M-tropic HIV-1 as well as the enhancers of T-tropic HIV-1 infection, whereas soluble Tax protein increased susceptibility to both M- and T-tropic HIV-1. The effect of Tax or CC chemokines on T-tropic HIV-1 was mediated, at least in part, by increasing HIV Env-mediated fusogenicity. Our data suggest that the net effect of HTLV-I coinfection in HIV-infected individuals favors the transition from M- to T-tropic HIV phenotype, which is generally indicative of progressive HIV disease.

  8. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax1 oncoprotein but not HTLV-2 Tax2 induces the expression of OX40 ligand by interacting with p52/p100 and RelB.

    PubMed

    Motai, Yosuke; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takachi, Takayuki; Higuchi, Masaya; Hara, Toshifumi; Mizuguchi, Mariko; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Terai, Shuji; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Fujii, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative retrovirus of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Unlike HTLV-1, the same group of retrovirus HTLV-2 has not been found to be associated with these diseases. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 encode transforming proteins Tax1 and Tax2, and a few distinct activities of Tax1 from those of Tax2 have been proposed to contribute to the HTLV-1-specific pathogenesis of disease. One significant difference of Tax1 from Tax2 is the activation of transcription factor NF-κB2/p100/p52. We found that Tax1 but not Tax2 induces the expression of OX40 ligand (OX40L) in a human T-cell line. To induce the OX40L expression, Tax1 but not Tax2 was observed to interact with NF-κB2/p100/p52 and RelB and the distinct interaction activity was mediated by the Tax1 amino acid region of 225-232. In addition, Tax1 but not Tax2 or Tax1/225-232 interacted with p65, p50, and c-Rel; however, the interactions were much less than those noted with NF-κB2/p100/p52 and RelB. OX40L is a T-cell costimulatory molecule of the tumor necrosis factor family, and its signal plays a critical role in establishing adaptive immunity by inducing the polarized differentiation of T-cells to cells such as T helper type 2 and T follicular helper cells. Therefore, the present findings suggest that Tax1 might alter the immune response to HTLV-1 and/or differentiation of HTLV-1-infected T-cells via OX40L induction, thereby acting as a factor mediating the distinct phenotypes and pathogenesis of HTLV-1 from that of HTLV-2.

  9. Human T lymphotropic virus types I and II western blot seroindeterminate status and its association with exposure to prototype HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Yao, Karen; Hisada, Michie; Maloney, Elizabeth; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Hanchard, Barrie; Wilks, Rainford; Rios, Maria; Jacobson, Steven

    2006-02-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II) Western blot (WB) seroindeterminate status, which is defined as an incomplete banding pattern of HTLV protein Gag (p19 or p24) or Env (GD21 or rgp46), is commonly observed. To investigate the significance of this finding, we examined HTLV-I/II serostatus and HTLV-I proviral load in 2 groups of individuals with WB seroindeterminate status. Low proviral loads were detected in 42% of patients with neurologic symptoms and 44% of voluntary blood donors. These data suggest that a subset of WB seroindeterminate individuals may be infected with prototype HTLV-I. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated HTLV-I/II serostatus and proviral load in prospectively collected specimens from 66 WB seronegative patients who had received HTLV-I-infected blood products by transfusion. Eight individuals developed WB seroindeterminate profiles after the transfusion. In addition, using a human leukocyte antigen type A*201-restricted HTLV-I Tax11-19 tetramer, we detected virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from WB seroindeterminate patients. These CD8(+) T cells were effective at targeting HTLV-I-infected cells. Collectively, the results suggest that HTLV-I/II WB seroindeterminate status may reflect a history of HTLV-I exposure. Our findings warrant further investigation of the possible clinical outcomes associated with WB seroindeterminate status.

  10. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1: evidence for involvement of cell adhesion molecules in HTLV-1 biology.

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, J E; Subramanium, A; Hampton, R A

    1997-01-01

    While studying the potential role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in infection of endothelial cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we found that VCAM-1 can mediate human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation. Both expression-vector-encoded and endogenously expressed VCAM-1 supported fusion of uninfected cells with HTLV-1-infected cells. Fusion was obtained with cell lines carrying the HTLV-1 genome and expressing viral proteins but not with an HTLV-1-transformed cell line that does not express viral proteins. In clones of VCAM-1-transfected cells, the degree of syncytium formation observed directly reflected the level of VCAM-1 expression. Syncytium formation between HTLV-1-expressing cells and VCAM-1+ cells could be blocked with antiserum against HTLV-1 gp46 and with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VCAM-1. Fusion was not blocked by antiserum against HIV or a MAb against VLA-4, the physiological counter-receptor for VCAM-1. The results indicate that VCAM-1 can serve as an accessory molecule or potential coreceptor for HTLV-1-induced cell fusion and provide direct evidence of a role for cell adhesion molecules in the biology of HTLV-1. PMID:8995639

  11. Heat Shock Enhances the Expression of the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type-I (HTLV-I) Trans-Activator (Tax) Antigen in Human HTLV-I Infected Primary and Cultured T Cells.

    PubMed

    Kunihiro, Marie; Fujii, Hideki; Miyagi, Takuya; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Reiko; Fukushima, Takuya; Ansari, Aftab A; Tanaka, Yuetsu

    2016-07-11

    The environmental factors that lead to the reactivation of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) in latently infected T cells in vivo remain unknown. It has been previously shown that heat shock (HS) is a potent inducer of HTLV-I viral protein expression in long-term cultured cell lines. However, the precise HTLV-I protein(s) and mechanisms by which HS induces its effect remain ill-defined. We initiated these studies by first monitoring the levels of the trans-activator (Tax) protein induced by exposure of the HTLV-I infected cell line to HS. HS treatment at 43 °C for 30 min for 24 h led to marked increases in the level of Tax antigen expression in all HTLV-I-infected T cell lines tested including a number of HTLV-I-naturally infected T cell lines. HS also increased the expression of functional HTLV-I envelope gp46 antigen, as shown by increased syncytium formation activity. Interestingly, the enhancing effect of HS was partially inhibited by the addition of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-inhibitor pifithlin-μ (PFT). In contrast, the HSP 70-inducer zerumbone (ZER) enhanced Tax expression in the absence of HS. These data suggest that HSP 70 is at least partially involved in HS-mediated stimulation of Tax expression. As expected, HS resulted in enhanced expression of the Tax-inducible host antigens, such as CD83 and OX40. Finally, we confirmed that HS enhanced the levels of Tax and gp46 antigen expression in primary human CD4⁺ T cells isolated from HTLV-I-infected humanized NOD/SCID/γc null (NOG) mice and HTLV-I carriers. In summary, the data presented herein indicate that HS is one of the environmental factors involved in the reactivation of HTLV-I in vivo via enhanced Tax expression, which may favor HTLV-I expansion in vivo.

  12. Heat Shock Enhances the Expression of the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type-I (HTLV-I) Trans-Activator (Tax) Antigen in Human HTLV-I Infected Primary and Cultured T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kunihiro, Marie; Fujii, Hideki; Miyagi, Takuya; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Reiko; Fukushima, Takuya; Ansari, Aftab A.; Tanaka, Yuetsu

    2016-01-01

    The environmental factors that lead to the reactivation of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) in latently infected T cells in vivo remain unknown. It has been previously shown that heat shock (HS) is a potent inducer of HTLV-I viral protein expression in long-term cultured cell lines. However, the precise HTLV-I protein(s) and mechanisms by which HS induces its effect remain ill-defined. We initiated these studies by first monitoring the levels of the trans-activator (Tax) protein induced by exposure of the HTLV-I infected cell line to HS. HS treatment at 43 °C for 30 min for 24 h led to marked increases in the level of Tax antigen expression in all HTLV-I-infected T cell lines tested including a number of HTLV-I-naturally infected T cell lines. HS also increased the expression of functional HTLV-I envelope gp46 antigen, as shown by increased syncytium formation activity. Interestingly, the enhancing effect of HS was partially inhibited by the addition of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-inhibitor pifithlin-μ (PFT). In contrast, the HSP 70-inducer zerumbone (ZER) enhanced Tax expression in the absence of HS. These data suggest that HSP 70 is at least partially involved in HS-mediated stimulation of Tax expression. As expected, HS resulted in enhanced expression of the Tax-inducible host antigens, such as CD83 and OX40. Finally, we confirmed that HS enhanced the levels of Tax and gp46 antigen expression in primary human CD4+ T cells isolated from HTLV-I-infected humanized NOD/SCID/γc null (NOG) mice and HTLV-I carriers. In summary, the data presented herein indicate that HS is one of the environmental factors involved in the reactivation of HTLV-I in vivo via enhanced Tax expression, which may favor HTLV-I expansion in vivo. PMID:27409630

  13. Molecular epidemiology of 58 new African human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) strains: identification of a new and distinct HTLV-1 molecular subtype in Central Africa and in Pygmies.

    PubMed Central

    Mahieux, R; Ibrahim, F; Mauclere, P; Herve, V; Michel, P; Tekaia, F; Chappey, C; Garin, B; Van Der Ryst, E; Guillemain, B; Ledru, E; Delaporte, E; de The, G; Gessain, A

    1997-01-01

    To gain new insights on the origin, evolution, and modes of dissemination of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1), we performed a molecular analysis of 58 new African HTLV-1 strains (18 from West Africa, 36 from Central Africa, and 4 from South Africa) originating from 13 countries. Of particular interest were eight strains from Pygmies of remote areas of Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR), considered to be the oldest inhabitants of these regions. Eight long-term activated T-cell lines producing HTLV-1 gag and env antigens were established from peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of HTLV-1 seropositive individuals, including three from Pygmies. A fragment of the env gene encompassing most of the gp21 transmembrane region was sequenced for the 58 new strains, while the complete long terminal repeat (LTR) region was sequenced for 9 strains, including 4 from Pygmies. Comparative sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies performed on both the env and LTR regions by the neighbor-joining and DNA parsimony methods demonstrated that all 22 strains from West and South Africa belong to the widespread cosmopolitan subtype (also called HTLV-1 subtype A). Within or alongside the previously described Zairian cluster (HTLV-1 subtype B), we discovered a number of new HTLV-1 variants forming different subgroups corresponding mainly to the geographical origins of the infected persons, Cameroon, Gabon, and Zaire. Six of the eight Pygmy strains clustered together within this Central African subtype, suggesting a common origin. Furthermore, three new strains (two originating from Pygmies from Cameroon and the CAR, respectively, and one from a Gabonese individual) were particularly divergent and formed a distinct new phylogenetic cluster, characterized by specific mutations and occupying in most analyses a unique phylogenetic position between the large Central African genotype (HTLV-1 subtype B) and the Melanesian subtype (HTLV-1 subtype C). We have

  14. Human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) is in T but not B lymphocytes from a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gallo, R C; Mann, D; Broder, S; Ruscetti, F W; Maeda, M; Kalyanaraman, V S; Robert-Guroff, M; Reitz, M S

    1982-09-01

    A human type C retrovirus, designated HTLV, previously was isolated from or identified in some patients with leukemias and lymphomas of mature T lymphocytes. HTLV is genetically and serologically distinct from any known animal retroviruses. The absence of HTLV proviral sequences in DNA from normal humans showed that HTLV is not a ubiquitous endogenous (germ-line transmitted) virus of humans. Antibodies to HTLV core proteins have been identified in some people with T-cell neoplasias and are particularly prevalent in Japanese with adult T-cell leukemia, suggesting that HTLV is acquired horizontally. However, it was possible that HTLV is transmitted through the germ line of some (possibly rare) families and is then expressed in the HTLV- positive malignancies. An opportunity to study this question was provided by the development of several T-cell lines and a B-cell provided by the development of several T-cell lines and a B-cell line from one HTLV-positive patient with a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Here we report that HTLV proteins or nucleic acids (or both) are found in three independently derived T-cell lines, all shown by HLA typing to have originated from the patient. In contrast, the B-cell line, the identity of which was also ascertained by HLA typing, contained no detectable HTLV protein, RNA, or proviral DNA. Because the sensitivity of the latter assay is more than sufficient to detect one proviral equivalent per haploid genome, the results indicate that HTLV was not transmitted to this patient through the germ line but rather was acquired by infection.

  15. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 tax oncoproteins modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sieburg, Michelle; Tripp, Adam; Ma, Jung-Woo; Feuer, Gerold

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma, an aggressive clonal malignancy of human CD4-bearing T lymphocytes. HTLV-2, although highly related to HTLV-1 at the molecular level, has not been conclusively linked to development of lymphoproliferative disorders. Differences between the biological activities of the respective tax gene products (Tax1 and Tax2) may be one factor which accounts for the differential pathogenicities associated with infection. To develop an in vitro model to investigate and compare the effects of constitutive expression of Tax1 and Tax2, Jurkat T-cell lines were infected with lentivirus vectors encoding Tax1 and Tax2 in conjunction with green fluorescent protein, and stably transduced clonal cell lines were generated by serial dilution in the absence of drug selection. Jurkat cells that constitutively express Tax1 and Tax2 (Tax1/Jurkat and Tax2/Jurkat, respectively) showed notably reduced kinetics of cellular replication, and Tax1 inhibited cellular replication to a higher degree in comparison to Tax2. Tax1 markedly activated transcription from the cdk inhibitor p21(cip1/waf1) promoter in comparison to Tax2, suggesting that upregulation of p21(cip1/waf1) may account for the differential inhibition of cellular replication kinetics displayed by Tax1/Jurkat and Tax2/Jurkat cells. The presence of binucleated and multinucleated cells, reminiscent of large lymphocytes with cleaved or cerebriform nuclei often seen in HTLV-1- and -2-seropositive patients, was noted in cultures expressing Tax1 and Tax2. Although Tax1 and Tax2 expression mediated elevated resistance to apoptosis in Jurkat cells after serum deprivation, Tax1 was unique in protection from apoptosis after exposure to camptothecin and etoposide, inhibitors of topoisomerase I and II, respectively. Characterization of the unique phenotypes displayed by Tax1 and Tax2 in vitro will provide information as to the relative roles of

  16. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I and -II) infection among seroindeterminate cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Berini, Carolina A; Eirin, Maria E; Pando, Maria A; Biglione, Mirna M

    2007-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) seroindeterminate cases have been reported among blood donors (BD) and in at-risk populations worldwide, including Argentina. The objective of the present work was to study the presence of HTLV-I/II infection and its association to specific Western blot (WB) patterns among healthy BD and at-risk populations in Argentina. We analyzed 83 HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate WB cases diagnosed among BD (n = 49) and in different at-risk populations (n = 34) for human retroviruses infections. Multiple indeterminate WB patterns were observed. Out of the total, 13.2% (11/83) of the cases were found to be HTLV-I/II positive by nested-PCR (n-PCR), including 13.2% (11/83) HTLV-I and 2.4% (2/83) presenting HTLV-I and -II co-infection. Most of their serological profiles showed reactivity to gag or env codified proteins. Two samples amplified only one of the six analyzed genes (1 HTLV-I pol gene and 1 HTLV-II tax gene). There was no association between the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and an HTLV-I/II indeterminate WB pattern (only 3 of the 83 samples were positive for T. cruzi antibodies). In conclusion, the majority of HTLV-seroindeterminate WB donors lacked HTLV provirus and was thus considered uninfected. However, when seroreactivity to Env and Gag proteins are observed on the WB and especially in at-risk populations, HTLV infection should be suspected; such individuals should be followed-up and retested.

  17. Production of a monoclonal antibody to a membrane antigen of human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV1/ATLV)-infected cell lines from a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient: serological analyses for HTLV1 infections in SLE patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, A; Katamine, S; Fukuda, T; Mine, M; Ikari, N; Kanazawa, H; Matsunaga, M; Eguchi, K; Nagataki, S

    1985-01-01

    Human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV1/ATLV), which causes adult T cell leukaemia (ATL), is an infectious, lymphotrophic retrovirus unique for humans. The present study was undertaken to determine whether HTLV1 had any pathogenetic role for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The incidence of antibodies to ATL cell-associated antigens (ATLA) in sera from patients with SLE and other collagen diseases was investigated by an indirect immunofluorescent cytoplasmic staining of an HTLV1-infected cell line (MT-1). A radioimmunoassay was also performed to detect antibodies to HTLV1 protein and crude membrane fraction derived from an HTLV1-producing cell line MT-2. Furthermore, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell line (ES-1) was constructed from an SLE patient, which produced a monoclonal antibody (IgG, lambda) reactive to an HTLV1-related cell-membrane antigen expressed on MT-1 and MT-2 cells. The specific reactivity of the monoclonal antibody was analysed by an indirect immunofluorescent cell-membrane staining and a microcytotoxicity test. The incidence of anti-ATLA antibodies was not different among SLE and other collagen diseases. The monoclonal antibody produced by ES-1 stained and killed HTLV1-infected cell lines specifically, but did not react with other human lymphoid cell lines. This monoclonal antibody failed to react with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), mitogen-induced T cell blasts, and iododeoxyuridine-treated T cells from SLE patients. Thus, a possible role of HTLV1 in the aetiology of SLE was not established. PMID:2998659

  18. Levels of serum chemokines discriminate clinical myelopathy associated with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) disease from HTLV-1 carrier state.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, J B; Santos, S B; Morgan, D J; Porto, A F; Muniz, A L; Ho, J L; Teixeira, A L; Teixeira, M M; Carvalho, E M

    2006-08-01

    Approximately 5% of people infected with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) develop clinical myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) that is associated with high-levels of Th1 cytokines, interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Chemokines are known to induce cytokine secretion and direct the trafficking of immune cells to sites of disease. The present study measured serum chemokines correlated with autonomously released IFN-gamma in cell cultures. HTLV-1 infection was defined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by Western blot. Subjects included HTLV-1 carriers (n = 56), patients with HAM/TSP (n = 31) and healthy HTLV-1 seronegative volunteer controls (n = 20). Serum chemokines and IFN-gamma autonomously released by mononuclear cells in culture were quantified by ELISA. Compared to HTLV-1 carriers, serum chemokines in HAM/TSP patients showed significantly increased levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10, significantly diminished levels of CCL2 and similar amounts of CCL11 and CCL24. In contrast, CCL11 and CCL24 were significantly lower in serum of HAM/TSP patients than either control. IFN-gamma was positively correlated with CXCL9 and CXCL10 when HAM/TSP and HTLV-1 carriers were used as a combined group. However, despite a large proportion of HTLV-1 carriers having high IFN-gamma levels, these chemokines were not increased in carriers. This study showed that high levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in the systemic circulation and low serum CCL2 levels are features of HAM/TSP. HTLV-1 infection and Tax and/or additional viral encoded factor-mediated pathological processes triggering T cell activation with autogenous IFN-gamma release are probably involved in regulating chemokine release.

  19. Serological, epidemiological, and molecular differences between human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type 1 (HTLV-1)-seropositive healthy carriers and persons with HTLV-I Gag indeterminate Western blot patterns from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Rouet, F; Meertens, L; Courouble, G; Herrmann-Storck, C; Pabingui, R; Chancerel, B; Abid, A; Strobel, M; Mauclere, P; Gessain, A

    2001-04-01

    To investigate the significance of serological human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HLTV-1) Gag indeterminate Western blot (WB) patterns in the Caribbean, a 6-year (1993 to 1998) cross-sectional study was conducted with 37,724 blood donors from Guadeloupe (French West Indies), whose sera were routinely screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the presence of HTLV-1 and -2 antibodies. By using stringent WB criteria, 77 donors (0.20%) were confirmed HTLV-1 seropositive, whereas 150 (0.40%; P < 0.001) were considered HTLV seroindeterminate. Among them, 41.3% (62) exhibited a typical HTLV-1 Gag indeterminate profile (HGIP). Furthermore 76 (50.7%) out of the 150 HTLV-seroindeterminate subjects were sequentially retested, with a mean duration of follow-up of 18.3 months (range, 1 to 70 months). Of these, 55 (72.4%) were still EIA positive and maintained the same WB profile whereas the others became EIA negative. This follow-up survey included 33 persons with an HGIP. Twenty-three of them (69.7%) had profiles that did not evolve over time. Moreover, no case of HTLV-1 seroconversion could be documented over time by studying such sequential samples. HTLV-1 seroprevalence was characterized by an age-dependent curve, a uniform excess in females, a significant relation with hepatitis B core (HBc) antibodies, and a microcluster distribution along the Atlantic coast of Guadeloupe. In contrast, the persons with an HGIP were significantly younger, had a 1:1 sex ratio, did not present any association with HBc antibodies, and were not clustered along the Atlantic façade. These divergent epidemiological features, together with discordant serological screening test results for subjects with HGIP and with the lack of HTLV-1 proviral sequences detected by PCR in their peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA, strongly suggest that an HGIP does not reflect true HTLV-1 infection. In regard to these data, healthy blood donors with HGIP should be reassured that they are unlikely to be

  20. The role of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-I and II) in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Zucker-Franklin, D; Pancake, B A

    1994-09-01

    Although an association between the human T cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-I and II) and cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) has long been suspected, only a minor fraction of patients with this disease have antibodies to the viral structural proteins. However, the consistent finding of HTLV-like particles in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from such patients has prompted a continued effort to find evidence linking the virus to this disease. Capitalizing on the increased sensitivity afforded by combining PCR amplification with detection by Southern blot hybridization, it became possible to demonstrate HTLV tax and/or pol proviral sequences in freshly isolated PBMC of most patients with mycosis fungoides. These observations suggest a possible role of the virus in the pathogenesis of CTCL, and may impact on diagnostic and therapeutic measures in the future.

  1. HTLV-I Seroconversion Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-25

    AD-A256 058 A_IIiiiliiiiliIl~llill~iTIlllI D HTLV -I SEROCONVERSION STUDY ANNUAL/FINAL REPORT D T I C STEPHANIE K. BRODINE S ELECTE 0CT 061992 AUGUST...IAugust 25, 1992 Annual/Final 15 Nov 87-30 Sep 91 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS HTLV -I Seroconversion Study 88PP8809 63195A 3M263105DH29 AD...human T-cell leukemia virus-I ( HTLV -I), for the purpose of studying the risk of HTLV -I transmission to the active duty personnel stationed there

  2. [HTLV-1 bZIP Factor (HBZ): Roles in HTLV-1 Oncogenesis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Wencai; Cheng, Wenzhao; Chen, Mengyun; Xu, Lingling; Zhao, Tiejun

    2016-03-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus demonstrated to be associated with human disease. Infection by the HTLV-1 can cause T-cell leukemia (ATL) in adults. HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is a viral protein encoded by the minus strand of the HTLV-1 provirus. Among the regulatory and accessory genes of HTLV-1, HBZ is the only gene that remains intact and which is expressed consistently in all patients with ATL. Moreover, HBZ has a critical role in the leukemogenesis of ATL. Here, we review the function of HBZ in the oncogenesis of HTLV-1 and its molecular mechanism of action.

  3. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) in Israeli patients and their family relatives and its transmission to rats.

    PubMed

    Shohat, Michael; Shohat, Batya; Achiron, Anat

    2006-06-01

    We tested the possibility that lymphocytes, sera and saliva, obtained directly from healthy human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) of Iranian Mashhadi origin, as well as lymphocytes from patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and their family relatives (MFR), may be infective. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), sera, PBMC cultured with phytohaemagglutinin A and phorbol myristate acetate, cell-free supernatant from these cultures, saliva cells and cell-free saliva were injected into adult WKA (n=107) and F344 (n=47) female rats. The appearance of anti-HTLV-1 antibodies in the rat sera was tested by particle agglutination assay and ELISA, and positive results were confirmed by western blot assay. Higher titers (1:1024) of anti-HTLV-1 antibodies were found in the F344 rats as compared to the WKA rats (1:256). The PA agglutination test was the most sensitive for the detection of HTLV-1 antibody. The HTLV-1 provirus was detected in both strains of rats infected with body fluids and cells from the Iranian Mashhadi Jews, in various organs (PBMC, spleen, thymus, salivary glands, spinal cord, kidney and brain) by nested PCR. However, the HTLV-1 provirus was not detected in 100% of the rats. The negative rats were only immunized and not infected. The spleen, thymus, spinal cord and salivary glands of the seropositive rats were found to be infectious and to transmit the HTLV-1 to healthy rats. F344 rats infected with PBMC cultures obtained from HTLV-1 antibody positive MF patients and their MFR who were only 20% positive showed anti-HTLV-1 antibodies, but only in 20% of rats without showing the HTLV-1 provirus; these rats were probably not infected but only immunized. This is one of the few studies on the transmission of HTLV-1 to rats by inoculation with human infectious fluids or cells from HTLV-1 infected healthy carriers (42%), HAM/TSP patients of Iranian Mashhadi

  4. Analysis of the T-cell receptor repertoire of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes from patients with HTLV-1-associated disease: evidence for oligoclonal expansion.

    PubMed

    Utz, U; Banks, D; Jacobson, S; Biddison, W E

    1996-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic, progressive neurological disease characterized by marked degeneration of the spinal cord and the presence of antibodies against HTLV-1. Patients with HAM/TSP, but not asymptomatic carriers, show very high precursor frequencies of HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid, suggestive of a role of these T cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. In HLA-A2+ HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1-specific T cells were demonstrated to be directed predominantly against one HTLV-1 epitope, namely, Tax11-19. In the present study, we analyzed HLA-A2-restricted HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific cytotoxic T cells from three patients with HAM/TSP. An analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of these cells revealed an absence of restricted variable (V) region usage. Different combinations of TCR V alpha and V beta genes were utilized between, but also within, the individual patients for the recognition of Tax11-19. Sequence analysis of the TCR showed evidence for an oligoclonal expansion of few founder T cells in each patient. Apparent structural motifs were identified for the CDR3 regions of the TCR beta chains. One T-cell clone could be detected within the same patient over a period of 3 years. We suggest that these in vivo clonally expanded T cells might play a role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP and provide information on HTLV-1-specific TCR which may elucidate the nature of the T cells that infiltrate the central nervous system in HAM/TSP patients.

  5. Neither molecular diversity of the envelope, immunosuppression status, nor proviral load causes indeterminate HTLV western blot profiles in samples from human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2)-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Olah, Ingrid; Fukumori, Ligia M I; Smid, Jerusa; de Oliveira, Augusto César Penalva; Duarte, Alberto J S; Casseb, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Although human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) is considered of low pathogenicity, serological diagnosis is important for counseling and monitoring. The confirmatory tests most used are Western blot (WB) and PCR. However, in high-risk populations, about 50% of the indeterminate WB were HTLV-2 positives by PCR. The insensitivity of the WB might be due to the use of recombinant proteins of strains that do not circulate in our country. Another possibility may be a high level of immunosuppression, which could lead to low production of virus, resulting in low stimulation of antibody. We found one mutation, proline to serine in the envelope region in the position 184, presented at least 1/3 of the samples, independent the indeterminate WB profile. In conclusion, we found no correlation of immune state, HTLV-2 proviral load, or env diversity in the K55 region and WB indeterminate results. We believe that the only WB kit available in the market is probably more accurate to detect HTLV-1 antibodies, and some improvement for HTLV-2 detection should be done in the future, especially among high-risk population.

  6. Telomere Length, Proviral Load and Neurologic Impairment in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2-Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Usadi, Benjamin; Bruhn, Roberta; Lin, Jue; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Murphy, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Short or damaged telomeres have been implicated in degenerative conditions. We hypothesized that analysis of telomere length (TL) in human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection and HTLV-associated neuropathy might provide clues to the etiology of HTLV-associated disease and viral dynamics. A subset of 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), and 45 seronegative subjects was selected from the larger HTLV Outcomes Study (HOST) cohort, matched on age, sex and race/ethnicity. Telomere-to-single-copy gene (T/S) ratio (a measure of TL) and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral loads were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Vibration sensation measured by tuning fork during neurologic examinations performed as part of the HOST study allowed for an assessment of peripheral neuropathy. TL was compared between groups using t-tests, linear and logistic regression. Mean T/S ratio was 1.02 ± 0.16 in HTLV-1, 1.03 ± 0.17 in HTLV-2 and 0.99 ± 0.18 in HTLV seronegative subjects (p = 0.322). TL was not associated with HTLV-1 or -2 proviral load. Shorter TL was significantly associated with impaired vibration sense in the HTLV-2 positive group only. Overall, we found no evidence that telomere length was affected by chronic HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection. That TL was only associated with peripheral neuropathy in the HTLV-2-positive group is intriguing, but should be interpreted cautiously. Studies with larger sample size and telomere length measurement in lymphocyte subsets may clarify the relationship between TL and HTLV-infection. PMID:27529270

  7. Telomere Length, Proviral Load and Neurologic Impairment in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2-Infected Subjects.

    PubMed

    Usadi, Benjamin; Bruhn, Roberta; Lin, Jue; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Murphy, Edward L

    2016-08-11

    Short or damaged telomeres have been implicated in degenerative conditions. We hypothesized that analysis of telomere length (TL) in human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection and HTLV-associated neuropathy might provide clues to the etiology of HTLV-associated disease and viral dynamics. A subset of 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), and 45 seronegative subjects was selected from the larger HTLV Outcomes Study (HOST) cohort, matched on age, sex and race/ethnicity. Telomere-to-single-copy gene (T/S) ratio (a measure of TL) and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral loads were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Vibration sensation measured by tuning fork during neurologic examinations performed as part of the HOST study allowed for an assessment of peripheral neuropathy. TL was compared between groups using t-tests, linear and logistic regression. Mean T/S ratio was 1.02 ± 0.16 in HTLV-1, 1.03 ± 0.17 in HTLV-2 and 0.99 ± 0.18 in HTLV seronegative subjects (p = 0.322). TL was not associated with HTLV-1 or -2 proviral load. Shorter TL was significantly associated with impaired vibration sense in the HTLV-2 positive group only. Overall, we found no evidence that telomere length was affected by chronic HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection. That TL was only associated with peripheral neuropathy in the HTLV-2-positive group is intriguing, but should be interpreted cautiously. Studies with larger sample size and telomere length measurement in lymphocyte subsets may clarify the relationship between TL and HTLV-infection.

  8. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) confirmed by PCR-Southern blot and sequencing analysis in a woman with tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Perandin, F; Cariani, A; Bonfanti, C; Trainini, L; Magoni, M; Manca, N

    2006-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a human retrovirus and the aetiological agent of a progressive neurological disease called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM), as confirmed by evidence accumulated in HTLV-I seroprevalence studies. TSP/HAM is rarely diagnosed in Italy, given the low prevalence of HTLV-I in the population. TSP/HAM begins insidiously in the fourth decade, mainly with spastic paraparesis of the lower extremities and positive Babinski reflex, as well as interfering with bowel and bladder functions. In this study we report the clinical, virological and haemato chemical data of a 54-year-old woman, born in the Ivory Cost, with symptoms suggestive of TSP. The presence of HTLV-I infection was demonstrated by the detection of antibodies in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid by immunoenzymatic assay and Western blot analysis. In addition, viral isolation was carried out in peripheral blood cells, and the presence of HTLV-I proviral DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction/Southern blot and sequencing analysis. According to our results, HTLV-I testing might be useful when TSP/HAM is suspected.

  9. Highly endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection in a Venezuelan Guahibo Amerindian group.

    PubMed

    Leon-Ponte, M; Noya, O; Bianco, N; Echeverría de Perez, G

    1996-11-01

    Sera from 166 Guahibo Indians (55% of the population) living in southwest Venezuela were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassay for antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) I and II. Positive samples were confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Forty-one Guahibos (24.8%) were found to be seropositive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of proviral DNA in mononuclear cell lysates revealed the virus to be HTLV-II. Prevalence increased with age, and sexual contact with HTLV-II-seropositive partners was identified as a risk factor for infection. PCR amplification of a region of the pol gene, utilizing the primer pair SK110/SK111, with subsequent digestion of the 140-base-pair amplification products with HinfI and MseI restriction enzymes, showed an HTLV-II subtype-b restriction pattern in all cases. These data suggest that the substrain infecting this Guahibo community belongs to the b subtype, the most frequent among Paleo-Amerindian populations.

  10. HTLV-3/4 and simian foamy retroviruses in humans: discovery, epidemiology, cross-species transmission and molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Gessain, Antoine; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Turpin, Jocelyn; Mahieux, Renaud

    2013-01-05

    Non-human primates are considered to be likely sources of viruses that can infect humans and thus pose a significant threat to human population. This is well illustrated by some retroviruses, as the simian immunodeficiency viruses and the simian T lymphotropic viruses, which have the ability to cross-species, adapt to a new host and sometimes spread. This leads to a pandemic situation for HIV-1 or an endemic one for HTLV-1. Here, we present the available data on the discovery, epidemiology, cross-species transmission and molecular virology of the recently discovered HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 deltaretroviruses, as well as the simian foamy retroviruses present in different human populations at risk, especially in central African hunters. We discuss also the natural history in humans of these retroviruses of zoonotic origin (magnitude and geographical distribution, possible inter-human transmission). In Central Africa, the increase of the bushmeat trade during the last decades has opened new possibilities for retroviral emergence in humans, especially in immuno-compromised persons.

  11. HTLV-1-associated infective dermatitis and probable HTLV-1- associated myelopathy in an adolescent female*

    PubMed Central

    Steglich, Raquel Bisacotti; Tonoli, Renata Elise; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Pinto, Giselle Martins; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (ID) is a chronic, severe and recurrent eczema occurring during childhood in patients vertically infected with HTLV-1. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesia (HAM/ TSP) is slow and progressive. We report the case of an adolescent female from a non-endemic area for HTLV-1 who presents ID and, most likely, associated HAM/TSP. PMID:26312674

  12. Seroepidemiology of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Infection in Neyshabur City, North-Eastern Iran, during 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Seyyed Khalil Shokouhi; Ghasemian, Abdolmajid; Gholami, Mahmoud; Kazemi-Vardanjani, Abdolrahim; Rahimi, Mohammad Karim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Retroviruses of human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) have been demonstrated to be endemic in the north-eastern region of Iran. This study was aimed to determine the HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 prevalence among healthy individuals in Neyshabur City during 2010-2014. Methods: A total of 8054 blood samples were collected from healthy participants in Neyshabur, North-Eastern Iran. The blood samples were screened for the presence of specific antibodies against HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by using ELISA according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results: The overall seropositivity rate for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 was found to be 6.55% (528 out of 8054) among participants. Conclusion: Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were demonstrated to be at a high rate in healthy individuals. However, a smaller number of asymptomatic carriers were found in this study, as compared to those identified in previous investigations in the city. PMID:26899860

  13. Genome wide analysis of human genes transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated by the HTLV-I protein p30

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John M; Ghorbel, Sofiane; Nicot, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is a human retrovirus that is etiologically linked to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive and fatal lymphoproliferative disease. The viral transactivator, Tax, is thought to play an important role during the initial stages of CD4+ T-cell immortalization by HTLV-1. Tax has been shown to activate transcription through CREB/ATF and NF-KB, and to alter numerous signaling pathways. These pleiotropic effects of Tax modify the expression of a wide array of cellular genes. Another viral protein encoded by HTLV-I, p30, has been shown to affect virus replication at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Little is currently known regarding the effect of p30 on the expression and nuclear export of cellular host mRNA transcripts. Identification of these RNA may reveal new targets and increase our understanding of HTLV-I pathogenesis. In this study, using primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we report a genome wide analysis of human genes transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated by the HTLV-I protein p30. Results Using microarray analysis, we analyzed total and cytoplasmic cellular mRNA transcript levels isolated from PBMCs to assess the effect of p30 on cellular RNA transcript expression and their nuclear export. We report p30-dependent transcription resulting in the 2.5 fold up-regulation of 15 genes and the down-regulation of 65 human genes. We further tested nuclear export of cellular mRNA and found that p30 expression also resulted in a 2.5 fold post-transcriptional down-regulation of 90 genes and the up-regulation of 33 genes. Conclusion Overall, our study describes that expression of the HTLV-I protein p30 both positively and negatively alters the expression of cellular transcripts. Our study identifies for the first time the cellular genes for which nuclear export is affected by p30. These results suggest that p30 may possess a more global function with respect to m

  14. Expression of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) tax/rex gene in fresh bronchoalveolar lavage cells of HTLV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, Y; Katamine, S; Kohno, S; Mukae, H; Hino, S; Miyamoto, T; Hara, K

    1994-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested the involvement of HTLV-1 in the inflammatory lesions of various organs, including the lung. However, the causal relationship between HTLV-1 and inflammatory responses in the organs remains to be elucidated. In order to evaluate the expression of HTLV-1 and its effects in the lung, we examined the expression of mRNA for the HTLV-1 tax/rex gene in fresh bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 23 seropositive individuals, including six patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), by use of an improved method of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The tax/rex mRNA was more frequently detected in BALC than in PBMC. All the HAM/TSP patients and eight of 17 carriers without neurological symptoms showed the expression of tax/rex mRNA in the BALC. IgM class antibodies to HTLV-1 were preferentially detected in sera of the tax/rex mRNA-positive individuals. The detection of tax/rex mRNA correlated closely with the presence of lymphocytosis accompanied by an elevated proportion of IL-2 receptor-bearing T cells in the BALC. Our findings indicate the crucial role of viral expression in the inflammatory response in the lung in HTLV-1-infected individuals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7910532

  15. HTLV-1 Associated Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Yasir; Khan, Ishaq Nasib; Farman, Muhammad; Al Karim, Saleh; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Kamal, Muhammad Amjad; Al Ghamdi, Khalid; Harakeh, Steve

    2016-12-22

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus which is endemic to certain regions of the world and infects around 10-20 million people. HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated neurological disorders including mainly HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis. The involvement of the central nervous diseases occurs among: HTLV-1 infected patients from endemic areas, HIV positive individuals and drug users. The ability of HTLV-1 to cause associated neuropathies starts with the virus crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB), then entering and infecting the cells of the central nervous system. As a consequence, to the viral attack, HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes produce pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha, Interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 6 which further disrupts the BBB. Different serological tests have been used in the diagnosis of HTLV-1. These include: ELISA and Western Blotting (WB), Immunofluorescence, Particle Agglutination and Polymerase Chain Reaction which is used as a confirmatory test. Danazol, pentoxifylline, azathioprine and vitamin C have been used in the treatment of the HTLV-1 associated neurological disorders. Other antiviral drugs (lamivudine, zidovudine), monoclonal antibodies (Daclizumab) and therapeutic agents (valporic acid, interferons) have also been evaluated. No known drug, so far, has been shown to be efficacious. The aim of this review is to present the complexities of HTLV-1 associated neurological disorders and their current ongoing treatment. In addition to discussing future possible therapeutic strategies, by targeting HTVL-1 viral components and gene/s products, for the treatment of those neurological conditions.

  16. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Subtype C Molecular Variants among Indigenous Australians: New Insights into the Molecular Epidemiology of HTLV-1 in Australo-Melanesia

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Philippe V.; Gessain, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Background HTLV-1 infection is endemic among people of Melanesian descent in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Molecular studies reveal that these Melanesian strains belong to the highly divergent HTLV-1c subtype. In Australia, HTLV-1 is also endemic among the Indigenous people of central Australia; however, the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection in this population remains poorly documented. Findings Studying a series of 23 HTLV-1 strains from Indigenous residents of central Australia, we analyzed coding (gag, pol, env, tax) and non-coding (LTR) genomic proviral regions. Four complete HTLV-1 proviral sequences were also characterized. Phylogenetic analyses implemented with both Neighbor-Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods revealed that all proviral strains belong to the HTLV-1c subtype with a high genetic diversity, which varied with the geographic origin of the infected individuals. Two distinct Australians clades were found, the first including strains derived from most patients whose origins are in the North, and the second comprising a majority of those from the South of central Australia. Time divergence estimation suggests that the speciation of these two Australian clades probably occurred 9,120 years ago (38,000–4,500). Conclusions The HTLV-1c subtype is endemic to central Australia where the Indigenous population is infected with diverse subtype c variants. At least two Australian clades exist, which cluster according to the geographic origin of the human hosts. These molecular variants are probably of very ancient origin. Further studies could provide new insights into the evolution and modes of dissemination of these retrovirus variants and the associated ancient migration events through which early human settlement of Australia and Melanesia was achieved. PMID:24086779

  17. Passage of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 during progression to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma results in myelopathic disease in an HTLV-1 infection model.

    PubMed

    Kindt, T J; Said, W A; Bowers, F S; Mahana, W; Zhao, T M; Simpson, R M

    2000-08-01

    Studies comparing functional differences in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) clones that mediate distinct outcomes in experimentally infected rabbits, resulted in a dermatopathic smoldering adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma following chronic infection with HTLV-1 strain RH/K34. During the 3.5 years' follow-up, HTLV-1 skin disease progressed to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. When infection was passed to several naive rabbits, progressive paraparesis due to myelopathic neurodegeneration, analogous to HTLV-associated myelopathy, resulted in one of 4 transfusion recipients. Similar proviral loads were detected in the two diseases, regardless of stage of progression or tissue compartment of infection. Complete proviral sequences obtained from the donor and affected recipient aligned identically with each other and with the inoculated virus clone. Existence of disparate pathogenic outcomes following infectious transmission further extends the analogy of using rabbits to model human infection and disease. Although the experimental outcomes shown are limited by numbers of animals affected, they mimic the infrequency of HTLV-1 disease and authenticate epidemiological evidence of virus sequence stability regardless of disease phenotype. The findings suggest that further investigation of a possible role for HTLV-1 in some forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is warranted.

  18. A Potential of an Anti-HTLV-I gp46 Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody (LAT-27) for Passive Immunization against Both Horizontal and Mother-to-Child Vertical Infection with Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type-I.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hideki; Shimizu, Mamoru; Miyagi, Takuya; Kunihiro, Marie; Tanaka, Reiko; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Yuetsu

    2016-02-03

    Although the number of human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals in the world has been estimated at over 10 million, no prophylaxis vaccines against HTLV-I infection are available. In this study, we took a new approach for establishing the basis of protective vaccines against HTLV-I. We show here the potential of a passively administered HTLV-I neutralizing monoclonal antibody of rat origin (LAT-27) that recognizes epitopes consisting of the HTLV-I gp46 amino acids 191-196. LAT-27 completely blocked HTLV-I infection in vitro at a minimum concentration of 5 μg/mL. Neonatal rats born to mother rats pre-infused with LAT-27 were shown to have acquired a large quantity of LAT-27, and these newborns showed complete resistance against intraperitoneal infection with HTLV-I. On the other hand, when humanized immunodeficient mice were pre-infused intravenously with humanized LAT-27 (hu-LAT-27), all the mice completely resisted HTLV-I infection. These results indicate that hu-LAT-27 may have a potential for passive immunization against both horizontal and mother-to-child vertical infection with HTLV-I.

  19. miR-28-3p is a cellular restriction factor that inhibits human T cell leukemia virus, type 1 (HTLV-1) replication and virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue Tao; Nicot, Christophe

    2015-02-27

    Human T cell leukemia virus, type 1 (HTLV-1) replication and spread are controlled by different viral and cellular factors. Although several anti-HIV cellular microRNAs have been described, such a regulation for HTLV-1 has not been reported. In this study, we found that miR-28-3p inhibits HTLV-1 virus expression and its replication by targeting a specific site within the genomic gag/pol viral mRNA. Because miR-28-3p is highly expressed in resting T cells, which are resistant to HTLV-1 infection, we investigated a potential protective role of miR-28-3p against de novo HTLV-1 infection. To this end, we developed a new sensitive and quantitative assay on the basis of the detection of products of reverse transcription. We demonstrate that miR-28-3p does not prevent virus receptor interaction or virus entry but, instead, induces a post-entry block at the reverse transcription level. In addition, we found that HTLV-1, subtype 1A isolates corresponding to the Japanese strain ATK-1 present a natural, single-nucleotide polymorphism within the miR-28-3p target site. As a result of this polymorphism, the ATK-1 virus sequence was not inhibited by miR-28. Interestingly, genetic studies on the transmission of the virus has shown that the ATK-1 strain, which carries a Thr-to-Cys transition mutation, is transmitted efficiently between spouses, suggesting that miR-28 may play an important role in HTLV-1 transmission.

  20. Short Communication: Failures in Detecting HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in Patients Infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2017-04-01

    Changes in retrovirus acquisition/transmission behaviors have been reported in Brazil, with a concerning increase in HIV-1-infected individuals aged 15-39 years. In São Paulo, HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections have been associated with intravenous drug use and failure to detect HTLV-1/2 (human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2) with immunosuppression and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Negative results for HTLV serologic [western blotting (WB)] and molecular [real-time PCR pol (qPCR)] confirmatory assays have been reported, whereas the best sensitivity has been found for INNO-LIA (LIA). In this study, we expand our previous data by analyzing a group of young patients (n = 1,383; median age 35.6 years) who recently acquired HIV by sexual contact, the majority of whom were HAART naïve, and comparing the performances of four HTLV confirmatory assays: LIA, WB, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP (tax). We confirmed HTLV infection in 58 (4.2%) blood samples: 29 HTLV-1, 24 HTLV-2, 1 HTLV-1+HTLV-2, and 4 HTLV. LIA, WB, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP sensitivities were 94.8%, 82.8%, 79.2%, and 74.5%, respectively. Associations of HTLV infection with female gender (OR = 2.28, 1.31-4.00) and age >40 years (p < .0001) were detected. The results confirm the low sensitivities of molecular assays and the best performance of LIA in detecting HTLV-1/2 in such patients. We hypothesize that the negative PCR results are due to the presence of defective provirus and/or low proviral load circulating in such patients, with inconclusive WB coinciding with the seroconversion period. Corroborating the associations obtained, repeated exposure is required for HTLV sexual transmission/acquisition, which is more efficient from male to female.

  1. Dermatological findings of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Maria E R; Cuzzi-Maya, Tullia; Oliveira, André L A; Andrada-Serpa, Maria J; Araújo, Abelardo Q-C

    2003-02-15

    Dermatological findings for patients with human T lymphotropic virus type 1(HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were investigated and were compared with dermatological findings for a control group. Only xerosis, cutaneous candidiasis, and palmar erythema were significantly associated with HAM/TSP. Histopathological patterns of cutaneous lymphoma were seen in 25% of 32 patients who underwent biopsy, and, thus, the cutaneous alterations in HAM/TSP can be classified into nonspecific lesions, infectious lesions, immune-inflammatory-mediated lesions, and premalignant or malignant lesions.

  2. [Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infection among puerperae in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, 2006].

    PubMed

    Ydy, Ranuce Ribeiro Aziz; Ferreira, Dalton; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Fontes, Cor Jésus Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infection among puerperae in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, is unknown. Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among puerperae attended at three public maternity hospitals in Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, was defined. Between April and September 2006, 3,831 deliveries took place and 2,965 puerperae underwent serological tests for HTLV-1/2: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot. The mean age of the women studied was 23.9 years. The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was 0.2%, i.e. similar to the prevalence observed in the general population of many developed centers in Brazil. This finding of low prevalence suggests that there is still no justification for introducing public health interventions for the population of pregnant women in our setting, to reduce the vertical transmission of HTLV-1/2.

  3. Effect of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in seropositive infertile women on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri Torshizi, Mahnaz; Khalighi, Amir Reza; Fadavi Islam, Mahla; Aram, Rahele; Sabouri, Elham; Khalilifar, Hekmat; Roustaee, Hesam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human T-cell Lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has infected more than 20 million people worldwide. Northeast of Iran, Mashhad, the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province, is endemic for HTLV-1 with a prevalence of 3% among general population. Objective: We evaluated the ICSI outcome in our program for (HTLV-1) serodiscordant couples (SDCs) with the female infected in comparison with control group. Materials and Methods: This study was performed between 2007 and 2011 in Novin Infertility Treatment Center (Mashhad, Iran). We examined 32 ICSI cycles of HTLV-1 infected women in comparison with an age matched control group (n=62). ICSI outcome was compared regarding fertilization rate (FR), embryo quality parameters, implantation rate (IR), clinical pregnancy rate (PR), and abortion rate (AR). Results: Fertilization (p=0.15), implantation (p=0.33), and pregnancy rate (p=0.12) were similar between the groups. No difference was found regarding the number of transferred embryos (on day 2 or 3) and cryopreserved embryos, multiple pregnancies, or abortion rates between the groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the embryo quality and ICSI outcome are not affected by HTLV-1 infection in serodiscordant couples. The major finding of this study is that the outcome of ICSI in HIV-I-infected patients and seronegative controls is similar. PMID:24799857

  4. History and update of HTLV infection in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Jialiang; Chen, Changrong; Gao, Jiamei; Xie, Jinzhen; Rong, Xia; Xu, Xiaoxun; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Fang; Li, Jianbin; Lu, Zhiming; Guo, Weipeng; Li, Guoliang; Wang, Zhongying; Xu, Dongfeng; Weng, Jianfeng; Zhao, Zhijian; Weng, Wei; Li, Haoru; Du, Yong; Li, Song; Zhen, Chaohui; Liu, Baolin; Guo, Tai

    2014-10-13

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection is a high risk factor for lymphoproliferative, inflammatory, and infectious disorders. The epidemiology of HTLV-I, II in industrialized countries has been intensively investigated, and mandatory screening of blood supplies for HTLV-I/II was implemented in mid-1980s in most developed and several developing countries, yet no expanding investigation has been executed in China so far and also been considered as a non-endemic region. However, Gessain et al. reported that the current number of HTLV carriers in the highly populated China is very probably much higher. Therefore, gaining insight into the epidemiology of HTLV infections is essential for avoiding HTLV-induced risk. To introduce the history and renew the HTLV infection in China, we reviewed literatures and conducted an investigation among blood donors in 9 provinces in China. Concluded from the historical and renewed data, the HTLV screen in China can be divided into three stages.

  5. Failure to detect genomic material of HTLV-I or HTLV-II in mononuclear cells of Italian patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic progressive myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Merelli, E; Sola, P; Marasca, R; Salati, R; Torelli, G

    1993-01-01

    To contribute to the undecided question if a retrovirus of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family may be involved in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the presence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II sequences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNAs from 30 patients affected by MS and 15 by chronic progressive myelopathy. Moreover a control group of 14 blood donors was examined. All these patients were devoid of anti-HTLV-I antibody in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid at ELISA. For the PCR, primers and probes specific for the tax region common to HTLV-I and HTLV-II, for the pol region of HTLV-I, and for the pol region of HTLV-II were used. In spite of the high sensitivity of the technique used, the three groups of subjects were negative for HTLV-I and HTLV-II genomic sequences.

  6. Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus types-1 and -2 (HTLV-1 and -2): Implications for blood transfusion safety.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E L

    2016-02-01

    Many countries currently perform antibody screening for HTLV-1 infection in blood donors, and this intervention is likely cost-effective in preventing HTLV-1 related diseases in high prevalence countries. However, a number of high-income countries with low prevalence of HTLV-1 infection also perform universal HTLV-1 screening and debate has arisen regarding the cost-effectiveness of these strategies. Filter-based leukoreduction is likely to substantially reduce HTLV-1 transmission by removing infected lymphocytes, but actual laboratory data on its efficacy is currently lacking. Similarly, cost-effectiveness research on HTLV-1 prevention strategies is limited by poor data on prevalence, transmission efficacy and the cost of treating HTLV1 diseases.

  7. Presentation of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein by dendritic cells: the underlying mechanism of HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Sharrón L.; Schell, Todd D.; Acheampong, Edward; Rahman, Saifur; Khan, Zafar K.; Jain, Pooja

    2009-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of a debilitating neurologic disorder, HAM/TSP. This disease features a robust immune response including the oligoclonal expansion of CD8+ CTLs specific for the viral oncoprotein Tax. The key pathogenic process resulting in the proliferation of CTLs and the presentation of Tax peptide remains uncharacterized. We have investigated the role of APCs, particularly DCs, in priming of the anti-Tax CTL response under in vitro and in vivo conditions. We investigated two routes (direct vs. indirect) of Tax presentation using live virus, infected primary CD4+/CD25+ T cells, and the CD4+ T cell line (C8166, a HTLV-1-mutated line that only expresses Tax). Our results indicated that DCs are capable of priming a pronounced Tax-specific CTL response in cell cultures consisting of naïve PBLs as well as in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice (line HHD II). DCs were able to direct the presentation of Tax successfully through infected T cells, live virus, and cell-free Tax. These observations were comparable with those made with a known stimulant of DC maturation, a combination of CD40L and IFN-γ. Our studies clearly establish a role for this important immune cell component in HTLV-1 immuno/neuropathogenesis and suggest that modulation of DC functions could be an important tool for therapeutic interventions. PMID:19656902

  8. HTLV-1 (Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus 1) Seroconversion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-17

    Sera shipped: 5,267 Sera received, inventoried: 5,267 ELISA Serologies Completed: 5,267 3 Positive ELISA’S: 30 Western Blots : 11 Positive Western Blots ...2 (p24 and p19 bands present) Indetermediate Western Blots : 4 (p19 or p24 bands present) 3 Sera has been drawn and questionnaires obtained from...AD-A206 498 CONTRACF NO.: Project Order No. 88PP8809 TI TLE: HTLV -I SEROCONVERSION STUDY PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: STEPHANIE K. BRODINE PI ADDRESS

  9. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1) Infection among Iranian Blood Donors: First Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Bayati, Maryam

    2015-11-04

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an endemic condition in Northeast Iran and, as such, identification of risk factors associated with the infection in this region seems to be a necessity. All the possible risk factors for HTLV-1 seropositivity among first-time blood donors were evaluated in Mashhad, Iran, during the period of 2011-2012. Blood donation volunteers were interviewed for demographic data, medical history, and behavioral characteristics and the frequencies of risk factors were compared between HTLV-1 positive (case) and HTLV-1 negative (control) donors. The data was analyzed using Chi square and t-tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for the infection. Assessments were carried out on 246 cases aged 17-60 and 776 controls aged 17-59, who were matched based on their ages, gender, and date and center of donation. Logistic analysis showed low income (OR = 1.53, p = 0.035), low educational level (OR = 1.64, p = 0.049), being born in the cities of either Mashhad (OR = 2.47, p = 0.001) or Neyshabour (OR = 4.30, p < 0001), and a history of blood transfusion (OR = 3.17, p = 0.007) or non-IV drug abuse (OR = 3.77, p < 0.0001) were significant predictors for infection with HTLV-1. Lack of variability or small sample size could be reasons of failure to detect some well-known risk factors for HTLV-1 infection, such as prolonged breastfeeding and sexual promiscuity. Pre-donation screening of possible risk factors for transfusion-transmissible infections should also be considered as an important issue, however, a revision of the screening criteria such as a history of transfusion for more than one year prior to donation is strongly recommended.

  10. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1) Infection among Iranian Blood Donors: First Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Bayati, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an endemic condition in Northeast Iran and, as such, identification of risk factors associated with the infection in this region seems to be a necessity. All the possible risk factors for HTLV-1 seropositivity among first-time blood donors were evaluated in Mashhad, Iran, during the period of 2011–2012. Blood donation volunteers were interviewed for demographic data, medical history, and behavioral characteristics and the frequencies of risk factors were compared between HTLV-1 positive (case) and HTLV-1 negative (control) donors. The data was analyzed using Chi square and t-tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for the infection. Assessments were carried out on 246 cases aged 17–60 and 776 controls aged 17–59, who were matched based on their ages, gender, and date and center of donation. Logistic analysis showed low income (OR = 1.53, p = 0.035), low educational level (OR = 1.64, p = 0.049), being born in the cities of either Mashhad (OR = 2.47, p = 0.001) or Neyshabour (OR = 4.30, p < 0001), and a history of blood transfusion (OR = 3.17, p = 0.007) or non-IV drug abuse (OR = 3.77, p < 0.0001) were significant predictors for infection with HTLV-1. Lack of variability or small sample size could be reasons of failure to detect some well-known risk factors for HTLV-1 infection, such as prolonged breastfeeding and sexual promiscuity. Pre-donation screening of possible risk factors for transfusion-transmissible infections should also be considered as an important issue, however, a revision of the screening criteria such as a history of transfusion for more than one year prior to donation is strongly recommended. PMID:26556363

  11. HTLV-1, Immune Response and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Juarez A S; Yoshikawa, Gilberto T; Koyama, Roberta V L; Dias, George A S; Fujihara, Satomi; Fuzii, Hellen T

    2015-12-24

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (PET/HAM) is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). The development of HTLV-1-driven autoimmunity is hypothesized to rely on molecular mimicry, because virus-like particles can trigger an inflammatory response. However, HTLV-1 modifies the behavior of CD4⁺ T cells on infection and alters their cytokine production. A previous study showed that in patients infected with HTLV-1, the activity of regulatory CD4⁺ T cells and their consequent expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are altered. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying changes in cytokine release leading to the loss of tolerance and development of autoimmunity.

  12. HTLV-1, Immune Response and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Quaresma, Juarez A S; Yoshikawa, Gilberto T; Koyama, Roberta V L; Dias, George A S; Fujihara, Satomi; Fuzii, Hellen T

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (PET/HAM) is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS). The development of HTLV-1-driven autoimmunity is hypothesized to rely on molecular mimicry, because virus-like particles can trigger an inflammatory response. However, HTLV-1 modifies the behavior of CD4+ T cells on infection and alters their cytokine production. A previous study showed that in patients infected with HTLV-1, the activity of regulatory CD4+ T cells and their consequent expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are altered. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying changes in cytokine release leading to the loss of tolerance and development of autoimmunity. PMID:26712781

  13. Inflammatory manifestations of HTLV-1 and their therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Martin, Fabiola; Taylor, Graham P; Jacobson, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is one of the most intriguing retroviruses infecting humans. Most commonly, infection remains undetected, since it does not cause obvious harm, yet in 4-9% of patients, this infection can be devastating, causing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and/or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This review concentrates on all inflammatory aspects of HTLV-1 infection: HAM/TSP, HTLV-1 associated uveitis, HTLV-1 associated conjunctivitis, sicca syndrome and interstitial keratitis, HTLV-1 associated Sjögren's syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, HTLV-1 associated pulmonary disease, infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1, HTLV-1 associated inflammatory myositis and HTLV-1 associated arthritis. With the exception of HAM/TSP treatment, studies of these conditions are sparse and even for HAM/TSP, the level of evidence is limited. While control or elimination of infection remains a goal, most therapy beyond symptomatic management is directed at the immune response to HTLV-1.

  14. HTLV infection in HCV-antibody positive patients in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel A; Hernandez, Araceli; Benito, Rafael; Roc, Lourdes; Ramos, José Manuel; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Poveda, Eva; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Calderon, Enrique; García, Juan; Requena, Silvia; Soriano, Vincent; de Mendoza, Carmen

    2017-03-07

    Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) share transmission routes, dual infection could be frequent. In Spain, HTLV underdiagnosis is highlighted by the high proportion of patients presenting either with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) at first diagnosis. We examined whether the renewed efforts for expanding HCV testing may provide a sentinel population that might selectively be targeted to unveil asymptomatic HTLV carriers. The presence of anti-HTLV antibodies was examined in 3,838 consecutive individuals with reactive HCV serology attended during the last three years at 13 hospitals distributed across the Spanish geography. Overall 71% were male and the median age was 41-years old. Foreigners represented 9% of the study population. A total of 50 individuals (1.3%) were seroreactive for HTLV, being 30 confirmed as HTLV-2 and two as HTLV-1 (0.12%). The remaining 18 had indeterminate Western blot patterns. Most individuals with HTLV-2 and HTLV indeterminate serology were HIV-positive, former injection drug users and native Spaniards. In contrast, the two HTLV-1 infections were found in men coming from Brazil and the Dominican Republic, respectively. In summary, the overall prevalence of HTLV infection in individuals living in Spain seropositive for HCV is 1.3%, more than 10-fold greater than in general outclinics in Spain. However, immigrants from HTLV-1 endemic regions and former injection drug users with HTLV-2 infection are by far the major contributory groups in HCV patients. Therefore, testing for HTLV in newly diagnosed HCV individuals would not contribute much to improve late HTLV diagnosis in Spain.

  15. Ethnoepidemiology of HTLV-1 related diseases: ethnic determinants of HTLV-1 susceptibility and its worldwide dispersal.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Shunro; Li, Hong Chuan; Tajima, Kazuo

    2011-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is vertically transmitted in neonatal life and is causatively associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in adults. Persistence of HTLV-1 in host T cells, clonal expansion of the HTLV-1 carrying T cells, and emergence of malignantly transformed T cells are in accord with the multistep model of human cancer and roles for continuous interaction between host genes and environmental factors. This article reviews two lines of HTLV-1 investigation, one regarding worldwide surveillance of HTLV-1 infection foci by serological testing and molecular analysis of HTLV-1 isolates, and the other focusing on genetics of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that determines the ethnic background of HTLV-1 permissiveness and susceptibility to ATL or HAM/TSP. The serological surveillance revealed transcontinental dispersal of HTLV-1 in the prehistoric era that started out of Africa, spread to Austro-Melanesia and the Asian continent, then moved to North America and through to the southern edge of South America. This was highlighted by an Andean mummy study that proved ancient migration of paleo-mongoloid HTLV-1 from Asia to South America. Phylogenetic analysis of HLA alleles provided a basis for ethnic susceptibility to HTLV-1 infection and associated diseases, both ATL and HAM/TSP. Ethnicity-based sampling of peripheral blood lymphocytes has great potential for genome-wide association studies to illuminate ethnically defined host factors for viral oncogenesis with reference to HTLV-1 and other pathogenic elements causatively associated with chronic disease and malignancies.

  16. Transformation of breast milk macrophages by HTLV-I: implications for HTLV-I transmission via breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hodaka; Takahashi, Megumi; Norose, Yoshihiko; Takeshita, Toshiyuki; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2010-02-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), is transmitted from mother to child predominantly by breastfeeding. The source of HTLV-I-infected cells in breast milk has been thought to be T cells, however, the majority of cells in breast milk are CD14(+) macrophages but not CD3(+) T lymphocytes, and no data are available regarding HTLV-I transmission through breast milk macrophages (BrMMpsi). To explore the potential of BrMMpsi as a possible source of infection in mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HTLV-I, an immortalized cell line (HTLV-BrMMpsi) has been established from BrMMpsi by infection with HTLV-I. HTLV-BrMMpsi retained macrophage characteristics and did not express a complete dendritic cell (DC) phenotype; nevertheless, HTLV-BrMMpsi efficiently promoted T cell proliferation in primary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) like DC. Moreover, HTLV-I infection could be transmitted from HTLV-BrMMpsi to activated T cells in the peripheral blood. These findings suggested that BrMMpsi might be an appropriate HTLV-I reservoir involved in MTCT transmission via breastfeeding.

  17. Cellular Factors Involved in HTLV-1 Entry and Pathogenicit

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Hiroo

    2012-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 – associated myelopathy and tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 has a preferential tropism for CD4 T cells in healthy carriers and ATL patients, while both CD4 and CD8 T cells serve as viral reservoirs in HAM/TSP patients. HTLV-1 has also been detected other cell types, including monocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells. In contrast to the limited cell tropism of HTLV-1 in vivo, the HTLV receptor appears to be expressed in almost all human or animal cell lines. It remains to be examined whether this cell tropism is determined by host factors or by HTLV-1 heterogeneity. Unlike most retroviruses, cell-free virions of HTLV-1 are very poorly infectious. The lack of completely HTLV-1-resistant cells and the low infectivity of HTLV-1 have hampered research on the HTLV entry receptor. Entry of HTLV-1 into target cells is thought to involve interactions between the env (Env) glycoproteins, a surface glycoprotein (surface unit), and a transmembrane glycoprotein. Recent studies have shown that glucose transporter GLUT1, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) are the three proteins important for the entry of HTLV-1. Studies using adherent cell lines have shown that GLUT1 can function as a receptor for HTLV. HSPGs are required for efficient entry of HTLV-1 into primary CD4 T cells. NRP-1 is expressed in most established cell lines. Further studies have shown that these three molecules work together to promote HTLV-1 binding to cells and fusion of viral and cell membranes. The virus could first contact with HSPGs and then form complexes with NRP-1, followed by association with GLUT1. It remains to be determined whether these three molecules can explain HTLV-1 cell tropism. It also remains to be more definitively proven that these molecules are sufficient to permit HTLV-1 entry into completely HTLV-1-resistant cells. PMID

  18. Molecular Studies of HTLV-1 Replication: An Update.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica L; Maldonado, José O; Mueller, Joachim D; Zhang, Wei; Mansky, Louis M

    2016-01-27

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus discovered. Studies on HTLV-1 have been instrumental for our understanding of the molecular pathology of virus-induced cancers. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and can lead to a variety of neurological pathologies, including HTLV-1-associated-myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The ability to treat the aggressive ATL subtypes remains inadequate. HTLV-1 replicates by (1) an infectious cycle involving virus budding and infection of new permissive target cells and (2) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. Virus replication initiates host antiviral immunity and the checkpoint control of cell proliferation, but HTLV-1 has evolved elegant strategies to counteract these host defense mechanisms to allow for virus persistence. The study of the molecular biology of HTLV-1 replication has provided crucial information for understanding HTLV-1 replication as well as aspects of viral replication that are shared between HTLV-1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here in this review, we discuss the various stages of the virus replication cycle-both foundational knowledge as well as current updates of ongoing research that is important for understanding HTLV-1 molecular pathogenesis as well as in developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  19. HCV/HTLV coinfection: Does HTLV-1 interfere in the natural history of HCV-related diseases?

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelo Costa; Silva, Carolina Alves Costa; Machado, Gustavo Uzêda; Atta, Ajax; M Freire, Songeli; Carvalho, Edgar; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) coinfection occurs in many regions. However, few studies have focused on the natural history of HCV-induced liver disease in coinfected patients. To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and histopathological aspects of HTLV-1/HCV coinfection in Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 23 patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV. The control groups consisted of 21 patients monoinfected with HCV and 20 patients monoinfected with HTLV-1. The cytokine profiles (Th1 and Th2 cell responses), clinical, laboratory features, and histopathological aspects were examined. The control group for cytokine analysis validation consisted of patients monoinfected with HTLV, and a fourth group consisted of healthy blood donors. No anthropometric differences present between the three infected groups. We observed higher serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV-1 than those in HCV monoinfected patients. The HCV/HTLV-1 coinfected group also exhibited a higher degree of liver steatosis than the HCV monoinfected patients. Results suggest that HCV/HTLV-1 coinfection may result in a different pattern of HCV infection due to the immunologic disorders likely associated with HTLV-1, but there is no clear evidence of the HTLV role in the natural history of HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1967-1972, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Performances of HTLV serological tests in diagnosing HTLV infection in high-risk population of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Fabrício; Santos-Fortuna, Elizabeth de los; Azevedo, Raymundo Soares; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2007-01-01

    Testing problems in diagnosing human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection, mostly HTLV-II, have been documented in HIV/AIDS patients. Since December 1998, the Immunology Department of Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL) offers HTLV-I/II serology to Public Health Units that attend HTLV high-risk individuals. Two thousand, three hundred and twelve serum samples: 1,393 from AIDS Reference Centers (Group I), and 919 from HTLV out-patient clinics (Group II) were sent to IAL for HTLV-I/II antibodies detection. The majority of them were screened by two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), and confirmed by Western Blot (WB 2.4, Genelabs). Seven different EIA kits were employed during the period, and according to WB results, the best performance was obtained by EIAs that contain HTLV-I and HTLV-II viral lysates and rgp21 as antigens. Neither 1st and 2nd, nor 3rd generation EIA kits were 100% sensitive in detecting truly HTLV-I/II reactive samples. HTLV-I and HTLV-II prevalence rates of 3.3% and 2.5% were detected in Group I, and of 9.6% and 3.6% in Group II, respectively. High percentages of HTLV-seroindeterminate WB sera were detected in both Groups. The algorithm testing to be employed in HTLV high-risk population from São Paulo, Brazil, needs the use of two EIA kits of different formats and compounds as screening, and because of high seroindeterminate WB, may be another confirmatory assay.

  1. Triple Therapy with Prednisolone, Pegylated Interferon and Sodium Valproate Improves Clinical Outcome and Reduces Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Proviral Load, Tax and HBZ mRNA Expression in Patients with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Boostani, Reza; Vakili, Rosita; Hosseiny, Samane Sadat; Shoeibi, Ali; Fazeli, Bahare; Etemadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sabet, Faeze; Valizade, Narges; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2015-10-01

    Considering that there is no effective treatment for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, this study aimed to assess the impact of triple combination therapy-interferon-α, valproic acid, and prednisolone-on clinical outcomes, main HTLV-1 viral factors, and host anti-HTLV-1 antibody response. HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL), and HBZ and Tax mRNA expression levels were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 13 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis before and after treatment with 180 μg pegylated interferon once a week, 10-20 mg/kg/day sodium valproate, and 5 mg/day prednisolone for 25 weeks using a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Furthermore, anti-HTLV-1 titer, Osame Motor Disability Score, Ashworth spasticity scale, and urinary symptoms (through standard questionnaire and clinical monitoring) were assessed in patients before and after the treatment. HTLV-1 PVL and HBZ expression significantly decreased after the treatment [PVL from 1443 ± 282 to 660 ± 137 copies/10(4) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (p = 0.01); and HBZ from 8.0 ± 1.5 to 3.0 ± 0.66 (p < 0.01)]. Tax mRNA expression decreased after the treatment from 2.26 ± 0.45 to 1.44 ± 0.64, but this reduction was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). Furthermore, anti-HTLV-1 titer reduced dramatically after the treatment, from 3123 ± 395 to 815 ± 239 (p < 0.01). Clinical signs and symptoms, according to Osame Motor Disability Score and Ashworth score, improved significantly (both p < 0.01). Urinary symptoms and sensory disturbances with lower back pain were reduced, though not to a statistically significant degree. Although signs and symptoms of spasticity were improved, frequent urination and urinary incontinence were not significantly affected by the triple therapy. The results provide new insight into the complicated conditions

  2. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for human T-lymphotropic virus I/II (HTLV-I/II) in Fortaleza (Brazil): a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Santos, Terezinha de Jesus Teixeira; Costa, Carlos Maurício de Castro; Goubau, Patrick; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Desmyter, Jan; Van Doren, Sonia; Mota, Rosa M S; de Castro Costa, Francine Bovy; Oliveira, Ana C S; Barreto, Vania; Gomes, A F; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; de Sousa, Francisca C F; Oriá, Reinaldo Barreto

    2003-06-01

    How to handle Western blot (WB) seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) constitutes a challenge for blood banks and families. We made a cross-sectional study of 191 enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) reactive individuals from the hematological center (HEMOCE) of Fortaleza (Brazil), examining their serological (WB) and molecular (PCR) diagnosis, and demographic profiles, as well as a possible association of their condition with other infectious pathologies and risk factors. Ethical institutional approval and personal consent were obtained. Out of 191 EIA reactive individuals, 118 were WB seroindeterminate and 73 were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. In the PCR analysis of 41 WB seroindeterminate individuals, 9 (22%) were positive and 32 (78%) were negative for HTLV-1/2. The demographic analysis indicated a trend towards a predominance of males among the seroindeterminate individuals and females in the seropositive ones. The seroindeterminate individuals were younger than the seropositive ones. We did not find any association of these conditions with syphilis, Chagas disease or HIV or hepatitis, and with risk factors such as breast-feeding, blood transfusion, STD (syphilis) and IDU.

  3. Animal Models Utilized in HTLV-1 Research.

    PubMed

    Panfil, Amanda R; Al-Saleem, Jacob J; Green, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Since the isolation and discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) over 30 years ago, researchers have utilized animal models to study HTLV-1 transmission, viral persistence, virus-elicited immune responses, and HTLV-1-associated disease development (ATL, HAM/TSP). Non-human primates, rabbits, rats, and mice have all been used to help understand HTLV-1 biology and disease progression. Non-human primates offer a model system that is phylogenetically similar to humans for examining viral persistence. Viral transmission, persistence, and immune responses have been widely studied using New Zealand White rabbits. The advent of molecular clones of HTLV-1 has offered the opportunity to assess the importance of various viral genes in rabbits, non-human primates, and mice. Additionally, over-expression of viral genes using transgenic mice has helped uncover the importance of Tax and Hbz in the induction of lymphoma and other lymphocyte-mediated diseases. HTLV-1 inoculation of certain strains of rats results in histopathological features and clinical symptoms similar to that of humans with HAM/TSP. Transplantation of certain types of ATL cell lines in immunocompromised mice results in lymphoma. Recently, "humanized" mice have been used to model ATL development for the first time. Not all HTLV-1 animal models develop disease and those that do vary in consistency depending on the type of monkey, strain of rat, or even type of ATL cell line used. However, the progress made using animal models cannot be understated as it has led to insights into the mechanisms regulating viral replication, viral persistence, disease development, and, most importantly, model systems to test disease treatments.

  4. Co-infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1): does immune activation lead to a faster progression to AIDS?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent data have shown that HTLV-1 is prevalent among HIV positive patients in Mozambique, although the impact of HTLV-1 infection on HIV disease progression remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the phenotypic profile of T lymphocytes subsets among Mozambican patients co-infected by HIV and HTLV-1. Methods We enrolled 29 patients co-infected by HTLV-1 and HIV (co-infected), 59 patients mono-infected by HIV (HIV) and 16 healthy controls (HC), respectively. For phenotypic analysis, cells were stained with the following fluorochrome-labeled anti-human monoclonal antibodies CD4-APC, CD8-PerCP, CD25-PE, CD62L-FITC, CD45RA-FITC. CD45RO-PE, CD38-PE; being analysed by four-colour flow cytometry. Results We initially found that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly higher in co-infected, as compared to HIV groups. Moreover, CD4+ T Lymphocytes from co-infected patients presented significantly higher levels of CD45RO and CD25, but lower levels of CD45RA and CD62L, strongly indicating that CD4+ T cells are more activated under HTLV-1 plus HIV co-infection. Conclusion Our data indicate that HTLV-1/HIV co-infected patients progress with higher CD4+ T cell counts and higher levels of activation markers. In this context, it is conceivable that in co-infected individuals, these higher levels of activation may account for a faster progression to AIDS. PMID:20028500

  5. Evidence against a role for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I) in the pathogenesis of American cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wood, G S; Salvekar, A; Schaffer, J; Crooks, C F; Henghold, W; Fivenson, D P; Kim, Y H; Smoller, B R

    1996-09-01

    We used a standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/Southern blot assay (sensitivity > 10(-5)) to detect human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral pX, pol, and env genes in the lesional skin of 42 American patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). As in some prior reports using similar methods, a variable proportion of PCR tests were positive (seven of 42 for pX, three of 42 for pol, and two of 37 for env), resulting in an overall positive test rate of 12 of 121 (10%). To determine the significance of these positive test results, we performed several additional studies. D1S80 polymorphism analysis of CTCL cases and HTLV-I PCR analysis of non-CTCL dermatosis controls showed no evidence that positive PCR tests resulted from sample mislabeling, gross HTLV-I contamination, or human endogenous retroviruses. We then modified the standard PCR assay to incorporate ultraviolet (UV) light to destroy low-level PCR contamination. With this modified assay (sensitivity > 10(-5)), only three of 12 previously positive cases were still positive, suggesting that the earlier positives were due to trace contamination of PCR reagents or trace contamination of sample DNA. This interpretation was also supported by: (i) a match between pX and pol sequences cloned from one PCR-positive specimen and the MT4-positive control, (ii) our inability to confirm HTLV-I in any PCR-positive case using genomic dot blotting (sensitivity > 10(-2)), and (iii) negative PCR results when new samples from two of the remaining positive cases were analyzed. Finally, we used our modified UV/ PCR/Southern blot assay to test an additional 28 cases of American CTCL for pX. All of them were negative. Although these studies of 70 cases of American CTCL do not exclude the possibility that another virus is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, they provide strong evidence against a role for HTLV-I. Furthermore, they emphasize the need for special strategies to control for false

  6. Reporter Systems to Study HTLV-1 Transmission.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christine; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K

    2017-01-01

    The retrovirus Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4(+) T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission, while cell-free infection of T-cells is inefficient. Substantial insights into the different routes of transmission have largely been obtained by imaging techniques or by flow cytometry. Recently, strategies to quantify infection events with HTLV-1 improved. In this chapter, we present two different methods to quantitate virus transmission. Both methods are based on measuring gene activity of luciferase with a cost-saving in-house luciferase assay. First, we established a reporter Jurkat T-cell line carrying a luciferase gene under the control of the HTLV-1 core promoter U3R. Upon co-culture with chronically HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, reporter cells are infected, and upon expression of the viral transactivator Tax, the viral promoter is activated resulting in enhanced luciferase activity. However, this assay as presented here does not exclude cell fusion as the mechanism allowing intracellular Tax-dependent activation of luciferase gene expression. Therefore, we describe a second method, the single-cycle replication-dependent reporter system developed by Mazurov et al. (PLoS Pathog 6:e1000788, 2010) that allows quantitation of HTLV-1 infection in co-cultured cells. Taken together, both methods facilitate quantitation of HTLV-1 transmission and will help to unravel pathways required for cell-to-cell transmission on a quantitative basis.

  7. [Exfoliative erythroderma and infective dermatitis in an infant infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV I)].

    PubMed

    Pérez C, Lilian; Villarroel B, Julia; Reyes J, Alejandra; Benavides M, Alicia; Muñoz O, Carla

    2007-04-01

    We report a HTLV-I positive infant, whose infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The infant presented with an acute, severe, generalized eczema, exfoliation and severe erythroderma that yielded to an acute proteic malnutrition and frequent staphylococcal infections, unresponsive to treatment, since the second month of life. Immunodeficiencies from other origin and other causes of erythroderma were ruled out. The histopathology studies and clinical course yielded to the diagnosis of infective dermatitis associated to HTLV-I. A review of the literature is performed.

  8. Molecular evidence of HTLV-II subtype B among an urban population living in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Renner, Jane Dagmar Pollo; Laurino, Jomar Pereira; Menna-Barreto, Márcio; Schmitt, Virgínia Minghelli

    2006-04-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is a deltaretrovirus endemic in Indian populations living in Central and South America, among Pygmies tribes from Central Africa, and epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the United States, Europe, Southeast Asia, and South America. To date only the HTLV-IIa subtype has been demonstrated among Brazilians (Amazon basin Indians, blood donors, and IDUs). We analyzed HTLV-II isolates from 12 individuals living in the urban area of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, identified as seropositive for HTLVI/II in a blood donation. The HTLV-II long terminal repeat (LTR) region was sequenced and compared with nucleotide sequences of isolates HTLV-IIa (Mo), HTLV-IIb (NRA) prototypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the LTR region demonstrated that seven new isolates clustered together with American Indians HTLV-IIb isolates, and five new HTLV-IIa isolates clustered within the HTLV-IIa Brazilian subgroup, named the HTLV-IIc subtype. Both HTLV-IIa and IIb seem to be endemic in the urban area of Porto Alegre, South of Brazil, and could have reached this region via the Amazon basin and the Pacific Coast ancient human migratory pathways. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the presence of HTLV-IIb among the urban population in Brazil.

  9. Serologial screening of human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II (HTLV I/II) in blood banks by immunoblotting and enzyme-immuno assays: to demand or to defeat?

    PubMed

    Kawashti, Maha I Sh; Hindawi, S I; Damanhouri, G A; Rowehy, Nadia G; Bawazeer, Manal M; Alshawa, M

    2005-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II (HTLV I/II) has been recommended to be screened for blood donors since 1988, and it become a mandatory test to get college of american Pathologists (CAP) accreditation. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence rate of HTLV I/II among Arab blood donors, to revise whether is its screening mandatory? Thirty-thousand (30,000) Arab donors along two years attending two central hospital blood banks in Jeddah. Antibodies to HTLV I/II have been screened using enzyme immunoassay (E.I.A) and immunoblotting assay (Western blot). Results revealed zero prevalence rate. Based upon this finding, no potential risk of HTLV I/II transmission among blood donors population exist. As screening for HTLV I/II is still mandatory, it could be done on pools of sera rather than on individual serum samples, after standardization of a pooling protocol, to fulfill coast-effectiveness and reduce the coasts by 90-95%.

  10. Inactivation of p53 by HTLV type 1 and HTLV type 2 Tax trans-activators.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, R; Pise-Masison, C A; Nicot, C; Green, P; Hall, W W; Brady, J N

    2000-11-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-2) was originally isolated from a patient with a hairy T cell leukemia. It has been associated with rare cases of CD8(+) T lymphoproliferative disorders, and has a controversial role as a pathogen. The loss of p53 function, as a consequence of mutation or inactivation, increases the chances of genetic damage. Indeed, the importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor is evident from the fact that over 60% of all human cancers have a mutant or inactive p53. p53 status has been extensively studied in HTLV-1-infected cell lines. Interestingly, despite the fact that p53 mutations have been found in only a minority of cells, the p53 functions were found to be impaired. We have analyzed the functional activity of the p53 tumor suppressor in cells transformed with HTLV-2 subtypes A and B. As with HTLV-1-infected cells, abundant levels of the p53 protein are detected in HTLV-2 virus-infected cell lines. Using p53 reporter plasmid or induction of p53-responsive genes in response to gamma-irradiation, the p53 was found to be transcriptionally inhibited in HTLV-2-infected cells. Interestingly, although Tax-2A and-2B inactivate p53, the Tax-2A protein appears to inhibit p53 function less efficiently than either Tax-1 or Tax-2B in T cells, but not in fibroblasts.

  11. Role of the genetic background of rats in infection by HTLV-I and HTLV-II and in the development of associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Kazanji, M; Ibrahim, F; Fiette, L; Bomford, R; De Thé, G

    1997-09-26

    Three aspects of the rat model of HTLV-I/II infection were investigated. (i) The efficacy of HTLV-I-transformed rat cell lines in infecting different strains of rats: WKY and Lewis HTLV-I-transformed cell lines were injected into adult WKY, Lewis and Brown Norway rats, representing syngeneic and allogeneic combinations. The HTLV-I provirus was not detected in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these rats 18 weeks after inoculation, showing that HTLV-I-transformed rat cells are not suitable for virus challenge in vaccination experiments. Rats inoculated with Lewis HTLV-I-transformed cells produced an antibody response to HTLV-I, which was higher in allogeneic (WKY and Brown Norway) than in syngeneic rats. (ii) The susceptibility of rats to HTLV-II infection: After human HTLV-II-producing cells (MO) were injected into adult WKY rats, the HTLV-II provirus was detected in PBMC 12 weeks later. Sequencing of a portion of this provirus confirmed its identity with the HTLV-II from MO cells. (iii) The role of MHC haplotype in susceptibility to neurological disease in rats inoculated as newborns with HTLV-I: The hypothesis that the RT-Ik haplotype confers susceptibility was tested by inoculating newborn OKA (RT-Ik), WKY (RT-Il), Lewis (RT-Il) and Fischer 344 (RT-I lvl) rats with human HTLV-I-producing cells (MT-2). Eighteen months later, only the WKY rats showed histological abnormality of the spinal cord, without clinical paralysis. Fischer 344 rats developed cutaneous tumors and OKA rats mammary tumors. The HTLV-I provirus was not detected in these tumors.

  12. High levels of CC-chemokine expression and downregulated levels of CCR5 during HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections.

    PubMed

    Oo, Z; Barrios, C S; Castillo, L; Beilke, M A

    2015-05-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are common copathogens among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. HTLV-2 may confer a survival benefit among patients with HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections, along with lower plasma HIV-1 levels and delayed rates of CD4(+) T-cell decline. These effects have been attributed to the ability of the HTLV-2 viral transactivating Tax2 protein to induce the production of high levels of antiviral CC-chemokines and to downregulate expression of the CCR5 receptor, resulting in impaired entry of HIV-1 into CD4(+) T-cells. This study investigated the innate immunity of coinfected HIV/HTLV individuals by testing the ability of patient PBMCs to produce CC-chemokines in association CCR5 receptor modulation. The cellular proliferative responses of HIV/HTLV coinfected versus HIV monoinfected individuals were also evaluated. Higher levels of MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES (P < 0.05) were found in HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfected group compared to HIV-1 monoinfected population. Upregulated levels of RANTES were shown in HIV-1/HTLV-1 after 1 and 3 days of culture (P < 0.05). Lymphocytes from HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfected individuals showed significant CCR5 downregulation after 1 and 3 days of culture compared to lymphocytes from HIV-1 and uninfected groups (P < 0.05). Lower percentages of CCR5-positive cells were found in HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfected after 3 days of incubation (P < 0.05). Levels of proliferation were significantly higher in the HIV-1/HTLV-1 group compared to HIV-1 alone (P < 0.05). HTLV-2 and HTLV-1 infections may induce the involvement of innate immunity against HIV-1 via stimulation of CC-chemokines and receptors, potentially modifying CCR5/HIV-1 binding and HIV-1 progression in coinfected individuals.

  13. Cutaneous and neurologic disease associated with HTLV-I infection.

    PubMed

    Sharata, H H; Colvin, J H; Fujiwara, K; Goldman, B; Hashimoto, K

    1997-05-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paresis (TSP), and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). ATLL has been associated with HTLV-I in the southeastern United States. However, to our knowledge, no case reports of HAM/TSP in association with ATLL occurring in the United States have been described. We describe a 40-year-old black woman with a 10-year history of recalcitrant psoriasiform eruption and erythrodermic flares. Medical history is additionally significant for a 2-year history of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and lower extremity spastic paresis. Polymerase chain reaction with Southern blot analysis was used to detect HTLV-I proviral genome from frozen skin biopsy specimens and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  14. Fine tuning of the temporal expression of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Rende, Francesca; Bender, Cecilia; Romanelli, Maria G.; D'Agostino, Donna M.; Ciminale, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) are delta retroviruses that share a common overall genetic organization, splicing pattern, and ability to infect and immortalize T-cells in vitro. However, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 exhibit a clearly distinct pathogenic potential in infected patients. To find clues to the possible viral determinants of the biology of these viruses, recent studies investigated the timing of expression and the intracellular compartmentalization of viral transcripts in ex-vivo samples from infected patients. Results of these studies revealed a common overall pattern of expression of HTLV-1 and -2 with a two-phase kinetics of expression and a nuclear accumulation of minus-strand transcripts. Studies in cells transfected with HTLV-1 molecular clones demonstrated the strict Rex-dependency of this “two-phase” kinetics. These studies also highlighted interesting differences in the relative abundance of transcripts encoding the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, and that of the accessory proteins controlling Rex expression and function, thus suggesting a potential basis for the different pathobiology of the two viruses. PMID:24032027

  15. Human Immune Response to HTLV-III Virus Infection in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-28

    the study of T cell responses to HIV-1. 2. We generated human CD4+ and CD8 + CTL clones to novel epitopes on the HIV-1 gag protein. 3. We generated a...of T cell responses to HIV-I. 2. We generated human CD4+ and CD8 + CTL clones to novel epitopes on the HIV-I gag protein. 3. We generated a human CD8 ...3 2. Generation of CD8 + human T cell clones to HIV-l gag .................. . . . . . . . 6 3. HIV-specific CD4+ CTL clones to gag protein. . .. 6 4

  16. Activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax increases Bcl3 expression, which is associated with enhanced growth of HTLV-1-infected T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kousuke; Saito, Mineki; Taniura, Naoko; Okuwa, Takako; Ohara, Yoshiro

    2010-08-01

    Bcl3 is a member of the I{kappa}B family that regulates genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recent reports indicated that Bcl3 is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cells via Tax-mediated transactivation, and acts as a negative regulator of viral transcription. However, the role of Bcl3 in cellular signal transduction and the growth of HTLV-1-infected T cells have not been reported. In this study, we showed that the knockdown of Bcl3 by short hairpin RNA inhibited the growth of HTLV-1-infected T cells. Although phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor reduced Bcl3 expression, inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), an effector kinase of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, restored Bcl3 expression in Tax-negative but not in Tax-positive T cells. Our results indicate that the overexpression of Bcl3 in HTLV-1-infected T cells is regulated not only by transcriptional but also by post-transcriptional mechanisms, and is involved in overgrowth of HTLV-1-infected T cells.

  17. Molecular analysis of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) seroindeterminate blood donors from Northeast Iran: evidence of proviral tax, env, and gag sequences.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Delaram Sayadpour; Shahabi, Majid; Talaei, Nasim; Afzalaghaee, Monavar; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Bazargani, Reihane

    2011-02-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) Western blot indeterminate results are a problem for blood banks in endemic areas. To determine the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among indeterminate donors, we analyzed 130 cases from Mashhad, an HTLV-1/2 endemic area in Northeast Iran. The most frequent Western blot bands were GD21 alone (37.2%) followed by rgp46-2 alone (32.1%). We further tested 40 available DNA samples of these cases by PCR for viral sequences, tax, gag, and pol, and found five cases (12.5%) to be positive for two or three HTLV-1 genes. There were no significant age, sex, and blood group differences between PCR-positive and PCR-negative cases. Among PCR-positive individuals, the most prevalent Western blot bands were variable combinations of rgp46-1, GD21, and gp21. The mean of the optical density (OD) of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was significantly higher in PCR-positive individuals. The frequency of the rgp46-1 band was also significantly higher in PCR-positive cases compared to PCR-negative ones. In conclusion, the majority of HTLV-indeterminate donors lack the HTLV provirus and therefore are not considered infected. However, in some cases with higher ODs in the ELISA test and seroreactivity to env proteins, rgp46-1 and GD21 in particular may be indicative of infection and need further evaluation by molecular methods.

  18. RISK FACTORS FOR HTLV-II INFECTION IN PERUVIAN MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    PubMed Central

    ZUNT, JOSEPH R.; LA ROSA, ALBERTO M.; PEINADO, JESÚS; LAMA, JAVIER R.; SUAREZ, LUIS; PUN, MONICA; CABEZAS, CESAR; SANCHEZ, JORGE

    2009-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-II (HTLV-II) infection is endemic in indigenous groups in the Americas and injection drug users (IDUs) worldwide. In Peru, HTLV-II infection was previously identified in two indigenous Amazonians. We examined risk factors for HTLV-II infection in 2,703 Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM): 35 (1.3%) were HTLV-II positive. HTLV-II infection was associated with syphilis, HSV-2 infection, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and older age. This is the first report of HTLV-II in a non-indigenous non-IDU population in Peru. Additional studies are needed to determine if HTLV-II is a sexually transmitted infection in this and other sexually active populations. PMID:16687704

  19. HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot reactivity in a cohort of patients with neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Soldan, S S; Graf, M D; Waziri, A; Flerlage, A N; Robinson, S M; Kawanishi, T; Leist, T P; Lehky, T J; Levin, M C; Jacobson, S

    1999-09-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with a chronic, progressive neurological disease known as HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Screening for HTLV-I involves the detection of virus-specific serum antibodies by EIA and confirmation by Western blot. HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot patterns have been described worldwide. However, the significance of this blot pattern is unclear. We identified 8 patients with neurological disease and an HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot pattern, none of whom demonstrated increased spontaneous proliferation and HTLV-I-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. However, HTLV-I tax sequence was amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 4 of them. These data suggest that patients with chronic progressive neurological disease and HTLV-I/II Western blot seroindeterminate reactivity may harbor either defective HTLV-I, novel retrovirus with partial homology to HTLV-I, or HTLV-I in low copy number.

  20. Comparative performances of serologic and molecular assays for detecting HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in patients infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Costa, Nadia Aparecida; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2017-03-23

    The present study evaluated several techniques currently available (commercial kits and in-house assays) for diagnosing human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/-2) in two groups of patients enrolled at HIV/AIDS specialized care services in São Paulo: Group 1 (G1), n=1608, 1237 male/371 female, median age 44.3 years old, majority using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); G2, n=1383, 930 male/453 female, median age of 35.6 years old, majority HAART naïve. Enzyme immunoassays [(EIA) Murex and Gold ELISA] were employed for HTLV-1/-2 screening; Western blotting (WB), INNO-LIA (LIA), real-time PCR pol (qPCR), and nested-PCR-RFLP (tax) were used to confirm infection. Samples were considered HTLV-1/-2 positive when there was reactivity using at least one of the four confirmatory assays. By serological screening, 127/2991 samples were positive or borderline, and HTLV infection was confirmed in 108 samples (three EIA-borderline): 56 HTLV-1 [G1 (27)+G2 (29)]; 45 HTLV-2 [G1 (21)+G2 (24)]; one HTLV-1+HTLV-2 (G2); six HTLV [G1 (2)+G2 (4)]. Although there were differences in group characteristics, HTLV-1/-2 prevalence was similar [3.1% (G1) and 4.2% (G2), p=0.113]. The overall sensitivities of LIA, WB, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP were 97.2%, 82.4%, 68.9%, and 68.4%, respectively, with some differences among groups, likely due to the stage of HTLV infection and/or HAART duration. Indeterminate immunoblotting results were detected in G2, possibly due to the seroconversion period. Negative results in molecular assays could be explained by the use of HAART, the occurrence of defective provirus and/or the low circulating proviral load. In conclusion, when determining the HTLV infection, the findings highlight the need to consider the blood samples with borderline results in screening assays. Out of the tested assays, LIA was the assay of choice for detecting HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in HIV-1-infected patients.

  1. The Tax-Inducible Actin-Bundling Protein Fascin Is Crucial for Release and Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1).

    PubMed

    Gross, Christine; Wiesmann, Veit; Millen, Sebastian; Kalmer, Martina; Wittenberg, Thomas; Gettemans, Jan; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K

    2016-10-01

    The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells. Here, we report that Fascin contributes to HTLV-1 transmission. Using single-cycle replication-dependent HTLV-1 reporter vectors, we found that repression of endogenous Fascin by short hairpin RNAs and by Fascin-specific nanobodies impaired gag p19 release and cell-to-cell transmission in 293T cells. In Jurkat T-cells, Tax-induced Fascin expression enhanced virus release and Fascin-dependently augmented cell-to-cell transmission to Raji/CD4+ B-cells. Repression of Fascin in HTLV-1-infected T-cells diminished virus release and gag p19 transfer to co-cultured T-cells. Spotting the mechanism, flow cytometry and automatic image analysis showed that Tax-induced T-cell conjugate formation occurred Fascin-independently. However, adhesion of HTLV-1-infected MT-2 cells in co-culture with Jurkat T-cells was reduced upon knockdown of Fascin, suggesting that Fascin contributes to dissemination of infected T-cells. Imaging of chronically infected MS-9 T-cells in co-culture with Jurkat T-cells revealed that Fascin's localization at tight cell-cell contacts is accompanied by gag polarization suggesting that Fascin directly affects the distribution of gag to budding sites, and therefore, indirectly viral transmission. In detail, we found gag clusters that are interspersed with Fascin clusters, suggesting that Fascin makes room for gag in viral biofilms. Moreover, we observed short, Fascin-containing membrane extensions surrounding

  2. The Tax-Inducible Actin-Bundling Protein Fascin Is Crucial for Release and Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1)

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmann, Veit; Millen, Sebastian; Wittenberg, Thomas; Gettemans, Jan; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K.

    2016-01-01

    The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells. Here, we report that Fascin contributes to HTLV-1 transmission. Using single-cycle replication-dependent HTLV-1 reporter vectors, we found that repression of endogenous Fascin by short hairpin RNAs and by Fascin-specific nanobodies impaired gag p19 release and cell-to-cell transmission in 293T cells. In Jurkat T-cells, Tax-induced Fascin expression enhanced virus release and Fascin-dependently augmented cell-to-cell transmission to Raji/CD4+ B-cells. Repression of Fascin in HTLV-1-infected T-cells diminished virus release and gag p19 transfer to co-cultured T-cells. Spotting the mechanism, flow cytometry and automatic image analysis showed that Tax-induced T-cell conjugate formation occurred Fascin-independently. However, adhesion of HTLV-1-infected MT-2 cells in co-culture with Jurkat T-cells was reduced upon knockdown of Fascin, suggesting that Fascin contributes to dissemination of infected T-cells. Imaging of chronically infected MS-9 T-cells in co-culture with Jurkat T-cells revealed that Fascin’s localization at tight cell-cell contacts is accompanied by gag polarization suggesting that Fascin directly affects the distribution of gag to budding sites, and therefore, indirectly viral transmission. In detail, we found gag clusters that are interspersed with Fascin clusters, suggesting that Fascin makes room for gag in viral biofilms. Moreover, we observed short, Fascin-containing membrane extensions

  3. Lack of association of Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1(HTLV-1) infection and rheumatoid arthritis in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, D; Nayiager, S; York, D Y; Mody, G M

    2003-02-01

    In South Africa the association of HTLV-1 infection with myelopathy is well described in Kwa Zulu Natal, which is an endemic area for HTLV-1 infection. Japan also has a high background prevalence of HTLV-1 infection, and a significant association of HTLV-1 infection with rheumatoid arthritis has been reported. This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association with HTLV-1 infection among black Africans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Kwa Zulu Natal, South Africa. A randomly selected group of 110 black people with RA were studied. The age, sex and duration of disease were recorded and a rheumatoid factor test was performed. The presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The integration of proviral DNA in peripheral blood monocytes was also studied using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Control data were available from a previously reported community-based study of 1018 subjects from the same geographical area. None of the 110 patients studied were positive for HTLV-1 infection by serology or by PCR. Although HTLV-1 infection is reported as a possible triggering agent for RA in Japan, we failed to detect any excess of HTLV-1 infection in black Africans with RA. Our findings are in agreement with observations in the USA and Europe.

  4. Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms Affecting HTLV-1 Provirus.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Paola; Matsuo, Misaki; Katsuya, Hiroo; Satou, Yorifumi

    2016-06-16

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with human diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/Tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). As a retrovirus, its life cycle includes a step where HTLV-1 is integrated into the host genomic DNA and forms proviral DNA. In the chronic phase of the infection, HTLV‑1 is known to proliferate as a provirus via the mitotic division of the infected host cells. There are generally tens of thousands of infected clones within an infected individual. They exist not only in peripheral blood, but also in various lymphoid organs. Viral proteins encoded in HTLV-1 genome play a role in the proliferation and survival of the infected cells. As is the case with other chronic viral infections, HTLV-1 gene expression induces the activation of the host immunity against the virus. Thus, the transcription from HTLV-1 provirus needs to be controlled in order to evade the host immune surveillance. There should be a dynamic and complex regulation in vivo, where an equilibrium between viral antigen expression and host immune surveillance is achieved. The mechanisms regulating viral gene expression from the provirus are a key to understanding the persistent/latent infection with HTLV-1 and its pathogenesis. In this article, we would like to review our current understanding on this topic.

  5. Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms Affecting HTLV-1 Provirus

    PubMed Central

    Miyazato, Paola; Matsuo, Misaki; Katsuya, Hiroo; Satou, Yorifumi

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with human diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/Tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). As a retrovirus, its life cycle includes a step where HTLV-1 is integrated into the host genomic DNA and forms proviral DNA. In the chronic phase of the infection, HTLV‑1 is known to proliferate as a provirus via the mitotic division of the infected host cells. There are generally tens of thousands of infected clones within an infected individual. They exist not only in peripheral blood, but also in various lymphoid organs. Viral proteins encoded in HTLV-1 genome play a role in the proliferation and survival of the infected cells. As is the case with other chronic viral infections, HTLV-1 gene expression induces the activation of the host immunity against the virus. Thus, the transcription from HTLV-1 provirus needs to be controlled in order to evade the host immune surveillance. There should be a dynamic and complex regulation in vivo, where an equilibrium between viral antigen expression and host immune surveillance is achieved. The mechanisms regulating viral gene expression from the provirus are a key to understanding the persistent/latent infection with HTLV-1 and its pathogenesis. In this article, we would like to review our current understanding on this topic. PMID:27322309

  6. Serum total antioxidant capacity status of HTLV-1 infected patients.

    PubMed

    Shomali, S; Avval, F Zahedi; Boostani, R; Jarahi, L; Youssefi, M

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) still need further elucidations. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress occurs during infection with the other retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Similar results have been observed in some other chronic viral infections including hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV). In order to reveal possible oxidative stress in HTLV-1-infected patients, we evaluated serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as an indicator of oxidative stress in these patients. Forty-four HTLV-1-seropositive individuals were included in this study, consisting of 12 symptomatic and 32 asymptomatic (carrier) cases. Controls consisted of 36 apparently healthy, HTLV-1-, HIV- and hepatitis-seronegative individuals. All symptomatic patients had HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Serum TAC levels in patients and healthy individuals were measured using a quantitative TAC assay. The antioxidant capacity in HTLV-1-seropositive cases was significantly reduced compared to control group (P = 0.001). In addition, TAC was lower in patients with more than 5 years history of HAM/TSP compared to those with ≤5 years duration of the myelopathy (P = 0.03). Our results show a depletion of TAC during HTLV-1 infection, which intensifies along with the disease progress. This finding indicates a role of the oxidative stress in pathogenesis of HTLV-1. These results may prompt further research to evaluate any possible therapeutic effect of antioxidant dietary supplements for HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  7. Epidemiological Aspects and World Distribution of HTLV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gessain, Antoine; Cassar, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), identified as the first human oncogenic retrovirus 30 years ago, is not an ubiquitous virus. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world, with clusters of high endemicity located often nearby areas where the virus is nearly absent. The main HTLV-1 highly endemic regions are the Southwestern part of Japan, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, the Caribbean area, and foci in Middle East and Australo-Melanesia. The origin of this puzzling geographical or rather ethnic repartition is probably linked to a founder effect in some groups with the persistence of a high viral transmission rate. Despite different socio-economic and cultural environments, the HTLV-1 prevalence increases gradually with age, especially among women in all highly endemic areas. The three modes of HTLV-1 transmission are mother to child, sexual transmission, and transmission with contaminated blood products. Twenty years ago, de Thé and Bomford estimated the total number of HTLV-1 carriers to be 10–20 millions people. At that time, large regions had not been investigated, few population-based studies were available and the assays used for HTLV-1 serology were not enough specific. Despite the fact that there is still a lot of data lacking in large areas of the world and that most of the HTLV-1 studies concern only blood donors, pregnant women, or different selected patients or high-risk groups, we shall try based on the most recent data, to revisit the world distribution and the estimates of the number of HTLV-1 infected persons. Our best estimates range from 5–10 millions HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, these results were based on only approximately 1.5 billion of individuals originating from known HTLV-1 endemic areas with reliable available epidemiological data. Correct estimates in other highly populated regions, such as China, India, the Maghreb, and East Africa, is currently not possible, thus, the current number of HTLV-1 carriers is

  8. The prevalence and significance of HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot patterns.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Anna; Akahata, Yoshimi; Jacobson, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infects an estimated 15-20 million persons worldwide. A number of diseases have been associated with the virus including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-I uveitis, and HTLV-I-associated infective dermatitis. Once it was shown that there is an increased risk for developing HAM/TSP associated with blood transfusion, screening for HTLV-1 among blood banks was implemented in Japan, United States, France, and the Netherlands. This process includes detection by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Western blot (WB) in which recombinant proteins specific for HTLV-I Env glycoproteins are incorporated into WB strips. HTLV-I seropositive results are defined by the presence of antibodies against either gp46 or gp62/68 (both Env protein bands) and either p19, p24, or p53 (one of the gag bands). HTLV-II seropositivity is confirmed by the presence of rgp46-II. However, numerous cases have been documented in which serum samples are reactive by EIA, but an incomplete banding pattern is displayed by subsequent confirmatory WB. Although the significance of these HTLV-I/II seroindeterminates is unclear, it may suggest a much higher incidence of exposure to HTLV-I/II than previously estimated.

  9. The introduction of anti-HTLV testing of blood donations and the risk of transfusion-transmitted HTLV, UK: 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Davison, K L; Dow, B; Barbara, J A; Hewitt, P E; Eglin, R

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the introduction of testing blood donations for antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (anti-HTLV) and to determine the risk of HTLV potentially infectious donations entering the UK blood supply. The rationale for testing was based on (i) evidence of transmission through transfusion in the UK, (ii) the serious nature of HTLV I-associated morbidity and (iii) evidence of infection in UK blood donors. From mid-2002, all blood donations made at UK blood centres were tested in pooled samples using Abbott-Murex HTLV I/II GE 80/81 enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Surveillance data were used to calculate the incidence and prevalence of anti-HTLV and derive estimates of risk. Between August 2002 and December 2006, 106 donations were confirmed positive for anti-HTLV (95 anti-HTLV I and 11 anti-HTLV II). Prevalence was 10-fold higher among donations from new donors than repeat (4.0 and 0.42 per 100 000 donations), and only one repeat donor had evidence of seroconversion. The risk of an HTLV I potentially infectious donation entering the UK blood supply was estimated at 0.11 per million donations (95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.18). The current very low observed incidence and prevalence among blood donors reflect the very low estimated risk of an HTLV I-positive donation entering the UK blood supply. A change in either the epidemiology of HTLV in UK blood donors or the length of the window period of the test should prompt further review of the risk and a reassessment of anti-HTLV testing in the UK.

  10. The need to accessorize: molecular roles of HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 accessory proteins in the viral life cycle.

    PubMed

    Anupam, Rajaneesh; Doueiri, Rami; Green, Patrick L

    2013-09-17

    Extensive studies of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro, and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis.

  11. Cutaneous manifestations associated with HTLV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Achiléa L; de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Paim

    2010-10-01

    Skin lesions are frequent in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and may constitute an alert for the diagnosis of this condition. The most severe skin diseases related to this virus are adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive form of leukemia/lymphoma that fails to respond to chemotherapy, and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH), a severe and recurrent form of eczema occurring in childhood. ATLL affects the skin in 43-72% of cases. In this review, the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of ATLL and IDH will be discussed, as well as the differential diagnoses, giving particular focus to the primary cutaneous ATLL. IDH may progress to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and to ATLL. Adult onset IDH and reactional and inflammatory dermatoses found in carriers and also in patients with HAM/TSP will be considered. Other dermatological diseases that occur more frequently in HTLV-1-infected individuals such as xerosis, acquired ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis and infectious and parasitic dermatoses will also be discussed.

  12. HTLV-1-targeted immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Youko

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a HTLV-1 induced T-cell malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis. There is a long latency period between HTLV-1 infection and the onset of ATL, which indicates the existence of multistep mechanisms of leukemogenesis in the infected cells. Tax, which is encoded by the HTLV-1 pX region, plays a crucial role in HTLV-1 leukemogenesis and is a major target of CTL. We developed an anti-ATL therapeutic vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells that is pulsed with Tax peptides (Tax-DC). The vaccination protocol was completed with three injections at a 2-week interval, within one month. Good quality of life and long-term treatment-free survival were observed for more than 3 years in two of the three patients enrolled in the pilot study. Furthermore, the proviral load remained mostly around the carrier level, with minor fluctuation, after vaccination. Tax-specific proliferative CTL responses were observed in all cases and sporadically augmented responses were also subsequently detected. The Tax-DC vaccine might be a well-tolerated and long-lasting maintenance therapy that is acceptable even for elderly patients. Based on the encouraging results, we are now conducting a clinical trial of Tax-DC vaccine combined with anti-CCR4 antibody to enhance the efficacy of the vaccine as next-generation immunotherapy.

  13. Difficulties in the diagnosis of HTLV-2 infection in HIV/AIDS patients from Brazil: comparative performances of serologic and molecular assays, and detection of HTLV-2b subtype.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Morimoto, Arilson Akira; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Ueda, Luiz Toshio; Matsuo, Tiemi; Reiche, Fernando Vissoci; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2007-01-01

    The current diagnosis of human T-lymphotropic virus type-2 (HTLV-2) infection is based on the search of specific antibodies; nevertheless, several studies conducted in Brazil pointed deficiencies of the commercially available kits in detecting HTLV-2, mostly in HIV/AIDS patients. This study searched for the presence of HTLV-1 and -2 in 758 HIV/AIDS patients from Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Serum samples were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies using two EIA kits (Vironostika and Murex), and confirmed by WB (HTLV Blot 2.4, Genelabs). The results obtained by EIA disclosed 49 (6.5%) reactive sera: 43 positive by both EIA kits, and six with discordant results. WB confirmed HTLV-1 infection in seven samples (0.9%) and HTLV-2 in 21 sera (2.8%). Negative and indeterminate results were detected in four (0.5%) and 16 (2.1%) sera, respectively. Blood from 47 out of 49 HTLV seroreactive patients were collected and analyzed for the presence of env, LTR and tax genomic segments of HTLVs by PCR. PCR confirmed six cases of HTLV-1 and 37 cases of HTLV-2 infection (14 out of 16 that were found to be WB indeterminate). Restriction analysis of the env PCR products of HTLV-2 disclosed 36 isolates of HTLV-2a/c subtype, and one of HTLV-2b subtype. These results emphasize the need of improving serologic tests for detecting truly HTLV-2 infected patients from Brazil, and confirm the presence of HTLV-2b subtype in the South of this country.

  14. Detection of HTLV-I proviral DNA in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Yajima, A; Kawada, A; Aragane, Y; Tezuka, T

    2001-01-01

    'Sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome' is known as an association of sarcoidosis with malignant lymphoma. We report a 56-year-old woman with systemic sarcoidosis who was seropositive for antibody against human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). This patient showed integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA within cutaneous sarcoid nodules, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Neither atypical lymphocytes nor a T cell receptor beta1 gene rearrangement were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in cutaneous nodules, indicating that the patient did not have a smouldering type of adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia. Detection of integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA in cutaneous sarcoid nodules could suggest that the sarcoid nodules might have been generated as a protective response to chronic stimuli of HTLV-I.

  15. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Louise; de Pina-Araujo I, Isabel; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution. PMID:27653363

  16. The Influence of Coinfection on Mood States in HTLV-1-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Gascón, Maria Rita Polo; Capitão, Claudio Garcia; Nogueira-Martins, Maria Cezira Fantini; Casseb, Jorge; Penalva Oliveira, Augusto Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discuss the influence of coinfection on mood states (depression and anxiety) in Human T Lymphotropic virus type 1 HTLV-1-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample obtained through a nonprobabilistic technique. A total of 130 patients in treatment at the HTLV Ambulatory of Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas participated in the research, of whom 63 had HAM/TS and 67 were asymptomatic. A sociodemographic survey and the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories were used. The results indicated a prevalence of 7.2% for HTLV-1/HIV co-infection, 7.2% for HTLV-1/HCV, and 4.0% for HTLV-1/HIV/HCV. It is possible that the presence of a co-infection causes greater fear and concern about the future than asymptomatic HTLV-1 infection, increasing the observed degree of depression and anxiety.

  17. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Louise; Pina-Araujo I, Isabel de; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-09-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution.

  18. Unusual finding of HTLV-I infection among Amazonian Amerindians.

    PubMed

    Barros Kanzaki, Luis Isamu; Casseb, Jorge

    2007-11-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II is a retrovirus endemic in Amerindian communities throughout the American continent, although some Amerindian groups that apparently emerged from the same ethnic root as HTLV-II carriers do not secrete antibodies against the virus and show very low prevalence for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. In this study, sera from 487 Amazonian amerinds were screened for HTLV type I and II antibody by the gelatin particle agglutination assay and ELISA and confirmed by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay. None was positive for HTLV type II. One young healthy male of Waiãpi ethnicity was reactive with HTLV-I and was confirmed by Western blot assay and indirect immunofluorescence test. The absence of HTLV type II infection among these Amerindian communities would suggest a behavior pattern distinct from other groups in the American continent. Also, the very low prevalence of HTLV type I infection among these ethnic groups probably indicates contamination by blood transfusion (external transmission route).

  19. A novel mother-to-child HTLV-1 transmission model for investigating the role of maternal anti-HTLV-1 antibodies using orally infected mother rats.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuji; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Ando, Satomi; Tanaka, Reiko; Masuda, Takao; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Kannagi, Mari

    2017-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that is a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and mainly transmitted from an infected mother to her child via breastfeeding. Such an HTLV-1 infection during childhood is believed to be a risk factor for ATL development. Although it has been suggested that an increased proviral load (PVL), a higher titer of antibody (Ab) in the infected mother, and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with an increased risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), the mechanisms underlying MTCT of HTLV-1 remain largely unknown. In this study, we developed an MTCT model using orally HTLV-1-infected rats that have no Ab responses against viral antigens, such as Gag and Env. In this model, HTLV-1 could be transmitted from the infected mother rats to their offspring at a high rate (50-100 %), and the rate of MTCT tended to be correlated with PVL of the infected mother rats. Furthermore, passive immunization of uninfected adult rats and an infected mother rat with a rat anti-HTLV-1 Env gp46 neutralizing mAb was unable to suppress primary oral HTLV-1 infection to the adult rats and vertical HTLV-1 transmission to the offspring, respectively. Our findings indicate that this MTCT model would be useful to investigate not only the mechanisms of MTCT but also the role of anti-HTLV-1 Ab in MTCT of HTLV-1. They also provide some information on the role of maternal Abs in MTCT, which should be considered when designing a strategy for prevention of MTCT of HTLV-1.

  20. Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infections in Spain: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; García, Juan; de Mendoza, Carmen; Benito, Rafael; Aguilera, Antonio; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raul; Ramos, José M; Trigo, Matilde; Eirós, Jose M; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Torres, Alvaro; Calderón, Enrique; Hernandez, Araceli; Gomez, Cesar; Marcaida, Goizane; Soriano, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 was examined in 5742 sera belonging to consecutive adult outpatients attended during June 2008 at 13 different hospitals across Spain. Overall, 58.8% were female. Foreigners represented 8% of the study population. Seven individuals were seropositive for HTLV-2 (overall prevalence 0.12%). No cases of HTLV-1 infection were found. All HTLV-2(+) subjects were Spanish natives, of whom six were coinfected with HIV-1 and five with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, all but one of the HTLV-2(+) subjects had been intravenous drug users. In summary, this cross-sectional survey suggests that the rate of HTLV infection in Spain is low, and is mostly represented by HTLV-2. Infected individuals are generally Spanish natives with a prior history of intravenous drug use and are coinfected with HIV-1 and/or HCV.

  1. [Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 in blood donors from Misiones Province].

    PubMed

    Malan, Richard; Berini, Carolina A; Eirin, María E; Delfino, Cecilia M; Pedrozo, Williams; Krupp, Ramón; García Plichta, Atilio; Biglione, Mirna M

    2010-01-01

    Human T-cell Lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human oncoretrovirus to be discovered, is the etiologic agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 Associated Mielopathy or Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is endemic worldwide, including the North of Argentina where both associated diseases have also been detected. No etiologic role has been described for HTLV-2, although it has been associated with HAM/TSP-like neurologic syndromes. Both retroviruses are endemic in native populations of The Americas, Africa and at-risk populations. They are transmitted through sex contact, parenterally and from mother to child. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 in a blood donor population from Misiones province. A total of 6912 accepted blood donations in 2008 were analyzed. HTLV-1/2 screening was performed with ELISA and particle agglutination, and reactive samples were confirmed by Western Blot. From the total, 5 samples resulted seropositive with a final prevalence of 0.00072. Out of the 5 positive samples, one was an HTLV, three HTLV-1 and one HTLV-2. These blood donors were residents of Posadas, Eldorado and Oberá, with no risk antecedents. This study demonstrates the presence of HTLV-1/2 in a population of Misiones with a prevalence rate similar to those reported among blood donors from non-endemic areas.

  2. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-1 in a segregated population in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Torkamani, Mahmood; Valizadeh, Narges; Vakili, Rosita; Meshkani, Baratali; Khademi, Hassan; Gerayli, Sina; Mozhgani, Sayed Hamid Reza; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2016-07-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an important health issue that affects a variety of endemic areas. The Khorasan province, mainly its capital Mashhad in northeastern Iran, was reported to be as one of these endemic regions. Torbat-e Heydarieh, a large city Southwest border to Mashhad with a segregated population was investigated for the prevalence and associated risk factors of HTLV-1 infection in 400 randomly selected individuals. Blood samples were tested for the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies via the ELISA method and then were confirmed by an Immunoblot test. For the presence of HTLV-1 in lymphocytes of infected subjects, PCR was performed on LTR and TAX regions. DNA sequencing of LTR fragment was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic of HTLV-1, using the Maximum likelihood method. HTLV-1 sero-reactivity (sero-prevalence) among the study population was 2% (8/400), of which 1.25% had HTLV-1 provirus in lymphocytes (actual prevalence). HTLV-1 infection was significantly associated with the age, marital status, and history of blood transfusion (P < 0.05). However, there were no statistical differences between HTLV-1 infection, and gender, surgery, and hospitalization. In regression analysis, age showed the most significant correlation with the infection (P = 0.006, OR = 4.33). Based on our phylogenetic study, the HTLV-1 prevalent sequence type of Torbat-e Heydarieh belongs to the cosmopolitan subtype A. HTLV-1 prevalence in Torbat-e Heydarieh (1.25%) is low comparing to those of both Mashhad (2-3%) and Neishabour (3.5-5%) in the province of Khorasan. Thus, traveling mobility and population mixing such as marriage, bureaucratic affairs, occupation, and economic activities could be the usual routs of HTLV-1 new wave of spreading in this segregated city.

  3. High Prevalence of HTLV-1 Infection among Japanese Immigrants in Non-endemic Area of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira, Larissa M.; Uehara, Silvia N. O.; Asato, Marcel A.; Aguena, Gabriela S.; Maedo, Cristiane M.; Benites, Nikolas H.; Puga, Marco A. M.; Rezende, Grazielli R.; Finotti, Carolina M.; Cesar, Gabriela A.; Tanaka, Tayana S. O.; Castro, Vivianne O. L.; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana C. P.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Motta-Castro, Ana R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has worldwide distribution and is considered endemic in many world regions, including southwestern Japan and Brazil. Japanese immigrants and their descendants have a high risk of acquiring this infection due to intense population exchange between Brazil and Japan. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV, analyze the main risk factors associated with this infection, identify the main circulating types and subtypes of HTLV in Japanese immigrants and descendants living in Campo Grande-MS (Middle-West Brazil), as well as analyze the phylogenetic relationship among isolates of HTLV. Study Design A total of 219 individuals were interviewed and submitted to blood collection. All collected blood samples were submitted for detection of anti-HTLV-1/2 using the immunoassay ELISA and confirmed by immunoblot method. The proviral DNA of the 14 samples HTLV- 1 positive were genotyped by nucleotide sequencing. Results The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 6.8% (IC 95%: 3,5-10,2). Descriptive analysis of behavioral risk factors showed statistical association between HTLV-1 and age greater than or equal to 45 years. The proviral DNA of HTLV-1 was detected in all HTLV-1 positive samples. Of these, 14 were sequenced and classified as Cosmopolitan subtype, and 50% (7/14) belonged to subgroup A (transcontinental) and 50% (7/14) to the subgroup B (Japanese). Conclusion The high prevalence of HTLV-1 found evidence of the importance of early diagnosis and counseling of individuals infected with HTLV-1 for the control and prevention of the spread of this infection among Japanese immigrants and their descendants in Central Brazil. PMID:25886507

  4. HTLV-1 uses HSPG and neuropilin-1 for entry by molecular mimicry of VEGF165

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sophie; Bouttier, Manuella; Vassy, Roger; Seigneuret, Michel; Petrow-Sadowski, Cari; Janvier, Sébastien; Heveker, Nikolaus; Ruscetti, Francis W.; Perret, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) entry involves the interaction between the surface (SU) subunit of the Env proteins and cellular receptor(s). Previously, our laboratories demonstrated that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a receptor of VEGF165, are essential for HTLV-1 entry. Here we investigated whether, as when binding VEGF165, HSPGs and NRP-1 work in concert during HTLV-1 entry. VEGF165 binds to the b domain of NRP-1 through both HSPG-dependent and -independent interactions, the latter involving its exon 8. We show that VEGF165 is a selective competitor of HTLV-1 entry and that HTLV-1 mimics VEGF165 to recruit HSPGs and NRP-1: (1) the NRP-1 b domain is required for HTLV-1 binding; (2) SU binding to target cells is blocked by the HSPG-binding domain of VEGF165; (3) the formation of Env/NRP-1 complexes is enhanced by HSPGs; and (4) the HTLV SU contains a motif homologous to VEGF165 exon 8. This motif directly binds to NRP-1 and is essential for HTLV-1 binding to, internalization into, and infection of CD4+ T cells and dendritic cells. These findings demonstrate that HSPGs and NRP-1 function as HTLV-1 receptors in a cooperative manner and reveal an unexpected mimicry mechanism that may have major implications in vivo. PMID:19270265

  5. Primary Sjögren's syndrome with antibodies to HTLV-I: clinical and laboratory features.

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, K; Matsuoka, N; Ida, H; Nakashima, M; Sakai, M; Sakito, S; Kawakami, A; Terada, K; Shimada, H; Kawabe, Y

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) was studied in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Thirteen of 36 serum samples were positive by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and particle agglutination assay for antibodies to HTLV-I and were confirmed by western blotting. The presence of antibodies to HTLV-I may signify an HTLV-I carrier state. These patients had a high occurrence of extraglandular manifestations such as uveitis, myopathy, and recurrent high fever compared with patients who did not have antibodies to HTLV-I. Patients with antibodies to HTLV-I had an increased spontaneous proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with those without the antibodies. The proportions of activated and memory T cells (HLA-DR+ CD3+, CD25+ CD3+, and CD29+ CD4+ cells) were higher in HTLV-I carriers than in non-carriers. The presence of antibodies to HTLV-I in some patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome suggests that HTLV-I may cause primary Sjögren's syndrome or its extraglandular manifestations, or both. Images PMID:1352097

  6. Sylvatic HTLV Related Viruses in South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-11

    a Protein A ELISA test for HIVl. The positive specimens included the genera Alouatta , Aotus, Ateles, Cebus and Snguinus. Fourteen of 30 ELISA 20...Amazon basin were positive by a protein A ELISA test for HIVI. The positive specimens included the genera Alouatta , Aotus, Ateles, Cebus and Sanguinus...all Alouatta belzebub (Howler monkeys). ELISA Tests on Human Sera. HTLV-I ELISA tests used commercially avaeilble kits from either Cellular Products

  7. Integrating an HTLV-III Screening Program into a Community Based Family Health Service Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Walter W.; Henshaw, Beverly

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become one of the most serious epidemic disease problems in recent years. In 1985 the Public Health Service recommended establishment of test sites where individuals might be tested for Human T Lymphotropic Virus III (HTLV-III) antibody. An HTLV-III antibody screening program was integrated into a…

  8. Complex role of microRNAs in HTLV-1 infections

    PubMed Central

    Sampey, Gavin C.; Van Duyne, Rachel; Currer, Robert; Das, Ravi; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus to be discovered and is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the neurodegenerative disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The importance of microRNA (miRNA) in the replicative cycle of several other viruses, as well as in the progression of associated pathologies, has been well established in the past decade. Moreover, involvement of miRNA alteration in the HTLV-1 life cycle, and in the progression of its related oncogenic and neurodegenerative diseases, has recently come to light. Several HTLV-1 derived proteins alter transcription factor functionalities, interact with chromatin remodelers, or manipulate components of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, thereby establishing various routes by which miRNA expression can be up- or down-regulated in the host cell. Furthermore, the mechanism of action through which dysregulation of host miRNAs affects HTLV-1 infected cells can vary substantially and include mRNA silencing via the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), transcriptional gene silencing, inhibition of RNAi components, and chromatin remodeling. These miRNA-induced changes can lead to increased cell survival, invasiveness, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as allow for viral latency. While many recent studies have successfully implicated miRNAs in the life cycle and pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infections, there are still significant outstanding questions to be addressed. Here we will review recent discoveries elucidating HTLV-1 mediated manipulation of host cell miRNA profiles and examine the impact on pathogenesis, as well as explore future lines of inquiry that could increase understanding in this field of study. PMID:23251140

  9. Novel interactions between the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 and the NFAR protein family: Implications for the HTLV lifecycles

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jane; Hall, William W.; Ratner, Lee; Sheehy, Noreen

    2016-07-15

    The human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2) antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 play key roles in the HTLV lifecycles and persistence in the host. Nuclear Factors Associated with double-stranded RNA (NFAR) proteins NF90/110 function in the lifecycles of several viruses and participate in host innate immunity against infection and oncogenesis. Using GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate specific novel interactions between HBZ/APH-2 and NF90/110 and characterised the protein domains involved. Moreover we show that NF90/110 significantly enhance Tax mediated LTR activation, an effect that was abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. Additionally we found that HBZ and APH-2 modulate the promoter activity of survivin and are capable of antagonising NF110-mediated survivin activation. Thus interactions between HTLV antisense proteins and the NFAR protein family have an overall positive impact on HTLV infection. Hence NFARs may represent potential therapeutic targets in HTLV infected cells. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates for the first time interactions between NF90/110 and the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2. • We show that NF90/110 significantly enhance LTR activation by the HTLV Tax protein, an effect that is abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. • The study shows that even though the HTLV antisense proteins activate survivin expression they antagonize the ability of NF90/110 to do so. • Overall we found that NF90/110 positively regulate HTLV infection and as such might represent a therapeutic target in infected cells.

  10. SEROPREVALENCE OF HTLV IN A POPULATION OF HIV1-INFECTED PATIENTS IN MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    KOZLOWSKI, Aline Garcia; de MATOS, Márcia Alves Dias; CARNEIRO, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; LOPES, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; TELES, Sheila Araújo; VICENTE, Carolina Paulo; MARTINS, Regina Maria Bringel

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) may affect the clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV1). Both infections are common in endemic areas because these viruses share similar routes of transmission. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV1/2 in a population of HIV1-infected patients in the state of Goiás, Midwestern Brazil. Of the 505 studied patients, four (0.79%) were positive for anti-HTLV1/2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with HTLV1 infection confirmed by line immunoassay (LIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all of the ELISA-positive samples. No cases of HTLV2 infection were observed. The prevalence of HTLV1/HIV1 coinfection was 0.79% (4/505; 95% CI: 0.25-2.16). All the coinfected patients reported sexual risk behaviors and only one reported intravenous drug use. Sequencing of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) region and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four HTLV1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental a subgroup of the Cosmopolitan (1a) subtype, the most frequent subgroup detected in Brazil. This study shows a low prevalence of HTLV1/2 in HIV1-infected patients in Midwestern Brazil. PMID:27828621

  11. Lookback study of HTLV-1 and 2 seropositive donors and their recipients in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Namen-Lopes, M S S; Martins, M L; Drummond, P C; Lobato, R R; Carneiro-Proietti, A B F

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform lookback study in recipients of blood components from human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) seropositive donors. HTLV-1/2 may be transmitted by blood transfusion. Brazil is an endemic area for the virus and its screening in blood donors is mandatory since 1993. Hemominas Foundation (HF) is the public transfusion centre in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data on HTLV-1/2 seropositive donors and recipients from 1993 to 2004 were obtained at HF and 24 contracting hospitals. From 1993 to 2004, HTLV-1/2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed in 918 678 donations of approximately 422 600 blood donor candidates. Of these, 456 donors (0.1%) were reactive and confirmed by Western blot (WB): 449 HTLV-1 and 7 HTLV-2. Sixty-six (14.5%) were repeat donors and had 194 blood cellular components produced from their previous donations. Of the distributed components, 119/146 (81.5%) had the recipient traced, with a total of 114 individuals. Of these, only 13 recipients were tested: six (46%) were HTLV-1 positive (four recipients of red cell units, two of platelets) and seven (54%) were negative (six of red cell units and one of platelets). Eleven did not respond and 62/114 (54.0%) were deceased. Another 28/114 (25.0%) could not be located. All six seropositive HTLV-1 recipients identified had no symptoms suggestive of HTLV-1-associated diseases. Acellular components, when used alone, were not associated with HTLV seropositivity. HTLV-1 transmission by cellular blood components occurred before screening for the virus was introduced. Haemovigilance was difficult to perform due to unavailability of computer systems before 1999 and to inadequate medical records at hospitals.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christine; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K

    2016-03-09

    The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4⁺ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8⁺ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4⁺ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1) polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2) cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4⁺ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation.

  13. HTLV-I and Apoptosis: Role in Cellular Transformation and Recent Advances in Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John M.; Nicot, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    A universal cellular defense mechanism against viral invasion is the elimination of infected cells through apoptotic cell death. To counteract host defenses many viruses have evolved complex apoptosis evasion strategies. The oncogenic human retrovirus HTLV-I is the etiological agent of adult-T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and the neurodegenerative disease known as HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The poor prognosis in HTLV-I-induced ATLL is linked to the resistance of neoplastic T cells against conventional therapies and the immunocompromised state of patients. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that the apoptotic pathway is largely intact and can be reactivated in ATLL tumor cells to induce specific killing. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms employed by HTLV-I to counteract cellular death pathways remains an important challenge for future therapies and the treatment of HTLV-I-associated diseases. PMID:18421579

  14. Expression of HTLV-1 Genes in T-Cells Using RNA Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Manicone, Mariangela; Rende, Francesca; Cavallari, Ilaria; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K; Ciminale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects about 20 million people world-wide. Around 5% of the infected individuals develop adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) or a neurological disease termed tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) after a clinical latency of years to decades. Through the use of two promoters and alternative splicing HTLV-1 expresses at least 12 different proteins. HTLV-1 establishes a life-long persistent infection by inducing the clonal expansion of infected cells, a property largely ascribed to the viral genes Tax and HBZ. However, the fact that ATL arises in a minority of infected individuals after a long clinical latency suggests the existence of factors counterbalancing the oncogenic potential of HTLV-1 in the context of natural infection.To study the role of the different HTLV-1 gene products in the HTLV-1 life cycle, we optimized a transfection protocol for primary T-cells using an approach based on the electroporation of in vitro-transcribed RNA. Results showed that the RNA transfection technique combines a high transfection efficiency with low toxicity, not only in Jurkat T-cells but also in primary T-cells. These findings suggest that RNA electroporation is preferable for experiments aimed at investigating the role of HTLV-1 gene products in the context of primary T-cells, which represent the main target of HTLV-1 in vivo.

  15. No evidence of HTLV-I infection in patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk, M; Filas, V; Sobieska, M; Gozdzicka-Józefiak, A; Wiktorowicz, K; Breborowicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The involvement of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in the etiology of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) is still controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of HTLV-I in the pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS) in Polish patients. The studied group consisted of 42 patients with MF, 5 with SS and 25 with chronic dermatitis. DNA was extracted from snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded skin biopsies and from peripheral blood. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR or nested PCR) was carried out for amplification of different regions of HTLV-I genome. Primer sets flanking pX, p 19, U5, tax and pol genes were used in the investigation. The presence of HTLV-I antibody was examined in 46 sera samples with the use of anti-HTLV-I/II EIA test. HTLV-I antibodies were not detected in any collected sera samples. PCR with two primer sets homologous to the pX region of HTLV-I showed negative results in all samples investigated. To confirm these results two other primer pairs specific for U5 and gag regions were designed. With these primer pairs no PCR product, except that in positive control, was observed. For more sensitive amplification a nested-PCR with pol and tax specific primers was performed. HTLV-I probably does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of MF in Polish patients.

  16. Modulation of apoptosis during HTLV-1-mediated immortalization process in vitro.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Claudia; Balestrieri, Emanuela; Macchi, Beatrice; Mastino, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    Suppression of apoptosis has been proposed as a mechanism involved in the transforming action of human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). However, there is evidence that HTLV-1 and its protein Tax also induce apoptosis. To resolve this apparent paradox, apoptosis was monitored in primary cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from healthy donors, following HTLV-1 infection in vitro. High levels of apoptosis in HTLV-1 infected cultures during the first weeks after infection were detected. Apoptosis was not related to the presence of uninfected cells, as revealed by a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. Successively, a progressive decrease in apoptosis in infected cultures going towards immortalization, was observed. When IL-2 in the medium was replaced by IL-4, allowing the cells to be efficiently infected by HTLV-1 but not immortalized, apoptosis levels tended to increase, instead of decreasing, with the ongoing time. The caspase cascade was remarkably activated in PBLs recently infected in vitro by HTLV-1, but apoptosis was only partly reduced by caspase inhibitors. Even if spontaneous apoptosis was relatively low in long-term cultures of PBLs immortalized by HTLV-1 in vitro, Fas death-receptor expression and function were well conserved. These observations provide a new rationale for explaining the dual effect of HTLV-1 in controlling apoptosis.

  17. [Adult HTLV-I positive leukemia-lymphoma in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gioseffi, O N; Nucifora, E; Fantl, D; Dufour, C; Milone, J; Di Paolo, H

    1995-10-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP/HAM) in endemic and non-endemic areas. Serological studies have shown that HTLV-I is prevalent in some Latin American countries such as Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Perú and Uruguay. We describe here the clinical and laboratory features of five cases of ATLL diagnosed in Argentina. All patients (4 males, 1 female; median age 48.2 years) were of caucasian origin; 4 born in Argentina and 1 in Chile. High risk factors for HTLV-I infection were not apparent in Argentina patients, whereas the Chilean resident, who was a promiscuous heterosexual, travelled through Chile frequently. Positive results for antibodies to HTLV-I were detected in all five cases and in some of their relatives. This report suggests that HTLV-I infection may be endemic in, Argentina where TSP has also been described.

  18. Trends in the prevalence and distribution of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although most HTLV infections in Spain have been found in native intravenous drug users carrying HTLV-2, the large immigration flows from Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa in recent years may have changed the prevalence and distribution of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections, and hypothetically open the opportunity for introducing HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 in Spain. To assess the current seroprevalence of HTLV infection in Spain a national multicenter, cross-sectional, study was conducted in June 2009. Results A total of 6,460 consecutive outpatients attending 16 hospitals were examined. Overall, 12% were immigrants, and their main origin was Latin America (4.9%), Africa (3.6%) and other European countries (2.8%). Nine individuals were seroreactive for HTLV antibodies (overall prevalence, 0.14%). Evidence of HTLV-1 infection was confirmed by Western blot in 4 subjects (prevalence 0.06%) while HTLV-2 infection was found in 5 (prevalence 0.08%). Infection with HTLV types 1, 2, 3 and 4 was discarded by Western blot and specific PCR assays in another two specimens initially reactive in the enzyme immunoassay. All but one HTLV-1 cases were Latin-Americans while all persons with HTLV-2 infection were native Spaniards. Conclusions The overall prevalence of HTLV infections in Spain remains low, with no evidence of HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 infections so far. PMID:22444832

  19. HTLV-I Seroconversion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Participants were primarily young caucasion males. Of the 28 screen possitive samples, three/ (.06%) were confirmed positive for HTLV -I by Western Blot analysis...his HTLV -I seropositive Okinawan spouse showed weak reactivity to p19 and p21E only on Western Blot and gp46 on radioimmunoprecipitation. On a sample...obtained 20 months after this sample at the time of the cross-sectional survey Western Blot was strongly positive for the core p24 antibody. These

  20. Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 mimics common eczemas in children and may be a prelude to severe systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hlela, Carol; Bittencourt, Achiléa

    2014-04-01

    Infective dermatitis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) (IDH) is a chronic dermatitis that has been observed in a variable proportion of HTLV-1-infected children. IDH may serve as an early clinical marker for HTLV-1 infection and an indicator of increased risk for developing other HTLV-1-associated conditions. Factors that lead only some infected children to develop IDH are poorly understood. The variable clinical presentation of IDH, in particular its chronicity, the morphology and distribution of the lesions, and its clinical resemblance to other cutaneous inflammatory conditions, make it necessary to distinguish it from other common dermatoses.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for HTLV-II infection in 913 injecting drug users in Stockholm, 1994.

    PubMed

    Krook, A; Albert, J; Andersson, S; Biberfeld, G; Blomberg, J; Eklund, I; Engström, A; Julander, I; Käll, K; Martin, C; Stendahl, P; Struve, J; Sönnerborg, A

    1997-08-15

    The prevalence and risk factors for acquisition of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and II (HTLV-I and II) were investigated in a prospective study of 913 injecting drug users (IDUs) in Stockholm in 1994. Epidemiologic data were recorded, and blood samples were tested for antibodies against HTLV-I and HTLV-II; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2; and hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), and D (HDV). Positive serologic results for HTLV were confirmed by Western blot (WB) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 905 participants with conclusive HTLV-II status, 29 (3.2%) were HTLV-II positive, and all but three were of Nordic descent. None was HTLV-I infected. One person was infected as early as 1981, before HIV had reached the IDU population in Sweden. The prevalence of HTLV-II infection was 12% among HIV-1-seropositive and 1.8% among HIV-1-seronegative participants. The overall seroprevalences were 14% for HIV-1, 0% for HIV-2, 41% for HAV, 75% for HBV, 92% for HCV, and 8% for HDV. Although amphetamine has been the main injecting drug in Sweden for several decades, heroin abuse combined with a debut of injecting drugs before 1975 was identified as the most important risk factor associated with HTLV-II infection. HAV and HIV seropositivity were also independent risk factors.

  2. HTLV Tax gene expression in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, E A; Miranda, N; Gameiro, P; Frade, M J; Figueiredo, M; Parreira, A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To study the expression of the human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) Tax gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. METHODS: Blood was collected from 72 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Serum from all patients was assayed for antibodies directed against HTLV-I structural proteins by ELISA and western blotting. RNA was purified from fresh blood cells and amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After Southern blotting, the PCR products were hybridised with a 32P end-labelled probe specific for the Tax gene. RESULTS: All samples were seronegative. A specific band for the Tax gene was found in five samples. Each of the patients positive for Tax gene expression had a different type of lymphoproliferative disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by HTLV-I cannot be assessed solely by immunological assays, particularly when only disrupted virions are used. Sensitive molecular biology assays are essential for detecting viral gene expression in fresh blood cells. Images PMID:8944616

  3. Prevalence of infection by HTLV-I/II among pregnant women and high-risk groups in the Peloponnese peninsula, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tseliou, Parthenopi M; Spanakis, Nicholas; Spiliotakara, Anna; Markogiannakis, Antonios; Legakis, Nicholas J; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2006-08-01

    Although screening for human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II) antibodies in volunteer blood donors has been systematic in Greece since 1995, the epidemiology and the determinants of HTLV-I/II infection are not well defined among population groups. During 1997-2005, the prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection was investigated in a sample of 2016 pregnant women, 102 multitransfused haematologic and oncologic patients, 93 thalassaemic patients and 57 intravenous drug users originating from four geographic areas of Pelopennese peninsula, Greece. One recipient of HTLV-I infected blood and the relatives of a woman died from adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATTL) related to HTLV-I have also been tested. The subjects were initially screened by an enzyme immunoassay whereas Western blot, INNO-LIA HTLV, polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing confirmed the infection. One thalassaemic patient had proved HTLV-I infection giving an overall prevalence of 11 per 1000. In the recipient of the infected blood and in two of the five relatives of the woman died from ATTL, HTLV-I infection was also detected. In none of the pregnant women, multitransfused patients and intravenous drug users HTLV-I/II infection was confirmed. These data suggest that HTLV-I is present in Greece among populations at high-risk. However, they would not support the need for HTLV-I/II antenatal screening in Greece.

  4. HTLV-1 in solid-organ transplantation: current challenges and future management strategies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Christopher; Rowe, Ian A; Taylor, Graham P; Neuberger, James M

    2012-12-15

    Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-1 has been reported after solid-organ transplantation, with a related fatal outcome in less than five cases. The natural history of HTLV-1 transmission from donor to recipient is unknown in this setting, because available screening platforms are suboptimal in low-prevalence areas and there is a lack of long-term follow-up. Minimizing organ wastage due to false-positive screening and avoiding donor-derived HTLV-associated diseases remain the goal. To date, only six HTLV-naive organ recipients from four donors (only one had confirmed HTLV) have developed HTLV-associated disease after transplantation. All of these cases were described in countries or from donors from HTLV-endemic regions. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of donor-derived HTLV-1-associated death after organ transplantation in the world. Based on data from low-prevalence countries (Europe and the United States) and the current shortage of donor organs, it appears plausible to authorize the decision to transplant an organ without the prior knowledge of the donor's HTLV-1 status. Currently, it is not possible to exclude such transmission and recipients should be informed of the possible inadvertent transmission of this (and other) infections at the time of consent. In those cases where HTLV-1 transmission does occur, there may be a therapeutic window in which use of antiviral agents (i.e., zidovudine and raltegravir) may be of benefit. The development of national/international registries should allow a greater understanding of the extent and consequences of transmission risk and so allow a more evidence-based approach to management.

  5. HLA-G 3'-untranslated region polymorphisms are associated with HTLV-1 infection, proviral load and HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis development.

    PubMed

    Cilião Alves, Daiani Cristina; Haddad, Rodrigo; Rocha-Júnior, Maurício Cristiano; de Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara; Martelli-Palomino, Gustavo; Marques, Adriana Aparecida; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio

    2016-10-01

    Most human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected patients remain asymptomatic throughout life. The factors associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) development have not been fully elucidated; immunological and genetic factors may be involved. The association of 14 bp INS/DEL HLA-G polymorphism with HTLV-1 infection susceptibility has been reported previously. Here, other polymorphic sites at the HLA-G 3'-UTR (14-bp D/I, +3003C/T, +3010C/G, +3027A/C, +3035C/T, +3142C/G, +3187A/G and +3196C/G) were evaluated in 37 HTLV-1-infected individuals exhibiting HAM/TSP, 45 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (HAC) and 153 uninfected individuals, followed up at University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil. It was observed that: (i) 14bpDI genotype is a risk factor for HTLV-1 infection, while the 14bpDD and +3142CC genotypes were associated with protection against infection; (ii) the +3142C allele and the +3003CT and +3142CC genotypes were associated with susceptibility, while 14bpII and +3003TT genotypes were associated with protection against HAM/TSP development; and (iii) the 14bpII, +3010CC, +3142GG and +3187AA genotypes were associated with lower HTLV-1 proviral load compared to respective counterpart genotypes. Findings that HLA-G has a well-recognized immunomodulatory role and that the genetic variability at HLA-G 3'-UTR may post-transcriptionally modify HLA-G production indicate a differential genetic susceptibility to: (i) the development of HTLV-1 infection, (ii) the magnitude of HTLV-1 proviral load and (iii) HAM/TSP development.

  6. Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein inhibition suppresses human T cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein-mediated tumorigenesis by inhibiting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuewei; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E; Xiao, Gutian; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2013-12-13

    The etiology of human T cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1)-mediated adult T cell leukemia is associated with the ability of viral oncoprotein Tax to induce sustained NF-κB activation and the expression of many NF-κB target genes. Acetylation of the RelA subunit of NF-κB and the subsequent recruitment of bromodomain-containing factor Brd4 are important for the expression of NF-κB target genes in response to various stimuli. However, their contributions to Tax-mediated NF-κB target gene expression and tumorigenesis remain unclear. Here we report that Tax induced the acetylation of lysine 310 of RelA and the binding of Brd4 to acetylated RelA to facilitate Tax-mediated transcriptional activation of NF-κB. Depletion of Brd4 down-regulated Tax-mediated NF-κB target gene expression and cell proliferation. Inhibiting the interaction of Brd4 and acetylated RelA with the bromodomain extraterminal protein inhibitor JQ1 suppressed the proliferation of Tax-expressing rat fibroblasts and Tax-positive HTLV-1-infected cells and Tax-mediated cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, JQ1 attenuated the Tax-mediated transcriptional activation of NF-κB, triggering the polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of constitutively active nuclear RelA. Our results identify Brd4 as a key regulator for Tax-mediated NF-κB gene expression and suggest that targeting epigenetic regulators such as Brd4 with the bromodomain extraterminal protein inhibitor might be a potential therapeutic strategy for cancers and other diseases associated with HTLV-1 infection.

  7. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) tax requires CADM1/TSLC1 for inactivation of the NF-κB inhibitor A20 and constitutive NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Rajeshree; Hunte, Richard; Thomas, Remy; van der Weyden, Louise; Rauch, Dan; Ratner, Lee; Nyborg, Jennifer K; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Takai, Yoshimi; Shembade, Noula

    2015-03-01

    Persistent activation of NF-κB by the Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein, Tax, is vital for the development and pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). K63-linked polyubiquitinated Tax activates the IKK complex in the plasma membrane-associated lipid raft microdomain. Tax also interacts with TAX1BP1 to inactivate the NF-κB negative regulatory ubiquitin-editing A20 enzyme complex. However, the molecular mechanisms of Tax-mediated IKK activation and A20 protein complex inactivation are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that membrane associated CADM1 (Cell adhesion molecule1) recruits Ubc13 to Tax, causing K63-linked polyubiquitination of Tax, and IKK complex activation in the membrane lipid raft. The c-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing PDZ binding motif of CADM1 is critical for Tax to maintain persistent NF-κB activation. Finally, Tax failed to inactivate the NF-κB negative regulator ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 complex, and activate the IKK complex in the lipid raft in absence of CADM1. Our results thus indicate that CADM1 functions as a critical scaffold molecule for Tax and Ubc13 to form a cellular complex with NEMO, TAX1BP1 and NRP, to activate the IKK complex in the plasma membrane-associated lipid rafts, to inactivate NF-κB negative regulators, and maintain persistent NF-κB activation in HTLV-1 infected cells.

  8. Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax Requires CADM1/TSLC1 for Inactivation of the NF-κB Inhibitor A20 and Constitutive NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Remy; van der Weyden, Louise; Rauch, Dan; Ratner, Lee; Nyborg, Jennifer K.; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Takai, Yoshimi; Shembade, Noula

    2015-01-01

    Persistent activation of NF-κB by the Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein, Tax, is vital for the development and pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). K63-linked polyubiquitinated Tax activates the IKK complex in the plasma membrane-associated lipid raft microdomain. Tax also interacts with TAX1BP1 to inactivate the NF-κB negative regulatory ubiquitin-editing A20 enzyme complex. However, the molecular mechanisms of Tax-mediated IKK activation and A20 protein complex inactivation are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that membrane associated CADM1 (Cell adhesion molecule1) recruits Ubc13 to Tax, causing K63-linked polyubiquitination of Tax, and IKK complex activation in the membrane lipid raft. The c-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing PDZ binding motif of CADM1 is critical for Tax to maintain persistent NF-κB activation. Finally, Tax failed to inactivate the NF-κB negative regulator ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 complex, and activate the IKK complex in the lipid raft in absence of CADM1. Our results thus indicate that CADM1 functions as a critical scaffold molecule for Tax and Ubc13 to form a cellular complex with NEMO, TAX1BP1 and NRP, to activate the IKK complex in the plasma membrane-associated lipid rafts, to inactivate NF-κB negative regulators, and maintain persistent NF-κB activation in HTLV-1 infected cells. PMID:25774694

  9. Cutaneous Manifestations in HTLV-I Positive Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad; Maleki, Masoud; Joneidi, Nasaibe; Khalighi, Amir Reza; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Shahabi, Majid; Esmaeil Khayami, Mohammad; Livani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Infection with the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-I (HTLV-I) is endemic in Mashhad, Iran. In our research we evaluated the relation between exposure to this infection and the occurrence of dermatologic manifestations. Materials and Methods: 100 blood donors, who were seropositive but asymptomatic for infection with HTLV-I, were selected as case group. They were identified by the Blood Transfusion Organization Mashhad via the ELISA test and documented by PCR. Another 100 blood donors, that were seronegative for HTLV-I via the ELISA test and who were matched to the case group for age, gender, and existence of systemic diseases, were considered as the controls. Dermatologic evaluations and skin biopsies were performed if deemed necessary, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: 73% of the case and control groups were male, while 27% in each of these groups were female. The mean age in both groups was 40.96±11.94 years. The examination indicated that 58% of the case group and 37% of the control group had cutaneous manifestations (P<0.01). The most common diseases found in the case group were aphthous stomatitis, herpes labialis, and non-genital warts, while common diseases found in the control group were herpes labialis, aphthous stomatitis, and skin tag. The frequency of aphthous stomatitis, eczema, and non-genital warts in the case group were significantly more than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion : Cutaneous diseases can be found more frequent in asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-I than those who are HTLV-I seronegative. The aphthous stomatitis, eczema, and non-genital warts are more prevalent in those infected by HTLV-I. PMID:24470876

  10. Roles of HTLV-1 basic Zip Factor (HBZ) in Viral Chronicity and Leukemic Transformation. Potential New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent and Treat HTLV-1-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Barbeau, Benoit; Césaire, Raymond; Péloponèse, Jean-Marie

    2015-12-09

    More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. For more than two decades, the transforming ability of HTLV-1 has been exclusively associated to the viral transactivator Tax. Thirteen year ago, we first reported that the minus strand of HTLV-1 encoded for a basic Zip factor factor (HBZ), and since then several teams have underscored the importance of this antisense viral protein for the maintenance of a chronic infection and the proliferation of infected cells. More recently, we as well as others have demonstrated that HBZ has the potential to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we focus on the latest progress in our understanding of HBZ functions in chronicity and cellular transformation. We will discuss the involvement of this paradigm shift of HTLV-1 research on new therapeutic approaches to treat HTLV-1-related human diseases.

  11. HTLV-1 viral RNA is detected rarely in plasma of HTLV-1 infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Demontis, Maria Antonietta; Sadiq, Maaz Tahir; Golz, Simon; Taylor, Graham P

    2015-12-01

    Plasma of patients infected with HTLV-1 is considered non-infectious but detection of HTLV-1 genomic RNA in plasma has been recently reported. The aim of this project was to detect and quantify HTLV-1 RNA in plasma and assess its potential value in diagnosis and prognosis. RNA from 1 ml of plasma from 65 subjects infected with HTLV-1 (27 asymptomatic carriers [AC]), 17 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP), 14 with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), two co-infected with HIV, and five with other HTLV-1-associated disease, was extracted and reverse transcribed. HTLV-1 specific nested PCR was performed using primers to amplify the conserved Tax region. All samples were run in quadruplicate, nested PCR products were detected by gel electrophoresis. HTLV-1 RNA was detected in plasma from 18 (28%) patients, always at a very low copy number (3-13 copies viral cDNA per milliliter of plasma). Mean values of HTLV-1 proviral load did not differ between patients in whom HTLV-1 RNA was detected and patients in whom it was not possible to detect HTLV-1 RNA in plasma. HTLV-1 genomic RNA can be detected in the plasma of a minority of patients but not at a level or frequency to be useful clinically or diagnostically. Lack of transmission of HTLV-1 by plasma is due to the rare presence of HTLV-1 virions, regardless of any other factor.

  12. The Burden of Neglected HIV-2 and HTLV-1 Infections in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Caballero, Estrella; de Mendoza, Carmen; Aguilera, Antonio; Pirón, Maria; Soriano, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    HIV-2 and HTLV-1 infections are globally less frequent than those produced by HIV-1, the classical AIDS agent. In Spain and up to the end of 2014, a total of 310 cases of HIV-2, 274 of HTLV-1, and 776 of HTLV-2 infections had been reported. No cases of HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 infections have been identified so far in Spain. Most persons infected with HIV-2 or HTLV-1 acknowledge epidemiological risk factors for contagion, such as originating from or living in endemic regions and/or having had sexual partners from those areas. However, risk factors could not be recognized in up to 20-25% of carriers in Spain. Thus, it seems worth keeping a high level of clinical suspicion in order to identify earlier these neglected human retroviral infections, since diagnostic procedures and antiviral treatment are specific for each of these agents. In this article we summarize the major contributions reported at the meeting of the Spanish Group for HIV-2/HTLV held in Madrid in December 2014.

  13. HTLV-1 and associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, Renaud; Gessain, Antoine

    2003-12-01

    Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects 15-20 millions individuals worldwide. This oncoretrovirus can be transmitted through 3 ways: horizontally, vertically (mother to child) and via blood transfusion. HTLV-1 causes 2 major diseases: adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Tax is a 40-kDa phosphoprotein that is encoded by the pX region of the virus. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated a central role for this protein in the immortalization or transformation of the HTLV-1 infected cells. Apart from its ability to drive transcription from the viral promoter, it also deregulates the cell cycle, inhibits apoptosis, has an effect on the maintenance of the genomic stability and induces the production of several cytokines. In addition, several arguments strongly suggest the existence of host genetic factors, that could be involved in the HTLV-1 infection as well as in the development of ATLL among HTLV-1 infected individuals. ATLL can be classified into 4 major subtypes: a smoldering type, a chronic type, a lymphoma type and a leukemic type. The demonstration by Southern blot analysis of the clonal integration of an HTLV-1 provirus in the tumoral cells represents the gold-standard to define biologically ATLL. The survival rate of ATLL patients, especially those who develop the acute leukemic or lymphomas forms, is very poor, and such clonal malignant CD4 expansion remains one of the most severe lymphoproliferations.

  14. Is seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II among blood donors in Lebanon relevant?

    PubMed

    Tamim, Hala; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Ramia, Sami; Almawi, Wassim Y; Al-Jisr, Tamima; Ayoub, Tanios; Nabulsi-Majzoub, Malak; Kazma, Hassan; Baz, Elizabeth Kfoury

    2004-06-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with certain hematologic and neurologic disorders. Seroprevalence studies demonstrated that the distribution of HTLV-I is heterogeneous worldwide and not specific to 1 region. Because blood is one of the major routes of transmission of the virus, blood banks of several countries routinely screen all blood donations for HTLV-I. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroprevalence rate of HTLV-I/II antibodies among Lebanese blood donors. Between August 2001 and March 2002, consecutive blood samples of 3529 blood donors were collected at blood banks of 4 major hospitals in Lebanon. Initial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening resulted in 23 (0.7%) positive samples, of which 12 (0.3%) were reconfirmed positive by ELISA. Further analysis by Western blot resulted in 2 (0.06%) positive samples, of which 1 tested positive for HTLV-I by PCR (0.028%). Although its very low prevalence among Lebanese blood donors does not support routine screening of Lebanese blood donors for HTLV-I, screening of blood donors from other nationalities may be exercised, especially those from HTLV-I endemic areas.

  15. HTLV-2 infection in injection drug users in King County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Zunt, Joseph R; Tapia, Ken; Thiede, Hanne; Lee, Rong; Hagan, Holly

    2006-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) is endemic in injection drug users (IDU), and native American populations in the Americas. Transmission is associated with high-risk injection and sexual practices. A cohort of 2561 IDU in King County, Washington completed 2 study visits over 1 y. HTLV-2 infection was detected in 190 (7.4%) of 2561 IDU, and 13 (7.8 cases per 1000 person-y) incident infections occurred during the study. Prevalent infection was associated with female gender, non-white race, longer duration as IDU, having a tattoo, combined injection of heroin and cocaine, and with serologic evidence of hepatitis B and C infection. Seroconversion was more common in women, and was associated with African American race, heterosexual identity and longer duration as IDU. In conclusion, increased risk of HTLV-2 infection was associated with non-white race, and injection drug of choice, suggesting injection networks may play an important role in transmission of HTLV-2. The high correlation of HTLV-2 infection with HCV infection suggests the major route of transmission in IDU is via injection practices. Additional studies are needed to examine the clinical manifestations of HTLV-2 infection, as well as the clinical and virological manifestations of HTLV-2/HCV coinfection.

  16. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Shuichi; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho; Ikeda, Masanori

    2015-12-15

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability. - Highlights: • I-mfa domain proteins, HIC and I-mfa, specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax. • HIC and I-mfa repress the Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. • HIC represses the Tax-dependent transactivation of NF-κΒ. • HIC decreases the nuclear distribution of Tax. • HIC stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax.

  17. Signaling via the CD2 receptor enhances HTLV-1 replication in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Guyot, D J; Newbound, G C; Lairmore, M D

    1997-07-21

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is considered the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and several chronic progressive immune-mediated diseases. Approximately 1-4% of infected individuals develop disease, generally decades following infection. Increased proviral transcription, mediated by the viral 40-kDa trans-activating protein, Tax, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated diseases. Since the HTLV-1 promoter contains sequences responsive to cyclic AMP and protein kinase C, we hypothesized that lymphocyte activation signals initiated through the TCR/CD3 complex or CD2 receptor promote viral replication in HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We demonstrate that mAbs directed against the CD2, but not the CD3 receptor increase viral p24 capsid protein 1.5- to 5.7-fold in CD2/CD3+ HTLV-1-infected cell culture supernatants. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 2.5- to 4-fold increase in all species of viral mRNA following CD2 cross-linking of OSP2/4 cells, an immortalized HTLV-1 cell line. Consistent with transcriptional regulation, reporter gene activity increased approximately 11-fold in CD2-stimulated Jurkat T cells cotransfected with a Tax-expressing plasmid and a CAT reporter gene construct under control of the HTLV-1 promoter. These data suggest a possible physiologic mechanism, whereby CD2-mediated cell adhesion and lymphocyte activation may promote viral transcription in infected lymphocytes.

  18. HTLV-1 p30II: selective repressor of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Green, Patrick L

    2004-11-24

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 pX ORF II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II whose roles are beginning to be defined in the virus life cycle. Previous studies indicate the importance of these viral proteins in the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads and persist in an animal model of HTLV-1 infection. Intriguing new studies indicate that p30II is a multifunctional regulator that differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and specifically binds and represses tax/rex mRNA nuclear export. A new study characterized the role of p30II in regulation of cellular gene expression using comprehensive human gene arrays. Interestingly, p30II is an overall repressor of cellular gene expression, while selectively favoring the expression of regulatory gene pathways important to T lymphocytes. These new findings suggest that HTLV-1, which is associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, uses p30II to selectively repress cellular and viral gene expression to favor the survival of cellular targets ultimately resulting in leukemogenesis.

  19. Modelling the role of Tax expression in HTLV-I persistence in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Michael Y; Lim, Aaron G

    2011-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a persistent human retrovirus characterized by life-long infection and risk of developing HAM/TSP, a progressive neurological and inflammatory disease, and adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Chronically infected individuals often harbor high proviral loads despite maintaining a persistently activated immune response. Based on a new hypothesis for the persistence of HTLV-I infection, a three-dimensional compartmental model is constructed that describes the dynamic interactions among latently infected target cells, target-cell activation, and immune responses to HTLV-I, with an emphasis on understanding the role of Tax expression in the persistence of HTLV-I.

  20. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio Pereira; Gonçalves, Cassia Cristina Alves; Slater, Carla Maria Sena Andrade; Carvalho, Silvia Maia Farias de; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2013-09-01

    Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies (Abs) represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients. Western blotting (WB) for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF) indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I) and gag (p24) proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  1. Novel interactions between the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 and the NFAR protein family: Implications for the HTLV lifecycles.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jane; Hall, William W; Ratner, Lee; Sheehy, Noreen

    2016-07-01

    The human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2) antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 play key roles in the HTLV lifecycles and persistence in the host. Nuclear Factors Associated with double-stranded RNA (NFAR) proteins NF90/110 function in the lifecycles of several viruses and participate in host innate immunity against infection and oncogenesis. Using GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate specific novel interactions between HBZ/APH-2 and NF90/110 and characterised the protein domains involved. Moreover we show that NF90/110 significantly enhance Tax mediated LTR activation, an effect that was abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. Additionally we found that HBZ and APH-2 modulate the promoter activity of survivin and are capable of antagonising NF110-mediated survivin activation. Thus interactions between HTLV antisense proteins and the NFAR protein family have an overall positive impact on HTLV infection. Hence NFARs may represent potential therapeutic targets in HTLV infected cells.

  2. HLA DRB1*DQB1* haplotype in HTLV-I-associated familial infective dermatitis may predict development of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    SciTech Connect

    LaGrenade, L.; Miller, W.; Pate, E.; Rodgers-Johnson, P.

    1996-01-02

    A possible causal association between infective dermatitis and HTLV-I infection was reported in 1990 and confirmed in 1992. We now report familial infective dermatitis (ID) occurring in a 26-year-old mother and her 9-year-old son. The mother was first diagnosed with ID in 1969 at the age of 2 years in Dermatology Unit at the University Hospital of the West Indies (U.H.W.I.) in Jamacia. The elder of her 2 sons was diagnosed with ID at the age of 3 years, also at U.H.W.I. Both mother and son are HTLV-I-seropositive. A second, younger son, currently age 2 years, is also HTLV-I-seropositive, but without clinical evidence of ID. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), class II, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping documented a shared class II haplotype, DRB1*DQB1* (1101-0301), in the mother and her 2 sons. This same haplotype has been described among Japanese patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and has been associated with a possible pathologically heightened immune response to HTLV-I infection. The presence of this haplotype in these familial ID cases with clinical signs of HAM/TSP may have contributed to their risk for development of HAM/TSP. The unaffected, HTLV-I-seropositive, younger son requires close clinical follow-up. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Novel interactions between the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 and the NFAR protein family: Implications for the HTLV lifecycles

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jane; Hall, William W.; Ratner, Lee; Sheehy, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    The human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2) antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 play key roles in the HTLV lifecycles and persistence in the host. Nuclear Factors Associated with double-stranded RNA (NFAR) proteins NF90/110 function in the lifecycles of several viruses and participate in host innate immunity against infection and oncogenesis. Using GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate specific novel interactions between HBZ/APH-2 and NF90/110 and characterised the protein domains involved. Moreover we show that NF90/110 significantly enhance Tax mediated LTR activation, an effect that was abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. Additionally we found that HBZ and APH-2 modulate the promoter activity of survivin and are capable of antagonising NF110-mediated survivin activation. Thus interactions between HTLV antisense proteins and the NFAR protein family have an overall positive impact on HTLV infection. Hence NFARs may represent potential therapeutic targets in HTLV infected cells. PMID:27110706

  4. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in a solid organ transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca Andrade, Maria Jose; Correa Diaz, Edgar Patricio; Buestán, Maria Eugenia

    2016-06-06

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean and in South American countries such as Ecuador. This virus is the cause of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a myelopathy characterised by chronic progressive paraparesis, spasticity and urinary symptoms. We report the case of a 40-year-old man who received a kidney transplant from a living donor and developed HAM/TSP, 24 months after transplant. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of HTLV-1 in blood and cerebrospinal fluid by the ELISA and Western Blot tests. For myelopathy, the patient was treated with pulse methylprednisolone, but had poor response to treatment. We recommend that all patients receiving transplants and their donors who come from endemic countries be given a mandatory screening for HTLV-1 through an ELISA test, in an effort to inform candidates for renal transplantation of the potential risk of infection and the development of this disease.

  5. Tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy: clinical, epidemiological, virological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Mahieux, R

    2012-03-01

    In 1980, Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. HTLV-1 belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and to the deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4(+) lymphoid cells in vivo. Three molecules have been identified for binding and/or entry of HTLV-1: heparan sulfate proteoglycans, neuropilin-1, and glucose transporter 1. An efficient transfer of the virus from an infected cell to a target cell can occur through the formation of a viral synapse and/or by virofilm structure. As for all retroviruses, HTLV-1 genome possesses three major ORFs (gag, pol and env) encoding the structural and enzymatic proteins. HTLV-1 encodes also some regulatory and auxillary proteins including the tax protein with transforming activities and the HBZ protein which plays a role in the proliferation and maintenance of the leukemic cells. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world with clusters of high endemicity including mainly Southern Japan, the Caribbean region, areas in South America and in intertropical Africa. The worldwide HTLV-1 infected population is estimated to be around 10-20 million. HTLV-1 has three modes of transmission: (1): mother to child, mainly linked to prolonged breast-feeding; (2): sexual, mainly occurring from male to female and (3): contaminated blood products. HTLV-1 possesses a remarkable genetic stability. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of mainly two severe diseases: a malignant T CD4(+) cell lymphoproliferation, of very poor prognosis, named Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), and a chronic neuro-myelopathy named Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The lifetime risk among HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be around 0.25 to 3%. TSP/HAM mainly occurs in adults, with a mean age at onset of 40-50 years and it is more common in women than in men. Blood transfusion is a major risk factor for TSP/HAM development. Clinically

  6. Enhancement of infectivity and persistence in vivo by HBZ, a natural antisense coded protein of HTLV-1.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Joshua; Yamamoto, Brenda; Li, Min; Phipps, Andrew J; Younis, Ihab; Lairmore, Michael D; Green, Patrick L

    2006-05-15

    Natural antisense viral transcripts have been recognized in retroviruses, including human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), HIV-1, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and have been postulated to encode proteins important for the infection cycle and/or pathogenesis of the virus. The antisense strand of the HTLV-1 genome encodes HBZ, a novel nuclear basic region leucine zipper (b-ZIP) protein that in overexpression assays down-regulates Tax oncoprotein-induced viral transcription. Herein, we investigated the contribution of HBZ to HTLV-1-mediated immortalization of primary T lymphocytes in vitro and HTLV-1 infection in a rabbit animal model. HTLV-1 HBZ mutant viruses were generated and evaluated for viral gene expression, protein production, and immortalization capacity. Biologic properties of HBZ mutant viruses in vitro were indistinguishable from wild-type HTLV-1, providing the first direct evidence that HBZ is dispensable for viral replication and cellular immortalization. Rabbits inoculated with irradiated cells expressing HTLV-1 HBZ mutant viruses became persistently infected. However, these rabbits displayed a decreased antibody response to viral gene products and reduced proviral copies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as compared with wild-type HTLV-1-infected animals. Our findings indicated that HBZ was not required for in vitro cellular immortalization, but enhanced infectivity and persistence in inoculated rabbits. This study demonstrates that retroviruses use negative-strand-encoded proteins in the establishment of chronic viral infections.

  7. Antiretroviral activity of 5-azacytidine during treatment of a HTLV-1 positive myelodysplastic syndrome with autoimmune manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are often accompanied by autoimmune phenomena. The underlying mechanisms for these associations remain uncertain, although T cell activation seems to be important. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) has been detected in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, mostly in regions of the world which are endemic for the virus, and where association of HTLV-1 with rheumatological manifestation is not rare. We present here the case of a 58 year old man who presented with cytopenias, leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the skin and glomerulopathy, and was diagnosed as MDS (refractory anemia with excess blasts - RAEB 1). The patient also tested positive for HTLV-1 by PCR. After 8 monthly cycles of 5-azacytidine he achieved a complete hematologic remission. Following treatment, a second PCR for HTLV-1 was carried out and found to be negative. This is the first report in the literature of a HTLV-1-positive MDS with severe autoimmune manifestations, which was treated with the hypomethylating factor 5-azacitidine, achieving cytogenetic remission with concomitant resolution of the autoimmune manifestations, as well as HTLV-1-PCR negativity. HTLV-1-PCR negativity may be due to either immune mediated clearance of the virus, or a potential antiretroviral effect of 5-azacytidine. 5-azacytidine is known for its antiretroviral effects, although there is no proof of its activity against HTLV-1 infection in vivo. PMID:22214262

  8. Cutaneous manifestation of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a patient coinfected with HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Arch, Emily L; Schaefer, Jochen T; Dahiya, Anjali

    2008-12-15

    Strongyloidiasis is a potentially lethal parasitic infection. Coinfection of a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) can lead to a more severe disease course and treatment-refractoriness. Here we report a patient coinfected with HTLV-I and Strongyloides stercoralis who developed disseminated, treatment-resistant disease. The patient presented with serpiginous, nonpalpable, purpuric streaks on the abdomen and proximal lower extremities. A biopsy of this eruption demonstrating filariform larvae in the dermis was consistent with disseminated strongyloidiasis. The patient's immune dysregulation due to HTLV-I positivity likely contributed to her development of disseminated disease. Awareness of the interaction between HTLV-I and strongyloidiasis has important implications in terms of prognosis and treatment. Recognition of the cutaneous manifestations of disseminated disease can facilitate diagnosis and implementation of appropriate therapy.

  9. Degeneration of oxidative muscle fibers in HTLV-1 tax transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nerenberg, M I; Wiley, C A

    1989-12-01

    The HTLV-1 tax gene under control of the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) was introduced into transgenic mice. Previously tax protein expression in the muscle and peripheral nerves of three independent mouse lines was reported. Here the localization of this transgenic protein at a cellular and subcellular level is described. Tax protein was expressed in oxidative muscle fibers that developed severe progressive atrophy. It localized to the cytoplasma where it was associated with structures resembling degenerating Z bands. This pattern of muscle fiber involvement is similar to that observed in human retroviral associated myopathy. This transgenic mouse model suggests that preferential expression of the HTLV-1 viral promoter in oxidative muscle fibers may explain the productive infection of these fibers in HTLV-1 myopathy.

  10. Are increased Foxp3+ regulatory T cells responsible for immunosuppression during HTLV-1 infection? Case reports and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Nicolas; Woll, Fernando; Watanabe, Luis; Montes, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research of human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-associated diseases is mostly focused on inflammatory and lymphoproliferative disorders. However, the immunosuppressive consequences of HTLV-1 infection are frequently ignored. In developing countries where exposure to parasitic and other tropical diseases is frequent, the burden of disease is significantly increased by opportunistic infections. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a CD4 T-cell subset capable of suppressing effector responses. During HTLV-1 infection, CD4+Foxp3+ cells are increased in HTLV-1-associated leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) as well as in non-leukaemic presentations. However, controversy exists regarding the actual regulatory function of these cells. In this report, we present two cases of HTLV-1 ATLL complicated by parasitic organisms and we provide a brief review of the literature regarding FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and their role as a possible mechanism for the immunosuppressive manifestations that take place during HTLV-1 infection. PMID:23188837

  11. HTLV-1 Tax impairs K63-linked ubiquitination of STING to evade host innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Liu, Lu; Wang, Hui; Yang, Bo

    2017-03-15

    The cellular antiviral innate immune system is essential for host defense and viruses have evolved a variety of strategies to evade the innate immunity. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) belongs to the deltaretrovirus family and it can establish persistent infection in human beings for many years. However, how this virus evades the host innate immune responses remains unclear. Here we report a new strategy used by HTLV-1 to block innate immune responses. We observed that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) limited HTLV-1 protein expression and was critical to HTLV-1 reverse transcription intermediate (RTI) ssDNA90 triggered interferon (IFN)-β production in phorbol12-myristate13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP1 (PMA-THP1) cells. The HTLV-1 protein Tax inhibited STING overexpression induced transcriptional activation of IFN-β. Tax also impaired poly(dA:dT), interferon stimulatory DNA (ISD) or cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) -stimulated IFN-β production, which was dependent on STING activation. Coimmunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy indicated that Tax was associated with STING in the same complex. Mechanistic studies suggested that Tax decreased the K63-linked ubiquitination of STING and disrupted the interactions between STING and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). These findings may shed more light on the molecular mechanisms underlying HTLV-1 infection.

  12. Brain Metabolism Changes in Patients Infected with HTLV-1.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Manuel; Romanelli, Luiz C F; Rosa, Daniela V; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B F; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Brammer, Michael; de Miranda, Débora M

    2017-01-01

    The Human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of HTLV-associated myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is the result of demyelination and cell death in the spinal cord and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), mediated by a virus-induced inflammatory response. In this study, we applied Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) to evaluate brain metabolism in a group of 47 patients infected with HTLV-1, and 18 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups according to their neurological symptoms. A machine learning (ML) based Gaussian Processes classification algorithm (GPC) was applied to classify between patient groups and controls and also to organize the three patient groups, based on gray and white matter brain metabolism. We found that GPC was able to differentiate the HAM/TSP group from controls with 85% accuracy (p = 0.003) and the asymptomatic seropositive patients from controls with 85.7% accuracy (p = 0.001). The weight map suggests diffuse cortical hypometabolism in both patient groups when compared to controls. We also found that the GPC could separate the asymptomatic HTLV-1 patients from the HAM/TSP patients, but with a lower accuracy (72.7%, p = 0.026). The weight map suggests a diffuse pattern of lower metabolism in the asymptomatic group when compared to the HAM/TSP group. These results are compatible with distinctive patterns of glucose uptake into the brain of HTLV-1 patients, including those without neurological symptoms, which differentiate them from controls. Furthermore, our results might unveil surprising aspects of the pathophysiology of HAM/TSP and related diseases, as well as new therapeutic strategies.

  13. Brain Metabolism Changes in Patients Infected with HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, Manuel; Romanelli, Luiz C. F.; Rosa, Daniela V.; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B. F.; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Brammer, Michael; de Miranda, Débora M.

    2017-01-01

    The Human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of HTLV-associated myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is the result of demyelination and cell death in the spinal cord and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), mediated by a virus-induced inflammatory response. In this study, we applied Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) to evaluate brain metabolism in a group of 47 patients infected with HTLV-1, and 18 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups according to their neurological symptoms. A machine learning (ML) based Gaussian Processes classification algorithm (GPC) was applied to classify between patient groups and controls and also to organize the three patient groups, based on gray and white matter brain metabolism. We found that GPC was able to differentiate the HAM/TSP group from controls with 85% accuracy (p = 0.003) and the asymptomatic seropositive patients from controls with 85.7% accuracy (p = 0.001). The weight map suggests diffuse cortical hypometabolism in both patient groups when compared to controls. We also found that the GPC could separate the asymptomatic HTLV-1 patients from the HAM/TSP patients, but with a lower accuracy (72.7%, p = 0.026). The weight map suggests a diffuse pattern of lower metabolism in the asymptomatic group when compared to the HAM/TSP group. These results are compatible with distinctive patterns of glucose uptake into the brain of HTLV-1 patients, including those without neurological symptoms, which differentiate them from controls. Furthermore, our results might unveil surprising aspects of the pathophysiology of HAM/TSP and related diseases, as well as new therapeutic strategies. PMID:28293169

  14. A novel one-class SVM based negative data sampling method for reconstructing proteome-wide HTLV-human protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Suyu; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) prediction is generally treated as a problem of binary classification wherein negative data sampling is still an open problem to be addressed. The commonly used random sampling is prone to yield less representative negative data with considerable false negatives. Meanwhile rational constraints are seldom exerted on model selection to reduce the risk of false positive predictions for most of the existing computational methods. In this work, we propose a novel negative data sampling method based on one-class SVM (support vector machine, SVM) to predict proteome-wide protein interactions between HTLV retrovirus and Homo sapiens, wherein one-class SVM is used to choose reliable and representative negative data, and two-class SVM is used to yield proteome-wide outcomes as predictive feedback for rational model selection. Computational results suggest that one-class SVM is more suited to be used as negative data sampling method than two-class PPI predictor, and the predictive feedback constrained model selection helps to yield a rational predictive model that reduces the risk of false positive predictions. Some predictions have been validated by the recent literature. Lastly, gene ontology based clustering of the predicted PPI networks is conducted to provide valuable cues for the pathogenesis of HTLV retrovirus. PMID:25620466

  15. A novel one-class SVM based negative data sampling method for reconstructing proteome-wide HTLV-human protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Mei, Suyu; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-26

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) prediction is generally treated as a problem of binary classification wherein negative data sampling is still an open problem to be addressed. The commonly used random sampling is prone to yield less representative negative data with considerable false negatives. Meanwhile rational constraints are seldom exerted on model selection to reduce the risk of false positive predictions for most of the existing computational methods. In this work, we propose a novel negative data sampling method based on one-class SVM (support vector machine, SVM) to predict proteome-wide protein interactions between HTLV retrovirus and Homo sapiens, wherein one-class SVM is used to choose reliable and representative negative data, and two-class SVM is used to yield proteome-wide outcomes as predictive feedback for rational model selection. Computational results suggest that one-class SVM is more suited to be used as negative data sampling method than two-class PPI predictor, and the predictive feedback constrained model selection helps to yield a rational predictive model that reduces the risk of false positive predictions. Some predictions have been validated by the recent literature. Lastly, gene ontology based clustering of the predicted PPI networks is conducted to provide valuable cues for the pathogenesis of HTLV retrovirus.

  16. Effects of Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in Patients Infected with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1)

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rosana C.P.; Neto, José A.; Andrade, Luciana; Oliveira, Tatiane S. S.; Santos, Dislene N.; Oliveira, Cassius J.V.; Prado, Márcio J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary manifestations in patients with HTLV-1-associated lower urinary tract dysfunction. Methods Open clinical trial with 21 patients attending the physiotherapy clinic of the Hospital Universitário, Bahia, Brazil. Combinations of behavioral therapy, perineal exercises and intravaginal/intra-anal electrical stimulation were used. Results The mean age was 54±12 years and 67% were female. After treatment, there was an improvement in symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence, nocturia and in the sensation of incomplete emptying (p<0.001). There was also a reduction in the overactive bladder symptom score from 10±4 to 6±3 (p<0.001) and an increasing in the perineal muscle strength (p<0.001). The urodynamic parameters improved, with reduction in the frequency of patients with detrusor hyperactivity from 57.9% to 42.1%; detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) from 31.6% to 5.3%; detrusor hypocontractility from 15.8% to 0% and detrusor areflexia from 10.5% to 0%, with positive repercussions in the quality of life in all patients. Conclusion Physiotherapy was effective in cases of HTLV-1-associated neurogenic bladder, reducing symptoms, increasing perineal muscle strength, improving urodynamic parameters and quality of life. PMID:26724409

  17. Evaluation of HTLV-1 HBZ and proviral load, together with host IFN λ3, in pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.

    PubMed

    Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Jaberi, Najmeh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Bustani, Reza; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Milani, Saeideh; Tarokhian, Hanieh; Norouzi, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with two progressive diseases: HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Although HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) has been introduced as a risk factor for these diseases' progression, it is not sufficient on its own to yield an accurate estimation of the outcome of the infection. In the present study, PVL and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) expression level as viral factors, and IFN λ3 as a host factor, were evaluated in HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). During 2014-2015, 12 HAM/TSP patients and 18 ACs who had been referred to the HTLV-1 Clinic, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS), Mashhad, Iran, were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and the DNA and mRNA were extracted for quantification of HBZ, IFN λ3 expression, and PVL using real-time PCR (TaqMan method). Although the PVL was higher in the HAM/TSP group, with a 94% confidence interval, there were no considerable differences in terms of HBZ mRNA and PVL between ACs and HAM patients. IFN λ3 expression in the HAM/TSP group was significantly higher than in the ACs (P = 0.02). To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the expression level of IFN λ3 in HTLV-1 positive patients. The immune response against HTLV-1 viral antigens and virulent factors will therefore further refine our knowledge of interactions between the virus and host in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-related disorders. The virus PVL and the host IFN λ3 can be used as pathogenic factors of HTLV-1 infected patients at risk of HAM/TSP manifestation. J. Med. Virol. 89:1102-1107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Plasmatic proinflammatory chemokines levels are tricky markers to monitoring HTLV-1 carriers.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Sales, Camila Campos; de Cássia Gonçalves, Poliane; da Silva-Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio; Ribas, João Gabriel; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Martins, Marina Lobato

    2016-08-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is present throughout the world and is associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other inflammatory conditions. The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP involves a chronic inflammatory response in central nervous system (CNS), with the presence of HTLV-1 infected cells and HTLV-1-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Chemokines may have a role in the infiltration of these cells into the CNS. In this context, the present study analyzed the level of plasmatic chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL5 (RANTES), IL8 (CXCL8), CXCL9 (MIG), and CXCL10 (IP-10) and HTLV-1 proviral load from peripheral blood in 162 asymptomatic carriers and 136 HAM/TSP patients to determine the differences that be associated with the clinical status of the HTLV-1 infection. The results showed that patients with HAM/TSP have significantly higher levels of IL8 and CXCL9, and that the level of IL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 was significantly greater in HTLV-1 infected individuals with high (>1%) than those with low proviral load (<1%). However, the levels of the chemokines tested have not showed high sensitivity to discriminate HAM/TSP patients from asymptomatic carriers. In addition, chemokine profiles in asymptomatic carriers and HAM/TSP groups were similar, with no significant increased frequency of higher producers of chemokines in HAM/TSP individuals. Results indicate that the heterogeneity of the individuals in the groups regarding time of infection, duration of disease, proviral load level and other possible confound factors may impair the use of chemokines levels to monitor HTLV-1 carriers in clinical practice. J. Med. Virol. 88:1438-1447, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Clinical Manifestations in Individuals with Recent Diagnosis of HTLV Type I Infection

    PubMed Central

    Poetker, Shelene K.W.; Porto, Aurelia F.; Giozza, Silvana P.; Muniz, Andre L.; Caskey, Marina F.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is known to cause HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T cell leukemia. A growing body of evidence links HTLV-1 infection with an increasing spectrum of disease, including uveitis, periodontal disease, arthropathy, sicca syndrome, and neurologic deficits. Objectives Despite recent findings, the natural history of HTLV-1 infection remains poorly defined. This study was designed to better characterize initial clinical and neurological findings in individuals diagnosed with HTLV-1 infection. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of 71 individuals recently diagnosed with HTLV-1 and 71 uninfected age- and sex-matched blood donors in Salvador, Brazil. Subjects were administered a standardized questionnaire and underwent physical exam. Results HTLV-1 infected subjects were significantly more likely than controls to report complaints of hand and foot numbness (OR=5.3; 95% CI: 1.8-15.3; p=0.002 and OR=4.0; 95% CI: 1.3-12; p=0.013 respectively), difficulty running (OR=4.0; 95% CI: 1.1-14.2, p=0.032), nocturia (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 1.1-22.8, p=0.038), arthralgia (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4-7.7, p=0.006), and photophobia (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4-7.7, p=0.006). Conclusions Neurologic, ocular and rheumatologic complaints may be the first manifestations of HTLV-1 infection. Therefore, all patients presenting with initial diagnosis should be rigorously screened for these symptoms. PMID:21388871

  20. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biologics may exacerbate HTLV-1-associated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Yukiko; Kamoi, Koju; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Miyata, Kazunori; Yamano, Chinami; Coler-Reilly, Ariella; Yamano, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: There are roughly 5 to 10 million persons infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) worldwide, and the safety of treating this population with biologics remains poorly understood. Patient concerns and diagnosis: An HTLV-1-infected 66-year-old female with HTLV-1 uveitis (HU) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Her HU had been in remission and her HAM/TSP symptoms had been managed effectively with oral steroids for years. However, she developed severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after failing to respond well to conventional anti-rheumatic agents. Interventions: She was administered two intravenous 8mg/kg doses of the biologic tocilizumab. Outcomes: Subsequently, her RA symptoms resolved, but she suffered a recurrence of HU and exacerbation of HAM/TSP symptoms. When she was switched back to steroid-based treatment, HU and HAM symptoms both improved, but RA symptoms again worsened. Finally, an attempt to substitute the biologic abatacept and reduce the steroids failed when HAM/TSP symptoms again became aggravated. Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report worldwide of a biologic aggravating HTLV-1-associated conditions. This report suggests that caution is advised when using biologics to treat HTLV-1-infected patients, though further research is required to clarify the situation. PMID:28178142

  1. Reducing the global burden of HTLV-1 infection: An agenda for research and action.

    PubMed

    Willems, Luc; Hasegawa, Hideki; Accolla, Roberto; Bangham, Charles; Bazarbachi, Ali; Bertazzoni, Umberto; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara de Freitas; Cheng, Hua; Chieco-Bianchi, Luigi; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana; Esparza, José; Gallo, Robert C; Gessain, Antoine; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Hall, William; Harford, Joseph; Hermine, Olivier; Jacobson, Steven; Macchi, Beatrice; Macpherson, Calum; Mahieux, Renaud; Matsuoka, Masao; Murphy, Edward; Peloponese, Jean-Marie; Simon, Viviana; Tagaya, Yutaka; Taylor, Graham P; Watanabe, Toshiki; Yamano, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Even though an estimated 10-20 million people worldwide are infected with the oncogenic retrovirus, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), its epidemiology is poorly understood, and little effort has been made to reduce its prevalence. In response to this situation, the Global Virus Network launched a taskforce in 2014 to develop new methods of prevention and treatment of HTLV-1 infection and promote basic research. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of two life-threatening diseases, adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, for which no effective therapy is currently available. Although the modes of transmission of HTLV-1 resemble those of the more familiar HIV-1, routine diagnostic methods are generally unavailable to support the prevention of new infections. In the present article, the Taskforce proposes a series of actions to expand epidemiological studies; increase research on mechanisms of HTLV-1 persistence, replication and pathogenesis; discover effective treatments; and develop prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

  2. Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are not associated with HTLV-I infection: an international study.

    PubMed

    Bazarbachi, A; Soriano, V; Pawson, R; Vallejo, A; Moudgil, T; Matutes, E; Peries, J; Molina, A; de The, H; Schulz, T F; Catovsky, D; Gill, P S

    1997-09-01

    Association between mycosis fungoides (MF), its leukaemic variant Sezary syndrome (SS) and the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) has been controversial, with the reported incidence of infection varying between 0% and nearly 100%. We studied 127 patients (85 MF, 28 SS, five Sezary cell leukaemia, four lymphomatoid papulosis, and five unspecified cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL)) originating from Europe (France, Spain, U.K., Portugal) or from U.S.A. (California) for the presence of HTLV-I infection markers. HTLV-I and -II serology were performed on 78 patients using standard immunological methods. Reverse transcriptase (RT) assay was also performed in 26 cases using an RT-PCR-based method of high sensitivity. Molecular analyses were performed on 215 DNA samples (121 from fresh PBMCs, 26 from PBMCs after short-term culture and 68 from skin lesions) by PCR amplification using HTLV-I and -II gag, pol, env, pX and LTR specific primers. Immunological tests were negative except for two sera which were indeterminate. PCR with all HTLV-I and -II primer pairs showed negative results in all 215 samples investigated. No RT activity was detected in short-term PBMC cultures of any of the 26 cases studied. The results of this large study from five different countries clearly indicate that MF and SS are not associated with HTLV-I infection.

  3. Characterization of overt and occult hepatitis B virus infection among HTLV-1 positive healthy carriers in the Northeast of Iran; AN HTLV-I endemic area.

    PubMed

    Chenari, Maryam; Norouzi, Mehdy; Ghalichi, Leila; Rezaee, Abdolrahim; Yari, Atefe; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    To date, no studies have provided data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence among asymptomatic, healthy human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I) positive carriers. This sero- and molecular epidemiology study was performed on patients in the Northeast of Iran, which is an endemic area for HTLV-I infection. A total of 109 sera were collected from HTLV-I positive healthy carriers who were admitted to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad City. All were tested for HBV serology and subsequently, real time PCR was carried out on the samples, regardless of the results of the serology. Standard PCR and direct sequencing were applied on positive samples. All cases were negative for HBsAg, Anti-HBc, and anti-HBs were positive in 34 (31.1%), and 35 (32%) individuals, respectively. There were 19 (17.4%) cases that were positive only for anti-HBs, and they had already received HBV vaccine. 16 (15%) were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc, indicating a past-resolved HBV infection. 18 (16.5%) were isolated as anti-HBc, and 56 (51.3%) were negative for all HBV serological markers. Only one subject (0.9%) had detectable HBV DNA (2153 copy/ml), and assigned as being an occult HBV infection. The low prevalence of HBsAg, despite the high percentage of anti-HBc positive cases, might be related to the suppression effect of HTLV-I on surface protein expression. The low prevalence of HBV infection among HTLV-I positive healthy carriers from an endemic region, indicates that the epidemiology of HTLV-I and HBV coinfection is related to the endemicity of HBV in that region, rather than HTLV-I endemicity.

  4. PRMT5 Is Upregulated in HTLV-1-Mediated T-Cell Transformation and Selective Inhibition Alters Viral Gene Expression and Infected Cell Survival.

    PubMed

    Panfil, Amanda R; Al-Saleem, Jacob; Howard, Cory M; Mates, Jessica M; Kwiek, Jesse J; Baiocchi, Robert A; Green, Patrick L

    2015-12-30

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a tumorigenic retrovirus responsible for development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). This disease manifests after a long clinical latency period of up to 2-3 decades. Two viral gene products, Tax and HBZ, have transforming properties and play a role in the pathogenic process. Genetic and epigenetic cellular changes also occur in HTLV-1-infected cells, which contribute to transformation and disease development. However, the role of cellular factors in transformation is not completely understood. Herein, we examined the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) on HTLV-1-mediated cellular transformation and viral gene expression. We found PRMT5 expression was upregulated during HTLV-1-mediated T-cell transformation, as well as in established lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma cell lines and ATLL patient PBMCs. shRNA-mediated reduction in PRMT5 protein levels or its inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor (PRMT5i) in HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes resulted in increased viral gene expression and decreased cellular proliferation. PRMT5i also had selective toxicity in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. Finally, we demonstrated that PRMT5 and the HTLV-1 p30 protein had an additive inhibitory effect on HTLV-1 gene expression. Our study provides evidence for PRMT5 as a host cell factor important in HTLV-1-mediated T-cell transformation, and a potential target for ATLL treatment.

  5. Efficient transfer of HTLV-1 tax gene in various primary and immortalized cells using a flap lentiviral vector.

    PubMed

    Royer-Leveau, Christelle; Mordelet, Elodie; Delebecque, Frédéric; Gessain, Antoine; Charneau, Pierre; Ozden, Simona

    2002-08-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes two major diseases: adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In order to understand the involvement of Tax protein in HTLV-1 pathogenesis, we constructed a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector containing the central DNA flap sequence and either the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the HTLV-1 tax genes. Using these vectors, GFP and tax genes were introduced in several primary and immortalized cells of endothelial, lymphoid, astrocytic or macrophagic origin. As assessed by GFP expression, up to 100% efficiency of transduction was obtained for all cell types tested. Tax expression was detected by Western blot and immuno-fluorescence in the transduced cells. After transduction, the Tax transcriptional activity was confirmed by the transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR-lacZ or HTLV-1 LTR-GFP reporter genes. Increased CD25 and HLA DR expression was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes transduced with the Tax vector. These results indicate that both pathways of Tax transactivation, CREB (viral LTR) and NF-kappa B (CD25 and HLA DR), are functional after transduction by TRIP Tax vector. Therefore, this vector provides a useful tool for investigating the role of the Tax viral protein in the pathogenesis of diseases linked to HTLV-1 infection.

  6. Immune responses to HTLV-I(ACH) during acute infection of pig-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Therese M; Wei, Qing; Stallworth, Jackie; Fultz, Patricia N

    2004-04-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is causally linked to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a chronic progressive neurological disease, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A nonhuman primate model that reproduces disease symptoms seen in HTLV-I-infected humans might facilitate identification of initial immune responses to the virus and an understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in HTLV-I-related disease. Previously, we showed that infection of pig-tailed macaques with HTLV-I(ACH) is associated with multiple signs of disease characteristic of both HAM/TSP and ATL. We report here that within the first few weeks after HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques, serum concentrations of interferon (IFN)-alpha increased and interleukin-12 decreased transiently, levels of nitric oxide were elevated, and activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and CD16(+) natural killer cells in peripheral blood were observed. HTLV-I(ACH) infection elicited virus-specific antibodies in all four animals within 4 to 6 weeks; however, Tax-specific lymphoproliferative responses were not detected until 25-29 weeks after infection in all four macaques. IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood cells stimulated with a Tax or Gag peptide was detected to varying degrees in all four animals by ELISPOT assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from one animal that developed only a marginal antigen-specific cellular response were unresponsive to mitogen stimulation during the last few weeks preceding its death from a rapidly progressive disease syndrome associated with HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques. The results show that during the first few months after HTLV-I(ACH) infection, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, limited virus-specific cellular responses, sustained immune system activation, and, in some cases, immunodeficiency were evident. Thus, this animal model might be valuable for understanding early stages of infection

  7. Animal models on HTLV-1 and related viruses: what did we learn?

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Hiba El; Nasr, Rihab; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; Nasser, Roudaina; Kchour, Ghada; Hermine, Olivier; de Thé, Hugues; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses are associated with a wide variety of diseases, including immunological, neurological disorders, and different forms of cancer. Among retroviruses, Oncovirinae regroup according to their genetic structure and sequence, several related viruses such as human T-cell lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2), simian T cell lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (STLV-1 and STLV-2), and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). As in many diseases, animal models provide a useful tool for the studies of pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. In the current review, an overview on different animal models used in the study of these viruses will be provided. A specific attention will be given to the HTLV-1 virus which is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) but also of a number of inflammatory diseases regrouping the HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), infective dermatitis and some lung inflammatory diseases. Among these models, rabbits, monkeys but also rats provide an excellent in vivo tool for early HTLV-1 viral infection and transmission as well as the induced host immune response against the virus. But ideally, mice remain the most efficient method of studying human afflictions. Genetically altered mice including both transgenic and knockout mice, offer important models to test the role of specific viral and host genes in the development of HTLV-1-associated leukemia. The development of different strains of immunodeficient mice strains (SCID, NOD, and NOG SCID mice) provide a useful and rapid tool of humanized and xenografted mice models, to test new drugs and targeted therapy against HTLV-1-associated leukemia, to identify leukemia stem cells candidates but also to study the innate immunity mediated by the virus. All together, these animal models have revolutionized the biology of retroviruses, their manipulation of host genes and more importantly the potential ways to either prevent their infection or to

  8. [Dermatomiositis and evans syndrome associated with HTLV-1 infection].

    PubMed

    Loja-Oropeza, David; Zavala-Flores, Ernesto; Vilca-Vasquez, Maricela

    2016-03-01

    A 55-year-old female patient, born in Ayacucho, with a history of dermatomyositis for 3 years, who received irregular treatment with prednisone. Two months prior to admission, she presented with autoinmune hemolytic anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The patient received methylprednisolone pulse therapy and packed red blood cells transfusions. Upon admission, she was drowsy, with a poor overall status, marked weight loss, dehydration, with presence of livedo reticularis in her lower extremities, and onychodystrophy and onycholysis on the toes of both feet. Western blot test was positive for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The patient evolved with recurrent hypoglycemia. Therefore, we report a case of dermatomyositis and Evans syndrome in the context of an HTLV-1 infection.

  9. Detection of HTLV-1 by polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Setoyama, M; Kerdel, F A; Elgart, G; Kanzaki, T; Byrnes, J J

    1998-03-01

    A method for nonradioactive polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization was developed and used to determine the distribution of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral DNA in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). As controls, we used biopsy samples of five cases of mycosis fungoides, cells of an HTLV-I-infected cell line (MT2), as well as HTLV-1-negative cells (YAS). We successfully detected the amplicon of the HTLV-1 tax sequence in the nuclei of the cutaneous infiltrating lymphoid cells in 90% (9/10) of ATLL cases. Studies also revealed the existence of HTLV-1 provirus DNA in nuclei of sweat gland epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells as well as lymphoid cells in ATLL patients. Mycosis fungoides and YAS cells were negative for the HTLV-I tax sequence, but MT2 cells were strongly positive. The results indicated that this technique was more sensitive in detecting intracellular amplicons than was the previous in situ hybridization method. Through its use, we were able to easily determine the distribution of HTLV-I-positive cells among the various cells and tissues of paraffin-embedded archival materials.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Adeno-HTLV-III Hybrid Virus and Non- Cytopathic HTLV-III Mutant for Vaccine Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-28

    AD_______________ DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ADENO- HTLV -III HYBRID VIRUS AND NON- (V) CYTOPATHIC HTLV -III MUTANT FOR VACCINE USE Lf In Annual...Development and Evaluation of Adeno- HTLV -III Hybrid Virus and Non-Cytopathic HTLV -III Mutant for Vaccine Use 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lubet, Martha Turner...HIV virus. Assessment of vaccine efficacy against the virus challenge will include T4/T8 ratios, Interleukin-2 production, HTLV -IJT serology and ability

  11. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences.

  12. Functional Activity of Monocytes and Macrophages in HTLV-1 Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Camila F.; Souza, Anselmo S.; Diniz, Angela G.; Carvalho, Natália B.; Santos, Silvane B.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2014-01-01

    The Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infects predominantly T cells, inducing proliferation and lymphocyte activation. Additionally, HTLV-1 infected subjects are more susceptible to other infections caused by other intracellular agents. Monocytes/macrophages are important cells in the defense against intracellular pathogens. Our aims were to determine the frequency of monocytes subsets, expression of co-stimulatory molecules in these cells and to evaluate microbicidal ability and cytokine and chemokine production by macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects. Participants were 23 HTLV-1 carriers (HC), 22 HAM/TSP patients and 22 healthy subjects (HS) not infected with HTLV-1. The frequencies of monocyte subsets and expression of co-stimulatory molecules were determined by flow cytometry. Macrophages were infected with L. braziliensis or stimulated with LPS. Microbicidal activity of macrophages was determined by optic microscopy. Cytokines/chemokines from macrophage supernatants were measured by ELISA. HAM/TSP patients showed an increase frequency of intermediate monocytes, but expression of co-stimulatory molecules was similar between the groups. Macrophages from HTLV-1 infected individuals were infected with L. braziliensis at the same ratio than macrophages from HS, and all the groups had the same ability to kill Leishmania parasites. However, macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects produced more CXCL9 and CCL5, and less IL-10 than cells from HS. While there was no correlation between IFN-γ and cytokine/chemokine production by macrophages, there was a correlation between proviral load and TNF and CXCL10. These data showed a dissociation between the inflammatory response and microbicidal ability of macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects. While macrophages ability to kill an intracellular pathogen did not differ among HTLV-1 infected subjects, these cells secreted high amount of chemokines even in unstimulated cultures. Moreover the increasing

  13. HTLV type 1 Tax transduction in microglial cells and astrocytes by lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Wrzesinski, S; Séguin, R; Liu, Y; Domville, S; Planelles, V; Massa, P; Barker, E; Antel, J; Feuer, G

    2000-11-01

    Infection with human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can result in the development of HAM/TSP, a nonfatal, chronic inflammatory disease involving neuronal degeneration and demyelination of the central nervous system. Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1 observed in the cerebrospinal fluid of HAM-TSP patients suggest that cytokine dysregulation within the CNS is involved in neuropathogenesis. HTLV-1 infection and enhanced expression of TNF-alpha by microglial cells, astrocytes, and macrophages has been hypothesized to lead to the destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes in the CNS. Although the association of HTLV-2 infection and development of neurological disease is more tenuous, HTLV-2 has also been found to be associated with peripheral neuropathies. To investigate the roles of HTLV Tax(1) and Tax(2) in the induction of cytokine disregulation in these cell types, we are currently developing gene delivery vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) capable of stably coexpressing the HTLV-1 or -2 tax and eGFP reporter genes in primary human cells. Transduction frequencies of up to 50%, as assessed by eGFP expression, can be achieved in human monocyte-derived macrophages and in explanted cultures of human microglia. Preliminary data suggest that Tax(1) expression is sufficient to up-regulate the proinflammatory cytokine profile in explanted human microglial cells. Future experiments will compare and evaluate the effect of tax(1) and tax(2) gene expression on the cellular proinflammatory cytokine expression profile, as well as demonstrate the effects of transducing human fetal astrocytes and PBMC-derived macrophages.

  14. Inhibition of the in vitro infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotrophic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) by 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuya, H; Broder, S

    1986-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III)/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) is a a newly discovered lymphotropic retrovirus that is cytopathic for helper/inducer T cells in vitro. This virus is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. In the current study, we tested the capacity of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives to inhibit the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III in vitro. With the ribose moiety of the molecule in a 2',3'-dideoxy configuration, every purine (adenosine, guanosine, and inosine) and pyrimidine (cytidine and thymidine) nucleoside tested suppressed the virus, although the thymidine derivative seemed to have substantially less activity in our system than the others. In general, we observed essentially complete suppression of the virus at doses that were lower by a factor of 10 to 20 than those needed to inhibit the proliferation of the target T cells and the immune reactivity of normal T cells in vitro. An analysis of five adenosine congeners, which differed only in the sugar moiety, revealed that reduction (an absence of hydroxyl determinants) at both the 2' and 3' carbons of the ribose was necessary for an anti-viral effect, and an additional reduction at the 5' carbon nullified the anti-viral activity. These observations may be of value in developing a new class of experimental drugs for the therapy of human T-lymphotropic virus type III infections. PMID:3006077

  15. Inhibition of HTLV-III by exogenous oligonucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodchild, J.; Zamecnik, P.C.

    1989-02-21

    A method is described of detecting the presence of HTLV-III virus in a sample by demonstrating inhibition of replication of the virus in cells which are normally killed by the HTLV-III virus after the cells have been (a) combined with the sample and an oligonucleotide complementary to at least one highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome necessary for HTLV-III replication and capable of hybridizing with at least the highly conserved region, the highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome being a nucleotide sequence present in the genomes of HTLV-III isolates and the oligonucleotide complementary to at least one highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome necessary for HTLV-III replication being complementary to a region of the HTLV-III genome.

  16. HTLV type I and HTLV type II infection among Indians and natives from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, M B; Zapiola, I; Quiruelas, S; Gorvein, D; Panzita, A; Rey, J; Carnese, F P; Corral, R; Perez, C; Zala, C

    1994-11-01

    Endemic foci for HTLV-II infection have been identified in several Amerindian populations. To determine HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II infection among Amerindians living in Argentina we studied 454 sera or plasmas from Indians and natives from different areas of our country. All samples were tested by the particle agglutination technique, and positive reactions were confirmed by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA titration was used to differentiate HTLV-I and HTLV-II antibodies. Twenty-three of 222 samples (10.4%) were found positive among the Tobas Indians; 22 samples were typed as HTLV-II and 1 as HTLV-I. Antibodies for HTLV-I were found in the serum and CSF of three natives from Salta with a TSP diagnosis. No positive samples were found among 96 Mapuche Indians and 133 natives from San Luis. Our results indicate that HTLV-II is endemic among the Tobas Indians. In this study, infection by these retroviruses in Argentinian Amerindians seems to have a marked geographic distribution.

  17. Profile of the MP Diagnostics HTLV Blot 2.4 test: a supplemental assay for the confirmation and differentiation of antibodies to HTLV-1 and HTLV-2.

    PubMed

    Miller, Liane

    2016-01-01

    As the first US FDA-approved assay for supplemental HTLV testing, the MP Diagnostics HTLV Blot 2.4 is an effective and efficient method for confirming and differentiating HTLV type infection in repeatedly reactive samples. Novel and patented antigens added increased sensitivity in identifying specimens from infected individuals while differentiating those from uninfected individuals with false reactivity.

  18. The Emerging Role of miRNAs in HTLV-1 Infection and ATLL Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Moles, Ramona; Nicot, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 is a human retrovirus and the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a fatal malignancy of CD4/CD25+ T lymphocytes. In recent years, cellular as well as virus-encoded microRNA (miRNA) have been shown to deregulate signaling pathways to favor virus life cycle. HTLV-1 does not encode miRNA, but several studies have demonstrated that cellular miRNA expression is affected in infected cells. Distinct mechanisms such as transcriptional, epigenetic or interference with miRNA processing machinery have been involved. This article reviews the current knowledge of the role of cellular microRNAs in virus infection, replication, immune escape and pathogenesis of HTLV-1. PMID:26205403

  19. HTLV-1-associated arthropathy treated with anti-TNF-alpha agent.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Laurent; Moura, Bertrand; Marcais, Ambroise; Chapdelaine, Hugo; Hermine, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 or HTLV-1 infection is a public health problem in endemic regions like Japan, Central America or Africa. Although the majority of HTLV-1 carriers remain asymptomatic throughout their lives, some patients could develop neurological disorder, inflammatory arthropathy also called HTLV-1-associated arthropathy or T-cell malignancy, the adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or ATL with a very poor prognosis. Described to be very close to rheumatoid arthritis, HTLV-1-associated arthropathy patients have few or no response to the first line therapy with corticosteroids and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs or DMARDs. The use of anti-TNF-α agents in these patients is an interesting alternative but asks the question of risk of developing an adult T-Cell leukemia/lymphoma. We reported an exceptional case of a smoldering ATL patient with an HTLV-1-associated arthropathy, refractory to corticosteroid, DMARDs and rituximab therapy, treated successfully with etanercept, without progression to aggressive ATL after 5 years.

  20. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Shuichi; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho; Ikeda, Masanori

    2015-12-01

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability.

  1. Detection of HTLV-III RNA in lungs of patients with AIDS and pulmonary involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Chayt, K.J.; Harper, M.E.; Marselle, L.M.; Lewin, E.B.; Rose, R.M.; Oleske, J.M.; Epstein, L.G.; Wong-Staal, F.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-11-07

    A majority of pediatric patients and rare adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) develop a chronic respiratory disorder referred to as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP). Efforts to identify an infectious agent responsible for this process so far have failed. In this study, frozen sections of lungs from patients with AIDS and pulmonary disease were tested by in situ molecular hybridization for the presence of cells infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) and expressing viral RNA. In the case of an infant with LIP, a relatively high frequency (0.1%) of cells in the lung were found to be positive for HTLV-III RNA. This number is the lower limit of total cells infected since the in situ hybridization technique as applied in this study depends on expression of HTLV-III genes, and previous evidence indicates that a proportion of cells infected with HTLV-III may not express viral RNA. Moreover, this degree of infection of the lung is likely limited to LIP, since in ten patients with AIDS and pulmonary diseases other than LIP, only 0% to 0.002% of cells in lung were positive for viral RNA expression. Thus, HTLV-III may play a direct causal role in the development of LIP in infected patients, implicating its involvement in yet another of the diverse clinical diseases associated with this virus.

  2. Laboratory and epidemiologic evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for antibodies to HTLV-III

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.W.; Grindon, A.J.; Feorino, P.M.; Schable, C.; Parvin, M.; Allen, J.R.

    1986-07-18

    The enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) were rapidly adopted for screening donated blood and plasma. To evaluate the significance of a positive EIA reaction, test performance was examined in a blood bank screening program. Specimens were tested by EIA, Western blot assay, and HTLV-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) culture. The EIA was positive in 0.25% of 67 190 blood donations. Specimens were categorized and 57.3% had low (weak) reactivity, 12.7% had moderate reactivity, and 30.0% had high reactivity. Highly reactive specimens were strongly associated with a positive Western blot or culture (86.7%) in contrast to moderately and weekly reactive specimens (1.9%). Twenty-five of 29 donors interviewed with a highly reactive EIA had risk factors for HTLV-III/LAV infection. Risk factors were not identified for 74 of 75 interviewed donors with specimens of lower reactivity. The minimum calculated specificity was 99.82%. The use of the HTLV-III EIA has virtually eliminated the use of blood and plasma for HTLV-III/LAV infected donors.

  3. Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system and HTLV-I infection.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Enrique J; Japón, Miguel A; Chinchón, Isidoro; Soriano, Vicente; Capote, Francisco J

    2002-01-01

    Only a few cases of AIDS-related primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (CNS) show a T-cell phenotype. We have recently studied two intravenous drug users with HIV infection who had primary CNS T-cell lymphomas. In both cases, the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for HTLV gave a positive result. In the first case, study by western-blot (WB) and specific PCR confirmed the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and serological study by EIA for HTLV of his mother was negative. In the second case, analysis of ante-mortem serum samples by two different WBs showed an indeterminate pattern suggestive of HTLV-I infection, but adequate samples for PCR were not available. We speculate about the possibility that the horizontal transmission of HTLV-I infection could have facilitated the devepolment of a primary CNS T-cell lymphoma in these HIV patients, although they cannot be strictly considered as ATLL cases.

  4. Kinetics and intracellular compartmentalization of HTLV-1 gene expression: nuclear retention of HBZ mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Rende, Francesca; Cavallari, Ilaria; Corradin, Alberto; Silic-Benussi, Micol; Toulza, Frederic; Toffolo, Gianna M.; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Jacobson, Steven; Taylor, Graham P.; D'Agostino, Donna M.; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) codes for 9 alternatively spliced transcripts and 2 major regulatory proteins named Tax and Rex that function at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. We investigated the temporal sequence of HTLV-1 gene expression in primary cells from infected patients using splice site-specific quantitative RT-PCR. The results indicated a two-phase kinetics with the tax/rex mRNA preceding expression of other viral transcripts. Analysis of mRNA compartmentalization in cells transfected with HTLV-1 molecular clones demonstrated the strict Rex-dependency of the two-phase kinetics and revealed strong nuclear retention of HBZ mRNAs, supporting their function as noncoding transcripts. Mathematical modeling underscored the importance of a delay between the functions of Tax and Rex, which was supported by experimental evidence of the longer half-life of Rex. These data provide evidence for a temporal pattern of HTLV-1 expression and reveal major differences in the intracellular compartmentalization of HTLV-1 transcripts. PMID:21398577

  5. HTLV-I infection and adult T-cell leukemia in Brazil: an overview.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M do S; Hamerschlak, N; Chiattone, C; Loureiro, P

    1996-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic factor for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). HTLV-I infection can also lead to other diseases, such as HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), uveitis, arthropathy and infectious dermatitis. Studies of the infectious mode of transmission of HTLV-I and risk factors for HTLV-I-related diseases have been conducted in several countries, and differences in the prevalence, age patterns, ethnic groups and clinical presentation of the related diseases have been described worldwide. Based on the geographical characteristics of Brazil and data from the literature, we have summarized the distribution of seroprevalence in blood donors in different states around the country, as well as the incidence of ATL in regards to the endemic foci. ATL in Brazil has the same characteristics as those described elsewhere, but is reported more frequently at a younger age. In order to better evaluate ATL in Brazil, a registry has been established at the several hematologic centers under the sponsorship of the instituto Nacional de Cancer and the Brazilian Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy, for the purpose of recording all cases originally diagnosed in Brazil.

  6. Mother-to-Child Transmission of HTLV-1 Epidemiological Aspects, Mechanisms and Determinants of Mother-to-Child Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Percher, Florent; Jeannin, Patricia; Martin-Latil, Sandra; Gessain, Antoine; Afonso, Philippe V.; Vidy-Roche, Aurore; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that infects at least 5–10 million people worldwide, and is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative malignancy; Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL); and a chronic neuromyelopathy, HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP), as well as other inflammatory diseases such as infective dermatitis and uveitis. Besides sexual intercourse and intravenous transmission, HTLV-1 can also be transmitted from infected mother to child during prolonged breastfeeding. Some characteristics that are linked to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HTLV-1, such as the role of proviral load, antibody titer of the infected mother, and duration of breastfeeding, have been elucidated; however, most of the mechanisms underlying HTLV-1 transmission during breast feeding remain largely unknown, such as the sites of infection and cellular targets as well as the role of milk factors. The present review focuses on the latest findings and current opinions and perspectives on MTCT of HTLV-1. PMID:26848683

  7. Mother-to-Child Transmission of HTLV-1 Epidemiological Aspects, Mechanisms and Determinants of Mother-to-Child Transmission.

    PubMed

    Percher, Florent; Jeannin, Patricia; Martin-Latil, Sandra; Gessain, Antoine; Afonso, Philippe V; Vidy-Roche, Aurore; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-02-03

    Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that infects at least 5-10 million people worldwide, and is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative malignancy; Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL); and a chronic neuromyelopathy, HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP), as well as other inflammatory diseases such as infective dermatitis and uveitis. Besides sexual intercourse and intravenous transmission, HTLV-1 can also be transmitted from infected mother to child during prolonged breastfeeding. Some characteristics that are linked to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HTLV-1, such as the role of proviral load, antibody titer of the infected mother, and duration of breastfeeding, have been elucidated; however, most of the mechanisms underlying HTLV-1 transmission during breast feeding remain largely unknown, such as the sites of infection and cellular targets as well as the role of milk factors. The present review focuses on the latest findings and current opinions and perspectives on MTCT of HTLV-1.

  8. Regulation of the tumor marker Fascin by the viral oncoprotein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) depends on promoter activation and on a promoter-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Caroline F; Gross, Christine; Bros, Matthias; Reske-Kunz, Angelika B; Biesinger, Brigitte; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K

    2015-11-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a highly infiltrative neoplasia of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes that occurs in about 5% of carriers infected with the deltaretrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral oncoprotein Tax perturbs cellular signaling pathways leading to upregulation of host cell factors, amongst them the actin-bundling protein Fascin, an invasion marker of several types of cancer. However, transcriptional regulation of Fascin by Tax is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a triple mode of transcriptional induction of Fascin by Tax, which requires (1) NF-κB-dependent promoter activation, (2) a Tax-responsive region in the Fascin promoter, and (3) a promoter-independent mechanism sensitive to the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2. Thus, Tax regulates Fascin by a multitude of signals. Beyond, using Tax-expressing and virus-transformed lymphocytes as a model system, our study is the first to identify the invasion marker Fascin as a novel target of PP2, an inhibitor of metastasis.

  9. Survey of the seroprovalence of HTLV I/II in hemodialysis patients and blood donors in Urmia.

    PubMed

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Baradaran, Mohammad; Sepehrvand, Nariman

    2008-09-01

    Human T lymphocytotropic virus HTLV is a virus from retroviridae family, and more than 20 million people are infected with this virus worldwide. It can cause leukemia/lymphoma in adults, tropical spastic paralysis, HTLV associated myelopathy, spastic paraparesis, tropical myelopathy (HAM/TSP), and some other nervous system diseases. It is transmitted by means of blood products via blood transfusion. In Iran, except the Great Khorasan region, none of blood products undergo screening for HTLV. Immunodeficiency in HD patients, results in increased risk of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HTLV-I/II antibody among hemo-dialysis patients and healthy blood donors in Urmia, Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2005 to January 2006 among healthy blood donors and in 2006 among hemodialysis patients. The serum of 2046 blood donors and 95 Hemodialysis patients was checked with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti HTLV-I/II, and positive cases were confirmed by western blot. Three seropositive cases among 95 hemodialysis patients were detected, and only one of them was confirmed by western blot. Of the healthy blood donors 1910 (93.4%) were males and 136 (6.6%) were females. Serum of 1997 (97.6%) subjects was negative, and 49 (2.6%) cases were positive for HTLV by ELISA. Among the positive cases western blot confirmed only 7 (14.3%) persons as HTLV positive, 37 (75.5%) as negative, and 5 (10.2%) as indeterminate. Among the 7 positive cases 6 (85.6%) were infected with HTLV-I, and only one (14.3%) with HTLV-I /II infection. Total Serologic prevalence of HTLV in healthy blood donors was 0.34%. We conclude that such high serologic prevalence in the population of blood donors in Urmia city, suggests the high probability of transmission through blood transfusion, and therefore screening of blood donors for human T-lymphocyte virus is essential in this region. HD patients should be screened for HTLV and positive

  10. Methods for Identifying and Examining HTLV-1 HBZ Post-translational Modifications.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Jacob; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Green, Patrick L

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are chemical alterations to individual amino acids that alter a protein's conformation, stability, and/or function. Several pathogenic viruses have been shown to encode proteins with PTMs, including human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax and Rex regulatory proteins. HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper protein (HBZ) was hypothesized to feature PTMs due to its functional activities and interactions with cellular transcription factors and acetyltransferases. Here, we describe the approach used to identify, via mass spectrometry, the PTMs of HBZ. In addition, we describe methods to determine the functional relevance of the identified PTMs.

  11. Tax contributes apoptosis resistance to HTLV-1-infected T cells via suppression of Bid and Bim expression.

    PubMed

    Mühleisen, A; Giaisi, M; Köhler, R; Krammer, P H; Li-Weber, M

    2014-12-18

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 Tax has been shown to have a prosurvival role in infected T cells by enhancing expression of the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins. In this study, we show that the expression of proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) and Bid (BH3-interacting domain death agonist) is diminished in HTLV-1-infected leukemic cells. Using a Tax-inducible system and a transient overexpression approach, we demonstrate that Tax downregulates Bid and Bim expression at the transcriptional level. We show that reinforced expression of Bim and Bid in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines sensitizes CD95/TRAIL- and anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that Tax suppresses Bid and Bim expression by enhancing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein expression. siRNA knockdown of HIF-1α or chemical inhibition of the transactivation activity of HIF-1α resulted in an increase in Bid and Bim expression and, consequently, in an increase in CD95/TRAIL- and anticancer drug-induced apoptosis in HTLV-1-infected leukemic T-cell lines. Our study provides evidence that besides upregulation of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins, Tax may also confer apoptosis resistance to HTLV-1-infected T cells by suppressing the expression of the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Bim and Bid.

  12. Neuropathology of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP): The 50th Anniversary of Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Izumo, Shuji

    2010-10-01

    A series of our neuropathological studies was reviewed in order to clarify pathogenesis of human T lymphotropic virus type 1(HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). The essential histopathologic finding was chronic inflammation in which inflammatory infiltrates of mononuclear cells and degeneration of myelin and axons were noted in the entire spinal cord. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated T-cell dominance, and the numbers of CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells were equally present in patients with shorter clinical courses. Apoptosis of helper/inducer T-cells were observed in these active inflammatory lesions. Horizontal distribution of inflammatory lesions was symmetric at all spinal levels and was accentuated at sites with slow blood flow in the middle to lower thoracic levels. HTLV-1 proviral DNA amounts were well correlated with the numbers of infiltrated CD4+ cells. In situ PCR of HTLV-1 proviral DNA and in situ hybridization of HTLV-1 Tax gene demonstrated the presence of HTLV-1-infected cells exclusively in the mononuclear infiltrates of perivascular areas. From these findings, it is suggested that T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory processes targeting the HTLV-1 infected T-cells is the primary pathogenic mechanism of HAM/TSP. Anatomically determined hemodynamic conditions may contribute to the localization of infected T-cells and the formation of main lesions in the middle to lower thoracic spinal cord.

  13. Confirming the presence of HTLV-1 infection and the absence of HTLV-2 in blood donors from Arequipa, Peru.

    PubMed

    Quispe, Nadia Carmela Santos; Feria, Edwin Bengoa; Santos-Fortuna, Elizabeth de los; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies conducted in Peru disclosed HTLV-1 to be prevalent in different ethnic groups, and found HTLV-2 in some Amazonian Indians and in men who have sex with men. No data concerning HTLV-1/2 infection in blood donors from Arequipa, a highlands region in southern Peru, is available. We searched for the presence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 antibodies in 2,732 serum samples obtained from blood donors from this geographic area. HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and were confirmed by Western blot (WB). Reactive sera had their blood bags discarded from donation, and the demographic characteristics of the donors were analyzed. Thirty-five sera (1.2%) were HTLV seroreactive by ELISA, and 25 were confirmed HTLV-1-positive by WB. One serum disclosed HTLV-positivity, and the remaining nine serum samples showed indeterminate results by WB; three of which had an HTLV-1 indeterminate Gag profile. The median age of HTLV-positive individuals was 34.6 years; 27 were male and eight were female. All individuals were from southern Peru: 27 from Arequipa, five from Puno, and three from Cuzco. HTLV co-positivity with hepatitis B (five sera) and syphilis (one serum) were detected. Previous transfusion and tattooing were observed in two and one individuals, respectively. No serum was positive for HTLV/HIV co-infection. This study confirmed, for the first time, HTLV-1 infection and the absence of HTLV-2 infection in blood donors from Arequipa, Peru and suggests vertical transmission as the major route of HTLV-1 transmission and acquisition in this geographic region.

  14. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A. ); Gaynor, R.B. Wadsworth Veterans Hospital, Los Angeles, CA )

    1988-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses.

  15. HTLV-1 Infection and Neuropathogenesis in the Context of Rag1(-/-)γc(-/-) (RAG1-Hu) and BLT Mice.

    PubMed

    Ginwala, Rashida; Caruso, Breanna; Khan, Zafar K; Pattekar, Ajinkya; Chew, Glen M; Corley, Michael J; Loonawat, Ronak; Jacobson, Steven; Sreedhar, Sreesha; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Jain, Pooja

    2017-04-04

    To date, the lack of a suitable small animal model has hindered our understanding of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 chronic infection and associated neuropathogenesis defined as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The host immune response plays a critical role in the outcome of HTLV-1 infection, which could be better tested in the context of humanized (hu) mice. Thus, we employ here the Balb/c-Rag1(-/-)γc(-/-) or Rag1 as well as Bone marrow-Liver-Thymic (BLT) mouse models for engraftment of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. Flow cytometry and histological analyses confirmed reconstitution of Rag1 and BLT mice with human immune cells. Following HTLV-1 infection, proviral load (PVL) was detected in the blood of Rag-1 and BLT hu-mice as early as 2 weeks post-infection (wpi) with sustained elevation in the subsequent weeks followed by Tax expression. Additionally, infection was compared between adult and neonatal Rag1 mice with both PVL and Tax expression considerably higher in the adult Rag1 mice as compared to the neonates. Establishment of peripheral infection led to lymphocytic infiltration with concomitant Tax expression and resulting myelin disruption within the central nervous system of infected mice. In addition, up-regulation in the expression of several immune checkpoint mediators such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), T-cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT), and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) were observed on CD8(+) T cells in various organs including the CNS of infected hu-mice. Collectively, these studies represent the first attempt to establish HTLV-1 neuropathogenesis in the context of Rag-1 and BLT hu-mice as potential novel tools for understanding HTLV-1 neuropathogenesis and testing of novel therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade in the amelioration of chronic HTLV-1 infection.

  16. [Relevance of safety measures to avoid HTLV transmission by transfusion in 2014].

    PubMed

    Laperche, S; Pillonel, J

    2014-11-01

    In high-income countries, the safety of blood transfusion related to viruses has reached a very high level, especially thanks to the implementation of multiple measures aimed at reducing the transfusion risk. The cost-effectiveness of these preventive measures is frequently discussed due to global financial resources, which are more and more limited. Hence, the revision of safety strategies is a key issue, especially when these strategies are redundant, as those implemented to avoid Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) transmission, which are based on both antibodies screening and leucoreduction of blood products. The residual risk of the transmission of HTLV by transfusion has been recently estimated at 1 in 20 million donations (2010-2012) in France (excluding overseas territories). This estimation did not take into account the leucoreduction, which appears to be a very efficient preventive measure as the virus is strictly intra-cellular. To help decision-making, we have evaluated some parameters related to HTLV blood transmission. Firstly, the probability that an incident occurring during the leucoreduction process affects a HTLV-positive blood donation has been estimated at 1 in 178 million. Estimation of clinical consequences of HTLV-positive transfusions would affect 1 to 2 transfused-patients without leucoreduction, and one recipient every 192 years in case of 10% failures of the filtration method. Obviously, despite a risk, which appears to be controlled, HTLV screening will be disputed as soon as the efficiency of leucoreduction to totally prevent virus blood transmission will be proven and when pathogen inactivation methods are generalized to all blood cellular products.

  17. Interaction of HTLV-1 Tax protein with the calreticulin: Implications for Tax nuclear export and secretion

    PubMed Central

    Alefantis, Timothy; Flaig, Katherine E.; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja

    2007-01-01

    Summary Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The HTLV-1 transcriptional transactivator protein Tax plays an integral role in virus replication and disease progression. Traditionally, Tax is described as a nuclear protein where it performs its primary role as a transcriptional transactivator. However, recent studies have clearly shown that Tax can also be localized to the cytoplasm where it has been shown to interact with a number of host transcription factors most notably NF-κB, constitutive expression of which is directly related to the T cell transforming properties of Tax in ATL patients. The presence of a functional nuclear export signal (NES) within Tax and the secretion of full-length Tax have also been demonstrated previously. Additionally, release of Tax from HTLV-1-infected cells and the presence of cell-free Tax was demonstrated in the CSF of HAM/TSP patients suggesting that the progression of HAM/TSP might be mediated by the ability of Tax to work as an extracellular cytokine. Therefore, in both ATL and HAM/TSP Tax nuclear export and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling may play a critical role, the mechanism of which remains unknown. In this study, we have demonstrated that the calcium binding protein calreticulin interacts with Tax by coimmunoprecipitation. This interaction was found to localize to a region at or near the nuclear membrane. In addition, differential expression of calreticulin was demonstrated in various cell types that correlated with their ability to retain cytoplasmic Tax, particularly in astrocytes. Finally, a comparison of a number of HTLV-1-infected T cell lines to non-infected T cells revealed higher expression of calreticulin in infected cells implicating a direct role for this protein in HTLV-1 infection. PMID:17395420

  18. Genetic Markers of the Host in Persons Living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV Infections.

    PubMed

    Assone, Tatiane; Paiva, Arthur; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto M; Casseb, Jorge

    2016-02-03

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are prevalent worldwide, and share similar means of transmission. These infections may influence each other in evolution and outcome, including cancer or immunodeficiency. Many studies have reported the influence of genetic markers on the host immune response against different persistent viral infections, such as HTLV-1 infection, pointing to the importance of the individual genetic background on their outcomes. However, despite recent advances on the knowledge of the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection, gaps in the understanding of the role of the individual genetic background on the progress to disease clinically manifested still remain. In this scenario, much less is known regarding the influence of genetic factors in the context of dual or triple infections or their influence on the underlying mechanisms that lead to outcomes that differ from those observed in monoinfection. This review describes the main factors involved in the virus-host balance, especially for some particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, and other important genetic markers in the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other persistent viruses, such as HIV and HCV.

  19. Genetic Markers of the Host in Persons Living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Assone, Tatiane; Paiva, Arthur; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto M.; Casseb, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are prevalent worldwide, and share similar means of transmission. These infections may influence each other in evolution and outcome, including cancer or immunodeficiency. Many studies have reported the influence of genetic markers on the host immune response against different persistent viral infections, such as HTLV-1 infection, pointing to the importance of the individual genetic background on their outcomes. However, despite recent advances on the knowledge of the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection, gaps in the understanding of the role of the individual genetic background on the progress to disease clinically manifested still remain. In this scenario, much less is known regarding the influence of genetic factors in the context of dual or triple infections or their influence on the underlying mechanisms that lead to outcomes that differ from those observed in monoinfection. This review describes the main factors involved in the virus–host balance, especially for some particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, and other important genetic markers in the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other persistent viruses, such as HIV and HCV. PMID:26848682

  20. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, tropical spastic paraparesis, cerebral vasculitis, and protein S deficiency in a patient with HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J; Gonzalez, J; Rosenberg, R; Fujihara, K; Cottrill, C M; Klainer, A S; Bisaccia, E

    1996-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of retroviruses is expanding rapidly. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) was the first retrovirus to be described, and its role had been established in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with HTLV-I and the unusual combination of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, tropical spastic paraparesis, cerebral vasculitis, and protein S deficiency. We discuss the relationship of all her diseases to HTLV-I.

  1. Immune Compromise in HIV-1/HTLV-1 Coinfection With Paradoxical Resolution of CD4 Lymphocytosis During Antiretroviral Therapy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rockwood, N; Cook, L; Kagdi, H; Basnayake, S; Bangham, C R M; Pozniak, A L; Taylor, G P

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infections have complex effects on adaptive immunity, with specific tropism for, but contrasting effects on, CD4 T lymphocytes: depletion with HIV-1, proliferation with HTLV-1. Impaired T lymphocyte function occurs early in HIV-1 infection but opportunistic infections (OIs) rarely occur in the absence of CD4 lymphopenia. In the unusual case where a HIV-1 infected individual with a high CD4 count presents with recurrent OIs, a clinician is faced with the possibility of a second underlying comorbidity. We present a case of pseudo-adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfection where the individual fulfilled Shimoyama criteria for chronic ATLL and had pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii, despite a high CD4 lymphocyte count. However, there was no evidence of clonal T-cell proliferation by T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies nor of monoclonal HTLV-1 integration by high-throughput sequencing. Mutually beneficial interplay between HIV-1 and HTLV-1, maintaining high level HIV-1 and HTLV-1 viremia and proliferation of poorly functional CD4 cells despite chronicity of infection is a postulated mechanism. Despite good microbiological response to antimycobacterial therapy, the patient remained systemically unwell with refractory anemia. Subsequent initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy led to paradoxical resolution of CD4 T lymphocytosis as well as HIV-1 viral suppression and decreased HTLV-1 proviral load. This is proposed to be the result of attenuation of immune activation post-HIV virological control. This case illustrates the importance of screening for HTLV-1 in HIV-1 patients with appropriate clinical presentation and epidemiological risk factors and explores mechanisms for the complex interactions on HIV-1/HTLV-1 adaptive immunity.

  2. The transcription elongation factor ELL2 is specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-infected T-cells and is dependent on the viral oncoprotein Tax

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Melanie C. Strobel, Sarah Fleckenstein, Bernhard Kress, Andrea K.

    2014-09-15

    The oncoprotein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a potent transactivator of viral and cellular transcription. Here, we identified ELL2 as the sole transcription elongation factor to be specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-/Tax-transformed T-cells. Tax contributes to regulation of ELL2, since transient transfection of Tax increases ELL2 mRNA, Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter, and repression of Tax results in decrease of ELL2 in transformed T-lymphocytes. However, we also measured upregulation of ELL2 in HTLV-1-transformed cells exhibiting undetectable amounts of Tax, suggesting that ELL2 can still be maintained independent of continuous Tax expression. We further show that Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter, indicating that ELL2 cooperates with Tax in viral transactivation. This is supported by our findings that Tax and ELL2 accumulate in nuclear fractions and that they co-precipitate upon co-expression in transiently-transfected cells. Thus, upregulation of ELL2 could contribute to HTLV-1 gene regulation. - Highlights: • ELL2, a transcription elongation factor, is upregulated in HTLV-1-positive T-cells. • Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter. • Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter. • Tax and ELL2 interact in vivo.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Infection Using Co-Culture with Jurkat LTR-Luciferase or Jurkat LTR-GFP Reporter Cells.

    PubMed

    Alais, Sandrine; Dutartre, Hélène; Mahieux, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Unlike HIV-1, HTLV-1 viral transmission requires cell-to-cell contacts, while cell-free virions are poorly infectious and almost absent from body fluids. Though the virus uses three nonexclusive mechanisms to infect new target cells: (1) MTOC polarization followed by formation of a virological synapse and viral transfer into a synaptic cleft, (2) genesis of a viral biofilm and its transfer of embedded viruses, or (3) HTLV-1 transmission using conduits. The Tax transactivator and the p8 viral proteins are involved in virological synapse and nanotube formation respectively.HTLV-1 transcription from the viral promoter (i.e., LTR) requires the Tax protein that is absent from the viral particle and is expressed after productive infection. The present chapter focuses on a series of protocols used to quantify HTLV-1 de novo infection of target cells. These techniques do not discriminate between the different modes of transmission, but allow an accurate measure of productive infection. We used cell lines that are stably transfected with LTR-GFP or LTR-luciferase plasmids and quantified Green Fluorescent Protein expression or luciferase activity, since both of them reflect Tax expression.

  4. HTLV-1 Infection and Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma-A Tale of Two Proteins: Tax and HBZ.

    PubMed

    Giam, Chou-Zen; Semmes, Oliver John

    2016-06-16

    HTLV-1 (Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1) is a complex human delta retrovirus that currently infects 10-20 million people worldwide. While HTLV-1 infection is generally asymptomatic, 3%-5% of infected individuals develop a highly malignant and intractable T-cell neoplasm known as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) decades after infection. How HTLV-1 infection progresses to ATL is not well understood. Two viral regulatory proteins, Tax and HTLV-1 basic zipper protein (HBZ), encoded by the sense and antisense viral transcripts, respectively, are thought to play indispensable roles in the oncogenic process of ATL. This review focuses on the roles of Tax and HBZ in viral replication, persistence, and oncogenesis. Special emphasis is directed towards recent literature on the mechanisms of action of these two proteins and the roles of Tax and HBZ in influencing the outcomes of HTLV-1 infection including senescence induction, viral latency and persistence, genome instability, cell proliferation, and ATL development. Attempts are made to integrate results from cell-based studies of HTLV-1 infection and studies of HTLV-1 proviral integration site preference, clonality, and clonal expansion based on high throughput DNA sequencing. Recent data showing that Tax hijacks key mediators of DNA double-strand break repair signaling-the ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8) and the ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme (UBC13)-to activate the canonical nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and other signaling pathways will be discussed. A perspective on how the Tax-RNF8 signaling axis might impact genomic instability and how Tax may collaborate with HBZ to drive oncogenesis is provided.

  5. "HTLV-I Infection" Twenty-Year Research in Neurology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Shoeibi, Ali; Etemadi, Mohammdmahdi; Moghaddam Ahmadi, Amir; Amini, Mona; Boostani, Reza

    2013-03-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 belong to the Oncorna group of retroviridae, a large family of viruses, grouped initially by pathogenic features, but later revised on the basis of genome structure and nucleotide sequence. HTLV-I was the first discovered human retrovirus to be associated with a malignancy in 1980. The malignancy, first described by Uchiyama and co-workers in southwestern Japan, was named Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) and characterized with cutaneous and respiratory involvement, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and various metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalcemia. The HTLV-I has been known to be endemic to certain parts of Iran like the province of Khorasan in the northeast since 1990, with a 2.3% prevalence rate of infection. The main manifestations of HTLV-I infection are neurologic and hematologic (such as ATL) disorders, but it has also other manifestations such as uveitis, arthritis, dermatitis, vitiligo and lymphocytic alveolitis. Its main neurologic manifestation is a chronic progressive myelopathy that is referred to HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) in Japan and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (TSP) in Caribbean. But other disorders such as peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, myopathy, peripheral facial paresis, and so on have been reported too. In this review we wish to give some brief information on the different aspects (including epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathology, clinical findings, and treatment) of HTLV-I infection according to our twenty-year researches. The department of neurology of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences has been a pioneer in researches on HTLV-I in the last twenty years.

  6. HTLV-1 Infection and Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma—A Tale of Two Proteins: Tax and HBZ

    PubMed Central

    Giam, Chou-Zen; Semmes, Oliver John

    2016-01-01

    HTLV-1 (Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1) is a complex human delta retrovirus that currently infects 10–20 million people worldwide. While HTLV-1 infection is generally asymptomatic, 3%–5% of infected individuals develop a highly malignant and intractable T-cell neoplasm known as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) decades after infection. How HTLV-1 infection progresses to ATL is not well understood. Two viral regulatory proteins, Tax and HTLV-1 basic zipper protein (HBZ), encoded by the sense and antisense viral transcripts, respectively, are thought to play indispensable roles in the oncogenic process of ATL. This review focuses on the roles of Tax and HBZ in viral replication, persistence, and oncogenesis. Special emphasis is directed towards recent literature on the mechanisms of action of these two proteins and the roles of Tax and HBZ in influencing the outcomes of HTLV-1 infection including senescence induction, viral latency and persistence, genome instability, cell proliferation, and ATL development. Attempts are made to integrate results from cell-based studies of HTLV-1 infection and studies of HTLV-1 proviral integration site preference, clonality, and clonal expansion based on high throughput DNA sequencing. Recent data showing that Tax hijacks key mediators of DNA double-strand break repair signaling—the ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8) and the ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme (UBC13)—to activate the canonical nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and other signaling pathways will be discussed. A perspective on how the Tax-RNF8 signaling axis might impact genomic instability and how Tax may collaborate with HBZ to drive oncogenesis is provided. PMID:27322308

  7. HTLV-I Infection” Twenty-Year Research in Neurology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Shoeibi, Ali; Etemadi, Mohammdmahdi; Moghaddam Ahmadi, Amir; Amini, Mona; Boostani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 belong to the Oncorna group of retroviridae, a large family of viruses, grouped initially by pathogenic features, but later revised on the basis of genome structure and nucleotide sequence. HTLV-I was the first discovered human retrovirus to be associated with a malignancy in 1980. The malignancy, first described by Uchiyama and co-workers in southwestern Japan, was named Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) and characterized with cutaneous and respiratory involvement, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and various metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalcemia. The HTLV-I has been known to be endemic to certain parts of Iran like the province of Khorasan in the northeast since 1990, with a 2.3% prevalence rate of infection. The main manifestations of HTLV-I infection are neurologic and hematologic (such as ATL) disorders, but it has also other manifestations such as uveitis, arthritis, dermatitis, vitiligo and lymphocytic alveolitis. Its main neurologic manifestation is a chronic progressive myelopathy that is referred to HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) in Japan and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (TSP) in Caribbean. But other disorders such as peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, myopathy, peripheral facial paresis, and so on have been reported too. In this review we wish to give some brief information on the different aspects (including epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathology, clinical findings, and treatment) of HTLV-I infection according to our twenty-year researches. The department of neurology of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences has been a pioneer in researches on HTLV-I in the last twenty years. PMID:24470862

  8. A seroepidemiological survey of HTLV-I/II carriers in the Puna Jujeña.

    PubMed

    Dipierri, J E; Tajima, K; Cartier Robirosa, L; Sonoda, S

    1999-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) carriers are clustered in limited groups in the world. One of these groups is the Andean native population of South America. As part of an international collaborative study devoted to explore the clustering of HTVL-I carriers in different countries, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II virus in the native population of Puna Argentina in Jujuy. Blood samples of individuals of three populations of Puna Jujeña (Susques, Rinconada, Cochinoca) were screened with particle agglutination (PA), immunofluorescence (IF) and western immunoblotting analysis (WB) tests. Two out 86 (2.32%) individuals examined in the Puna Jujeña showed positive results for HTLV-I antibodies. It is concluded that the Province of Jujuy, in particular its less miscegenated highest altitude areas, constitute the northern and southern Andean natural geographical clustering of HTLV-I. This distribution is probably linked both to a history of prehistoric human dispersal in the Andes and to high mother- to-child transmission of the virus under close conditions of each group.

  9. Role of resident CNS cell populations in HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Lepoutre, Veronique; Jain, Pooja; Quann, Kevin; Wigdahl, Brian; Khan, Zafar K

    2009-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus discovered, is the etiologic agent for a number of disorders; the two most common pathologies include adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and a progressive demyelinating neuroinflammatory disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The neurologic dysfunction associated with HAM/TSP is a result of viral intrusion into the central nervous system (CNS) and the generation of a hyperstimulated host response within the peripheral and central nervous system that includes expanded populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This robust, yet detrimental immune response likely contributes to the death of myelin producing oligodendrocytes and degeneration of neuronal axons. The mechanisms of neurological degeneration in HAM/TSP have yet to be fully delineated in vivo and may involve the immunogenic properties of the HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax. This comprehensive review characterizes the available knowledge to date concerning the effects of HTLV-1 on CNS resident cell populations with emphasis on both viral and host factors contributing to the genesis of HAM/TSP.

  10. Lack of evidence of HTLV-I/II infection in T CD8 malignant or reactive lymphoproliferative disorders in France: a serological and/or molecular study of 169 cases.

    PubMed

    Fouchard, N; Flageul, B; Bagot, M; Avril, M F; Hermine, O; Sigaux, F; Merle-Beral, H; Troussard, X; Delfraissy, J F; de Thé, G

    1995-12-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II), originally isolated in 1982 from a patient with a "T hairy cell leukemia", has not yet been proven to be the causative agent of any specific hematological disease. In order to screen for such an event, and because HTLV-II has a preferential tropism for OKT8 (CD8) T cells (both in vivo and in vitro), we searched for the presence of HTLV-II in lymphoproliferative diseases (LP) of CD8+ T cells. We report a serological and/or molecular study of 169 patients with a T CD8 LP, including 76 patients with malignant or reactive T CD8 LP (34 lymphomas, 27 large granular leukemias, three prolymphocytic leukemias, one hairy cell leukemia, 11 reactive T CD8 LP) and 93 HIV-1+ patients with a T CD8 peripheral lymphocytosis ( > 1500/mm3) from a prospective HIV cohort involving 1264 individuals. In the first series, the 40 sera available were all HTLV-I/II negative, except a 67-year-old French Guyanan man, with a cutaneous large T CD8 cell lymphoma, HTLV-I+. Furthermore, the molecular analysis of the 69 available DNA samples by PCR failed to detect any proviral HTLV-I/II sequences, except for the HTLV-I+ patient. The serological study of the 93 HIV-1+ individuals with CD8 lymphocytosis, showed that three patients were HTLV-I+, but none was HTLV-II+. Thus, in contrast to HTLV-I, whose etiological role in adult T cell leukemia is now well established, there is neither epidemiological nor molecular evidence that prototypic HTLV-II may be etiologically associated specifically with any of the CD8+ T cell LP investigated in this report.

  11. HTLV-1 Tax deregulates autophagy by recruiting autophagic molecules into lipid raft microdomains.

    PubMed

    Ren, T; Takahashi, Y; Liu, X; Loughran, T P; Sun, S-C; Wang, H-G; Cheng, H

    2015-01-15

    The retroviral oncoprotein Tax from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an etiological factor that causes adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma, has a crucial role in initiating T-lymphocyte transformation by inducing oncogenic signaling activation. We here report that Tax is a determining factor for dysregulation of autophagy in HTLV-1-transformed T cells and Tax-immortalized CD4 memory T cells. Tax facilitated autophagic process by activating inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) complex, which subsequently recruited an autophagy molecular complex containing Beclin1 and Bif-1 to the lipid raft microdomains. Tax engaged a crosstalk between IKK complex and autophagic molecule complex by directly interacting with both complexes, promoting assembly of LC3+ autophagosomes. Moreover, expression of lipid raft-targeted Bif-1 or Beclin1 was sufficient to induce formation of LC3+ autophagosomes, suggesting that Tax recruitment of autophagic molecules to lipid rafts is a dominant strategy to deregulate autophagy in the context of HTLV-1 transformation of T cells. Furthermore, depletion of autophagy molecules such as Beclin1 and PI3 kinase class III resulted in impaired growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, indicating a critical role of Tax-deregulated autophagy in promoting survival and transformation of virally infected T cells.

  12. Immune activation induces immortalization of HTLV-1 LTR-Tax transgenic CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Swaims, Alison Y.; Khani, Francesca; Zhang, Yingyu; Roberts, Arthur I.; Devadas, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Although the pathogenesis of these disorders is poorly understood, it involves complex interactions with the host immune system. Activation of infected T cells may play an important role in disease pathogenesis through induction of the oncogenic HTLV-1 Tax transactivator protein. To test this hypothesis, we employed transgenic mice in which Tax is regulated by the HTLV-1 LTR. T-cell receptor stimulation of LTR-Tax CD4+ T cells induced Tax expression, hyper-proliferation, and immortalization in culture. The transition to cellular immortalization was accompanied by markedly increased expression of the antiapoptotic gene, mcl-1, previously implicated as important in T-cell survival. Immortalized cells exhibited a CD4+CD25+CD3− phenotype commonly observed in ATL. Engraftment of activated LTR-Tax CD4+ T cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγ null mice resulted in a leukemia-like phenotype with expansion and tissue infiltration of Tax+, CD4+ lymphocytes. We suggest that immune activation of infected CD4+ T cells plays an important role in the induction of Tax expression, T-cell proliferation, and pathogenesis of ATL in HTLV-1–infected individuals. PMID:20634377

  13. A classification of HTLV-III infection based on 75 cases seen in a suburban community.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M H; Pahwa, S G; Popovic, M; Sarngadharan, M G; Gallo, R C

    1985-09-01

    Since 1981, 75 patients have been seen at our hospital with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. We have classified their clinical presentation into Groups 0 to 6. Groups 0 to 3 all have antibody to the Mr 41,000 protein of HTLV-III. Group 0 has no evident disease (9 patients), Group 1 has lymphadenopathy with or without exaggerated infection (16 patients), Group 2 has persistent lymphadenopathy with chronic hepatitis B surface antigenemia or profound hypergammaglobulinemia (7 patients), Group 3 has oral candidiasis with or without lymphadenopathy (7 patients). In Group 4 are acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adults or children (32 patients). Group 5 is a special classification for immunocompromised patients. Group 6 patients have lymphomas and Mr 41,000 protein antibody. Four children were classified separately. Three patients in Group 3 developed Group 4 disorders (AIDS). Four patients in Group 4 developed Group 6 disorders. HTLV-III infection spread in families (8 of 36), all from infected mothers to children. In 17 sexual partners, 6 were found to be infected. Five of 6 infected partners were homosexuals. We saw an inordinate number of transfusional AIDS (4 of 29) and 1 of 46 other disorders. Two infants also presented with severe intracranial defects, one with microcephaly and one with cranial calcifications and lucency. HTLV-III is spreading with alarming speed.

  14. Detection and quantitation of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 mRNA species by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Green, Patrick L

    2007-06-01

    HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are highly related delta-retroviruses that infect and transform T-lymphocytes, but have distinct pathogenic properties. HTLV replication and survival requires the expression of multiple gene products from an unspliced and a series of highly related alternatively spliced mRNA species. To date, the comparative levels of all known HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 viral mRNAs in different transformed cell lines and at different stages of virus infection have not been assessed. In this study, we compiled a series of oligonucleotide primer pairs and probes to quantify both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 mRNA species using real-time RT-PCR. The optimized reaction for detection of each mRNA had amplification efficiency greater than 90% with a linear range spanning 25-2.5 x 10(7) copies. The R(2)'s of all standard curves were greater than 0.97. Quantitation of HTLV mRNAs between different cell lines showed variability (gag/pol>or=tax/rex>env>or=accessory proteins), but the overall levels of each mRNA relative to each other within a cell line were similar. These results provide a method to quantify all specific mRNAs from both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, which can be used to evaluate further viral gene expression and correlate transcript levels to key stages of the virus life cycle and ultimately, pathogenesis.

  15. No detection of HTLV-I proviral DNA in lesional skin biopsies from Swiss and German patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Böni, R; Davis-Daneshfar, A; Burg, G; Fuchs, D; Wood, G S

    1996-02-01

    The search for an infective agent linked to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) has also included the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Using sensitive techniques such as Southern blotting under low stringency conditions of hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primer sets designed to match pol, env and pX sequences of HTLV-I, we have screened lesional skin biopsies of 50 Swiss and German patients suffering from CTCL. No evidence of proviral integration of HTLV-I could be demonstrated in any of our patients. Our results, as well as a review of the literature, indicate that at least for European patients, HTLV-I does not seem to play a role in the aetiology of CTCL.

  16. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with HTLV-I infection: clinical overlap with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, F H; Colleoni, G W B; Teixeira, S P; Yamamoto, M; Michalany, N S; Almeida, F A; Chiba, A K; Petri, V; Fernandes, M A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S

    2006-04-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a malignant proliferation of mature helper T lymphocytes,(1) and is caused by human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I);(2) an HTLV-I infection endemic in the Caribbean, south-western Japan, South America and Africa.(3,4) Seroepidemiological studies suggest that it is also endemic in Brazil.(5) Although carriers of HTLV-I show polyclonal integration of virus in T lymphocytes, only patients with ATLL of various subtypes show monoclonal integration of HTLV-I in tumor cells.(6,7) Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are a group of primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative diseases(8) with unknown etiology.(9) The two most common presentations of CTCL are mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS).(10-13) However, both CTCL categories can easily resemble ATLL. Therefore, in HTLV-I endemic areas, differentiation between ATLL and CTCL must be performed, as they have different prognoses and treatment approaches.(14).

  17. Relevance of molecular tests for HTLV-1 infection as confirmatory tests after the first sero-screening.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kaori; Inokuchi, Naoko; Tsushima, Yuko; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection has been widely examined by serologics. In the first screening tests, serological false negative and positive samples have been reduced thanks to advances in assay techniques that apply new emission agents and sensors. On the other hand, western blot (WB) remains problematic. For example, WB analysis yields many samples equivalent to antibody positive ones. To reduce the need for WB, an alternative testing strategy is required to detect HTLV-1 infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the HTLV-1 provirus has recently been recommended for a final diagnosis of infection. However, although PCR is thought to be one element, the validation of detection performance for HTLV-1 infection between serological and molecular testing is not always clear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and test the validity of an improved methodology for serological detection of HTLV-infection, as well as that of PCR. In conclusion, the high values of kappa-statistics are expected to deliver high quality in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (or chemiluminescent immunoassay), while the problems with WB assays remain to be elucidated. As an alternative to WB, a combination of real-time qPCR and nested PCR is proposed as a suitable confirmatory test.

  18. Development of T cell lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP factor and Tax double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiejun; Satou, Yorifumi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2014-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL cells possess a CD4+ CD25+ phenotype, similar to that of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tax has been reported to play a crucial role in the leukemogenesis of HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genomic RNA, is expressed in all ATL cases and induces neoplastic and inflammatory disease in vivo. To test whether HBZ and Tax are both required for T cell malignancy, we generated HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice in which HBZ and Tax are expressed exclusively in CD4+ T cells. Survival was much reduced in HBZ/Tax double-transgenic mice compared with wild type littermates. Transgenic expression of HBZ and Tax induced skin lesions and T-cell lymphoma in mice, resembling diseases observed in HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, Tax single transgenic mice did not develop major health problems. In addition, memory CD4+ T cells and Foxp3+ Treg cells counts were increased in HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice, and their proliferation was enhanced. There was very little difference between HBZ single and HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice. Taken together, these results show that HBZ, in addition to Tax, plays a critical role in T-cell lymphoma arising from HTLV-1 infection.

  19. TCF1 and LEF1 act as T-cell intrinsic HTLV-1 antagonists by targeting Tax.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangyong; Yasunaga, Jun-ichirou; Akari, Hirofumi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2015-02-17

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a delta-type retrovirus that induces malignant and inflammatory diseases during its long persistence in vivo. HTLV-1 can infect various kinds of cells; however, HTLV-1 provirus is predominantly found in peripheral CD4 T cells in vivo. Here we find that TCF1 and LEF1, two Wnt transcription factors that are specifically expressed in T cells, inhibit viral replication through antagonizing Tax functions. TCF1 and LEF1 can each interact with Tax and inhibit Tax-dependent viral expression and activation of NF-κB and AP-1. As a result, HTLV-1 replication is suppressed in the presence of either TCF1 or LEF1. On the other hand, T-cell activation suppresses the expression of both TCF1 and LEF1, and this suppression enables Tax to function as an activator. We analyzed the thymus of a simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) infected Japanese macaque, and found a negative correlation between proviral load and TCF1/LEF1 expression in various T-cell subsets, supporting the idea that TCF1 and LEF1 negatively regulate HTLV-1 replication and the proliferation of infected cells. Thus, this study identified TCF1 and LEF1 as Tax antagonistic factors in vivo, a fact which may critically influence the peripheral T-cell tropism of this virus.

  20. Reactive oxygen species mediate N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide-induced cell death in malignant T cells and are inhibited by the HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax.

    PubMed

    Darwiche, N; Abou-Lteif, G; Bazarbachi, A

    2007-02-01

    N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR) is a synthetic retinoid that inhibits growth of many human tumor cells, including those resistant to natural retinoids. HPR is an effective chemopreventive agent for prostate, cervix, breast, bladder, skin and lung cancers, and has shown promise for the treatment of neuroblastomas. We have previously shown that HPR inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-negative malignant T cells, whereas no effect is observed on normal lymphocytes. In this report, we identified HPR-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as the key mediator of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of malignant T cells. HPR treatment of HTLV-I-negative malignant T cells was associated with a rapid and progressive ROS accumulation. Pre-treatment with the antioxidants vitamin C and dithiothreitol inhibited ROS generation, prevented HPR-induced ceramide accumulation, cell cycle arrest, cytochrome c release, caspase-activation and apoptosis. Therefore, anti-oxidants protected malignant T cells from HPR-induced growth inhibition. The expression of the HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax abrogated HPR-induced ROS accumulation in HTLV-I-infected cells, which explains their lower sensitivity to HPR. Defining the mechanism of free radical induction by HPR may support a potential therapeutic role for this synthetic retinoid in ATL and HTLV-I-negative T-cell lymphomas.

  1. Role of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections with emphasis on HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Taraneh; Farajifard, Hamid; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Bustani, Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Rajaei, Bahareh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-04-04

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 HAM/TSP patients, 20 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) to evaluate the expression of IL-21 and Tax and PVL in non-activated and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-ionomycin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The mean mRNA expression of IL-21 in the non-activated and activated PBMCs was higher (by 5-13 times) in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between ACs and HCs. In contrast to the IL-21 mRNA expression, the serum level of the IL-21 protein was significantly lower in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p < 0.05). Furthermore, higher expression of Tax and PVL was observed in the HAM/TSP subjects than ACs (p < 0.05). In addition, Tax gene expression was positively correlated with PVL (R = 0.595, p = 0.000) and IL-21 gene expression (R = 0.395, p = 0.021) in the HTLV-1-infected subjects. In conclusion, the increase in IL-21 mRNA expression may reflect the attempt of infected T cells to induce an appropriate antiviral response, and the decrease in IL-21 protein expression may reflect the inhibition of IL-21 mRNA translation by viral factors in favour of virus evasion and dissemination.

  2. The difficulty of detecting HTLV-1 proviral sequences in patients with mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Pancake, B A; Zucker-Franklin, D

    1996-12-01

    Although most patients with cutaneous T cell lymphomas, including mycosis fungoides (MF) and its leukemic variant, the Sézary syndrome, are seronegative for antibodies to the human T cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-I/II), it has recently been shown that > 95% of such patients harbor proviral DNA sequences related to the region of the HTLV genome that encodes the transregulatory/transforming gene, tax. However, the demonstration of HTLV sequences, even after amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has not been universally successful, and some investigators continue to question this observation. In an effort to resolve this controversy, we have compared published methodologies that have been less successful with techniques currently used in this laboratory. Major differences were found in (a) the nature of the cells used [freshly isolated versus cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] and (b) the methods used to prepare samples for PCR (whole cell lysates versus DNA extracts). PBMC from 10 different MF patients and the healthy daughter of 1 of the patients were subjected to comparative analyses. While all of the PBMC lysates were positive, the DNA extract from only one of these individuals revealed HTLV tax sequences. Studies were also conducted comparing cell lysates and DNA extracts of cultured cells derived from tax sequence-positive PBMC from seven different MF patients. The cells from four of the seven were shown to have retained tax sequences after varying times in culture, when whole-cell lysates were used as targets for PCR amplification and Southern analysis, whereas none of the DNA extracts were positive. It appears that the use of whole-cell lysates instead of DNA extracts and the use of fresh instead of cultured cells greatly enhance the ability to detect HTLV-1 tax sequences in specimens from MF patients.

  3. Localization and Sub-Cellular Shuttling of HTLV-1 Tax with the miRNA Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Van Duyne, Rachel; Guendel, Irene; Klase, Zachary; Narayanan, Aarthi; Coley, William; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Roman, Jessica; Popratiloff, Anastas; Mahieux, Renaud; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-01-01

    The innate ability of the human cell to silence endogenous retroviruses through RNA sequences encoding microRNAs, suggests that the cellular RNAi machinery is a major means by which the host mounts a defense response against present day retroviruses. Indeed, cellular miRNAs target and hybridize to specific sequences of both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 viral transcripts. However, much like the variety of host immune responses to retroviral infection, the virus itself contains mechanisms that assist in the evasion of viral inhibition through control of the cellular RNAi pathway. Retroviruses can hijack both the enzymatic and catalytic components of the RNAi pathway, in some cases to produce novel viral miRNAs that can either assist in active viral infection or promote a latent state. Here, we show that HTLV-1 Tax contributes to the dysregulation of the RNAi pathway by altering the expression of key components of this pathway. A survey of uninfected and HTLV-1 infected cells revealed that Drosha protein is present at lower levels in all HTLV-1 infected cell lines and in infected primary cells, while other components such as DGCR8 were not dramatically altered. We show colocalization of Tax and Drosha in the nucleus in vitro as well as coimmunoprecipitation in the presence of proteasome inhibitors, indicating that Tax interacts with Drosha and may target it to specific areas of the cell, namely, the proteasome. In the presence of Tax we observed a prevention of primary miRNA cleavage by Drosha. Finally, the changes in cellular miRNA expression in HTLV-1 infected cells can be mimicked by the add back of Drosha or the addition of antagomiRs against the cellular miRNAs which are downregulated by the virus. PMID:22808228

  4. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  5. [Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a HTLV-I carrier with monoclonal proliferation of HTLV-I infected lymphocyte].

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, N; Furukawa, Y; Tara, M; Niina, K

    1996-04-01

    A 63-year-old woman had Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia without any apparent underlying disease such as cancers or HIV infection. Although she reacted positively for HTLV-I antibody, hematological findings and clinical symptoms did not suggest that this patient had an ATL. Southern blot analysis revealed that HTLV-I infected lymphocytes had already proliferated monoclonally. The development of overt ATL should be carefully monitored in this type of patient as Pneumocystis carinii infection in HTLV-I carriers were reported to be a predictive sign of ATL and the monoclonal integration of a HTLV-I genome in the lymphocytes in this patient also suggests the presence of neoplastic clone.

  6. Development and Evaluation of Adeno HTLV-III Hybrid Virus and Non- Cytopathic HTLV-III Mutant for Vaccine Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-06

    PTIf 7IL E COPY AD_ _ _ DIVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF Ln ADENO HTLV -1II HYBRID VIRUS AND NON-CYTOPATHIC HTLV -III MUTANT FOR VACCINE USE " DTIC IIIII...Development and Evaluation of Adeno- HTLV -III Hybrid Virus and Non-Cytopathic HTLV -III Mutant for Vaccine Use 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dusing, Sandra K...reduction in OKT4+ cells. Minor cutaneous infections, diarrhea, weight loss and fever may be associated with ARC (8). Two subtypes of virus have been

  7. The diversity of the structure and genomic integration sites of HTLV-1 provirus in MT-2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hashikura, Yuuki; Umeki, Kazumi; Umekita, Kunihiko; Nomura, Hajime; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Okayama, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    A human T-lymphotropic virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) positive cell line, MT-2, derived from human cord leukocytes co-culturing with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cells is commonly used in HTLV-1 research; however, the details of provirus integrated in MT-2 genome have not yet been characterized. In this study, five types of HTLV-1 proviral sequences were detected in 11 different sites of the genome in a reference MT-2 cell line. The five types of HTLV-1 proviral sequences were one complete proviral genome, two types of proviruses with deletion of large internal viral sequences (5.3 and 3.9 kB), one provirus with a large deletion (6.2 kB) from 5'LTR to position 6257, and one provirus of LTR only. The provirus with identical deletion of large internal viral sequence (5.3 kB) was found to be integrated into six different sites (chromosomes). A complete provirus and three of four types of defective provirus were consistently detected in two other MT-2 cell lines cultured in different laboratories. Not only Tax/Rex RNA and HBZ RNA, but also the transcriptional product for a specific defective provirus, were detectable in all three MT-2 cell lines. Because it has been reported that defective provirus is frequently detected in ATL cells, these results may be important in understanding the mechanism of HTLV-1 proviral polymorphism, which may be related to leukemogenesis. In addition, the large variation in integrated HTLV-1 proviruses makes it important for researchers to exercise caution in their assessment and interpretation of results using MT-2 cell lines.

  8. A critical role for IL-17RB signaling in HTLV-1 tax-induced NF-κB activation and T-cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Lavorgna, Alfonso; Matsuoka, Masao; Harhaj, Edward William

    2014-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and the neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The HTLV-1 Tax protein functions as a potent viral oncogene that constitutively activates the NF-κB transcription factor to transform T cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, using next-generation RNA sequencing we identified the IL-25 receptor subunit IL-17RB as an aberrantly overexpressed gene in HTLV-1 immortalized T cells. Tax induced the expression of IL-17RB in an IκB kinase (IKK) and NF-κB-dependent manner. Remarkably, Tax activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway in T cells was critically dependent on IL-17RB expression. IL-17RB and IL-25 were required for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of primary T cells, and the constitutive NF-κB activation and survival of HTLV-1 transformed T cells. IL-9 was identified as an important downstream target gene of the IL-17RB pathway that drives the proliferation of HTLV-1 transformed cells. Furthermore, IL-17RB was overexpressed in leukemic cells from a subset of ATL patients and also regulated NF-κB activation in some, but not all, Tax-negative ATL cell lines. Together, our results support a model whereby Tax instigates an IL-17RB-NF-κB feed-forward autocrine loop that is obligatory for HTLV-1 leukemogenesis.

  9. Molecular Detection and Clinical Implications of HTLV-1 Infections among Antiretroviral Therapy-Naïve HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Idris Abdullahi; Ahmad, Abdurrahman Elfulaty; Emeribe, Anthony Uchenna; Shehu, Muhammad Sagir; Medugu, Jessy Thomas; Babayo, Adamu

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Individuals with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)/HIV-1 coinfection have been demonstrated to undergo CD4+ lymphocytosis even in the face of immunodeficiency and increased vulnerability to opportunistic pathogens that can lead to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE This study investigated the prevalence as well as the effects of HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfection on CD4+ cell counts, routine hematology, and biochemical parameters of study participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective cross-sectional study involved 184 blood samples collected from HIV-1-seropositive individuals attending HIV-special clinic of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Nigeria. These samples were analyzed for anti-HTLV-1/2 IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CD4+ cell counts, and some routine hematological and biochemical parameters. All samples were also tested for HTLV-1 provirus DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. RESULTS Of the 184 subjects studied, 9 (4.9%) were anti-HTLV-1/2 IgM seropositive; however, upon real-time PCR testing, 12 (6.5%) had detectable HTLV-1 provirus DNA. The CD4+ cell count was significantly high in HTLV-1-positive (742 ± 40.2) subjects compared to their HTLV-1-negative (380 ± 28.5) counterpart (P-value = 0.025). However, there was no significant association between HTLV-1 positivity with other hematology and biochemical parameters studied (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION All subjects (100%) who were HTLV-1/HIV-1-coinfected had normal CD4+ counts. This gives contrasting finding on the true extent of immunodeficiency of subjects. So it is suggested to be very careful in using only CD4+ counts to monitor disease progression and as indicators for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. In such conditions, there may be a need to test for HTLV-1 alongside HIV viral loads in order to begin appropriate ART regimens that contain both pathogens. PMID:26688662

  10. The autophagy molecule Beclin 1 maintains persistent activity of NF-κB and Stat3 in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Hua

    2015-10-02

    The retroviral oncoprotein Tax from human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces persistent activation of IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, an essential step for initiating HTLV-1 oncogenesis. The regulation of the IKK/NF-κB signaling in HTLV-1-transformed T cells remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we showed that the autophagy molecule Beclin1 not only executed a cytoprotective function through induction of autophagy but also played a pivotal role in maintaining Tax-induced activation of two key survival factors, NF-κB and Stat3. Silencing Beclin1 in HTLV-1-transformed T cells resulted in diminished activities of NF-κB and Stat3 as well as impaired growth. In Beclin1-depleted cells, Tax failed to activate NF-κB and Stat3 at its full capacity. In addition, we showed that Beclin1 interacted with the catalytic subunits of IKK. Further, we observed that selective inhibition of IKK repressed the activities of both NF-κB and Stat3 in the context of HTLV-1-transformation of T cells. Our data, therefore, unveiled a key role of Beclin1 in maintaining persistent activities of both NF-κB and Stat3 in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis.

  11. The Autophagy Molecule Beclin 1 Maintains Persistent Activity of NF-κB and Stat3 in HTLV-1-transformed T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The retroviral oncoprotein Tax from human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces persistent activation of IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, an essential step for initiating HTLV-1 oncogenesis. The regulation of the IKK/NF-κB signaling in HTLV-1-transformed T cells remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we showed that the autophagy molecule Beclin1 not only executed a cytoprotective function through induction of autophagy but also played a pivotal role in maintaining Tax-induced activation of two key survival factors, NF-κB and Stat3. Silencing Beclin1 in HTLV-1-transformed T cells resulted in diminished activities of NF-κB and Stat3 as well as impaired growth. In Beclin1-depleted cells, Tax failed to activate NF-κB and Stat3 at its full capacity. In addition, we showed that Beclin1 interacted with the catalytic subunits of IKK. Further, we observed that selective inhibition of IKK repressed the activities of both NF-κB and Stat3 in the context of HTLV-1-transformation of T cells. Our data, therefore, unveiled a key role of Beclin1 in maintaining persistent activities of both NF-κB and Stat3 in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:26319552

  12. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, downregulates the retroviral oncoprotein Tax and pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Di; Yuan, Yunsheng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xin; Belani, Chandra; Cheng, Hua

    2015-08-14

    Adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive form of hematological malignancy and is caused by chronic infection of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral genome encodes an oncogenic protein, Tax, which plays a key role in transactivating viral gene transcription and in deregulating cellular oncogenic signaling to promote survival, proliferation and transformation of virally infected T cells. Hence, Tax is a desirable therapeutic target, particularly at early stage of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. We here show that niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, induced apoptosis of HTLV-1-transformed T cells. Niclosamide facilitated degradation of the Tax protein in proteasome. Consistent with niclosamide-mediated Tax degradation, this compound inhibited activities of MAPK/ERK1/2 and IκB kinases. In addition, niclosamide downregulated Stat3 and pro-survival Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1 and repressed the viral gene transcription of HTLV-1 through induction of Tax degradation. Since Tax, Stat3 and Mcl-1 are crucial molecules for promoting survival and growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of niclosamide in inducing Tax degradation and downregulating various cellular pro-survival molecules, thereby promoting apoptosis of HTLV-1-associated leukemia cells.

  13. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, downregulates the retroviral oncoprotein Tax and pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Di; Yuan, Yunsheng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xin; Belani, Chandra; Cheng, Hua

    2015-08-14

    Adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive form of hematological malignancy and is caused by chronic infection of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral genome encodes an oncogenic protein, Tax, which plays a key role in transactivating viral gene transcription and in deregulating cellular oncogenic signaling to promote survival, proliferation and transformation of virally infected T cells. Hence, Tax is a desirable therapeutic target, particularly at early stage of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. We here show that niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, induced apoptosis of HTLV-1-transformed T cells. Niclosamide facilitated degradation of the Tax protein in proteasome. Consistent with niclosamide-mediated Tax degradation, this compound inhibited activities of MAPK/ERK1/2 and IκB kinases. In addition, niclosamide downregulated Stat3 and pro-survival Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1 and repressed the viral gene transcription of HTLV-1 through induction of Tax degradation. Since Tax, Stat3 and Mcl-1 are crucial molecules for promoting survival and growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of niclosamide in inducing Tax degradation and downregulating various cellular pro-survival molecules, thereby promoting apoptosis of HTLV-1-associated leukemia cells. - Highlights: • Niclosamide is a promising therapeutic candidate for adult T cell leukemia. • Niclosamide employs a novel mechanism through proteasomal degradation of Tax. • Niclosamide downregulates certain cellular pro-survival molecules.

  14. Human T-lymphotropic virus-1/2 detected in drug abused men who have sex with men in Surakarta Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia

    2017-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) are retroviruses that probably among the most neglected blood-borne pathogens. The molecular epidemiology data of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta Indonesia, to track the presentation of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia. All blood samples collected from men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed by RT-PCR nested addressed the part of HTLV-1 LTR and HTLV-2 LTR region, respectively. The specificity of the molecular assays was confirmed by sequencing the amplicons. The anti HTLV-1/2 positive rate was 4.8% (6/126). All positive serological samples were confirmed by nested RT-PCR. Of these, two was HTLV-1 positive and four was HTLV-2 positive. Molecular analysis of positive PCR products revealed that all HTLV-1 isolate had close relationship with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan while all HTLV-2 isolate with that of isolated in USA. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta indicated that these viruses were circulated in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities

  15. Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus in California's injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Trachtenberg, A I; Gaudino, J A; Hanson, C V

    1991-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus I (HTLV-I) and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus II (HTLV-II) are closely related retroviruses that are highly prevalent in injection drug users (IDUs). The bulk of infection in this group probably occurs with HTLV-II, with a lower prevalence of HTLV-I. HTLV-I is known to cause adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV-II has not been proven to cause any human pathology, but may be immunosuppressive and is almost indistinguishable serologically from HTLV-I. As with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infection with these viruses is likely to be lifelong and the disease may have a latent period of many years. Unlike HIV, HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II are not likely to be transmitted from mother to child prenatally, and usually require breast-feeding for vertical transmission. It is likely that HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II has been prevalent in IDUs for far longer than the HIV epidemic. HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II are relevant to the AIDS epidemic in that they may function as biologic markers of behavioral risk status for HIV infection in IDUs or their sexual partners, and they may accelerate the course of HIV infection in persons coinfected with HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II and HIV. Coinfection will be more likely as the HIV epidemic progresses. Pregnant addicts entering outpatient methadone maintenance treatment in San Francisco County or Contra Costa County during 1990 were found to have an HTLV-II prevalence of 21% (n = 24). Important issues in counseling infected methadone patients are described.

  16. HTLV-1 is predominantly sexually transmitted in Salvador, the city with the highest HTLV-1 prevalence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, David; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Taylor, Graham P.; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Salvador is the city with the highest number of HTLV-1 infected individuals in Brazil, yet the main route of HTLV-1 transmission is unknown. Objective To investigate the association of syphilis infection as a proxy for sexual transmission of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of this city. Methods A cross sectional population-based study was conducted with 3,451 serum samples obtained by a representative simple random sampling. Data on gender, age, income, and years of education were collected by questionnaire and the presence of HTLV, HIV and Treponema pallidum infection was determined by serology. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent effect of the potential explanatory variables to HTLV-1 infection and Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. Results The majority of studied individuals were female (56.4%), had less than 7 years of education (55.3%) and earned two or less minimum wages (52.0%). The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 1.48% (51/3,451; 95% CI: 1.10%– 1.94%), which increased with age. Only three persons younger than 17 (3/958; 0.31%; CI 95% 0.06–0.91) years were infected by HTLV-1. Among the 45 syphilis positives, 12 (26.7%) were HTLV positive, while among 21 HIV positives, only one (4.8%) was HTLV positive. HTLV-1 infection was found to be associated with syphilis infection (ORADJUSTED 36.77; 95% CI 14.96–90.41). Conclusion The data presented herein indicate that horizontal transmission between adults is the main route of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of Salvador and that this is likely to occur through sexual contact. PMID:28158226

  17. Analyses of HTLV-1 sequences suggest interaction between ORF-I mutations and HAM/TSP outcome.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Fernanda Khouri; Khouri, Ricardo; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Luciane Amorim; Castro-Amarante, Maria Fernanda de; Bialuk, Izabela; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Gessain, Antoine; Jacobson, Steven; Franchini, Genoveffa; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The region known as pX in the 3' end of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) genome contains four overlapping open reading frames (ORF) that encode regulatory proteins. HTLV-1 ORF-I produces the protein p12 and its cleavage product p8. The functions of these proteins have been linked to immune evasion and viral infectivity and persistence. It is known that the HTLV-1 infection does not necessarily imply the development of pathological processes and here we evaluated whether natural mutations in HTLV-1 ORF-I can influence the proviral load and clinical manifestation of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). For that, we performed molecular characterization, datamining and phylogenetic analysis with HTLV-1 ORF-I sequences from 156 patients with negative or positive diagnosis for HAM/TSP. Our analyses demonstrated that some mutations may be associated with the outcome of HAM/TSP (C39R, L40F, P45L, S69G and R88K) or with proviral load (P34L and F61L). We further examined the presence of mutations in motifs of HBZ and observed that P45L mutation is located within the HBZ nuclear localization signal and was found more frequently between patients with HAM/TSP and high proviral load. These results indicate that some natural mutations are located in functional domains of ORF-I and suggests a potential association between these mutations and the proviral loads and development of HAM/TSP. Therefore it is necessary to conduct functional studies aimed at evaluating the impact of these mutations on the virus persistence and immune evasion.

  18. Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaotong; Maranga, Innocent O; Oliver, Anthony W; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N

    2016-09-05

    The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV-ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck(®)) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC's from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV-ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07-26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV-ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear.

  19. Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaotong; Maranga, Innocent O.; Oliver, Anthony W.; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N.

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV−ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck®) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC’s from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV−ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07–26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV−ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear. PMID:27608036

  20. Human retroviruses and neoplastic disease.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M H

    1993-11-01

    Human retroviral infections result in significant neoplastic disease. Human T cell lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I), the first human retrovirus to be discovered, is associated with the development of acute T cell leukemia with characteristic hypercalcemia and skin lesions after many years of chronic infection of CD4+ cells. HTLV-I also produces myelopathy. A minor T cell immunodeficiency occurs in HTLV-I acute T cell leukemia with associated strongyloidiasis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Human T cell lymphotropic virus II (HTLV-II) is found to be endemic in Amerindians and intravenous drug users (IVDUs) and has been linked to some cases of hairy-cell leukemia. HTLV-II infects the CD8+ population, with significant cell-associated viremia. Clinical neurological disease is rare, with one patient with myelopathy having been described. Immunodeficiency does not seem to occur. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) produces aggressive large cell and Burkitt's lymphoma in as many as 10% of HIV-1-infected patients. More than 20% of homosexual men infected with HIV-1 develop Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The pathogenesis of KS is better understood through studying KS-like cell lines that induce angiogenic factors. In some patients HIV-1 and HTLV-I or HTLV-II infections occur concomitantly. HIV-1 accelerates the tumorigenesis of HTLV-I and produces unusual skin diseases when combined with HTLV-II. Immunodeficiency occurs in all HIV-1-infected patients.

  1. HTLV-1 Tax Protein Stimulation of DNA Binding of bZIP Proteins by Enhancing Dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Susanne; Green, Michael R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  2. Preventive and Therapeutic Strategies for Bovine Leukemia Virus: Lessons for HTLV

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Sabrina M.; Florins, Arnaud; Gillet, Nicolas; de Brogniez, Alix; Sánchez-Alcaraz, María Teresa; Boxus, Mathieu; Boulanger, Fanny; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Trono, Karina; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Willems, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). BLV is a major animal health problem worldwide causing important economic losses. A series of attempts were developed to reduce prevalence, chiefly by eradication of infected cattle, segregation of BLV-free animals and vaccination. Although having been instrumental in regions such as the EU, these strategies were unsuccessful elsewhere mainly due to economic costs, management restrictions and lack of an efficient vaccine. This review, which summarizes the different attempts previously developed to decrease seroprevalence of BLV, may be informative for management of HTLV-1 infection. We also propose a new approach based on competitive infection with virus deletants aiming at reducing proviral loads. PMID:21994777

  3. Analysis of HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) and antibody detected with various kinds of tests in Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship between PVL and antibody level and to gain insights toward better antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chieko; Sagara, Yasuko; Sobata, Rieko; Inoue, Yukiko; Morita, Maiko; Uchida, Shigeharu; Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki; Satake, Masahiro; Tadokoro, Kenji

    2017-03-02

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) occurs in approximately 5% of individuals infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). A high proviral load (PVL; more than four copies per 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or 1.6 copies per 100 blood leukocytes) and being male are risk factors for ATL development. Whether anti-HTLV-1 antibody level is related to such risk is unknown. Here, PVL and antibody levels were examined using real-time PCR and other tests in 600 HTLV-1 positive screened Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship between PVL and antibody level in asymptomatic carriers and to gain insights toward better antibody testing for HTLV-1 infection. The 430 donors in whom proviral DNA was detected were considered as true positives for HTLV-1 infection. Among donors aged 40 years or older, more males than females had a PVL corresponding to more than 1.6% infected leukocytes, and an antibody titer below the median (P = 0.0018). In antibody tests using an HTLV-1 positive cell line or Env antigens there was a large discrepancy in antibody titer among 13 provirus-positive samples, probably suggesting that antibody-based screening tests should incorporate multiple HTLV-1 antigens, such as Gag and Env antigens.

  4. Cutaneous type of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma in a French West Indian woman. Clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor beta and gamma genes and monoclonal integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA in the skin infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Moulonguet, I; Flageul, B; Perrin, P; Capesius, C; D'Agay, M F; Gisselbrecht, C; Sigaux, F; Civatte, J

    1990-11-01

    A 45-year-old woman, a native of the French West Indies who had lived in France since 1973, developed multiple cutaneous plaques and nodules in 1987. Histopathologic studies revealed dermal infiltration with mature activated T cells (CD4+, CD25+, DR+) with nuclear convolutions and epidermatotropisim. High titers of specific human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I antibodies were detected in the serum. Molecular analysis of DNA extracted from the skin tumor biopsy specimen showed a clonal integration of an HTLV-I provirus and a T-cell clonal population as demonstrated by T-cell receptor beta and gamma gene rearrangement studies. Neither HTLV-I provirus nor T-cell receptor rearrangements were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells DNA despite the presence of rare adult T cell leukemia cells (less than 1%) and a small excess of DR-expressing cells, and detection of HTLV-I Pol and Px sequences by in vitro gene amplification. In this case only gene analysis of the skin lesions made possible an early diagnosis of a cutaneous adult T cell leukemia. This illustrates the need for such molecular studies to differentiate, in HTLV-I seropositive patients from endemic areas, a HTLV-I-induced T cell lymphoma from HTLV-I-nonrelated cutaneous T cell lymphomas.

  5. The HTLV-I tax protein transcriptionally modulates OX40 antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Pankow, R; Dürkop, H; Latza, U; Krause, H; Kunzendorf, U; Pohl, T; Bulfone-Paus, S

    2000-07-01

    OX40 is a member of the TNF receptor family, expressed on activated T cells. It is the only costimulatory T cell molecule known to be specifically up-regulated in human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-producing cells. In a T cell line, OX40 surface expression was shown to be induced by HTLV-I Tax alone. To understand molecular mechanisms of OX40 gene regulation and modulation by HTLV-I Tax, we have cloned the human OX40 gene and analyzed its 5'-flanking region. By reporter gene analysis with progressive 5' deletions from nucleotides -1259 to -64, we have defined a 157-bp DNA fragment as a minimal promoter for constitutive expression. In addition, we show that in the OX40+ cell line, Co, Tax is able to further increase OX40 surface expression. Up-regulation of OX40 promoter activity by Tax requires two upstream NF-kappaB sites, which are not active in the constitutive OX40 expression. Their deletion abrogates Tax responsiveness in reporter gene analysis. The site-directed mutagenesis of each NF-kappaB site demonstrates that cooperative NF-kappaB binding is a prerequisite for Tax-directed activity as neither site alone is sufficient for a full Tax responsiveness of the OX40 promoter. Upon Tax expression, both sites bind p65 and c-Rel. These data provide new insight into the direct regulation of OX40 by Tax and add to our understanding of the possible role of the OX40/OX40 ligand system in the proliferation of HTLV-I+ T cells.

  6. Neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 gp46.

    PubMed Central

    Hadlock, K G; Rowe, J; Perkins, S; Bradshaw, P; Song, G Y; Cheng, C; Yang, J; Gascon, R; Halmos, J; Rehman, S M; McGrath, M S; Foung, S K

    1997-01-01

    Ten human monoclonal antibodies derived from peripheral B cells of a patient with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-associated myelopathy are described. One monoclonal antibody recognized a linear epitope within the carboxy-terminal 43 amino acids of HTLV gp21, and two monoclonal antibodies recognized linear epitopes within HTLV type 1 (HTLV-1) gp46. The remaining seven monoclonal antibodies recognized denaturation-sensitive epitopes within HTLV-1 gp46 that were expressed on the surfaces of infected cells. Two of these antibodies also bound to viable HTLV-2 infected cells and immunoprecipitated HTLV-2 gp46. Virus neutralization was determined by syncytium inhibition assays. Eight monoclonal antibodies, including all seven that recognized denaturation-sensitive epitopes within HTLV-1 gp46, possessed significant virus neutralization activity. By competitive inhibition analysis it was determined that these antibodies recognized at least four distinct conformational epitopes within HTLV-1 gp46. These findings indicate the importance of conformational epitopes within HTLV-1 gp46 in mediating a neutralizing antibody response to HTLV infection. PMID:9223472

  7. Effect of Pulsed Methylprednisolone on Pain, in Patients with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Kevin G.; Puri, Aiysha; Demontis, Maria Antonietta; Short, Charlotte L.; Adonis, Adine; Haddow, Jana; Martin, Fabiola; Dhasmana, Divya

    2016-01-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an immune mediated myelopathy caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The efficacy of treatments used for patients with HAM/TSP is uncertain. The aim of this study is to document the efficacy of pulsed methylprednisolone in patients with HAM/TSP. Data from an open cohort of 26 patients with HAM/TSP was retrospectively analysed. 1g IV methylprednisolone was infused on three consecutive days. The outcomes were pain, gait, urinary frequency and nocturia, a range of inflammatory markers and HTLV-1 proviral load. Treatment was well tolerated in all but one patient. Significant improvements in pain were: observed immediately, unrelated to duration of disease and maintained for three months. Improvement in gait was only seen on Day 3 of treatment. Baseline cytokine concentrations did not correlate to baseline pain or gait impairment but a decrease in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentration after pulsed methylprednisolone was associated with improvements in both. Until compared with placebo, treatment with pulsed methylprednisolone should be offered to patients with HAM/TSP for the treatment of pain present despite regular analgesia. PMID:27077747

  8. [Cutaneous manifestations of the leukemia-lymphoma of HTLV 1: apropos of 1 case].

    PubMed

    Thariat, J

    2001-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus implicated in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma characterized by proliferation of infected mature auxiliary T-cell lymphocytes. Cutaneous manifestations of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma are inconsistent and variable findings. In some patients, skin lesions are the presenting symptoms that lead to diagnosis and in others they are secondary occurrences. This report describes a case of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with serologically documented HTLV-1 infection in a 27-year-old black man from Surinam. Manifestations were low-grade at the time of diagnosis and became tumor-like at the end stage of the disease. At the time of presentation, examination revealed plaques of infiltrated scaly erythrematous lesions scattered over the entire body. One year later the patient exhibited xerodema and variable-sized subcutaneous tumor-like nodules. This case illustrates the wide range of cutaneous manifestations that can be found in association with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma due to HTLV-1.

  9. HTLV-1 bZIP factor enhances TGF-β signaling through p300 coactivator.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiejun; Satou, Yorifumi; Sugata, Kenji; Miyazato, Paola; Green, Patrick L; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2011-08-18

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus that is etiologically associated with adult T-cell leukemia. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the provirus, is involved in both regulation of viral gene transcription and T-cell proliferation. We showed in this report that HBZ interacted with Smad2/3, and enhanced transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad transcriptional responses in a p300-dependent manner. The N-terminal LXXLL motif of HBZ was responsible for HBZ-mediated TGF-β signaling activation. In a serial immunoprecipitation assay, HBZ, Smad3, and p300 formed a ternary complex, and the association between Smad3 and p300 was markedly enhanced in the presence of HBZ. In addition, HBZ could overcome the repression of the TGF-β response by Tax. Finally, HBZ expression resulted in enhanced transcription of Pdgfb, Sox4, Ctgf, Foxp3, Runx1, and Tsc22d1 genes and suppression of the Id2 gene; such effects were similar to those by TGF-β. In particular, HBZ induced Foxp3 expression in naive T cells through Smad3-dependent TGF-β signaling. Our results suggest that HBZ, by enhancing TGF-β signaling and Foxp3 expression, enables HTLV-1 to convert infected T cells into regulatory T cells, which is thought to be a critical strategy for virus persistence.

  10. Stability and inactivation of HTLV-III/LAV under clinical and laboratory environments.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L; Veren, K; Salahuddin, S Z; Tondreau, S; Markham, P D

    1986-04-11

    The stability of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) under environmental conditions encountered in a clinical or laboratory setting and its inactivation by commonly used chemical disinfectants were investigated. Under our experimental conditions utilizing a highly concentrated viral preparation, virus with an initial infectious titer of approximately 7 log10 tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) per milliliter can be recovered for more than a week from an aqueous environment held at room temperature (23 to 27 degrees C) or at 36 to 37 degrees C. Virus recovery is reduced at a rate of approximately 1 log10TCID50 per 20 minutes when held at 54 to 56 degrees C. Dried and held at room temperature, HTLV-III/LAV retains infectivity for more than three days with a reduction of approximately 1 log10TCID50 per nine hours. Viral infectivity is undetectable and reduced more than 7 log10TCID50 within one minute with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 70% alcohol, or 0.5% nonidet-P40, and within ten minutes with 0.08% quaternary ammonium chloride or with a 1:1 mixture of acetone-alcohol. These results help provide a rational basis to prevent the accidental spread of HTLV-III/LAV in the laboratory or clinical setting.

  11. [Anti HTLV-I antibody titers in seropositive infected individuals].

    PubMed

    Galeno, H; Ramírez, E; Mora, J; Ojeda, M; Cartier, L

    1994-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine anti HTLV-I antibody titers in seropositive symptomatic and asymptomatic infected subjects. One hundred seven infected subjects (47 with spastic paraparesis and 60 asymptomatic) were studied. HTLV-I antibodies were determined using indirect immunofluorescence in cells infected with the retrovirus. The mean titer was 1/234 in asymptomatic subjects and 1/2138 in symptomatic patients (p < 0.001). These results suggest an association between HTLV-I antibody titers and clinical stage of infected subjects.

  12. Aberrant activation of the interleukin-2 autocrine loop through the nuclear factor of activated T cells by nonleukemogenic human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 but not by leukemogenic type 1 virus.

    PubMed

    Niinuma, Akiko; Higuchi, Masaya; Takahashi, Masahiko; Oie, Masayasu; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Gejyo, Fumitake; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sugamura, Kazuo; Xie, Li; Green, Patrick L; Fujii, Masahiro

    2005-09-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) but not HTLV-2 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia. We found that HTLV-2 Tax2 protein stimulated reporter gene expression regulated by the interleukin (IL)-2 promoter through the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in a human T-cell line (Jurkat). However, the activity of HTLV-1 Tax1 was minimal in this system. T-cell lines immortalized by HTLV-2 but not HTLV-1 constitutively exhibited activated NFAT in the nucleus and constitutively expressed IL-2 mRNA. Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of NFAT activation, abrogated the induction of IL-2 mRNA in HTLV-2-immortalized T-cell lines and concomitantly inhibited cell growth. This growth inhibition was rescued by the addition of IL-2 to the culture. Furthermore, anti-IL-2 receptor antibodies significantly reduced the proliferation of HTLV-2-infected T-cell lines but not that of HTLV-1-infected cells. Our results suggest that Tax2 activates an IL-2 autocrine loop mediated through NFAT that supports the growth of HTLV-2-infected cells under low-IL-2 conditions. This mechanism would be especially important in vivo, where this autocrine mechanism establishes a nonleukemogenic life-long HTLV-2 infection. The results also suggest that differences in long-term cytokine production between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection are another factor for the differences in pathogenesis.

  13. HTLV-1 Rex is required for viral spread and persistence in vivo but is dispensable for cellular immortalization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianxin; Silverman, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D; Green, Patrick L

    2003-12-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with leukemia/lymphoma and neurologic disorders. Although the viral transcriptional activator Tax is the critical viral oncoprotein, Rex, which regulates the expression of the viral structural and enzymatic genes, is essential for efficient viral replication. Herein, we investigate the contribution of Rex in HTLV-1 immortalization of primary T cells in vitro and viral survival in an infectious rabbit animal model. A Rex-deficient HTLV-1 (HTLVRex-) was constructed and characterized for viral gene expression, protein production, and immortalization capacity. Cells transiently transfected with the HTLVRex- proviral clone produced low detectable levels of p19 Gag. 729HTLVRex- stable transfectants produced functional Tax, but undetectable levels of Rex or p19 Gag. Coculture of irradiated 729HTLVRex- cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) resulted in sustained interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent growth of primary T lymphocytes. These cells carried the HTLVRex- genome and expressed tax/rex mRNA but produced no detectable Rex or p19 Gag. Rabbits inoculated with irradiated 729HTLVRex- cells or 729HTLVRex- cells transiently transfected with a Rex cDNA expression plasmid failed to become persistently infected or mount a detectable antibody response to the viral gene products. Together, our results provide the first direct evidence that Rex and its function to modulate viral gene expression and virion production is not required for in vitro immortalization by HTLV-1. However, Rex is critical for efficient infection of cells and persistence in vivo.

  14. Molecular evidence for infection by HTLV-2 among individuals with negative serological screening tests for HTLV antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ishak, R; Vallinoto, A C R; Azevedo, V N; Vicente, A C P; Hall, W W; Ishak, M O G

    2007-05-01

    Previous serological studies on the Arara do Laranjal Indian group revealed extensive HTLV-2 infections. A collection of 97 new samples from the Arara were found repeatedly negative using three different commercial enzyme immunoassays. Eight samples that exhibited optical density readings close to the cut-off value were re-evaluated using Western blot (GeneLab 2.4, Singapore) assay. One sample was found to be non-reactive, five exhibited indeterminate patterns, one was classified as HTLV, and one was confirmed as HTLV-2. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA of the eight samples were subjected to nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the pX and env regions, and nucleotide sequencing of the 5'-LTR region. All produced amplification products of pX, but env could be amplified in only one sample with the commonly used primers. RFLP analysis of the pX region using TaqI confirmed HTLV-2 infection. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5'-LTR region was performed in three samples (HTLV-2, HTLV and indeterminate based on Western blot pattern). Phylogenetic analysis of a 449-nt fragment using the Neighbour-Joining method clearly demonstrated that the three samples clustered within the HTLV-2c molecular subtype. The present study confirms the wide dissemination of the HTLV-2c subtype among linguistically and culturally distinct Amazonian Indian groups, and emphasizes the unique occurrence of infection by this subtype in Brazil. Moreover, it emphasizes the limitation of employing the present serological screening assays in blood banks, epidemiological studies, and the importance of molecular assays in the confirmatory procedures for the primary detection of HTLV-2 infections.

  15. Short communication an interferon-γ ELISPOT assay with two cytotoxic T cell epitopes derived from HTLV-1 tax region 161-233 discriminates HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers in a Peruvian population.

    PubMed

    Best, Ivan; López, Giovanni; Talledo, Michael; MacNamara, Aidan; Verdonck, Kristien; González, Elsa; Tipismana, Martín; Asquith, Becca; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vanham, Guido; Clark, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic and progressive disorder caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In HTLV-1 infection, a strong cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response is mounted against the immunodominant protein Tax. Previous studies carried out by our group reported that increased IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) responses against the region spanning amino acids 161 to 233 of the Tax protein were associated with HAM/TSP and increased HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL). An exploratory study was conducted on 16 subjects with HAM/TSP, 13 asymptomatic carriers (AC), and 10 HTLV-1-seronegative controls (SC) to map the HAM/TSP-associated CTL epitopes within Tax region 161-233. The PVL of the infected subjects was determined and the specific CTL response was evaluated with a 6-h incubation IFN-γ ELISPOT assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with 16 individual overlapping peptides covering the Tax region 161-233. Other proinflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokines were also quantified in the supernatants by a flow cytometry multiplex assay. In addition, a set of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles that bind with high affinity to the CTL epitopes of interest was determined using computational tools. Univariate analyses identified an association between ELISPOT responses to two new CTL epitopes, Tax 173-185 and Tax 181-193, and the presence of HAM/TSP as well as an increased PVL. The HLA-A*6801 allele, which is predicted to bind to the Tax 181-193 peptide, was overpresented in the HAM/TSP patients tested.

  16. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for a novel HTLV-1 tax sequence detection and proviral load quantitation.

    PubMed

    Castro, Gonzalo M; Balangero, Marcos C; Maturano, Eduardo; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Gallego, Sandra V

    2013-05-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using SYBR Green dye was established in order to detect and quantify the proviral DNA of HTLV-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Primers were designed, and the assay was standardized to amplify a novel, conserved HTLV-1 tax region. Proviral load was normalized to the amount of cellular DNA by quantitation of the human albumin gene. Firstly, the qPCR was assessed determining the specificity, sensitivity, dynamic range and intra- and inter-assay reproducibility of the technique. The limit of detection as determined by PROBIT analysis using dilutions of the standard was 2.97 copies. The assay had an excellent dynamic range from 10⁵ to 10¹ copies per reaction and good intra- and inter-assay reproducibility, CVs less than 2%. Secondly, the performance of the qPCR was tested on 40 HTLV-1 seropositive individuals. Proviral load for HTLV-1 carriers ranged from 2.2×10² to more than 8.3×10⁴ copies/10⁶ PBMCs. The high sensitivity and wide dynamic range allowed the determination of a broad range of HTLV-1 proviral loads in infected individuals. This assay is a valuable alternative diagnostic tool when current available serological assays are insufficient. In addition, it will facilitate the study of the relationship between proviral load and pathogenesis.

  17. The transcription elongation factor ELL2 is specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-infected T-cells and is dependent on the viral oncoprotein Tax.

    PubMed

    Mann, Melanie C; Strobel, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Kress, Andrea K

    2014-09-01

    The oncoprotein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a potent transactivator of viral and cellular transcription. Here, we identified ELL2 as the sole transcription elongation factor to be specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-/Tax-transformed T-cells. Tax contributes to regulation of ELL2, since transient transfection of Tax increases ELL2 mRNA, Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter, and repression of Tax results in decrease of ELL2 in transformed T-lymphocytes. However, we also measured upregulation of ELL2 in HTLV-1-transformed cells exhibiting undetectable amounts of Tax, suggesting that ELL2 can still be maintained independent of continuous Tax expression. We further show that Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter, indicating that ELL2 cooperates with Tax in viral transactivation. This is supported by our findings that Tax and ELL2 accumulate in nuclear fractions and that they co-precipitate upon co-expression in transiently-transfected cells. Thus, upregulation of ELL2 could contribute to HTLV-1 gene regulation.

  18. The HTLV-1 Tax interactome

    PubMed Central

    Boxus, Mathieu; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Legros, Sébastien; Dewulf, Jean-François; Kettmann, Richard; Willems, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The Tax1 oncoprotein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type I is a major determinant of viral persistence and pathogenesis. Tax1 affects a wide variety of cellular signalling pathways leading to transcriptional activation, proliferation and ultimately transformation. To carry out these functions, Tax1 interacts with and modulates activity of a number of cellular proteins. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge of the Tax1 interactome and propose a rationale for the broad range of cellular proteins identified so far. PMID:18702816

  19. HTLV-1 bZIP Factor RNA and Protein Impart Distinct Functions on T-cell Proliferation and Survival.

    PubMed

    Mitobe, Yuichi; Yasunaga, Jun-ichirou; Furuta, Rie; Matsuoka, Masao

    2015-10-01

    Infection of T cells with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) induces clonal proliferation and is closely associated with the onset of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and inflammatory diseases. Although Tax expression is frequently suppressed in HTLV-1-infected cells, the accessory gene, HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), is continuously expressed and has been implicated in HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Here, we report that transduction of mouse T cells with specific mutants of HBZ that distinguish between its RNA and protein activity results in differential effects on T-cell proliferation and survival. HBZ RNA increased cell number by attenuating apoptosis, whereas HBZ protein induced apoptosis. However, both HBZ RNA and protein promoted S-phase entry of T cells. We further identified that the first 50 bp of the HBZ coding sequence are required for RNA-mediated cell survival. Transcriptional profiling of T cells expressing wild-type HBZ, RNA, or protein revealed that HBZ RNA is associated with genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and survival, while HBZ protein is more closely related to immunological properties of T cells. Specifically, HBZ RNA enhances the promoter activity of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis, to upregulate its expression. Inhibition of survivin using YM155 resulted in impaired proliferation of several ATL cell lines as well as a T-cell line expressing HBZ RNA. The distinct functions of HBZ RNA and protein may have several implications for the development of strategies to control the proliferation and survival mechanisms associated with HTLV-1 infection and ATL.

  20. [HTLV-I infection in a high-risk group].

    PubMed

    Pujol, E; Ollero, M; Gimeno, A; Colchero, J; Alcoucer, R; Márquez, P

    1990-07-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the presence of HTLV-1 in a high-risk population in west Andalusia. We studied 267 samples of serum from 255 patients: 179 of these patients being intravenous drug-users, 14 had ADVP sexual partners, 16 were inhalation drug-users, 4 were hemophiliacs, 9 had other high-risk habits and 25 hematological patients afflicted with leukemia or lymphoma. All of them were tested for antibodies against HTLV-1 by means of an in vitro qualitative ELISA technique (ELISA Du Pont HTLV-1). The positive results were confirmed by the Western blot technique. Additionally, the p24 antigen and the antibodies against VIH-1 and VIH-2 (ENV/CORE) were analysed, except in the 25 hematological patients. We found 20 serum samples positive to HTLV-1 by ELISA (7.4%), but only 1 (0.3%) was confirmed by the Western blot technique. The prevalence of VIH-1 was 46%; 9% had p24 VIH antigen and 26% had false positive ELISA to VIH-2. We found a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.0005) between positive ELISA to HTLV-1 and antibodies against VIH. We conclude that HTLV-1 has penetrated into the high-risk population of west Andalusia , although not yet to a great degree, and point out the need for seric epidemiological surveillance to prevent the spread of the retrovirus in these groups.

  1. Differences in HTLV-I integration patterns between skin lesions and peripheral blood lymphocytes of HTLV-I seropositive patients with cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamada, T; Setoyama, M; Katahira, Y; Furuno, T; Fujiyoshi, T; Sonoda, S; Tashiro, M

    1992-09-01

    We examined HTLV-I integration patterns in nine cases of HTLV-I-seropositive patients with cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. The Southern blot on EcoRI digests of DNA revealed a discrete band of HTLV-I provirus (monoclonal integration) in either skin lesions or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Four cases showed the monoclonal integration of HTLV-I provirus only in skin lesions: one case showed only in PBL and two cases showed in both skin and PBL. The Southern blot on PstI digests of DNA revealed a 2.4 Kb band of the internal construct of HTLV-I provirus (polyclonal integration) in the PBL of EcoRI-negative samples. The difference in HTLV-I integration patterns between skin lesions and PBL in these cases suggests that the monoclonal outgrowth of HTLV-I-infected cells in the skin is causatively associated with the pathogenesis of cutaneous ATL.

  2. The Transcription Profile of Tax-3 Is More Similar to Tax-1 than Tax-2: Insights into HTLV-3 Potential Leukemogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Sébastien A.; Durand, Stéphanie; Dasgupta, Arindam; Radonovich, Michael; Cimarelli, Andrea; Brady, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell Lymphotropic Viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma. Although associated with lymphocytosis, HTLV-2 infection is not associated with any malignant hematological disease. Similarly, no infection-related symptom has been detected in HTLV-3-infected individuals studied so far. Differences in individual Tax transcriptional activity might account for these distinct physiopathological outcomes. Tax-1 and Tax-3 possess a PDZ binding motif in their sequence. Interestingly, this motif, which is critical for Tax-1 transforming activity, is absent from Tax-2. We used the DNA microarray technology to analyze and compare the global gene expression profiles of different T- and non T-cell types expressing Tax-1, Tax-2 or Tax-3 viral transactivators. In a T-cell line, this analysis allowed us to identify 48 genes whose expression is commonly affected by all Tax proteins and are hence characteristic of the HTLV infection, independently of the virus type. Importantly, we also identified a subset of genes (n = 70) which are specifically up-regulated by Tax-1 and Tax-3, while Tax-1 and Tax-2 shared only 1 gene and Tax-2 and Tax-3 shared 8 genes. These results demonstrate that Tax-3 and Tax-1 are closely related in terms of cellular gene deregulation. Analysis of the molecular interactions existing between those Tax-1/Tax-3 deregulated genes then allowed us to highlight biological networks of genes characteristic of HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 infection. The majority of those up-regulated genes are functionally linked in biological processes characteristic of HTLV-1-infected T-cells expressing Tax such as regulation of transcription and apoptosis, activation of the NF-κB cascade, T-cell mediated immunity and induction of cell proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that, in T- and non T-cells types, Tax-3 is a functional analogue of Tax-1 in terms of transcriptional activation and

  3. HTLV-1 Tax-Specific CTL Epitope-Pulsed Dendritic Cell Therapy Reduces Proviral Load in Infected Rats with Immune Tolerance against Tax.

    PubMed

    Ando, Satomi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Murakami, Yuji; Zeng, Na; Takatsuka, Natsuko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Suehiro, Youko; Kannagi, Mari

    2017-02-01

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a CD4(+) T cell malignancy with a poor prognosis, is caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. High proviral load (PVL) is a risk factor for the progression to ATL. We previously reported that some asymptomatic carriers had severely reduced functions of CTLs against HTLV-1 Tax, the major target Ag. Furthermore, the CTL responses tended to be inversely correlated with PVL, suggesting that weak HTLV-1-specific CTL responses may be involved in the elevation of PVL. Our previous animal studies indicated that oral HTLV-1 infection, the major route of infection, caused persistent infection with higher PVL in rats compared with other routes. In this study, we found that Tax-specific CD8(+) T cells were present, but not functional, in orally infected rats as observed in some human asymptomatic carriers. Even in the infected rats with immune unresponsiveness against Tax, Tax-specific CTL epitope-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) therapy reduced the PVL and induced Tax-specific CD8(+) T cells capable of proliferating and producing IFN-γ. Furthermore, we found that monocyte-derived DCs from most infected individuals still had the capacity to stimulate CMV-specific autologous CTLs in vitro, indicating that DC therapy may be applicable to most infected individuals. These data suggest that peptide-pulsed DC immunotherapy will be useful to induce functional HTLV-1-specific CTLs and decrease PVL in infected individuals with high PVL and impaired HTLV-1-specific CTL responses, thereby reducing the risk of the development of ATL.

  4. Tax and overlapping rex sequences do not confer the distinct transformation tropisms of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianxin; Xie, Li; Green, Patrick L

    2003-07-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are distinct oncogenic retroviruses that infect several cell types but display their biological and pathogenic activity only in T cells. Previous studies have indicated that in vivo HTLV-1 has a preferential tropism for CD4+ T cells, whereas HTLV-2 in vivo tropism is less clear but appears to favor CD8+ T cells. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are susceptible to HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection in vitro, and HTLV-1 has a preferential immortalization and transformation tropism of CD4+ T cells, whereas HTLV-2 immortalizes and transforms primarily CD8+ T cells. The molecular mechanism that determines this tropism of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 has not been determined. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 carry the tax and rex transregulatory genes in separate but partially overlapping reading frames. Since Tax has been shown to be critical for cellular transformation in vitro and interacts with numerous cellular processes, we hypothesized that the viral determinant of transformation tropism is encoded by tax. Using molecular clones of HTLV-1 (Ach) and HTLV-2 (pH6neo), we constructed recombinants in which tax and overlapping rex genes of the two viruses were exchanged. p19 Gag expression from proviral clones transfected into 293T cells indicated that both recombinants contained functional Tax and Rex but with significantly altered activity compared to the wild-type clones. Stable transfectants expressing recombinant viruses were established, irradiated, and cocultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both recombinants were competent to transform T lymphocytes with an efficiency similar to that of the parental viruses. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that HTLV-1 and HTLV-1/TR2 had a preferential tropism for CD4+ T cells and that HTLV-2 and HTLV-2/TR1 had a preferential tropism for CD8(+) T cells. Our results indicate that tax/rex in different genetic backgrounds display altered functional activity but ultimately do not contribute to the

  5. Highly divergent molecular variants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I from isolated populations in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed Central

    Gessian, A; Yanagihara, R; Franchini, G; Garruto, R M; Jenkins, C L; Ajdukiewicz, A B; Gallo, R C; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-01-01

    To determine the molecular genetic relationship between Melanesian strains of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and cosmopolitan prototype HTLV-I, we amplified by PCR, then cloned, and sequenced a 522-base-pair region of the HTLV-I env gene in DNA extracted from uncultured (fresh) and cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from six seropositive Melanesian Papua New Guineans and Solomon Islanders, including a Solomon Islander with HTLV-I myeloneuropathy. Unlike isolates of HTLV-I from Japan, the West Indies, the Americas, and Africa, which share greater than or equal to 97% sequence homology, the Melanesian strains of HTLV-I were only 91.8%-92.5% identical with a prototype Japanese HTLV-IATK-1. The nucleotide sequence of proviral DNA from the Solomon Islander with HTLV-I myeloneuropathy also diverged markedly from that of HTLV-I isolated from Japanese patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and from Jamaican patients with tropical spastic paraparesis, suggesting that these variant viruses are capable of causing disease. The HTLV-I variants from Papua New Guineans, in turn, differed by nearly 4% from the Melanesian variants from Solomon Islanders, indicating the existence of another HTLV-I quasi-species. By contrast, HTLV-I strains from two residents of Bellona Island, a Polynesian Outlier within the Solomon Islands, were closely related to cosmopolitan prototype HTLV-I (greater than or equal to 97% sequence identity), suggesting recent introduction, possibly during this century. These findings are consistent with a proto-Melanesian HTLV-I strain of archaic presence, which evolved independently of contemporary cosmopolitan strains, and pose new questions about the origin and global dissemination of HTLV-I. Images PMID:1881912

  6. Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 2a Strains Among HIV Type 1-Coinfected Patients from Brazil Have Originated Mostly from Brazilian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Brigido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The human T cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) is found mainly in Amerindians and in intravenous drug users (IDUs) from urban areas of the United States, Europe, and Latin America. Worldwide, HTLV-2a and HTLV-2b subtypes are the most prevalent. Phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-2 isolates from Brazil showed the HTLV-2a subtype, variant -2c, which spread from Indians to the general population and IDUs. The present study searched for the types of HTLV-2 that predominate among HIV-1-coinfected patients from southern and southeastern Brazil. Molecular characterization of the LTR, env, and tax regions of 38 isolates confirmed the HTLV-2c variant in 37 patients, and one HTLV-2b in a patient from Paraguay. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed different clades of HTLV-2 associated with risk factors and geographic region. These clades could represent different routes of virus transmission and/or little diverse evolutionary rates of virus. Taking into account the results obtained in the present study and the lack of the prototypic North American HTLV-2a strain and HTLV-2b subtypes commonly detected among HIV-coinfected individuals worldwide, we could speculate on the introduction of Brazilian HTLV-2 strains in such populations before the introduction of HIV. PMID:23484539

  7. Identification of TBK1 and IKKε, the non-canonical IκB kinases, as crucial pro-survival factors in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Chen, Li; Cai, Shao-Hui; Cheng, Hua

    2016-07-01

    Persistent activation of NF-κB is a prerequisite for development of adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 genome encodes a viral transforming protein named Tax, which constitutively activates the canonical IκB kinases (IKK), the central regulator of NF-κB signaling. However, the role of the non-canonical IκB kinases, TBK1 and IKKε, in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated leukemia has not been evaluated. We here show that TBK1/IKKε are crucial pro-survival molecules by maintaining persistent activity of Stat3. Consistent with this finding, silencing Stat3 by the specific shRNA or by the chemical inhibitor ruxolitinib results in drastic impediment of leukemia cell growth. We further find that in HTLV-1-transformed T cells expressing Tax, TBK1 co-localizes with the canonical IκB kinases and Tax in the lipid raft microdomains. The wild type Tax, but not the Tax mutant defective in activating the canonical IKK, promotes the lipid raft translocation of TBK1. This phenomenon correlates with Tax activation of both NF-κB and Stat3. Tax does not interact directly with TBK1/IKKε, and it rather engages a molecular crosstalk between the canonical IKKs and TBK1/IKKε. Our data, therefore, demonstrate a key role of TBK1/IKKε in the survival and proliferation of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and implicate a potential therapy targeting TBK1/IKKε and Stat3 in controlling HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis.

  8. Universal cytotoxic activity of a HTLV-1 Tax-specific T cell clone from an HLA-A*24:02⁺ patient with adult T-cell leukemia against a variety of HTLV-I-infected T-cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukie; Yamazaki, Rie; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Nakasone, Hideki; Akahoshi, Yu; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Kimura, Shun-ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Junya; Tanihara, Aki; Nishida, Junji; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive mature T cell malignancy that is causally associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The HTLV-1 regulatory protein Tax aggressively accelerates the proliferation of host cells and is also an important target antigen for CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). We previously reported that several predominant HLA-A*24:02-restricted HTLV-1 Tax301-309-specific CTL clones commonly expressed a particular amino acid sequence motif (P-D-R) in complementarity-determining region 3 of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β chain among unrelated ATL patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Furthermore, a PDR-motif(+) CTL clone persistently existed in a long-term survivor as a central CTL clone with strong CTL activities after HSCT. Although a larger analysis of the relationship between PDR-motif(+) CTLs and the clinical course is required, the expression of PDR-motif(+) TCR on CD8(+) T cells may play a critical role in the management of anti-HTLV-1 activities for HLA-A24:02(+) ATL patients. Therefore, in this study, we prepared an HTLV-1 Tax301-309 peptide-specific CTL clone (HT-9) expressing PDR-motif(+) TCR isolated from a long-term survivor after HSCT, and evaluated its CTL activity against a variety of HTLV-1-infected T-cells from HLA-A*24:02(+) ATL patients. Before the assay of CTL function, we confirmed that HT-9 expressed less-differentiated effector-memory phenotypes (CD45RA(-)CCR7(-)CD27(+)CD28(+/-)CD57(+/-)) and T-cell exhaustion marker PD-1(+). In assays of CTL function, HT-9 recognized HTLV-1 Tax in an HLA-restricted fashion and demonstrated strong CTL activities against a variety of HTLV-1-infected T-cells from HLA-A*24:02(+) ATL patients regardless of whether the sources were autologous or allogeneic, but not normal cells. These data indicate that PDR-motif(+) TCR could be an important TCR candidate for TCR-gene immunotherapy for HLA-A24:02(+) ATL patients, provided

  9. A transcriptional enhancer sequence of HTLV-I is responsible for trans-activation mediated by p40 chi HTLV-I.

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, J; Seiki, M; Sato, M; Yoshida, M

    1986-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) contains a unique sequence pX that is located between env and the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) and codes for three pX proteins, p40 chi, pp27 chi-III and pp21 chi-III. One of these proteins, p40 chi, was previously shown to activate transcription from the LTR in a trans-acting manner, which suggested that it activated some cellular genes involved in leukemogenesis. In this study, the sequences in the LTR responsible for this trans-activation were analyzed. Construction of deletion mutants of the LTR in pLTR-CAT and measurement of their activities in trans-activated expression of the CAT gene showed that sequences upstream of the TATA box were responsible for the trans-activation mediated by p40 chi. The active unit was identified as an enhancer sequence containing direct repeats by inserting it into an enhancer-minus SV40 promoter. Thus, it was concluded that an enhancer sequence in HTLV-I LTR is responsible, at least in part, for transcriptional trans-activation mediated by the viral product p40 chi. Images Fig.2. Fig.4. PMID:3011423

  10. HTLV-1 Tax activates HIV-1 transcription in latency models.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Victor Emmanuel Viana; José, Diego Pandeló; Leal, Fabio E; Nixon, Douglas F; Tanuri, Amilcar; Aguiar, Renato Santana

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Coinfection with HTLV-1 has been associated with faster progression to AIDS. HTLV-1 encodes the transactivator Tax which can activate both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 transcription. Here, we demonstrate that Tax activates HIV transcription in latent CD4(+) T cells. Tax promotes the activation of P-TEFb, releasing CDK9 and Cyclin T1 from inactive forms, promoting transcription elongation and reactivation of latent HIV-1. Tax mutants lacking interaction with the HIV-1-LTR promoter were not able to activate P-TEFb, with no subsequent activation of latent HIV. In HIV-infected primary resting CD4(+) T cells, Tax-1 reactivated HIV-1 transcription up to five fold, confirming these findings in an ex vivo latency model. Finally, our results confirms that HTLV-1/Tax hijacks cellular partners, promoting HIV-1 transcription, and this interaction should be further investigated in HIV-1 latency studies in patients with HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection.

  11. Isolation and purification of the eighth gene of HTLV-III

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Staal, F.; Chanda, P.K.; Ghrayeb, J.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes an invention for the isolation and purification of a newly discovered gene of the AIDS virus, HTLV-III, which encodes a protein which is immunogenic and recognized by sera of some HTLV-III seropositive people. Furthermore, the gene is highly conserved among all known HTLV-III isolates and exhibits a polymorphism at the 3{prime} end which distinguishes molecular clones of the HTLV-III cell line from viral genomes of related viruses (i.e., other HTLV-III isolates, LAV, ARV, etc.).

  12. HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Impairs Anti-viral Immunity by Inducing Co-inhibitory Molecule, T Cell Immunoglobulin and ITIM Domain (TIGIT).

    PubMed

    Yasuma, Keiko; Yasunaga, Jun-ichirou; Takemoto, Keiko; Sugata, Kenji; Mitobe, Yuichi; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Nakagawa, Masanori; Suzuki, Yutaka; Matsuoka, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects CD4+ T cells and induces proliferation of infected cells in vivo, which leads to the onset of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in some infected individuals. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) gene, which is encoded in the minus strand of HTLV-1, plays critical roles in pathogenesis. In this study, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses using HBZ transduced T cells revealed that HBZ upregulates the expression and promoter acetylation levels of a co-inhibitory molecule, T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), in addition to those of regulatory T cells related genes, Foxp3 and Ccr4. TIGIT was expressed on CD4+ T cells from HBZ-transgenic (HBZ-Tg) mice, and on ATL cells and HTLV-1 infected CD4+ T cells of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in vivo. Expression of Blimp1 and IL-10 was upregulated in TIGIT+CD4+ cells of HBZ-Tg mice compared with TIGIT-CD4+ T cells, suggesting the correlation between TIGIT expression and IL-10 production. When CD4+ T cells from HBZ-Tg mice were stimulated with TIGIT's ligand, CD155, their production of the inhibitory cytokine IL-10 was enhanced. Furthermore, dendritic cells from HBZ-Tg mice produced high levels of IL-10 after stimulation. These data suggest that HBZ alters immune system to suppressive state via TIGIT and IL-10. Importantly, TIGIT suppressed T-cell responses to another HTLV-1 virus protein, Tax, in vitro. Blocking of TIGIT and PD-1 slightly increased anti-Tax T-cell activity in some HAM/TSP patients. These results suggest that HBZ-induced TIGIT on HTLV-1 infected cells impairs T-cell responses to viral antigens. This study shows that HBZ-induced TIGIT plays a pivotal role in attenuating host immune responses and shaping a microenvironment favorable to HTLV-1.

  13. EGF Uptake and Degradation Assay to Determine the Effect of HTLV Regulatory Proteins on the ESCRT-Dependent MVB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colin; Sheehy, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway plays key roles in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) formation and lysosomal degradation of membrane receptors, viral budding, and midbody abscission during cytokinesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is regarded as a prototypical cargo of the MVB/ESCRT pathway and following stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) EGFR/EGF complexes are internalized, sorted into MVBs, and degraded by lysosomes or recycled back to the cell membrane. Here, we describe an assay to analyze the effect of human T-cell leukemia (HTLV) regulatory proteins on the functionality of ESCRT-dependent MVB/lysosomal trafficking of EGFR/EGF complexes. This is performed by direct visualization and quantification of the rate of EGF-Alexa595/EGFR internalization and degradation in HeLa cells expressing HTLV regulatory proteins by immunofluorescence and western blot.

  14. HTLV-I Tax protein stimulation of DNA binding of bZIP proteins by enhancing dimerization.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S; Green, M R

    1993-10-15

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  15. The tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 is essential for transformation of human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ross, T M; Pettiford, S M; Green, P L

    1996-08-01

    The mechanism of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-mediated transformation and induction of malignancy is unknown; however, several studies have implicated the viral gene product, Tax. Conclusive evidence for the role of Tax in the HTLV malignant process has been impeded by the inability to mutate tax in the context of an infectious virus and dissociate viral replication from cellular transformation. To circumvent this problem we constructed a mutant of HTLV type 2 (HTLV-2) that replicates by a Tax-independent mechanism. For these studies, the Tax response element in the viral long terminal repeat was replaced with the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter enhancer (C-enh). Transcription of the chimeric HTLV-2 (HTLVC-enh) was efficiently directed by this heterologous promoter. Also, the chimeric virus transformed primary human T lymphocytes with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type HTLV-2. A tax-knockout virus, termed HTLVC-enhDeltaTax, was constructed to directly assess the importance of Tax in cellular transformation. Transfection and infection studies indicated that HTLVC-enhDeltaTax was replication competent; however, HTLVC-enhDeltaTax failed to transform primary human T lymphocytes. We conclude that Tax is essential for HTLV-mediated transformation of human T lymphocytes. Furthermore, this chimeric HTLV, that replicates in the absence of Tax, should facilitate studies to determine the precise mechanism of T-lymphocyte transformation by HTLV.

  16. A Fashi Lymphoproliferative Phenotype Reveals Non-Apoptotic Fas Signaling in HTLV-1-Associated Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Soraya Maria; Leal, Fabio E.; Dierckx, Tim; Khouri, Ricardo; Decanine, Daniele; Silva-Santos, Gilvaneia; Schnitman, Saul V.; Kruschewsky, Ramon; López, Giovanni; Alvarez, Carolina; Talledo, Michael; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Nixon, Douglas F.; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Brassat, David; Liblau, Roland; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Van Weyenbergh, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 was the first human retrovirus to be associated to cancer, namely adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), but its pathogenesis remains enigmatic, since only a minority of infected individuals develops either ATL or the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A functional FAS -670 polymorphism in an interferon (IFN)-regulated STAT1-binding site has been associated to both ATL and HAM/TSP susceptibility. Fashi T stem cell memory (Tscm) cells have been identified as the hierarchical apex of ATL, but have not been investigated in HAM/TSP. In addition, both FAS and STAT1 have been identified in an IFN-inducible HAM/TSP gene signature, but its pathobiological significance remains unclear. We comprehensively explored Fas expression (protein/mRNA) and function in lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, proliferation, and transcriptome, in PBMC from a total of 47 HAM/TSP patients, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected individuals (AC), and 58 HTLV-1 -uninfected healthy controls. Fas surface expression followed a two-step increase from HC to AC and from AC to HAM/TSP. In HAM/TSP, Fas levels correlated positively to lymphocyte activation markers, but negatively to age of onset, linking Fashi cells to earlier, more aggressive disease. Surprisingly, increased lymphocyte Fas expression in HAM/TSP was linked to decreased apoptosis and increased lymphoproliferation upon in vitro culture, but not to proviral load. This Fashi phenotype is HAM/TSP-specific, since both ex vivo and in vitro Fas expression was increased as compared to multiple sclerosis (MS), another neuroinflammatory disorder. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying non-apoptotic Fas signaling in HAM/TSP, we combined transcriptome analysis with functional assays, i.e., blocking vs. triggering Fas receptor in vitro with antagonist and agonist-, anti-Fas mAb, respectively. Treatment with agonist anti-Fas mAb restored apoptosis, indicating

  17. Nasal-type natural killer cell lymphoma preceded by benign panniculitis arising in an asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier.

    PubMed

    Kunisada, M; Adachi, A; Matsumoto, S; Ogawa, Y; Horikawa, T; Iwatsuki, K

    2003-09-01

    We report a case of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasal-type natural killer cell lymphoma (NKCL) preceded by benign panniculitis, which arose in a 48-year-old woman with an asymptomatic human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. A biopsy of the initial panniculitis lesion demonstrated lobular panniculitis with a germinal center composed of benign mononuclear cells with a phenotype of CD4+CD45RO+CD5sCD3+ cCD3 epsilon + T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1)- and granzyme B-. One year after oral prednisolone therapy, the patient developed subcutaneous nodules composed of atypical lymphoid cells with a phenotype of CD4-CD45RO+CD56+sCD3-cCD3 epsilon + (TIA-1)+ and granzyme B+. In the initial panniculitis lesion, neither EBV-encoded RNA (EBER-1) nor clonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells was identified. In later lesions, however, a large number of atypical cells were positive for EBER-1, and a clonal expansion of EBV-infected cells was detected. No clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor-alpha, -beta, or -gamma genes was found in either specimen. This patient was an asymptomatic carrier of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type-1 (HTLV-1) without clonal integration of proviral HTLV-1 in neither the peripheral blood nor the skin lesions. These observations suggest that EBV-associated NKCL occurred subsequently in the clinical course of benign panniculitis under the influence of immunosuppression caused by prednisolone treatment and HTLV-1 infection.

  18. Development and Evaluation of Adeno-HTLV-III Hybrid Virus and Non-Cytopathic HTLV-III Mutant for Vaccine Use.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-28

    OF 0) ADENO- HTLV -III HYBRID VIRUS AND NON-. 00 CYTOPATHIC HTLV -III MUTANT FOR VACCINE USE ,p Annual Report by p Martha T. Lubet and Sandra K. Dusing...NO. ACCESSION NO. 623105 623105H29 AD 014 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Development and Evaluation of Adeno- HTLV -III Hybrid Virus and...Non-Cytopathic HTLV -III Mutant for Vaccine Use 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lubet, Martha Turner and Dusing, Sandra Kay 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED

  19. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Gag Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Central Africa: Relationship to Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mahieux, Renaud; Horal, Peter; Mauclère, Philippe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Guillotte, Micheline; Meertens, Laurent; Murphy, Edward; Gessain, Antoine

    2000-01-01

    To gain insight on the significance of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) indeterminate serological reactivities, we studied villagers of South Cameroon, focusing on a frequent and specific HTLV-1 Gag indeterminate profile (HGIP) pattern (gag p19, p26, p28, and p30 without p24 or Env gp21 and gp46). Among the 102 sera studied, 29 from all age groups had a stable HGIP pattern over a period of 4 years. There was no epidemiological evidence for sexual or vertical transmission of HGIP. Seventy-five percent of HGIP sera reacted positively on MT2 HTLV-1-infected cells by immunofluorescence assay. However, we could not isolate any HTLV-1 virus or detect the presence of p19 Gag protein in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from individuals with strong HGIP reactivity. PCR experiments conducted with primers for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 (HTLV-1/2 primers) encompassing different regions of the virus did not yield HTLV-1/2 proviral sequences from individuals with HGIP. Using 11 peptides corresponding to HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 immunodominant B epitopes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, one epitope corresponding to the Gag p19 carboxyl terminus was identified in 75% of HGIP sera, while it was recognized by only 41% of confirmed HTLV-1-positive sera. A positive correlation between HTLV-1 optical density values and titers of antibody to Plasmodium falciparum was also demonstrated. Finally, passage of sera through a P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte-coupled column was shown to specifically abrogate HGIP reactivity but not the HTLV-1 pattern, suggesting the existence of cross-reactivity between HTLV-1 Gag proteins and malaria-derived antigens. These data suggest that in Central Africa, this frequent and specific Western blot is not caused by HTLV-1 infection but could instead be associated with P. falciparum infection. PMID:11060067

  20. HTLV-1 tax stabilizes MCL-1 via TRAF6-dependent K63-linked polyubiquitination to promote cell survival and transformation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Bong; Harhaj, Edward William

    2014-10-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein hijacks the host ubiquitin machinery to activate IκB kinases (IKKs) and NF-κB and promote cell survival; however, the key ubiquitinated factors downstream of Tax involved in cell transformation are unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we undertook an unbiased proteome-wide quantitative survey of cellular proteins modified by ubiquitin in the presence of Tax or a Tax mutant impaired in IKK activation. Tax induced the ubiquitination of 22 cellular proteins, including the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member MCL-1, in an IKK-dependent manner. Tax was found to promote the nondegradative lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination of MCL-1 that was dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 and the IKK complex. Tax interacted with and activated TRAF6, and triggered its mitochondrial localization, where it conjugated four carboxyl-terminal lysine residues of MCL-1 with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which stabilized and protected MCL-1 from genotoxic stress-induced degradation. TRAF6 and MCL-1 played essential roles in the survival of HTLV-1 transformed cells and the immortalization of primary T cells by HTLV-1. Therefore, K63-linked polyubiquitination represents a novel regulatory mechanism controlling MCL-1 stability that has been usurped by a viral oncogene to precipitate cell survival and transformation.

  1. Effect of propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on NFκB activation by HTLV-1 Tax.

    PubMed

    Shvarzbeyn, Jenny; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of aggressive malignancy of the CD4(+) T-cells, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and other severe clinical disorders. The viral Tax protein is a key factor in HTLV-1 pathogenicity. A major part of Tax oncogenic potential is accounted for by its capacity of inducing the transcriptional activity of the NFκB factors, which regulate the expression of numerous cellular genes. Propolis (PE), a natural product produced by honeybees, has been used for a long time in folk medicine. One of PE active components, caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE), was well characterized and found to be a potent inhibitor of NFκB activation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to pursue the possibility of blocking Tax oncogenic effects by treatment with these natural products. Human T-cell lines were used in this study since these cells are the main targets of HTLV-1 infections. We tried to determine which step of Tax-induced NFκB activation is blocked by these products. Our results showed that both tested products substantially inhibited the activation of NFκB-dependent promoter by Tax. However, only PE could efficiently inhibit also the Tax-induced activation of SRF- and CREB-dependent promoters. Our results showed also that PE and CAPE strongly prevented both Tax binding to IκBα and its induced degradation by Tax. However, both products did not interfere in the nuclear transport of Tax or NFκB proteins.

  2. HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor downregulates cyclin D1 expression via interactions with NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunyun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Dong; Qian, Lili; Song, Xianmei; Wang, Xueyin; Yang, Chaokuan; Zhao, Guoqiang

    2017-03-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus. It can cause adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and other diseases. The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper (bZIP) factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus-strand of the provirus, is expressed in all cases of ATL and involved in T cell proliferation. However, the exact mechanism underlying its growth-promoting activity is poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that HBZ suppressed cyclin D1 expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Among the potential mechanisms of cyclin D1 inhibition mediated by HBZ, we found that HBZ suppressed cyclin D1 promoter activity. Luciferase assay analysis revealed that HBZ repressed cyclin D1 promoter activity by suppressing NF-κB‑driven transcription mediated by the p65 subunit. Using an immunoprecipitation assay, we found that HBZ could bind to p65, but not p50. Finally, we showed that HBZ selectively interacted with p65 via its AD+bZIP domains. By suppressing cyclin D1 expression, HBZ can alter cell cycle progression of HTLV-1-infected cells, which may be critical for oncogenesis.

  3. HTLV-1 subgroups associated with the risk of HAM/TSP are related to viral and host gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, independent of the transactivation functions of the viral factors.

    PubMed

    Yasuma, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Takashima, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Saito, Mineki

    2016-08-01

    Among human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals, the risk of developing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) across lifetime differs between ethnic groups. There is an association between HTLV-1 tax gene subgroups (subgroup-A or subgroup-B) and the risk of HAM/TSP in the Japanese population. In this study, we investigated the full-length proviral genome sequences of various HTLV-1-infected cell lines and patient samples. The functional differences in the viral transcriptional regulators Tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) between each subgroup and the relationships between subgroups and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients were evaluated. The results of these analyses indicated the following: (1) distinct nucleotide substitutions corresponding to each subgroup were associated with nucleotide substitutions in viral structural, regulatory, and accessory genes; (2) the HBZ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in HTLV-1-infected cells was significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-B than in those with subgroup-A; (3) a positive correlation was observed between the expression of HBZ mRNA and its target Foxp3 mRNA in HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-B, but not in patients with subgroup-A; (4) no clear differences were noted in clinical and laboratory characteristics between HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-A and subgroup-B; and (5) no functional differences were observed in Tax and HBZ between each subgroup based on reporter gene assays. Our results indicate that although different HTLV-1 subgroups are characterized by different patterns of viral and host gene expression in HAM/TSP patients via independent mechanisms of direct transcriptional regulation, these differences do not significantly affect the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients.

  4. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  5. Identification and characterization of a new and distinct molecular subtype of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Eiraku, N; Novoa, P; da Costa Ferreira, M; Monken, C; Ishak, R; da Costa Ferreira, O; Zhu, S W; Lorenco, R; Ishak, M; Azvedo, V; Guerreiro, J; de Oliveira, M P; Loureiro, P; Hammerschlak, N; Ijichi, S; Hall, W M

    1996-01-01

    Molecular studies have demonstrated the existence of at least two major subtypes of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), designated HTLV-2a and HTLV-2b. To further investigate the heterogeneity of this family of viruses, we have characterized the HTLV-2 subtypes present in several urban areas in Brazil. DNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a large number of infected individuals, the majority of whom were intravenous drug abusers, were analyzed by using PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing analysis. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the env region suggested that all individuals were infected with the HTLV-2a subtype, and this was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis. In contrast, nucleotide sequence analysis of the long terminal repeat demonstrated that although the viruses were more related to the HTLV-2a than to the HTLV-2b subtype, they clustered in a distinct phylogenetic group, suggesting that they may represent a new and distinct molecular subtype of HTLV-2. This conclusion was supported by nucleotide sequence analysis of the pX region, which demonstrated that the Tax proteins of the Brazilian viruses differed from that of prototype HTLV-2a isolates but were more similar to that of HTLV-2b in that they would be expected to have an additional 25 amino acids at the carboxy terminus. In transient expression assays, the extended Tax protein of the prototype HTLV-2a subtype. The studies suggest that the Brazilian viruses analyzed in this study, while being phylogenetically related to the prototypic HTLV-2a seen in North America, are phenotypically more related to HTLV-2b and can be justifiably classified as a new molecular subtype, which has been tentatively designated HTLV-2c. PMID:8627666

  6. Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among native and immigrant pregnant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Caballero, Estrella; Toro, Carlos; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Calviño, Juan J; Tuset, Concepción; Gómez-Hernando, César; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Ramos, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan C; Benito, Rafael; Trigo, Matilde; García-Campello, Marta; Calderón, Enrique; Garcia, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    HTLV-1=2 antenatal screening is not mandatory in European countries. The rapid increase in immigrants coming from areas endemic for HTLV-1 infection has compelled a review of this policy in Spain. From February 2006 to December 2007, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at 10 different Spanish hospitals. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to test serum HTLV-1=2 antibodies; reactive samples were further confirmed by Western blot and=or polymerase chain reaction. A total of 20,518 pregnant women were examined, of whom 18,266 (89%) were native Spaniards. Overall, 946 (4.6%) of the immigrants came from HTLV-1 endemic areas (mainly Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa). Four samples were EIA seroreactive for HTLV-1=2, two of them in women infected with HTLV-1 coming from endemic areas. The other two women were infected with HTLV-2; one was an immigrant from Bolivia and another was a native Spaniard who admitted prior injection drug use and was HIV-1 positive. The overall HTLV-1=2 seroprevalence was 0.19 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.05-0.49=1000). For HTLV-1, the seroprevalence was 2.11 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.26-7.62=1000) in pregnant women from endemic areas. The seroprevalence of HTLV-1=2 infection is below 0.02% among pregnant women in Spain, and therefore universal screening for HTLV-1=2 infection in antenatal clinics is not warranted. However, HTLV-1=2 screening could be considered in pregnant women coming from endemic areas, in whom the rate of infection is nearly 1000-fold higher than in native Spaniards and are the only group infected with the more pathogenic HTLV-1.

  7. HTLV-I Tax-Mediated Inactivation of Cell Cycle Checkpoints and DNA Repair Pathways Contribute to Cellular Transformation: “A Random Mutagenesis Model”

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    To achieve cellular transformation, most oncogenic retroviruses use transduction by proto-oncogene capture or insertional mutagenesis, whereby provirus integration disrupts expression of tumor suppressors or proto-oncogenes. In contrast, the Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) has been classified in a separate class referred to as “transactivating retroviruses”. Current views suggest that the viral encoded Tax protein transactivates expression of cellular genes leading to deregulated growth and transformation. However, if Tax-mediated transactivation was indeed sufficient for cellular transformation, a fairly high frequency of infected cells would eventually become transformed. In contrast, the frequency of transformation by HTLV-I is very low, likely less than 5%. This review will discuss the current understanding and recent discoveries highlighting critical functions of Tax in cellular transformation. HTLV-I Tax carries out essential functions in order to override cell cycle checkpoints and deregulate cellular division. In addition, Tax expression is associated with increased DNA damage and genome instability. Since Tax can inhibit multiple DNA repair pathways and stimulate unfaithful DNA repair or bypass checkpoints, these processes allow accumulation of genetic mutations in the host genome. Given this, a “Random Mutagenesis” transformation model seems more suitable to characterize the oncogenic activities of HTLV-I. PMID:26835512

  8. TRANSMISIÓN VERTICAL DE HTLV-1 EN EL PERÚ

    PubMed Central

    Villaverde, Jorge Alarcón; Romaní, Franco Romaní; Torres, Silvia Montano; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    La infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) ha sido descrita en muchas áreas del mundo, como en los países del Caribe, Japón, África, Oceanía y en Sudamérica. En la presente revisión definimos la endemicidad del HTLV-1 en el país, planteando cuatro criterios epidemiológicos. Luego discutimos el tema central de la revisión: la transmisión vertical del HTLV-1, que en nuestro país sería uno de los principales mecanismos de transmisión. Dentro del desarrollo de este aspecto en particular, presentamos una estimación de la tasa de transmisión vertical y los factores de riesgo asociados con la transmisión vertical sobre la base de una revisión exhaustiva de estudios nacionales y extranjeros. Con esta revisión pretendemos dar una primera aproximación al estudio de la trasmisión vertical de HTLV-1, un aspecto poco estudiado en nuestro medio. PMID:21537777

  9. HTLV-1 Tax-mediated TAK1 activation involves TAB2 adapter protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Qingsheng; Minoda, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Iha, Hidekatsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Takaesu, Giichi

    2008-01-04

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is an oncoprotein that plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes. It has recently been reported that Tax activates a MAPKKK family, TAK1. However, the molecular mechanism of Tax-mediated TAK1 activation is not well understood. In this report, we investigated the role of TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2) in Tax-mediated TAK1 activation. We found that TAB2 physically interacts with Tax and augments Tax-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Tax and TAB2 cooperatively activate TAK1 when they are coexpressed. Furthermore, TAK1 activation by Tax requires TAB2 binding as well as ubiquitination of Tax. We also found that the overexpression of TRAF2, 5, or 6 strongly induces Tax ubiquitination. These results suggest that TAB2 may be critically involved in Tax-mediated activation of TAK1 and that NF-{kappa}B-activating TRAF family proteins are potential cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases toward Tax.

  10. [Coexistence of mass hysteria, konzo and HTLV-1 virus in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    PubMed

    Tshala, K; Nunga, M; Pukuta, S; Mutombo, L; Beya, E; Tshoko, K; Mampunza, M

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Pindi located 115 kilometers from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo to characterize a local school epidemic involving paralysis of the lower extremities, identify risk factors, and establish differential diagnosis with konzo and spastic paralysis related to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Data was obtained using a qualitative approach based on records, interviews, focus group technique, and neurological examination. Blood tests using the ELISA and western blot tests were performed to detect HTLV-1 and HIV 1 and 2. A total of 41 cases of paralysis were observed between 1994 and 1998. All patients were female and most (n = 28) were between the ages of 16 and 20 at the time of the study. The majority of cases were recorded in 1998 (31 prevalent cases and 16 incidents). Epidemiological data, clinical findings, and laboratory tests suggested that the etiology was mass hysteria with somatic conversion rather than toxic or viral causes in most cases. The psychosocial environment played an important role in the spread of the epidemic. These findings demonstrate the crucial role of the psychosocial environment in the occurrence of mass hysteria and support use of integrated health programs in developing countries.

  11. Donor screening for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1/2: changing paradigms for changing testing capacity.

    PubMed

    Kaul, D R; Taranto, S; Alexander, C; Covington, S; Marvin, M; Nowicki, M; Orlowski, J; Pancoska, C; Pruett, T L; Ison, M G

    2010-02-01

    Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) policy currently requires the testing of all potential organ donors for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-1/2. Most Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO) use the Abbott HTLV-I/HTLV-II Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). This assay will no longer be manufactured after December 31, 2009; the only commercially available FDA-licensed assay will be the Abbott PRISM HTLV-I/II assay which poses many challenges to OPO use for organ donor screening. As a result, screening donors for HTLV-1/2 in a timely manner pretransplant after December 31, 2009 will be challenging. The true incidence of HTLV-1 in United States (U.S.) organ donors is not well described but appears to be low ( approximately 0.03-0.5%). HTLV-1 is associated with malignancy and neurological disease; HTLV-2 has not been convincingly associated with disease in humans. Donors that are HTLV-1/2 seropositive are infrequently used despite most results being either false positive or resulting from HTLV-2 infection. There is urgent need to encourage the development of assays, instruments and platforms optimized for organ donors that can be used to screen for transmissible disease in donors; these must have appropriate sensitivity and specificity to identify all infections while minimizing organ loss through false positive testing.

  12. Molecular aspects of HTLV-1 entry: functional domains of the HTLV-1 surface subunit (SU) and their relationships to the entry receptors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kathryn S; Lambert, Sophie; Bouttier, Manuella; Bénit, Laurence; Ruscetti, Frank W; Hermine, Olivier; Pique, Claudine

    2011-06-01

    The initial step in retroviral infection involves specific interactions between viral envelope proteins (Env) and specific receptors on the surface of target cells. For many years, little was known about the entry receptors for HTLV-1. During this time, however, functional domains of the HTLV-1 Env were identified by analyzing the effects of neutralizing antibodies and specific mutations in Env on HTLV-1 infectivity. More recent studies have revealed that HTLV-1 infectivity involves interactions with three different molecules: heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), the VEGF-165 receptor Neuropilin 1 (NRP-1) and glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1). Here, we revisit previously published data on the functional domains of Env in regard to the recent knowledge acquired about this multi-receptor complex. We also discuss the similarities and differences between HTLV-1 and other deltaretroviruses in regards to receptor usage.

  13. Association between Human Papillomavirus and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus in Indigenous Women from the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patricia J.; Carcamo, Cesar; Montano, Silvia M.; Muñante, Ricardo; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Background No association between the Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV), an oncogenic virus that alters host immunity, and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has previously been reported. Examining the association between these two viruses may permit the identification of a population at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Methods and Findings Between July 2010 and February 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study among indigenous Amazonian Peruvian women from the Shipibo-Konibo ethnic group, a group with endemic HTLV infection. We recruited women between 15 and 39 years of age who were living in the cities of Lima and Ucayali. Our objectives were to determine the association between HTLV and: (i) HPV infection of any type, and (ii) high-risk HPV type infection. Sexually active Shipibo-Konibo women were screened for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections. All HTLV-1 or -2 positive women, along with two community-matched HTLV negative sexually active Shipibo-Konibo controls were later tested for the presence of HPV DNA, conventional cytology, and HIV. We screened 1,253 Shipibo-Konibo women, observing a prevalence of 5.9% (n = 74) for HTLV-1 and 3.8% (n = 47) for HTLV-2 infections. We enrolled 62 (60.8%) HTLV-1 positive women, 40 (39.2%) HTLV-2 positive women, and 205 community-matched HTLV negative controls. HTLV-1 infection was strongly associated with HPV infection of any type (43.6% vs. 29.3%; Prevalence Ratio (PR): 2.10, 95% CI: 1.53–2.87), and with high-risk HPV infection (32.3% vs. 22.4%; PR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.04–3.59). HTLV-2 was not significantly associated with either of these HPV infections. Conclusions HTLV-1 infection was associated with HPV infection of any type and with high-risk HPV infection. Future longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the incidence of high-risk HPV infection as well as the incidence of cervical neoplasia among HTLV-1 positive women. PMID:22952937

  14. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and 2 Seroprevalence among first-time blood donors in Chile, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Héctor; Balanda, Monserrat; Vergara, Nicolás; Valenzuela, María Antonieta; Cartier, Luis; Ayala, Salvador; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) is a major health problem. HTLV-1/2 infection is endemic in Chile but representative donor prevalence data are lacking. Data on all blood donors in a large network of Chilean blood centers were examined during 2011-2013. Screening of HTLV-1/2 antibodies were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) at all blood banks. Blood samples with anticoagulants from initially reactive blood donors were analyzed by serological confirmation tests (immunofluorescence or recombinant immunoblot) at the HTLV National Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Chile. Additionally, detection of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed in all blood donors as confirmatory test. Prevalence rates were calculated. Among 694,016 donors, 706 were seropositive for HTLV-1 (prevalence, 1.02 cases per 1,000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.09), and 97 were seropositive for HTLV-2 (prevalence, 0.14 cases per 1,000; 95%CI, 0.11-0.17). Prevalence of HTLV-1 differed considerably by region, from 0.51 to 1.69 per 1,000. Prevalence of HTLV-2 was similar across the country (0.12-0.16). HTLV-1 prevalence was associated with female sex, older age, and residence in the north of Chile. HTVL-2 prevalence was associated with older age. The HTLV-1 prevalence among Chilean blood donors was relatively high and could be reduced by improving donor recruitment and selection in high prevalence areas. Blood center data may contribute to surveillance for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections.

  15. Long-term serological follow-up of blood donors with an HTLV-indeterminate western blot: antibody profile of seroconverters and individuals with false reactions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marina Lobato; Santos, Ana Carolina da Silva; Namen-Lopes, Maria Sueli; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Utsch, Denise Gonçalves; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara de F

    2010-10-01

    The high proportion of indeterminate results of the screening test for human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection has been a challenge worldwide. In this study, 60 persons with seroindeterminate results for HTLV were followed until their serological status was defined. At least two independent serological tests (EIA and WB) from sequential samples were performed at an average interval of 4.4 years, totaling 141 serum samples tested. Seroconversion occurred in 12 individuals (reactive by EIA, positive by WB and PCR), and 48 were classified as false reactions (non-reactive EIA and negative PCR, but indeterminate WB). The seroconverter group had epidemiological features similar to those seen in HTLV-1 carriers, and the average time of follow-up for seroconversion was 4 years. In the group with false reactions, the most frequent indeterminate WB pattern in the samples was the presence of p24 alone. This pattern was absent in the seroconverter group, suggesting that p24 alone is an indicator of false reactivity. In contrast, the presence of p19 and p24 seems to be an indicator of true reactivity, since this pattern was frequent (66.7%) among the seroconverters and much less common (10.4% of the first samples) among the individuals with false reactions (P = 0.0001). Thus, HTLV infection may be suspected when reactivity to p19 and p24 is observed. Individuals with an indeterminate WB pattern should be followed-up and retested. The improvement of the HTLV algorithm screening of blood donors has been necessary to reduce inconclusive results and to avoid unnecessary follow-up to define the status of infection.

  16. HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Enhances T-Cell Proliferation by Impeding the Suppressive Signaling of Co-inhibitory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Kazuya; Onishi, Chiho; Iyoda, Tomonori; Inaba, Kayo

    2017-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and inflammatory diseases. To enhance cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1, the virus increases the number of infected cells in vivo. HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is constitutively expressed in HTLV-1 infected cells and ATL cells and promotes T-cell proliferation. However, the detailed mechanism by which it does so remains unknown. Here, we show that HBZ enhances the proliferation of expressing T cells after stimulation via the T-cell receptor. HBZ promotes this proliferation by influencing the expression and function of multiple co-inhibitory receptors. HBZ suppresses the expression of BTLA and LAIR-1 in HBZ expressing T cells and ATL cells. Expression of T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) and Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) was enhanced, but their suppressive effect on T-cell proliferation was functionally impaired. HBZ inhibits the co-localization of SHP-2 and PD-1 in T cells, thereby leading to impaired inhibition of T-cell proliferation and suppressed dephosphorylation of ZAP-70 and CD3ζ. HBZ does this by interacting with THEMIS, which associates with Grb2 and SHP-2. Thus, HBZ interacts with the SHP containing complex, impedes the suppressive signal from PD-1 and TIGIT, and enhances the proliferation of T cells. Although HBZ was present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of T cells, HBZ was localized largely in the nucleus by suppressed expression of THEMIS by shRNA. This indicates that THEMIS is responsible for cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in T cells. Since THEMIS is expressed only in T-lineage cells, HBZ mediated inhibition of the suppressive effects of co-inhibitory receptors accounts for how HTLV-1 induces proliferation only of T cells in vivo. This study reveals that HBZ targets co-inhibitory receptors to cause the proliferation of infected cells. PMID:28046066

  17. HLA class I and class II of the Nivkhi, an indigenous population carrying HTLV-I in Sakhalin, Far Eastern Russia.

    PubMed

    Lou, H; Li, H C; Kuwayama, M; Yashiki, S; Fujiyoshi, T; Suehara, M; Osame, M; Yamashita, M; Hayami, M; Gurtsevich, V; Ballas, M; Imanishi, T; Sonoda, S

    1998-11-01

    The Nivkhi are a native people isolated in the Nogliki region of Sakhalin, Far East Russia, where our group recently recognized human T-cell lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) infection. In order to trace the Nivkhi's ethnic background and the HTLV-I carriers, we investigated HLA class I and II allele types of 53 Nivkhi (including four HTLV-I carriers). Major HLA class I alleles of the Nivkhi were A*24, A*02, B*40, B*48, B*27, B*35 with allele frequencies similar to the Orochon, a native people isolated in Northeast China. Major Nivkhi class II alleles were DRB1*0901, DRB1*1401, DRB1*1201, DRB1*1106 with allele frequencies similar to the Ainu in Hokkaido, Japan, but dissimilar to other Asian Mongoloids, including the general Japanese population. The same HLA class I and II allele frequencies are found in both Nivkhi HTLV-I carriers and the background population. A dendrogram of HLA class I alleles showed that the Nivkhi were closely related to the Orochon and Yakut, and remotely related to the Japanese, Ainu and other Asian Mongoloids. Interestingly, the Nivkhi were intermediately related to the Amerindians (Inuit, Tlingit and Andeans), a relationship closer than to the Japanese and Asian Mongoloids. These results suggested the Nivkhi might be related to some genetic group of Northeast Asian Mongoloids like the Orochon and Yakut, being infected with HTLV-I in the distant past before diverging into the current major Mongoloid ethnic groups.

  18. Clinical and laboratory features of HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Takatani, Massanobu; Crispim, Myuki Esashika; Fraiji, Nelson; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araujo; Kiesslich, Dagmar

    2017-04-03

    Clinical and laboratory parameters including blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin were investigated in human-T-lymphotropic-virus-type-I associated-myelopathy/tropical-spastic-paraparesis-HAM/TSP and in HTLV-I carriers. HAM/TSP (n = 11, 2 males/9 females, median age = 48 years), recently diagnosed HTLV-I carriers (n = 21, 15 females/6 males, median age = 44 years), healthy individuals (n = 20, 10 males/10 females, median age = 34.6 years) from the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Amazonas State) were investigated. Neopterin was measured (IBL ELISA Neopterin, Germany) in serum samples of all the participants, in CSF of 9 HAM/TSP patients as well as in 6 carriers. In HAM/TSP patients, CSF cell counts, protein and glucose were measured, the Osame's motor-disability-score/OMDS was determined, and brain/spinal cord magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) was performed. HAM/TSP patients had normal CSF glucose, leukocyte counts; and normal protein levels predominated. Brain-MRI showed white-matter lesions in 7 out of 11 HAM/TSP patients. OMDS varied from 2-8: 9 were able to walk, 2 were wheel-chair-users. The median serum neopterin concentration in HAM/TSP patients was 6.6 nmol/ L; min. 2.8- max. 12.5 nmol/ L); was lower in carriers (4.3 nmol/L; min. 2.7- max. 7.2 nmol/ L) as well as in healthy participants (4.7 nmol/ L; min. 2.7- max. 8.0 nmol/ L) (p < 0.05). CSF neopterin concentrations in HAM/TSP patients were higher than in serum samples, and higher compared to carriers (p < 0.05). Carriers had similar serum-CSF neopterin concentrations compared to healthy participants. Variable clinical and laboratory profiles were seen in HAM/TSP patients, however our results support the neopterin measurement as a potential biomarker of disease activity.

  19. Low degree of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I genetic drift in vivo as a means of monitoring viral transmission and movement of ancient human populations.

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Gallo, R C; Franchini, G

    1992-04-01

    We have studied the genetic variation of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) isolates in the same individuals over time, as well as of HTLV-I isolates from various parts of the world. The viral DNA fragment studied encodes the carboxy terminus of gp46 and almost all of gp21, both of which are envelope glycoproteins. Samples were obtained from native inhabitants of five African countries, two South American countries, China, the French West Indies, and Haiti and included 14 patients with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, 10 patients with adult T-cell leukemia, 1 patient with T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 3 healthy HTLV-I-seropositive individuals. DNA analyses of HTLV-I sequences demonstrated that (i) little or no genetic variation occurred in vivo in the same individual or in different hosts from the same region carrying the same virus, regardless of their clinical statuses; (ii) changes in nucleotide sequences in some regions of the HTLV-I genome were diagnostic of the geographical origin of the viruses; (iii) HTLV-I sequences from West African countries (Mauritania and Guinea Bissau) and some from the Ivory Coast and Central African Republic were virtually identical to those from the French West Indies, Haiti, French Guyana, and Peru, strongly suggesting that at least some HTLV-I strains were introduced into the New World through infected individuals during the slave trade events; and (iv) the Zairian HTLV-I isolates represent a separate HTLV-I cluster, in which intrastrain variability was also observed, and are more divergent from the other HTLV-I isolates. Because of the low genetic variability of HTLV-I in vivo, the study of the proviral DNA sequence in selected populations of infected individuals will increase our knowledge of the origin and evolution of HTLV-I and might be useful in anthropological studies.

  20. Quantitative evaluations of the effect of UV irradiation on the infectivity of HTLV-III (AIDS virus) with HTLV-I-carrying cell line, MT-4

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, H.; Koyanagi, Y.; Harada, S.; Yamamoto, N.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on HTLV-III was quantitatively studied to evaluate the dosage of UV irradiation which inactivates the virus for sterilization of blood products and for laboratory decontamination. In order to estimate the biologic activity and quantitation of the virus, induction of HTLV-III-specific antigens and inhibition of DNA synthesis in MT-4 cells infected by UV-irradiated HTLV-III were detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique and proliferation assay using (3H)thymidine uptake, respectively. Furthermore, plaque-forming assay was performed to count the infectious viral particles. Results showed that HTLV-III was completely inactivated by 5000 J/m2 UV irradiation. Cloned UV-irradiated HTLV-III (UV-1) was obtained from a plaque that was formed by 2000 J/m2 UV-irradiated virus. When MT-4 cells were infected by the clone UV-1, ballooning degeneration of cells was predominantly induced. These ballooning cells were not usually observed in MT-4 cells infected by unirradiated HTLV-III. The resistance to UV was not different between clone UV-1 and unirradiated HTLV-III.

  1. Family Aggregation of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1-Associated Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carolina; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Verdonck, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that produces a persistent infection. Two transmission routes (from mother to child and via sexual intercourse) favor familial clustering of HTLV-1. It is yet unknown why most HTLV-1 carriers remain asymptomatic while about 10% of them develop complications. HTLV-1 associated diseases were originally described as sporadic entities, but familial presentations have been reported. To explore what is known about family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases we undertook a systematic review. We aimed at answering whether, when, and where family aggregation of HTLV-1-associated diseases was reported, which relatives were affected and which hypotheses were proposed to explain aggregation. We searched MEDLINE, abstract books of HTLV conferences and reference lists of selected papers. Search terms used referred to HTLV-1 infection, and HTLV-1-associated diseases, and family studies. HTLV-1-associated diseases considered are adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), HTLV-1-associated uveitis, and infective dermatitis. Seventy-four records reported HTLV-1-associated diseases in more than one member of the same family and were included. Most reports came from HTLV-1-endemic countries, mainly Japan (n = 30) and Brazil (n = 10). These reports described a total of 270 families in which more than one relative had HTLV-1-associated diseases. In most families, different family members suffered from the same disease (n = 223). The diseases most frequently reported were ATLL (115 families) and HAM/TSP (102 families). Most families (n = 144) included two to four affected individuals. The proportion of ATLL patients with family history of ATLL ranged from 2 to 26%. The proportion of HAM/TSP patients with family history of HAM/TSP ranged from 1 to 48%. The predominant cluster types for ATLL were clusters of siblings and parent-child pairs and for HAM/TSP, an affected

  2. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 antisense viral protein 2 is dispensable for in vitro immortalization but functions to repress early virus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yin, Han; Kannian, Priya; Dissinger, Nathan; Haines, Robyn; Niewiesk, Stefan; Green, Patrick L

    2012-08-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are closely related but pathogenically distinct human retroviruses. The antisense strand of the HTLV-1 genome encodes HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper (b-ZIP) protein (HBZ), a protein that inhibits Tax-mediated viral transcription, enhances T-cell proliferation, and promotes viral persistence. Recently, an HTLV-2 antisense viral protein (APH-2) was identified. Despite its lack of a typical b-ZIP domain, APH-2, like HBZ, interacts with cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and downregulates Tax-mediated viral transcription. Here, we provide evidence that the APH-2 C-terminal LXXLL motif is important for CREB binding and Tax repression. In order to investigate the functional role of APH-2 in the HTLV-2-mediated immortalization of primary T lymphocytes in vitro and in HTLV-2 infection in vivo, we generated APH-2 mutant viruses. In cell cultures, the immortalization capacities of APH-2 mutant viruses were indistinguishable from that of wild-type HTLV-2 (wtHTLV-2), indicating that, like HBZ, APH-2 is dispensable for viral infection and cellular transformation. In vivo, rabbits inoculated with either wtHTLV-2 or APH-2 mutant viruses established a persistent infection. However, the APH-2 knockout virus displayed an increased replication rate, as measured by an increased viral antibody response and a higher proviral load. In contrast to HTLV-1 HBZ, we show that APH-2 is dispensable for the establishment of an efficient infection and persistence in a rabbit animal model. Therefore, antisense proteins of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 have evolved different functions in vivo, and further comparative studies will provide fundamental insights into the distinct pathobiologies of these two viruses.

  3. [Prevalence, risk factors and genetic characterization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the cities of Ribeirão Preto and São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Kleine Neto, Walter; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed; Jamal, Leda Fátima; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in patients who were positive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 319 individuals infected with HIV type 1 who were attended at specialized clinics in two cities (Ribeirão Preto and São Paulo). The patients were interviewed and tested for antibodies against HTLV types 1 and 2 (Orthoâ HTLV-1/HTLV-2 Ab-Capture enzyme immunoassay). Direct DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products from the tax region of HTLV type 2 and the long terminal repeat region of HTLV types 1 and 2 were performed to differentiate and determine the subtypes. The overall prevalence of anti-HTLV type 1 and 2 antibodies was 7.5% (24/319; 95% CI: 5.2-11.5). HTLV type 1 and 2 infection was associated with a history of injected drug use and with antibodies for hepatitis C virus (p < 0.001), but not with age (p = 0.2), sex (p = 0.9), sexual behavior or serological markers for sexually transmitted diseases (anti-Treponema pallidum, anti-human herpesvirus type 8 or anti-hepatitis B virus antibodies) (p > 0.05). HTLV DNA was detected in 13 out of 24 samples, of which 12 were characterized as HTLV subtype 2c and one as HTLV subtype 1a. Among the 12 HTLV type 2 samples, seven were from injected drug users, thus indicating that this route is an important risk factor for HTLV type 2 transmission among our population infected with HIV type 1.

  4. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-05-01

    During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by "in-house" real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78-5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21-4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32-7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51-48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21-59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine.

  5. [Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in HTLV-1 infected patients: report of two cases in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Medina, Edwin Abraham; Orduz, Rocío; Morales, Olga Lucía; Martínez, Óscar; Baldión, Margarita; Isaza, Mario Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a malignant neoplasia of mature CD4+ T lymphocytes,resulting from infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), with several systemic and cutaneous manifestations. We present two cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, in patients from the Colombian Southwestern region, whose diagnoses were confirmed by histology, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blot tests. We also discuss about the virus and how to make this diagnosis in countries like Colombia.

  6. Effectiveness of Combined Therapy with Pirfenidone and Erythromycin for Unclassifiable Interstitial Pneumonia Induced by HTLV-1-associated Bronchioloalveolar Disorder (HABA)

    PubMed Central

    Yokohori, Naoko; Sato, Akitoshi; Hasegawa, Mizue; Katsura, Hideki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Takemura, Tamiko

    2017-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus involved in the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTVL-1-associated bronchioloalveolar disorder (HABA). The clinical and pathological findings of HABA have been characterized as either a diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) pattern or idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) pattern. Treatments for HABA include corticosteroids for the IIP pattern and erythromycin for the DPB pattern. We herein report a case of HABA-associated unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia that improved with combined therapy with pirfenidone and erythromycin. This is the first report on the effectiveness of combined therapy with pirfenidone and erythromycin for HABA. PMID:28050003

  7. Implications of the evolution pattern of human T-cell leukemia retroviruses on their pathogenic virulence (Review).

    PubMed

    Azran, Inbal; Schavinsky-Khrapunsky, Yana; Priel, Esther; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Aboud, Mordechai

    2004-11-01

    Simian retroviruses pose a serious threat to public health, as two human pathogenic retroviruses, HIV and HTLV, have been already proved to originate from such non-human viruses. Therefore, studying their natural prevalence among wild non-human primates is important for planning strategies to prevent the emergence of additional human retroviral pathogens. This article is focused on tracing the origin and evolution of the human T-cell leukemia viruses HTLV-I and HTLV-II in comparison to that of the simian lymphotropic viruses STLV-I, STLV-II and STLV-L, which are phylo-genically classified into a common group called primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLV). Thus, HTLV-I and STLV-I are referred to as PTLV-I and HTLV-II and STLV-II as PTLV-II, whereas STLV-L, which is highly divergent from both HTLV types, comprises a third subgroup called PTLV-L. The phylogeny of PTLV indicates that both, HTLV-I and HTLV-II emerged from a simian origin, but their subsequent evolution continued in different patterns. HTLV-I includes 6 subtypes which evolved from STLV-I through several times of different geographic interspecies transmission between simian and human hosts. These repeated invasions to new primate species are likely to give rise to viral strains with increasing pathogenic potential. On the other hand, HTLV-II includes 4 subtypes which appear to originate from a common human ancestor virus that emerged from only one simian to human transmission, whereas the subsequent evolution of HTLV-II and STLV-II strains continued separately only within the Homo sapiens and Pan paniscus species respectively, without repeated interspecies jumps. Such evolution pattern likely involves less genetic changes and selection of viral strains with low pathogenic virulence that could co-exist with their hosts for long time. These different evolution patterns can explain the much wider implication of HTLV-I with human clinical disorders than HTLV-II. Of note, however, more recently HTLV-II started

  8. [Prevalence of infection due to HTLV-1 in remnant quilombos in Central Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Laura Branquinho do; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Reis, Nádia Rúbia da Silva; Silva, Agabo Macedo da Costa E; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among remnant black quilombo communities in Central Brazil. A total of 1,837 individuals were evaluated, among whom nine were HTLV-1/2 seropositive according to ELISA. All of them were positive for HTLV-1 by means of Western blot and/or PCR, thus resulting in a prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-1.0). The HTLV-1 infected individuals ranged in age from 11 to 82 years. The majority of them were females. Regarding risk characteristics, histories of breastfeeding, blood transfusion, multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases were reported by these individuals. The findings from this study indicate the importance of identifying HTLV-1 infected individuals, as a strategy for infection control and prevention in these remnant quilombos.

  9. A Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster Model To Study Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Oncoprotein Tax-1-Driven Transformation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Shirinian, Margret; Kambris, Zakaria; Hamadeh, Lama; Grabbe, Caroline; Journo, Chloé; Mahieux, Renaud; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is an aggressive malignancy. HTLV-2 is genetically related to HTLV-1 but does not cause any malignant disease. HTLV-1 Tax transactivator (Tax-1) contributes to leukemogenesis via NF-κB. We describe transgenic Drosophila models expressing Tax in the compound eye and plasmatocytes. We demonstrate that Tax-1 but not Tax-2 induces ommatidial perturbation and increased plasmatocyte proliferation and that the eye phenotype is dependent on Kenny (IKKγ/NEMO), thus validating this new in vivo model.

  10. Immunochemical method for detection of antibody against HTLV-III core protein based upon recombinant HTLV-III gag gene encoded protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, N.T.; Ghrayeb, J.

    1989-02-28

    A method is described of detecting antibody against HTLV-III core protein in a biological fluid, comprising the steps of: a. providing an antigen immunoadsorbent comprising a solid phase to which is attached a HTLV-III core antigen which is a chimeric antigen comprising an amino acid sequence beginning at amino acid number 1 through 99, and extending to amino acid number 228, the chimeric antigen being immunoreactive with antibody against HTLV-III core protein; b. incubating the immunoadsorbent with a sample of the biological fluid to be tested under conditions which allow antibody in the sample to complex with the antigen immunoadsorbent; c. separating the immmunoadsorbent from the sample; and d. determining antibody bound to the iuumoadsorbent as an indication of antibody against HTLV-III core protein in the sample.

  11. Two specific drugs, BMS-345541 and purvalanol A induce apoptosis of HTLV-1 infected cells through inhibition of the NF-kappaB and cell cycle pathways.

    PubMed

    Agbottah, Emmanuel; Yeh, Wen-I; Berro, Reem; Klase, Zachary; Pedati, Caitlin; Kehn-Hall, Kyleen; Wu, Weilin; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2008-06-10

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) induces adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL/L), a fatal lymphoproliferative disorder, and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system after a long period of latent infection. Although the mechanism of transformation and leukemogenesis is not fully elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that the viral oncoprotein Tax plays a crucial role in these processes through the regulation of several pathways including NF-kappaB and the cell cycle pathways. The observation that NF-kappaB, which is strongly induced by Tax, is indispensable for the maintenance of the malignant phenotype of HTLV-1 by regulating the expression of various genes involved in cell cycle regulation and inhibition of apoptosis provides a possible molecular target for these infected cells. To develop potential new therapeutic strategies for HTLV-1 infected cells, in this present study, we initially screened a battery of NF-kappaB and CDK inhibitors (total of 35 compounds) to examine their effects on the growth and survival of infected T-cell lines. Two drugs namely BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A exhibited higher levels of growth inhibition and apoptosis in infected cell as compared to uninfected cells. BMS-345541 inhibited IKKbeta kinase activity from HTLV-1 infected cells with an IC50 (the 50% of inhibitory concentration) value of 50 nM compared to 500 nM from control cells as measured by in vitro kinase assays. The effects of Purvalanol A were associated with suppression of CDK2/cyclin E complex activity as previously shown by us. Combination of both BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A showed a reduced level of HTLV-1 p19 Gag production in cell culture. The apparent apoptosis in these infected cells were associated with increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. The potent and selective apoptotic effects of these drugs suggest that both BMS-345541 and Purvalanol A, which target

  12. Reciprocal functional pseudotyping of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 viral genomes by the heterologous counterpart envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Klase, Zachary; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2013-08-15

    HIV-1 and HTLV-1 can infect CD4+ T cells and can co-infect the same individual. In principle, it is possible that both viruses can infect the same CD4+ T cells in dually infected persons. Currently, how efficiently HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infects the same cell and the full extent of their biological interactions are not well-understood. Here, we report evidence confirming that both viruses can infect the same cells and that HTLV-1 envelope (Env) can pseudotype HIV-1 viral particles and HIV-1 envelope (Env) can pseudotype HTLV-1 virions to mediate subsequent infections of substrate cells. We also show that the construction of a chimeric HTLV-1 molecular clone carrying the HIV-1 Env in place of its HTLV-1 counterpart results in a replication competent moiety. These findings raise new implications of viral complementation and assortment between HIV-1 and HTLV-1 in dually infected persons.

  13. A Fas(hi) Lymphoproliferative Phenotype Reveals Non-Apoptotic Fas Signaling in HTLV-1-Associated Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Soraya Maria; Leal, Fabio E; Dierckx, Tim; Khouri, Ricardo; Decanine, Daniele; Silva-Santos, Gilvaneia; Schnitman, Saul V; Kruschewsky, Ramon; López, Giovanni; Alvarez, Carolina; Talledo, Michael; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Nixon, Douglas F; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Brassat, David; Liblau, Roland; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Van Weyenbergh, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 was the first human retrovirus to be associated to cancer, namely adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), but its pathogenesis remains enigmatic, since only a minority of infected individuals develops either ATL or the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A functional FAS -670 polymorphism in an interferon (IFN)-regulated STAT1-binding site has been associated to both ATL and HAM/TSP susceptibility. Fas(hi) T stem cell memory (Tscm) cells have been identified as the hierarchical apex of ATL, but have not been investigated in HAM/TSP. In addition, both FAS and STAT1 have been identified in an IFN-inducible HAM/TSP gene signature, but its pathobiological significance remains unclear. We comprehensively explored Fas expression (protein/mRNA) and function in lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, proliferation, and transcriptome, in PBMC from a total of 47 HAM/TSP patients, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected individuals (AC), and 58 HTLV-1 -uninfected healthy controls. Fas surface expression followed a two-step increase from HC to AC and from AC to HAM/TSP. In HAM/TSP, Fas levels correlated positively to lymphocyte activation markers, but negatively to age of onset, linking Fas(hi) cells to earlier, more aggressive disease. Surprisingly, increased lymphocyte Fas expression in HAM/TSP was linked to decreased apoptosis and increased lymphoproliferation upon in vitro culture, but not to proviral load. This Fas(hi) phenotype is HAM/TSP-specific, since both ex vivo and in vitro Fas expression was increased as compared to multiple sclerosis (MS), another neuroinflammatory disorder. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying non-apoptotic Fas signaling in HAM/TSP, we combined transcriptome analysis with functional assays, i.e., blocking vs. triggering Fas receptor in vitro with antagonist and agonist-, anti-Fas mAb, respectively. Treatment with agonist anti-Fas mAb restored apoptosis

  14. Adult T-cell leukemia: molecular basis for clonal expansion and transformation of HTLV-1–infected T cells

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) that develops through a multistep carcinogenesis process involving 5 or more genetic events. We provide a comprehensive overview of recently uncovered information on the molecular basis of leukemogenesis in ATL. Broadly, the landscape of genetic abnormalities in ATL that include alterations highly enriched in genes for T-cell receptor–NF-κB signaling such as PLCG1, PRKCB, and CARD11 and gain-of function mutations in CCR4 and CCR7. Conversely, the epigenetic landscape of ATL can be summarized as polycomb repressive complex 2 hyperactivation with genome-wide H3K27 me3 accumulation as the basis of the unique transcriptome of ATL cells. Expression of H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 was shown to be induced by HTLV-1 Tax and NF-κB. Furthermore, provirus integration site analysis with high-throughput sequencing enabled the analysis of clonal composition and cell number of each clone in vivo, whereas multicolor flow cytometric analysis with CD7 and cell adhesion molecule 1 enabled the identification of HTLV-1–infected CD4+ T cells in vivo. Sorted immortalized but untransformed cells displayed epigenetic changes closely overlapping those observed in terminally transformed ATL cells, suggesting that epigenetic abnormalities are likely earlier events in leukemogenesis. These new findings broaden the scope of conceptualization of the molecular mechanisms of leukemogenesis, dissecting them into immortalization and clonal progression. These recent findings also open a new direction of drug development for ATL prevention and treatment because epigenetic marks can be reprogrammed. Mechanisms underlying initial immortalization and progressive accumulation of these abnormalities remain to be elucidated. PMID:28115366

  15. Adult T-cell leukemia: molecular basis for clonal expansion and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshiki

    2017-03-02

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) that develops through a multistep carcinogenesis process involving 5 or more genetic events. We provide a comprehensive overview of recently uncovered information on the molecular basis of leukemogenesis in ATL. Broadly, the landscape of genetic abnormalities in ATL that include alterations highly enriched in genes for T-cell receptor-NF-κB signaling such as PLCG1, PRKCB, and CARD11 and gain-of function mutations in CCR4 and CCR7 Conversely, the epigenetic landscape of ATL can be summarized as polycomb repressive complex 2 hyperactivation with genome-wide H3K27 me3 accumulation as the basis of the unique transcriptome of ATL cells. Expression of H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 was shown to be induced by HTLV-1 Tax and NF-κB. Furthermore, provirus integration site analysis with high-throughput sequencing enabled the analysis of clonal composition and cell number of each clone in vivo, whereas multicolor flow cytometric analysis with CD7 and cell adhesion molecule 1 enabled the identification of HTLV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells in vivo. Sorted immortalized but untransformed cells displayed epigenetic changes closely overlapping those observed in terminally transformed ATL cells, suggesting that epigenetic abnormalities are likely earlier events in leukemogenesis. These new findings broaden the scope of conceptualization of the molecular mechanisms of leukemogenesis, dissecting them into immortalization and clonal progression. These recent findings also open a new direction of drug development for ATL prevention and treatment because epigenetic marks can be reprogrammed. Mechanisms underlying initial immortalization and progressive accumulation of these abnormalities remain to be elucidated.

  16. Roles for microRNAs, miR-93 and miR-130b, and TP53INP1 tumor suppressor in cell growth dysregulation by HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Man Lung; Yasunaga, Jun-ichirou; Bennasser, Yamina; Dusetti, Nelson; Harris, David; Ahmad, Nafees; Matsuoka, Masao; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2008-01-01

    A role for miRNAs in human T-cell leukemia virus-1, HTLV-1, mediated cellular transformation has not been described. Here, we profiled miRNA expression in HTLV-1 transformed human T cell lines and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Adult-T cell leukemia (ATL) patients. Analyses of eleven different profiles revealed six miRNAs which were consistently up-regulated. Two of the up-regulated miRNAs (miR-93 and miR-130b) target the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the mRNA for a tumor suppressor protein, Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 (TP53INP1). A low expression level of TP53INP1 protein was found in HTLV-1 transformed cells. Additionally, when antagomirs were used to knock down miR-93 and miR-130b in these cells, the expression of TP53INP1 was increased suggesting that the latter is regulated inside cells by the former. A role for TP53INP1 in regulating cell growth was established by experiments which showed that enhanced TP53INP1 expression increased apoptosis. Collectively, the findings implicate a miR-93/miR-130b – TP53INP1 axis that impacts the proliferation and survival of HTLV-1 infected / transformed cells. PMID:18974142

  17. Barefoot Plantar Pressure Indicates Progressive Neurological Damage in Patients with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Beatriz Helena B.; Souza, Givago S.; Barroso, Tatiana G. C. P.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.; Sousa, Rita Catarina M.; Callegari, Bianca; Xavier, Marília B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with neurological alterations; individuals with HTLV-1 infection may develop HTLV-1 associated myelopathy / tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Frequent neurological complaints include foot numbness and leg weakness. In this study, we compared the distribution of the body weight on different areas of the foot in HTLV-1 patients with HAM/TSP, asymptomatic HTLV-1 patients, and healthy individuals. Methodology We studied 36 HTLV-1 infected patients, who were divided in two groups of 18 patients each based on whether or not they had been diagnosed with HAM/TSP, and 17 control subjects. The evaluation included an interview on the patient’s clinical history and examinations of the patient’s reflexes, foot skin tactile sensitivity, and risk of falling. The pressure distribution on different areas of the foot was measured with baropodometry, using a pressure platform, while the patients had their eyes open or closed. Main Findings The prevalence of neurological disturbances—altered reflexes and skin tactile sensitivity and increased risk of falling—was higher in HTLV-1 HAM/TSP patients than in HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients. The medium and maximum pressure values were higher in the forefoot than in the midfoot and hindfoot in both HTLV-1 groups. In addition, the pressure on the hindfoot was lower in HAM/TSP patients compared to control subjects. Conclusions The neurological disturbances associated with HTLV-1 infection gradually worsened from HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients to HAM/TSP patients. Baropodometry is a valuable tool to establish the extent of neurological damage in patients suffering from HTLV-1 infection. PMID:26998608

  18. Phylogenetic relationship and geographic distribution of multiple human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, W M; Pieniazek, D; Swanson, P; Samdal, H H; Soriano, V; Khabbaz, R F; Kaplan, J E; Lal, R B; Heneine, W

    1995-01-01

    The current env-based subtyping of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) identifies only two heterogenetic groups, HTLV-IIa and HTLV-IIb. To better understand the genetic diversity and phylogeny of HTLV-II, we examined the most divergent genomic region of HTLV-II, the long terminal repeat, by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis. Long terminal repeat sequences were amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and digested with seven restriction endonucleases that differentiated HTLV-II into five HTLV-IIa (IIa0 to IIa4) and six HTLV-IIb (IIb0 to IIb5) restriction types, with HTLV-IIa0 and HTLV-IIb0 being prototypes for the MoT and NRA isolates, respectively. We examined 169 HTLV-II-infected samples, including 123 from blood donors and intravenous drug users (IDU) from the Americas, 16 from IDU from Europe, and 30 from Amerindians. Of the 169 samples, 109 (64.5%) were categorized as HTLV-IIa and 60 (35.5%) were categorized as HTLV-IIb. The predominant restriction types seen among the U.S. blood donors and U.S. IDU were IIa0 (68.7%) and IIb4 (10.4%). Four Spanish and seven Italian samples were IIb4, while five Norwegian samples were IIa2. Twelve Guaymi and all ten Seminole samples were single restriction types (IIb1 and IIb5, respectively), whereas the two Navajo and six Pueblo samples had a mixture of restriction types IIa0, IIa4, and IIb5. Of the HTLV-IIb restriction types observed in the U.S. non-Indians, 42.8% appear to have originated from the North Amerindian (IIb5), while 57.2% were similar to the European IIb4 restriction type. Sequences of 15 selected HTLV-II samples were determined and phylogenetically compared with 7 previously published HTLV-II LTR sequences. The derived topologies revealed three HTLV-IIa phylogroups (A-I to A-III) and four HTLV-IIb phylogroups (B-I to B-IV). Furthermore, the HTLV-IIa phylogroups appear to have evolved from the HTLV-IIb phylogroups. In the HTLV-IIa cluster, a

  19. Chromatin structure of recombinant Moloney murine leukemia virus proviral DNAs that contain tax-responsive sequences from human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II in the presence and absence of tax.

    PubMed Central

    Kitado, H; Fan, H

    1989-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) are replication-competent retroviruses which contain two additional regulatory proteins, tax and rex. tax is a transcriptional transactivator of the HTLV-I or HTLV-II long terminal repeat (LTR) and also of some heterologous promoters. To investigate the mechanism of tax transactivation, we used chimeric Moloney murine leukemia viruses (M-MuLVs) with LTRs containing tax-responsive sequences from the HTLV-II LTR (nucleotides -273 to -32). Mo+HTLV-II+ M-MuLV contained the HTLV II sequences inserted into the wild-type M-MuLV LTR at nucleotide -150, whereas delta Mo+HTLV-II+ M-MuLV contained the same sequences inserted into an M-MuLV LTR lacking its own enhancer region. HTLV-II tax (tax II)-positive mouse cells (15S-5a) infected with Mo+HTLV-II+ M-MuLV or delta Mo+HTLV-II+ M-MuLV showed higher rates of viral transcription in nuclear run-on assays than did infected tax-negative NIH 3T3 cells. The chromatin structure of these viruses was investigated by high-resolution mapping of DNase I-hypersensitive (HS) sites. Three prominent HS sites were associated with HTLV-II sequences in proviral chromatin both in tax-positive and in tax-negative cells. The spacing resembled that of the 21-base-pair (bp) repeats, but the HS sites were displaced approximately 50 bp upstream of the 21-bp repeats. This suggested that cellular proteins bound to the HTLV-II sequences in the presence or absence of tax. No direct effect of tax on chromatin structure was found. These in vivo results were consistent with results of in vitro DNase footprinting studies performed by other investigators. Images PMID:2786092

  20. Development of tropical spastic paraparesis in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers is influenced by interleukin 28B gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Lopez, Mariola; Vispo, Eugenia; Aguilera, Antonio; Ramos, Jose M; Benito, Rafael; Roc, Lourdes; Eiros, Jose M; de Mendoza, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    Interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphisms were examined in 41 individuals with human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The alleles CT/TT were more frequent in 12 individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis than in 29 asymptomatic carriers (80% vs 20%; P = .03), and median HTLV-1 proviral load was greater in CT/TT than CC carriers (P = .01). Thus, IL28B testing and closer follow-up of HTLV-1 asymptomatic CT/TT carriers is warranted.

  1. Absence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I in Japanese patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, A; Nishikawa, T; Ikeda, Y; Yamaguchi, K

    1997-03-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a disease entity characterized by a primary sporadic T-cell proliferation in the skin. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Recently, several authors have detected the HTLV-1 genome in genomic DNA from patients with CTCL and proposed a causal relation of HTLV-1 to CTCL. However, it remains controversial because these studies contain some problems in materials used to detect HTLV-1. We investigated both fresh and cultured T lymphocytes (128 specimens) derived from 50 Japanese patients with CTCL, where HTLV-1 is endemic, by using polymerase chain reaction with four sets of primers including gag, pol, env, and pX regions of HTLV-1 to elucidate the relationship between HTLV-1 and CTCL in Japan. However, none of the 128 DNA specimens revealed positive for HTLV-1 in contrast to the previous studies. We conclude that CTCL, which does not include HTLV-1, is present although the pathogenesis of CTCL may be different by areas or races.

  2. Association of Sicca Syndrome with Proviral Load and Proinflammatory Cytokines in HTLV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Lima, Clara Mônica; Santos, Silvane; Dourado, Adriana; Carvalho, Natália B; Bittencourt, Valéria; Lessa, Marcus Miranda; Siqueira, Isadora; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2016-01-01

    The Sjögren syndrome has been diagnosed in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy and dry mouth and dry eyes are documented in HTLV-1 carriers. However the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome in these subjects has been contested. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the role of immunological factors and proviral load, in sicca syndrome associated with HTLV-1 in patients without myelopathy. Subjects were recruited in the HTLV-1 Clinic, from 2009 to 2011. The proviral load and cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, and IL-10) were obtained from a database containing the values presented by the subjects at admission in the clinic. Of the 272 participants, 59 (21.7%) had sicca syndrome and in all of them anti-Sjögren syndrome related antigen A (SSA) and antigen B (SSB) were negatives. The production of TNF-α and IFN-γ was higher in the group with sicca syndrome (P < 0.05) than in HTLV-1 infected subjects without sicca syndrome. Our data indicates that patients with sicca syndrome associated with HTLV-1 do not have Sjögren syndrome. However the increased production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in this group of patients may contribute to the pathogenesis of sicca syndrome associated with HTLV-1.

  3. Prevalence of HTLV-1 Antibody among Major Thalassemic Patients in Gorgan (South East of Caspian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A.; Mansurian, A. R.; Ahmadi, A. R.; Ghaemi, E.; Kalavi, K. H.; Marjani, A.; Sanei Moghaddam, E.

    In this study, the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among the thalassemic patients was investigated. 181 thalassemic patients whom referred to Talghani hospital during, Oct. 2004-Sep. 2005 were participated in this study. HTLV antibody was determined using ELISA technique. In this procedure (Diapron laboratory kit) HTLV, positive samples tested by HTLV-1 western blot (kit, 2.4) to confirm, ELISA positive samples and also to detect the HTLV types. From 181 thalassemic patients, 93 (51.4%) were males. The age rate of these ranged 1-25 years, (mean of 14.11±6.5). Of these subjects 169 patients (93.4%) were received packet cell at least one unite per month. 28(14.9%) of subjects were HTLV positive, while only 4.4% of them were confirmed by western blot and also for contamination with type-1 virus infection. Contamination with this virus increased, as the patients were getting older. The findings derived from this study indicated that among the thalassemic patients in Gorgan there were cases with HTLV-1, infection that was correlated with the other part of the country. It is therefore concluded; that further comprehensive studies are required to identify infected blood donations by blood donors in Gorgan.

  4. CD160 expression defines a uniquely exhausted subset of T lymphocytes in HTLV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Arima, Naomichi

    2014-10-24

    HTLV-1 infection is a life-long retroviral infection. Chronic viral antigenic stimulation induces persistent infection which results in a clinically asymptomatic carrier state. Only a minor proportion of infected individuals develop adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) or HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic myelopathy (HAM/TSP). This is dependent on a balance of host and genetic factors. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte function is important in the immune response against viral infection; however, the contribution of CD160 receptor associated with CD8+ T lymphocytes is unclear. Thus, we sought to decipher its role on CTL function in HTLV-1 infection. Here, we report high frequencies of CD160 on CD8+ T cells, with significantly higher levels on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. Intercepting the CD160 pathway via blockade of the receptor or its ligand, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) resulted in improved perforin production and CD107a degranulation of HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. Analysis of the CD160-expressing CD8+ cells demonstrated a unique subset associated with a highly differentiated effector memory based on CD45RA and CCR7 co-expression, increased expression of inhibitory molecules, 2B4 and PD1. Altogether, these results suggest a role for CD160/HVEM pathway in regulating immune response against HTLV-1 infection which may prove promising in the development of immune therapies for the treatment of HTLV-1 infection and other associated disorders.

  5. [Prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection among blood donors in Santa Fe Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Brun, Roque O; Astarloa, Laura; Salomon, Horacio E; Biglione, Mirna M

    2004-01-01

    Subsequent to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance Program developed in 1997 by the National AIDS Program, anti-HTLV-I/II antibodies among blood donors in Santa Fe Province started to be detected. On the basis of this initial finding, it was regarded of interest to evaluate the true HTLV-I/II seroprevalence in this population during a four-year survey. Thus, from 1997 up to 2002, 9425 samples were studied from 17 out of the 19 provincial departments. Out of the total sampling, 38 proved reactive by agglutination techniques, 18 of which were confirmed by western blot (WB). Out of the latter, 10 were HTLV-I/II seropositive with a final prevalence of 0.1% (10/9425), whereas 7 were indeterminate and 1 negative. Among these 10 confirmed sera, 2 (0.02%) were HTLV, 3 (0.03%) HTLV-I and 5 (0.05%) HTLV-II. It should be highlighted that the presence of HTLV-I/II infection in blood donors in Santa Fe Province was demonstrated for the first time, with a prevalence greater than that reported for blood donors in non-endemic Argentine areas. Such findings confirm the need of corresponding systematic screening through regulatory blood bank norms in Santa Fe Province.

  6. David D. Derse, 1949-2009.

    PubMed

    Shuh, Maureen

    2009-12-01

    David D. Derse, Ph.D., Head of the Retrovirus Gene Expression Section in the HIV Drug Resistance Program at the National Cancer Institute-Frederick (NCI-Frederick), passed away on October 9, 2009, a scant six weeks after being diagnosed with liver cancer. It was with great sadness that family, friends, and colleagues gathered together for his memorial service on Saturday, October 17, 2009, at the Middletown United Methodist Church in Maryland. As a NCI scientist since 1986, Dave studied the molecular mechanisms of infection and replication of a number of different types of retroviruses. Dave became an internationally known expert on human T cell lymphotrophic viruses type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) and served on the editorial boards of Virology and Retrovirology. His most recent studies focused on the mechanisms of HTLV-1 virion morphogenesis, transmission, and replication.

  7. HTLV-1 Coinfection in a HIV-1-Infected Peruvian Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    RIPA) (2,3). The study population included 495 males (mean age of 32.0 years; range of 4 to 71 years) and 57Alan B Forsythe females (mean age of 31.9...Heseltine PNR, et al. A multi- mosexual and 18% bisexual. Most females either center clinical trial of oral ribavirin in HIV-infected patients with...Development of ac- for HTLV-I antibody, and 3 (5.3%) were positive quired immunodeficiency in a cohort of HIV seropositive among females . To

  8. A case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified in a HCV and HTLV-II-positive patient, diagnosed by abdominal fluid cytology

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Trisha M.; Qian, You-Wen; Elghetany, M. Tarek; Schnadig, Vicki; Nawgiri, Ranjina

    2016-01-01

    Background Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS) is a rare neoplasm that typically presents as generalized lymphadenopathy. PTCL, NOS presenting as malignant ascites is rare. Methods A 61-year-old African-American man with past medical history of HCV, cryoglobulinemia, and cryptococcal pneumonia was admitted for dyspnea on exertion over a period of 1 month and new onset of abdominal distension. Results Ascites, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and extensive lymphadenopathy were found by imaging. Paracentesis obtained 1.3 liter of abdominal fluid, the cytologic evaluation showed a monomorphic population of intermediate-sized lymphoid cells with irregular to convoluted nuclear contours. Fluid sent for flow cytometry showed an abnormal T-lymphocyte population expressing CD4, weak surface CD3 and absence of CD7. PCR studies of ascitic fluid detected a clonal T-lymphocyte population with T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement. Serologic testing for human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) was positive for HTLV-II. Subsequent bone marrow biopsy revealed lymphomatous involvement. CD30 and ALK-1 immunostaining were negative. This case was classified as PTCL, NOS. Conclusions PTCL, NOS can have unusual clinical presentation such as ascites and pleural effusion, and may also occur as a complication of immunodeficiency state. Further studies are needed to determine if HCV or HTLV-II viral infection is associated with PTCL. PMID:27034820

  9. High production of RANTES and MIP-1alpha in the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM).

    PubMed

    Montanheiro, Patricia; Vergara, Maria Paulina Posada; Smid, Jerusa; da Silva Duarte, Alberto José; de Oliveira, Augusto César Penalva; Casseb, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with progressive neurological disorders and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The pathogenesis of TSP/HAM is considered as immune mediated, involving cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses to a number of viral proteins and notably the regulation protein Tax. T CD8+ cells produce beta-chemokines, which are important in the anti-viral response. In the present study, we have analyzed the CC chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1beta and MIP-1alpha) production in retrovirus-infected subjects. A total of 191 subjects were studied: 52 healthy controls, 72 asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected carriers and 67 TSP/HAM patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were maintained in the presence or absence of PHA, and supernatant fluids were assayed using EIA. MIP-1beta concentration was not significantly different across groups, but RANTES and MIP-1alpha concentrations showed significant differences when the three groups were compared. In TSP/HAM patients, the increase in the production of chemokines may lead to a recruitment of pro-inflammatory factors, contributing to the membrane's myelin damage.

  10. Physalin F, a seco-steroid from Physalis angulata L., has immunosuppressive activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with HTLV1-associated myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorena A; Meira, Cássio S; Villarreal, Cristiane F; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A; de Souza, Claudia V C; Ribeiro, Ivone M; Tomassini, Therezinha C B; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Soares, Milena B P; Grassi, Maria F R

    2016-04-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces a strong activation of the immune system, especially in individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Physalin F is a secosteroid with potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of physalin F on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of HAM/TSP subjects. A concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous proliferation of PBMC from HAM/TSP subjects was observed in the presence of physalin F, as evaluated by (3)H-thymidine uptake. The IC50 for physalin F was 0.97 ± 0.11 μM. Flow cytometry analysis using Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) showed that physalin F (10 μM) significantly reduced the levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, but not IL-17A, in supernatants of PBMC cultures. Next, apoptosis induction was addressed by using flow cytometry to evaluate annexin V expression. Treatment with physalin F (10 μM) increased the apoptotic population of PBMC in HAM/TSP subjects. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of PBMC showed that physalin F induced ultrastructural changes, such as pyknotic nuclei, damaged mitochondria, enhanced autophagic vacuole formation, and the presence of myelin-like figures. In conclusion, physalin F induces apoptosis of PBMC, decreasing the spontaneous proliferation and cytokine production caused by HTLV-1 infection.

  11. Schistosoma antigens downregulate CXCL9 production by PBMC of HTLV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciane Mota; Cardoso, Luciana Santos; Santos, Silvane Braga; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Góes, Alfredo Miranda; Loukas, Alex; Araujo, Maria Ilma

    2017-03-01

    HTLV-1 is the causal agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The immune response to HTLV-1-infection is polarized to the Th1-type, and the presence of CXCL9/CXCL10 chemokines may lead to an increase in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory molecules in spinal cord tissue, contributing to the damage observed in the development of HAM/TSP. It has been observed that in chronic helminth-infections, such as schistosomiasis, there is a deviation toward the Th2/regulatory immune response.

  12. Molecular Studies of HTLV-1 Infection in Newly Recognized High Risk Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-10

    AD-A269 725 -Iu 11 i!IIH1111iIIi( AD CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-91-C-1001 TITLE: MOLECULAR STUDIES OF HTLV -I INFECTION IN NEWLY RECOGNIZED HIGH RISK...34 (6/10/91 - 6/9/93) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Molecular Studies of HTLV -I Infection in Newly Recognized High Risk Population Contract No...summarizes the two years of contract of the research aimed to define newly recognized high risk population for HTLV -I infection. To define the extent

  13. Human T lymphotropic virus types I and II proviral sequences in Argentinian blood donors with indeterminate Western blot patterns.

    PubMed

    Mangano, A M; Remesar, M; del Pozo, A; Sen, Luisa

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) seroindeterminate blood donors have been reported worldwide including Argentina. To investigate the significance of HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot (WB) patterns, we conducted an 8-year cross-sectional study. Of 86,238 Argentinian blood donors, 146 sera were reactive by screening tests. The WB results indicated that 20% were HTLV-I reactive, 8% HTLV-II reactive, 61% indeterminate, and 11% negative. The overall seroprevalence was 0.034% for HTLV-I, 0.014% for HTLV-II, and 0.103% for indeterminate. In 57 reactive specimens, HTLV-I/II provirus could be examined by type specific PCR for tax, pol, and env regions. When at least two gene fragments were amplified HTLV-I/II infection was considered confirmed. PCR results confirmed all WB seropositive samples for HTLV-I (n = 15), and HTLV-II (n = 7), and the only WB negative case was also PCR negative, showing a complete concordance between PCR and WB. However, of 34 WB seroindeterminate sera studied by PCR, in 5 was proviral DNA amplified. According to our criteria PCR confirmed one to be HTLV-I, and one HTLV-II, 3 remained indeterminate since only tax sequences were amplified. Among WB indeterminate samples tested by PCR, most of their serological profile showed reactivity to gag codified proteins but lacked env reactivities (70%). One sample with a WB gag pattern showed proviral tax sequences, but of the four samples with reactivity to env proteins GD21 (n = 3) or rgp46II (n = 1) PCR results indicated that one was HTLV-I, one was HTLV-II, and two were indeterminate (only tax sequences). In conclusion, the majority of HTLV-seroindeterminate WB donors exhibited a gag indeterminate profile lacking HTLV provirus, and were thus considered uninfected. However, seroreactivity to env proteins, in particular to GD21, may indicate infection and a follow-up study of each seroreactive blood donor should be considered.

  14. A new and frequent human T-cell leukemia virus indeterminate Western blot pattern: epidemiological determinants and PCR results in central African inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Filippone, Claudia; Bassot, Sylviane; Betsem, Edouard; Tortevoye, Patricia; Guillotte, Micheline; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Calattini, Sara; Gessain, Antoine

    2012-05-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) indeterminate Western blot (WB) serological patterns are frequently observed in plasma/serum from persons living in intertropical areas. In the framework of ongoing projects on HTLV-1/2 and related viruses in Central Africa, we systematically analyzed plasma from villagers living in South Cameroon by WB. The group included 1,968 individuals (mean age, 44 years; age range, 5 to 90 years; 978 women/990 men), both Bantus (1,165) and Pygmies (803). Plasma samples were tested by WB analysis (MPD HTLV Blot 2.4) and interpreted according to the manufacturer's instructions. Only clear bands were considered in the analysis. Among the 1,968 plasma samples, 38 (1.93%) were HTLV-1, 13 (0.66%) were HTLV-2, and 6 (0.3%) were HTLV WB seropositive. Furthermore, 1,292 (65.65%) samples were WB sero-indeterminate, including 104 (5.28%) with an HTLV-1 Gag-indeterminate pattern (HGIP) and 68 (3.45%) with a peculiar yet unreported pattern exhibiting mostly a strong shifted GD21 and a p28. The other 619 (31.45%) samples were either WB negative or exhibited other patterns, mostly with unique p19 or p24 bands. DNA, extracted from peripheral blood buffy coat, was subjected to PCR using several primer pairs known to detect HTLV-1/2/3/4. Most DNAs from HTLV-1- and HTLV-seropositive individuals were PCR positive. In contrast, all the others, from persons with HTLV-2, HGIP, new WB, and other indeterminate patterns, were PCR negative. Epidemiological determinant analysis of the persons with this new peculiar WB pattern revealed that seroprevalence was independent from age, sex, or ethnicity, thus resembling the indeterminate profile HGIP rather than HTLV-1. Moreover, this new pattern persists over time.

  15. Seroepidemiology, viral isolation, and molecular characterization of human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, R; Gessain, A; Truffert, A; Vitrac, D; Hubert, A; Dandelot, J; Montchamp-Moreau, C; Cnudde, F; Tekaia, F; De Thé, G

    1994-06-01

    Data indicate the presence in the Seychelles Islands of a high level of human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) endemicity as well as the presence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We present here the results of an hospital survey performed since 1988 in La Réunion Island, located in the Indian Ocean southeast of the Seychelles archipelago, aimed at evaluating HTLV-I endemicity, detecting HTLV-I-associated diseases, and characterizing viral isolates. Seven individuals were found to have HTLV-I-specific antibodies in their sera. These include 3 of 257 patients from St. Pierre Hospital, 1 of them exhibiting a typical clinical feature of TSP/HAM (the first described case in this region), 1 blood donor of 3900, and 3 relatives. A further nine individuals exhibiting only "gag-encoded proteins" by Western blot (p19 and/or p24 bands) were found negative by polymerase chain reaction using LTR, pol, and tax HTLV-I specific primers. A long-term T cell line, designated Mel.J, exhibiting T cell activation markers (CD4+, CD25+, HLA-DR+), and producing HTLV-I antigens and viral particles, was established from one of the HTLV-I,-seropositive patients. The sequence of a 522-bp fragment corresponding to the carboxy terminus of gp46 and the majority of gp21 were determined for five HTLV-I-seropositive individuals, including the TSP/HAM patient. Alignment and phylogenetic comparison of these five nucleotide sequences with all the 53 other available HTLV-I env sequences demonstrated that the virus from La Réunion Island belongs to the group of the HTLV-I cosmopolitan subtype and is not related to the Melanesian HTLV-I variants.

  16. The HTLV-1 HBZ protein inhibits cyclin D1 expression through interacting with the cellular transcription factor CREB.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunyun; Zheng, Shangen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zang, Wenqiao; Li, Min; Wang, Na; Li, Ping; Jin, Jing; Dong, Ziming; Zhao, Guoqiang

    2013-10-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus that can cause adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and other diseases. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by an mRNA of the opposite polarity of the viral genomic RNA, interacts with several transcription factors and is involved in T cell proliferation, viral gene transcription and cellular transformation. Cyclin D1 is a pivotal regulatory protein involved in cell cycle progression, and its depressed expression correlates with cell cycle prolongation or arrested at the G1/S transition. In our present study, we observed that HBZ expression suppressed cyclin D1 level. To investigate the role of HBZ on cyclin D1 depression, we transduced HBZ with lentivirus vector into 293T cells, CEM cells and Jurkat cells. The results of Western blot, RT-PCR and luciferase assays showed that transcriptional activity of the cyclin D1 promoter was suppressed by the bZIP domain of HBZ (HBZ-bZIP) through cyclic AMP response element (CRE) site. Immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays showed the binding of HBZ-bZIP to CRE-binding protein (CREB), which confirmed that the cyclin D1 promoter activity inhibition via the CRE-site was mediated by HBZ-bZIP. The results suggested that HBZ suppressed cyclin D1 transcription through interactions with CREB and along with other viral protein, HBZ may play a causal role for leukemogenesis.

  17. Repression of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 replication by a viral mRNA-encoded posttranscriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Younis, Ihab; Khair, Lyne; Dundr, Miroslav; Lairmore, Michael D; Franchini, Genoveffa; Green, Patrick L

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are complex retroviruses that persist in the host, eventually causing leukemia and neurological disease in a small percentage of infected individuals. In addition to structural and enzymatic proteins, HTLV encodes regulatory (Tax and Rex) and accessory (open reading frame I and II) proteins. The viral Tax and Rex proteins positively regulate virus production. Tax activates viral and cellular transcription to promote T-cell growth and, ultimately, malignant transformation. Rex acts posttranscriptionally to facilitate cytoplasmic expression of viral mRNAs that encode the structural and enzymatic gene products, thus positively controlling virion expression. Here, we report that both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 have evolved accessory genes to encode proteins that act as negative regulators of both Tax and Rex. HTLV-1 p30(II) and the related HTLV-2 p28(II) inhibit virion production by binding to and retaining tax/rex mRNA in the nucleus. Reduction of viral replication in a cell carrying the provirus may allow escape from immune recognition in an infected individual. These data are consistent with the critical role of these proteins in viral persistence and pathogenesis in animal models of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection.

  18. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    PubMed

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  19. Immunological signature of the different clinical stages of the HTLV-1 infection: establishing serum biomarkers for HTLV-1-associated disease morbidity.

    PubMed

    Starling, Ana Lúcia Borges; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela Alves; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo Antônio; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Labanca, Ludimila; Souza Pereira, Silvio Roberto; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Ribas, João Gabriel; Trindade, Bruno Caetano; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara Freitas; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing the immunological signature and an algorithm for clinical management of the different clinical stages of the HTLV-1-infection based on serum biomarkers. A panel of serum biomarkers was evaluated by four sets of innovative/non-conventional data analysis approaches in samples from 87 HTLV-1 patients: asymptomatic carriers (AC), putative HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (pHAM/TSP) and HAM/TSP. The analysis of cumulative curves and molecular signatures pointed out that HAM/TSP presented a pro-inflammatory profile mediated by CXCL10/LTB-4/IL-6/TNF-α/IFN-γ, counterbalanced by IL-4/IL-10. The analysis of biomarker networks showed that AC presented a strongly intertwined pro-inflammatory/regulatory net with IL-4/IL-10 playing a central role, while HAM/TSP exhibited overall immune response toward a predominant pro-inflammatory profile. At last, the classification and regression trees proposed for clinical practice allowed for the construction of an algorithm to discriminate AC, pHAM and HAM/TSP patients with the elected biomarkers: IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and CysLT. These findings reveal a complex interaction among chemokine/leukotriene/cytokine in HTLV-1 infection and suggest the use of the selected but combined biomarkers for the follow-up/diagnosis of disease morbidity of HTLV-1-infected individuals.

  20. Current views in HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nicot, Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the relative percentage of malignant lymphoid proliferations varies widely according to geographical location and ethnic populations. HTLV-I is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and is also associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, a definite role of HTLV-I in mycosis fungoides (MF) and/or Sezary syndrome (SS) remains controversial. While most HTLV-I-infected individuals remain asymptomatic carriers, 1-5% will develop ATLL, an invariably fatal expansion of virus-infected CD4+ T cells. This low incidence and the long latency period preceding occurrence of the disease suggest that additional factors are involved in development of ATLL. In this review, diagnosis, clinical features, and molecular pathogenesis of HTLV-I are discussed.

  1. Severe Diarrhea Due To Cystoisospora belli Infection in an HTLV-1 Woman

    PubMed Central

    SHAFIEI, Reza; NAJJARI, Mohsen; KARGAR KHEIRABAD, Ali; HATAM, Golamreza

    2016-01-01

    Cystoisospora belli, formerly Isospora belli, as an opportunistic infection agent, is seen in immunocompromised patients like HTLV-1. We describe here cystoisosporiasis in an HTLV1 Iranian female in Mashhad, northwestern Iran in 2012 who presented with a debilitating diarrheal illness and great weight loss. C. belli was detected in her stool by modified acid-fast staining and then by molecular detection. Serologic testing was negative for HIV but she showed positivity for HTLV-1 infection. Treatment with TMP/SMX led to improvement of her diarrhea but she died after one year due to malabsorption syndrome. Adequate detection of C. belli diarrhea in immunocompromise patients of HTLV1 in endemic area can be cured by TMP/SMX. PMID:27095979

  2. Severe Diarrhea Due To Cystoisospora belli Infection in an HTLV-1 Woman.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Reza; Najjari, Mohsen; Kargar Kheirabad, Ali; Hatam, Golamreza

    2016-01-01

    Cystoisospora belli, formerly Isospora belli, as an opportunistic infection agent, is seen in immunocompromised patients like HTLV-1. We describe here cystoisosporiasis in an HTLV1 Iranian female in Mashhad, northwestern Iran in 2012 who presented with a debilitating diarrheal illness and great weight loss. C. belli was detected in her stool by modified acid-fast staining and then by molecular detection. Serologic testing was negative for HIV but she showed positivity for HTLV-1 infection. Treatment with TMP/SMX led to improvement of her diarrhea but she died after one year due to malabsorption syndrome. Adequate detection of C. belli diarrhea in immunocompromise patients of HTLV1 in endemic area can be cured by TMP/SMX.

  3. [Sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral profile of women infected with HTLV-1 in Salvador, Bahia, an endemic area for HTLV].

    PubMed

    Moxoto, Ivanoska; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Nunes, Ceuci; Mota, Augusto; Dumas, Alexandre; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral characteristics of women infected with HTLV-1 (64) and uninfected women (66) in Salvador, Bahia. The serological diagnosis was obtained via Elisa, Western Blot and Immunofluorescence. Epidemiological and sociodemographic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. The chi-squared or Fisher test was used for categorical data and ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (3 groups) and the T-test or Mann-Whitney (2 groups) were used for continuous data. Associated variables were adjusted using logistic regression. More than half (57.8%) of the seropositive women were asymptomatic. The symptomatic women (with HAM/TSP) had fewer years of education. Comparison between seronegative and seropositive women showed that blood transfusion, anal sex practices, first sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years and three or more sexual partners over women's lifetime were risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. The prevention of both sexual transmission and vertical transmission (breastfeeding) should be reinforced. Prenatal screening is of paramount importance.

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-28

    data and case definitions. By 1985 a virus, named at that time HTLV III, had been identified as the infectious agent of AIDS and the transmission of...in the military. HTLV III became internationally accepted as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the testing became the organized and...with the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases to "conduct clinical and epidemiological studies of cutaneous

  5. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 exposures following blood-borne virus incidents in central Australia, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Hewagama, S; Krishnaswamy, S; King, L; Davis, J; Baird, R

    2014-07-01

    We retrospectively audited hospital occupational exposure events over a 10-year period, in a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-endemic area of Central Australia, and report on 53 individuals exposed to HTLV-1 with no transmissions documented (95% confidence interval, 0%-1.5%). This has important implications for the management of exposures including the role of postexposure prophylaxis.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, but not HTLV-I tax, are likely factors in the epidermotropism of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma via induction of interferon-inducible protein-10.

    PubMed

    Daliani, D; Ulmer, R A; Jackow, C; Pugh, W; Gansbacher, B; Cabanillas, F; Duvic, M; Sarris, A H

    1998-04-01

    We have previously shown that Interferon-Inducible Protein-10 (IP-10), a cytokine chemotactic for CD4-positive lymphocytes, is overexpressed by lesional epidermal keratinocytes and probably accounts for the epidermotropism of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). The tax gene of human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) immortalizes CD4-positive lymphocytes, induces IFN-gamma, and has been detected in patients with classical CTCL who are seronegative for HTLV-I. TNF-alpha is synergistic with IFN-gamma for the induction of IP-10. We therefore decided to define the presence of tax, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IP-10 in lesions of 19 adults with classical CTCL who were seronegative for HTLV-I. Lesional mRNAs for actin, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and tax were detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. In addition IP-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma were detected and localized with immunocytochemistry of frozen sections. In agreement with previous observations IP-10 was overexpressed in lesional keratinocytes of all 19 patients. By RT-PCR, mRNA for IFN-gamma was detected in lesions of 8, and for TNF-alpha in lesions of 13 patients. By immunocytochemistry, TNF-alpha was expressed by lesional keratinocytes in 10 of 13 tested patients, whereas IFN-gamma was focally expressed by lesional lymphocytes and faintly by lesional keratinocytes in 9 of 13 tested patients. tax mRNA was not detected in lesions of any patient, but was easily detectable in cutaneous lesions or peripheral blood of control patients who were seropositive for HTLV-I. We conclude that TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma may cause epidermotropism by inducing IP-10. However, the tax gene of HTLV-I does not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of classical CTCL.

  7. HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infection: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Isache, Carmen; Sands, Michael; Guzman, Nilmarie; Figueroa, Danisha

    2016-01-01

    HTLV type 1 and 2 are both involved in actively spreading epidemics, affecting over 15 million people worldwide. HTLV-1 has been described as the more clinically significant one, being associated with diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis. We report here a case of tropical spastic paraparesis in an HIV-positive patient who did not report any history of travel or residence in an HTLV endemic area. A 57 year old African-American male was admitted to the hospital due to bilateral upper and lower extremity weakness associated with stiffness. He had recently been diagnosed with HIV. His physical examination showed mild to moderate decreased motor strength, in both upper extremities and marked loss in both lower extremities. This was associated with hyperreflexia and clonus. Sensory function was intact. He looked cachectic and had several psoriatic plaques on both lower and upper extremities. Laboratory work-up showed a CD4 count decreased to 94 cells/mm(3) and a HIV viral load of 273,000 copies/mL. Based on serum positivity for HTLV type 1 and the patient's clinical presentation suggestive of upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction, the diagnosis of tropical spastic paraparesis was made. HTLV and HIV share the same routes of transmission and the same tropism for T-lymphocytes. Co-infection occurs probably more frequently than we are aware, since testing for HTLV is not routinely performed in outpatient HIV clinics.

  8. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    SciTech Connect

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric . E-mail: wattel@lyon.fnclcc.fr

    2006-02-05

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population.

  9. Construction and characterization of a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 infectious molecular clone.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Sébastien Alain; Ko, Nga Ling; Calattini, Sara; Mallet, Adeline; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Kehn, Kylene; Brady, John N; Kashanchi, Fatah; Gessain, Antoine; Mahieux, Renaud

    2008-07-01

    We and others have uncovered the existence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3). We have now generated an HTLV-3 proviral clone. We established that gag, env, pol, pro, and tax/rex as well as minus-strand mRNAs are present in cells transfected with the HTLV-3 clone. HTLV-3 p24(gag) protein is detected in the cell culture supernatant. Transfection of 293T-long terminal repeat (LTR)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells with the HTLV-3 clone promotes formation of syncytia, a hallmark of Env expression, together with the appearance of fluorescent cells, demonstrating that Tax is expressed. Viral particles are visible by electron microscopy. These particles are infectious, as demonstrated by infection experiments with purified virions.

  10. Characterization of African Human Retroviruses Related to HTLV-111/LAV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-02

    AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012 Contract No. DAMD17-87-C-7072 Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA 02115...Harvard School of Public (If applicable) Health 1 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) Boston, MA 02115 Ba...Natural History of HIV-2 In Senegal in 1966, prostitution was legalized in conjunction with a nationally supported program for Sexually Transmitted

  11. Effect of TNF-α production inhibitors on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HTLV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Luna, T; Santos, S B; Nascimento, M; Porto, M A F; Muniz, A L; Carvalho, E M; Jesus, A R

    2011-11-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a disease mediated by the immune response. HTLV-1 induces a spontaneous proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by T cells, and increasing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels are potentially involved in tissue damage in diseases related to HTLV-1. This exaggerated immune response is also due to an inability of the natural regulatory mechanisms to down-modulate the immune response in this group of patients. TNF-α inhibitors reduce inflammation and have been shown to improve chronic inflammatory diseases in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of pentoxifylline, forskolin, rolipram, and thalidomide to decrease in vitro production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in cells of HTLV-1-infected subjects. Participants of the study included 19 patients with HAM/TSP (mean age, 53 ± 11; male:female ratio, 1:1) and 18 HTLV-1 carriers (mean age, 47 ± 11; male:female ratio, 1:2.6). Cytokines were determined by ELISA in supernatants of mononuclear cell cultures. Pentoxifylline inhibited TNF-α and IFN-γ synthesis with the minimum dose used (50 µM). The results with forskolin were similar to those observed with pentoxifylline. The doses of rolipram used were 0.01-1 µM and the best inhibition of TNF-α production was achieved with 1 µM and for IFN-γ production it was 0.01 µM. The minimum dose of thalidomide used (1 µM) inhibited TNF-α production but thalidomide did not inhibit IFN-γ production even when the maximum dose (50 µM) was used. All drugs had an in vitro inhibitory effect on TNF-α production and, with the exception of thalidomide, all of them also decreased IFN-γ production.

  12. Infective dermatitis has similar immunological features to human T lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, M C F; Primo, J; Bittencourt, A; Siqueira, I; de Fátima Oliveira, M; Meyer, R; Schriefer, A; Santos, S B; Carvalho, E M

    2009-06-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of the HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH). Over-production of proinflammatory cytokines and an increase in HTLV-1 proviral load are features of HAM/TSP, but the immunological basis of IDH has not been established. In addition to severe cutaneous manifestations, the importance of IDH relies on the observation that up to 30% of children with IDH develop HAM/TSP in childhood and adolescence. In this study we determined the immune response in patients with IDH measuring interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels as well as the HTLV-1 proviral load. Additionally, regulatory cytokines and anti-cytokines were added to cultures to evaluate the ability of these molecules to down-modulate TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma synthesis. HTLV-1 carriers and patients with HAM/TSP served as controls. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma levels were higher in IDH than in HTLV-1 carriers. There was no difference in IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha concentrations in IDH and HAM/TSP patients. There was a tendency for higher IL-4 mRNA expression and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in IDH than in HTLV-1 carriers, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The HTLV-1 proviral load was significantly higher in IDH patients than in HTLV-1 carriers. IDH is characterized by an exaggerated Th1 immune response and high HTLV-1 proviral load. The similarities between the immunological response in patients with IDH and HAM/TSP and the high proviral load observed in IDH provide support that IDH is a risk factor for development of HAM/TSP.

  13. HTLV-2B Tax oncoprotein is modified by ubiquitination and sumoylation and displays intracellular localization similar to its homologue HTLV-1 Tax

    SciTech Connect

    Turci, Marco; Lodewick, Julie; Righi, Paola; Polania, Angela; Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Bex, Francoise; Bertazzoni, Umberto

    2009-03-30

    HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2B. The difference is generally attributed to the properties of their individual transactivating Tax proteins. By using internal Flag-6His tagged Tax-1 and Tax-2B, which display transcriptional activities comparable to the untagged proteins and can be recognized by a single anti-Flag antibody, we demonstrate that Tax-2B is modified by ubiquitination and sumoylation. In addition, Tax2B is distributed in punctuate nuclear structures that include the RelA subunit of NF-{kappa}B, as has been previously demonstrated for Tax-1.

  14. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  15. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out. PMID:27034840

  16. Type-specific neutralization of the human immunodeficiency virus with antibodies to env-encoded synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Palker, T J; Clark, M E; Langlois, A J; Matthews, T J; Weinhold, K J; Randall, R R; Bolognesi, D P; Haynes, B F

    1988-01-01

    A synthetic peptide (SP-10-IIIB) with an amino acid sequence [Cys-Thr-Arg-Pro-Asn-Asn-Asn-Thr-Arg-Lys-Ser-Ile-Arg-Ile-Gln-Arg-Gly-Pro -Pro-Gly-(Tyr); amino acids 303-321] from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolate human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) HTLV-IIIB envelope glycoprotein gp120 was coupled to tetanus toxoid and used to raise goat antibodies to HIV gp120. Goat anti-SP-10-IIIB serum bound to the surface of HTLV-IIIB-infected CEM T cells but not to the surface of HTLV-IIIRF-infected or uninfected CEM T cells. Anti-SP-10-IIIB antibodies also selectively bound to gp120 from lysates of HTLV-IIIB cells in immunoblot assays. Twenty-one percent of sera (28 of 175) from patients seropositive for HIV contained antibodies that reacted with SP-10-IIIB in RIA. Human anti-SP-10-IIIB antibodies affinity purified from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient serum bound to HTLV-IIIB-infected cells and immunoprecipitated gp120. Goat antibodies to SP-10-IIIB neutralized HTLV-IIIB (80% neutralization titer of 1/600), inhibited HTLV-IIIB-induced syncytium formation, but did not neutralize HIV isolates HTLV-IIIRF or HTLV-IIIMN or inhibit syncytium formation with these isolates. Also, goat antiserum to an homologous synthetic peptide [SP-10-IIIRF(A), (Cys)-Arg-Lys-Ser-Ile-Thr-Lys-Gly-Pro-Gly-Arg-Val-Ile-Tyr] from gp120 of HIV isolate HTLV-IIIRF inhibited syncytium formation by HTLV-IIIRF, but did not inhibit syncytium formation by HTLV-IIIB or by HTLV-IIIMN. Thus, the amino acid sequences of SP-10-IIIB and SP-10-IIIRF(A) define homologous regions of gp120 that are important in type-specific virus neutralization. The identification of these type-specific neutralizing epitopes should facilitate the design of a polyvalent, synthetic vaccine for AIDS. Images PMID:2450351

  17. HTLV-1 in rural Guinea-Bissau: prevalence, incidence and a continued association with HIV between 1990 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HTLV-1 is endemic in Guinea-Bissau, and the highest prevalence in the adult population (5.2%) was observed in a rural area, Caió, in 1990. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both prevalent in this area as well. Cross-sectional associations have been reported for HTLV-1 with HIV infection, but the trends in prevalence of HTLV-1 and HIV associations are largely unknown, especially in Sub Saharan Africa. In the current study, data from three cross-sectional community surveys performed in 1990, 1997 and 2007, were used to assess changes in HTLV-1 prevalence, incidence and its associations with HIV-1 and HIV-2 and potential risk factors. Results HTLV-1 prevalence was 5.2% in 1990, 5.9% in 1997 and 4.6% in 2007. Prevalence was higher among women than men in all 3 surveys and increased with age. The Odds Ratio (OR) of being infected with HTLV-1 was significantly higher for HIV positive subjects in all surveys after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The risk of HTLV-1 infection was higher in subjects with an HTLV-1 positive mother versus an uninfected mother (OR 4.6, CI 2.6-8.0). The HTLV-1 incidence was stable between 1990-1997 (Incidence Rate (IR) 1.8/1,000 pyo) and 1997-2007 (IR 1.6/1,000 pyo) (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 0.9, CI 0.4-1.7). The incidence of HTLV-1 among HIV-positive individuals was higher compared to HIV negative individuals (IRR 2.5, CI 1.0-6.2), while the HIV incidence did not differ by HTLV-1 status (IRR 1.2, CI 0.5-2.7). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest community based study that has reported on HTLV-1 prevalence and associations with HIV. HTLV-1 is endemic in this rural community in West Africa with a stable incidence and a high prevalence. The prevalence increases with age and is higher in women than men. HTLV-1 infection is associated with HIV infection, and longitudinal data indicate HIV infection may be a risk factor for acquiring HTLV-1, but not vice versa. Mother to child transmission is likely to contribute to the

  18. Design of new potent HTLV-1 protease inhibitors: in silico study.

    PubMed

    Kheirabadi, Mitra; Maleki, Javad; Soufian, Safieh; Hosseini, Samaneh

    2016-03-01

    HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are two major causes for severe T-cell leukemia disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HTLV-1 protease, a member of aspartic acid protease family, plays important roles in maturation during virus replication cycle. The impairment of these proteases results in uninfectious HTLV-1virions.Similar to HIV-1protease deliberate mutations that confer drug resistance on HTLV-1 are frequently seen in this protease. Therefore, inhibition of HTLV-1 protease activity is expected to disrupt HTLV-1's ability to replicate and infect additional cells. In this study, we initially designed fifteen inhibitory compounds based on the conformations of a class of HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitors, sulfonamid-peptoid. Five compounds were chosen based on the goodness of their Drug-Likeness scoreusing "Lipinsk's rule of five". Here, using protein-ligand docking approach we compared the inhibitory constants of these compounds to those available in literatures and observed significantly higher inhibition for two compounds, SP-4 and SP-5. Our data suggest that the addition of two cyclic hydrocarbons to both ends of sulfonamide peptoids leads to the formation of new hydrophobic interactions due to the semi-circular form of these compounds, connecting the first chain of protease to the two ends of tested ligands via Hydrophobic interactions. We conclude that hydrophobic force plays an important role in suppressing protease activity especially for HTLV-1 protease, which in turn prevents the virus maturity. Therefore, designing and development of new ligands based on aromatic hydrocarbons in both ends of inhibitors is very promising for efficient treatment.

  19. Design of new potent HTLV-1 protease inhibitors: in silico study

    PubMed Central

    Kheirabadi, Mitra; Maleki, Javad; Soufian, Safieh; Hosseini, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are two major causes for severe T-cell leukemia disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HTLV-1 protease, a member of aspartic acid protease family, plays important roles in maturation during virus replication cycle. The impairment of these proteases results in uninfectious HTLV-1virions.Similar to HIV-1protease deliberate mutations that confer drug resistance on HTLV-1 are frequently seen in this protease. Therefore, inhibition of HTLV-1 protease activity is expected to disrupt HTLV-1’s ability to replicate and infect additional cells. In this study, we initially designed fifteen inhibitory compounds based on the conformations of a class of HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitors, sulfonamid-peptoid. Five compounds were chosen based on the goodness of their Drug-Likeness scoreusing “Lipinsk’s rule of five”. Here, using protein-ligand docking approach we compared the inhibitory constants of these compounds to those available in literatures and observed significantly higher inhibition for two compounds, SP-4 and SP-5. Our data suggest that the addition of two cyclic hydrocarbons to both ends of sulfonamide peptoids leads to the formation of new hydrophobic interactions due to the semi-circular form of these compounds, connecting the first chain of protease to the two ends of tested ligands via Hydrophobic interactions. We conclude that hydrophobic force plays an important role in suppressing protease activity especially for HTLV-1 protease, which in turn prevents the virus maturity. Therefore, designing and development of new ligands based on aromatic hydrocarbons in both ends of inhibitors is very promising for efficient treatment. PMID:27844017

  20. [Clinical, epidemiological and immunological study of patients coinfected with HIV and HTLV-1].

    PubMed

    Scapellato, Pablo G; Bottaro, Edgardo G; Seoane, María B; Rodriguez Brieschke, María T; Scapellato, Jose L; Dato, Adriana; Vidal, Gabriela I

    2004-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of antibodies against HTLV-1 among every HIV-infected outpatients assisted in our hospital between January 1st 2000 and June 30th 2003. We reviewed the epidemiological data, clinical findings, viral load and CD4 cells-count, comparing coinfected with non HTLV-1 coinfected. We found a prevalence of HTLV-1 infection of 8.1% (23/282); 8.5% (12/141) in men and 7.8% (11/141) in women [[OR=0.91 (0.36HTLV-1. The mean of CD4-cells among HTLV-1 coinfected with history of ADD naïve patients (n=7) was 211 cells/ml, and 87.9 cells/ml among those not-coinfected (n=55) [t-test=2.82; p=0.006]. The viral load was similar among every investigated group of patients. We found a high prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in HIV-infected patients (higher among IDU). The CD4-cell count of patients suffering from an AIDS defining disease was higher among HTLV-1/HIV coinfected patients than in singly HIV infected, this could show a grade of missfunction of CD4-cells in coinfected patients.

  1. The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II.

    PubMed

    Roucoux, Diana F; Murphy, Edward L

    2004-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is a human retrovirus which is endemic in Amerindian and pygmy tribes. Molecular subtypes show geographic segregation consistent with an ancient origin of this virus within humans in Africa or South America. More recently, injection drug users in the United States and Europe have become infected with HTLV-II, and secondary sexual transmission has introduced the virus at low levels into the general population and blood donors. HTLV-II has been linked with a spastic paraparesis called HTLV-associated myelopathy / tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and perhaps with other neurological syndromes. It is also associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia and bronchitis, inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, and perhaps with increased mortality. Except for a few cases of cutaneous lymphoma in patients coinfected with HIV, there is no evidence that HTLV-II causes lymphoproliferative disease. HTLV-II and HIV coinfection has not been proven to alter the course of HIV disease, but such patients may have altered levels of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, and antiretroviral therapy may paradoxically increase HTLV-II proviral load.

  2. In vivo immunogenicity of Tax(11-19) epitope in HLA-A2/DTR transgenic mice: implication for dendritic cell-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Divya; Masih, Shet; Schell, Todd; Jacobson, Steven; Comber, Joseph D; Philip, Ramila; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K

    2014-05-30

    Viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells leading to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and is the key antigen recognized during HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). In HLA-A2+ asymptomatic carriers as well as ATL and HAM patients, Tax(11-19) epitope exhibits immunodominance. Here, we evaluate CD8 T-cell immune response against this epitope in the presence and absence of dendritic cells (DCs) given the recent encouraging observations made with Phase 1 DC-based vaccine trial for ATL. To facilitate these studies, we first generated an HLA-A2/DTR hybrid mouse strain carrying the HLA-A2.1 and CD11c-DTR genes. We then studied CD8 T-cell immune response against Tax(11-19) epitope delivered in the absence or presence of Freund's adjuvant and/or DCs. Overall results demonstrate that naturally presented Tax epitope could initiate an antigen-specific CD8T cell response in vivo but failed to do so upon DC depletion. Presence of adjuvant potentiated Tax(11-19)-specific response. Elevated serum IL-6 levels coincided with depletion of DCs whereas decreased TGF-β was associated with adjuvant use. Thus, Tax(11-19) epitope is a potential candidate for the DC-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine and the newly hybrid mouse strain could be used for investigating DC involvement in human class-I-restricted immune responses.

  3. In vivo immunogenicity of Tax 11-19 epitope in HLA-A2/DTR transgenic mice: implication for dendritic cell-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Divya; Masih, Shet; Schell, Todd; Jacobson, Steven; Comber, Joseph D.; Philip, Ramila; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells leading to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and is the key antigen recognized during HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). In HLA-A2+ asymptomatic carriers as well as ATL and HAM patients, Tax(11-19) epitope exhibits immunodominance. Here, we evaluate CD8 T-cell immune response against this epitope in the presence and absence of dendritic cells (DCs) given the recent encouraging observations made with Phase 1 DC-based vaccine trial for ATL. To facilitate these studies, we first generated an HLA-A2/DTR hybrid mouse strain carrying the HLA-A2.1 and CD11c-DTR genes. We then studied CD8 T-cell immune response against Tax(11-19) epitope delivered in the absence or presence of Freund’s adjuvant and/or DCs. Overall results demonstrate that naturally presented Tax epitope could initiate an antigen-specific CD8 T cell response in vivo but failed to do so upon DC depletion. Presence of adjuvant potentiated Tax(11-19)-specific response. Elevated serum IL-6 levels coincided with depletion of DCs whereas decreased TGF-β was associated with adjuvant use. Thus, Tax(11-19) epitope is a potential candidate for the DC-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine and the newly hybrid mouse strain could be used for investigating DC involvement in human class-I-restricted immune responses. PMID:24739247

  4. Induction of polyclonal B cell activation and differentiation by the AIDS retrovirus (HTLV-III/LAV)

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, S.E.; Schnittman, S.M.; Lane, H.C.; Folks, T.; Koenig, S.; Fauci, A.S.

    1986-03-05

    The immune systems of individuals infected with HTLV-III/LAV are characterized by a profound defect in cellular immunity together with paradoxical polyclonal B cell activation. The present study examined the direct effects of HTLV-III/LAV on B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood B cells from healthy donors were incubated with a variety of HTLV-III/LAV isolates for 1 h and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was measured at multiple time points. Responses ranged from 9000-28,000 cpm and peaked on day 4. This B cell activation was not enhanced by the addition of interleukin-2 to culture, was not synergistic with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I, was not modulated by the addition of T lymphocytes to culture, and was not associated with B cell transformation. Supernatant Ig could first be detected in virus-activated cultures at day 4, plateaued by day 8, and yielded a mean of 12,500 ng IgG+IgM/ml/50,000 B cells. Thus, HTLV-III/LAV is a potent T cell independent B cell mitogen capable of inducing B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation comparable in magnitude to that of the most potent B cell activators. This biological property of HTLV-III/LAV may help explain the profound polyclonal B cell activation observed in patients with AIDS and may provide investigators with another probe for investigating the mechanisms of B cell activation.

  5. Status of soluble ST2 levels in serum of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Zahedi Avval, Farnaz; Shomali, Shadi; Nadri, Mohammad; Boostani, Reza; Jarahi, Lida; Youssefi, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    ST2 is a member of IL-1 receptor family expressed on Th2 cells and regulates Th2 responces. The gene of ST2 encodes soluble ST2 (sST2) and the transmembrane ST2 (ST2L) isoforms through alternative mRNA splicing. The discovery of IL33/ ST2 signaling pathway, has drawn a great scientific attention to this system. sST2 has been shown to be an indacating factor in various infl ammatory conditions. This study aims to evaluate serum sST2 levels in HTLV-1 infected patients. This study included 49 HTLV-1 seropositive cases of which 14 were sympthomatic. Controls consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. sST2 level was measured using a quantitative ELISA assay and the results of the study groups were compared. Corroborating the previous reports, sST2 was lower in females (P = 0.003). The sST2 levels was slightly increased in HTLV-1 patients, though such increase was not statistically significant (P = 0.91), in addition sST2 level did not correlate significantly to the disease duration (P = 0.78). Despite some other chronic viral infection, HTLV-1 seems not to induce high serum sST2. However owing to relatively high normal variation of sST2 levels and rather small sample size, we stongly recommend further reseach with preferably larger sample size to evalute sST2 in HTLV-1 infected patients.

  6. PI3K/AKT inhibition induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in HTLV-1-transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Dasgupta, Arindam; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Um, Jee-Hyun; Burke, Aileen; Park, Hyeon Ung; Brady, John N

    2008-01-20

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT (protein kinase B) signaling pathways play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression and cell survival. In previous studies, we demonstrated that AKT is activated in HTLV-1-transformed cells and that Tax activation of AKT is linked to p53 inhibition and cell survival. In the present study, we extend these observations to identify regulatory pathways affected by AKT in HTLV-1-transformed cells. We demonstrate that inhibition of AKT reduces the level of phosphorylated Bad, an important member of the pro-apoptotic family of proteins. Consistent with the decrease of phosphorylated Bad, cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria and caspase-9 is activated. Pretreatment of the cells with caspase-9 specific inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK or pan caspase inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO prevented LY294002-induced apoptosis. Of interest, p53 siRNA prevents LY294002-induced apoptosis in HTLV-1-transformed cells, suggesting that p53 reactivation is linked to apoptosis. In conclusion, the AKT pathway is involved in targeting multiple proteins which regulate caspase- and p53-dependent apoptosis in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Since AKT inhibitors simultaneously inhibit NF-kappaB and activate p53, these drugs should be promising candidates for HTLV-1-associated cancer therapy.

  7. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    PubMed Central

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U.; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Accolla, Roberto S.

    2017-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection. PMID:28095504

  8. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    PubMed

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Tosi, Giovanna; Accolla, Roberto S

    2017-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  9. IL28B Gene Polymorphism SNP rs8099917 Genotype GG Is Associated with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malta, Fernanda; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gonçalves, Fernanda de Toledo; Duarte, Alberto Jose da Silva; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva

    2014-01-01

    Background The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) are associated with HAM/TSP. Methods The study included 229 subjects, classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (136 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers) and Group II (93 HAM/TSP patients). The proviral loads were quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System. Results A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphisms were independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome in rs12979860 genotype CT (OR = 2.03; IC95% = 0.96–4.27) and in rs8099917 genotype GG (OR = 7.61; IC95% = 1.82–31.72). Conclusion Subjects with SNP rs8099917 genotype GG and rs12979618 genotype CT may present a distinct immune response against HTLV-1 infection. So, it seems reasonable to suggest that a search for IL28B polymorphisms should be performed for all HTLV-1-infected subjects in order to monitor their risk for disease development; however, since this is the first description of such finding in the literature, we should first replicate this study with more HTLV-1-infected persons to strengthen the evidence already provided by our results. PMID:25233462

  10. HTLV-I infection in the South West Indian Ocean islands, particularly in La Réunion and the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Bovet, P; Vitrac, D; Schooneman, F; Hollanda, J; Malvy, D; Gaüzère, B-A

    2013-10-01

    Data on HTLV-I are scarce in several Southwest Indian Ocean islands except for La Réunion and The Seychelles. The two cases of HTLV-I have been confirmed by Western-Blot in La Réunion, among blood donors. In Seychelles (87 400 inhabitants in 2012), where blood donors and some other cases are screened, HTLV-I was confirmed with a line immune assay in 43 persons and at least 10-20 patients are known to have tropical spastic paraparesia or adult T-cell lymphoma associated with HTLV-I. In the south-west Indian Ocean, a possibly important other issue may be co-infection of HTLV-1 with the Strongyloides stercoralis roundworm, which is endemic in all countries of the region and which can sometimes lead to severe symptomatic infestation.

  11. High Prevalence of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Infection in Indigenous Women from the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Cárcamo, Cesar; Montano, Silvia M.; Mori, Nicanor; Muñante, Ricardo; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Background In an earlier study, we detected an association between human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) in indigenous Amazonian Peruvian women of the Shipibo-Konibo ethnic group. As both HTLV and HPV can be transmitted sexually, we now report a population-based study examining the prevalence and risk factors for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection in this population. Methods Between July and December 2010, we conducted a comprehensive screening for HTLV among Shipibo-Konibo women 15 to 39 years of age living in two communities located in Lima and in 17 communities located within four hours by car or boat from the Amazonian city of Pucallpa in Peru. Results We screened 1,253 Shipibo-Konibo women for HTLV infection 74 (5.9%) tested positive for HTLV-1, 47 (3.8%) for HTLV-2 infection, and 4 (0.3%) had indeterminate results. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with HTLV-1 infection included: older age (Prevalence Ratio (PR): 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08), primary education or less (PR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.25–3.24), younger or same age most recent sex partner (PR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.00–2.74), and having a most recent sex partner who worked at a logging camp (PR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.09–2.75). The only factor associated with HTLV-2 infection was older age (PR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03–1.12). Conclusion HTLV infection is endemic among Shipibo-Konibo women. Two characteristics of the sexual partner (younger age and labor history) were associated with infection in women. These results suggest the need for implementation of both HTLV screening during the antenatal healthcare visits of Shipibo-Konibo women, and counseling about the risk of HTLV transmission through prolonged breastfeeding in infected women. We also recommend the implementation of prevention programs to reduce sexual transmission of these viruses. PMID:24040133

  12. Absence of cytotoxic antibody to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in humans and its induction in animals after infection or immunization with purified envelope glycoprotein gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Nara, P.L.; Robey, W.G.; Gonda, M.A.; Carter, S.G.; Fischinger, P.J.

    1987-06-01

    The presence of antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) was assessed in humans and chimpanzees, which are capable of infection with human immunodeficiency virus isolate HTLV-IIIb, and examined in the goat after immunization with the major viral glycoprotein (gp120) of HTLV-IIIb. In infected humans no antibody mediating ACC was observed regardless of the status of disease. Even healthy individuals with high-titer, broadly reactive, neutralizing antibodies has no ACC. In contrast, chimpanzees infected with HTLV-IIIb, from whom virus could be isolated, not only had neutralizing antibody but also antibodies broadly reactive in ACC, even against distantly related human immunodeficiency virus isolates, as well as against their own reisolated virus. In the goat, the gp120 of HTLV-IIIb induced a highly type-specific response as measured by both ACC and flow cytofluorometry of live infected H9 cells. Normal human cells were not subject to ACC by animal anti-HTLV-III gp120-specific sera. Induction of ACC and neutralizing antibody were closely correlated in the animal experimental models but not in humans. The presence of ACC in gp120-inoculated goats and HTLV-III-infected chimpanzees represent a qualitative difference that may be important in the quest for the elicitation of a protective immunity in humans.

  13. Microtubule proteins and their post-translational forms in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with paraparesis associated with HTLV-I infection and in SH-SY5Y cells: an in vitro model of HTLV-I-induced disease.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Horacio; Ortiz-Riaño, Emilio; Krause, Bernardo; Barriga, Andrés; Medina, Fernando; Pando, M Elsa; Alberti, Carolina; Kettlun, Ana M; Collados, Lucía; García, Lorena; Cartier, Luis; Valenzuela, M Antonieta

    2008-01-01

    HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is characterized by axonal degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. The specific requirements for transport of proteins and organelles to the distal part of the long axon are crucial in the corticospinal tracts. Microtubule dysfunction could be involved in this disease, configuring an axonal transport disease. We measured tubulin and its post-translational modified forms (acetylated and tyrosinated) in CSF of patients and controls, as well as tau and its phosphorylated forms. There were no significant differences in the contents of tubulin and acetyl-tubulin between patients and controls; tyrosyl-tubulin was not detected. In HAM/TSP, tau levels were significantly reduced, while the ratio of pT181/total tau was higher in patients than in controls, this being completely different from what is reported in other neurodegenerative diseases. Phosphorylation at T181 was also confirmed by Mass Spectrometry analysis. Western Blotting with monospecific polyclonal antibodies against pS199, pT205, pT231, pS262, pS356, pS396, pS404 and pS422 did not show differences in phosphorylation in these residues between patients and controls. Treating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, a well-known in vitro neurite retraction model, with culture supernatant of MT-2 cells (HTLV-I infected cell line that secretes the viral Tax protein) we observed neurite retraction and an increase in tau phosphorylation at T181. A disruption of normal phosphorylation of tau protein in T181 could result in its dysfunction, contributing to axonal damage.

  14. The transactivator gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I is more variable within and between healthy carriers than patients with tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed Central

    Niewiesk, S; Daenke, S; Parker, C E; Taylor, G; Weber, J; Nightingale, S; Bangham, C R

    1994-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) causes T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) in a minority of infected people, whereas the majority remain healthy. No association between a particular HTLV-I sequence and disease manifestation has been found in previous studies. We studied here the sequence variability of the gene for the HTLV-I Tax protein, which is the dominant target antigen of the very strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to the virus. In HTLV-I infection, the intraisolate nucleotide variability is much greater than the variability between isolates. The predicted protein sequence of Tax was significantly more variable in the healthy seropositive individuals' provirus than in those of the patients with TSP. Thus, tax sequence heterogeneity, rather than the presence of particular sequences, distinguishes healthy HTLV-I-seropositive individuals from patients with TSP. PMID:8084014

  15. PDZ binding motif of HTLV-1 Tax promotes virus-mediated T-cell proliferation in vitro and persistence in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Yamamoto, Brenda; Haoudi, Abdelali; Semmes, O John; Green, Patrick L

    2006-03-01

    HTLV-1 cellular transformation and disease induction is dependent on expression of the viral Tax oncoprotein. PDZ is a modular protein interaction domain used in organizing signaling complexes in eukaryotic cells through recognition of a specific binding motif in partner proteins. Tax-1, but not Tax-2, contains a PDZ-binding domain motif (PBM) that promotes the interaction with several cellular PDZ proteins. Herein, we investigate the contribution of the Tax-1 PBM in HTLV-induced proliferation and immortalization of primary T cells in vitro and viral survival in an infectious rabbit animal model. We generated several HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax viral mutants, including HTLV-1deltaPBM, HTLV-2+C22(+PBM), and HTLV-2+ C18(deltaPBM). All Tax mutants maintained the ability to significantly activate the CREB/ATF or NFkappaB signaling pathways. Microtiter proliferation assays revealed that the Tax-1 PBM significantly increases both HTLV-1- and HTLV-2-induced primary T-cell proliferation. In addition, Tax-1 PBM was responsible for the micronuclei induction activity of Tax-1 relative to that of Tax-2. Viral infection and persistence were severely attenuated in rabbits inoculated with HTLV-1deltaPBM. Our results provide the first direct evidence suggesting that PBM-mediated associations between Tax-1 and cellular proteins play a key role in HTLV-induced cell proliferation and genetic instability in vitro and facilitate viral persistence in vivo.

  16. Characterization of a variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type I isolated from a healthy member of a remote, recently contacted group in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, R; Nerurkar, V R; Garruto, R M; Miller, M A; Leon-Monzon, M E; Jenkins, C L; Sanders, R C; Liberski, P P; Alpers, M P; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-01-01

    We report the characterization of a variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) isolated from an interleukin 2-dependent, CD8+ T-cell line derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy member of a remote, recently contacted hunter-horticulturalist group (Hagahai) in Madang province of Papua New Guinea. Antigenic characterization of this variant, designated PNG-1, by immunofluorescence, indicated no expression of gag-encoded proteins p19 and p24 (even after incubation with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine), using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against HTLV-I gag gene products. Virus-specific proteins of 15, 19, 46, 53, and 61/68 kDa were demonstrated by Western blot analysis, using sera from patients with serologically and/or virologically confirmed HTLV-I myeloneuropathy, sera from HTLV-I-infected rabbits, and antibodies prepared against the C terminus of the major envelope glycoprotein gp46. Restriction endonuclease maps of PNG-1 proviral DNA differed from that of a prototype strain of HTLV-I (MT-2), but, as verified by polymerase chain reaction, PNG-1 was definitely HTLV-I, not HTLV-II. Nucleotide sequencing and further molecular genetic studies of this variant may provide insights into the origin and evolution of HTLV-I. Images PMID:1996344

  17. Molecular subtyping of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Heneine, W; Switzer, W M; Busch, M; Khabbaz, R F; Kaplan, J E

    1995-01-01

    Molecular subtyping of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) by the currently used method of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis may not be sufficiently discriminatory for transmission studies because of the predominance of single restriction types in various HTLV-2-infected populations. The utility of single-strand conformations polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was evaluated as a tool to improve the sensitivity of the subtyping of HTLV-2. The assay was designed to target a highly variable region in the long terminal repeat and was shown to be able to detect single nucleotide changes in cloned HTLV-2 sequences. Analysis of 52 HTLV-2 samples, of which 32 were from 16 sex partner pairs (16 males, 16 females), showed nine different SSCP patterns. Identical SSCP results were obtained for each of the 16 couples, suggesting the presence of similar viral genotypes and, therefore, supporting the likelihood of sexual transmission of HTLV-2 in each of these couples. Furthermore, SSCP analysis of seven HTLV-2 samples of the same restriction type (b5) showed five different SSCP patterns. Nucleotide sequencing of two samples with distinct SSCP patterns confirmed the sequence differences. SSCP provides a facile and discriminatory tool for the differentiation of HTLV-2 strains, including those previously indistinguishable by restriction fragment length polymorphism. PMID:8586713

  18. Role of the HTLV-1 viral factors in the induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Hamed; Hemmatzadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Asadollah; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) are the two main diseases that are caused by the HTLV-1 virus. One of the features of HTLV-1 infection is its resistance against programmed cell death, which maintains the survival of cells to oncogenic transformation and underlies the viruses' therapeutic resistance. Two main genes by which the virus develops cancer are Tax and HBZ; playing an essential role in angiogenesis in regulating viral transcription and modulating multiple host factors as well as apoptosis pathways. Here we have reviewed by prior research how the apoptosis pathways are suppressed by the Tax and HBZ and new drugs which have been designed to deal with this suppression.

  19. First description of HTLV-1/2 seroprevalence in HIV-infected inmates in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Ângelo; Augusto, Orvalho; Taquimo, Atija; Nhachigule, Carina; Siyawadya, Narcisa; Tembe, Nelson; Bhatt, Nilesh; Mbofana, Francisco; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2017-02-27

    No study has yet been conducted to estimate the burden of co-infection of HIV and HTLV-1/2 in inmates in sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate prevalence of co-infection in inmates in Mozambique, a total of 2140 inmates were screened for HIV, of which 515 were HIV seropositive. All HIV seropositive inmates were further screened for HTLV infection, and 8 (1.55%) were co-infected. Co-infection was higher in females [3.45% (2/58; CI: 0.42-11.91)] as compared to males [1.35% (6/445; CI: 0.55-3.06)]. Early screening of HTLV in prisons is urgently needed in Mozambique in order to improve the care provided to incarcerated individuals, including initiation of ART. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunological and Viral Features in Patients with Overactive Bladder Associated with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Silvane Braga; Oliveira, Paulo; Luna, Tania; Souza, Anselmo; Nascimento, Márcia; Siqueira, Isadora; Tanajura, Davi; Muniz, André Luiz; Glesby, Marshall J; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of patients infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) are considered carriers, but a high frequency of urinary symptoms of overactive bladder, common in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) have been documented in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine if immunological and viral factors that are seen in HAM/TSP are also observed in these patients. Participants were classified as HTLV-1 carriers (n=45), HTLV-1 patients suffering from overactive bladder (n=45) and HAM/TSP (n=45). Cells from HTLV-1 overactive bladder patients produced spontaneously more proinflammatory cytokines than carriers. TNF-α and IL-17 levels were similar in HAM/TSP and HTLV-1 overactive bladder patients. High proviral load was found in patients with overactive bladder and HAM/TSP and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast with findings in patients with HAM/TSP, serum levels of Th1 chemokines were similar in HTLV-1 overactive bladder and carriers. Exogenous addition of regulatory cytokines decreased spontaneous IFN-γ production in cell cultures from HTLV-1 overactive bladder patients. The results show that HTLV-1 overactive bladder and HAM/TSP patients have in common some immunological features as well as similar proviral load profile. The data show that HTLV-1 overactive bladder patients are still able to down regulate their inflammatory immune response. In addition, these patients express levels of chemokines similar to carriers, which may explain why they have yet to develop the same degree of spinal cord damage as seen in patients with HAM/TSP. These patients present symptoms of overactive bladder, which may be an early sign of HAM/TSP. PMID:22997085

  1. Early neurologic abnormalities associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection in a cohort of Peruvian children

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Emily A.; González, Elsa; Espinoza, Iván; Tipismana, Martín; Verdonck, Kristien; Clark, Daniel; Vermund, Sten H.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Objective Because human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) may occur in some children infected with HTLV-1-infected, we sought to determine the prevalence of neurologic abnormalities and any associations with infective dermatitis in these children. Study design We enrolled 58 children infected with HTLV-1 and 42 uninfected children (ages 3-17) of mothers infected with HTLV-1 in a family study in Lima, Peru. We obtained medical and developmental histories, surveyed current neurologic symptoms, and conducted a standardized neurologic examination without prior knowledge of HTLV-1 status. Results HTLV-1 infection was associated with reported symptoms of lower extremity weakness/fatigue (OR=6.1, CI:0.7–281), lumbar pain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.4–8), and paresthesia/dysesthesia (OR=2.6, CI:0.6–15.8). HTLV-1 infection was associated with lower-extremity hyperreflexia (OR=3.1, CI:0.8–14.2), ankle clonus (OR=5.0, CI:1.0–48.3), and extensor plantar reflex (OR undefined; p = 0.2). Among children infected HTLV-1, a history of infective dermatitis was associated with weakness (OR=2.7, CI:0.3–33), lumbar pain (OR=1.3, CI:0.2–8), paresthesia/dysesthesia (OR=2.9, CI:0.5–20), and urinary disturbances (OR=5.7, CI:0.5–290). Conclusions Abnormal neurologic findings were common in Peruvian children infected with HTLV-1, and several findings were co-prevalent with infective dermatitis. Pediatricians should monitor children infected with HTLV-1 for neurologic abnormalities. PMID:19628219

  2. Regulation of HTLV-1 tax stability, cellular trafficking and NF-κB activation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Lavorgna, Alfonso; Harhaj, Edward William

    2014-10-23

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in 3%-5% of infected individuals after a long latent period. HTLV-1 Tax is a trans-activating protein that regulates viral gene expression and also modulates cellular signaling pathways to enhance T-cell proliferation and cell survival. The Tax oncoprotein promotes T-cell transformation, in part via constitutive activation of the NF-κB transcription factor; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Ubiquitination is a type of post-translational modification that occurs in a three-step enzymatic cascade mediated by E1, E2 and E3 enzymes and regulates protein stability as well as signal transduction, protein trafficking and the DNA damage response. Emerging studies indicate that Tax hijacks the ubiquitin machinery to activate ubiquitin-dependent kinases and downstream NF-κB signaling. Tax interacts with the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and is conjugated on C-terminal lysine residues with lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Tax K63-linked polyubiquitination may serve as a platform for signaling complexes since this modification is critical for interactions with NEMO and IKK. In addition to NF-κB signaling, mono- and polyubiquitination of Tax also regulate its subcellular trafficking and stability. Here, we review recent advances in the diverse roles of ubiquitin in Tax function and how Tax usurps the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to promote oncogenesis.

  3. On the etiology of tropical spastic paraparesis and human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I-associated myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Zaninovic, V

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present some concepts on the etiology of tropical spastic paraparesis or human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The large number of syndromes that have been associated with HTLV-I (60 to date), the existence of TSP/HAM cases associated with other retroviruses (human immunodeficiency virus-2 [HIV-2], HTLV-II), the existence of many TSPs without HTLV-I, and the evidence of clear epidemiologic contradictions in TSP/HAM indicate that the etiopathogenesis of TSP/HAM is not yet clear. Tropical spastic paraparesis/HAM affects patients of all human ethnic groups, but usually in well localized and relatively isolated geographic regions where HTLV-I has been endemic for a long time. Environmental factors and geographic locations appear to be critical factors. Because the neuropathology of TSP/HAM suggests a toxometabolic, rather than a viral cause, it is proposed that an intoxication similar to neurolathyrism could account for some of TSP/HAM cases, mainly in tropical and subtropical countries. If this were the case, HTLV-I could be a cofactor or act as a bystander. it is possible that co-infection with another agent is necessary to produce TSP/HAM and most of the syndromes associated with HTLV-I.

  4. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Orge, Glória O.; Dellavechia, Thais R.; Carneiro-Neto, José Abraão; Araújo-de-Freitas, Lucas; Daltro, Carla H. C.; Santos, Carlos T.; Quarantini, Lucas C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0). Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%), and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%). The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group. Conclusion/Significance The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:26018525

  5. HIV-2 and HTLV-1 infections in Spain, a non-endemic region.

    PubMed

    de Mendoza, Carmen; Caballero, Estrella; Aguilera, Antonio; Pirón, María; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez, Carmen; Cabezas, Teresa; González, Rocío; Treviño, Ana; Soriano, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The annual workshop of the Spanish HIV‑2/HTLV Study Group was held at the Instituto de Salud Carlos III in Madrid on December 11, 2013. Nearly 100 experts and researchers in retroviruses other than HIV‑1, the classical AIDS agent, convened for a one‑day meeting devoted to updating knowledge on the epidemiology of HIV‑2 and HTLV-1 infections and discussing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, with special attention to non‑endemic regions such as Spain. The Group was funded 25 years ago and since then has been responsible for the national registry of cases, recording all relevant information for each subject and inviting them to enroll in a prospective cohort and biobank. Up to the end of 2013, a total of 297 individuals with HIV‑2 infection were reported in Spain. All but 10 carry HIV‑2 subtype A, with the rest being infected with subtype B. Overall, 71% came from sub‑Saharan Africa. During the last decade, the incidence of new HIV‑2 infections in Spain has remained fairly stable with around 20 cases per year. At the time of diagnosis, plasma HIV‑2 RNA was undetectable in 61% of individuals and values in viremic subjects tended to be low (2.8 logs on average). To date, only 26% of HIV‑2 individuals have been treated with antiretrovirals. The CD4 counts, however, only increased above 200 cells/mm³ in 42% of them. On the other hand, 74% of non‑treated HIV‑2 individuals have > 500 CD4+ T‑cells/mm³. As in HIV‑1 infection, X4 tropism in HIV‑2 is associated with lower CD4 counts. A total of 253 individuals with HTLV-1 infection were reported in Spain by the end of 2013. Overall, 58% came from Latin America. HTLV-1‑associated myelopathy was diagnosed in 29 patients and adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma in 18. The highest incidence occurred in 2013, with 34 new HTLV-1 diagnoses, largely as result of expanding HTLV screening in blood banks. Attempts to reduce HTLV-1 proviral load in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with elevated

  6. Molecular insights on analogs of HIV PR inhibitors toward HTLV-1 PR through QM/MM interactions and molecular dynamics studies: comparative structure analysis of wild and mutant HTLV-1 PR.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Singh, Poonam; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Retroviruses HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are the primary causative agents of fatal adult T-cell leukemia and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease. Both retroviruses are similar in characteristics mechanism, and it encodes for protease that mainly involved in the viral replication process. On the basis of the therapeutic success of HIV-1 PR inhibitors, the protease of HTLV-1 is mainly considered as a potential target for chemotherapy. At the same time, structural similarities in both enzymes that originate HIV PR inhibitors can also be an HTLV-1 PR inhibitor. But the expectations failed because of rejection of HIV PR inhibitors from the HTLV-1 PR binding pocket. In this present study, the reason for the HIV PR inhibitor rejection from the HTLV-1 binding site was identified through sequence analysis and molecular dynamics simulation method. Functional analysis of M37A mutation in HTLV PR clearly shows that the MET37 specificity and screening of potential inhibitors targeting MET37 is performed by using approved 90% similar HIV PR inhibitor compounds. From this approach, we report few compounds with a tendency to accept/donate electron specifically to an important site residue MET37 in HTLV-1 PR binding pocket.

  7. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of HTLV-II infection in São Paulo, Brazil: presence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) simile diagnosis in HIV-1-co-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Posada-Vergara, Maria Paulina; Montanheiro, Patrícia; Fukumori, Ligia M I; Bonasser, Francisco; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar; Casseb, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the epidemiological and clinical features observed in solely HTLV-II-infected individuals were compared to those in patients co-infected with HIV-1. A total of 380 subjects attended at the HTLV Out-Patient Clinic in the Institute of Infectious Diseases "Emilio Ribas" (IIER), São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated every 3-6 months for the last seven years by infectious disease specialists and neurologists. Using a testing algorithm that employs the enzyme immuno assay, Western Blot and polymerase chain reaction, it was found that 201 (53%) were HTLV-I positive and 50 (13%) were infected with HTLV-II. Thirty-seven (74%) of the HTLV-II reactors were co-infected with HIV-1. Of the 13 (26%) solely HTLV-II-infected subjects, urinary tract infection was diagnosed in three (23%), one case of skin vasculitis (8%) and two cases of lumbar pain and erectile dysfunction (15%), but none myelopathy case was observed. Among 37 co-infected with HIV-1, four cases (10%) presented with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) simile. Two patients showed paraparesis as the initial symptom, two cases first presented with vesical and erectile disturbances, peripheral neuropathies were observed in other five patients (13%), and seven (19%) patients showed some neurological signal or symptoms, most of them with lumbar pain (five cases). The results obtained suggest that neurological manifestations may be more frequent in HTLV-II/HIV-1-infected subjects than those infected with HTLV-II only.

  8. Targeting deoxyhypusine hydroxylase activity impairs cap-independent translation initiation driven by the 5'untranslated region of the HIV-1, HTLV-1, and MMTV mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C Joaquín; Angulo, Jenniffer; Contreras, Nataly; Pino, Karla; Vera-Otarola, Jorge; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is dependent on eIF5A hypusination. Hypusine is formed post-translationally on the eIF5A precursor by two consecutive enzymatic steps; a reversible reaction involving the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and an irreversible step involving the enzyme deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). In this study we explored the effect of inhibiting DOHH activity and therefore eIF5A hypusination, on HIV-1 gene expression. Results show that the expression of proteins from an HIV-1 molecular clone is reduced when DOHH activity is inhibited by Deferiprone (DFP) or Ciclopirox (CPX). Next we evaluated the requirement of DOHH activity for internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation initiation driven by the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) of the full length HIV-1 mRNA. Results show that HIV-1 IRES activity relies on DOHH protein concentration and enzymatic activity. Similar results were obtained for IRES-dependent translation initiation mediated by 5'UTR of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) mRNAs. Interestingly, activity of the poliovirus IRES, was less sensitive to the targeting of DOHH suggesting that not all viral IRESs are equally dependent on the cellular concentration or the activity of DOHH. In summary we present evidence indicating that the cellular concentration of DOHH and its enzymatic activity play a role in HIV-1, HTLV-1 and MMTV IRES-mediated translation initiation.

  9. Cervical Shedding of Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I Is Associated with Cervicitis

    PubMed Central

    Zunt, Joseph R.; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Montano, Silvia M.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Alarcón, Jorge O. V.; Quijano, Eberth; Courtois, Barry N.; Sánchez, Jorge L.; Campos, Pablo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guenthner, Patricia C.; Lal, Renu B.; Holmes, King K.

    2009-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is sexually transmitted. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical shedding of HTLV-I DNA among Peruvian sex workers. HTLV tax DNA was detected in cervical specimens from 43 (68%) of 63 HTLV-I–infected sex workers and in samples obtained during 113 (52%) of 216 clinic visits between 1993 and 1997. Detection of HTLV DNA was associated with the presence of ≥30 polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) within cervical mucus per 100×microscopic field (odds ratio [OR], 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–10.1) and with the presence of cervical secretions (OR, 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.4). Hormonal contraceptive use (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8–3.6) and concomitant cervical infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.3–4.3) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6–3.7) were not significantly associated with HTLV-I shedding. Our results suggest that cervicitis may increase cervical HTLV-I shedding and the sexual transmission of this virus. PMID:12447745

  10. Cervical shedding of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I is associated with cervicitis.

    PubMed

    Zunt, Joseph R; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Montano, Silvia M; Thomas, Katherine K; Alarcón, Jorge O V; Quijano, Eberth; Courtois, Barry N; Sánchez, Jorge L; Campos, Pablo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guenthner, Patricia C; Lal, Renu B; Holmes, King K

    2002-12-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is sexually transmitted. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical shedding of HTLV-I DNA among Peruvian sex workers. HTLV tax DNA was detected in cervical specimens from 43 (68%) of 63 HTLV-I-infected sex workers and in samples obtained during 113 (52%) of 216 clinic visits between 1993 and 1997. Detection of HTLV DNA was associated with the presence of > or =30 polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) within cervical mucus per 100x microscopic field (odds ratio [OR], 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-10.1) and with the presence of cervical secretions (OR, 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.4). Hormonal contraceptive use (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8-3.6) and concomitant cervical infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.3-4.3) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-3.7) were not significantly associated with HTLV-I shedding. Our results suggest that cervicitis may increase cervical HTLV-I shedding and the sexual transmission of this virus.

  11. Molecular determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 transmission and spread.

    PubMed

    Lairmore, Michael D; Anupam, Rajaneesh; Bowden, Nadine; Haines, Robyn; Haynes, Rashade A H; Ratner, Lee; Green, Patrick L

    2011-07-01

    Human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infects approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide, with endemic areas in Japan, the Caribbean, and Africa. The virus is spread through contact with bodily fluids containing infected cells, most often from mother to child through breast milk or via blood transfusion. After prolonged latency periods, approximately 3 to 5% of HTLV-1 infected individuals will develop either adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), or other lymphocyte-mediated disorders such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The genome of this complex retrovirus contains typical gag, pol, and env genes, but also unique nonstructural proteins encoded from the pX region. These nonstructural genes encode the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, as well as novel proteins essential for viral spread in vivo such as, p30, p12, p13 and the antisense encoded HBZ. While progress has been made in the understanding of viral determinants of cell transformation and host immune responses, host and viral determinants of HTLV-1 transmission and spread during the early phases of infection are unclear. Improvements in the molecular tools to test these viral determinants in cellular and animal models have provided new insights into the early events of HTLV-1 infection. This review will focus on studies that test HTLV-1 determinants in context to full length infectious clones of the virus providing insights into the mechanisms of transmission and spread of HTLV-1.

  12. Is human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I really silent?

    PubMed Central

    Asquith, B; Hanon, E; Taylor, G P; Bangham, C R

    2000-01-01

    The role of the cellular immune response to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is not fully understood. The low level of HTLV-I protein expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes has led to the widely held belief that HTLV-I is transcriptionally silent in vivo. However, most HTLV-I-infected individuals mount a strong and persistently activated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to the virus; this observation implies that there is abundant chronic transcription of HTLV-I genes. Here we show that HTLV-I Tax protein expression rises quickly in freshly isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes, but that expressing cells are rapidly killed by CTLs. Mathematical analysis of these results indicates that the CTL response is extremely efficient and that the half-life of a Tax-expressing cell is less than a day. We propose that HTLV-I protein expression in circulating lymphocytes is undetectable by current techniques because of the efficiency of the CTL-mediated immune surveillance in vivo. PMID:11186302

  13. Genetic variants of human T-lymphotrophic virus type II in American Indian groups.

    PubMed

    Biggar, R J; Taylor, M E; Neel, J V; Hjelle, B; Levine, P H; Black, F L; Shaw, G M; Sharp, P M; Hahn, B H

    1996-02-01

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is found in many New World Indian groups in North and South America and may have entered the New World from Asia with the earliest migration of ancestral Amerindians over 15,000 years ago. To characterize the phylogenetic relationships of HTLV-II strains infecting geographically diverse Indian populations, we used polymerase chain reaction to amplify HTLV-II sequences from lymphocytes of seropositive Amerindians from Brazil (Kraho, Kayapo, and Kaxuyana), Panama (Guaymi), and the United States (the Navajo and Pueblo tribes of the southwestern states and the Seminoles of Florida). Sequence analysis of a 780-base pair fragment (located between the env gene and the second exons of tax/rex) revealed that Amerindian viruses clustered in the same two genetic subtypes (IIa and IIb) previously identified for viruses from intravenous drug users. Most infected North and Central American Indians had subtype IIb, while HTLV-II infected members of three remote Amazonian tribes clustered as a distinct group within subtype IIa. These findings suggest that the ancestral Amerindians migrating to the New World brought at least two genetic subtypes, IIa and IIb. Because HTLV-II strains from Amazonian Indians form a distinct group within subtype HTLV-IIa, these Brazilian tribes are unlikely to be the source of IIa viruses in North American drug users. Finally, the near identity of viral sequences from geographically diverse populations indicate that HTLV-II is a very ancient virus of man.

  14. No evidence of HTLV-I proviral integration in lymphoproliferative disorders associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wood, G S; Schaffer, J M; Boni, R; Dummer, R; Burg, G; Takeshita, M; Kikuchi, M

    1997-02-01

    Several recent studies have reported detection of HTLV-I genetic sequences in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) including mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HTLV-I was detectable in lesional tissues of patients suffering from diseases known to be associated with CTCL. Thirty-five cases were obtained from diverse geographical locations including Ohio, California, Switzerland, and Japan. Six of them had concurrent CTCL. Cases were analyzed using a combination of genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ Southern blot, dot blot, and Southern blot analyses. All assays were specific for HTLV-I provirus. Sensitivity ranged from approximately 10(-6) for PCR-based studies to 10(-2) for unamplified genomic blotting. Lesional DNA from patients with lymphomatoid papulosis (fourteen cases), Hodgkin's disease (twelve cases), and CD30+ large-cell lymphoma (nine cases) was tested for the HTLV-I proviral pX region using a genomic PCR assay followed by confirmatory Southern blot analysis with a nested oligonucleotide pX probe. All cases were uniformly negative. All of the Hodgkin's disease cases, eight of the large-cell lymphoma cases, and six of the lymphomatoid papulosis cases were then subjected to dot blot analysis of genomic DNA using a full-length HTLV-I proviral DNA probe that spans all regions of the HTLV-I genome. Again, all cases were negative. Finally, eleven of the Hodgkin's disease cases were also subjected to Southern blot analysis of EcoRI-digested genomic DNA using the same full-length HTLV-I probe. Once again, all cases were negative. These findings indicated that, despite utilization of a variety of sensitive and specific molecular biological methods, HTLV-I genetic sequences were not detectable in patients with CTCL-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. These results strongly suggest that the HTLV-I retrovirus is not involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  15. High seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in blood donors in Guyana and molecular and phylogenetic analysis of new strains in the Guyana shelf (Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana).

    PubMed

    Pouliquen, Jean-François; Hardy, Lynette; Lavergne, Anne; Kafiludine, Eric; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2004-05-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 in blood donors in Guyana has never been estimated. We evaluated the prevalence of these viruses in blood donors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting and showed a prevalence of HTLV-1 of 1.3%; no HTLV-2 was detected. Female donors had a much higher HTLV-1 seroprevalence (3.6%) than male donors (0.7%). HTLV-1-seropositive donors tended to be slightly older than the average age for the total pool of donors. We also investigated the phylogenetic and molecular characteristics of HTLV-1 strains in Guyana and compared them with those identified in Suriname and French Guiana. Analysis of portions of the env and long terminal repeat nucleotide sequences showed that all the strains in Guyana and Suriname, like those in French Guiana, belonged to the transcontinental group of cosmopolitan subtype A. The similarities were greater between strains from Suriname and Guyana than between strains from Suriname and Guyana and those from French Guiana. Nevertheless, our results confirm that the HTLV-1 strains in all three countries have a common African origin.

  16. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30(II) accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30(II)/c-MYC.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Megan M; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30(II) protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30(II) interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30(II) and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30(II) induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30(II) in c-myc(-/-) HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30(II) is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30(II) inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30(II)/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. Examination of HTLV-I integration in the skin lesions of various types of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL): independence of cutaneous-type ATL confirmed by Southern blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Dosaka, N; Tanaka, T; Miyachi, Y; Imamura, S; Kakizuka, A

    1991-02-01

    The various clinical features of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) are frequently accompanied by skin eruptions. Recently, a cutaneous type of ATL has been proposed by clinical studies. We analyzed the viral integration of human T-cell leukemia virus-I (HTLV-I) and monoclonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene in blood lymphocytes and the cutaneous infiltrated cells of nine ATL patients with various clinical features and skin eruptions. We classified them by the results of Southern blot analysis and propose a cutaneous-type ATL accordingly. In two of them, we could detect the monoclonal integration of HTLV-I and T-cell monoclonality only in the skin but not in the peripheral lymphocytes. We also demonstrated the time course study in one patient. Clinicians should be aware of the HTLV-I positive cutaneous T cell lymphoma that can be named cutaneous-type ATL. Examination of viral integration and T-cell monoclonality in skin lesions is required to make an exact diagnosis of cutaneous ATL.

  18. Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Infection of the Three Monocyte Subsets Contributes to Viral Burden in Humans

    PubMed Central

    de Castro-Amarante, Maria Fernanda; McKinnon, Katherine; Washington Parks, Robyn; Galli, Veronica; Omsland, Maria; Andresen, Vibeke; Massoud, Raya; Brunetto, Giovanna; Caruso, Breanna; Venzon, David; Jacobson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the viral DNA burden correlates with disease development, we investigated the contribution of monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes) to the total viral burden in 22 human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals by assessing their infectivity status, frequency, as well as chemotactic and phagocytic functions. All three monocyte subsets sorted from HTLV-1-infected individuals were positive for viral DNA, and the frequency of classical monocytes was lower in the blood of HTLV-1-infected individuals than in that of uninfected individuals, while the expression levels of the chemokine receptors CCR5, CXCR3, and CX3CR1 in classical monocytes were higher in HTLV-1-infected individuals than uninfected individuals; the percentage of intermediate monocytes and their levels of chemokine receptor expression did not differ between HTLV-1-infected and uninfected individuals. However, the capacity of intermediate monocytes to migrate to CCL5, the ligand for CCR5, was higher, and a higher proportion of nonclassical monocytes expressed CCR1, CXCR3, and CX3CR1. The level of viral DNA in the monocyte subsets correlated with the capacity to migrate to CCL2, CCL5, and CX3CL1 for classical monocytes, with lower levels of phagocytosis for intermediate monocytes, and with the level of viral DNA in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells for nonclassical monocytes. These data suggest a model whereby HTLV-1 infection augments the number of classical monocytes that migrate to tissues and become infected and the number of infected nonclassical monocytes that transmit virus to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results, together with prior findings in a macaque model of HTLV-1 infection, support the notion that infection of monocytes by HTLV-1 is likely a requisite for viral persistence in humans. IMPORTANCE Monocytes have been implicated in immune regulation and disease progression in patients with HTLV-1-associated inflammatory diseases. We detected

  19. Molecular epidemiology and clinical features of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos; Benito, Rafael; Caballero, Estrella; Aguilera, Antonio; Ramos, José Manuel; de Mendoza, Carmen; Rodríguez, Carmen; García, Juan; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Roc, Lourdes; Parra, Patricia; Eiros, José; del Romero, Jorge; Soriano, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection in Spain is rare and mainly affects immigrants from endemic regions and native Spaniards with a prior history of sexual intercourse with persons from endemic countries. Herein, we report the main clinical and virological features of cases reported in Spain. All individuals with HTLV-1 infection recorded at the national registry since 1989 were examined. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the long terminal repeat (LTR) region. A total of 229 HTLV-1 cases had been reported up to December 2012. The mean age was 41 years old and 61% were female. Their country of origin was Latin America in 59%, Africa in 15%, and Spain in 20%. Transmission had occurred following sexual contact in 41%, parenteral exposure in 12%, and vertically in 9%. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) was diagnosed in 27 cases and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in 17 subjects. HTLV-1 subtype could be obtained for 45 patients; all but one belonged to the Cosmopolitan subtype a. One Nigerian pregnant woman harbored HTLV-1 subtype b. Within the Cosmopolitan subtype a, two individuals (from Bolivia and Peru, respectively) belonged to the Japanese subgroup B, another two (from Senegal and Mauritania) to the North African subgroup D, and 39 to the Transcontinental subgroup A. Of note, one divergent HTLV-1 strain from an Ethiopian branched off from all five known Cosmopolitan subtype 1a subgroups. Divergent HTLV-1 strains have been introduced and currently circulate in Spain. The relatively large proportion of symptomatic cases (19%) suggests that HTLV-1 infection is underdiagnosed in Spain.

  20. Nivolumab in Treating Patients With HTLV-Associated T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-20

    Acute Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; CD3 Positive; CD4-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Chronic Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; HTLV-1 Infection; Hypercalcemia; Lymphomatous Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Smoldering Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma