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Sample records for human serum endogenous

  1. Proteolytic processing of human serum albumin generates EPI-X4, an endogenous antagonist of CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Hermann, Patrick C; Münch, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is an important G protein-coupled receptor. Signaling via CXCL12 regulates a number of important biologic processes, including immune responses, organogenesis, or hematopoiesis. Dysregulation of CXCR4 signaling is associated with a variety of diseases, such as cancer development and metastasis, immunodeficiencies, or chronic inflammation. Here, we review our findings on endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4 as a novel antagonist of CXCR4. This peptide is a 16-residue fragment of human serum albumin and was isolated as an inhibitor of CXCR4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a blood-derived peptide library. Endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4 binds the second extracellular loop of CXCR4, thereby preventing engagement of CXCL12 and antagonizing the receptor. Consequently, endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4 inhibits CXCL12-mediated migration of CXCR4-expressing cells in vitro, mobilizes hematopoietic stem cells, and suppresses inflammatory responses in vivo. We discuss the generation of endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4, its relevance as biomarker for disease, and its role in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis and cancer. Furthermore, we discuss why optimized endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4 derivatives might have advantages over other CXCR4 antagonists. PMID:26965637

  2. ASSAYS FOR ENDOGENOUS COMPONENTS OF HUMAN MILK: COMPARISON OF FRESH AND FROZEN SAMPLES AND CORRESPONDING ANALYTES IN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breast milk is a primary source of nutrition that contains many endogenous compounds that may affect infant development. The goals of this study were to develop reliable assays for selected endogenous breast milk components and to compare levels of those in milk and serum collect...

  3. Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K Antibodies and mRNA as Serum Biomarkers of Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang-Johanning, Feng; Li, Ming; Esteva, Francisco J.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yin, Bingnan; Rycaj, Kiera; Plummer, Joshua B.; Garza, Jeremy G.; Ambs, Stefan; Johanning, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and accurate test to detect early-stage breast cancer has not been developed. Previous studies indicate that the level of human endogenous retrovirus type K (group HERV-K(HML-2)) transcription may be increased in human breast tumors. We hypothesized that HERV-K(HML-2) reactivation can serve as a biomarker for early detection of breast cancer. Serum samples were collected from women without cancer (controls) and patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer. ELISA assays were employed to detect serum anti-HERV-K(HML-2) antibody titers. RNA was extracted from sera and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR to quantitate the level of HERV-K(HML-2) mRNA. We measured significantly higher serum mRNA and serum antibody titers against HERV-K(HML-2) proteins in women with DCIS and stage I disease than in women without cancer. At optimized cutoffs for the antibody titers, the assay produced an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.00) for DCIS and of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.00) for invasive breast cancer. These AUCs are comparable to those observed for mammograms. We also found that serum HERV-K(HML-2) mRNA tended to be higher in breast cancer patients with a primary tumor who later on developed the metastatic disease than in patients who did not develop cancer metastasis. Our results show that HERV-K(HML-2) antibodies and mRNA are already elevated in the blood at an early stage of breast cancer, and further increase in patients who are at risk of developing a metastatic disease. PMID:23873154

  4. Analysis of the endogenous human serum peptides by on-line extraction with restricted-access material and HPLC-MS/MS identification.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianghai; Boos, Karl-Siegfried; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-09-01

    The selective extraction of endogenous serum peptides has been a challenge due to the high abundant proteins present in serum. Here a simple on-line extraction of peptides from human serum using strong cation-exchange diol silica restricted-access materials (SCX-RAM) coupled with two-dimensional RP-RP liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was developed. The operation of the on-line extraction system is simple to use and does not need complex equipments. The two-dimensional RP-RP was proved to be orthogonal and efficient to separate peptides extracted from human serum. PMID:24913875

  5. Assays for endogenous components of human milk: comparison of fresh and frozen samples and corresponding analytes in serum.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Rayner, Jennifer L; Barbee, Randy; Moreland, Rae Ann; Valcour, Andre; Schmid, Judith E; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2007-05-01

    Breast milk is a primary source of nutrition that contains many endogenous compounds that may affect infant development. The goals of this study were to develop reliable assays for selected endogenous breast milk components and to compare levels of those in milk and serum collected from the same mother twice during lactation (2-7 weeks and 3-4 months). Reliable assays were developed for glucose, secretory IgA, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-a, triglycerides, prolactin, and estradiol from participants in a US EPA study called Methods Advancement in Milk Analysis (MAMA). Fresh and frozen (-20 degrees C) milk samples were assayed to determine effects of storage on endogenous analytes. The source effect (serum vs milk) seen in all 7 analytes indicates that serum should not be used as a surrogate for milk in children's health studies. The authors propose to use these assays in studies to examine relationships between the levels of milk components and children's health. PMID:17478867

  6. Development of an HPLC assay to study the effect of endogenous and exogenous substances on heat-induced aggregation of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Saso, L; Casini, M L; Valentini, G; Mattei, E; Panzironi, C; Silvestrini, B

    1998-03-01

    The mechanism of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which are used in high doses in chronic inflammatory conditions is not clearly understood. Their known protein-stabilizing properties could play a significant role. The inhibition of cyclooxygenase may not be essential for their anti-rheumatic activity, since compounds with strong anti-denaturant properties and devoid of anti-inflammatory activity were shown to be effective in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis. Hence, to develop new anti-rheumatic drugs it is essential that a simple in vitro method to evaluate the anti-denaturant activity of endogenous and exogenous compounds is available. We developed a new assay, using gel permeation high performance liquid chromatography, to study the effect of endogenous and exogenous compounds on heat-induced aggregation of human serum albumin in conditions in which protein precipitation does not occur. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen inhibited the aggregation of albumin at low concentrations (EC50 10(-4)-10(-5) mol/l) comparable to those active in a classical turbidimetric method, whereas the effect of weak stabilizers, like sodium cloride and formic, fumaric, maleic, malonic, and succinic acid (EC50 10(-1)-10(-2) mol/l in the Mizushima test) was not detectable. Furthermore, the HPLC assay allowed the examination of a number of coloured substances, including bilirubin, which appeared to be a strong stabilizer of its physiological carrier, albumin. These data could be clinically relevant, since the drugs examined are used at very high doses in rheumatoid arthritis and related conditions, with plasma levels that could cause significant stabilization of serum albumin and perhaps other proteins.

  7. Longitudinal monitoring of endogenous steroids in human serum by UHPLC-MS/MS as a tool to detect testosterone abuse in sports.

    PubMed

    Ponzetto, Federico; Mehl, Florence; Boccard, Julien; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial; Nicoli, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The detection of testosterone abuse in sports is routinely achieved through the 'steroidal module' of the Athlete Biological Passport by GC-MS(/MS) quantification of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) from athletes' urines. To overcome some limitations of the "urinary steroid profile" such as the presence of confounding factors (ethnicity, enzyme polymorphism, bacterial contamination, and ethanol), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) measurements of blood concentrations of testosterone, its major metabolites, and precursors could represent an interesting and complementary strategy. In this work, two UHPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the quantification of testosterone and related compounds in human serum, including major progestogens, corticoids, and estrogens. The validated methods were then used for the analyses of serum samples collected from 19 healthy male volunteers after oral and transdermal testosterone administration. Results from unsupervised multiway analysis allowed variations of target analytes to be assessed simultaneously over a 96-h time period. Except for alteration of concentration values due to the circadian rhythm, which concerns mainly corticosteroids, DHEA, and progesterone, significant variations linked to the oral and transdermal testosterone administration were observed for testosterone, DHT, and androstenedione. As a second step of analysis, the longitudinal monitoring of these biomarkers using intra-individual thresholds showed, in comparison to urine, significant improvements in the detection of testosterone administration, especially for volunteers with del/del genotype for phase II UGT2B17 enzyme, not sensitive to the main urinary marker, T/E ratio. A substantial extension of the detection window after transdermal testosterone administration was also observed in serum matrix. The longitudinal follow-up proposed in this study represents a first example of 'blood steroid profile' in doping control

  8. Longitudinal monitoring of endogenous steroids in human serum by UHPLC-MS/MS as a tool to detect testosterone abuse in sports.

    PubMed

    Ponzetto, Federico; Mehl, Florence; Boccard, Julien; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial; Nicoli, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The detection of testosterone abuse in sports is routinely achieved through the 'steroidal module' of the Athlete Biological Passport by GC-MS(/MS) quantification of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) from athletes' urines. To overcome some limitations of the "urinary steroid profile" such as the presence of confounding factors (ethnicity, enzyme polymorphism, bacterial contamination, and ethanol), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) measurements of blood concentrations of testosterone, its major metabolites, and precursors could represent an interesting and complementary strategy. In this work, two UHPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the quantification of testosterone and related compounds in human serum, including major progestogens, corticoids, and estrogens. The validated methods were then used for the analyses of serum samples collected from 19 healthy male volunteers after oral and transdermal testosterone administration. Results from unsupervised multiway analysis allowed variations of target analytes to be assessed simultaneously over a 96-h time period. Except for alteration of concentration values due to the circadian rhythm, which concerns mainly corticosteroids, DHEA, and progesterone, significant variations linked to the oral and transdermal testosterone administration were observed for testosterone, DHT, and androstenedione. As a second step of analysis, the longitudinal monitoring of these biomarkers using intra-individual thresholds showed, in comparison to urine, significant improvements in the detection of testosterone administration, especially for volunteers with del/del genotype for phase II UGT2B17 enzyme, not sensitive to the main urinary marker, T/E ratio. A substantial extension of the detection window after transdermal testosterone administration was also observed in serum matrix. The longitudinal follow-up proposed in this study represents a first example of 'blood steroid profile' in doping control

  9. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction.

    PubMed

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J; Girard, Frederic C; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (∼60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  10. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (˜60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  11. Endogenous Retroviruses and Human Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Yuri; Sverdlov, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Humans share about 99% of their genomic DNA with chimpanzees and bonobos; thus, the differences between these species are unlikely to be in gene content but could be caused by inherited changes in regulatory systems. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise ∼ 5% of the human genome. The LTRs of ERVs contain many regulatory sequences, such as promoters, enhancers, polyadenylation signals and factor-binding sites. Thus, they can influence the expression of nearby human genes. All known human-specific LTRs belong to the HERV-K (human ERV) family, the most active family in the human genome. It is likely that some of these ERVs could have integrated into regulatory regions of the human genome, and therefore could have had an impact on the expression of adjacent genes, which have consequently contributed to human evolution. This review discusses possible functional consequences of ERV integration in active coding regions. PMID:18629260

  12. Factors affecting the determination of drugs and endogenous low molecular mass compounds in human serum by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with direct sample injection.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, A; Thormann, W

    1994-01-01

    Factors influencing the establishment of an analytical window in front of the solubilized proteins in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with direct serum injection (DSI) are discussed. Both drugs and endogenous low molecular mass compounds eluting within the analytical window are identified concurrently by multi-wavelength absorption detection. Variables such as the concentration of the micelle forming substance, ionic strength, applied voltage, initial sample zone length, capillary length, selected buffer additives, insufficient renewal of the buffer in the anodic buffer vial and sample matrix are shown to impact MECC of endogenous compounds and model drugs, such as antiepileptics. For two drugs eluting within the analytical window, phenobarbital and ethosuximide, serum levels determined by DSI with external calibration are shown to compare well with levels obtained after liquid-liquid extraction and internal calibration (use of an internal standard). In addition, reproducibility of both assays is excellent. The limit of employing DSI is demonstrated with the determination of the hydrophobic drug phenytoin. Using an automated, commercial instrument and naproxen as model drug, high-speed MECC separations of high reproducibility and with a throughput of 12-15 samples per h are presented.

  13. Detection of xenoestrogens in serum after immunoprecipitation of endogenous steroidal estrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Kala; Overstreet, James W; Rogers, Jane M; Denison, Michael S; Chen, Jiangang; Lohstroh, Peter N; McConnell, Daniel S; Lasley, Bill L

    2002-01-01

    In this article we report a simple and efficient method for detecting nonsteroidal estrogens in a biologic sample. This method uses polyclonal antibodies to estradiol (E2) to immunoprecipitate these major biologically active steroidal estrogens, leaving behind the nonsteroidal estrogens, which are then detected in a cell-based transcriptional activation bioassay for estrogen receptor agonist. The immunoprecipitation method efficiently removed 99% of radiolabeled E2 and estrone (E1) from human serum. In experiments in which supraphysiologic concentrations of E2 and E1 to human serum, all of the immunoreactive estrogens were still removed by the immunoprecipitation protocol. We carried out an in vivo validation study of this method in which we treated female macaques with the xenoestrogen nonylphenol (NP), during the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. We used blood samples collected before and after treatment to evaluate and characterize endogenous and exogenous serum estrogens. An immunoassay for E2 did not detect the NP in treated monkeys. The cell-based bioassay also did not detect the estrogenic activity of NP because of its saturation by the endogenous serum steroidal estrogens. However, when steroidal estrogens were removed by immunoprecipitation, we detected the estrogenic activity of NP in the bioassay. Thus, this approach is appropriate for detecting exogenous, nonsteroidal estrogens in serum samples. PMID:12153760

  14. Analysis of the Human Endogenous Coregulator Complexome

    PubMed Central

    Malovannaya, Anna; Lanz, Rainer B.; Jung, Sung Yun; Bulynko, Yaroslava; Le, Nguyen T.; Chan, Doug W.; Ding, Chen; Shi, Yi; Yucer, Nur; Krenciute, Giedre; Kim, Beom-Jun; Li, Chunshu; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei; Wang, Yi; O’Malley, Bert W.; Qin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Summary Elucidation of endogenous cellular protein-protein interactions and their networks is most desirable for biological studies. Here we report our study of endogenous human coregulator protein complex networks obtained from integrative mass spectrometry-based analysis of 3,290 affinity purifications. By preserving weak protein interactions during complex isolation and utilizing high levels of reciprocity in the large dataset we identified many unreported protein associations, such as a transcriptional network formed by ZMYND8, ZNF687 and ZNF592. Furthermore, our work revealed a tiered interplay within networks that share common proteins, providing a conceptual organization of a cellular proteome composed of minimal endogenous modules (MEMOs), functional uniCOREs and regulatory complex-complex interaction networks (CCIs). This resource will effectively fill a void in linking correlative genomic studies with an understanding of transcriptional regulatory protein functions within the proteome for formulation and testing of new hypotheses. PMID:21620140

  15. HERVd: database of human endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Paces, Jan; Pavlícek, Adam; Paces, Václav

    2002-01-01

    The human endogenous retroviruses database (HERVd) is maintained at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, and is accessible via the World Wide Web at http://herv.img.cas.cz. The HERVd provides complex information on and analysis of retroviral elements found in the human genome. It can be used for searches of individual HERV families, identification of HERV parts, graphical output of HERV structures, comparison of HERVs and identification of retrovirus integration sites.

  16. The Human Serum Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  17. Human endogenous retroviruses: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Robin A

    2016-01-01

    The integration of proviral DNA into host chromosomal DNA as an obligatory step in the replication cycle of retroviruses is a natural event of genetic recombination between virus and host. When integration occurs in cells of the germ line, it results in mendelian inheritance of viral sequences that we call endogenous retroviruses (ERV) and HERV for humans. HERVs and host often establish a symbiotic relationship, especially in the placenta and in pluripotent embryonic stem cells, but HERVs occasionally have deleterious consequences for the host. This special issue of APMIS features the fascinating relationships between HERV and humans in health and disease. PMID:26818257

  18. Endogenous formation of morphine in human cells.

    PubMed

    Poeaknapo, Chotima; Schmidt, Jürgen; Brandsch, Matthias; Dräger, Birgit; Zenk, Meinhart H

    2004-09-28

    Morphine is a plant (opium poppy)-derived alkaloid and one of the strongest known analgesic compounds. Studies from several laboratories have suggested that animal and human tissue or fluids contain trace amounts of morphine. Its origin in mammals has been believed to be of dietary origin. Here, we address the question of whether morphine is of endogenous origin or derived from exogenous sources. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids present in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human pancreas carcinoma cells (DAN-G) were identified by GC/tandem MS (MS/MS) as norlaudanosoline (DAN-G), reticuline (DAN-G and SH-SY5Y), and morphine (10 nM, SH-SY5Y). The stereochemistry of reticuline was determined to be 1-(S). Growth of the SH-SY5Y cell line in the presence of (18)O(2) led to the [(18)O]-labeled morphine that had the molecular weight 4 mass units higher than if grown in (16)O(2), indicating the presence of two atoms of (18)O per molecule of morphine. Growth of DAN-G cells in an (18)O(2) atmosphere yielded norlaudanosoline and (S)-reticuline, both labeled at only two of the four oxygen atoms. This result clearly demonstrates that all three alkaloids are of biosynthetic origin and suggests that norlaudanosoline and (S)-reticuline are endogenous precursors of morphine. Feeding of [ring-(13)C(6)]-tyramine, [1-(13)C, N-(13)CH(3)]-(S)-reticuline and [N-CD(3)]-thebaine to the neuroblastoma cells led each to the position-specific labeling of morphine, as established by GC/MS/MS. Without doubt, human cells can produce the alkaloid morphine. The studies presented here serve as a platform for the exploration of the function of "endogenous morphine" in the neurosciences and immunosciences.

  19. Circulating Hepcidin-25 Is Reduced by Endogenous Estrogen in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lehtihet, Mikael; Bonde, Ylva; Beckman, Lena; Berinder, Katarina; Hoybye, Charlotte; Rudling, Mats; Sloan, John H.; Konrad, Robert J.; Angelin, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hepcidin reduces iron absorption by binding to the intestinal iron transporter ferroportin, thereby causing its degradation. Although short-term administration of testosterone or growth hormone (GH) has been reported to decrease circulating hepcidin levels, little is known about how hepcidin is influenced in human endocrine conditions associated with anemia. Research design and methods We used a sensitive and specific dual–monoclonal antibody sandwich immunoassay to measure hepcidin-25 in patients (a) during initiation of in vitro fertilization when endogenous estrogens were elevated vs. suppressed, (b) with GH deficiency before and after 12 months substitution treatment, (c) with hyperthyroidism before and after normalization, and (d) with hyperprolactinemia before and after six months of treatment with a dopamine agonist. Results In response to a marked stimulation of endogenous estrogen production, median hepcidin levels decreased from 4.85 to 1.43 ng/mL (p < 0.01). Hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, or GH substitution to GH-deficient patients did not influence serum hepcidin-25 levels. Conclusions In humans, gonadotropin-stimulated endogenous estrogen markedly decreases circulating hepcidin-25 levels. No clear and stable correlation between iron biomarkers and hepcidin-25 was seen before or after treatment of hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia or growth hormone deficiency. PMID:26866603

  20. Human endogenous retroviruses in neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system. Notably envelope genes and their gene products (Envs) appear strongly associated with the disease. For SCZ, for ALS, and for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), indications are accumulating for involvement of the HERV-K family, and also HERV-H/F and/or HERV-W. Activation is reasonably a prerequisite for causality as most HERV sequences remain quiescent in non-pathological conditions, so the importance of regulatory pathways and epigenetics involved in regulating HERV activation, derepression, and also involvement of retroviral restriction factors, is emerging. HERV-directed antiretrovirals have potential as novel therapeutic paradigms in neurologic disease, particularly in MS. The possible protective or ameliorative effects of antiretroviral therapy in MS are substantiated by reports that treatment of HIV infection may be associated with a significantly decreased risk of MS. Further studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are essential. PMID:26818266

  1. Expanded metabolomics approach to profiling endogenous carbohydrates in the serum of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Li, Li; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Yan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We applied hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to the quantitative analysis of serum from 58 women, including ovarian cancer patients, ovarian benign tumor patients, and healthy controls. All of these ovarian cancer and ovarian benign tumor patients have elevated cancer antigen 125, which makes them clinically difficult to differentiate the malignant from the benign. All of the 16 endogenous carbohydrates were quantitatively detected in the human sera, of which, eight endogenous carbohydrates were significantly different (P-value < 0.05) between the ovarian cancer and healthy control. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, arabitol was the most potentially specific biomarker for discriminating ovarian cancer from healthy control, having an area under the curve of 0.911. A panel of metabolite markers composed of maltose, maltotriose, raffinose, and mannitol was selected, which was able to discriminate the ovarian cancer from the benign ovarian tumor counterparts, with an area under concentration-time curve value of 0.832. Endogenous carbohydrates in the expanded metabolomics approach after the global metabolic profiling are characterized and are potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  2. Bilirubin is an Endogenous Antioxidant in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ziberna, Lovro; Martelanc, Mitja; Franko, Mladen; Passamonti, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin is a standard serum biomarker of liver function. Inexplicably, it is inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the role of endothelial dysfunction in originating cardiovascular diseases, direct analysis of bilirubin in the vascular endothelium would shed light on these relationships. Hence, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with thermal lens spectrometric detection and diode array detection for the determination of endogenous cellular IXα-bilirubin. To confirm the isomer IXα-bilirubin, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source, as well as tandem mass spectrometric detection. We measured bilirubin in both arterial and venous rat endothelium (0.9–1.5 pmol mg−1 protein). In the human endothelial Ea.hy926 cell line, we demonstrated that intracellular bilirubin (3–5 pmol mg−1 protein) could be modulated by either extracellular bilirubin uptake, or by up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1, a cellular enzyme related to endogenous bilirubin synthesis. Moreover, we determined intracellular antioxidant activity by bilirubin, with EC50 = 11.4 ± 0.2 nM, in the range of reported values of free serum bilirubin (8.5–13.1 nM). Biliverdin showed similar antioxidant properties as bilirubin. We infer from these observations that intra-endothelial bilirubin oscillates, and may thus be a dynamic factor of the endothelial function. PMID:27381978

  3. Functional epialleles at an endogenous human centromere.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Kristin A; Sullivan, Lori L; Matheny, Justyne E; Strome, Erin D; Merrett, Stephanie L; Ferris, Alyssa; Sullivan, Beth A

    2012-08-21

    Human centromeres are defined by megabases of homogenous alpha-satellite DNA arrays that are packaged into specialized chromatin marked by the centromeric histone variant, centromeric protein A (CENP-A). Although most human chromosomes have a single higher-order repeat (HOR) array of alpha satellites, several chromosomes have more than one HOR array. Homo sapiens chromosome 17 (HSA17) has two juxtaposed HOR arrays, D17Z1 and D17Z1-B. Only D17Z1 has been linked to CENP-A chromatin assembly. Here, we use human artificial chromosome assembly assays to show that both D17Z1 and D17Z1-B can support de novo centromere assembly independently. We extend these in vitro studies and demonstrate, using immunostaining and chromatin analyses, that in human cells the centromere can be assembled at D17Z1 or D17Z1-B. Intriguingly, some humans are functional heterozygotes, meaning that CENP-A is located at a different HOR array on the two HSA17 homologs. The site of CENP-A assembly on HSA17 is stable and is transmitted through meiosis, as evidenced by inheritance of CENP-A location through multigenerational families. Differences in histone modifications are not linked clearly with active and inactive D17Z1 and D17Z1-B arrays; however, we detect a correlation between the presence of variant repeat units of D17Z1 and CENP-A assembly at the opposite array, D17Z1-B. Our studies reveal the presence of centromeric epialleles on an endogenous human chromosome and suggest genomic complexities underlying the mechanisms that determine centromere identity in humans.

  4. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, p<.0001) but not in smokers (from Mean=0.25, SD=0.12 to Mean=0.26, SD=0.15, F(1, 31.1) =0.04, p=0.84). In nonsmokers the indirect bilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  5. Purification and analysis of endogenous human RNA exosome complexes

    PubMed Central

    Domanski, Michal; Upla, Paula; Rice, William J.; Molloy, Kelly R.; Ketaren, Natalia E.; Stokes, David L.; Jensen, Torben Heick; Rout, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of its importance in key RNA metabolic processes, the ribonucleolytic RNA exosome complex has been the focus of intense study for almost two decades. Research on exosome subunit assembly, cofactor and substrate interaction, enzymatic catalysis and structure have largely been conducted using complexes produced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in bacteria. Here, we examine different populations of endogenous exosomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and test their enzymatic activity and structural integrity. We describe methods to prepare EXOSC10-containing, enzymatically active endogenous human exosomes at suitable yield and purity for in vitro biochemistry and negative stain transmission electron microscopy. This opens the door for assays designed to test the in vitro effects of putative cofactors on human exosome activity and will enable structural studies of preparations from endogenous sources. PMID:27402899

  6. Menaquinones content of human serum and feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterially-synthesized menaquinones (MKn) may contribute to vitamin K (VK) nutriture. There are limited data on interindividual variability in endogenous MK synthesis and its relation to circulating forms of VK. Serum and fecal VK concentrations were assessed in 13 healthy adults (45-65 yr) consumi...

  7. Natural mutagenesis of human genomes by endogenous retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Iskow, Rebecca C.; McCabe, Michael T.; Mills, Ryan E.; Torene, Spencer; Pittard, W. Stephen; Neuwald, Andrew F.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Vertino, Paula M.; Devine, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Two abundant classes of mobile elements, namely Alu and L1 elements, continue to generate new retrotransposon insertions in human genomes. Estimates suggest that these elements have generated millions of new germline insertions in individual human genomes worldwide. Unfortunately, current technologies are not capable of detecting most of these young insertions, and the true extent of germline mutagenesis by endogenous human retrotransposons has been difficult to examine. Here, we describe new technologies for detecting these young retrotransposon insertions and demonstrate that such insertions indeed are abundant in human populations. We also found that new somatic L1 insertions occur at high frequencies in human lung cancer genomes. Genome-wide analysis suggests that altered DNA methylation may be responsible for the high levels of L1 mobilization observed in these tumors. Our data indicate that transposon-mediated mutagenesis is extensive in human genomes, and is likely to have a major impact on human biology and diseases. PMID:20603005

  8. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. )

    1989-11-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.

  9. [The comparison of concentration of endogenous ethanol blood serum in alcoholics and in non-alcoholics at different stages of abstinence].

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, A; Markowski, T; Pawlak, D

    1997-01-01

    In this report the concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum in alcoholics at different stages of abstinence and in non-alcoholics was studied. 36 people--26 alcoholics and 10 non-alcoholics were examined and gas chromatography was used. It was revealed that the longer the period of abstinence in alcoholics, the lower the concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum. Moreover, the alcoholics showed a higher concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum as compared to non-alcoholics.

  10. Development of diamond-lanthanide metal oxide affinity composites for the selective capture of endogenous serum phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Dilshad; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Development of affinity materials for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides has attracted attention during the last decade. In this work, diamond-lanthanum oxide and diamond-samarium oxide composites have been fabricated via the hydrothermal method. The composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analyses confirm the size and composition of the nanocomposites. They have been applied to selectively capture phosphorylated peptides from standard proteins (β-casein and BSA). Selectivity is calculated as 1:3000 and 1:1500 while sensitivity down to 1 and 20 fmol for diamond-lanthanum oxide and diamond-samarium oxide nanocomposites, respectively. Enrichment efficiency has also been evaluated for non-fat milk digest where 18 phosphopeptides are enriched. Total of 213 and 187 phosphopeptides are captured from tryptic digest of HeLa cells extracted proteins by diamond-lanthanum oxide and diamond-samarium oxide, respectively. Finally, human serum, without any pre-treatment, is applied and nanocomposites capture the endogenous serum phosphopeptides.

  11. Human endogenous retrovirus K10 encodes a functional integrase.

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Y; Ayukawa, T; Ishikawa, T; Kanda, T; Yoshiike, K

    1996-01-01

    We cloned a human endogenous retrovirus K1O DNA fragment encoding integrase and expressed it as a fusion protein with Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein. Integrase activities were measured in vitro by using a double-stranded oligonucleotide as a substrate mimicking viral long terminal repeats (LTR). The fusion protein was highly active for both terminal cleavage and strand transfer in the presence of Mn2+ on the K1O LTR substrate. It was also active on both Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 LTR substrates, whereas Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrases were active only on their corresponding LTR substrates. The results strongly suggest that K1O encodes a functional integrase with relaxed substrate specificity. PMID:8627815

  12. Light-induced suppression of endogenous circadian amplitude in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewett, Megan; Czeisler, Charles A.; Kronauer, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A recent demonstration that the phase of the human circadian pacemaker could be inverted using an unconventional three-cycle stimulus has led to an investigation of whether critically timed exposure to a more moderate stimulus could drive that oscillator toward its singularity, a phaseless position at which the amplitude of circadian oscillation is zero. It is reported here that exposure of humans to fewer cycles of bright light, centered around the time at which the human circadian pacemaker is most sensitive to light-induced phase shifts, can markedly attenuate endogenous cicadian amplitude. In some cases this results in an apparent loss of rhythmicity, as expected to occur in the region of singularity.

  13. Human Endogenous Retrovirus Group E and Its Involvement in Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Le Dantec, Christelle; Vallet, Sophie; Brooks, Wesley H.; Renaudineau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus group E (HERV-E) elements are stably integrated into the human genome, transmitted vertically in a Mendelian manner, and are endowed with transcriptional activity as alternative promoters or enhancers. Such effects are under the control of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTR) that are organized into three HERV-E phylogenetic subgroups, namely LTR2, LTR2B, and LTR2C. Moreover, HERV-E expression is tissue-specific, and silenced by epigenetic constraints that may be disrupted in cancer, autoimmunity, and human placentation. Interest in HERV-E with regard to these conditions has been stimulated further by concerns regarding the capacity of HERV-E elements to modify the expression of neighboring genes and/or to produce retroviral proteins, including immunosuppressive env peptides, which in turn may induce (auto)-antibody (Ab) production. Finally, better understanding of HERV-E elements may have clinical applications for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. PMID:25785516

  14. Concentration of endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites in the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of human breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Increasing evidence also supports their involvement in the development of certain lung, colon and prostate cancers. Methods In this study we systemically surveyed endogenous estrogen and estrogen metabolite levels in each of the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, which include human breast, central nerve system, colon, ovarian, prostate, kidney and non-small cell lung cancers, as well as melanomas and leukemia. The absolute abundances of these metabolites were measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method that has been previously utilized for biological fluids such as serum and urine. Results Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites were found in all NCI-60 human tumor cell lines and some were substantially elevated and exceeded the levels found in well known estrogen-dependent and estrogen receptor-positive tumor cells such as MCF-7 and T-47D. While estrogens were expected to be present at high levels in cell lines representing the female reproductive system (that is, breast and ovarian), other cell lines, such as leukemia and colon, also contained very high levels of these steroid hormones. The leukemia cell line RMPI-8226 contained the highest levels of estrone (182.06 pg/106 cells) and 17β-estradiol (753.45 pg/106 cells). In comparison, the ovarian cancer cell line with the highest levels of these estrogens contained only 19.79 and 139.32 pg/106 cells of estrone and 17β-estradiol, respectively. The highest levels of estrone and 17β-estradiol in breast cancer cell lines were only 8.45 and 87.37 pg/106 cells in BT-549 and T-47D cells, respectively. Conclusions The data provided evidence for the presence of significant amounts of endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites in cell lines not commonly associated with these steroid hormones. This broad discovery of

  15. Human neuromelanin: an endogenous microglial activator for dopaminergic neuron death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zecca, Luigi; Wilson, Belinda; Ren, RW; Wang, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiao-min; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that neuroinflammation caused by over-activation of microglial in the substantia nigra is critical in the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing data demonstrates that environmental factors such as rotenone, paraquat play pivotal roles in the death of dopaminergic neurons. Here, potential role and mechanism of neuromelanin (NM), a major endogenous component in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, on microglial activation and associated dopaminergic neurotoxicity were investigated. Using multiple well-established primary mesencephalic cultures, we tested whether human NM (HNM) could activate microglia, thereby provoking dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The results demonstrated that in primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, HNM caused dopaminergic neuronal damage characterized by the decreased dopamine uptake and reduced numbers and shorted dendrites of dopaminergic neurons. HNM-induced degeneration was relatively selective to dopaminergic neurons since the other types of neurons determined by either gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake and total neuronal numbers after staining showed smaller decrease. We demonstrated that HNM produced modest dopaminergic neurotoxicity in neuron-enriched cultures; in contrast, much greater neurotoxicity was observed in the presence of microglia. HNM-induced microglial activation was shown by morphological changes and production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. These results suggest that HNM, once released from damaged dopaminergic neurons, can be an potent endogenous activator involved in the reactivation of microglia, which may mediate disease progression. Thus, inhibition of reactive microglia can be a useful strategy for PD therapy. PMID:23276965

  16. Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations

    PubMed Central

    Wildschutte, Julia Halo; Williams, Zachary H.; Montesion, Meagan; Subramanian, Ravi P.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Coffin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have contributed to more than 8% of the human genome. The majority of these elements lack function due to accumulated mutations or internal recombination resulting in a solitary (solo) LTR, although members of one group of human ERVs (HERVs), HERV-K, were recently active with members that remain nearly intact, a subset of which is present as insertionally polymorphic loci that include approximately full-length (2-LTR) and solo-LTR alleles in addition to the unoccupied site. Several 2-LTR insertions have intact reading frames in some or all genes that are expressed as functional proteins. These properties reflect the activity of HERV-K and suggest the existence of additional unique loci within humans. We sought to determine the extent to which other polymorphic insertions are present in humans, using sequenced genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project and a subset of the Human Genome Diversity Project panel. We report analysis of a total of 36 nonreference polymorphic HERV-K proviruses, including 19 newly reported loci, with insertion frequencies ranging from <0.0005 to >0.75 that varied by population. Targeted screening of individual loci identified three new unfixed 2-LTR proviruses within our set, including an intact provirus present at Xq21.33 in some individuals, with the potential for retained infectivity. PMID:27001843

  17. Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations.

    PubMed

    Wildschutte, Julia Halo; Williams, Zachary H; Montesion, Meagan; Subramanian, Ravi P; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Coffin, John M

    2016-04-19

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have contributed to more than 8% of the human genome. The majority of these elements lack function due to accumulated mutations or internal recombination resulting in a solitary (solo) LTR, although members of one group of human ERVs (HERVs), HERV-K, were recently active with members that remain nearly intact, a subset of which is present as insertionally polymorphic loci that include approximately full-length (2-LTR) and solo-LTR alleles in addition to the unoccupied site. Several 2-LTR insertions have intact reading frames in some or all genes that are expressed as functional proteins. These properties reflect the activity of HERV-K and suggest the existence of additional unique loci within humans. We sought to determine the extent to which other polymorphic insertions are present in humans, using sequenced genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project and a subset of the Human Genome Diversity Project panel. We report analysis of a total of 36 nonreference polymorphic HERV-K proviruses, including 19 newly reported loci, with insertion frequencies ranging from <0.0005 to >0.75 that varied by population. Targeted screening of individual loci identified three new unfixed 2-LTR proviruses within our set, including an intact provirus present at Xq21.33 in some individuals, with the potential for retained infectivity.

  18. Human plasma lipocalins and serum albumin: Plasma alternative carriers?

    PubMed

    di Masi, Alessandra; Trezza, Viviana; Leboffe, Loris; Ascenzi, Paolo

    2016-04-28

    Lipocalins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that bind and transport a variety of exogenous and endogenous ligands. Lipocalins share a conserved eight anti-parallel β-sheet structure. Among the different lipocalins identified in humans, α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), apolipoprotein D (apoD), apolipoprotein M (apoM), α1-microglobulin (α1-m) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) are plasma proteins. In particular, AGP is the most important transporter for basic and neutral drugs, apoD, apoM, and RBP mainly bind endogenous molecules such as progesterone, pregnenolone, bilirubin, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and retinol, while α1-m binds the heme. Human serum albumin (HSA) is a monomeric all-α protein that binds endogenous and exogenous molecules like fatty acids, heme, and acidic drugs. Changes in the plasmatic levels of lipocalins and HSA are responsible for the onset of pathological conditions associated with an altered drug transport and delivery. This, however, does not necessary result in potential adverse effects in patients because many drugs can bind both HSA and lipocalins, and therefore mutual compensatory binding mechanisms can be hypothesized. Here, molecular and clinical aspects of ligand transport by plasma lipocalins and HSA are reviewed, with special attention to their role as alterative carriers in health and disease. PMID:26951925

  19. Inhibition of cyclic gonadotropin secretion by endogenous human prolactin.

    PubMed

    Tyson, J E; Khojandi, M; Huth, J; Smith, B; Thomas, P

    1975-02-01

    The resumption of cyclic uterine bleeding reportedly accompanies the use of human prolactin (HPRL)-suppressing agents in postpill galactorrhea-amenorrhea. In this laboratory, HPRL suppression with L-dopa was variable and short lived. Basal plasma HPRL levels were elevated before and after as much as five months of therapy. Galactorrhea persisted and mean gonadotropin concentrations were subnormal. An immediate and sustained attenuation of HPRL secretion ( less than 200 per cent) followed the use of 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154). Cyclic gonadotropin secretion resumed and was accompanied by ovulation and, in one instance, pregnancy. The cessation of galactorrhea was positively correlated with the rise in the daily concentration of 17 beta-estradiol. Cyclic postovulatory menstruation continued after the cessation of CB-154 treatment. HPRL levels remained normal. The daily patterns of human follicle-stimulating hormone (HFSH) and human tuteinizing hormone (HLH) secretion created by the suppression of HPRL displayed an inherent rhythmicity identical to that observed at the time of menarche. The inhibitory effects of HPRL appeared directed at cyclic rather than tonic gonadotropin secretion. At the same time, diminished ovarian estrogen production seemed to increase mammary gland sensitivity to HPRL, leading to lactation. One may postulate, therefore, that the ingestion of sex steroids is associated with an over-all suppression of endogenous cyclic and, to a lesser extent, tonic gonadotropin secretion secondary to which ovarian function is attenuated. Without physiologic concentration of circulating estrogen, HPRL induces mammary alveolar function with the production of a milklike secretion.

  20. Isolation of human serum spreading factor.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D W; Silnutzer, J

    1983-10-25

    Serum spreading factor (SF) was isolated from human serum by a four-step procedure employing affinity chromatography on glass beads, concanavalin A-Sepharose, DEAE-agarose, and heparin-agarose. The final product was purified approximately 260-fold from the starting material and was maximally active in assays of cell spreading-promoting activity at 300 ng/ml. The isolated human SF preparation consisted of two proteins of apparent molecular weights approximately 65,000 (SF65) and 75,000 (SF75). Both SF65 and SF75 have been shown previously to exhibit cell spreading-promoting activity and to bind monoclonal antibody to human serum SF. PMID:6630199

  1. Interchromosomal gene conversion at an endogenous human cell locus.

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, P J; Neuwirth, E A; Grosovsky, A J

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship between gene conversion and reciprocal exchange at an endogenous chromosomal locus, we developed a reversion assay in a thymidine kinase deficient mutant, TX545, derived from the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Selectable revertants of TX545 can be generated through interchromosomal gene conversion at the site of inactivating mutations on each tk allele or by reciprocal exchange that alters the linkage relationships of inactivating polymorphisms within the tk locus. Analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at intragenic polymorphisms and flanking microsatellite markers was used to initially evaluate allelotypes in TK(+) revertants for patterns associated with either gene conversion or crossing over. The linkage pattern in a subset of convertants was then unambiguously established, even in the event of prereplicative recombinational exchanges, by haplotype analysis of flanking microsatellite loci in tk(-/-) LOH mutants collected from the tk(+/-) parental convertant. Some (7/38; 18%) revertants were attributable to easily discriminated nonrecombinational mechanisms, including suppressor mutations within the tk coding sequence. However, all revertants classified as a recombinational event (28/38; 74%) were attributed to localized gene conversion, representing a highly significant preference (P < 0.0001) over gene conversion with associated reciprocal exchange, which was never observed. PMID:11404339

  2. The role of human endogenous retroviruses in brain development and function.

    PubMed

    Mortelmans, Kristien; Wang-Johanning, Feng; Johanning, Gary L

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences are spread throughout the genome of all humans, and make up about 8% of the genome. Despite their prevalence, the function of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in humans is largely unknown. In this review we focus on the brain, and evaluate studies in animal models that address mechanisms of endogenous retrovirus activation in the brain and central nervous system (CNS). One such study in mice found that TRIM28, a protein critical for mouse early development, regulates transcription and silencing of endogenous retroviruses in neural progenitor cells. Another intriguing finding in human brain cells and mouse models was that endogenous retrovirus HERV-K appears to be protective against neurotoxins. We also report on studies that associate HERVs with human diseases of the brain and CNS. There is little doubt of an association between HERVs and a number of CNS diseases. However, a cause and effect relationship between HERVs and these diseases has not yet been established.

  3. Thermal diffusivity of human serum and plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayén-Mondragón, R.; Yánez-Limón, J. M.; Palomares, P.; Sosa, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.

    2005-06-01

    Using a thermal lens experimental set up, the thermal diffusivity of human serum and plasma were measured. Several samples were studied and the results are reported as the average, including the standard deviation. The samples of serum and plasma were obtained in healthy adult donors from the Guanajuato State Blood Transfusion Center, Mexico; the donors were clinically tested and they were free of hepatitis, AIDS and other infectious diseases. The parameters reported were obtained using the thermal lens aberrant model with the lasers arranged in the mismatched mode.

  4. Human Endogenous Retrovirus and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Faucard, Raphaël; Madeira, Alexandra; Gehin, Nadège; Authier, François-Jérôme; Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Lesage, Catherine; Burgelin, Ingrid; Bertel, Mélanie; Bernard, Corinne; Curtin, François; Lang, Aloïs B.; Steck, Andreas J.; Perron, Hervé; Kuntzer, Thierry; Créange, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background Human endogenous retroviruses HERV-W encode a pro-inflammatory protein, named MSRV-Env from its original identification in Multiple Sclerosis. Though not detected in various neurological controls, MSRV-Env was found in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies (CIDPs). This study investigated the expression of MSRV in CIDP and evaluated relevant MSRV-Env pathogenic effects. Methods 50 CIDP patients, 19 other neurological controls (ONDs) and 65 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were recruited from two different countries. MSRV-env and -pol transcripts, IL6 and CXCL10 levels were quantified from blood samples. MSRV-Env immunohistology was performed in distal sensory nerves from CIDP and neurological controls biopsies. MSRV-Env pathogenic effects and mode of action were assayed in cultured primary human Schwann cells (HSCs). Findings In both cohorts, MSRV-env and -pol transcripts, IL6 positivity prevalence and CXCL10 levels were significantly elevated in CIDP patients when compared to HBDs and ONDs (statistically significant in all comparisons). MSRV-Env protein was detected in Schwann cells in 5/7 CIDP biopsies. HSC exposed to or transfected with MSRV-env presented a strong increase of IL6 and CXCL10 transcripts and protein secretion. These pathogenic effects on HSC were inhibited by GNbAC1, a highly specific and neutralizing humanized monoclonal antibody targeting MSRV-Env. Interpretation The present study showed that MSRV-Env may trigger the release of critical immune mediators proposed as instrumental factors involved in the pathophysiology of CIDP. Significant MSRV-Env expression was detected in a significant proportion of patients with CIDP, in which it may play a role according to its presently observed effects on Schwann cells along with previously known effects on immune cells. Experimental results also suggest that a biomarker-driven therapeutic strategy targeting this protein with a neutralizing antibody such as GNbAC1

  5. Heme-based catalytic properties of human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ascenzi, P; di Masi, A; Fanali, G; Fasano, M

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA): (i) controls the plasma oncotic pressure, (ii) modulates fluid distribution between the body compartments, (iii) represents the depot and carrier of endogenous and exogenous compounds, (iv) increases the apparent solubility and lifetime of hydrophobic compounds, (v) affects pharmacokinetics of many drugs, (vi) inactivates toxic compounds, (vii) induces chemical modifications of some ligands, (viii) displays antioxidant properties, and (ix) shows enzymatic properties. Under physiological and pathological conditions, HSA has a pivotal role in heme scavenging transferring the metal-macrocycle from high- and low-density lipoproteins to hemopexin, thus acquiring globin-like reactivity. Here, the heme-based catalytic properties of HSA are reviewed and the structural bases of drug-dependent allosteric regulation are highlighted. PMID:27551458

  6. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  7. RELIABLE ASSAYS FOR DETERMINING ENDOGENOUS COMPONENTS OF HUMAN MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy women from 18-38 years old (N=25) fasted for several hours and twice donated blood and milk (postpartum 2-7 weeks and 3-4 months) for the EPA's Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis study, a pilot for the National Children's Study (NCS). Endogenous components were chosen...

  8. English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) protect endogenous antioxidants in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ellagic acid monomers, polymeric tannins and related phenolic compounds isolated from English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) have been reported to inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress in animal models. To determine whether dietary and endogenous antioxidants are pres...

  9. Immunogenicity of Bivalent Human Papillomavirus DNA Vaccine Using Human Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope-Coated Baculoviral Vectors in Mice and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Jung; Hur, Yoon-Ki; Cho, Youn-Dong; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Lee, Hoon-Taek; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is known to be the major pathogen of cervical cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of a bivalent human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 DNA vaccine system following repeated dosing in mice and pigs using a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein (AcHERV) as a vector. The intramuscular administration of AcHERV-based HPV16L1 and HPV18L1 DNA vaccines induced antigen-specific serum IgG, vaginal IgA, and neutralizing antibodies to levels comparable to those achieved using the commercially marketed vaccine Cervarix. Similar to Cervarix, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations completely blocked subsequent vaginal challenge with HPV type-specific pseudovirions. However, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations induced significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses than Cervarix, promoting 4.5- (HPV16L1) and 3.9-(HPV18L1) fold higher interferon-γ production in splenocytes upon stimulation with antigen type-specific pseudovirions. Repeated dosing did not affect the immunogenicity of AcHERV DNA vaccines. Three sequential immunizations with AcHERV-HP18L1 DNA vaccine followed by three repeated dosing with AcHERV-HP16L1 over 11 weeks induced an initial production of anti-HPV18L1 antibody followed by subsequent induction of anti-HPV16L1 antibody. Finally, AcHERV-based bivalent DNA vaccination induced antigen-specific serum IgG immune responses in pigs. These results support the further development of AcHERV as a bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine system for use in preventing the viral infection as well as treating the infected women by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Moreover, the possibility of repeated dosing indicates the utility of AcHERV system for reusable vectors of other viral pathogen vaccines. PMID:23209698

  10. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  11. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-12-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  12. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  13. Endogenous benzodiazepine-like compounds and diazepam binding inhibitor in serum of patients with liver cirrhosis with and without overt encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Avallone, R; Zeneroli, M; Venturini, I; Corsi, L; Schreier, P; Kleinschnitz, M; Ferrarese, C; Farina, F; Baraldi, C; Pecora, N; Frigo, M; Baraldi, M

    1998-01-01

    Background/Aim—Despite some controversy, it has been suggested that endogenous benzodiazepine plays a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of endogenous benzodiazepines and the peptide, diazepam binding inhibitor, in the blood of patients with liver cirrhosis with and without overt encephalopathy, and to compare these levels with those of consumers of commercial benzodiazepines. 
Subjects—Normal subjects (90), benzodiazepine consumers (14), and cirrhotic patients (113) were studied. 
Methods—Endogenous benzodiazepines were measured by the radioligand binding technique after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. The presence of diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam was assayed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Diazepam binding inhibitor was studied in serum by radioimmunoassay. 
Results—Endogenous benzodiazepines were below the limit of detection in 7% of patients with encephalopathy. When detectable, their levels were at least comparable with those of benzodiazepine consumers and correlated with the liver dysfunction but not the stage of encephalopathy. Serum levels of diazepam binding inhibitor tended to decrease when endogenous benzodiazepines levels increased. 
Conclusions—Endogenous benzodiazepines may accumulate in patients with liver cirrhosis during the course of the disease, and the phenomenon appears to be independent of the presence or absence of encephalopathy. 

 Keywords: benzodiazepine consumers; diazepam binding inhibitor; endogenous benzodiazepines; liver cirrhosis; overt hepatic encephalopathy PMID:9691927

  14. Human endogenous retrovirus rec interferes with germ cell development in mice and may cause carcinoma in situ, the predecessor lesion of germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Galli, Uwe M; Sauter, Marlies; Lecher, Bernd; Maurer, Simone; Herbst, Hermann; Roemer, Klaus; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus

    2005-04-28

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are among the most common malignancies in young men. We have previously documented that patients with GCT frequently produce serum antibodies directed against proteins encoded by human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) type K sequences. Transcripts originating from the env gene of HERV-K, including the rec-relative of human immunodeficiency virus rev, are highly expressed in GCTs. We report here that mice that inducibly express HERV-K rec show a disturbed germ cell development and may exhibit, by 19 months of age, changes reminiscent of carcinoma in situ, the predecessor lesion of classic seminoma in humans. This provides the first direct evidence that the expression of a human endogenous retroviral gene previously established as a marker in human germ cell tumors may contribute to organ-specific tumorigenesis in a transgenic mouse model.

  15. Large fragments of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Geisow, M J; Beaven, G H

    1977-03-01

    Large fragments of human serum albumin were produced by treatment of the native protein with pepsin at pH3.5. Published sequences of human albumin [Behrens, Spiekerman & Brown (1975) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 34, 591; Meloun, Moravek & Kostka (1975) FEBSLett.58, 134-137]were used to locate the fragments in the primary structure. The fragments support both the sequence and proposed disulphide-linkage pattern (Behrens et al., 1975). As the pH of a solution of albumin is lowered from pH4 to pH3.5, the protein undergoes a reversible conformational change known as the N-F transition. The distribution of large fragments of human albumin digested with pepsin in the above pH region was critically dependent on pH. It appeared that this distribution was dependent on the conformation of the protein at low pH, rather than the activity of pepsin. The yields of the large fragments produced by peptic digestion at different values of pH suggested that the C-terminal region of albumin unfolds or separates from the rest of the molecule during the N-F transition. The similarity of peptic fragments of human and bovine albumin produced under identical conditions supports the proposed similar tertiary structure of these molecules.

  16. Excretion of low-molecular weight volatile substances in human breath: focus on endogenous ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a gas chromatographic method suitable for the analysis of low-molecular endogenous volatiles in human breath. The use of an on-column gas sampling device allowed serial determinations at 10-min intervals. With a flame ionization detector and Porapak Q as stationary phase, the four major endogenous breath volatiles were methanol, ethanol, acetone, and isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). These same compounds were present in the breath of healthy individuals and abstinent alcoholics. In 10 healthy men, the breath concentration of endogenous ethanol, methanol, and acetone ranged from 0.07 to 0.39 microgram/L, 0.21 to 0.07 microgram/L, and 0.57 to 4.01 micrograms/L, respectively. When a man drank 5 g of exogenous ethanol, the blood concentration increased 200 times above the endogenous level. This small dose of ethanol was eliminated with a half-life of 16 min.

  17. Effect of zinc concentration on the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme in human plasma and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, P.G.; Carl, G.F.; Smith, D.K.; O'Dell, B.L.

    1986-03-05

    The activity of angiotensin converting enzyme is measured clinically to assist in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and to monitor therapy with steroids, and with antihypertensive drugs that inhibit the enzyme. Even though it has been known for some time that ACE is a zinc dependent enzyme, it was discovered only recently that zinc, in addition to endogenous levels in the assay mixture, is required for maximal activity of rat serum ACE. The present experiment was designed to determine if additional zinc is required for maximal activation of ACE in plasma and serum of human subjects. Plasma or serum samples were incubated at 37/sup 0/ in a zinc-free medium, pH 7.4, containing hippurylglyclglycine as the substrate. The addition of 20 ..mu..M zinc significantly increased ACE activity in plasma (95.4 +/- 11.9 vs 192.8 +/- 24.3 U/L) and in serum (89.9 +/- 5.6 vs 195.7 +/- 9.3 U/L) compared to samples without added zinc. Enzyme activity was increased 2.4-fold when zinc was added to plasma from a patient with low plasma zinc. These data suggest that the endogenous level of zinc in the assay mixture resulting from the addition of an aliquot of plasma or serum is insufficient to obtain maximal activity of ACE. The addition of zinc to zinc deficient plasma increased ACE activity even more.

  18. Endogenous APOBEC3B restricts LINE-1 retrotransposition in transformed cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wissing, Silke; Montano, Mauricio; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Moran, John V; Greene, Warner C

    2011-10-21

    Members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminase enzymes act as host defense mechanisms limiting both infections by exogenous retroviruses and mobilization of endogenous retrotransposons. Previous studies revealed that the overexpression of some A3 proteins could restrict engineered human Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition in HeLa cells. However, whether endogenous A3 proteins play a role in restricting L1 retrotransposition remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that HeLa cells express endogenous A3B and A3C, whereas human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) express A3B, A3C, A3DE, A3F, and A3G. To study the relative contribution of endogenous A3 proteins in restricting L1 retrotransposition, we first generated small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to suppress endogenous A3 mRNA expression, and then assessed L1 mobility using a cell-based L1 retrotransposition assay. We demonstrate that in both HeLa and hESCs, shRNA-based knockdown of A3B promotes a ∼2-3.7-fold increase in the retrotransposition efficiency of an engineered human L1. Knockdown of the other A3s produced no significant increase in L1 activity. Thus, A3B appears to restrict engineered L1 retrotransposition in a broad range of cell types, including pluripotent cells.

  19. HERVd: the Human Endogenous RetroViruses Database: update.

    PubMed

    Paces, Jan; Pavlícek, Adam; Zika, Radek; Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy; Paces, Václav

    2004-01-01

    An elaboration of HERVd (http://herv.img.cas.cz) is being carried out in two directions. One of them is the integration and better classification of families that diverge considerably from typical retroviral genomes. This leads to a more precise identification of members with individual families. The second improvement is better accessibility of the database and connection with human genome annotation.

  20. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  1. Farm animal serum proteomics and impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-09-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals.

  2. The activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is implicated in melanoma cell malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Serafino, A. Balestrieri, E.; Pierimarchi, P.; Matteucci, C.; Moroni, G.; Oricchio, E.; Rasi, G.; Mastino, A.; Spadafora, C.; Garaci, E.; Vallebona, P. Sinibaldi

    2009-03-10

    Melanoma development is a multi-step process arising from a series of genetic and epigenetic events. Although the sequential stages involved in progression from melanocytes to malignant melanoma are clearly defined, our current understanding of the mechanisms leading to melanoma onset is still incomplete. Growing evidence show that the activation of endogenous retroviral sequences might be involved in transformation of melanocytes as well as in the increased ability of melanoma cells to escape immune surveillance. Here we show that human melanoma cells in vitro undergo a transition from adherent to a more malignant, non-adherent phenotype when exposed to stress conditions. Melanoma-derived non-adherent cells are characterized by an increased proliferative potential and a decreased expression of both HLA class I molecules and Melan-A/MART-1 antigen, similarly to highly malignant cells. These phenotypic and functional modifications are accompanied by the activation of human endogenous retrovirus K expression (HERV-K) and massive production of viral-like particles. Down-regulation of HERV-K expression by RNA interference prevents the transition from the adherent to the non-adherent growth phenotype in low serum. These results implicate HERV-K in at least some critical steps of melanoma progression.

  3. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Lei; Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  4. Cell lineage analysis in human brain using endogenous retroelements.

    PubMed

    Evrony, Gilad D; Lee, Eunjung; Mehta, Bhaven K; Benjamini, Yuval; Johnson, Robert M; Cai, Xuyu; Yang, Lixing; Haseley, Psalm; Lehmann, Hillel S; Park, Peter J; Walsh, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations occur during brain development and are increasingly implicated as a cause of neurogenetic disease. However, the patterns in which somatic mutations distribute in the human brain are unknown. We used high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of single neurons from a normal individual to identify spontaneous somatic mutations as clonal marks to track cell lineages in human brain. Somatic mutation analyses in >30 locations throughout the nervous system identified multiple lineages and sublineages of cells marked by different LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition events and subsequent mutation of poly-A microsatellites within L1. One clone contained thousands of cells limited to the left middle frontal gyrus, whereas a second distinct clone contained millions of cells distributed over the entire left hemisphere. These patterns mirror known somatic mutation disorders of brain development and suggest that focally distributed mutations are also prevalent in normal brains. Single-cell analysis of somatic mutation enables tracing of cell lineage clones in human brain.

  5. Sex differences in the serum level of endogenous ligands for estrogen receptor β in the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Miyuki; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Sasayama, Daimei; Sasamoto, Hidehiko; Miyashiro, Yoshimichi; Arima, Kunimasa; Washizuka, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-agonists, but not ERα-agonists, are antidepressants. Several endogenous ligands for ERβ have been proposed, including 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol), Androstenediol (Δ5-diol), and 7α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (7α-OH-DHEA). The aim of this study was to determine the serum and salivary levels of natural ERβ ligands in men and women with and without past depressive episodes in the elderly population. DHEA (a precursor of 3βAdiol, Δ5-diol, and 7α-OH-DHEA), 17β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) were also measured. Samples were collected from 51 subjects and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used for measurement. Comparisons were made between groups based on sex and depression history. E2, 3βAdiol, and Δ5-diol levels were significantly lower in women than in men regardless of depression history. There were no significant differences between men and women in DHEA or 7α-OH-DHEA levels. DHEA was significantly lower in women with depression than in women without depression. Reduced DHEA levels may be related to depression vulnerability in women. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism underlying sex differences in the prevalence of depression and increased risk of depression during menopause. Not only E2 but also two other estrogenic steroids (3βAdiol and Δ5-diol) should be involved in these studies. PMID:27165125

  6. Sex differences in the serum level of endogenous ligands for estrogen receptor β in the elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Miyuki; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Sasayama, Daimei; Sasamoto, Hidehiko; Miyashiro, Yoshimichi; Arima, Kunimasa; Washizuka, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-agonists, but not ERα-agonists, are antidepressants. Several endogenous ligands for ERβ have been proposed, including 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol), Androstenediol (Δ5-diol), and 7α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (7α-OH-DHEA). The aim of this study was to determine the serum and salivary levels of natural ERβ ligands in men and women with and without past depressive episodes in the elderly population. DHEA (a precursor of 3βAdiol, Δ5-diol, and 7α-OH-DHEA), 17β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) were also measured. Samples were collected from 51 subjects and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used for measurement. Comparisons were made between groups based on sex and depression history. E2, 3βAdiol, and Δ5-diol levels were significantly lower in women than in men regardless of depression history. There were no significant differences between men and women in DHEA or 7α-OH-DHEA levels. DHEA was significantly lower in women with depression than in women without depression. Reduced DHEA levels may be related to depression vulnerability in women. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism underlying sex differences in the prevalence of depression and increased risk of depression during menopause. Not only E2 but also two other estrogenic steroids (3βAdiol and Δ5-diol) should be involved in these studies. PMID:27165125

  7. Malat1 regulates serum response factor through miR-133 as a competing endogenous RNA in myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaorui; Yang, Feng; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Zicai

    2015-07-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) is an example of a functional long noncoding RNA involved in many biologic processes. However, the mechanisms for Malat1 in myogenesis are unclear. Serum response factor (SRF) is a pivotal transcription factor for muscle proliferation and differentiation and is reported to be a target gene for muscle-specific microRNA-133 (miR-133). In this study, we initially found that silencing Malat1 in the mouse myoblast C2C12 cell line inhibited myocyte differentiation and decreased Srf at both the RNA and protein levels. Srf silencing decreased Malat1 expression as well. Further study revealed that Malat1 contained an miR-133 functional target site, and the interplay between Malat1 and Srf was miR-133 dependent. We demonstrated that Malat1 modulates Srf through miR-133 as a competing endogenous RNA and established a novel connection among Malat1, miR-133, and Srf in myoblast differentiation.

  8. Identification of Endogenous Controls for Analyzing Serum Exosomal miRNA in Patients with Hepatitis B or Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Liqun; Liu, Fei; Xiang, Guiming; Jiang, Dongneng; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have received considerable attention as potential biomarkers for diagnosing cancer. The canonical technique for measuring miRNA transcript levels is reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). One prerequisite for validating RT-qPCR data is proper normalization with respect to stably expressed endogenous reference genes. However, genes that meet all of the criteria of a control gene for exosomal miRNAs have not yet been identified. To find out the control gene for exosomal miRNAs, we evaluated the expression stability of 11 well-known reference genes in circulating exosomes. In this study, we found that the combination of miR-221, miR-191, let-7a, miR-181a, and miR-26a can be an optimal gene reference set for normalizing the expression of liver-specific miRNAs. This combination enhanced the robustness of the relative quantification analyses. These findings highlight the importance of validating reference genes before quantifying target miRNAs. Furthermore, our findings will improve studies that monitor hepatitis progression and will aid in the discovery of noninvasive biomarkers to diagnose early stage HCC. PMID:25814782

  9. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  10. Endogenous bile acid disposition in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, Tracy L.; Perry, Cassandra H.; St Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2012-05-15

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR{sup ®} technology, BAs were measured in cells + bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells + bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.9 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 56 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.21 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na{sup +}-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. -- Highlights: ► Bile acids (BAs) were measured in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). ► Cell and medium BA

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

  12. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases? Unveiling associations of three diseases and viral loci.

    PubMed

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Villesen, Palle; Nissen, Kari K; Lindegaard, Hanne M; Rossing, Peter; Petersen, Thor; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Bettina; Lorenzen, Tove; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Jensen, Sara B; Bahrami, Shervin; Lajer, Maria; Schmidt, Kathrine L M; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Junker, Peter; Laska, Magdalena J

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases encompass a plethora of conditions in which the immune system attacks its own tissue, identifying them as foreign. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to the development of immune response to self, including differences in genotypes, hormonal milieu, and environmental factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian manner. In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus was associated with each of the three diseases. Although there was a significant overlap, most loci only occurred in one of the studied disease. Remarkably, within each disease, there was a statistical interaction (synergy) between two loci. Additional synergy between retroviral loci and human lymphocyte antigens is reported for multiple sclerosis. We speculate the possibility that recombinants or mixed viral particles are formed and that the resulting viruses stimulate the innate immune system, thereby initiating the autoimmune response. PMID:26091722

  13. Expression-analysis of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K in human astrocytic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) has been acquired by the genome of human ancestors million years ago. It is the most complete of the HERVs with transcriptionally active gag, pol and env genes. Splice variants of env, which are rec, 1.5 kb transcript and Np9 have been suggested to be tumorigenic. Transcripts of HERV-K have been detected in a multitude of human cancers. However, no such reports are available concerning glioblastomas (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. Patients have a limited prognosis of 14.6 months in median, despite standard treatment. Therefore, we elucidated whether HERV-K transcripts could be detected in these tumors and serve as new molecular target for treatment. Findings We analyzed human GBM cell lines, tissue samples from patients and primary cell cultures of different passages for HERV-K full length mRNA and env, rec and 1.5 kb transcripts. While the GBM cell lines U138, U251, U343 and GaMG displayed weak and U87 strong expression of the full length HERV-K, the splice products could not be detected, despite a weak expression of env mRNA in U87 cells. Very few tissue samples from patients showed weak expression of env mRNA, but none of the rec or 1.5 kb transcripts. Primary cells expressed the 1.5 kb transcript weakly in early passages, but lost HERV-K expression with extended culture time. Conclusions These data suggest that HERV-K splice products do not play a role in human malignant gliomas and therefore, are not suitable as targets for new therapy regimen. PMID:24642114

  14. Resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis to bactericidal activity of human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Boustouller, Y L; Johnson, A P

    1986-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity of Gardnerella vaginalis to the complement mediated bactericidal activity of serum, six laboratory strains were incubated with normal human serum and two strains freshly isolated from women with non-specific vaginitis (NSV) were each incubated with homologous patient serum. There was no significant difference between the number of organisms recovered from unheated or heat inactivated serum after incubation at 37 degrees C for one hour with any of the strains tested. A suspension of G vaginalis incubated at 37 degrees C for one hour in heat inactivated homologous mouse antiserum with unheated normal human serum as a source of complement did not show any less viability than the control mixture using heat inactivated human serum. In contrast, a serum resistant strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae incubated in heat inactivated homologous mouse antiserum with unheated normal human serum showed noticeably less viability than the control. G vaginalis therefore seems to be resistant to the bactericidal activity of both normal and immune serum. PMID:3493201

  15. HIV-1 Interacts with Human Endogenous Retrovirus K (HML-2) Envelopes Derived from Human Primary Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brinzevich, Daria; Young, George R.; Sebra, Robert; Ayllon, Juan; Maio, Susan M.; Deikus, Gintaras; Chen, Benjamin K.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Simon, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are viruses that have colonized the germ line and spread through vertical passage. Only the more recently acquired HERVs, such as the HERV-K (HML-2) group, maintain coding open reading frames. Expression of HERV-Ks has been linked to different pathological conditions, including HIV infection, but our knowledge on which specific HERV-Ks are expressed in primary lymphocytes currently is very limited. To identify the most expressed HERV-Ks in an unbiased manner, we analyzed their expression patterns in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. We observe that three HERV-Ks (KII, K102, and K18) constitute over 90% of the total HERV-K expression in primary human lymphocytes of five different donors. We also show experimentally that two of these HERV-K env sequences (K18 and K102) retain their ability to produce full-length and posttranslationally processed envelope proteins in cell culture. We show that HERV-K18 Env can be incorporated into HIV-1 but not simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) particles. Moreover, HERV-K18 Env incorporation into HIV-1 virions is dependent on HIV-1 matrix. Taken together, we generated high-resolution HERV-K expression profiles specific for activated human lymphocytes. We found that one of the most abundantly expressed HERV-K envelopes not only makes a full-length protein but also specifically interacts with HIV-1. Our findings raise the possibility that these endogenous retroviral Env proteins could directly influence HIV-1 replication. IMPORTANCE Here, we report the HERV-K expression profile of primary lymphocytes from 5 different healthy donors. We used a novel deep-sequencing technology (PacBio SMRT) that produces the long reads necessary to discriminate the complexity of HERV-K expression. We find that primary lymphocytes express up to 32 different HERV-K envelopes, and that at least two of the most expressed Env proteins

  16. A scalable strategy for high-throughput GFP tagging of endogenous human proteins.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Manuel D; Sekine, Sayaka; Kamiyama, Daichi; Weissman, Jonathan S; Huang, Bo

    2016-06-21

    A central challenge of the postgenomic era is to comprehensively characterize the cellular role of the ∼20,000 proteins encoded in the human genome. To systematically study protein function in a native cellular background, libraries of human cell lines expressing proteins tagged with a functional sequence at their endogenous loci would be very valuable. Here, using electroporation of Cas9 nuclease/single-guide RNA ribonucleoproteins and taking advantage of a split-GFP system, we describe a scalable method for the robust, scarless, and specific tagging of endogenous human genes with GFP. Our approach requires no molecular cloning and allows a large number of cell lines to be processed in parallel. We demonstrate the scalability of our method by targeting 48 human genes and show that the resulting GFP fluorescence correlates with protein expression levels. We next present how our protocols can be easily adapted for the tagging of a given target with GFP repeats, critically enabling the study of low-abundance proteins. Finally, we show that our GFP tagging approach allows the biochemical isolation of native protein complexes for proteomic studies. Taken together, our results pave the way for the large-scale generation of endogenously tagged human cell lines for the proteome-wide analysis of protein localization and interaction networks in a native cellular context. PMID:27274053

  17. Photothermal Measurements on Human Serum and Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M.; Hernández, L. C.; Hernández-Cabrera, F.; Mayén-Mondragón, R.; Yánez-Limón, J. M.; Flores-Farías, R.; Palomares, P.; Juárez, P.; Ramírez, R.

    2003-09-01

    Using a thermal lens experimental set up, the thermal diffusivity of serum and plasma was measured. Several samples were studied and the results are reported as the average with the standard deviation. The serum and plasma were obtained by aleatory sampling of healthy adult donors at the Guanajuato State Transfusion Center, Mexico; the donors were free of hepatitis and other diseases, clinically tested. The parameters reported were obtained using the thermal lens aberrant model with the lasers operating in the mismatched mode.

  18. Human serum provided additional values in growth factors supplemented medium for human chondrocytes monolayer expansion and engineered cartilage construction.

    PubMed

    Chua, K H; Aminuddin, B S; Fuzina, N H; Ruszymah, B H I

    2004-05-01

    We have previously formulated an optimized human chondrocytes growth medium based on 2% fetal bovine serum supplementation. For clinical usage, the animal serum must be replaced by patient own serum. We investigated the effects of human serum concentration for human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture and cartilage reconstruction. Human serum demonstrated a dose dependent manner in promoting chondrocytes growth and cartilage engineering.

  19. Square Wave Voltammetric Determination of Diclofenac in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Ciltas, Ulvihan; Yilmaz, Bilal; Kaban, Selcuk; Akcay, Bilge Kaan; Nazik, Gulsah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple and reliable square wave voltammetric (SWV) method was developed and validated for determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum. The proposed method was based on electrooxidation of diclofenac at platinum electrode in 0.1 M TBAClO4/acetonitrile solution. The well-defined two oxidation peaks were observed at 0.87 and 1.27 V, respectively. Calibration curves that were obtained by using current values measured for second peak were linear over the concentration range of 1.5-17.5 μg mL-1 and 2-20 μg mL-1 in supporting electrolyte and serum, respectively. Precision and accuracy were also checked in all media. Intra- and inter-day precision values for diclofenac were less than 3.64, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 2.49%. Developed method in this study is accurate, precise and can be easily applied to Diclomec, Dicloflam and Voltaren tablets as pharmaceutical preparation. Also, the proposed technique was successfully applied to spiked human serum samples. No electroactive interferences from the endogenous substances were found in human serum. PMID:26330859

  20. Square Wave Voltammetric Determination of Diclofenac in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Human Serum.

    PubMed

    Ciltas, Ulvihan; Yilmaz, Bilal; Kaban, Selcuk; Akcay, Bilge Kaan; Nazik, Gulsah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple and reliable square wave voltammetric (SWV) method was developed and validated for determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum. The proposed method was based on electrooxidation of diclofenac at platinum electrode in 0.1 M TBAClO4/acetonitrile solution. The well-defined two oxidation peaks were observed at 0.87 and 1.27 V, respectively. Calibration curves that were obtained by using current values measured for second peak were linear over the concentration range of 1.5-17.5 μg mL(-1) and 2-20 μg mL(-1) in supporting electrolyte and serum, respectively. Precision and accuracy were also checked in all media. Intra- and inter-day precision values for diclofenac were less than 3.64, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 2.49%. Developed method in this study is accurate, precise and can be easily applied to Diclomec, Dicloflam and Voltaren tablets as pharmaceutical preparation. Also, the proposed technique was successfully applied to spiked human serum samples. No electroactive interferences from the endogenous substances were found in human serum.

  1. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  2. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Natalie; Chan, Kin; Grimm, Sara A.; Dai, Shuangshuang; Fargo, David C.; Kaufmann, William K.; Taylor, Jack A.; Lee, Eunjung; Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; Park, Peter J.; Schurman, Shepherd H.; Malc, Ewa P.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307 PMID:27788131

  3. DNA topology influences molecular machine lifetime in human serum.

    PubMed

    Goltry, Sara; Hallstrom, Natalya; Clark, Tyler; Kuang, Wan; Lee, Jeunghoon; Jorcyk, Cheryl; Knowlton, William B; Yurke, Bernard; Hughes, William L; Graugnard, Elton

    2015-06-21

    DNA nanotechnology holds the potential for enabling new tools for biomedical engineering, including diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. However, applications for DNA devices are thought to be limited by rapid enzymatic degradation in serum and blood. Here, we demonstrate that a key aspect of DNA nanotechnology-programmable molecular shape-plays a substantial role in device lifetimes. These results establish the ability to operate synthetic DNA devices in the presence of endogenous enzymes and challenge the textbook view of near instantaneous degradation. PMID:25959862

  4. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  5. Non-extraction HPLC method for the simultaneous measurement of theophylline and caffeine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, S J; Dawson, C M; Tickner, T R

    1989-11-01

    A non extraction HPLC method is described for the simultaneous measurement of theophylline and caffeine in human serum using a Pinkerton ISRP column and u.v. detection at 275 nm. The method is suitable for therapeutic monitoring of theophylline levels in adults and, in particular, quantitation of both theophylline and caffeine in premature neonates where as little as 10 microL of sample can be used. Comparison of theophylline levels obtained by this method with EMIT analysis show a correlation coefficient of 0.97 (n = 37) in adults and 0.79 (n = 16) in premature neonates. There was no correlation between serum theophylline and caffeine levels in premature neonates receiving theophylline therapy. No interference was encountered from endogenous plasma components or other drugs in the 53 patients studied. Precision of the assays compares well with reported values for extraction HPLC and immunochemical analyses.

  6. Competing endogenous RNA networks in human cancer: hypothesis, validation, and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yinji; Wang, Dong; Wang, Tianzhen; Li, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs represent a majority of the human transcriptome. However, less is known about the functions and regulatory mechanisms of most non-coding species. Moreover, little is known about the potential non-coding functions of coding RNAs. The competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) hypothesis is proposed recently. This hypothesis describes potential communication networks among all transcript RNA species mediated by miRNAs and miRNA-recognizing elements (MREs) within RNA transcripts. Here we review the evolution of the ceRNA hypothesis, summarize the validation experiments and discusses the significance and perspectives of this hypothesis in human cancer. PMID:26872371

  7. Reprogramming triggers endogenous L1 and Alu retrotransposition in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Klawitter, Sabine; Fuchs, Nina V.; Upton, Kyle R.; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Shukla, Ruchi; Wang, Jichang; Garcia-Cañadas, Marta; Lopez-Ruiz, Cesar; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Sebe, Attila; Grabundzija, Ivana; Merkert, Sylvia; Gerdes, Patricia; Pulgarin, J. Andres; Bock, Anja; Held, Ulrike; Witthuhn, Anett; Haase, Alexandra; Sarkadi, Balázs; Löwer, Johannes; Wolvetang, Ernst J.; Martin, Ulrich; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Garcia-Perez, Jose L.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Schumann, Gerald G.

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are capable of unlimited proliferation and can differentiate in vitro to generate derivatives of the three primary germ layers. Genetic and epigenetic abnormalities have been reported by Wissing and colleagues to occur during hiPSC derivation, including mobilization of engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. However, incidence and functional impact of endogenous retrotransposition in hiPSCs are yet to be established. Here we apply retrotransposon capture sequencing to eight hiPSC lines and three human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, revealing endogenous L1, Alu and SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) mobilization during reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell cultivation. Surprisingly, 4/7 de novo L1 insertions are full length and 6/11 retrotransposition events occurred in protein-coding genes expressed in pluripotent stem cells. We further demonstrate that an intronic L1 insertion in the CADPS2 gene is acquired during hiPSC cultivation and disrupts CADPS2 expression. These experiments elucidate endogenous retrotransposition, and its potential consequences, in hiPSCs and hESCs. PMID:26743714

  8. Reprogramming triggers endogenous L1 and Alu retrotransposition in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Klawitter, Sabine; Fuchs, Nina V; Upton, Kyle R; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Shukla, Ruchi; Wang, Jichang; Garcia-Cañadas, Marta; Lopez-Ruiz, Cesar; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Sebe, Attila; Grabundzija, Ivana; Merkert, Sylvia; Gerdes, Patricia; Pulgarin, J Andres; Bock, Anja; Held, Ulrike; Witthuhn, Anett; Haase, Alexandra; Sarkadi, Balázs; Löwer, Johannes; Wolvetang, Ernst J; Martin, Ulrich; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Garcia-Perez, Jose L; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Schumann, Gerald G

    2016-01-08

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are capable of unlimited proliferation and can differentiate in vitro to generate derivatives of the three primary germ layers. Genetic and epigenetic abnormalities have been reported by Wissing and colleagues to occur during hiPSC derivation, including mobilization of engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. However, incidence and functional impact of endogenous retrotransposition in hiPSCs are yet to be established. Here we apply retrotransposon capture sequencing to eight hiPSC lines and three human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, revealing endogenous L1, Alu and SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) mobilization during reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell cultivation. Surprisingly, 4/7 de novo L1 insertions are full length and 6/11 retrotransposition events occurred in protein-coding genes expressed in pluripotent stem cells. We further demonstrate that an intronic L1 insertion in the CADPS2 gene is acquired during hiPSC cultivation and disrupts CADPS2 expression. These experiments elucidate endogenous retrotransposition, and its potential consequences, in hiPSCs and hESCs.

  9. Reprogramming triggers endogenous L1 and Alu retrotransposition in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Klawitter, Sabine; Fuchs, Nina V; Upton, Kyle R; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Shukla, Ruchi; Wang, Jichang; Garcia-Cañadas, Marta; Lopez-Ruiz, Cesar; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Sebe, Attila; Grabundzija, Ivana; Merkert, Sylvia; Gerdes, Patricia; Pulgarin, J Andres; Bock, Anja; Held, Ulrike; Witthuhn, Anett; Haase, Alexandra; Sarkadi, Balázs; Löwer, Johannes; Wolvetang, Ernst J; Martin, Ulrich; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Garcia-Perez, Jose L; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Schumann, Gerald G

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are capable of unlimited proliferation and can differentiate in vitro to generate derivatives of the three primary germ layers. Genetic and epigenetic abnormalities have been reported by Wissing and colleagues to occur during hiPSC derivation, including mobilization of engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. However, incidence and functional impact of endogenous retrotransposition in hiPSCs are yet to be established. Here we apply retrotransposon capture sequencing to eight hiPSC lines and three human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, revealing endogenous L1, Alu and SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) mobilization during reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell cultivation. Surprisingly, 4/7 de novo L1 insertions are full length and 6/11 retrotransposition events occurred in protein-coding genes expressed in pluripotent stem cells. We further demonstrate that an intronic L1 insertion in the CADPS2 gene is acquired during hiPSC cultivation and disrupts CADPS2 expression. These experiments elucidate endogenous retrotransposition, and its potential consequences, in hiPSCs and hESCs. PMID:26743714

  10. Human endogenous retrovirus type W envelope expression in blood and brain cells provides new insights into multiple sclerosis disease

    PubMed Central

    Germi, Raphaëlle; Bernard, Corinne; Garcia-Montojo, Marta; Deluen, Cécile; Farinelli, Laurent; Faucard, Raphaël; Veas, Francisco; Stefas, Ilias; Fabriek, Babs O; Van-Horssen, Jack; Van-der-Valk, Paul; Gerdil, Claire; Mancuso, Roberta; Saresella, Marina; Clerici, Mario; Marcel, Sébastien; Creange, Alain; Cavaretta, Rosella; Caputo, Domenico; Arru, Giannina; Morand, Patrice; Lang, Alois B; Sotgiu, Stefano; Ruprecht, Klemens; Rieckmann, Peter; Villoslada, Pablo; Chofflon, Michel; Boucraut, Jose; Pelletier, Jean; Hartung, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: The envelope protein from multiple sclerosis (MS) associated retroviral element (MSRV), a member of the Human Endogenous Retroviral family ‘W’ (HERV-W), induces dysimmunity and inflammation. Objective: The objective of this study was to confirm and specify the association between HERV-W/MSRV envelope (Env) expression and MS. Methods: 103 MS, 199 healthy controls (HC) and controls with other neurological diseases (28), chronic infections (30) or autoimmunity (30) were analysed with an immunoassay detecting Env in serum. Env RNA or DNA copy numbers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Env was detected by immunohistology in the brains of patients with MS with three specific monoclonals. Results: Env antigen was detected in a serum of 73% of patients with MS with similar prevalence in all clinical forms, and not in chronic infection, systemic lupus, most other neurological diseases and healthy donors (p<0.01). Cases with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (5/8) and rare HC (4/103) were positive. RNA expression in PBMC and DNA copy numbers were significantly elevated in patients with MS versus HC (p<0.001). In patients with MS, DNA copy numbers were significantly increased in chronic progressive MS (secondary progressive MS vs relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) p<0.001; primary progressive MS vs RRMS –<0.02). Env protein was evidenced in macrophages within MS brain lesions with particular concentrations around vascular elements. Conclusion: The association between MS disease and the MSRV-type HERV-W element now appears quite strong, as evidenced ex-vivo from serum and PBMC with post-mortem confirmation in brain lesions. Chronic progressive MS, RRMS and clinically isolated syndrome show different ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and/or PCR profiles suggestive of an increase with disease evolution, and amplicon sequencing confirms the association with

  11. Monitoring of endogenous carbon monoxide dynamics in human breath by tunable diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Daraselia, Mikhail V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    High sensitive CO gas analyzer based on tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as a real time monitor of endogenous carbon monoxide in a set of breath physiology experiments. The measurements of the CO content dynamics in exhaled air with 10 ppb sensitivity were attended with detection of carbon dioxide and O2 in breath, lung ventilation parameters, heart rate and blood analysis using conventional techniques. Temporal variations of endogenous CO in human breath caused by hyperoxia, hypoxia, hyperventilation and sport loading were first studied in real time. Scattering of the CO variation time constants was observed for different tested persons. Possible reasons for this scattering related with the organisms' physiology peculiarities are discussed.

  12. Replication of many human viruses is refractory to inhibition by endogenous cellular microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Hal P; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Kennedy, Edward M; Furuse, Yuki; Whisnant, Adam W; Flores, Omar; Schultz, Kimberly L W; Putnam, Nicole; Barrows, Nicholas J; Sherry, Barbara; Scholle, Frank; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Griffin, Diane E; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-07-01

    The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. Here, we address this question in two ways. First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. Infection of these cells with a wide range of viruses, including DENV, WNV, yellow fever virus, Sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, reovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), failed to reveal any enhancement in the replication of any of these viruses, although HSV-1, which encodes at least eight Dicer-dependent viral miRNAs, did replicate somewhat more slowly in the absence of Dicer. We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. Importance: Eukaryotic cells express a wide range of small regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, that have the potential to inhibit the expression of mRNAs that show sequence complementarity. Indeed, previous work has suggested that endogenous miRNAs have the potential to inhibit viral gene expression and replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication of a wide range of

  13. Replication of Many Human Viruses Is Refractory to Inhibition by Endogenous Cellular MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, Hal P.; Skalsky, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, Edward M.; Furuse, Yuki; Whisnant, Adam W.; Flores, Omar; Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Putnam, Nicole; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Sherry, Barbara; Scholle, Frank; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Griffin, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. Here, we address this question in two ways. First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. Infection of these cells with a wide range of viruses, including DENV, WNV, yellow fever virus, Sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, reovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), failed to reveal any enhancement in the replication of any of these viruses, although HSV-1, which encodes at least eight Dicer-dependent viral miRNAs, did replicate somewhat more slowly in the absence of Dicer. We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic cells express a wide range of small regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, that have the potential to inhibit the expression of mRNAs that show sequence complementarity. Indeed, previous work has suggested that endogenous miRNAs have the potential to inhibit viral gene expression and replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication of a wide range of

  14. DNA topology influences molecular machine lifetime in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltry, Sara; Hallstrom, Natalya; Clark, Tyler; Kuang, Wan; Lee, Jeunghoon; Jorcyk, Cheryl; Knowlton, William B.; Yurke, Bernard; Hughes, William L.; Graugnard, Elton

    2015-06-01

    DNA nanotechnology holds the potential for enabling new tools for biomedical engineering, including diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. However, applications for DNA devices are thought to be limited by rapid enzymatic degradation in serum and blood. Here, we demonstrate that a key aspect of DNA nanotechnology--programmable molecular shape--plays a substantial role in device lifetimes. These results establish the ability to operate synthetic DNA devices in the presence of endogenous enzymes and challenge the textbook view of near instantaneous degradation.DNA nanotechnology holds the potential for enabling new tools for biomedical engineering, including diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. However, applications for DNA devices are thought to be limited by rapid enzymatic degradation in serum and blood. Here, we demonstrate that a key aspect of DNA nanotechnology--programmable molecular shape--plays a substantial role in device lifetimes. These results establish the ability to operate synthetic DNA devices in the presence of endogenous enzymes and challenge the textbook view of near instantaneous degradation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DNA sequences, fluorophore and quencher properties, equipment design, and degradation studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02283e

  15. Deficiency of endogenous acute phase serum amyloid A protects apoE−/− mice from angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    PubMed Central

    Webb, NR; De Beer, MC; Wroblewski, JM; Ji, A; Bailey, W; Shridas, P; Charnigo, RJ; Noffsinger, VP; Witta, J; Howatt, DA; Balakrishnan, A; Rateri, DL; Daugherty, A; De Beer, FC

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a major cause of death in the aged population, is characterized by vascular inflammation and matrix degradation. Serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute phase reactant linked to inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase induction, correlates with aortic dimensions before aneurysm formation in humans. We investigated whether SAA deficiency in mice impacts AAA formation during angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. Approach and Results Plasma SAA increased ~60-fold in apoE−/− mice 24 hours after i.p. AngII injection (100 μg/kg; n = 4) and ~15-fold after chronic 28-day AngII infusion (1,000 ng/kg/min; n = 9). AAA incidence and severity after 28-day AngII infusion was significantly reduced in apoE−/− mice lacking both acute phase SAA isoforms (SAAKO; n = 20) compared to apoE−/− mice (SAAWT; n = 20) as assessed by in vivo ultrasound and ex vivo morphometric analyses, despite a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in SAAKO mice compared to SAAWT mice after AngII infusion. Atherosclerotic lesion area of the aortic arch was similar in SAAKO and SAAWT mice after 28-day AngII infusion. Immunostaining detected SAA in AAA tissues of AngII-infused SAAWT mice that co-localized with macrophages, elastin breaks, and enhanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMP-2 activity was significantly lower in aortas of SAAKO mice compared to SAAWT mice after 10-day AngII infusion. Conclusion Lack of endogenous acute phase SAA protects against experimental AAA through a mechanism that may involve reduced MMP-2 activity. PMID:25745063

  16. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  17. Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Guest, Paul C.; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Leweke, F. Markus; Rothermundt, Matthias; Bogerts, Bernhard; Steiner, Johann; Ruta, Liliana; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bahn, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex. Methodology/Principal Findings Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition. Conclusions/Significance Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were

  18. Detection of the human endogenous retrovirus ERV3-encoded Env-protein in human tissues using antibody-based proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Chen; Atterby, Christina; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Pontén, Fredrik; Zhang, Wei Wei; Larsson, Erik; Ryan, Frank P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is growing evidence to suggest that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have contributed to human evolution, being expressed in development, normal physiology and disease. A key difficulty in the scientific evaluation of this potential viral contribution is the accurate demonstration of virally expressed protein in specific human cells and tissues. In this study, we have adopted the endogenous retrovirus, ERV3, as our test model in developing a reliable high-capacity methodology for the expression of such endogenous retrovirus-coded protein. Design Two affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies to ERV3 Env-encoded protein were generated to detect the corresponding protein expression pattern in specific human cells, tissues and organs. Participants Sampling included normal tissues from 144 individuals ranging from childhood to old age. This included more than forty different tissues and organs and some 216 different cancer tissues representing the twenty commonest forms of human cancer. Setting The Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Main Outcome Measures The potential expression at likely physiological level of the ERV3Env encoded protein in a wide range of human cells, tissues and organs. Results We found that ERV3 encoded Env protein is expressed at substantive levels in placenta, testis, adrenal gland, corpus luteum, Fallopian tubes, sebaceous glands, astrocytes, bronchial epithelium and the ducts of the salivary glands. Substantive expression was also seen in a variety of epithelial cells as well as cells known to undergo fusion in inflammation and in normal physiology, including fused macrophages, myocardium and striated muscle. This contrasted strongly with the low levels expressed in other tissues types. These findings suggest that this virus plays a significant role in human physiology and may also play a possible role in disease. Conclusion This technique can now be extended to the study

  19. Resveratrol mobilizes endogenous copper in human peripheral lymphocytes leading to oxidative DNA breakage: a putative mechanism for chemoprevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Hadi, S M; Ullah, M F; Azmi, A S; Ahmad, A; Shamim, U; Zubair, H; Khan, H Y

    2010-06-01

    Plant polyphenols are important components of human diet, and a number of them are considered to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. They are recognized as naturally occurring anti-oxidants but also act as pro-oxidants catalyzing DNA degradation in the presence of metal ions such as copper. The plant polyphenol resveratrol confers resistance to plants against fungal agents and has been implicated as a cancer chemopreventive agent. Of particular interest is the observation that resveratrol has been found to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines but not in normal cells. Over the last few years, we have shown that resveratrol is capable of causing DNA breakage in cells such as human lymphocytes. Such cellular DNA breakage is inhibited by copper specific chelators but not by iron and zinc chelating agents. Similar results are obtained by using permeabilized cells or with isolated nuclei, indicating that chromatin-bound copper is mobilized in this reaction. It is well established that tissue, cellular and serum copper levels are considerably elevated in various malignancies. Therefore, cancer cells may be more subject to electron transfer between copper ions and resveratrol to generate reactive oxygen species responsible for DNA cleavage. The results are in support of our hypothesis that anti-cancer mechanism of plant polyphenols involves mobilization of endogenous copper and the consequent pro-oxidant action. Such a mechanism better explains the anti-cancer effects of resveratrol, as it accounts for the preferential cytotoxicity towards cancer cells.

  20. Social touch modulates endogenous μ-opioid system activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri; Dunbar, Robin; Hirvonen, Jussi; Manninen, Sandra; Arponen, Eveliina; Machin, Anna; Hari, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko

    2016-09-01

    In non-human primates, opioid-receptor blockade increases social grooming, and the endogenous opioid system has therefore been hypothesized to support maintenance of long-term relationships in humans as well. Here we tested whether social touch modulates opioidergic activation in humans using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). Eighteen male participants underwent two PET scans with [11C]carfentanil, a ligand specific to μ-opioid receptors (MOR). During the social touch scan, the participants lay in the scanner while their partners caressed their bodies in a non-sexual fashion. In the baseline scan, participants lay alone in the scanner. Social touch triggered pleasurable sensations and increased MOR availability in the thalamus, striatum, and frontal, cingulate, and insular cortices. Modulation of activity of the opioid system by social touching might provide a neurochemical mechanism reinforcing social bonds between humans.

  1. Characterization and partial nucleotide sequence of endogenous type C retrovirus segments in human chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Repaske, R; O'Neill, R R; Steele, P E; Martin, M A

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-six different murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related clones have been isolated from a human DNA library and characterized by restriction enzyme mapping and reciprocal nucleic acid hybridization reactions. The sequence of approximately 2,600 nucleotides, spanning more than 4.0 kilobases, of one of the MuLV-related cloned human DNAs was also determined. The deduced amino acid sequence permitted the alignment of this prototype cloned human DNA segment with the p12 gag, p30 gag, p10 gag, and pol regions of Moloney MuLV. A majority of the endogenous type C retrovirus-related segments present in human DNA are approximately 6.0 kilobases in size and appear to contain a deletion of env sequences. Images PMID:6298769

  2. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Lombana-Sanchez, Nelson; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain. PMID:26538838

  3. Infectious Entry Pathway Mediated by the Human Endogenous Retrovirus K Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Lindsey R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the majority of which exist as degraded remnants of ancient viruses, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. The youngest human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the HERV-K(HML-2) subgroup and were endogenized within the past 1 million years. The viral envelope protein (ENV) facilitates the earliest events of endogenization (cellular attachment and entry), and here, we characterize the requirements for HERV-K ENV to mediate infectious cell entry. Cell-cell fusion assays indicate that a minimum of two events are required for fusion, proteolytic processing by furin-like proteases and exposure to acidic pH. We generated an infectious autonomously replicating recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the glycoprotein was replaced by HERV-K ENV. HERV-K ENV imparts an endocytic entry pathway that requires dynamin-mediated membrane scission and endosomal acidification but is distinct from clathrin-dependent or macropinocytic uptake pathways. The lack of impediments to the replication of the VSV core in eukaryotic cells allowed us to broadly survey the HERV-K ENV-dictated tropism. Unlike extant betaretroviral envelopes, which impart a narrow species tropism, we found that HERV-K ENV mediates broad tropism encompassing cells from multiple mammalian and nonmammalian species. We conclude that HERV-K ENV dictates an evolutionarily conserved entry pathway and that the restriction of HERV-K to primate genomes reflects downstream stages of the viral replication cycle. IMPORTANCE Approximately 8% of the human genome is of retroviral origin. While many of those viral genomes have become inactivated, some copies of the most recently endogenized human retrovirus, HERV-K, can encode individual functional proteins. Here, we characterize the envelope protein (ENV) of the virus to define how it mediates infection of cells. We demonstrate that HERV-K ENV undergoes a proteolytic processing step and triggers membrane fusion in response to

  4. Serum Albumin Domain Structures in Human Blood Serum by Mass Spectrometry and Computational Biology*

    PubMed Central

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4′-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8Å (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 Å (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692. PMID:26385339

  5. Serum Albumin Domain Structures in Human Blood Serum by Mass Spectrometry and Computational Biology.

    PubMed

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8Å (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 Å (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692.

  6. Differences between the catalytic properties of recombinant human PC2 and endogenous rat PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Bailyes, E M; Shennan, K I; Usac, E F; Arden, S D; Guest, P C; Docherty, K; Hutton, J C

    1995-01-01

    Human prohormone convertase PC2 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and its properties were compared with those of the Type-2 endopeptidase of rat insulin secretory granules, previously identified as PC2 [Bennett, Bailyes, Nielson, Guest, Rutherford, Arden and Hutton (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 15229-15236]. Recombinant PC2 had the same substrate specificity as the Type-2 endopeptidase, cleaving at the CA-junction (Lys64, Arg65) of human des-31,32-proinsulin to generate insulin; little activity was found toward human des-64,65-proinsulin or proinsulin itself. Recombinant PC2 was maximally active in 5-7 mM Ca2+ (K0.5 = 1.6 mM) whereas the Type-2 endopeptidase was maximally active in 0.5-1 mM Ca2+ (K0.5 = 40 microM). Both enzymes had a pH optimum of 5.0-5.5 but the Type-2 endopeptidase was active over a wider pH range. Two molecular forms of recombinant PC2 (71 kDa and 68 kDa) were found, both had an intact C-terminus but differed by the presence of the propeptide. The endogenous PC2 comprised several overlapping forms (size range 64-68 kDa), approximately two-thirds of which lacked C-terminal immunoreactivity. Part of the size difference between recombinant and endogenous PC2 was attributable to differences in N-glycosylation. The different post-translational proteolytic modifications of recombinant and endogenous PC2 did not account for the different pH and Ca2+ sensitivities shown by the enzymes. A modulating effect of carbohydrate on enzyme activity could not be excluded. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7626024

  7. Evidence for the persistence of an active endogenous retrovirus (ERVE) in humans.

    PubMed

    Naveira, Horacio; Bello, Xabier; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Maside, Xulio

    2014-10-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for nearly half (44 %) of the human genome. However, their overall activity has been steadily declining over the past 35-50 million years, so that <0.05 % of TEs are presumably still "alive" (potentially transposable) in human populations. All the active elements are retrotransposons, either autonomous (LINE-1 and possibly the endogenous retrovirus ERVK), or non-autonomous (Alu and SVA, whose transposition is dependent on the LINE-1 enzymatic machinery). Here we show that a lineage of the endogenous retrovirus ERVE was recently engaged in ectopic recombination events and may have at least one potentially fully functional representative, initially reported as a novel retrovirus isolated from blood cells of a Chinese patient with chronic myeloid leukemia, which bears signals of positive selection on its envelope region. Altogether, there is strong evidence that ERVE should be included in the short list of potentially active TEs, and we give clues on how to identify human specific insertions of this element that are likely to be segregating in some of our populations.

  8. Regulation of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus K (HML-2) Transcriptome by the HIV-1 Tat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Cavalcoli, James D.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Meng, Fan; Dai, Manhong; Dube, Derek; Saha, Anjan K.; Gitlin, Scott D.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Kaplan, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Approximately 8% of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviral sequences. As the HIV-1 Tat protein activates the overall expression of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) (HML-2), we used next-generation sequencing to determine which of the 91 currently annotated HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses are regulated by Tat. Transcriptome sequencing of total RNA isolated from Tat- and vehicle-treated peripheral blood lymphocytes from a healthy donor showed that Tat significantly activates expression of 26 unique HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses, silences 12, and does not significantly alter the expression of the remaining proviruses. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR validation of the sequencing data was performed on Tat-treated PBLs of seven donors using provirus-specific primers and corroborated the results with a substantial degree of quantitative similarity. IMPORTANCE The expression of HERV-K (HML-2) is tightly regulated but becomes markedly increased following infection with HIV-1, in part due to the HIV-1 Tat protein. The findings reported here demonstrate the complexity of the genome-wide regulation of HERV-K (HML-2) expression by Tat. This work also demonstrates that although HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses in the human genome are highly similar in terms of DNA sequence, modulation of the expression of specific proviruses in a given biological situation can be ascertained using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. PMID:24872592

  9. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  10. Detection and quantification of ATP in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Ali; Caglayan, Mehmet Gokhan; Polivina, Irina; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2016-08-21

    Two fluorometric sensors based on the tri-serine tri-lactone scaffold and thiourea or sulfonamide moieties serving as hydrogen bond donors allowing for anion binding are described. The sensor utilizing thiourea as a recognition moiety shows fluorescence enhancement while the sensor with sulfonamide shows quenching upon addition of phosphates. Sensor arrays composed of two sensors are able to discriminate structurally similar organic phosphates in the presence of interferents in human blood serum. The quantitative analysis of ATP in human blood serum shows high accuracy (the root mean square error of prediction, 1.65%) without requiring any sample pretreatment. PMID:27454442

  11. Utility of next-generation RNA-sequencing in identifying chimeric transcription involving human endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Martin; Jessen, Karen Margrethe; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that human endogenous retroviruses and endogenous retrovirus-like repeats (here collectively HERVs) impose direct regulation on human genes through enhancer and promoter motifs present in their long terminal repeats (LTRs). Although chimeric transcription in which novel gene isoforms containing retroviral and human sequence are transcribed from viral promoters are commonly associated with disease, regulation by HERVs is beneficial in other settings; for example, in human testis chimeric isoforms of TP63 induced by an ERV9 LTR protect the male germ line upon DNA damage by inducing apoptosis, whereas in the human globin locus the γ- and β-globin switch during normal hematopoiesis is mediated by complex interactions of an ERV9 LTR and surrounding human sequence. The advent of deep sequencing or next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the way researchers solve important scientific questions and develop novel hypotheses in relation to human genome regulation. We recently applied next-generation paired-end RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) together with chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing (ChIP-seq) to examine ERV9 chimeric transcription in human reference cell lines from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). This led to the discovery of advanced regulation mechanisms by ERV9s and other HERVs across numerous human loci including transcription of large gene-unannotated genomic regions, as well as cooperative regulation by multiple HERVs and non-LTR repeats such as Alu elements. In this article, well-established examples of human gene regulation by HERVs are reviewed followed by a description of paired-end RNA-seq, and its application in identifying chimeric transcription genome-widely. Based on integrative analyses of RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, data we then present novel examples of regulation by ERV9s of tumor suppressor genes CADM2 and SEMA3A, as well as transcription of an unannotated region. Taken together, this article highlights

  12. [Detection of autoantibodies to polymerized human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Manns, M; Müller, M; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1984-11-01

    Binding activity of antibodies against polymerized human serum albumin (pHSA) was measured in the serum of 348 patients with various hepatic and non-hepatic diseases and in the serum of 108 control persons. The methods used were passive hemagglutination (PH) with antigen loaded human erythrocytes and radial immunodiffusion (ID). In the PH-method only HBsAg-positive sera reacted. Blocking experiments with pHSA, polymerized bovine serum albumin (pBSA) and monomeric human serum albumin (mHSA) showed, that the PH-method measures HBsAG associated receptors for pHSA. In HBeAG-positive cases titers were significantly higher than in anti-HBe-positive sera. Using the ID-method it could be shown, that 40% of sera of patients with liver diseases (n = 272), 37% of patients with LED (n = 27), 72% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 32), 6% of patients with glomerulonephritis (n = 17) and 2% of normal persons (n = 108) reacted. These sera reacted in the immunodiffusion assay with pHSA and pBSA but not with mHSA. Autoantibodies against non species specific determinants of pHSA which are not specific for liver diseases and possibly due to disturbed immunoregulation can be demonstrated by immunodiffusion. They may possibly be modulators of the pHSA mediated binding of hepatitis B-virus to hepatocytes.

  13. Immunoradiometric assay for human serum amyloid P component.

    PubMed

    Millar, David J; Hutchinson, Winston L; Pepys, Mark B

    2011-08-31

    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) is of increasing interest for its possible pathogenic role in amyloidosis and Alzheimer's disease, and as a therapeutic target in these conditions. We have developed and validated a robust and reproducible immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human SAP in serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, and characterized the notable stability of human SAP immunoreactivity during storage of undiluted serum at 4°C and 37°C as well as frozen at -30°C. SAP values were also stable after repeated freeze thawing of highly diluted serum samples. The 100 fold dynamic range of the assay, 0.5-50 μg/L, encompassed all values seen in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, when tested at suitable dilutions, from both normal healthy individuals and patients, including subjects receiving the SAP-depleting drug, CPHPC. Furthermore by comparing the IRMA values in the presence and absence of calcium, the new assay revealed interference due to the binding of CPHPC by SAP, which was markedly enhanced in heparinized plasma. It is therefore essential that SAP assays in samples from patients on CPHPC be conducted in the absence of free calcium, in order to completely abrogate interference and determine the actual total SAP concentration. Estimates by the IRMA of SAP concentration in 49 serum samples from amyloidosis patients corresponded closely with those obtained by the established standard electro-immunoassay method and by a newly developed commercial ELISA kit (Hycult Biotechnology).

  14. Identification of Active Loci of a Human Endogenous Retrovirus in Neurons of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Douville, Renée; Liu, Jiankai; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Nath, Avindra

    2010-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons, of unknown etiology. Previous studies showed reverse transcriptase in serum of ALS patients at levels comparable to HIV-infected patients; however, the source and significance of the retroviral elements is uncertain. Methods Expression of a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K), was determined in autopsy brain tissue of patients with ALS and compared to control populations, by real time polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing of the amplified genes and confirmed by immunostaining. Results HERV-K pol transcripts were increased in patients with ALS compared to those with chronic systemic illness, but could not be detected in Parkinson’s disease or in the accidental death controls. Sequencing revealed several actively transcribed loci in the HML-2 and 3 subfamilies of HERV-K, with a specific pattern of expression including intact open reading frames and the transcription of a unique locus in ALS. The frequency of intact pol transcripts was highest in the motor cortex and the reverse transcriptase protein was localized to cortical neurons of ALS patients. HERV-K expression strongly correlated with TDP-43, a multi-functional protein known to be dysregulated in ALS. Interpretation We have identified a specific pattern of HERV-K expression in ALS, which may potentially define the pathophysiology of ALS. Targeting of activated genome-encoded retroviral elements may open new prospects for the treatment of ALS. PMID:21280084

  15. Determination of drug levels in human serum by circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Gortázar, P; Roën, A; Vázquez, J T

    1998-01-01

    A study of the applicability of circular dichroism (CD) for the determination of drug levels in human serum is described and a new method for the quantitative determination of optically active absorbing drugs having Cotton effects at wavelengths about 250 nm in human serum and/or plasma is proposed. The principal advantages of this method are speed, economy, and simplicity, no derivatization or chromatographic separation steps being needed. The validity of the CD determination was confirmed by analysis of variance, beta-lactam antibiotics being chosen as model drugs. In addition, the validation studies performed confirm the accuracy and precision of the proposed method. For beta-lactam antibiotics lacking Cotton effects above 250 nm, an alternative method based on the extraction of the drug from serum is considered.

  16. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inhibits proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Dai, Cai-Feng; Patankar, Manish S; Song, Jia-Sheng; Zheng, Jing

    2013-10-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor mediates many biological processes. Herein, we investigated if 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE, an endogenous AhR ligand) regulated proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells via AhR. We found that AhR was widely present in many histotypes of ovarian cancer tissues. ITE suppressed OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and SKOV-3 cell migration in vitro, which were blocked by AhR knockdown. ITE also suppressed OVCAR-3 cell growth in mice. These data suggest that the ITE might potentially be used for therapeutic intervention for at least a subset of human ovarian cancer.

  17. Posttranslational processing of endogenous and of baculovirus-expressed human gastrin-releasing peptide precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Lebacq-Verheyden, A M; Kasprzyk, P G; Raum, M G; Van Wyke Coelingh, K; Lebacq, J A; Battey, J F

    1988-01-01

    The 27-amino-acid gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP1-27) is a neuropeptide and growth factor that is synthesized by various neural and neuroendocrine cells. The major pro-GRP hormone (isoform I) contains both GRP1-27 and a novel C-terminal extension peptide termed pro-GRP31-125. In order to define potentially active neuropeptides that could be generated from this novel protein domain, we analyzed the posttranslational processing of endogenous human pro-GRP1-125 in a small-cell lung cancer cell line. Because such studies are much easier in an overexpression system, we investigated at the same time the posttranslational processing of baculovirus-expressed human pro-GRP1-125 in an insect ovary cell line. In the small-cell lung cancer cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved as expected from the endogenous prohormone at a pair of basic amino acids (29 and 30) and alpha-amidated at its C-terminal methionine; however, a number of novel peptides were generated by additional cleavages in the pro-GRP31-125 domain. In the insect ovary cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved from the expressed prohormone by a different mechanism, as were a number of other peptides that appeared to be similar in size to those produced by the human neuroendocrine tumor cell line. These data show for the first time that an insect ovary cell line that is widely used to overexpress proteins can process a human neuropeptide precursor. They also reveal the existence of novel pro-GRP-derived peptides that are candidates for biologically active ligands. Images PMID:3211139

  18. Agglutinating serum for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus of human biotype.

    PubMed

    Live, I

    1975-08-01

    Antiserum to Staphylococcus aureus strain 17 was treated with S. aureus strain 61218 until the antibodies against thermostable agglutinogen were removed. The absorbed serum agglutinated phage-typable as well as phageuntypable staphylococci of human biotype, whether recovered from people or from dogs. PMID:125241

  19. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion.

  20. Differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into Schwann-like cells: fetal bovine serum or human serum?

    PubMed Central

    Younesi, Elham; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Azandeh, Seyyed Saeed; Bijannejad, Dariush; Bahreini, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Access to autologous Schwann cells is limited due to lack of donor site and its difficult isolation and culture. Therefore, one of the possible ways to obtain to Schwann cells is to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into glial pathway using various materials and protocols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fetal bovine serum and human serum on Schwann cell differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells to choose the best serum for use in future research. For this purpose, after isolation of human adipose-derived stem cells, it was characterized and differentiated into Schwann cell lineage using two protocols which one of them contained fetal bovine serum and the other human serum. At the end, morphological evaluation declared an increased detachment of cells in response to human serum. On the other side, immunocytochemistry showed that there was a significant increase in the number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic proteins and S100 in fetal bovine serum-treated group when compared to human serum-treated one (P<0.05). It was concluded that fetal bovine serum was more effective than allogeneic human serum in Schwann cell differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. PMID:26417476

  1. Probing Cocaine-Antibody Interactions in Buffer and Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Muthu; Alves De Melo, Fernando; Kinsey, Berma M.; Ladbury, John E.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Orson, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite progress in cocaine immunotherapy, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of antibodies which bind to cocaine and its metabolites are not well understood. It is also not clear how the interactions between them differ in a complex matrix such as the serum present in the human body. In the present study, we have used microscale thermophoresis (MST), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) we have evaluated the affinity properties of a representative mouse monoclonal (mAb08) as well as those of polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mouse and human patient serum. Results MST analysis of fluorescently tagged mAb08 binding to cocaine reveals an approximately 15 fold decrease in its equilibrium dissociation constant in 20–50% human serum compared with that in saline buffer. A similar trend was also found using enriched polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mice and patient serum, for which we have used fluorescently tagged bovine serum albumin conjugated to succinyl norcocaine (BSA-SNC). This conjugate closely mimics both cocaine and the hapten used to raise these antibodies. The ITC data also revealed that cocaine has a moderate affinity of about 2 µM to 20% human serum and very little interaction with human serum albumin or nonspecific human IgG at that concentration range. In a SPR inhibition experiment, the binding of mAb08 to immobilized BSA-SNC was inhibited by cocaine and benzoylecgonine in a highly competitive manner, whereas the purified polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated humans and mice, revealed preferential selectivity to pharmacologically active cocaine but not to the inactive metabolite benzoylecgonine. We have also developed a simple binding model to simulate the challenges associated with cocaine immunotherapy using the variable quantitative and kinetic properties of the antibodies. Conclusions High sensitivity calorimetric determination of antibody binding to cocaine and its

  2. Targeted quantification of low ng/mL level proteins in human serum without immunoaffinity depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Sun, Xuefei; Gao, Yuqian; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhao, Rui; He, Jintang; Moore, Ronald J.; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Liu, Alvin Y.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-07-05

    We recently reported an antibody-free targeted protein quantification strategy, termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM) for achieving significantly enhanced sensitivity using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Integrating PRISM with front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion, sensitive detection of targeted proteins at 50-100 pg/mL levels in human blood plasma/serum was demonstrated. However, immunoaffinity depletion is often associated with undesired losses of target proteins of interest. Herein we report further evaluation of PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance serum proteins without immunoaffinity depletion and the multiplexing potential of this technique. Limits of quantification (LOQs) at low ng/mL levels with a median CV of ~12% were achieved for proteins spiked into human female serum using as little as 2 µL serum. PRISM-SRM provided up to ~1000-fold improvement in the LOQ when compared to conventional SRM measurements. Multiplexing capability of PRISM-SRM was also evaluated by two sets of serum samples with 6 and 21 target peptides spiked at the low attomole/µL levels. The results from SRM measurements for pooled or post-concatenated samples were comparable to those obtained from individual peptide fractions in terms of signal-to-noise ratios and SRM peak area ratios of light to heavy peptides. PRISM-SRM was applied to measure several ng/mL-level endogenous plasma proteins, including prostate-specific antigen, in clinical patient sera where correlation coefficients > 0.99 were observed between the results from PRISM-SRM and ELISA assays. Our results demonstrate that PRISM-SRM can be successfully used for quantification of low-abundance endogenous proteins in highly complex samples. Moderate throughput (50 samples/week) can be achieved by applying the post-concatenation or fraction multiplexing strategies. We anticipate broad applications for targeted PRISM

  3. Clinical breath analysis: Discriminating between human endogenous compounds and exogenous (environmental) chemical confounders

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath originate from current or previous environmental exposures (exogenous compounds) and internal metabolic anabolic and catabolic) production (endogenous compounds). The origins of certain VOCs in breath presumed to be endogenous ...

  4. Multisite Promiscuity in the Processing of Endogenous Substrates By Human Carboxylesterase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bencharit, S.; Edwards, C.C.; Morton, C.L.; Howard-Williams, E.L.; Kuhn, P.; Potter, P.M.; Redinbo, M.R.; /North Carolina U. /St. Jude Children's Hosp., Memphis /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-16

    Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a drug and endobiotic-processing serine hydrolase that exhibits relatively broad substrate specificity. It has been implicated in a variety of endogenous cholesterol metabolism pathways including the following apparently disparate reactions: cholesterol ester hydrolysis (CEH), fatty acyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis (FACoAH), acyl-Coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransfer (ACAT), and fatty acyl ethyl ester synthesis (FAEES). The structural basis for the ability of hCE1 to perform these catalytic actions involving large substrates and products has remained unclear. Here we present four crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complexes with the following endogenous substrates or substrate analogues: Coenzyme A, the fatty acid palmitate, and the bile acids cholate and taurocholate. While the active site of hCE1 was known to be promiscuous and capable of interacting with a variety of chemically distinct ligands, these structures reveal that the enzyme contains two additional ligand-binding sites and that each site also exhibits relatively non-specific ligand-binding properties. Using this multisite promiscuity, hCE1 appears structurally capable of assembling several catalytic events depending, apparently, on the physiological state of the cellular environment. These results expand our understanding of enzyme promiscuity and indicate that, in the case of hCE1, multiple non-specific sites are employed to perform distinct catalytic actions.

  5. The human endogenous retrovirus K Rev response element coincides with a predicted RNA folding region.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J; Bogerd, H; Le, S Y; Cullen, B R

    2000-01-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is the name given to an approximately 30-million-year-old family of endogenous retroviruses present at >50 copies per haploid human genome. Previously, the HERV-K were shown to encode a nuclear RNA export factor, termed K-Rev, that is the functional equivalent of the H-Rev protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. HERV-K was also shown to contain a cis-acting target element, the HERV-K Rev response element (K-RRE), that allowed the nuclear export of linked RNA transcripts in the presence of either K-Rev or H-Rev. Here, we demonstrate that the functionally defined K-RRE coincides with a statistically highly significant unusual RNA folding region and present a potential RNA secondary structure for the approximately 416-nt K-RRE. Both in vitro and in vivo assays of sequence specific RNA binding were used to map two primary binding sites for K-Rev, and one primary binding site for H-Rev, within the K-RRE. Of note, all three binding sites map to discrete predicted RNA stem-loop subdomains within the larger K-RRE structure. Although almost the entire 416-nt K-RRE was required for the activation of nuclear RNA export in cells expressing K-Rev, mutational inactivation of the binding sites for K-Rev resulted in the selective loss of the K-RRE response to K-Rev but not to H-Rev. Together, these data strongly suggest that the K-RRE, like the H-RRE, coincides with an extensive RNA secondary structure and identify specific sites within the K-RRE that can recruit either K-Rev or H-Rev to HERV-K RNA transcripts. PMID:11105755

  6. Expression and Pharmacology of Endogenous Cav Channels in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Silmara R.; Vetter, Irina; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells provide a useful in vitro model to study the mechanisms underlying neurotransmission and nociception. These cells are derived from human sympathetic neuronal tissue and thus, express a number of the Cav channel subtypes essential for regulation of important physiological functions, such as heart contraction and nociception, including the clinically validated pain target Cav2.2. We have detected mRNA transcripts for a range of endogenous expressed subtypes Cav1.3, Cav2.2 (including two Cav1.3, and three Cav2.2 splice variant isoforms) and Cav3.1 in SH-SY5Y cells; as well as Cav auxiliary subunits α2δ1–3, β1, β3, β4, γ1, γ4–5, and γ7. Both high- and low-voltage activated Cav channels generated calcium signals in SH-SY5Y cells. Pharmacological characterisation using ω-conotoxins CVID and MVIIA revealed significantly (∼ 10-fold) higher affinity at human versus rat Cav2.2, while GVIA, which interacts with Cav2.2 through a distinct pharmacophore had similar affinity for both species. CVID, GVIA and MVIIA affinity was higher for SH-SY5Y membranes vs whole cells in the binding assays and functional assays, suggesting auxiliary subunits expressed endogenously in native systems can strongly influence Cav2.2 channels pharmacology. These results may have implications for strategies used to identify therapeutic leads at Cav2.2 channels. PMID:23536870

  7. Automated conductimetric assay of human serum cholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Duffy, P; Wallach, J M

    1989-01-01

    Serum cholinesterase activity was determined by conductimetry using samples in the microliter range. Butyrylcholine iodide was demonstrated to be a convenient substrate for the conductimetric assay. Validation of the microassay was made by using either purified enzyme or control serum. In the range of 0-60 U/l, a linear relationship was demonstrated. Correlation with a reference spectrophotometric method was obtained with a slope of 1.18. An explanation of this value is proposed, as different hydrolysis rates were obtained with human sera, depending on the substrate used (butyrylthio- or butyryl-choline ester).

  8. Determination of pindolol in human serum by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chmielowiec, D; Schuster, D; Gengo, F

    1991-01-01

    A method for determining pindolol from human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is presented. Pindolol is extracted into methylene chloride from 1 mL of alkalinized serum with a recovery of 87%. The organic layer is evaporated and the residue is reconstituted in mobile phase for injection into the column. Samples are eluted from a 5-micron C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm) with acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% triethylamine, pH adjusted to 3.5 with phosphoric acid (20:80 v/v). Samples as low as 2 ng/mL have been detected.

  9. Foetal bovine serum-derived exosomes affect yield and phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Francesco; Ionta, Vittoria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Miraldi, Fabio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a powerful tool in cardiac regenerative medicine. Pre-clinical studies suggest that most of the beneficial effects promoted by the injected cells are due to their paracrine activity exerted on endogenous cells and tissue. Exosomes are candidate mediators of this paracrine effects. According to their potential, many researchers have focused on characterizing exosomes derived from specific cell types, but, up until now, only few studies have analyzed the possible in vitro effects of bovine serum-derived exosomes on cell proliferation or differentiation. Methods: The aim of this study was to analyse, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, the in vitro effects of bovine serum exosomes on human CPCs cultured either as cardiospheres or as monolayers of cardiosphere-forming cells. Results: Effects on proliferation, yield and molecular patterning were detected. We show, for the first time, that exogenous bovine exosomes support the proliferation and migration of human cardiosphere-forming cells, and that their depletion affects cardiospheres formation, in terms of size, yield and extra-cellular matrix production. Conclusion: These results stress the importance of considering differential biological effects of exogenous cell culture supplements on the final phenotype of primary human cell cultures. PMID:27340620

  10. Autoimmune anti-androgen-receptor antibodies in human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, S; Witte, D

    1985-01-01

    Circulating autoantibodies to human and rat androgen receptors are present at high titers in the blood sera of some patients with prostate diseases. The antibodies from some serum samples were associated with a purified IgG fraction and interacted with the 3.8S cytosolic androgen-receptor complexes of rat ventral prostate to form 9- to 12S units. Other serum samples, however, formed 14- to 19S units, suggesting that other immunoglobulins might be involved. In the presence of an anti-human immunoglobulin as a second antibody, the androgen-receptor-antibody complexes could be immunoprecipitated. The antibodies interacted with the nuclear and the cytosolic androgen-receptor complexes, either the DNA-binding or the nonbinding form, but not with receptors for estradiol, progestin, or dexamethasone from a variety of sources. Human testosterone/estradiol-binding globulin, rat epididymal androgen-binding protein, or rat prostate alpha-protein (a nonreceptor steroid-binding protein) also did not interact with the antibodies to form immunoprecipitates. About 37% of male and 3% of female serum samples screened had significant antibody titer. The chance of finding serum with a high titer is much better in males older than 66 years than in the younger males or females at all ages. The presence of the high-titer antibodies may make it possible to prepare monoclonal antibodies to androgen receptors without purification of the receptors for immunization. PMID:3866227

  11. Human endogenous retrovirus-K(II) envelope induction protects neurons during HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rakesh K; Rudnick, Wallis; Antony, Joseph M; Maingat, Ferdinand; Ellestad, Kristofor K; Wheatley, Blaise M; Tönjes, Ralf R; Power, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are differentially expressed depending on the cell type and physiological circumstances. HERV-K has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases although the functional consequences of its expression remain unknown. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes neuroinflammation with neuronal damage and death. Herein, we investigated HERV-K(II)/(HML-2) envelope (Env) expression and its actions in the brain during HIV/AIDS. HERV-K(II) Env expression was assessed in healthy brain tissues, autopsied HIV HIV- infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) brains and in neural cell cultures by real time RT-PCR, massively parallel (deep) sequencing, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Neuronal and neural stem cells expressing HERV-K(II) Env were analyzed in assays of host responses including cellular viability, immune responses and neurobehavioral outcomes. Deep sequencing of human brain transcriptomes disclosed that RNA sequences encoded by HERV-K were among the most abundant HERV sequences detected in human brain. Comparison of different cell types revealed that HERV-K(II) env RNA abundance was highest in cultured human neurons but was suppressed by epidermal growth factor exposure. HERV-K(II) Env immunoreactivity was increased in the cerebral cortex from persons with HIV/AIDS, principally localized in neurons. Human neuronal cells transfected with HERV-K(II) Env exhibited increased NGF and BDNF expression. Expression of HERV-K(II) Env in neuronal cells increased cellular viability and prevented neurotoxicity mediated by HIV-1 Vpr. Intracerebral delivery of HERV-K(II) Env expressed by neural stem cells suppressed TNF-α expression and microglial activation while also improving neurobehavioral deficits in vpr/RAG1-/- mice. HERV-K(II) Env was highly expressed in human neurons, especially during HIV/AIDS, but in addition exerted neuroprotective effects. These findings imply that HERV gene products might exert adaptive

  12. Impact of Catheter Arteriography on the Serum Level of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, an Endogenous Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Bozlar, Ugur Ugurel, Mehmet Sahin; Ozcan, Omer; Cakir, Erdinc; Ustunsoz, Bahri; Ucoz, Taner; Bilgi, Cumhur; Somuncu, Ibrahim

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the instantaneous impact of catheter arteriography on blood asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in accordance with patient- and procedure-related variables. Sixty-eight patients (16 women, 52 men; mean age, 45.6 {+-} 20.1 years; range, 20-79 years) referred for cerebral or peripheral catheter arteriography were recruited for the study. Pre- and postarteriography arterial blood ADMA levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. Type of nonionic iodinated contrast media used, duration of procedure, patient gender, and patient age were noted and evaluated as possible factors that could influence serum ADMA levels in arteriography procedures. Prearteriography ADMA levels decreased significantly after arteriography in general (pre, 1.16 {+-} 0.96 {mu}mol/L; post, 1.08 {+-} 0.80 {mu}mol/L; p = 0.002). Males tended to have lower postarteriography serum ADMA levels (p = 0.005). Serum ADMA levels tended to get lower after peripheral arteriography procedures (p = 0.005) and when iohexol, 350 mg I/ml, was used as the contrast agent (p = 0.017). In conclusion, ADMA level does not seem to be subject to acute elevation after catheter arteriography; on the contrary, its level may decrease in general. Moreover, a reduction in serum ADMA level may be expected, especially in male patients, in patients who undergo a peripheral arteriography procedure, or when iohexol, 350 mg I/ml, is used as the contrast agent.

  13. The HERV-K Human Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope Protein Antagonizes Tetherin Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Cécile; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endogenous retroviruses are the remnants of past retroviral infections that are scattered within mammalian genomes. In humans, most of these elements are old degenerate sequences that have lost their coding properties. The HERV-K(HML2) family is an exception: it recently amplified in the human genome and corresponds to the most active proviruses, with some intact open reading frames and the potential to encode viral particles. Here, using a reconstructed consensus element, we show that HERV-K(HML2) proviruses are able to inhibit Tetherin, a cellular restriction factor that is active against most enveloped viruses and acts by keeping the viral particles attached to the cell surface. More precisely, we identify the Envelope protein (Env) as the viral effector active against Tetherin. Through immunoprecipitation experiments, we show that the recognition of Tetherin is mediated by the surface subunit of Env. Similar to Ebola glycoprotein, HERV-K(HML2) Env does not mediate Tetherin degradation or cell surface removal; therefore, it uses a yet-undescribed mechanism to inactivate Tetherin. We also assessed all natural complete alleles of endogenous HERV-K(HML2) Env described to date for their ability to inhibit Tetherin and found that two of them (out of six) can block Tetherin restriction. However, due to their recent amplification, HERV-K(HML2) elements are extremely polymorphic in the human population, and it is likely that individuals will not all possess the same anti-Tetherin potential. Because of Tetherin's role as a restriction factor capable of inducing innate immune responses, this could have functional consequences for individual responses to infection. IMPORTANCE Tetherin, a cellular protein initially characterized for its role against HIV-1, has been proven to counteract numerous enveloped viruses. It blocks the release of viral particles from producer cells, keeping them tethered to the cell surface. Several viruses have developed strategies to

  14. Regulation of endogenous human gene expression by ligand-inducible TALE transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Andrew C; Gaj, Thomas; Sirk, Shannon J; Lamb, Brian M; Barbas, Carlos F

    2014-10-17

    The construction of increasingly sophisticated synthetic biological circuits is dependent on the development of extensible tools capable of providing specific control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic transcription factors that activate gene expression in response to extracellular chemical stimuli. These inducible activators consist of customizable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins combined with steroid hormone receptor ligand-binding domains. We demonstrate that these ligand-responsive TALE transcription factors allow for tunable and conditional control of gene activation and can be used to regulate the expression of endogenous genes in human cells. Since TALEs can be designed to recognize any contiguous DNA sequence, the conditional gene regulatory system described herein will enable the design of advanced synthetic gene networks.

  15. Lipid-Conjugation of Endogenous Neuropeptides: Improved Biotherapy against Human Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Lepetre, Sinda; Maksimenko, Andrei; Mura, Simona; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptides are small neuronal signaling molecules that act as neuromodulators for a variety of neural functions including analgesia, reproduction, social behavior, learning, and memory. One of the endogenous neuropeptides-Met-Enkephalin (Met-Enk), has been shown to display an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, a novel lipid-modification approach is shown to create a small library of neuropeptides that will allow increased bioavailability and plasma stability after systemic administration. It is demonstrated, on an experimental model of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, that lipid conjugation of Met-Enk enhances its tumor suppression efficacy compared to its nonlipidated counterparts, both in vitro and in vivo. More strikingly, the in vivo studies show that a combination therapy with a reduced concentration of Gemcitabine has suppressed the tumor growth considerably even three weeks after the last treatment.

  16. Are human endogenous retroviruses pathogenic? An approach to testing the hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Young, George R; Stoye, Jonathan P; Kassiotis, George

    2013-01-01

    A number of observations have led researchers to postulate that, despite being replication-defective, human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) may have retained the potential to cause or contribute to disease. However, mechanisms of HERV pathogenicity might differ substantially from those of modern infectious retroviruses or of the infectious precursors of HERVs. Therefore, novel pathways of HERV involvement in disease pathogenesis should be investigated. Recent technological advances in sequencing and bioinformatics are making this task increasingly feasible. The accumulating knowledge of HERV biology may also facilitate the definition and general acceptance of criteria that establish HERV pathogenicity. Here, we explore possible mechanisms whereby HERVs may cause disease and examine the evidence that either has been or should be obtained in order to decisively address the pathogenic potential of HERVs. PMID:23864388

  17. Purification of proteins specifically binding human endogenous retrovirus K long terminal repeat by affinity elution chromatography.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, D O; Zavalova, L L; Akopov, S B; Nikolaev, L G

    2002-11-01

    A novel affinity elution procedure for purification of DNA-binding proteins was developed and employed to purify to near homogeneity the proteins recognizing a 21 base pair sequence within the long terminal repeat of human endogenous retroviruses K. The approach involves loading the initial protein mixture on a heparin-agarose column and elution of protein(s) of interest with a solution of double-stranded oligonucleotide containing binding sites of the protein(s). The affinity elution has several advantages over conventional DNA-affinity chromatography: (i) it is easier and faster, permitting to isolate proteins in a 1 day-one stage procedure; (ii) yield of a target protein is severalfold higher than that in DNA-affinity chromatography; (iii) it is not necessary to prepare a special affinity support for each factor to be isolated. Theaffinity elution could be a useful alternative to conventional DNA-affinity chromatography.

  18. Transcriptional activity of human endogenous retrovirus in Albanian children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Balestrieri, Emanuela; Cipriani, Chiara; Matteucci, Claudia; Capodicasa, Natale; Pilika, Anita; Korca, Ina; Sorrentino, Roberta; Argaw-Denboba, Ayele; Bucci, Ilaria; Miele, Martino Tony; Coniglio, Antonella; Alessandrelli, Riccardo; Sinibaldi Vallebona, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors, whose possible links could be represented by epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we investigated the transcriptional activity of three human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Albanian ASD children, by quantitative real-time PCR. We aimed to confirm the different expression profile already found in Italian ASD children, and to highlight any social and family health condition emerging from information gathered through a questionnaire, to be included among environmental risk factors. The presence of increased HERV-H transcriptional activity in all autistic patients could be understood as a constant epigenetic imprinting of the disease, potentially useful for early diagnosis and for the development of effective novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27602423

  19. Lipid-Conjugation of Endogenous Neuropeptides: Improved Biotherapy against Human Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Lepetre, Sinda; Maksimenko, Andrei; Mura, Simona; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides are small neuronal signaling molecules that act as neuromodulators for a variety of neural functions including analgesia, reproduction, social behavior, learning, and memory. One of the endogenous neuropeptides—Met-Enkephalin (Met-Enk), has been shown to display an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, a novel lipid-modification approach is shown to create a small library of neuropeptides that will allow increased bioavailability and plasma stability after systemic administration. It is demonstrated, on an experimental model of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, that lipid conjugation of Met-Enk enhances its tumor suppression efficacy compared to its nonlipidated counterparts, both in vitro and in vivo. More strikingly, the in vivo studies show that a combination therapy with a reduced concentration of Gemcitabine has suppressed the tumor growth considerably even three weeks after the last treatment. PMID:25694262

  20. New bioinformatic tool for quick identification of functionally relevant endogenous retroviral inserts in human genome.

    PubMed

    Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Suntsova, Maria; Malakhova, Galina; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and LTR retrotransposons (LRs) occupy ∼8% of human genome. Deep sequencing technologies provide clues to understanding of functional relevance of individual ERVs/LRs by enabling direct identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and other landmarks of functional genomic elements. Here, we performed the genome-wide identification of human ERVs/LRs containing TFBS according to the ENCODE project. We created the first interactive ERV/LRs database that groups the individual inserts according to their familial nomenclature, number of mapped TFBS and divergence from their consensus sequence. Information on any particular element can be easily extracted by the user. We also created a genome browser tool, which enables quick mapping of any ERV/LR insert according to genomic coordinates, known human genes and TFBS. These tools can be used to easily explore functionally relevant individual ERV/LRs, and for studying their impact on the regulation of human genes. Overall, we identified ∼110,000 ERV/LR genomic elements having TFBS. We propose a hypothesis of "domestication" of ERV/LR TFBS by the genome milieu including subsequent stages of initial epigenetic repression, partial functional release, and further mutation-driven reshaping of TFBS in tight coevolution with the enclosing genomic loci.

  1. New bioinformatic tool for quick identification of functionally relevant endogenous retroviral inserts in human genome

    PubMed Central

    Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Suntsova, Maria; Malakhova, Galina; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and LTR retrotransposons (LRs) occupy ∼8% of human genome. Deep sequencing technologies provide clues to understanding of functional relevance of individual ERVs/LRs by enabling direct identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and other landmarks of functional genomic elements. Here, we performed the genome-wide identification of human ERVs/LRs containing TFBS according to the ENCODE project. We created the first interactive ERV/LRs database that groups the individual inserts according to their familial nomenclature, number of mapped TFBS and divergence from their consensus sequence. Information on any particular element can be easily extracted by the user. We also created a genome browser tool, which enables quick mapping of any ERV/LR insert according to genomic coordinates, known human genes and TFBS. These tools can be used to easily explore functionally relevant individual ERV/LRs, and for studying their impact on the regulation of human genes. Overall, we identified ∼110,000 ERV/LR genomic elements having TFBS. We propose a hypothesis of “domestication” of ERV/LR TFBS by the genome milieu including subsequent stages of initial epigenetic repression, partial functional release, and further mutation-driven reshaping of TFBS in tight coevolution with the enclosing genomic loci. PMID:25853282

  2. Analysis of endogenous aldehydes in human urine by static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2016-03-11

    Endogenous aldehydes (EAs) generated during oxidative stress and cell processes are associated with many pathogenic and toxicogenic processes. The aim of this research was to develop a solvent-free and automated analytical method for the determination of EAs in human urine using a static headspace generator sampler coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Twelve significant EAs used as markers of different biochemical and physiological processes, namely short- and medium-chain alkanals, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyl aldehydes have been selected as target analytes. Human urine samples (no dilution is required) were derivatized with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine in alkaline medium (hydrogen carbonate-carbonate buffer, pH 10.3). The HS-GC-MS method developed renders an efficient tool for the sensitive and precise determination of EAs in human urine with limits of detection from 1 to 15ng/L and relative standard deviations, (RSDs) from 6.0 to 7.9%. Average recoveries by enriching urine samples ranged between 92 and 95%. Aldehydes were readily determined at 0.005-50μg/L levels in human urine from healthy subjects, smokers and diabetic adults.

  3. Capillary ion electrophoresis of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine.

    PubMed

    Ferslew, K E; Hagardorn, A N; Robert, T A

    2001-05-01

    Normal human urine contains many anions and cations. Ionic concentrations in urine have classically been determined by spectrophotometry of color reactions, flame emission spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, or potentiometry with ion-specific electrodes. Capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE) is a form of capillary electrophoresis which uses the differential electrophoretic mobility of ions to perform a separation of an ionic mixture. Various salts can be added to urine specimens to abnormally elevate ionic concentrations and interfere with either immunoassay urine drug screening procedures or gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation techniques. Application of CIE for the direct detection of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine specimens was the purpose of this investigation. CIE was performed using a Waters Quanta 4000 Capillary Electrophoresis System with either direct or indirect ultraviolet absorption detection at 254 nm. CIE of 30 random normal urine specimens and 21 urine specimens suspected of adulteration was performed. Duplicate aliquots were assayed by CIE and by colorimetric technique for nitrite. Sixteen specimens had elevated concentrations of nitrite and/or nitrate. The correlation coefficient between nitrite CIE and colorimetric results was 0.9895. Three specimens had detectable concentrations of chromate and were suspected of being adulterated with "Urine Luck," an adulterant found to contain chromate. Two specimens suspected of being adulterated with bleach were found to only contain chloride, sulfate, and phosphate. CIE is applicable to forensic analysis of urine anion concentrations. CIE can easily quantitate numerous endogenous anions and offers a method to detect and/or confirm anion adulteration of urine specimens. PMID:11372999

  4. Deep sequencing reveals low incidence of endogenous LINE-1 retrotransposition in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Arokium, Hubert; Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Sanggu; Kim, Namshin; Liang, Min; Presson, Angela P; Chen, Irvin S

    2014-01-01

    Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition induces insertional mutations that can result in diseases. It was recently shown that the copy number of L1 and other retroelements is stable in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, by using an engineered reporter construct over-expressing L1, another study suggests that reprogramming activates L1 mobility in iPSCs. Given the potential of human iPSCs in therapeutic applications, it is important to clarify whether these cells harbor somatic insertions resulting from endogenous L1 retrotransposition. Here, we verified L1 expression during and after reprogramming as well as potential somatic insertions driven by the most active human endogenous L1 subfamily (L1Hs). Our results indicate that L1 over-expression is initiated during the reprogramming process and is subsequently sustained in isolated clones. To detect potential somatic insertions in iPSCs caused by L1Hs retotransposition, we used a novel sequencing strategy. As opposed to conventional sequencing direction, we sequenced from the 3' end of L1Hs to the genomic DNA, thus enabling the direct detection of the polyA tail signature of retrotransposition for verification of true insertions. Deep coverage sequencing thus allowed us to detect seven potential somatic insertions with low read counts from two iPSC clones. Negative PCR amplification in parental cells, presence of a polyA tail and absence from seven L1 germline insertion databases highly suggested true somatic insertions in iPSCs. Furthermore, these insertions could not be detected in iPSCs by PCR, likely due to low abundance. We conclude that L1Hs retrotransposes at low levels in iPSCs and therefore warrants careful analyses for genotoxic effects.

  5. HIV infection reveals widespread expansion of novel centromeric human endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H; He, Shirley; Contreras-Galindo, Angie C; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J; Kappes, Ferdinand; Dube, Derek; Chan, Susana M; Robinson, Dan; Meng, Fan; Dai, Manhong; Gitlin, Scott D; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Omenn, Gilbert S; Markovitz, David M

    2013-09-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV-K (HML-2) family is the most recent group of these viruses to have inserted into the genome, and we have detected the activation of HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses in the blood of patients with HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 infection activates expression of a novel HERV-K (HML-2) provirus, termed K111, present in multiple copies in the centromeres of chromosomes throughout the human genome yet not annotated in the most recent human genome assembly. Infection with HIV-1 or stimulation with the HIV-1 Tat protein leads to the activation of K111 proviruses. K111 is present as a single copy in the genome of the chimpanzee, yet K111 is not found in the genomes of other primates. Remarkably, K111 proviruses appear in the genomes of the extinct Neanderthal and Denisovan, while modern humans have at least 100 K111 proviruses spread across the centromeres of 15 chromosomes. Our studies suggest that the progenitor K111 integrated before the Homo-Pan divergence and expanded in copy number during the evolution of hominins, perhaps by recombination. The expansion of K111 provides sequence evidence suggesting that recombination between the centromeres of various chromosomes took place during the evolution of humans. K111 proviruses show significant sequence variations in each individual centromere, which may serve as markers in future efforts to annotate human centromere sequences. Further, this work is an example of the potential to discover previously unknown genomic sequences through the analysis of nucleic acids found in the blood of patients.

  6. The Unexplored Roles of Human Serum IgA

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Ka Wai

    2014-01-01

    The roles of human serum IgA, in contrast to that of mucosal IgA, are relatively unexplored. Previous studies have shown that IgA mediates either pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in innate immune cells. Serum IgA has been shown to interact with many proteins and glycoproteins of which the functions and mechanisms are not fully characterized. Here, we present fresh perspectives into the roles of serum IgA, describing novel IgA–protein interactions, the importance of its glycosylation status in normal functions, and the plausible role of IgA as a driver and regulator of autoimmune diseases/immune overactivation. Other potential roles, including the regulation of cytokines, effector cell function, and homeostasis, are considered in view of the maintenance of immune function. We anticipate future research to uncover new anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory roles of human serum IgA in immune functions and dysfunctions, with implications on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PMID:25188736

  7. A Filtered Database Search Algorithm for Endogenous Serum Protein Carbonyl Modifications in a Mouse Model of Inflammation*

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Peter G.; Williams, Michelle V.; Chiang, Alison; Iffrig, Elizabeth; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wishnok, John S.

    2011-01-01

    During inflammation, the resulting oxidative stress can damage surrounding host tissue, forming protein-carbonyls. The SJL mouse is an experimental animal model used to assess in vivo toxicological responses to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from inflammation. The goals of this study were to identify the major serum proteins modified with a carbonyl functionality and to identify the types of carbonyl adducts. To select for carbonyl-modified proteins, serum proteins were reacted with an aldehyde reactive probe that biotinylated the carbonyl modification. Modified proteins were enriched by avidin affinity and identified by two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem MS. To identify the carbonyl modification, tryptic peptides from serum proteins were subjected to avidin affinity and the enriched modified peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem MS. It was noted that the aldehyde reactive probe tag created tag-specific fragment ions and neutral losses, and these extra features in the mass spectra inhibited identification of the modified peptides by database searching. To enhance the identification of carbonyl-modified peptides, a program was written that used the tag-specific fragment ions as a fingerprint (in silico filter program) and filtered the mass spectrometry data to highlight only modified peptides. A de novo-like database search algorithm was written (biotin peptide identification program) to identify the carbonyl-modified peptides. Although written specifically for our experiments, this software can be adapted to other modification and enrichment systems. Using these routines, a number of lipid peroxidation-derived protein carbonyls and direct side-chain oxidation proteins carbonyls were identified in SJL mouse serum. PMID:21768395

  8. Human endogenous retrovirus K solo-LTR formation and insertional polymorphisms: Implications for human and viral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jennifer F.; Coffin, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a potential source of genetic diversity in the human genome. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo-LTR formation, several members of the HERV-K family have been identified that remain nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine whether HERV-K elements have caused recent changes in the human genome, we have undertaken a study of the level of HERV-K polymorphism that exists in the human population. By using a high-resolution unblotting technique, we analyzed 13 human-specific HERV-K elements in 18 individuals. We found that solo LTRs have formed at five of these loci. These results enable the estimation of HERV solo-LTR formation in the human genome and indicate that these events occur much more frequently than described in inbred mice. Detailed sequence analysis of one provirus shows that solo-LTR formation occurred at least three separate times in recent history. An unoccupied preintegration site also was present at this locus in two individuals, indicating that although the age of this provirus is estimated to be ≈1.2 million years, it has not yet become fixed in the human population. PMID:14757818

  9. A contaminant-free assessment of Endogenous Retroviral RNA in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Hatzakis, Angelos; Psichogiou, Mina; Elefsiniotis, Ioannis; Hurst, Tara; Geretti, Anna-Maria; Beloukas, Apostolos; Frater, John; Klenerman, Paul; Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 6–8% of the human genome. HERVs are silenced in most normal tissues, up-regulated in stem cells and in placenta but also in cancer and HIV-1 infection. Crucially, there are conflicting reports on detecting HERV RNA in non-cellular clinical samples such as plasma that suggest the study of HERV RNA can be daunting. Indeed, we find that the use of real-time PCR in a quality assured clinical laboratory setting can be sensitive to low-level proviral contamination. We developed a mathematical model for low-level contamination that allowed us to design a laboratory protocol and standard operating procedures for robust measurement of HERV RNA. We focus on one family, HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) that has been most recently active even though they invaded our ancestral genomes almost 30 millions ago. We extensively validated our experimental design on a model cell culture system showing high sensitivity and specificity, totally eliminating the proviral contamination. We then tested 236 plasma samples from patients infected with HIV-1, HCV or HBV and found them to be negative. The study of HERV RNA for human translational studies should be performed with extensively validated protocols and standard operating procedures to control the widespread low-level human DNA contamination. PMID:27640347

  10. A contaminant-free assessment of Endogenous Retroviral RNA in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Hatzakis, Angelos; Psichogiou, Mina; Elefsiniotis, Ioannis; Hurst, Tara; Geretti, Anna-Maria; Beloukas, Apostolos; Frater, John; Klenerman, Paul; Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 6-8% of the human genome. HERVs are silenced in most normal tissues, up-regulated in stem cells and in placenta but also in cancer and HIV-1 infection. Crucially, there are conflicting reports on detecting HERV RNA in non-cellular clinical samples such as plasma that suggest the study of HERV RNA can be daunting. Indeed, we find that the use of real-time PCR in a quality assured clinical laboratory setting can be sensitive to low-level proviral contamination. We developed a mathematical model for low-level contamination that allowed us to design a laboratory protocol and standard operating procedures for robust measurement of HERV RNA. We focus on one family, HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) that has been most recently active even though they invaded our ancestral genomes almost 30 millions ago. We extensively validated our experimental design on a model cell culture system showing high sensitivity and specificity, totally eliminating the proviral contamination. We then tested 236 plasma samples from patients infected with HIV-1, HCV or HBV and found them to be negative. The study of HERV RNA for human translational studies should be performed with extensively validated protocols and standard operating procedures to control the widespread low-level human DNA contamination. PMID:27640347

  11. Human Serum Versus Human Serum Albumin Supplementation in Human Islet Pretransplantation Culture: In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Montserrat; Estil Les, Elisabet; Garcia, Ainhoa; Nadal, Belen; Pairó, Mar; Garcia, Cristofer; Secanella, Lluís; Novials, Anna; Montanya, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence favoring both the use of human serum (HS) and of human serum albumin (HSA) in human islet culture. We evaluated the effects of HS versus HSA supplementation on 1) in vitro β-cell viability and function and 2) in vivo islet graft revascularization, islet viability, β-cell death, and metabolic outcome after transplantation. Islets isolated from 14 cadaveric organ donors were cultured for 3 days in CMRL 1066 medium supplemented with HS or HSA. After 3 days in culture, β-cell apoptosis was lower in HS group (1.41 ± 0.27 vs. 2.38 ± 0.39%, p = 0.029), and the recovery of islets was 77 ± 11% and 54 ± 1% in HS- and HSA-cultured groups, respectively. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was higher in HS group (29.4, range 10.4-99.9, vs. 22.3, range 8.7-70.6, p = 0.031). In vivo viability and revascularization was determined in HS- and HSA-cultured islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye of Balb/c mice (n = 14), and β-cell apoptosis in paraffin-embedded mouse eyes. Islet viability and β-cell apoptosis were similar in both groups. Revascularization was observed in one graft (HS group) on day 10 after transplantation. Islet function was determined in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic nude mice (n = 33) transplanted with 2,000 IEQs cultured with HS or HSA that showed similar blood glucose levels and percentage of normoglycemic animals over time. In conclusion, human islets cultured in medium supplemented with HS showed higher survival in vitro, as well as islet viability and function. The higher in vitro survival increased the number of islets available for transplantation. However, the beneficial effect on viability and function did not translate into an improved metabolic evolution when a similar number of HSA- and HS-cultured islets was transplanted. PMID:25955150

  12. Radioimmunoassay of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.Y.; Niblock, A.E.; Henderson, A.R.

    1984-08-01

    A description is given of the development of a sensitive, specific radioimmunoassay for the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoenzymes of human aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase; EC 2.6.1.1). Isoenzymes from human heart tissue were purified to homogeneity and used to raise high-titer antisera in rabbits. The antisera were partly purified by selective column chromatography. The Bolton-Hunter reagent was used to radioiodinate the isoenzymes. The assay requires 100 microL of serum, includes a solid-phase second-antibody separation, and can be completed in less than 3 h. There was no cross reactivity between the two isoenzymes. As little as 5 micrograms (50 pmol) of each aspartate aminotransferase can be measured per liter of serum.

  13. Immunoproteomic Analysis of Potential Serum Biomarker Candidates in Human Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tezel, Gülgün; Thornton, Ivey L.; Tong, Melissa G.; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Xiangjun; Cai, Jian; Powell, David W.; Soltau, Joern B.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Evidence supporting the immune system involvement in glaucoma includes increased titers of serum antibodies to retina and optic nerve proteins, although their pathogenic importance remains unclear. This study using an antibody-based proteomics approach aimed to identify disease-related antigens as candidate biomarkers of glaucoma. Methods. Serum samples were collected from 111 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and an age-matched control group of 49 healthy subjects without glaucoma. For high-throughput characterization of antigens, serum IgG was eluted from five randomly selected glaucomatous samples and analyzed by linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum titers of selected biomarker candidates were then measured by specific ELISAs in the whole sample pool (including an additional control group of diabetic retinopathy). Results. LC-MS/MS analysis of IgG elutes revealed a complex panel of proteins, including those detectable only in glaucomatous samples. Interestingly, many of these antigens corresponded to upregulated retinal proteins previously identified in glaucomatous donors (or that exhibited increased methionine oxidation). Moreover, additional analysis detected a greater immunoreactivity of the patient sera to glaucomatous retinal proteins (or to oxidatively stressed cell culture proteins), thereby suggesting the importance of disease-related protein modifications in autoantibody production/reactivity. As a narrowing-down strategy for selection of initial biomarker candidates, we determined the serum proteins overlapping with the retinal proteins known to be up-regulated in glaucoma. Four of the selected 10 candidates (AIF, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, ephrin type-A receptor, and huntingtin) exhibited higher ELISA titers in the glaucomatous sera. Conclusions. A number of serum proteins identified by this immunoproteomic study of human glaucoma may represent diseased tissue-related antigens and serve as candidate

  14. Human Endogenous Retrovirus K (HML-2) Elements in the Plasma of People with Lymphoma and Breast Cancer ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H.; Leissner, Philippe; Verjat, Thibault; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Bagnoli, Fabio; Giusti, Fabiola; Dosik, Michael H.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Gitlin, Scott D.; Markovitz, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Actively replicating endogenous retroviruses entered the human genome millions of years ago and became a stable part of the inherited genetic material. They subsequently acquired multiple mutations, leading to the assumption that these viruses no longer replicate. However, certain human tumor cell lines have been shown to release endogenous retroviral particles. Here we show that RNA from human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) (HML-2), a relatively recent entrant into the human genome, can be found in very high titers in the plasma of patients with lymphomas and breast cancer as measured by either reverse transcriptase PCR or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. Further, these titers drop dramatically with cancer treatment. We also demonstrate the presence of reverse transcriptase and viral RNA in plasma fractions that contain both immature and correctly processed HERV-K (HML-2) Gag and envelope proteins. Finally, using immunoelectron microscopy, we show the presence of HERV-K (HML-2) virus-like particles in the plasma of lymphoma patients. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that elements of the endogenous retrovirus HERV-K (HML-2) can be found in the blood of modern-day humans with certain cancers. PMID:18632860

  15. Isotachophoretic Preconcentration of Cardiac Proteins from Human Serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Prashanta; Hossan, Mohammad; Jubery, Talukder; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius

    2011-11-01

    Cationic isotachophoresis (ITP) is used to concentrate and detect a cardiac biomarker, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), spiked into depleted human serum in a cascade poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic channel. PMMA microchannel was formed using solvent imprinting and temperature-assisted bonding. A 100x reduction in cross-sectional area is implemented by gradually decreasing the channel width and height to increase the sensitivity of ITP. The ITP was performed in peak mode with potassium ion as the leading electrolyte and hydronium ions as the terminating electrolyte. The cross-sectional area reductions in combination with ITP allowed visualization of lower concentrations of fluorescently labeled cTnI. Experimental results show that ITP can detect cTnI at initial concentrations as low as 46 ng/mL in the presence of human serum proteins, and ITP can obtain cTnI concentrations factors as high as 10,000. This demonstrates the detection of cTnI in depleted human serum at clinically relevant concentrations without the use of antibodies and relying solely on ITP in a cascade microchip.

  16. Prediction of the Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Triptolide in Rats Based on Endogenous Molecules in Pre-Dose Baseline Serum

    PubMed Central

    Aa, Jiye; Zheng, Tian; Shi, Jian; Li, Mengjie; Wang, Xinwen; Zhao, Chunyan; Xiao, Wenjing; Yu, Xiaoyi; Sun, Runbin; Gu, Rongrong; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Liang; Hao, Gang; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Wang, Guangji

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variances usually affect drug metabolism and disposition, and hence result in either ineffectiveness or toxicity of a drug. In addition to genetic polymorphism, the multiple confounding factors of lifestyles, such as dietary preferences, contribute partially to individual variances. However, the difficulty of quantifying individual diversity greatly challenges the realization of individualized drug therapy. This study aims at quantitative evaluating the association between individual variances and the pharmacokinetics. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecules in pre-dose baseline serum were profiled using gas chromatography mass spectrometry to represent the individual variances of the model rats provided with high fat diets (HFD), routine chows and calorie restricted (CR) chows. Triptolide and its metabolites were determined using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Metabonomic and pharmacokinetic data revealed that rats treated with the varied diets had distinctly different metabolic patterns and showed differential Cmax values, AUC and drug metabolism after oral administration of triptolide. Rats with fatty chows had the lowest Cmax and AUC values and the highest percentage of triptolide metabolic transformation, while rats with CR chows had the highest Cmax and AUC values and the least percentage of triptolide transformation. Multivariate linear regression revealed that in baseline serum, the concentrations of creatinine and glutamic acid, which is the precursor of GSH, were linearly negatively correlated to Cmax and AUC values. The glutamic acid and creatinine in baseline serum were suggested as the potential markers to represent individual diversity and as predictors of the disposal and pharmacokinetics of triptolide. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the robust potential of metabonomics in characterizing individual variances and identifying relevant markers that have the potential to facilitate

  17. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test... Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure...

  2. Activity in the human superior colliculus relating to endogenous saccade preparation and execution

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Michele; Smith, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a small number of studies have applied functional imaging techniques to investigate visual responses in the human superior colliculus (SC), but few have investigated its oculomotor functions. Here, in two experiments, we examined activity associated with endogenous saccade preparation. We used 3-T fMRI to record the hemodynamic activity in the SC while participants were either preparing or executing saccadic eye movements. Our results showed that not only executing a saccade (as previously shown) but also preparing a saccade produced an increase in the SC hemodynamic activity. The saccade-related activity was observed in the contralateral and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral SC. A second experiment further examined the contralateral mapping of saccade-related activity with a larger range of saccade amplitudes. Increased activity was again observed in both the contralateral and ipsilateral SC that was evident for large as well as small saccades. This suggests that the ipsilateral component of the increase in BOLD is not due simply to small-amplitude saccades producing bilateral activity in the foveal fixation zone. These studies provide the first evidence of presaccadic preparatory activity in the human SC and reveal that fMRI can detect activity consistent with that of buildup neurons found in the deeper layers of the SC in studies of nonhuman primates. PMID:26041830

  3. An endogenous digitalis-like compound extracted from human urine: biochemical and chemical studies.

    PubMed

    Cloix, J F; Crabos, M; Grichois, M L; Meyer, P

    1987-08-01

    Plasma and urine levels of an endogenous digitalis-like compound (EDLC) are increased in low renin Na+-dependent experimental hypertension, in some normotensive offspring of hypertensive patients and in some essential hypertensive patients. Urine-drived EDLC was purified from 550 L of urine from essential hypertensive patients (n = 8) and from normotensive subjects with a family history of hypertension (n = 27), using flash chromatography on C18 reversed-phase, anion exchange chromatography and various reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographies. The mechanism of Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition and the related effects of semipurified urine-derived EDLC were studied and compared with those of ouabain. Its action was similar to that of ouabain in 8 out of 10 of the tests applied. The main effects of such a compound were the depression of Na+-K+ pump activity of human erythrocytes, the inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake by human platelets, and the induction of natriuresis in urethanized rats. Therefore, EDLC may be considered as one of the natriuretic hormones whose mechanism of action closely resembles that of ouabain. PMID:2825938

  4. Partial characterization of a novel endogenous opioid in human cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.E.; Lipman, J.J.; Byrne, W.L.

    1987-12-07

    Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many uncharacterized endogenous opioids, in addition to the known enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. These opioids may be separated by gel filtration chromatography and identified by radioreceptor assay for opioid activity. One region of the chromatographic elution profile, designated Peak B has previously been shown to be related to the pain status of chronic pain patients. The authors now report that human Peak B isolated from the CSF of pain-free elective surgery patients is present at a typical concentration equivalent in activity to 1.4 pmol of morphine sulfate per ml of CSF measured by radioreceptor assay. At a dose of 0.06 and 0.12 pmol morphine sulfate equivalents of CSF (MSE), injected into the cerebroventricular system of the mouse, Peak B produced an antinociceptive effect, the intensity and duration of which was dose-dependent and which was antagonized by naloxone. The mouse vas deferens (MVD) preparation was inhibited by Peak B in a manner that was sensitive to antagonism by naloxone only at low (< 1.0 ..mu..M) but not at higher (>6.0 ..mu..M) concentrations of the antagonist. Peak B activity in the MVD assay was unaffected by treatment with trypsin or ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. 32 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  5. Influence of White and Gray Matter Connections on Endogenous Human Cortical Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Kim, DoHyun; Ledbetter, Noah M.; Dahiya, Sonika; Barbour, Dennis L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Brain oscillations reflect changes in electrical potentials summated across neuronal populations. Low- and high-frequency rhythms have different modulation patterns. Slower rhythms are spatially broad, while faster rhythms are more local. From this observation, we hypothesized that low- and high-frequency oscillations reflect white- and gray-matter communications, respectively, and synchronization between low-frequency phase with high-frequency amplitude represents a mechanism enabling distributed brain-networks to coordinate local processing. Testing this common understanding, we selectively disrupted white or gray matter connections to human cortex while recording surface field potentials. Counter to our original hypotheses, we found that cortex consists of independent oscillatory-units (IOUs) that maintain their own complex endogenous rhythm structure. IOUs are differentially modulated by white and gray matter connections. White-matter connections maintain topographical anatomic heterogeneity (i.e., separable processing in cortical space) and gray-matter connections segregate cortical synchronization patterns (i.e., separable temporal processing through phase-power coupling). Modulation of distinct oscillatory modules enables the functional diversity necessary for complex processing in the human brain. PMID:27445767

  6. Identification of alternatively spliced human biotinidase mRNAs and putative localization of endogenous biotinidase.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Christine M; Hymes, Jeanne; Wolf, Barry

    2004-04-01

    Biotinidase is essential for recycling the vitamin biotin and for transferring biotin to proteins, such as histones, suggesting that the enzyme localizes to various cellular and extracellular sites. To better understand the functions of the enzyme, we examined its gene structure and subcellular localization. Using RACE-PCR and a BLAST search, we extended the 5' sequence of the biotinidase gene. Three novel, alternatively spliced variants of biotinidase, 1a, 1b, and 1c, were identified in multiple human tissues. Exon 1c is present only in testes. The sequence of the 5' splice variants, 1a and 1b, suggest that biotinidase localizes to the mitochondria and/or ER, respectively. Using indirect immunofluorescence studies, biotinidase localizes to organelles in the cytoplasm, but not nucleus, of human fibroblasts and Hep G2 cells. Endogenous expression was examined by isopycnic gradient centrifugation of rat liver organelles, which identified an 85kDa biotinidase protein with biotinyl-hydrolase and transferase activities in microsomes and possibly lysosomes. A 48kDa protein, which also reacts with anti-biotinidase, localizes to mitochondria. The 48kDa protein is not N-glycosylated but is biotinylated, is in the inner mitochondrial matrix, but has no biotinyl-hydrolase or transferase activities. The function and validation of the mitochondrial species remains to be determined. The 5' splice variants and organelle fractionation studies indicate that biotinidase is directed to the secretory pathway and perhaps mitochondria.

  7. Influence of White and Gray Matter Connections on Endogenous Human Cortical Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Kim, DoHyun; Ledbetter, Noah M; Dahiya, Sonika; Barbour, Dennis L; Leuthardt, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Brain oscillations reflect changes in electrical potentials summated across neuronal populations. Low- and high-frequency rhythms have different modulation patterns. Slower rhythms are spatially broad, while faster rhythms are more local. From this observation, we hypothesized that low- and high-frequency oscillations reflect white- and gray-matter communications, respectively, and synchronization between low-frequency phase with high-frequency amplitude represents a mechanism enabling distributed brain-networks to coordinate local processing. Testing this common understanding, we selectively disrupted white or gray matter connections to human cortex while recording surface field potentials. Counter to our original hypotheses, we found that cortex consists of independent oscillatory-units (IOUs) that maintain their own complex endogenous rhythm structure. IOUs are differentially modulated by white and gray matter connections. White-matter connections maintain topographical anatomic heterogeneity (i.e., separable processing in cortical space) and gray-matter connections segregate cortical synchronization patterns (i.e., separable temporal processing through phase-power coupling). Modulation of distinct oscillatory modules enables the functional diversity necessary for complex processing in the human brain. PMID:27445767

  8. Activity in the human superior colliculus relating to endogenous saccade preparation and execution.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Michele; Smith, Andrew T; Walker, Robin

    2015-08-01

    In recent years a small number of studies have applied functional imaging techniques to investigate visual responses in the human superior colliculus (SC), but few have investigated its oculomotor functions. Here, in two experiments, we examined activity associated with endogenous saccade preparation. We used 3-T fMRI to record the hemodynamic activity in the SC while participants were either preparing or executing saccadic eye movements. Our results showed that not only executing a saccade (as previously shown) but also preparing a saccade produced an increase in the SC hemodynamic activity. The saccade-related activity was observed in the contralateral and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral SC. A second experiment further examined the contralateral mapping of saccade-related activity with a larger range of saccade amplitudes. Increased activity was again observed in both the contralateral and ipsilateral SC that was evident for large as well as small saccades. This suggests that the ipsilateral component of the increase in BOLD is not due simply to small-amplitude saccades producing bilateral activity in the foveal fixation zone. These studies provide the first evidence of presaccadic preparatory activity in the human SC and reveal that fMRI can detect activity consistent with that of buildup neurons found in the deeper layers of the SC in studies of nonhuman primates.

  9. Endogenous nitrogen oxides and bronchodilator S-nitrosothiols in human airways.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, B; Reilly, J; Drazen, J M; Fackler, J; Ramdev, P; Arnelle, D; Mullins, M E; Sugarbaker, D J; Chee, C; Singel, D J

    1993-01-01

    Recent discoveries suggesting essential bioactivities of nitric oxide (NO.) in the lung are difficult to reconcile with the established pulmonary cytotoxicity of this common air pollutant. These conflicting observations suggest that metabolic intermediaries may exist in the lung to modulate the bioactivity and toxicity of NO.. We report that S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO), predominantly the adduct with glutathione, are present at nano- to micromolar concentrations in the airways of normal subjects and that their levels vary in different human pathophysiologic states. These endogenous RS-NO are long-lived, potent relaxants of human airways under physiological O2 concentrations. Moreover, RS-NO form in high concentrations upon administration of NO. gas. Nitrite (10-20 microM) is found in airway lining fluid in concentrations linearly proportional to leukocyte counts, suggestive of local NO. metabolism. NO. itself was not detected either free in solution or in complexes with transition metals. These observations may provide insight into the means by which NO. is packaged in biological systems to preserve its bioactivity and limit its potential O2-dependent toxicity and suggest an important role for NO. in regulation of airway luminal homeostasis. PMID:8248198

  10. The significance of using pooled human serum in human articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Azmi, B; Aminuddin, B S; Sharaf, I; Samsudin, O C; Munirah, S; Chua, K H; Ruszymah, B H I

    2004-05-01

    Animal serum is commonly used in chondrocytes culture expansion to promote cell proliferation and shorten the time lag before new tissue reconstruction is possible. However, animal serum is not suitable for regeneration of clinical tissue because it has potential risk of viral and prion related disease transmission particularly mad cow disease and foreign protein contamination that can stimulate immune reaction leading to graft rejection. In this context, human serum as homologous supplement has a greater potential as growth promoting agents for human chondrocytes culture. PMID:15468795

  11. Integration and Fixation Preferences of Human and Mouse Endogenous Retroviruses Uncovered with Functional Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Alessia; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the remnants of retroviral infections in the germ line, occupy ~8% and ~10% of the human and mouse genomes, respectively, and affect their structure, evolution, and function. Yet we still have a limited understanding of how the genomic landscape influences integration and fixation of ERVs. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of the most recently active ERVs in the human and mouse genome. We investigated 826 fixed and 1,065 in vitro HERV-Ks in human, and 1,624 fixed and 242 polymorphic ETns, as well as 3,964 fixed and 1,986 polymorphic IAPs, in mouse. We quantitated >40 human and mouse genomic features (e.g., non-B DNA structure, recombination rates, and histone modifications) in ±32 kb of these ERVs’ integration sites and in control regions, and analyzed them using Functional Data Analysis (FDA) methodology. In one of the first applications of FDA in genomics, we identified genomic scales and locations at which these features display their influence, and how they work in concert, to provide signals essential for integration and fixation of ERVs. The investigation of ERVs of different evolutionary ages (young in vitro and polymorphic ERVs, older fixed ERVs) allowed us to disentangle integration vs. fixation preferences. As a result of these analyses, we built a comprehensive model explaining the uneven distribution of ERVs along the genome. We found that ERVs integrate in late-replicating AT-rich regions with abundant microsatellites, mirror repeats, and repressive histone marks. Regions favoring fixation are depleted of genes and evolutionarily conserved elements, and have low recombination rates, reflecting the effects of purifying selection and ectopic recombination removing ERVs from the genome. In addition to providing these biological insights, our study demonstrates the power of exploiting multiple scales and localization with FDA. These powerful techniques are expected to be applicable to many other genomic investigations

  12. Complement Interaction with Trypanosomatid Promastigotes in Normal Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Mercedes; Moreno, Inmaculada; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Toraño, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    In normal human serum (NHS), axenic promastigotes of Crithidia, Phytomonas, and Leishmania trigger complement activation, and from 1.2 to 1.8 × 105 C3 molecules are deposited per promastigote within 2.5 min. In Leishmania, promastigote C3 binding capacity remains constant during in vitro metacyclogenesis. C3 deposition on promastigotes activated through the classical complement pathway reaches a 50% maximum after ∼50 s, and represents >85% of total C3 bound. In C1q- and C2-deficient human sera, promastigotes cannot activate the classical pathway (CP) unless purified C1q or C2 factors, respectively, are supplemented, demonstrating a requirement for CP factor in promastigote C3 opsonization. NHS depleted of natural anti-Leishmania antibodies cannot trigger promastigote CP activation, but IgM addition restores C3 binding. Furthermore, Leishmania binds natural antibodies in ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA)-treated NHS; after EDTA removal, promastigote-bound IgM triggers C3 deposition in natural antibody-depleted NHS. Serum collectins and pentraxins thus do not participate significantly in NHS promastigote C3 opsonization. Real-time kinetic analysis of promastigote CP-mediated lysis indicates that between 85–95% of parasites are killed within 2.5 min of serum contact. These data indicate that successful Leishmania infection in man must immediately follow promastigote transmission, and that Leishmania evasion strategies are shaped by the selective pressure exerted by complement. PMID:11854358

  13. A chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous profiling of ten endogenous steroids, including progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens and estrogens, using low serum volume.

    PubMed

    Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Guillemette, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of a large set of sex steroids in clinical epidemiology and laboratory research with reliable methods providing low quantification limits and using a limited volume of blood sample represents a significant challenge. We report a new validated gas chromatography selected reaction monitoring - tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous steroids including progesterone (PROG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (5-diol), androstenedione (4-dione), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (ADT), 5alpha-androstan-3beta-17beta-diol (3β-diol), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). After addition of stable isotope internal standards, the approach involved the combination of liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and solid-phase extraction for injection into the GC system and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method presents high reproducibility for all analytical parameters in 250 μl serum samples. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were of 100 pg/ml for DHEA, 50 pg/ml for PROG, 5-diol, 4-dione and ADT, 30 pg/ml for T, 10 pg/ml for 3β-diol and DHT, 5 pg/ml for E1, and 1 pg/ml for E2. The applicability of the validated method to determine the concentrations of these 10 steroids was successfully tested on serum from men (n=15), premenopausal (n=10) and postmenopausal women (n=20), and is currently used for larger cancer-related epidemiology studies. One of the most considerable advantages over existing methods is the simultaneous determination of ten steroids in a limited volume of serum that will help conserve important clinical samples from existing biobanks.

  14. Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Hyotylainen, Tuulia; Nielsen, Trine; Jensen, Benjamin A H; Forslund, Kristoffer; Hildebrand, Falk; Prifti, Edi; Falony, Gwen; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Levenez, Florence; Doré, Joel; Mattila, Ismo; Plichta, Damian R; Pöhö, Päivi; Hellgren, Lars I; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Jørgensen, Torben; Holm, Jacob Bak; Trošt, Kajetan; Kristiansen, Karsten; Brix, Susanne; Raes, Jeroen; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Bork, Peer; Brunak, Søren; Oresic, Matej; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-07-21

    Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant individuals is characterized by increased levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which correlate with a gut microbiome that has an enriched biosynthetic potential for BCAAs and is deprived of genes encoding bacterial inward transporters for these amino acids. Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus are identified as the main species driving the association between biosynthesis of BCAAs and insulin resistance, and in mice we demonstrate that P. copri can induce insulin resistance, aggravate glucose intolerance and augment circulating levels of BCAAs. Our findings suggest that microbial targets may have the potential to diminish insulin resistance and reduce the incidence of common metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27409811

  15. Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Hyotylainen, Tuulia; Nielsen, Trine; Jensen, Benjamin A H; Forslund, Kristoffer; Hildebrand, Falk; Prifti, Edi; Falony, Gwen; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Levenez, Florence; Doré, Joel; Mattila, Ismo; Plichta, Damian R; Pöhö, Päivi; Hellgren, Lars I; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Jørgensen, Torben; Holm, Jacob Bak; Trošt, Kajetan; Kristiansen, Karsten; Brix, Susanne; Raes, Jeroen; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Bork, Peer; Brunak, Søren; Oresic, Matej; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-07-21

    Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant individuals is characterized by increased levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which correlate with a gut microbiome that has an enriched biosynthetic potential for BCAAs and is deprived of genes encoding bacterial inward transporters for these amino acids. Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus are identified as the main species driving the association between biosynthesis of BCAAs and insulin resistance, and in mice we demonstrate that P. copri can induce insulin resistance, aggravate glucose intolerance and augment circulating levels of BCAAs. Our findings suggest that microbial targets may have the potential to diminish insulin resistance and reduce the incidence of common metabolic and cardiovascular disorders.

  16. Aggregation behavior of cationic nanohydrogel particles in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Nuhn, Lutz; Gietzen, Sabine; Mohr, Kristin; Fischer, Karl; Toh, Kazuko; Miyata, Kanjiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Kataoka, Kazunori; Schmidt, Manfred; Zentel, Rudolf

    2014-04-14

    For systemic siRNA delivery applications, well-defined drug carriers are required that guarantee stability for both carrier and cargo. Among various concepts progressing in market or final development, cationic nanohydrogel particles may serve as novel transport media especially designed for siRNA-in vivo experiments. In this work, the interaction of nanohydrogel particles with proteins and serum components was studied via dynamic light scattering in human blood serum as novel screening method prior to applications in vivo. The formation of larger aggregates mostly caused by charge interaction with albumin could be suppressed by nanogel loading with siRNA affording a neutral zeta potential for the complex. Preliminary in vivo studies confirmed the results inside the light-scattering cuvette. Although both carrier and cargo may have limited stability on their own under physiological relevant conditions, they can form safe and stable complexes at a charge neutralized ratio and thus making them applicable to systemic siRNA delivery.

  17. Heparin-binding properties of human serum spreading factor.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D W; Reing, J E; Amos, B

    1985-08-01

    Human serum spreading factor (SF) is a blood glycoprotein that promotes attachment and spreading and influences growth, migration, and differentiation of a variety of animal cells in culture. SF purified from human plasma or serum by chromatographic methods reported previously (Barnes, D. W., and Silnutzer, J. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 12548-12552) does not bind to heparin-Sepharose under conditions of physiological ionic strength and pH. In a further examination of the heparin-binding properties of human serum SF, we found that exposure of purified SF to 8 M urea altered several properties of the protein, including heparin affinity, and these alterations remained after removal of the urea from SF solutions. Urea-treated SF bound to heparin under physiological conditions, and salt concentrations of 0.4 M or higher were required for elution of urea-treated SF from heparin-Sepharose at pH 7.0. The alteration of heparin-binding properties of SF also was observed upon exposure of the protein to heat or acid. Treatment of SF with urea, heat, or acid resulted additionally in greatly decreased cell spreading-promoting activity of the molecule. The decreased biological activity was associated with a reduced ability of the treated SF to bind to the cell culture substratum, a prerequisite for the attachment-promoting activity of the molecule. Experiments examining the heparin-binding properties of native SF in unfractionated human plasma indicated that the major portion of SF in blood did not bind to heparin under conditions of physiological ionic strength and pH. PMID:2410408

  18. Endogenous Human Milk Peptide Release Is Greater after Preterm Birth than Term Birth123

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C; Smink, Christina J; Robinson, Randall C; Tian, Tian; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hettinga, Kasper A; Underwood, Mark A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hundreds of naturally occurring milk peptides are present in term human milk. Preterm milk is produced before complete maturation of the mammary gland, which could change milk synthesis and secretion processes within the mammary gland, leading to differences in protein expression and enzymatic activity, thereby resulting in an altered peptide profile. Objective: This study examined differences in peptides present between milk from women delivering at term and women delivering prematurely. Methods: Nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry was employed to identify naturally occurring peptides and compare their abundances between term and preterm human milk samples at multiple time points over lactation. Term milk samples were collected from 8 mothers and preterm milk was collected from 14 mothers. The 28 preterm and 32 term human milk samples were divided into 4 groups based on day of collection (<14, 14–28, 29–41, and 42–58 d). Results: Preterm milk peptide counts, ion abundance, and concentration were significantly higher in preterm milk than term milk. Bioinformatic analysis of the cleavage sites for peptides identified suggested that plasmin was more active in preterm milk than term milk and that cytosol aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase B2 likely contribute to extensive milk protein breakdown. Many identified milk peptides in both term and preterm milk overlapped with known functional peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory peptides. Conclusion: The high protein degradation by endogenous proteases in preterm milk might attenuate problems because of the preterm infant’s immature digestive system. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817127. PMID:25540406

  19. Synergistic effect of exogeneous and endogeneous electrostimulation on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Çakmak, Anıl S; Çakmak, Soner; White, James D; Raja, Waseem K; Kim, Kyungsook; Yiğit, Sezin; Kaplan, David L; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2016-04-01

    Bioelectrical regulation of bone fracture healing is important for many cellular events such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultivated on silk scaffolds in response to different modes of electrostimulation (e.g., exogeneous and/or endogeneous). Endogeneous electrophysiology was altered through the use of monensin (10 nM) and glibenclamide (10 μM), along with external electrostimulation (60 kHz; 100-500 mV). Monensin enhanced the expression of early osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2). When exogeneous electrostimulation was combined with glibenclamide, more mature osteogenic marker upregulation based on bone sialoprotein expression (BSP) and mineralization was found. These results suggest the potential to exploit both exogeneous and endogeneous biophysical control of cell functions towards tissue-specific goals.

  20. Endogenous oils derived from human adipocytes are potent adjuvants that promote IL-1α-dependent inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tynan, Graham A; Hearnden, Claire H; Oleszycka, Ewa; Lyons, Claire L; Coutts, Graham; O'Connell, Jean; Corrigan, Michelle A; Lynch, Lydia; Campbell, Matthew; Callanan, John J; Mok, Kenneth H; Geoghegan, Justin; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Allan, Stuart M; Roche, Helen M; O'Shea, Donal B; Lavelle, Ed C

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is characterized by chronic inflammation associated with neutrophil and M1 macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. Based on the ability of oil-based adjuvants to induce immune responses, we hypothesized that endogenous oils derived from necrotic adipocytes may function as an immunological "danger signal." Here we show that endogenous oils of human origin are potent adjuvants, enhancing antibody responses to a level comparable to Freund's incomplete adjuvant. The endogenous oils were capable of promoting interleukin (IL)-1α-dependent recruitment of neutrophils and M1-like macrophages, while simultaneously diminishing M2-like macrophages. We found that endogenous oils from subcutaneous and omental adipocytes, and from healthy and unhealthy obese individuals, promoted comparable inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also confirmed that white adipocytes in visceral fat of metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals are significantly larger than those in metabolically healthy obese individuals. Since adipocyte size is positively correlated with adipocyte death, we propose that endogenous oils have a higher propensity to be released from hypertrophied visceral fat in MUO individuals and that this is the key factor in driving inflammation. In summary, this study shows that adipocytes contain a potent oil adjuvant which drives IL-1α-dependent proinflammatory responses in vivo.

  1. Estimating the effect of endogenous dopamine on baseline [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO binding in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Kegeles, Lawrence S; Wilson, Alan A; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Mamo, David C; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-11-01

    Endogenous dopamine (DA) levels at dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) have been quantified in the living human brain using the agonist radiotracer [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO. As an agonist radiotracer, [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO is more sensitive to endogenous DA levels than antagonist radiotracers. We sought to determine the proportion of the variance in baseline [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO binding to D2/3 Rs which can be accounted for by variation in endogenous DA levels. This was done by computing the Pearson's coefficient for the correlation between baseline binding potential (BPND ) and the change in BPND after acute DA depletion, using previously published data. All correlations were inverse, and the proportion of the variance in baseline [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO BPND that can be accounted for by variation in endogenous DA levels across the striatal subregions ranged from 42-59%. These results indicate that lower baseline values of [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO BPND reflect greater stimulation by endogenous DA. To further validate this interpretation, we sought to examine whether these data could be used to estimate the dissociation constant (Kd) of DA at D2/3 R. In line with previous in vitro work, we estimated the in vivo Kd of DA to be around 20 nM. In summary, the agonist radiotracer [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO can detect the impact of endogenous DA levels at D2/3 R in the living human brain from a single baseline scan, and may be more sensitive to this impact than other commonly employed radiotracers. PMID:27341789

  2. Immediate stabilization of human blood for delayed quantification of endogenous thiols and disulfides.

    PubMed

    Giustarini, Daniela; Galvagni, Federico; Orlandini, Maurizio; Fanti, Paolo; Rossi, Ranieri

    2016-04-15

    Endogenous thiols undergo rapid and reversible oxidation to disulfides when exposed to oxidants and are, therefore, suitable biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, accurate analysis of thiols in blood is frequently compromised by their artifactual oxidation during sample manipulation, which spuriously elevates the disulfide levels. Here, we describe a validated pre-analytical procedure that prevents both artifactual oxidation of thiols during sample manipulation and their oxidative decay for months in biosamples that are stored at -80°C. Addition of N-ethylmaleimide to blood samples from healthy donors was used to stabilize whole blood, red blood cells, platelets and plasma disulfides, whereas addition of citrate buffer followed by dilution of plasma with H2O was used to stabilize plasma thiols. The concentrations of thiols and disulfides were stable in all biosamples for at least 6 months when analyzed by UV/Vis HPLC at regular intervals. Only 3 ml of blood were needed to perform the analyses of thiols and disulfides in the different blood fractions. This pre-analytical procedure is reliable for use in both animal and human prospective studies. Its ease of implementation makes the method suitable for application to multicenter studies where blood samples are collected by different sites and personnel and are shipped to specific specialized laboratories. PMID:26896310

  3. CRISPR-on system for the activation of the endogenous human INS gene.

    PubMed

    Giménez, C A; Ielpi, M; Mutto, A; Grosembacher, L; Argibay, P; Pereyra-Bonnet, F

    2016-06-01

    Advances in the field of epigenetics have allowed the design of new therapeutic strategies to address complex diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-on is a novel and powerful RNA-guided transcriptional activator system that can turn on specific gene expression; however, it remains unclear whether this system can be widely used or whether its use will be restricted depending on cell types, methylation promoter statuses or the capacity to modulate chromatin state. Our results revealed that the CRISPR-on system fused with transcriptional activators (dCas9-VP160) activated endogenous human INS, which is a silenced gene with a fully methylated promoter. Similarly, we observed a synergistic effect on gene activation when multiple single guide RNAs were used, and the transcriptional activation was maintained until day 21. Regarding the epigenetic profile, the targeted promoter gene did not exhibit alteration in its methylation status but rather exhibited altered levels of H3K9ac following treatment. Importantly, we showed that dCas9-VP160 acts on patients' cells in vitro, particularly the fibroblasts of patients with T1D. PMID:27052801

  4. Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

  5. Comparative Methylation of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and Other Human Endogenous Retrovirus LTRs in Placenta Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Juliette; Montgiraud, Cécile; Oriol, Guy; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Ruel, Karine; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Gerbaud, Pascale; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Mallet, François

    2009-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are globally silent in somatic cells. However, some HERVs display high transcription in physiological conditions. In particular, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, three proviruses of distinct families, are highly transcribed in placenta and produce envelope proteins associated with placenta development. As silencing of repeated elements is thought to occur mainly by DNA methylation, we compared the methylation of ERVWE1 and related HERVs to appreciate whether HERV methylation relies upon the family, the integration site, the tissue, the long terminal repeat (LTR) function or the associated gene function. CpG methylation of HERV-W LTRs in placenta-associated tissues was heterogeneous but a joint epigenetic control was found for ERVWE1 5′LTR and its juxtaposed enhancer, a mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposon. Additionally, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 5′LTRs were all essentially hypomethylated in cytotrophoblasts during pregnancy, but showed distinct and stage-dependent methylation profiles. In non-cytotrophoblastic cells, they also exhibited different methylation profiles, compatible with their respective transcriptional activities. Comparative analyses of transcriptional activity and LTR methylation in cell lines further sustained a role for methylation in the control of functional LTRs. These results suggest that HERV methylation might not be family related but copy-specific, and related to the LTR function and the tissue. In particular, ERVWE1 and ERV3 could be developmentally epigenetically regulated HERVs. PMID:19561344

  6. Visualization of single endogenous polysomes reveals the dynamics of translation in live human cells.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Xavier; Bastide, Amandine; Safieddine, Adham; Chouaib, Racha; Samacoits, Aubin; Basyuk, Eugenia; Peter, Marion; Mueller, Florian; Bertrand, Edouard

    2016-09-12

    Translation is an essential step in gene expression. In this study, we used an improved SunTag system to label nascent proteins and image translation of single messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) in human cells. Using a dedicated reporter RNA, we observe that translation of single mRNPs stochastically turns on and off while they diffuse through the cytoplasm. We further measure a ribosome density of 1.3 per kilobase and an elongation rate of 13-18 amino acids per second. Tagging the endogenous POLR2A gene revealed similar elongation rates and ribosomal densities and that nearly all messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are engaged in translation. Remarkably, tagging of the heavy chain of dynein 1 (DYNC1H1) shows this mRNA accumulates in foci containing three to seven RNA molecules. These foci are translation sites and thus represent specialized translation factories. We also observe that DYNC1H1 polysomes are actively transported by motors, which may deliver the mature protein at appropriate cellular locations. The SunTag should be broadly applicable to study translational regulation in live single cells. PMID:27597760

  7. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  8. Differences between endogenous and exogenous emotion inhibition in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Haggard, Patrick; Brass, Marcel

    2014-05-01

    The regulation of emotions is an integral part of our mental health. It has only recently been investigated using brain imaging techniques. In most studies, participants are instructed by a cue to inhibit a specific emotional reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alternative situation where a person decides to inhibit an emotion as an act of endogenous self-control. Healthy participants viewed highly arousing pictures with negative valence. In the endogenous condition, participants could freely choose on each trial to inhibit or feel the emotions elicited by the picture. In an exogenous condition, a visual cue instructed them to either feel or inhibit the emotion elicited by the picture. Participants' subjective ratings of intensity of experienced emotion showed an interaction effect between source of control (endogenous/exogenous) and feel/inhibit based on a stronger modulation between feel and inhibition for the endogenous compared to the exogenous condition. Endogenous inhibition of emotions was associated with dorso-medial prefrontal cortex activation, whereas exogenous inhibition was found associated with lateral prefrontal cortex activation. Thus, the brain regions for both endogenous and exogenous inhibition of emotion are highly similar to those for inhibition of motor actions in Brass and Haggard (J Neurosci 27:9141-9145, 2007), Kühn et al. (Hum Brain Mapp 30:2834-2843, 2009). Functional connectivity analyses showed that dorsofrontomedial cortex exerts greater control onto pre-supplementary motor area during endogenous inhibition compared to endogenous feel. This functional dissociation between an endogenous, fronto-medial and an exogenous, fronto-lateral inhibition centre has important implications for our understanding of emotion regulation in health and psychopathology.

  9. Augmented contraction of the human isolated coronary artery by sumatriptan: a possible role for endogenous thromboxane.

    PubMed Central

    Maassen VanDenBrink, A.; Bax, W. A.; Ferrari, M. D.; Zijlstra, F. J.; Bos, E.; Saxena, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The antimigraine drug, sumatriptan, contracts the human coronary artery and, in some patients, elicits chest symptoms (e.g. pressure and pain), particularly after subcutaneous administration. We studied the effects of the thromboxane A2 (TxA2) analogue, U46619 and endothelin-1 on contractile responses to sumatriptan in the human isolated coronary artery as well as the role of endogenously produced TxA2 and endothelin-1 in contractions evoked by sumatriptan. 2. In the presence of U46619 (1 and 3 nM), mean concentration-response curves to sumatriptan in the human coronary artery were shifted vertically due to the initial contraction by U46619, but when this initial contraction was subtracted from the response to sumatriptan, no significant augmentation was observed. However, analysis of the degree of augmentation in individual arterial segments revealed that the augmentation was variable and related inversely to the Emax of sumatriptan in the absence of U46619 (r = 0.78 and 0.81 for 1 and 3 nM, respectively; P < 0.05). 3. Treatment with the TxA2 receptor antagonist, SQ30741 (100 nM), or incubation of vessel segments with aspirin (10 microM), significantly reduced responses to sumatriptan; in aspirin-treated vessel segments, SQ30741 failed to decrease further the contractions to sumatriptan. The decrease in Emax of sumatriptan by both SQ30741 and aspirin correlated significantly with the Emax of sumatriptan without SQ30741 (r = 0.74; P < 0.01) or aspirin (r = 0.94; P < 0.01). In aspirin-treated vessel segments, responses to sumatriptan were significantly augmented in the presence of U46619 (3 nM; P < 0.05). 4. The specificity of SQ30741 was demonstrated by its ability to antagonize coronary artery contractions to U46619 (pA2: 7.54 +/- 0.30), but not endothelin-1. Similarly, incubation with aspirin (10 microM) did not affect contractile responses to endothelin-1, but significantly reduced TxA2 production in coronary artery segments as judged by a decrease in

  10. Influence of honeybee sting on peptidome profile in human serum.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Jan; Światły, Agata; Hajduk, Joanna; Matysiak, Joanna; Kokot, Zenon J

    2015-05-22

    The aim of this study was to explore the serum peptide profiles from honeybee stung and non-stung individuals. Two groups of serum samples obtained from 27 beekeepers were included in our study. The first group of samples was collected within 3 h after a bee sting (stung beekeepers), and the samples were collected from the same person a second time after at least six weeks after the last bee sting (non-stung beekeepers). Peptide profile spectra were determined using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry combined with Omix, ZipTips and magnetic beads based on weak-cation exchange (MB-WCX) enrichment strategies in the mass range of 1-10 kDa. The samples were classified, and discriminative models were established by using the quick classifier, genetic algorithm and supervised neural network algorithms. All of the statistical algorithms used in this study allow distinguishing analyzed groups with high statistical significance, which confirms the influence of honeybee sting on the serum peptidome profile. The results of this study may broaden the understanding of the human organism's response to honeybee venom. Due to the fact that our pilot study was carried out on relatively small datasets, it is necessary to conduct further proteomic research of the response to honeybee sting on a larger group of samples.

  11. Three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; He, Xiao-Min; Munson, Sibyl H.; Twigg, Pamela D.; Gernert, Kim M.; Broom, M. Beth; Miller, Teresa Y.

    1989-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been solved at 6.0 A resolution by the method of multiple isomorphous replacement. Crystals were grown from solutions of polyethylene glycol in the infrequently observed space group P42(1)2 and diffracted X-rays to lattice d-spacings of less than 2.9 A. The electron density maps are of high quality and revealed the structure as a predominantly alpha-helical globin protein in which the course of the polypeptide can be traced. The binding loci of several organic compounds have been determined.

  12. Simple and rapid determination of myristicin in human serum.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Dybowski, Michal P

    2013-01-01

    Myristicin (5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-methylenodioxybenzene) is the main component of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) essential oil. The increasing use of myristicin as a cheap hallucinogenic intoxicant, frequently causing fatal cases of myristicin poisoning, requires new methods for determination of this compound in blood. This report describes the rapid, simple, and useful procedure for myristicin analysis in human serum, involving myristicin-protein complex degradation before chromatographic analysis. The developed method is characterized by a high recovery (above 99 %), a low detection limit (6.0 ng/g) and good repeatability (average RDS of 2.01 %). PMID:23440626

  13. Dynamic regulation of human endogenous retroviruses mediates factor-induced reprogramming and differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Mari; Tanabe, Koji; Sutou, Kenta; Teramoto, Ito; Sawamura, Yuka; Narita, Megumi; Nakamura, Michiko; Tokunaga, Yumie; Nakamura, Masahiro; Watanabe, Akira; Yamanaka, Shinya; Takahashi, Kazutoshi

    2014-08-26

    Pluripotency can be induced in somatic cells by overexpressing transcription factors, including POU class 5 homeobox 1 (OCT3/4), sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-MYC). However, some induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) exhibit defective differentiation and inappropriate maintenance of pluripotency features. Here we show that dynamic regulation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is important in the reprogramming process toward iPSCs, and in re-establishment of differentiation potential. During reprogramming, OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4 transiently hyperactivated LTR7s--the long-terminal repeats of HERV type-H (HERV-H)--to levels much higher than in embryonic stem cells by direct occupation of LTR7 sites genome-wide. Knocking down LTR7s or long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, regulator of reprogramming (lincRNA-RoR), a HERV-H-driven long noncoding RNA, early in reprogramming markedly reduced the efficiency of iPSC generation. KLF4 and LTR7 expression decreased to levels comparable with embryonic stem cells once reprogramming was complete, but failure to resuppress KLF4 and LTR7s resulted in defective differentiation. We also observed defective differentiation and LTR7 activation when iPSCs had forced expression of KLF4. However, when aberrantly expressed KLF4 or LTR7s were suppressed in defective iPSCs, normal differentiation was restored. Thus, a major mechanism by which OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4 promote human iPSC generation and reestablish potential for differentiation is by dynamically regulating HERV-H LTR7s.

  14. Human endogenous retrovirus protein Rec interacts with the testicular zinc-finger protein and androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Sabine; Sauter, Marlies; Schmitt, Martina; Baumert, Bianca; Best, Barbara; Boese, Annette; Roemer, Klaus; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus

    2010-06-01

    More than 2000 human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences are present in the human genome, yet only a few are intact and able to produce proteins. The normal functions of these, if any, are unknown, but some HERV proteins have been implicated in cancers, in particular germ-cell cancers. For instance, it has been documented that (i) patients with germ-cell tumours frequently produce antibodies against HERV proteins; (ii) transgenic mice expressing HERV-K (HML-2) rec are prone to testicular carcinoma in situ; and (iii) Rec can bind and suppress a guardian of germline stem-cell pluripotency, the promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger protein (PLZF). This study identified the PLZF-related testicular zinc-finger protein (TZFP) as a binding partner of HERV-K (HML-2) Rec. Interactions occurred via the N- and C-terminal domains of Rec and the C-terminal DNA-binding zinc-finger domain of TZFP (aa 375-450). Not much is known about the function of TZFP. The protein is expressed predominantly in the testis, where it functions as a transcriptional repressor that is active during specific stages of spermatogenesis. The most intensely studied function of TZFP is that of a co-repressor of the activated androgen receptor (AR). Here, it was shown that Rec can form a trimeric complex with TZFP and AR, and can relieve the TZFP-mediated repression of AR-induced transactivation. In addition, Rec was able to overcome the direct transcriptional repression by TZFP of the c-myc gene promoter in reporter assays. Thus, HERV-K (HML-2) Rec may function as an oncoprotein by de-repressing oncogenic transcription factors such as AR.

  15. Treatment against human endogenous retrovirus: a possible personalized medicine approach for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Curtin, François; Perron, Hervé; Faucard, Raphael; Porchet, Hervé; Lang, Alois B

    2015-10-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) represent about 8 % of the human genome. Some of these genetic elements are expressed in pathological circumstances. A HERV protein, the multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) envelope protein (MSRV-Env), is expressed in the blood and active brain lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. It possesses pro-inflammatory and myelinotoxic properties. The patterns of expression and pathogenic properties of MSRV-Env make it a relevant drug target for MS therapeutics-in particular for preventing neurodegeneration, a key component of progressive forms of MS. An immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody (mAb), called GNbAC1, has been developed to neutralize this pathogenic target. After showing neutralizing effects in vitro and in mouse models of MS, GNbAC1 is now in phase II clinical development. MSRV-related biomarkers such as MSRV-Env and MSRV polymerase (MSRV-Pol) gene transcripts are overexpressed in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with MS. These biomarkers may have prognostic value for long-term MS evolution, and their transcription levels in blood decline during treatments with GNbAC1, which has also been reported in patients administered reference MS drugs such as natalizumab or interferon-β. GNbAC1 as a new MSRV-Env-antagonist mAb could be a specific and causal treatment for MS, with a particular application for progressive forms of the disease. For possible use in companion diagnostic tests, MSRV-associated biomarkers could open the door to a personalized therapeutic approach for MS.

  16. Treatment against human endogenous retrovirus: a possible personalized medicine approach for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Curtin, François; Perron, Hervé; Faucard, Raphael; Porchet, Hervé; Lang, Alois B

    2015-10-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) represent about 8 % of the human genome. Some of these genetic elements are expressed in pathological circumstances. A HERV protein, the multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) envelope protein (MSRV-Env), is expressed in the blood and active brain lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. It possesses pro-inflammatory and myelinotoxic properties. The patterns of expression and pathogenic properties of MSRV-Env make it a relevant drug target for MS therapeutics-in particular for preventing neurodegeneration, a key component of progressive forms of MS. An immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody (mAb), called GNbAC1, has been developed to neutralize this pathogenic target. After showing neutralizing effects in vitro and in mouse models of MS, GNbAC1 is now in phase II clinical development. MSRV-related biomarkers such as MSRV-Env and MSRV polymerase (MSRV-Pol) gene transcripts are overexpressed in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with MS. These biomarkers may have prognostic value for long-term MS evolution, and their transcription levels in blood decline during treatments with GNbAC1, which has also been reported in patients administered reference MS drugs such as natalizumab or interferon-β. GNbAC1 as a new MSRV-Env-antagonist mAb could be a specific and causal treatment for MS, with a particular application for progressive forms of the disease. For possible use in companion diagnostic tests, MSRV-associated biomarkers could open the door to a personalized therapeutic approach for MS. PMID:26376649

  17. A Panel of Serum MiRNA Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Severe to Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bhomia, Manish; Balakathiresan, Nagaraja S.; Wang, Kevin K.; Papa, Linda; Maheshwari, Radha K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are small endogenous RNA molecules and have emerged as novel serum diagnostic biomarkers for several diseases due to their stability and detection at minute quantities. In this study, we have identified a serum miRNA signature in human serum samples of mild to severe TBI, which can be used for diagnosis of mild and moderate TBI (MMTBI). Human serum samples of MMTBI, severe TBI (STBI), orthopedic injury and healthy controls were used and miRNA profiling was done using taqman real time PCR. The real time PCR data for the MMTBI, STBI and orthopedic injury was normalized to the control samples which showed upregulation of 39, 37 and 33 miRNAs in MMTBI, STBI and orthopedic injury groups respectively. TBI groups were compared to orthopedic injury group and an up-regulation of 18 and 20 miRNAs in MMTBI and STBI groups was observed. Among these, a signature of 10 miRNAs was found to be present in both MMTBI and STBI groups. These 10 miRNAs were validated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from STBI and four miRNAs were found to be upregulated in CSF. In conclusion, we identified a subset of 10 unique miRNAs which can be used for diagnosis of MMTBI and STBI. PMID:27338832

  18. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) as an endogenous marker of chronic hypoxia in live human tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kaffer, Anja; Riedl, Susanne; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Published clinical studies provide conflicting data regarding the prognostic significance of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) overexpression as an endogenous marker of tumor hypoxia and its comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection. We performed a systematic analysis of CA IX protein levels under various in vitro conditions of tumor hypoxia in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma and FaDu human pharyngeal carcinoma cells. Because sorting of live CA IX positive cells from tumors provides a tool to study the radiosensitivity of chronically hypoxic cells, we modified and tested a CA IX flow cytometry protocol on mixed hypoxic/aerobic suspensions of HT 1080 and FaDu cells. Methods and materials: HT 1080 and FaDu cells were treated with up to 24 h of in vitro hypoxia and up to 96 h of reoxygenation. To test the effect of nonhypoxic stimuli, glucose and serum availability, pH and cell density were modified. CA IX protein was quantified in Western blots of whole-cell lysates. Mixed suspensions with known percentages of hypoxic cells were prepared for CA IX flow cytometry. The same mixtures were assayed for clonogenic survival after 10 Gy. Results: Hypoxia-induced CA IX protein expression was seen after >6 h at {<=}5% O{sub 2}, and protein was stable over 96 h of reoxygenation in both cell lines. Glucose deprivation abolished the hypoxic CA IX response, and high cell density caused CA IX induction under aerobic conditions. Measured percentages of CA IX-positive cells in mixtures closely reflected known percentages of hypoxic cells in HT 1080 and were associated with radioresistance of mixtures after 10 Gy. Conclusion: CA IX is a stable marker of current or previous chronic hypoxia but influenced by nonhypoxic stimuli. Except the time course of accumulation, all properties of this marker resembled our previous findings for hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. A modified flow cytometry protocol provided good separability of CA IX-negative and -positive cells in vitro

  19. Interaction between human serum esterases and environmental metal compounds.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio F; Gil, Fernando; Leno, Esther; López, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Pla, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and cholinesterase (BChE) are two of the major human serum esterases. Although most of variation in PON1 activity results from genetic factors, there is growing evidence that environmental chemicals also modulate its activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether environmental exposure to metal compounds has any influence on those esterases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of the general population of Andalusia, South of Spain. PON1 activity against different substrates (paraoxon, phenylacetate, diazoxon and dihydrocoumarin) and BChE were measured in serum from 536 healthy subjects. Potential associations of these esterases with metal compounds, age, sex and body mass index as well as life-style habits (smoking, alcohol drinking and food habits) were explored. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that blood lead levels were significantly associated with increased PON1 in serum regardless of the substrate used for the assay. Mercury also showed a significant and direct association with PON1 towards paraoxon and phenylacetate. In turn, cadmium and zinc levels were significantly associated with a decreased PON1 activity (zinc was associated with all PON1 activities and cadmium with PON1 towards paraoxon and diazoxon). Arsenic, nickel and manganese failed to be significantly associated with any of the PON1 activities assayed. PON1 192R alloform predicted significantly higher levels of arsenic and lead. BChE, however, was inversely associated with serum levels of manganese and zinc. These results suggest that PON1 and BChE activities are modulated by background exposure to metal compounds, which may have implications in public health given the defensive role played by both enzyme proteins against environmental toxicants. The potential underlying mechanisms merit further investigation.

  20. Improved expression and reactivity of transduced tumor-specific TCRs in human lymphocytes by specific silencing of endogenous TCR.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Sachiko; Mineno, Junichi; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Yasukawa, Masaki; Shiku, Hiroshi; Kato, Ikunoshin

    2009-12-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using lymphocytes genetically engineered to express tumor antigen-specific TCRs is an attractive strategy for treating patients with malignancies. However, there are potential drawbacks to this strategy: mispairing of the introduced TCR alpha/beta chains with the endogenous TCR subunits and competition of CD3 molecules between the introduced and endogenous TCRs can impair cell surface expression of the transduced TCR, resulting in insufficient function and potential generation of autoreactive T cells. In addition, the risk of tumor development following the infusion of cells with aberrant vector insertion sites increases with the vector copy number in the transduced cells. In this study, we developed retroviral vectors encoding both small interfering RNA constructs that specifically down-regulate endogenous TCR and a codon-optimized, small interfering RNA-resistant TCR specific for the human tumor antigens MAGE-A4 or WT1. At low copy numbers of the integrated vector, the transduced human lymphocytes exhibited high surface expression of the introduced tumor-specific TCR and reduced expression of endogenous TCRs. In consequence, the vector-transduced lymphocytes showed enhanced cytotoxic activity against antigen-expressing tumor cells. Therefore, our novel TCR gene therapy may open a new gate for effective immunotherapy in cancer patients. PMID:19903853

  1. Comparative Analysis of Human Growth Hormone in Serum Using SPRi, Nano-SPRi and ELISA Assays

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Vincent C.; Sandros, Marinella G.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive and selective methods for the detection of human growth hormone (hGH) over a wide range of concentrations (high levels of 50-100 ng ml−1 and minimum levels of 0.03 ng ml−1) in circulating blood are essential as variable levels may indicate altered physiology. For example, growth disorders occurring in childhood can be diagnosed by measuring levels of hGH in blood. Also, the misuse of recombinant hGH in sports not only poses an ethical issue it also presents serious health threats to the abuser. One popular strategy for measuring hGH misuse, relies on the detection of the ratio of 22 kDa hGH to total hGH, as non-22 kDa endogenous levels drop after exogenous recombinant hGH (rhGH) administration.Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an analytical tool that allows direct (label-free) monitoring and visualization of biomolecular interactions by recording changes of the refractive index adjacent to the sensor surface in real time. In contrast, the most frequently used colorimetric method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) uses enzyme labeled detection antibodies to indirectly measure analyte concentration after the addition of a substrate that induces a color change. To increase detection sensitivity, amplified SPRi uses a sandwich assay format and near infrared quantum dots (QDs) to increase signal strength. After direct SPRi detection of recombinant rhGH in spiked human serum, the SPRi signal is amplified by the sequential injection of detection antibody coated with near-infrared QDs (Nano-SPRi). In this study, the diagnostic potential of direct and amplified SPRi was assessed for measuring rhGH spiked in human serum and compared directly with the capabilities of a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26780354

  2. Human neural stem cells promote proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and enhance angiogenesis in ischemic rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seung U.; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem cells into the dentate gyrus or ventricle of rodents has been reportedly to enhance neurogenesis. In this study, we examined endogenous stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the ischemic rat brain after the transplantation of human neural stem cells. Focal cerebral ischemia in the rat brain was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Human neural stem cells were transplanted into the subventricular zone. The behavioral performance of human neural stem cells-treated ischemic rats was significantly improved and cerebral infarct volumes were reduced compared to those in untreated animals. Numerous transplanted human neural stem cells were alive and preferentially localized to the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-labeled endogenous neural stem cells were observed in the subventricular zone and hippocampus, where they differentiated into cells immunoreactive for the neural markers doublecortin, neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein in human neural stem cells-treated rats, but not in the untreated ischemic animals. The number of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-positive ⁄ anti-von Willebrand factor-positive proliferating endothelial cells was higher in the ischemic boundary zone of human neural stem cells-treated rats than in controls. Finally, transplantation of human neural stem cells in the brains of rats with focal cerebral ischemia promoted the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neural-like cells, and enhanced angiogenesis. This study provides valuable insights into the effect of human neural stem cell transplantation on focal cerebral ischemia, which can be applied to the development of an effective therapy for stroke. PMID:27073384

  3. A human endogenous retroviral sequence encoding an antigen recognized on melanoma by cytolytic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Schiavetti, Francesca; Thonnard, Joëlle; Colau, Didier; Boon, Thierry; Coulie, Pierre G

    2002-10-01

    We have identified a gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on the autologous tumor cells of a melanoma patient, AVL3. The gene shows homologies with members of the HERV-K family of human endogenous retroviruses, and it was provisionally named HERV-K-MEL. It contains many mutations that disrupt the open reading frames coding for all of the viral proteins. The HERV-K-MEL gene is not expressed in normal tissues with the exception of testis and some skin samples. It is expressed in most samples of cutaneous and ocular melanoma. It is also expressed in a majority of naevi and in a minority of carcinomas and sarcomas. The antigenic peptide, presented by HLA-A2 molecules, is encoded by a very short open reading frame present in the env region of a spliced HERV-K-MEL transcript. Anti-HERV.A2 CTLp could not be detected in the blood of three individuals without cancer but were present at a frequency of 3 x 10(-5) among blood CD8 T cells in patient AVL3 and 6 x 10(-7) in another HLA-A2 melanoma patient whose tumor expressed HERV-K-MEL. Anti-HERV.A2 CTL clones derived from each patient lysed melanoma cells. Analysis of T-cell receptor beta chain sequences indicated that the anti-HERV.A2 CTL population was oligoclonal in patient AVL3 and probably monoclonal in the other patient. These results suggest that HERV-K-MEL is a source of antigens that are targeted by CTLs in melanoma patients and could therefore be used for vaccination.

  4. Endogenous interleukin-12: relationship with angiogenic factors, hormone receptors and nodal status in human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Toi, M; Gion, M; Saji, H; Asano, M; Dittadi, R; Gilberti, S; Locopo, N; Gasparini, G

    1999-12-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is known to be a key cytokine for regulating immune response, but it is also known to provide some other biological function including inhibition of angiogenesis. We have determined using an enzymatic immunoassay the endogenous levels of IL-12 in 390 cytosols of primary breast cancers previously tested also for the angiogenic peptides, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The concentration of IL-12 ranged from 0 to 7.6 ng/mg protein, and 124 (31.8%) out of 390 cancers showed a detectable dose (>0.1 ng/ml). There was no statistical association of IL-12 levels with tumor size and menopausal status. IL-12 levels tended to be higher in the tumors of node-positive patients as compared to those of node-negative ones (t-test, p=0.082). In addition, IL-12 levels were inversely associated with hormone receptor status, particularly progesterone receptor expression (p=0.0013). There was a significant inverse association between IL-12 and TP concentration (p=0.0007). The proportion of tumors with detectable levels of IL-12 and low levels of either VEGF or TP was higher among the patients with node-negative as compared to those with node-positive disease. On the contrary, the proportion of tumors with no detectable IL-12 and high levels of either VEGF or TP was higher in node-positive versus node-negative cancers. In conclusion, our study evaluated the balance between pro-angiogenic factors (TP and VEGF) and IL-12, as a detectable naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis, in the same series of node-negative and node-positive breast cancers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the biological and clinical significance of the co-determination of pro and contra angiogenic factors in human breast carcinoma.

  5. Human Endogenous Retrovirus HERV-Fc1 Association with Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    García-Montojo, Marta; Alcina, Antonio; Fedetz, María; Alloza, Iraide; Astobiza, Ianire; Leyva, Laura; Fernández, Oscar; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Antigüedad, Alfredo; Arroyo, Rafael; Álvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Matesanz, Fuencisla; Urcelay, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are repetitive sequences derived from ancestral germ-line infections by exogenous retroviruses and different HERV families have been integrated in the genome. HERV-Fc1 in chromosome X has been previously associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Northern European populations. Additionally, HERV-Fc1 RNA levels of expression have been found increased in plasma of MS patients with active disease. Considering the North-South latitude gradient in MS prevalence, we aimed to evaluate the role of HERV-Fc1on MS risk in three independent Spanish cohorts. Methods A single nucleotide polymorphism near HERV-Fc1, rs391745, was genotyped by Taqman chemistry in a total of 2473 MS patients and 3031 ethnically matched controls, consecutively recruited from: Northern (569 patients and 980 controls), Central (883 patients and 692 controls) and Southern (1021 patients and 1359 controls) Spain. Our results were pooled in a meta-analysis with previously published data. Results Significant associations of the HERV-Fc1 polymorphism with MS were observed in two Spanish cohorts and the combined meta-analysis with previous data yielded a significant association [rs391745 C-allele carriers: pM-H = 0.0005; ORM-H (95% CI) = 1.27 (1.11–1.45)]. Concordantly to previous findings, when the analysis was restricted to relapsing remitting and secondary progressive MS samples, a slight enhancement in the strength of the association was observed [pM-H = 0.0003, ORM-H (95% CI) = 1.32 (1.14–1.53)]. Conclusion Association of the HERV-Fc1 polymorphism rs391745 with bout-onset MS susceptibility was confirmed in Southern European cohorts. PMID:24594754

  6. Endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis in fat-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seong Ji; Lim, Kyu; Park, Su Yeon; Jung, Mun Yhung; Lim, Hye Song; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Il; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    It is suggested that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be used in the preventive or therapeutic management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, controversial results have been reported. Here, we examined the effects of a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on RA using fat-1 transgenic mice. First, we tested whether fat-1 expression modulated signaling pathways in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). TNF-α activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in wild type (WT) FLSs but not in fat-1 FLSs. Arthritis was induced by injection of K/BxN serum. Based on clinical scores, ankle thickness and pathological severity, we showed that WT mice developed clinically overt arthritis, whereas fat-1 mice showed attenuated arthritis. Moreover, fat-1 mice exhibited down-regulated local and systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines. Lastly, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) of WT mice differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts, whereas the osteoclastogenenic process was suppressed in BMMs of fat-1 mice. The endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs via fat-1 plays a key role in attenuation of RA; therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFAs may have therapeutic potential for the management of RA. PMID:25910895

  7. Endogenous Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Ozone in Human and Animal Tissues: Mechanisms, Biological Significance, and Influence of Dietary Components

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposing antibodies or amino acids to singlet oxygen results in the formation of ozone (or an ozone-like oxidant) and hydrogen peroxide and that human neutrophils produce both singlet oxygen and ozone during bacterial killing. There is also mounting evidence that endogenous singlet oxygen production may be a common occurrence in cells through various mechanisms. Thus, the ozone-producing combination of singlet oxygen and amino acids might be a common cellular occurrence. This paper reviews the potential pathways of formation of singlet oxygen and ozone in vivo and also proposes some new pathways for singlet oxygen formation. Physiological consequences of the endogenous formation of these oxidants in human tissues are discussed, as well as examples of how dietary factors may promote or inhibit their generation and activity. PMID:27042259

  8. In vivo detection of oral epithelial cancer using endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging: a pilot human study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Javier A.; Hwang, Dae Yon; Palma, Jorge; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Malik, Bilal; Jabbour, Joey; Cheng, Lisa; Wright, John; Maitland, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) provides direct access to the concomitant functional and biochemical changes accompanying tissue transition from benign to precancerous and cancerous. Since FLIM can noninvasively measure different and complementary biomarkers of precancer and cancer, we hypothesize that it will aid in clinically detecting early oral epithelial cancer. Our group has recently demonstrated the detection of benign from premalignant and malignant lesions based on endogenous multispectral FLIM in the hamster cheek-pouch model. Encouraged by these positive preliminary results, we have developed a handheld endoscope capable of acquiring multispectral FLIM images in real time from the oral mucosa. This novel FLIM endoscope is being used for imaging clinically suspicious pre-malignant and malignant lesions from patients before undergoing tissue biopsy for histopathological diagnosis of oral epithelial cancer. Our preliminary results thus far are already suggesting the potential of endogenous FLIM for distinguishing a variety of benign lesions from advanced dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To the best of out knowledge, this is the first in vivo human study aiming to demonstrate the ability to predict the true malignancy of clinically suspicious lesions using endogenous FLIM. If successful, the resulting clinical tool will allow noninvasive real-time detection of epithelial precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa and could potentially be used to assist at every step involved on the clinical management of oral cancer patients, from early screening and diagnosis, to treatment and monitoring of recurrence.

  9. Rhabdovirus-induced apoptosis in a fish cell line is inhibited by a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Björklund, H V; Johansson, T R; Rinne, A

    1997-07-01

    To determine the mechanisms of cell death in rhabdovirus-infected cells, we studied the infection of the epithelial papilloma of carp cell line with spring viremia of carp virus. Studies using electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed changes in cell morphology and DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. The virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited in cells treated with a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor. PMID:9188644

  10. A MALDI-MS-based quantitative analytical method for endogenous estrone in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Han-Gyu; Hwang, Cheol-Hwan; Sung, Changmin; Jang, Kyoung-Soon; Park, Sung-Hee; Kim, Byung-Gee; Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Yang, Yung-Hun; Jeong, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The level of endogenous estrone, one of the three major naturally occurring estrogens, has a significant correlation with the incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer. However, it is challenging to quantitatively monitor it owing to its low abundance. Here, we develop a robust and highly sensitive mass-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)-based quantitative platform to identify the absolute quantities of endogenous estrones in a variety of clinical specimens. The one-step modification of endogenous estrone provided good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and significantly increased the sensitivity of the platform (limit of quantitation: 11 fmol). In addition, we could identify the absolute amount of endogenous estrones in cells of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 (34 fmol/106 cells) by using a deuterated estrone as an internal standard. Finally, by applying the MALDI-MS-based quantitative method to endogenous estrones, we successfully monitored changes in the metabolic expression level of estrones (17.7 fmol/106 letrozole-treated cells) in MCF-7 cells resulting from treatment with an aromatase inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that this MALDI-MS-based quantitative approach may be a general method for the targeted metabolomics of ketone-containing metabolites, which can reflect clinical conditions and pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:27091422

  11. Photoinduced covalent binding of frusemide and frusemide glucuronide to human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Mizuma, Takashi; McDonagh, Antony F; Lin, Emil T; Benet, Leslie Z

    1999-01-01

    Aims To study reaction of photoactivated frusemide (F) and F glucuronide (Fgnd metabolite) with human serum albumin in order to find a clue to clarify a mechanism of phototoxic blisters from high frusemide dosage. Methods F was exposed to light in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA). HSA treated with this method (TR-HSA) was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopic experiment, alkali treatment and reversible binding experiment. Results Less 4-hydroxyl-N-furfuryl-5-sulphamoylanthranilic acid (4HFSA, a photodegradation product of F) was formed in the presence of HSA than in the absence of HSA. A new fluorescence spectrum excited at 320 nm was observed for TR-HSA. Alkali treatment of TR-HSA released 4HFSA. Quenching of the fluorescence due to the lone tryptophan near the warfarin-binding site of HSA was observed in TR-HSA. The reversible binding of F or naproxen to the warfarin-binding site of TR-HSA was less than to that of native HSA. These results indicate the photoactivated F was covalently bound to the warfarin-binding site of HSA. The covalent binding of Fgnd, which is also reversibly bound to the wafarin-binding site of HSA, was also induced by exposure to sunlight. Fgnd was more photoactive than F, indicating that F could be activated by glucuronidation to become a more photoactive compound. Conclusions The reactivity of photoactivated F and Fgnd to HSA and/or to other endogenous compounds may cause the phototoxic blisters that result at high F dosage. PMID:10383564

  12. Expression of Human Endogenous Retrovirus-W Including Syncytin-1 in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Maliniemi, Pilvi; Vincendeau, Michelle; Mayer, Jens; Frank, Oliver; Hahtola, Sonja; Karenko, Leena; Carlsson, Emilia; Mallet, Francois; Seifarth, Wolfgang; Leib-Mösch, Christine; Ranki, Annamari

    2013-01-01

    The pathomechanism of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) and a malignancy of non-recirculating, skin-resident T-cells, is unknown albeit underlying viral infections have been sought for. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient retroviral sequences in the human genome and their transcription is often deregulated in cancers. We explored the transcriptional activity of HERV sequences in a total of 34 samples comprising MF and psoriasis skin lesions, as well as corresponding non-malignant skin using a retrovirus-specific microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. To identify active HERV-W loci, we cloned the HERV-W specific RT-PCR products, sequenced the cDNA clones and assigned the sequences to HERV-W loci. Finally, we used immunohistochemistry on MF patient and non-malignant inflammatory skin samples to confirm specific HERV-encoded protein expression. Firstly, a distinct, skin-specific transcription profile consisting of five constitutively active HERV groups was established. Although individual variability was common, HERV-W showed significantly increased transcription in MF lesions compared to clinically intact skin from the same patient. Predominantly transcribed HERV-W loci were found to be located in chromosomes 6q21 and 7q21.2, chromosomal regions typically altered in CTCL. Surprisingly, we also found the expression of 7q21.2/ERVWE1-encoded Syncytin-1 (Env) protein in MF biopsies and expression of Syncytin-1 was seen in malignant lymphocytes, especially in the epidermotropic ones, in 15 of 30 cases studied. Most importantly, no Syncytin-1 expression was detected in inflammatory dermatosis (Lichen ruber planus) with skin-homing, non-malignant T lymphocytes. The expression of ERVWE1 mRNA was further confirmed in 3/7 MF lesions analyzed. Our observations strengthen the association between activated HERVs and cancer. The study offers a new perspective into the pathogenesis of CTCL since we demonstrate

  13. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated endogenous protein tagging for RESOLFT super-resolution microscopy of living human cells

    PubMed Central

    Ratz, Michael; Testa, Ilaria; Hell, Stefan W.; Jakobs, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression is a notorious concern in conventional and especially in super-resolution fluorescence light microscopy studies because it may cause numerous artifacts including ectopic sub-cellular localizations, erroneous formation of protein complexes, and others. Nonetheless, current live cell super-resolution microscopy studies generally rely on the overexpression of a host protein fused to a fluorescent protein. Here, we establish CRISPR/Cas9-mediated generation of heterozygous and homozygous human knockin cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged proteins from their respective native genomic loci at close to endogenous levels. We tagged three different proteins, exhibiting various localizations and expression levels, with the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2. We demonstrate the benefit of endogenous expression levels compared to overexpression and show that typical overexpression-induced artefacts were avoided in genome-edited cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed a narrow distribution of fusion protein expression levels in genome-edited cells, compared to a pronounced variability in transiently transfected cells. Using low light intensity RESOLFT (reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions) nanoscopy we show sub-diffraction resolution imaging of living human knockin cells. Our strategy to generate human cell lines expressing fluorescent fusion proteins at endogenous levels for RESOLFT nanoscopy can be extended to other fluorescent tags and super-resolution approaches. PMID:25892259

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated endogenous protein tagging for RESOLFT super-resolution microscopy of living human cells.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Michael; Testa, Ilaria; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2015-04-20

    Overexpression is a notorious concern in conventional and especially in super-resolution fluorescence light microscopy studies because it may cause numerous artifacts including ectopic sub-cellular localizations, erroneous formation of protein complexes, and others. Nonetheless, current live cell super-resolution microscopy studies generally rely on the overexpression of a host protein fused to a fluorescent protein. Here, we establish CRISPR/Cas9-mediated generation of heterozygous and homozygous human knockin cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged proteins from their respective native genomic loci at close to endogenous levels. We tagged three different proteins, exhibiting various localizations and expression levels, with the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2. We demonstrate the benefit of endogenous expression levels compared to overexpression and show that typical overexpression-induced artefacts were avoided in genome-edited cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed a narrow distribution of fusion protein expression levels in genome-edited cells, compared to a pronounced variability in transiently transfected cells. Using low light intensity RESOLFT (reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions) nanoscopy we show sub-diffraction resolution imaging of living human knockin cells. Our strategy to generate human cell lines expressing fluorescent fusion proteins at endogenous levels for RESOLFT nanoscopy can be extended to other fluorescent tags and super-resolution approaches.

  15. Human platelet lysate: Replacing fetal bovine serum as a gold standard for human cell propagation?

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry; Strunk, Dirk; Koh, Mickey B C; Schallmoser, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The essential physiological role of platelets in wound healing and tissue repair builds the rationale for the use of human platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine. Abundant growth factors and cytokines stored in platelet granules can be naturally released by thrombin activation and clotting or artificially by freeze/thaw-mediated platelet lysis, sonication or chemical treatment. Human platelet lysate prepared by the various release strategies has been established as a suitable alternative to fetal bovine serum as culture medium supplement, enabling efficient propagation of human cells under animal serum-free conditions for a multiplicity of applications in advanced somatic cell therapy and tissue engineering. The rapidly increasing number of studies using platelet derived products for inducing human cell proliferation and differentiation has also uncovered a considerable variability of human platelet lysate preparations which limits comparability of results. The main variations discussed herein encompass aspects of donor selection, preparation of the starting material, the possibility for pooling in plasma or additive solution, the implementation of pathogen inactivation and consideration of ABO blood groups, all of which can influence applicability. This review outlines the current knowledge about human platelet lysate as a powerful additive for human cell propagation and highlights its role as a prevailing supplement for human cell culture capable to replace animal serum in a growing spectrum of applications. PMID:26561934

  16. Interaction of drugs with bovine and human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, Anna

    2002-09-01

    The study on the interaction of antithyroid drugs: 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (Methimazole, MMI) and 6 n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) with two kinds of serum albumin: bovine (BSA) and human (HSA) has been undertaken. Fluorescence emission spectra of serum albumin in the presence of MMI or PTU, recorded at the excitation wavelengths 280 and 295 nm, clearly show that the studied drugs act as quenchers. A decrease in fluorescence intensity at 340 or 350 nm, when excited at 280 or 295 nm, respectively, is attributed to changes in the environment of the protein fluorophores caused to the presence of the ligand. The 295 nm lights excites tryptophan residues, while the 280 nm lights excites both tryptophan and tyrosine residues. A comparison of quenching effects, when protein is excited at 295 and 280 nm, reveals that the tryptophanyl group interacts with the ligand. The differences in interactions of pyrimidine derivatives with HSA and BSA were observed using spectrofluorimetry technique. As the HSA structure contains only one tryptophanyl residue (Trp 214), while BSA has two ones (Trp 135 and Trp 214), the similar decrease of fluorescence points at the subdomain IIA, where Trp 214 was located, as a binding site of the studied drugs.

  17. Effects of endogenous formaldehyde in nasal tissues on inhaled formaldehyde dosimetry predictions in the rat, monkey, and human nasal passages.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Jeffry D; Campbell, Jerry; Kimbell, Julia S; Conolly, Rory B; Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E

    2014-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a nasal carcinogen in rodents at high doses and is an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde have relied on internal dose estimates in the upper respiratory tract. Dosimetry calculations are complicated by the presence of endogenous formaldehyde concentrations in the respiratory mucosa. Anatomically accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the rat, monkey, and human nasal passages were used to simulate uptake of inhaled formaldehyde. An epithelial structure was implemented in the nasal CFD models to estimate formaldehyde absorption from air:tissue partitioning, species-specific metabolism, first-order clearance, DNA binding, and endogenous formaldehyde production. At an exposure concentration of 1 ppm, predicted formaldehyde nasal uptake was 99.4, 86.5, and 85.3% in the rat, monkey, and human, respectively. Endogenous formaldehyde in nasal tissues did not significantly affect wall mass flux or nasal uptake predictions at exposure concentrations > 500 ppb; however, reduced nasal uptake was predicted at lower exposure concentrations. At an exposure concentration of 1 ppb, predicted nasal uptake was 17.5 and 42.8% in the rat and monkey; net desorption of formaldehyde was predicted in the human model. The nonlinear behavior of formaldehyde nasal absorption will affect the dose-response analysis and subsequent risk estimates at low exposure concentrations. Updated surface area partitioning of nonsquamous epithelium and average flux values in regions where DNA-protein cross-links and cell proliferation rates were measured in rats and monkeys are reported for use in formaldehyde risk models of carcinogenesis.

  18. Human serum albumin crystals and method of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) crystals are provided in the form of tetragonal plates having the space groups P42(sub 1)2, the crystals being grown to sizes in excess of 0.5 mm in two dimensions and a thickness of 0.1 mm. Growth of the crystals is carried out by a hanging drop method wherein a precipitant solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a phosphate buffer is mixed with an HSA solution, and a droplet of mixed solution is suspended over a well of precipitant solution. Crystals grow to the desired size in 3 to 7 days. Concentration of reagents, pH and other parameters are controlled within prescribed limits. The resulting crystals exhibit a size and quality such as to allow performance of x ray diffraction studies and enable the conduct of drug binding studies as well as genetic engineering studies.

  19. In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin.

    PubMed

    Ha-Duong, Nguyêt-Thanh; Eid, Chantal; Hémadi, Miryana; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    The thermodynamics of the interactions of serum apotransferrin (T) and holotransferrin (TFe(2)) with ceruloplasmin (Cp), as well as those of human lactoferrin (Lf), were assessed by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cp interacts with two Lf molecules. The first interaction depends on pH and μ, whereas the second does not. Dissociation constants were as follows: K(11Lf) = 1.5 ± 0.2 μM, and K(12Lf) = 11 ± 2 μM. Two slightly different interactions of T or TFe(2) with Cp are detected for the first time. They are both independent of pH and μ and occur with 1:1 stoichiometry: K(1T) = 19 ± 7 μM, and K(1TFe2) = 12 ± 4 μM. These results can improve our understanding of the probable process of the transfer of iron from Cp to T in iron and copper transport and homeostasis. PMID:21049900

  20. Three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; He, Xiao-Min; Twigg, Pamela D.; Casale, Elena

    1991-01-01

    The binding locations to human serum albumin (HSA) of several drug molecules were determined at low resolution using crystallographic methods. The principal binding sites are located within subdomains IIA and IIIA. Preliminary studies suggest that an approach to increasing the in vivo efficacy of drugs which are rendered less effective or ineffective by virtue of their interaction with HSA, would be the use of competitive displacement in drug therapies and/or the development of a general inhibitor to the site within subdomain IIIA. These findings also suggest that the facilitated transfer of various ligands across organ/circulatory interfaces such as liver, kidney, and brain may be associated with binding to the IIIA subdomain.

  1. In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin.

    PubMed

    Ha-Duong, Nguyêt-Thanh; Eid, Chantal; Hémadi, Miryana; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    The thermodynamics of the interactions of serum apotransferrin (T) and holotransferrin (TFe(2)) with ceruloplasmin (Cp), as well as those of human lactoferrin (Lf), were assessed by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cp interacts with two Lf molecules. The first interaction depends on pH and μ, whereas the second does not. Dissociation constants were as follows: K(11Lf) = 1.5 ± 0.2 μM, and K(12Lf) = 11 ± 2 μM. Two slightly different interactions of T or TFe(2) with Cp are detected for the first time. They are both independent of pH and μ and occur with 1:1 stoichiometry: K(1T) = 19 ± 7 μM, and K(1TFe2) = 12 ± 4 μM. These results can improve our understanding of the probable process of the transfer of iron from Cp to T in iron and copper transport and homeostasis.

  2. [Study on the interaction of doxycycline with human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao-Ying; Chen, Lin; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the interaction of doxycycline (DC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by the inner filter effects, displacement experiments and molecular docking methods, based on classic multi-spectroscopy. With fluorescence quenching method at 298 and 310 K, the binding constants Ka, were determined to be 2. 73 X 10(5) and 0. 74X 10(5) L mol-1, respectively, and there was one binding site between DC and HSA, indicating that the binding of DC to HSA was strong, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy change, AH and enthropy change, delta S) were calculated to be -83. 55 kJ mol-1 and -176. 31 J mol-1 K-1 via the Vant' Hoff equation, which indicated that the interaction of DC with HSA was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Based on the Föster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the specific binding distance between Trp-214 (acceptor) and DC (donor) was 4. 98 nm, which was similar to the result confirmed by molecular docking. Through displacement experiments, sub-domain IIA of HSA was assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DC. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of DC to HSA induced the conformation change of HSA and increased the disclosure of some part of hydrophobic regions that had been buried before. The results of FTIR spectroscopy showed that DC bound to HSA led to the slight unfolding of the polypeptide chain of HSA. Furthermore, the binding details between DC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking methods, which revealed that DC was bound at sub-domain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and pi-pi interactions. The experimental results provide theoretical basis and reliable data for the study of the interaction between small drug molecule and human serum albumin PMID:25095435

  3. Analysis of Aged Human Serum Albumin Affinity for Doxazosin.

    PubMed

    Chudzik, Mariola; Równicka-Zubik, Joanna; Pożycka, Jadwiga; Pawelczak, Bartosz; Sulkowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes of human serum albumin (HSA) caused by old age and coexisting diseases result in differences in the binding of doxazosin (DOX). DOX is a postsynaptic α1- adrenoreceptor antagonist used for treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In elderly people suffering from various renal or hepatic diseases the significant portion of N-form of human serum albumin (normal) is converted to A-form (aged). The differences in binding of doxazosin to N- and Aform of albumin are an important factor, which may determines therapeutic dosage and toxicity of the test drug. To indicate these differences, the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy was used. The association constant (Ka) obtained from fluorescence quenching demonstrated that doxazosin has higher affinity for AHSA than for HSA. In order to describe the cooperativity in binding process, the values of the Hill's coefficient has been analysed. For DOX-HSA system (λex 295 nm) Hill's coefficient is close to 1 and it indicates that there is a single class of binding sites. For DOX-HSA (λex 275 nm) and DOX-AHSA (λex 275 nm and λex 295 nm) systems we observed positive cooperativity (nH>1). A greater red shift of fluorescence emission maximum of AHSA than HSA in the presence of DOX was observed. This suggests that the binding of DOX to AHSA was accompanied by a stronger increase in polarity around the fluorophores in comparison to HSA. The binding interaction between DOX and HSA has been also studied by molecular docking simulation.

  4. PIXE analysis of human serum - A preliminary study of the correlation between trace elements in human serum and the ``Deficiency Syndrome Complex'' theory of traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-chien, Li; Ming-guang, Tan; Jun-fa, Chin; Kang-long, Shen; Zhi-xiang, Chen; Jia-hua, Chang; Wen, Zhu; Wei-yi, Li; Zong-qin, Xia; An-kun, Kuang

    1981-03-01

    To be able to study the correlation between trace elements and the "Deficiency Syndrome Complex" theory of traditional Chinese medicine, we have used a completely automated PIXE analysis system to determine the trace element concentrations in human serum. The experimental results show a marked correlation between the concentrations of trace elements in serum and the two types of patients with the "Deficiency Syndrome Complex".

  5. Characterization of Human Endogenous Retroviral Elements in the Blood of HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H.; Contreras-Galindo, Angie C.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Giusti, Fabiola; Lorenzo, Eric; Gitlin, Scott D.; Dosik, Michael H.; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported finding the RNA of a type K human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K (HML-2), at high titers in the plasma of HIV-1-infected and cancer patients (R. Contreras-Galindo et al., J. Virol. 82:9329–9236, 2008.). The extent to which the HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses become activated and the nature of their activated viral RNAs remain important questions. Therefore, we amplified and sequenced the full-length RNA of the env gene of the type 1 and 2 HERV-K (HML-2) viruses collected from the plasma of seven HIV-1-infected patients over a period of 1 to 3 years and from five breast cancer patients in order to reconstruct the genetic evolution of these viruses. HERV-K (HML-2) RNA was found in plasma fractions of HIV-1 patients at a density of ∼1.16 g/ml that contained both immature and correctly processed HERV-K (HML-2) proteins and virus-like particles that were recognized by anti-HERV-K (HML-2) antibodies. RNA sequences from novel HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses were discovered, including K111, which is specifically active during HIV-1 infection. Viral RNA arose from complete proviruses and proviruses devoid of a 5′ long terminal repeat, suggesting that the expression of HERV-K (HML-2) RNA in these patients may involve sense and antisense transcription. In HIV-1-infected individuals, the HERV-K (HML-2) viral RNA showed evidence of frequent recombination, accumulation of synonymous rather than nonsynonymous mutations, and conserved N-glycosylation sites, suggesting that some of the HERV-K (HML-2) viral RNAs have undergone reverse transcription and are under purifying selection. In contrast, HERV-K (HML-2) RNA sequences found in the blood of breast cancer patients showed no evidence of recombination and exhibited only sporadic viral mutations. This study suggests that HERV-K (HML-2) is active in HIV-1-infected patients, and the resulting RNA message reveals previously undiscovered HERV-K (HML-2) genomic sequences. PMID:22031938

  6. Molecular characteristics of Human Endogenous Retrovirus type-W in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Perron, H; Hamdani, N; Faucard, R; Lajnef, M; Jamain, S; Daban-Huard, C; Sarrazin, S; LeGuen, E; Houenou, J; Delavest, M; Moins-Teisserenc, H; Moins-Teiserenc, H; Bengoufa, D; Yolken, R; Madeira, A; Garcia-Montojo, M; Gehin, N; Burgelin, I; Ollagnier, G; Bernard, C; Dumaine, A; Henrion, A; Gombert, A; Le Dudal, K; Charron, D; Krishnamoorthy, R; Tamouza, R; Leboyer, M

    2012-12-04

    Epidemiological and genome-wide association studies of severe psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), suggest complex interactions between multiple genetic elements and environmental factors. The involvement of genetic elements such as Human Endogenous Retroviruses type 'W' family (HERV-W) has consistently been associated with SZ. HERV-W envelope gene (env) is activated by environmental factors and encodes a protein displaying inflammation and neurotoxicity. The present study addressed the molecular characteristics of HERV-W env in SZ and BD. Hundred and thirty-six patients, 91 with BD, 45 with SZ and 73 healthy controls (HC) were included. HERV-W env transcription was found to be elevated in BD (P<10-4) and in SZ (P=0.012) as compared with HC, but with higher values in BD than in SZ group (P<0.01). The corresponding DNA copy number was paradoxically lower in the genome of patients with BD (P=0.0016) or SZ (P<0.0003) than in HC. Differences in nucleotide sequence of HERV-W env were found between patients with SZ and BD as compared with HC, as well as between SZ and BD. The molecular characteristics of HERV-W env also differ from what was observed in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and may represent distinct features of the genome of patients with BD and SZ. The seroprevalence for Toxoplasma gondii yielded low but significant association with HERV-W transcriptional level in a subgroup of BD and SZ, suggesting a potential role in particular patients. A global hypothesis of mechanisms inducing such major psychoses is discussed, placing HERV-W at the crossroads between environmental, genetic and immunological factors. Thus, particular infections would act as activators of HERV-W elements in earliest life, resulting in the production of an HERV-W envelope protein, which then stimulates pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic cascades. This hypothesis needs to be further explored as it may yield major changes in our understanding and treatment of

  7. A New Nanobody-Based Biosensor to Study Endogenous PARP1 In Vitro and in Live Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nüske, Stefan; Scholz, Armin M.; Bogner, Jacqueline; Ruf, Benjamin; Zolghadr, Kourosh; Drexler, Sophie E.; Drexler, Guido A.; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Romer, Tina; Friedl, Anna A.; Rothbauer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a key player in DNA repair, genomic stability and cell survival and it emerges as a highly relevant target for cancer therapies. To deepen our understanding of PARP biology and mechanisms of action of PARP1-targeting anti-cancer compounds, we generated a novel PARP1-affinity reagent, active both in vitro and in live cells. This PARP1-biosensor is based on a PARP1-specific single-domain antibody fragment (~ 15 kDa), termed nanobody, which recognizes the N-terminus of human PARP1 with nanomolar affinity. In proteomic approaches, immobilized PARP1 nanobody facilitates quantitative immunoprecipitation of functional, endogenous PARP1 from cellular lysates. For cellular studies, we engineered an intracellularly functional PARP1 chromobody by combining the nanobody coding sequence with a fluorescent protein sequence. By following the chromobody signal, we were for the first time able to monitor the recruitment of endogenous PARP1 to DNA damage sites in live cells. Moreover, tracing of the sub-nuclear translocation of the chromobody signal upon treatment of human cells with chemical substances enables real-time profiling of active compounds in high content imaging. Due to its ability to perform as a biosensor at the endogenous level of the PARP1 enzyme, the novel PARP1 nanobody is a unique and versatile tool for basic and applied studies of PARP1 biology and DNA repair. PMID:26950694

  8. Studying the proliferation of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Tabakov, V U; Litvina, M M; Schepkina, J V; Jarilin, A A; Chestkov, V V

    2009-01-01

    We compared the cultivation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in serum-free medium Hybris-2 and RPMI 1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum in the presence of phytohemagglutinin and interleukin-2. The optimal concentration of phytohemagglutinin significantly differed in serum-free and serum-containing media (0.5 and 5 microg/ml, [corrected] respectively). Both mitogens were more potent in stimulating the proliferation of lymphocytes in serum-free medium than in serum-containing medium. Strong proliferation of CD3(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes was observed in both media. The dynamics of other markers was similar in serum-free and serum-containing media. However, significant differences were revealed between individual donors. Our results indicate that the developed serum-free medium may be used in lymphocyte cultivation for scientific, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes.

  9. The nature of human serum insulin-like activity (ILA): characterization of ILA in serum and serum fractions obtained by acid-ethanol extraction and adsorption chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Poffenbarger, Philip L.; Ensinck, John W.; Hepp, Dieter K.; Williams, Robert H.

    1968-01-01

    Studies were undertaken in an attempt to clarify the apparent heterogeneous nature of human serum insulin-like activity. Methods of preparative zone electrophoresis on Pevikon, acid-ethanol extraction of trichloroacetic acid serum protein precipitates, adsorption chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Dowex 50, gel filtration chromatography, and insulin antiserum immunoreactivity were used. The results establish the presence of a substance in serum with in vitro biological properties similar to insuln but with different physicochemical properties. The major portion of serum ILA measured by bioassay techniques can be attributed to the effects of this substance. Whereas the in vitro biological effects of this substance on muscle and adipose cells were similar to those of crystalline insulin, the substance is distinguished from insulin by: (1) the failure of insulin antiserum to inhibit its in vitro biological effect; (2) a slower electrophoretic mobility (in the gamma-beta globulin zone); and (3) a larger molecular weight, between 40,000 and 50,000 in these studies. It is similar to insulin since both are soluble in acid-ethanol. The results further indicate that previously described insulin-like activity in gamma-beta globulin preparations, the major portion of total serum insulin activity described in acid-ethanol extracts of serum, “bound” insulin, “atypical” insulin, and antibody nonsuppressible insulin-like activity bioassayed in diluted serum are all one and the same substance. PMID:4170389

  10. Human Serum Albumin Complexed with Myristate and AZT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lili; Yang, Feng; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Huang, Mingdong

    2008-06-16

    3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is the first clinically effective drug for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The drug interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) has been an important component in understanding its mechanism of action, especially in drug distribution and in drug-drug interaction on HSA in the case of multi-drug therapy. We present here crystal structures of a ternary HSA-Myr-AZT complex and a quaternary HSA-Myr-AZT-SAL complex (Myr, myristate; SAL, salicylic acid). From this study, a new drug binding subsite on HSA Sudlow site 1 was identified. The presence of fatty acid is needed for the creation of this subsite due to fatty acid induced conformational changes of HSA. Thus, the Sudlow site 1 of HSA can be divided into three non-overlapped subsites: a SAL subsite, an indomethacin subsite and an AZT subsite. Binding of a drug to HSA often influences simultaneous binding of other drugs. From the HSA-Myr-AZT-SAL complex structure, we observed the coexistence of two drugs (AZT and SAL) in Sudlow site 1 and the competition between these two drugs in subdomain IB. These results provide new structural information on HSA-drug interaction and drug-drug interaction on HSA.

  11. Posaconazole in Human Serum: a Greater Pharmacodynamic Effect than Predicted by the Non-Protein-Bound Serum Concentration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lignell, Anders; Löwdin, Elisabeth; Cars, Otto; Chryssanthou, Erja; Sjölin, Jan

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that only the unbound fraction of a drug is pharmacologically active. Posaconazole is an antifungal agent with a protein binding of 98 to 99%. Taking into account the degree of protein binding, plasma levels in patients, and MIC levels of susceptible strains, it can be assumed that the free concentration of posaconazole sometimes will be too low to exert the expected antifungal effect. The aim was therefore to test the activity of posaconazole in serum in comparison with that of the calculated unbound concentrations in protein-free media. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from the serum control were found at serum concentrations of posaconazole of 1.0 and 0.10 mg/liter, with calculated free concentrations corresponding to 1× MIC and 0.1× MIC, respectively, against one Candida lusitaniae strain selected for proof of principle. In RPMI 1640, the corresponding calculated unbound concentration of 0.015 mg/liter resulted in a significant effect, whereas that of 0.0015 mg/liter did not. Also, against seven additional Candida strains tested, there was an effect of the low posaconazole concentration in serum, in contrast to the results in RPMI 1640. Fluconazole, a low-grade-protein-bound antifungal, was used for comparison at corresponding concentrations in serum and RPMI 1640. No effect was observed at the serum concentration, resulting in a calculated unbound concentration of 0.1× MIC. In summary, there was a substantially greater pharmacodynamic effect of posaconazole in human serum than could be predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration. A flux from serum protein-bound to fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase-bound posaconazole is suggested. PMID:21502622

  12. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis inversely correlates with side population phenotype and function in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, H; Bourboulia, D; Jensen-Taubman, S; Isaac, B; Wei, B; Stetler-Stevenson, W G

    2014-02-27

    The side population (SP) in human lung cancer cell lines and tumors is enriched with cancer stem cells. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis known as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), characterized for its ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), has been shown by several laboratories to impede tumor progression through MMP-dependent or -independent mechanisms. We recently reported that forced expression of TIMP-2, as well as the modified form Ala+TIMP-2 (that lacks MMP inhibitory activity) significantly blocks growth of A549 human lung cancer cells in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying TIMP-2 antitumor effects are not fully characterized. Here, we examine the hypothesis that the TIMP-2 antitumor activity may involve regulation of the SP in human lung cancer cells. Indeed, using Hoechst dye efflux assay and flow cytometry, as well as quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis, we found that endogenous TIMP-2 mRNA levels showed a significant inverse correlation with SP fraction size in six non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. In A549 cells expressing increased levels of TIMP-2, a significant decrease in SP was observed, and this decrease was associated with lowered gene expression of ABCG2, ABCB1 and AKR1C1. Functional analysis of A549 cells showed that TIMP-2 overexpression increased chemosensitivity to cytotoxic drugs. The SP isolated from TIMP-2-overexpressing A549 cells also demonstrated impaired migratory capacity compared with the SP from empty vector control. More importantly, our data provide strong evidence that these TIMP-2 functions occur independent of MMP inhibition, as A549 cells overexpressing Ala+TIMP-2 exhibited identical behavior to those overexpressing TIMP-2 alone. Our findings provide the first indication that TIMP-2 modulates SP phenotype and function, and suggests that TIMP-2 may act as an endogenous suppressor of the SP in human lung cancer cells.

  13. Endogenous Circadian Regulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in the Presence of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shadab A.; Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Shea, Steven A.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Davidson, Alec J.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Various aspects of immune response exhibit 24-hour variations suggesting that infection susceptibility and treatment efficacy may vary by time of day. Whether these 24-hour variations are endogenous or evoked by changes in environmental or behavioral conditions is not known. We assessed the endogenous circadian control and environmental and behavioral influences on ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide stimulation of whole blood in thirteen healthy participants under 48 hours of baseline conditions with standard sleep-wake schedules and 40–50 hours of constant environmental and behavioral (constant routine; CR) conditions. Significant 24-hour rhythms were observed under baseline conditions in Monocyte Chemotactic Protein, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleukin 8 but not Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha whereas significant 24-hour rhythms were observed in all four immune factors under CR conditions. The rhythm amplitudes, expressed as a percentage of mean, were comparable between immune factors and across conditions. In contrast, the acrophase time (time of the fitted peak) was different between immune factors, and included daytime and nighttime peaks and changes across behavioral conditions. These results suggest that the endogenous circadian system underpins the temporal organization of immune responses in humans with additional effects of external environmental and behavioral cycles. These findings have implications for understanding the adverse effects of recurrent circadian disruption and sleep curtailment on immune function. PMID:25452149

  14. Lysozyme: primary bactericidin in human plasma serum active against Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Selsted, M E; Martinez, R J

    1978-01-01

    The in vitro bactericidal reaction of human plasma serum against Bacillus subtilis was investigated. Human lysozyme was purified to homogeneity, and antiserum was prepared against the enzyme. The anti-lysozyme immunoglobulin G was used as a specific inhibitor in bactericidal and bacteriolytic reactions. It was found that at low serum concentrations lysozyme was the primary bactericide active against B. subtilis. At appreciably higher serum concentrations, a lysozyme-independent bactericidal activity was also demonstrated. Images PMID:97236

  15. GM-CSF production from human airway smooth muscle cells is potentiated by human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Sukkar, M B; Hughes, J M; Johnson, P R; Armour, C L

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) actively participate in the airway inflammatory process in asthma. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induce ASMC to release inflammatory mediators in vitro. ASMC mediator release in vivo, however, may be influenced by features of the allergic asthmatic phenotype. We determined whether; (1) allergic asthmatic serum (AAS) modulates ASMC mediator release in response to IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, and (2) IL-1beta/TNF-alpha prime ASMC to release mediators in response to AAS. IL-5 and GM-CSF were quantified by ELISA in culture supernatants of; (1) ASMC pre-incubated with either AAS, nonallergic non-asthmatic serum (NAS) or Monomed (a serum substitute) and subsequently stimulated with IL-1beta and TNF-alpha and (2) ASMC stimulated with IL-1beta/TNF-alpha and subsequently exposed to either AAS, NAS or Monomed. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induced GM-CSF release in ASMC pre-incubated with AAS was not greater than that in ASMC pre-incubated with NAS or Monomed. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, however, primed ASMC to release GM-CSF in response to human serum. GM-CSF production following IL-1beta/TNF-alpha and serum exposure (AAS or NAS) was significantly greater than that following IL-1beta/TNF-alpha and Monomed exposure or IL-1beta/TNF-alpha exposure only. Whilst the potentiating effects of human serum were not specific to allergic asthma, these findings suggest that the secretory capacity of ASMC may be up-regulated during exacerbations of asthma, where there is evidence of vascular leakage. PMID:11132773

  16. Molecular basis of the interaction specificity between the human glucocorticoid receptor and its endogenous steroid ligand cortisol.

    PubMed

    von Langen, Johannes; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Diekmann, Stephan; Hillisch, Alexander

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed the binding of five steroids to the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) experimentally as well as theoretically. In vitro, we measured the binding affinity of aldosterone, cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone to hGR in competition with the ligand dexamethasone. The binding affinity relative to the endogenous ligand cortisol (100%) is reduced for progesterone (22%) and aldosterone (20%) and is very weak for testosterone (1.5%) and estradiol (0.2%). In parallel, we constructed a homology model of the hGR ligand-binding domain (LBD) based on the crystal structure of the human progesterone receptor (hPR). After docking the five steroids into the hGR model ligand-binding pocket, we performed five separate 4-ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with these complexes in order to study the complex structures. We calculated the binding affinities with two different approaches (MM/PBSA, FlexX) and compared them with the values of the experimentally determined relative binding affinities. Both theoretical methods allowed discrimination between strongly and weakly binding ligands and recognition of cortisol as the endogenous ligand of the hGR in silico. Cortisol binds most strongly due to a nearly perfect steric and electrostatic complementarity with the hGR binding pocket. Chemically similar ligands such as estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone also fit into the hGR binding pocket, but they are unable to form all those contacts with the amino acids of the protein that are necessary to yield a stable, transcriptionally active receptor conformation. Our analysis thus explains the selectivity of the human glucocorticoid receptor for its endogenous ligand cortisol at a molecular level. PMID:15883974

  17. Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1) and Glucuronidation Activity toward Endogenous Substances in Humanized UGT1 Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuno, Yuki; Hirashima, Rika; Sakamoto, Masaya; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Michimae, Hirofumi; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Although UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, they are also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Certain substrates of UGTs, such as serotonin and estradiol, play important roles in the brain. However, the expression of UGTs in the human brain has not been fully clarified. Recently, humanized UGT1 mice (hUGT1 mice) in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus have been developed. In the present study, the expression pattern of UGT1As in brains from humans and hUGT1 mice was examined. We found that UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A6, and 1A10 were expressed in human brains. The expression pattern of UGT1As in hUGT1 mouse brains was similar to that in human brains. In addition, we examined the expression of UGT1A1 and 1A6 in the cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex of hUGT1 mice. UGT1A1 in all brain regions and UGT1A6 in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of 6-month-old hUGT1 mice were expressed at a significantly higher rate than those of 2-week-old hUGT1 mice. A difference in expression levels between brain regions was also observed. Brain microsomes exhibited glucuronidation activities toward estradiol and serotonin, with mean values of 0.13 and 5.17 pmol/min/mg, respectively. In conclusion, UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 might play an important role in function regulation of endogenous compounds in a region- and age-dependent manner. Humanized UGT1 mice might be useful to study the importance of brain UGTs in vivo. PMID:25953521

  18. Two-photon excited spectroscopies of ex vivo human skin endogenous species irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Luo, Tianshu; Zhao, Jingjun

    2006-10-01

    Two-photon excited spectroscopies from ex vivo human skin are investigated by using a femtosecond laser and a confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 510 META). In the dermis, collagen is responsible for second harmonic generation (SHG); elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), melanin and porphyrin are the primary endogenous sources of two-photon excited autofluorescence. In the epidermis, keratin, NADH, melanin and porphyrins contribute to autofluorescence signals. The results also show that the SHG spectra have the ability to shift with the excitation wavelength and the autofluorescence spectra display a red shift of the spectral peaks when increasing the excitation wavelength. These results may have practical implications for diagnosis of skin diseases.

  19. Transient serum exposure regimes to support dual differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    France, L A; Scotchford, C A; Grant, D M; Rashidi, H; Popov, A A; Sottile, V

    2014-08-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can generate both osteoblasts and chondrocytes, represent an ideal resource for orthopaedic repair using tissue-engineering approaches. One major difficulty for the development of osteochondral constructs using undifferentiated MSCs is that serum is typically used in culture protocols to promote differentiation of the osteogenic component, whereas existing chondrogenic differentiation protocols rely on the use of serum-free conditions. In order to define conditions which could be compatible with both chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation in a single bioreactor, we have analysed the efficiency of new biphasic differentiation regimes based on transient serum exposure followed by serum-free treatment. MSC differentiation was assessed either in serum-free medium or with a range of transient exposure to serum, and compared to continuous serum-containing treatment. Although osteogenic differentation was not supported in the complete absence of serum, marker expression and extensive mineralization analyses established that 5 days of transient exposure triggered a level of differentiation comparable to that observed when serum was present throughout. This initial phase of serum exposure was further shown to support the successful chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, comparable to controls maintained in serum-free conditions throughout. This study indicates that a culture based on temporal serum exposure followed by serum-free treatment is compatible with both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results will allow the development of novel strategies for osteochondral tissue engineering approaches using MSCs for regenerative medicine. PMID:23161724

  20. Physical and functional interactions of human endogenous retrovirus proteins Np9 and rec with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Denne, Miriam; Sauter, Marlies; Armbruester, Vivienne; Licht, Jonathan D; Roemer, Klaus; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus

    2007-06-01

    Only few of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences in the human genome can produce proteins. We have previously reported that (i) patients with germ cell tumors often make antibodies against proteins encoded by HERV-K elements, (ii) expression of the HERV-K rec gene in transgenic mice can interfere with germ cell development and induce carcinoma in situ, and (iii) HERV-K np9 transcript is overproduced in many tumors including breast cancers. Here we document that both Np9 and Rec physically and functionally interact with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) tumor suppressor, a transcriptional repressor and chromatin remodeler implicated in cancer and the self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells. Interaction is mediated via two different central and C-terminal domains of Np9 and Rec and the C-terminal zinc fingers of PLZF. One major target of PLZF is the c-myc proto-oncogene. Coexpression of Np9 and Rec with PLZF abrogates the transcriptional repression of the c-myc gene promoter by PLZF and results in c-Myc overproduction, altered expression of c-Myc-regulated genes, and corresponding effects on cell proliferation and survival. Thus, the human endogenous retrovirus proteins Np9 and Rec may act oncogenically by derepressing c-myc through the inhibition of PLZF.

  1. Intimate associations between the endogenous opiate systems and the growth hormone-releasing hormone system in the human hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J; Peroski, M; Kiczek, M; Grignol, G; Merchenthaler, I; Dudas, B

    2014-01-31

    Although it is a general consensus that opioids modulate growth, the mechanism of this phenomenon is largely unknown. Since endogenous opiates use the same receptor family as morphine, these peptides may be one of the key regulators of growth in humans by impacting growth hormone (GH) secretion, either directly, or indirectly, via growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) release. However, the exact mechanism of this regulation has not been elucidated yet. In the present study we identified close juxtapositions between the enkephalinergic/endorphinergic/dynorphinergic axonal varicosities and GHRH-immunoreactive (IR) perikarya in the human hypothalamus. Due to the long post mortem period electron microscopy could not be utilized to detect the presence of synapses between the enkephalinergic/endorphinergic/dynorphinergic and GHRH neurons. Therefore, we used light microscopic double-label immunocytochemistry to identify putative juxtapositions between these systems. Our findings revealed that the majority of the GHRH-IR perikarya formed intimate associations with enkephalinergic axonal varicosities in the infundibular nucleus/median eminence, while endorphinergic-GHRH juxtapositions were much less frequent. In contrast, no significant dynorphinergic-GHRH associations were detected. The density of the abutting enkephalinergic fibers on the surface of the GHRH perikarya suggests that these juxtapositions may be functional synapses and may represent the morphological substrate of the impact of enkephalin on growth. The small number of GHRH neurons innervated by the endorphin and dynorphin systems indicates significant differences between the regulatory roles of endogenous opiates on growth in humans. PMID:24239719

  2. [Preparation of Human Serum Albumin Micro/Nanotubes].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Pei-pei; Guo, Yan-li; Niu, Ai-hua; Kang, Xiao-feng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, protein micro/nanotubes were fabricated by alternate layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of human serum albumin (HSA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) into polycarbonate (PC) membranes. The experimental conditions of pH values, ionic strength, the depositions cycles and the diameter of porous membrane were discussed. The morphology and composition of tubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that pH and ionic strength of the solution are the key factors that influence the effect of assembly. Micro/nanotubes with good opening hollow tubular structure were obtained when pH 7.4 HSA solution and pH 10.3 PEI solution without NaCl were used in synthesis procedure. The outer diameter of tube was dependent on the PC template, thus the micro/nanotubes size was controlled by the wall thickness, which can be adjusted by the number of layers of the HSA and PEI deposited along the pore walls. To avoid the thin wall being damaged in dissolving the template and vacuum drying, the PEI/HSA bilayer number should not be less than 3. The polar solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) can dissolve PC template to release the micro/nanotubes. PMID:27228766

  3. Hydrophobically derivatized hyperbranched polyglycerol as a human serum albumin substitute.

    PubMed

    Kainthan, Rajesh K; Janzen, Johan; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Devine, Dana V; Brooks, Donald E

    2008-04-01

    There is a huge clinical demand for Human Serum Albumin (HSA), with a world market of approximately $1.5B/year. Concern over prion and viral transmission in the blood supply has led to a need for safer substitutes and offers the opportunity for development of materials with enhanced properties over the presently available plasma expanders. We report here the synthesis and testing of a new synthetic plasma expander that can replace not only the osmotic and volume expansion properties of HSA but, uniquely, its binding and transport properties. We have synthesized several hyperbranched polyglycerols derivatized with hydrophobic groups and short poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains. The hydrophobic groups provide regions for binding fatty acids and other hydrophobic materials while PEG imparts the necessary protection from host defense systems and enhances circulation longevity. These polymers, being hyperbranched, have only a small effect on plasma viscosity. We have shown in vitro that our materials bind 2-3 moles palmitic acid per mole, do not activate the platelet, coagulation or complement systems and do not cause red cell aggregation. In mice these materials are non-toxic with circulation half-lives as high as 34h, controllable by manipulating the molecular weight and the degree of PEG derivatization. PMID:18194812

  4. Cooperative binding of drugs on human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, L. M.; Pérez-Rodríguez, M.; García, M.

    In order to explain the adsorption isotherms of the amphiphilic penicillins nafcillin and cloxacillin onto human serum albumin (HSA), a cooperative multilayer adsorption model is introduced, combining the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm with an amphiphilic ionic adsorbate, whose chemical potential is derived from Guggenheim's theory. The non-cooperative model has been previously proved to qualitatively predict the measured adsorption maxima of these drugs [Varela, L. M., García, M., Pérez-Rodríguez, M., Taboada, P., Ruso, J. M., and Mosquera, V., 2001, J. chem. Phys., 114, 7682]. The surface interactions among adsorbed drug molecules are modelled in a mean-field fashion, so the chemical potential of the adsorbate is assumed to include a term proportional to the surface coverage, the constant of proportionality being the lateral interaction energy between bound molecules. The interaction energies obtained from the empirical binding isotherms are of the order of tenths of the thermal energy, therefore suggesting the principal role of van der Waals forces in the binding process.

  5. Heterogeneity of serum low density lipoproteins in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, M.M.S.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; Forte, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) from twelve healthy human subjects was used to separate six subfractions with mean dinsity ranging from 1.0268 to 1.0597 g/ml. Mean corrected peak flotation rate (S/sup o//sub f/) measured by analytic ultracentrifugation, and mean particle diameter determined by negative staining electron microscopy, both declined significantly with increasing density of the subfractions. Major differences in chemical composition of the subfractions were noted, including a singnificantly lower triglyceride content and higher ratio of cholesteryl ester to triglyceride in the middle fractions compared with those of highest and lowest density. Concentration of fraction 2 correlated positively with HDL (P < 0.01) and negatively with VLDL (P < 0.001); concentration of fraction 4 correlated negatively with HDL (P < 0.05) and positively with VLDL (P < 0.001) and IDL (P < 0.01). LDL may thus include subspecies of differing structure and composition which might also have different metabolic and atherogenic roles.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of hydration in human serum heme-albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Simona; Pariani, Giorgio; Fanali, Gabriella; Longo, Dario; Ascenzi, Paolo; Aime, Silvio; Fasano, Mauro

    2009-07-31

    Ferric human serum heme-albumin (heme-HSA) shows a peculiar nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) behavior that allows to investigate structural and functional properties. Here, we report a thermodynamic analysis of NMRD profiles of heme-HSA between 20 and 60 {sup o}C to characterize its hydration. NMRD profiles, all showing two Lorentzian dispersions at 0.3 and 60 MHz, were analyzed in terms of modulation of the zero field splitting tensor for the S = {sup 5}/{sub 2} manifold. Values of correlation times for tensor fluctuation ({tau}{sub v}) and chemical exchange of water molecules ({tau}{sub M}) show the expected temperature dependence, with activation enthalpies of -1.94 and -2.46 {+-} 0.2 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. The cluster of water molecules located in the close proximity of the heme is progressively reduced in size by increasing the temperature, with {Delta}H = 68 {+-} 28 kJ mol{sup -1} and {Delta}S = 200 {+-} 80 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}. These results highlight the role of the water solvent in heme-HSA structure-function relationships.

  7. [Preparation of Human Serum Albumin Micro/Nanotubes].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Pei-pei; Guo, Yan-li; Niu, Ai-hua; Kang, Xiao-feng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, protein micro/nanotubes were fabricated by alternate layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of human serum albumin (HSA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) into polycarbonate (PC) membranes. The experimental conditions of pH values, ionic strength, the depositions cycles and the diameter of porous membrane were discussed. The morphology and composition of tubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that pH and ionic strength of the solution are the key factors that influence the effect of assembly. Micro/nanotubes with good opening hollow tubular structure were obtained when pH 7.4 HSA solution and pH 10.3 PEI solution without NaCl were used in synthesis procedure. The outer diameter of tube was dependent on the PC template, thus the micro/nanotubes size was controlled by the wall thickness, which can be adjusted by the number of layers of the HSA and PEI deposited along the pore walls. To avoid the thin wall being damaged in dissolving the template and vacuum drying, the PEI/HSA bilayer number should not be less than 3. The polar solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) can dissolve PC template to release the micro/nanotubes.

  8. Computer simulation of the active site of human serum cholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Kefang Jiao; Song Li; Zhengzheng Lu

    1996-12-31

    The first 3D-structure of acetylchelinesterase from Torpedo California electric organ (T.AChE) was published by JL. Sussman in 1991. We have simulated 3D-structure of human serum cholinesterase (H.BuChE) and the active site of H.BuChE. It is discovered by experiment that the residue of H.BuChE is still active site after a part of H.BuChE is cut. For example, the part of 21KD + 20KD is active site of H.BuChE. The 20KD as it is. Studies on these peptides by Hemelogy indicate that two active peptides have same negative electrostatic potential maps diagram. These negative electrostatic areas attached by acetyl choline with positive electrostatic potency. We predict that 147...236 peptide of AChE could be active site because it was as 20KD as with negative electrostatic potential maps. We look forward to proving from other ones.

  9. Interaction of Human Serum Albumin with Metal Protoporphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used in biotechnology, nanotechnology, and molecular biophysics, since it can provide information on a wide range of molecular processes, e.g. the interactions of solvent molecules with fluorophores, conformational changes, and binding interactions etc. In this study, we present the photophysical properties of the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with a series of metal compound of Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), including ZnPPIX, FePPIX, MgPPIX, MnPPIX and SnPPIX respectively, as well as the free base PPIX. Binding constants were retrieved independently using the Benesi-Hildebrand analysis of the porphyrin emission or absorption spectra and the fluorescence quenching (i.e. Stern-Volmer analysis) and reveal that the two methods yield a difference of approximately one order or magnitude between the two. Fluorescence lifetimes was used to probe whether binding of the porphyrin changes the conformation of the protein or if the interaction places the porphyrin at a location that can prompt resonance energy transfer with the lone Tryptophan residue. In recent years it has been discovered that HSA provides a specific binding site for metal-chelated protoporphyrins in subdomain IA. This has opened a novel field of study over the importance of this site for biomedical applications but it has also created the potential for a series of biotechnological applications of the HSA/protoporphyrin complexes. Our study provides a preliminary investigation of the interaction with metal-chelated protoporphyrins that had not been previously investigated.

  10. Expression of human tyrosine kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor amplifies signaling through endogenous murine epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Sue-A-Quan, A; Mills, G B; Skorecki, K L

    1993-12-15

    Recent findings have suggested that certain ligand-dependent responses to EGF may be propagated in a manner that is not dependent on the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R, Campos-Gonzalez, R., and Glenney, J. R., Jr. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14535-14538) or, alternatively, that these responses may occur through the interaction of the human tyrosine kinase-deficient EGF-R with an as yet unidentified kinase (Selva, E., Raden, D. L., and Davis, R. J. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2250-2254). These conclusions represent a significant departure from our current understanding of signal transduction by receptor tyrosine kinases. Therefore we examined the effect of expression of tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF receptor in murine NIH-3T3-2.2 cells on the EGF-dependent phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP-2) kinase. In parental cells (NIH-3T3-2.2) that express low levels of endogenous murine EGF-R, there was no demonstrable EGF-dependent coupling to MAP-2 kinase. In NIH-3T3-2.2 cells transfected with tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R, there was unexpected EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase. Analysis of the tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R in these cells revealed significant tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF-R. A low level of endogenous murine EGF-R present in these cells were also phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and displayed autokinase activity. Similar results were obtained using an unrelated cell line (B82L cells), in which EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase was previously attributed to signal propagation through a tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R (Campos-Gonzalez, R., and Glenney, J. R., Jr. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14535-14538). Taken together, these results suggest that the tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R are able to amplify the response to activation of low levels of endogenous murine EGF-R, thus leading to EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase in cells

  11. Human Ocular Epithelial Cells Endogenously Expressing SOX2 and OCT4 Yield High Efficiency of Pluripotency Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ming-Wai; He, Jia; Fang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Junwen; Qiu, Fangfang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Li, Wei; Liu, Zuguo; Lian, Qizhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of pluripotency reprogramming frequencies from different somatic cells has been observed, indicating cell origin is a critical contributor for efficiency of pluripotency reprogramming. Identifying the cell sources for efficient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation, and defining its advantages or disadvantages on reprogramming, is therefore important. Human ocular tissue-derived conjunctival epithelial cells (OECs) exhibited endogenous expression of reprogramming factors OCT4A (the specific OCT 4 isoform on pluripotency reprogramming) and SOX2. We therefore determined whether OECs could be used for high efficiency of iPSCs generation. We compared the endogenous expression levels of four pluripotency factors and the pluripotency reprograming efficiency of human OECs with that of ocular stromal cells (OSCs). Real-time PCR, microarray analysis, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were employed to compare OECiPSCs with OSCiPSCs on molecular bases of reprogramming efficiency and preferred lineage-differentiation potential. Using the traditional KMOS (KLF4, C-MYC, OCT4 and SOX2) reprogramming protocol, we confirmed that OECs, endogenously expressing reprogramming factors OCT4A and SOX2, yield very high efficiency of iPSCs generation (~1.5%). Furthermore, higher efficiency of retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation (RPE cells) was observed in OECiPSCs compared to OSCiPSCs or skin fibroblast iMR90iPSCs. The findings in this study suggest that conjunctival-derived epithelial (OECs) cells can be easier converted to iPSCs than conjunctival-derived stromal cells (OSCs). This cell type may also have advantages in retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation.

  12. Human Ocular Epithelial Cells Endogenously Expressing SOX2 and OCT4 Yield High Efficiency of Pluripotency Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Junwen; Qiu, Fangfang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Li, Wei; Liu, Zuguo; Lian, Qizhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of pluripotency reprogramming frequencies from different somatic cells has been observed, indicating cell origin is a critical contributor for efficiency of pluripotency reprogramming. Identifying the cell sources for efficient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation, and defining its advantages or disadvantages on reprogramming, is therefore important. Human ocular tissue-derived conjunctival epithelial cells (OECs) exhibited endogenous expression of reprogramming factors OCT4A (the specific OCT 4 isoform on pluripotency reprogramming) and SOX2. We therefore determined whether OECs could be used for high efficiency of iPSCs generation. We compared the endogenous expression levels of four pluripotency factors and the pluripotency reprograming efficiency of human OECs with that of ocular stromal cells (OSCs). Real-time PCR, microarray analysis, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were employed to compare OECiPSCs with OSCiPSCs on molecular bases of reprogramming efficiency and preferred lineage-differentiation potential. Using the traditional KMOS (KLF4, C-MYC, OCT4 and SOX2) reprogramming protocol, we confirmed that OECs, endogenously expressing reprogramming factors OCT4A and SOX2, yield very high efficiency of iPSCs generation (~1.5%). Furthermore, higher efficiency of retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation (RPE cells) was observed in OECiPSCs compared to OSCiPSCs or skin fibroblast iMR90iPSCs. The findings in this study suggest that conjunctival-derived epithelial (OECs) cells can be easier converted to iPSCs than conjunctival-derived stromal cells (OSCs). This cell type may also have advantages in retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation. PMID:26131692

  13. Study of total antioxidant activity of human serum blood in the pathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Elena I; Freinbichler, Wolfhardt; Linert, Wolfgang; Dorozhko, Elena V; Bukkel, Mariya V; Plotnikov, Evgeniy V; Voronova, Olesya A

    2013-01-30

    The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of human serum blood of patients suffering from alcoholism was tested by cathode voltammetry with a model process of oxygen electroreduction. A known spectrophotometrical method was used for comparison. As results the total antioxidant activity of serum blood of patients with alcoholism was estimated by voltammetry during therapy in hospital. It was shown the TAA of serum blood of patients in pathology before and after treatment is lower than that one of healthy people. However, during the process of 10 days of alcoholism treatment the TAA coefficient increases. The relationship between the coefficient of total antioxidant activity of human serum blood and the stage of treatment was detected.

  14. Complement-Mediated Death of Ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis Caused by Human Blood Serum.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, P A; Faktor, M I; Karpova, N S; Cheremnykh, E G; Brusov, O S

    2016-04-01

    Toxicity of human blood serum for ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis is determined by the complement system. When ciliate are dying after being exposed to blood serum, cell membrane permeability for low-molecular-weight compounds significantly increases, probably due to pore formation. Serine protease inhibitors or exposure to physical factors inducing complement inactivation (e.g., heating up to 56°C) completely prevented ciliate death under the effect of human serum. Activation of serum complement upon interaction with Tetrahymena cells occurred by the classical or lectin pathway, while the contribution of the alternative activation pathway was negligible.

  15. Physiologically relevant plasma d,l-homocysteine concentrations mobilize Cd from human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sagmeister, Peter; Gibson, Matthew A; McDade, Kyle H; Gailer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Although low-level chronic exposure of humans to cadmium (Cd(2+)) can result in a variety of adverse health effects, little is known about the role that its interactions with plasma proteins and small molecular weight (SMW) ligands in the bloodstream may play in delivering this metal to its target organs. To gain insight, a Cd-human serum albumin (HSA) 1:1 (molar ratio) complex was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). Using a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer mobile phase, the stability of the Cd-HSA complex was investigated in the presence of 2.0mM of SMW ligands, including taurine, acetaminophen, l-methionine, l-cysteine (Cys), d,l-homocysteine (hCys) or l-cysteine methyl-ester (Cys-Me). While taurine, acetaminophen and l-methionine did not affect its integrity, Cys, hCys and Cys-Me completely abstracted Cd from HSA. Subsequent investigations into the effect of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5mM Cys and hCys on the integrity of the Cd-HSA complex revealed clear differences with regard to the nature of the eluting SMW-Cd species between these structurally related endogenous thiols. Interestingly, the Cd-specific chromatograms that were obtained for 0.5mM hCys revealed the elution of an apparent mixture of the parent Cd-HSA complex with a significant contribution of a structurally uncharacterized CdxhCysy species. Since this hCys concentration is encountered in blood plasma of hyperhomocysteinemia patients and since previous studies by others have revealed that a SH-containing carrier mediates the uptake of Cd into hepatocytes, our results suggest that plasma hCys may play a role in the toxicologically relevant translocation of Cd from the bloodstream to mammalian target organs. PMID:27294530

  16. Physiologically relevant plasma d,l-homocysteine concentrations mobilize Cd from human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sagmeister, Peter; Gibson, Matthew A; McDade, Kyle H; Gailer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Although low-level chronic exposure of humans to cadmium (Cd(2+)) can result in a variety of adverse health effects, little is known about the role that its interactions with plasma proteins and small molecular weight (SMW) ligands in the bloodstream may play in delivering this metal to its target organs. To gain insight, a Cd-human serum albumin (HSA) 1:1 (molar ratio) complex was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). Using a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer mobile phase, the stability of the Cd-HSA complex was investigated in the presence of 2.0mM of SMW ligands, including taurine, acetaminophen, l-methionine, l-cysteine (Cys), d,l-homocysteine (hCys) or l-cysteine methyl-ester (Cys-Me). While taurine, acetaminophen and l-methionine did not affect its integrity, Cys, hCys and Cys-Me completely abstracted Cd from HSA. Subsequent investigations into the effect of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5mM Cys and hCys on the integrity of the Cd-HSA complex revealed clear differences with regard to the nature of the eluting SMW-Cd species between these structurally related endogenous thiols. Interestingly, the Cd-specific chromatograms that were obtained for 0.5mM hCys revealed the elution of an apparent mixture of the parent Cd-HSA complex with a significant contribution of a structurally uncharacterized CdxhCysy species. Since this hCys concentration is encountered in blood plasma of hyperhomocysteinemia patients and since previous studies by others have revealed that a SH-containing carrier mediates the uptake of Cd into hepatocytes, our results suggest that plasma hCys may play a role in the toxicologically relevant translocation of Cd from the bloodstream to mammalian target organs.

  17. Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of chlorpheniramine in human serum using column switching.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Monji, H; Yamashita, K; Aoki, I; Yashiki, T

    1994-11-01

    A sensitive method for the determination of chlorpheniramine in human serum was developed using column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. The analyte was extracted with diethyl ether from alkalinized serum. After evaporation of the organic layer, the reconstituted residue was analyzed by HPLC using a heart-cut technique. Good recoveries of the analyte from spiked human serum samples were obtained with a coefficient of variation below 7%. A good linear response was obtained for the concentration range 0.5-50 ng/ml, with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.999. The lower limit of quantitation for chlorpheniramine in human serum was 0.5 ng/ml. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of chlorpheniramine in human serum after oral administration of chlorpheniramine maleate.

  18. Identification, characterization, and comparative genomic distribution of the HERV-K (HML-2) group of human endogenous retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Integration of retroviral DNA into a germ cell may lead to a provirus that is transmitted vertically to that host's offspring as an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). In humans, ERVs (HERVs) comprise about 8% of the genome, the vast majority of which are truncated and/or highly mutated and no longer encode functional genes. The most recently active retroviruses that integrated into the human germ line are members of the Betaretrovirus-like HERV-K (HML-2) group, many of which contain intact open reading frames (ORFs) in some or all genes, sometimes encoding functional proteins that are expressed in various tissues. Interestingly, this expression is upregulated in many tumors ranging from breast and ovarian tissues to lymphomas and melanomas, as well as schizophrenia, rheumatoid arthritis, and other disorders. Results No study to date has characterized all HML-2 elements in the genome, an essential step towards determining a possible functional role of HML-2 expression in disease. We present here the most comprehensive and accurate catalog of all full-length and partial HML-2 proviruses, as well as solo LTR elements, within the published human genome to date. Furthermore, we provide evidence for preferential maintenance of proviruses and solo LTR elements on gene-rich chromosomes of the human genome and in proximity to gene regions. Conclusions Our analysis has found and corrected several errors in the annotation of HML-2 elements in the human genome, including mislabeling of a newly identified group called HML-11. HML-elements have been implicated in a wide array of diseases, and characterization of these elements will play a fundamental role to understand the relationship between endogenous retrovirus expression and disease. PMID:22067224

  19. Profiling Cys34 Adducts of Human Serum Albumin by Fixed-Step Selected Reaction Monitoring*

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Grigoryan, Hasmik; Funk, William E.; Lu, Sixin Samantha; Rose, Sherri; Williams, Evan R.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    A method is described for profiling putative adducts (or other unknown covalent modifications) at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin (HSA), which represents the preferred reaction site for small electrophilic species in human serum. By comparing profiles of putative HSA-Cys34 adducts across populations of interest it is theoretically possible to explore environmental causes of degenerative diseases and cancer caused by both exogenous and endogenous chemicals. We report a novel application of selected-reaction-monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry, termed fixed-step SRM (FS-SRM), that allows detection of essentially all HSA-Cys34 modifications over a specified range of mass increases (added masses). After tryptic digestion, HSA-Cys34 adducts are contained in the third largest peptide (T3), which contains 21 amino acids and an average mass of 2433.87 Da. The FS-SRM method does not require that exact masses of T3 adducts be known in advance but rather uses a theoretical list of T3-adduct m/z values separated by a fixed increment of 1.5. In terms of added masses, each triply charged parent ion represents a bin of ±2.3 Da between 9.1 Da and 351.1 Da. Synthetic T3 adducts were used to optimize FS-SRM and to establish screening rules based upon selected b- and y-series fragment ions. An isotopically labeled T3 adduct is added to protein digests to facilitate quantification of putative adducts. We used FS-SRM to generate putative adduct profiles from six archived specimens of HSA that had been pooled by gender, race, and smoking status. An average of 66 putative adduct hits (out of a possible 77) were detected in these samples. Putative adducts covered a wide range of concentrations, were most abundant in the mass range below 100 Da, and were more abundant in smokers than in nonsmokers. With minor modifications, the FS-SRM methodology can be applied to other nucleophilic sites and proteins. PMID:21193536

  20. Expression of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus HTDV/HERV-K Is Enhanced by Cellular Transcription Factor YY1

    PubMed Central

    Knössl, Michael; Löwer, Roswitha; Löwer, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    The human endogenous retrovirus HTDV/HERV-K, which resides in moderate copy numbers in the human genome, is expressed in a cell-type-specific manner, predominantly in teratocarcinoma cells. We have analyzed the regulatory potential of the 5′ enhancer of the HERV-K long terminal repeat. Protein extracts of HERV-K-expressing teratocarcinoma cell lines (GH and Tera2) and nonexpressing HeLa and HepG2 cells form different protein complexes on the enhancer sequence as detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Using competition EMSAs, DNase I footprinting, and supershift experiments, we localized the binding site of these complexes to a 20-bp sequence within the enhancer and showed that the transcription factor YY1 is one component of the HERV-K enhancer complex. Replacement of the YY1 binding site with unrelated sequences reduced expression of the luciferase gene as a reporter in transient-transfection assays. PMID:9882329

  1. Endogenous antioxidants and nasal human epithelium response to air pollutants: genotoxic and inmmuno-cytochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fortoul, T I; Rojas-Lemus, M; Avila-Casado, M C; Rodriguez-Lara, V; Montaño, L F; Muñoz-Comonfort, A; Lopez-Zepeda, L S

    2010-10-01

    Nasal epithelium is a source for identifying atmospheric pollution impact. Antioxidants play a relevant role in the protection of the cells from environmental injury, but scarce information is available about the interaction of endogenous antioxidants and genotoxic damage in nasal epithelium from urban populations highly exposed to traffic-generated air pollutants. An immunocytochemical and genotoxic evaluation was implemented in nasal cell epithelium in a population chronically exposed to atmospheric pollution from autumn 2004 to autumn 2005. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were evaluated in nasal scrapings by morphometry and genotoxicity by comet assay. An increase in DNA damage correlates with a decrease in SOD and CAT in nasal cells during autumn and the inverse result was observed during summer (R = 0.88). Not only should exogenous antioxidant supplements be encouraged, but also a healthy diet to strengthen intracellular defenses against oxidative stress induced by exposure to air pollutants. PMID:20981858

  2. Structural basis of transport of lysophospholipids by human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shihui; Shi, Xiaoli; Yang, Feng; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Bian, Chuanbing; Huang, Mingdong

    2010-10-08

    Lysophospholipids play important roles in cellular signal transduction and are implicated in many biological processes, including tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, immunity, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, cancer and neuronal survival. The intracellular transport of lysophospholipids is through FA (fatty acid)-binding protein. Lysophospholipids are also found in the extracellular space. However, the transport mechanism of lysophospholipids in the extracellular space is unknown. HSA (human serum albumin) is the most abundant carrier protein in blood plasma and plays an important role in determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. In the present study, LPE (lysophosphatidylethanolamine) was used as the ligand to analyse the interaction of lysophospholipids with HSA by fluorescence quenching and crystallography. Fluorescence measurement showed that LPE binds to HSA with a K{sub d} (dissociation constant) of 5.6 {micro}M. The presence of FA (myristate) decreases this binding affinity (K{sub d} of 12.9 {micro}M). Moreover, we determined the crystal structure of HSA in complex with both myristate and LPE and showed that LPE binds at Sudlow site I located in subdomain IIA. LPE occupies two of the three subsites in Sudlow site I, with the LPE acyl chain occupying the hydrophobic bottom of Sudlow site I and the polar head group located at Sudlow site I entrance region pointing to the solvent. This orientation of LPE in HSA suggests that HSA is capable of accommodating other lysophospholipids and phospholipids. The study provides structural information on HSA-lysophospholipid interaction and may facilitate our understanding of the transport and distribution of lysophospholipids.

  3. HPLC-DAD protein kinase inhibitor analysis in human serum.

    PubMed

    Dziadosz, Marek; Lessig, Rüdiger; Bartels, Heidemarie

    2012-04-15

    We here describe an HPLC-DAD method to analyse different protein kinase inhibitors. Potential applications of this method are pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring. Optimised chromatography conditions resulted in a very good separation of seven inhibitors (vatalanib, bosutinib, canertinib, tandutinib, pazopanib, dasatinib - internal standard and erlotinib). The good sensitivity makes this method competitive with LC/MS/MS. The separation was performed with a Lichrospher 100-5 RP8, 250 mm × 4 mm column maintained at 30 ± 1 °C, and with a mobile phase of 0.05 M H(3)PO(4)/KH(2)PO(4) (pH=2.3)-acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. A simple and fast sample preparation sequence with liquid-liquid extraction led to good recoveries (73-90%) of all analytes. The recovery hardly reached 50% only for pazopanib. This method can also be used for targeted protein kinase inhibitor quantification. A perfect linearity in the validated range (20-10,000 ng/mL) and an LOQ of 20 ng/mL were achieved. The relative standard deviations and accuracies of all examined drug concentrations gave values much lower than 15% both for between- and within-batch calculations. All analysed PKIs were stable for 6 months in a 1mg/mL dimethyl sulfoxide stock solution. Vatalanib, bosutinib and erlotinib were also stable in human serum in the whole examined concentration range. PMID:22425385

  4. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Hibbert, Sarah A; Watson, Rachel E B; Gibbs, Neil K; Costello, Patrick; Baldock, Clair; Weiss, Anthony S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Sherratt, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths) here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr) content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm(2)) of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB). We show that: i) purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR)-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii) exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins) are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR exposure

  5. Evaluation of a synthetic serum substitute to replace fetal cord serum for human oocyte fertilization and embryo growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Psalti, I; Loumaye, E; Pensis, M; Depreester, S; Thomas, K

    1989-11-01

    A comparison was made between a serum substitute. UltroSer G (Gibco, Ghent, Belgium) (2%) (medium B) and 10% human fetal cord serum (medium A), as regards their ability to support 1-cell and 2-cell mice embryo development in vitro. Sixty percent and 56% of the 1-cell embryos reached the expanded blastocyst stage when cultured in media A and B, respectively. Eighty-four percent and 88% of 2-cell embryos reached the expanded blastocyst stage when cultured in media A and B, respectively. A prospective randomized study was then performed to evaluate this synthetic serum substitute in human in vitro fertilization. Among 141 ovum pick-up (OPU), oocytes retrieved in 74 cases were processed in medium A and oocytes retrieved in 67 others in medium B. In media A and B, the fertilization rate was 67% and 44.3% respectively, and the pregnancy rate/OPU 23% and 9%, respectively. The pregnancy rate/transfer was 28.8% and 12.2% respectively, and the implantation rate/transferred embryo 9.5% and 4.2%. In the human sperm survival assay, the vitality and residual motility after 24 hours of incubation were significantly lower in medium B. In conclusion, UltroSer G successfully sustained the development in vitro of mouse embyros. However in human, it reduced sperm survival, oocyte fertilization, and embryo viability. PMID:2806622

  6. Effect of human serum on bioluminescence of natural and recombinant luminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, D G; Polyakov, E G

    2004-09-01

    Biphasic modification of bacterial bioluminescence by human serum was revealed: bioluminescence was inhibited at high concentrations of the serum and stimulated at low concentrations. Effects of temperature and duration of exposure on bioluminescence manifested in stimulation of the inhibitory effect at higher temperature and longer exposure. The degree of inhibition of bioluminescence under in the presence of serum depends on species characteristics of the microorganism and nature of the luminescent system. PMID:15665923

  7. ‘There and back again’: revisiting the pathophysiological roles of human endogenous retroviruses in the post-genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Belshaw, Robert; Katzourakis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Almost 8% of the human genome comprises endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). While they have been shown to cause specific pathologies in animals, such as cancer, their association with disease in humans remains controversial. The limited evidence is partly due to the physical and bioethical restrictions surrounding the study of transposons in humans, coupled with the major experimental and bioinformatics challenges surrounding the association of ERVs with disease in general. Two biotechnological landmarks of the past decade provide us with unprecedented research artillery: (i) the ultra-fine sequencing of the human genome and (ii) the emergence of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Here, we critically assemble research about potential pathologies of ERVs in humans. We argue that the time is right to revisit the long-standing questions of human ERV pathogenesis within a robust and carefully structured framework that makes full use of genomic sequence data. We also pose two thought-provoking research questions on potential pathophysiological roles of ERVs with respect to immune escape and regulation. PMID:23938753

  8. Probing thyroglobulin in undiluted human serum based on pattern recognition and competitive adsorption of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ran; Huang, Shuai; Li, Jing; Chae, Junseok

    2014-10-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a sensitive indicator of persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer of follicular cell origin. Detection of Tg in human serum is challenging as bio-receptors, such as anti-Tg, used in immunoassay have relatively weak binding affinity. We engineer sensing surfaces using the competitive adsorption of proteins, termed the Vroman Effect. Coupled with Surface Plasmon Resonance, the "cross-responsive" interactions of Tg on the engineered surfaces produce uniquely distinguishable multiple signature patterns, which are discriminated using Linear Discriminant Analysis. Tg-spiked samples, down to 2 ng/ml Tg in undiluted human serum, are sensitively and selectively discriminated from the control (undiluted human serum).

  9. Effect of cord blood serum on ex vivo human limbal epithelial cell culture.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anindita; Dutta, Jayanta; Das, Sumantra; Datta, Himadri

    2012-12-01

    Limbal cell transplantation is an efficacious procedure for rehabilitation of visual acuity in patients with severe ocular surface disorders. Cultivation of limbal epithelial stem cell with fetal bovine serum for transplantation has been a promising treatment for reconstructing the ocular surface in severe limbal stem cell deficiency caused by Steven Johnson syndrome, chemical or thermal injury. This technique of "cell therapy" has been accepted worldwide but the cost of cultivating the cells for transplantation is high. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cord blood serum in place of fetal bovine serum on the growth of human limbal epithelial cell culture. Our group has experimented with human cord blood serum which was obtained free of cost from willing donors. The use of human cord blood serum in place of fetal bovine serum for ex vivo culture of limbal stem cell has helped us in reducing the cost of culture. Fresh human limbal tissues from donor cadavers were cultured on intact and denuded amniotic membrane. Cells were proliferated in vitro with cell culture media containing human cord blood serum. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence cytochemistry of cultured human limbal epithelial stem cell was done for characterization of the cells.

  10. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  11. The role of molecular mimicry and other factors in the association of Human Endogenous Retroviruses and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Trela, Malgorzata; Nelson, Paul N; Rylance, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) have been implicated in autoimmune and other diseases. Molecular mimicry has been postulated as a potential mechanism of autoimmunity. Exogenous viruses have also been reported to be associated with the same diseases, as have genetic and environmental factors. If molecular mimicry were to be shown to be an initiating mechanism of some autoimmune diseases, then therapeutic options of blocking antibodies and peptides might be of benefit in halting diseases at the outset. Bioinformatic and molecular modelling techniques have been employed to investigate molecular mimicry and the evidence for the association of HERVs and autoimmunity is reviewed. The most convincing evidence for molecular mimicry is in rheumatoid arthritis, where HERV K-10 shares amino acid sequences with IgG1Fc, a target for rheumatoid factor. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an example of a condition associated with several autoantibodies, and several endogenous and exogenous viruses have been reported to be associated with the disease. The lack of a clear link between one virus and this condition, and the spectrum of clinical manifestations, suggests that genetic, environmental and the inflammatory response to a virus or viruses might also be major factors in the pathogenesis of lupus and other autoimmune conditions. Where there are strong associations between a virus and an autoimmune condition, such as in hepatitis C and cryoglobulinaemia, the use of bioinformatics and molecular modelling can also be utilized to help to understand the role of molecular mimicry in how HERVs might trigger disease.

  12. Serum can overcome contact inhibition in confluent human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Solodushko, Victor; Khader, Heba A; Fouty, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) in an intact vessel are continually exposed to serum, but unless injured, do not proliferate, constrained by confluence. In contrast, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) attain, and maintain, confluence in the presence of minimal serum, protected from serum's stimulatory effects except when the endothelial barrier becomes more permeable. We hypothesized therefore, that confluent PASMC may be less constrained by contact inhibition in the presence of serum than PAEC and tested this idea by exposing confluent non-transformed human PAEC and PASMC to media containing increasing concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and determining cell growth over 7 days. PAEC that had attained confluence in low serum did not proliferate even when exposed to 5% serum, the highest concentration tested. In contrast, PASMC that attained confluence in low serum did proliferate once serum levels were increased, an effect that was dose dependent. Consistent with this observation, PASMC had more BrdU incorporation and a greater percentage of cells in S phase in 5% compared to 0.2% FBS, whereas no such difference was seen in PAEC. These results suggest that confluent human PAEC are resistant to the stimulatory effects of serum, whereas confluent PASMC can proliferate when serum levels are increased, an effect mediated in part by differences in phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. This observation may be relevant to understanding the PASMC hyperplasia observed in humans and animals with pulmonary hypertension in which changes in endothelial permeability due to hypoxia or injury expose the underlying smooth muscle to serum.

  13. Polyphenols and the Human Brain: Plant “Secondary Metabolite” Ecologic Roles and Endogenous Signaling Functions Drive Benefits12

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and other polyphenols are ubiquitous plant chemicals that fulfill a range of ecologic roles for their home plant, including protection from a range of biotic and abiotic stressors and a pivotal role in the management of pathogenic and symbiotic soil bacteria and fungi. They form a natural part of the human diet, and evidence suggests that their consumption is associated with the beneficial modulation of a number of health-related variables, including those related to cardiovascular and brain function. Over recent years, the consensus as to the mechanisms responsible for these effects in humans has shifted away from polyphenols having direct antioxidant effects and toward their modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways. To date, little consideration has been given to the question of why, rather than how, these plant-derived chemicals might exert these effects. Therefore, this review summarizes the evidence suggesting that polyphenols beneficially affect human brain function and describes the current mechanistic hypotheses explaining these effects. It then goes on to describe the ecologic roles and potential endogenous signaling functions that these ubiquitous phytochemicals play within their home plant and discusses whether these functions drive their beneficial effects in humans via a process of “cross-kingdom” signaling predicated on the many conserved similarities in plant, microbial, and human cellular signal transduction pathways. PMID:25469384

  14. Polyphenols and the human brain: plant “secondary metabolite” ecologic roles and endogenous signaling functions drive benefits.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O

    2014-09-01

    Flavonoids and other polyphenols are ubiquitous plant chemicals that fulfill a range of ecologic roles for their home plant, including protection from a range of biotic and abiotic stressors and a pivotal role in the management of pathogenic and symbiotic soil bacteria and fungi. They form a natural part of the human diet, and evidence suggests that their consumption is associated with the beneficial modulation of a number of health-related variables, including those related to cardiovascular and brain function. Over recent years, the consensus as to the mechanisms responsible for these effects in humans has shifted away from polyphenols having direct antioxidant effects and toward their modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways. To date, little consideration has been given to the question of why, rather than how, these plant-derived chemicals might exert these effects. Therefore, this review summarizes the evidence suggesting that polyphenols beneficially affect human brain function and describes the current mechanistic hypotheses explaining these effects. It then goes on to describe the ecologic roles and potential endogenous signaling functions that these ubiquitous phytochemicals play within their home plant and discusses whether these functions drive their beneficial effects in humans via a process of “cross-kingdom” signaling predicated on the many conserved similarities in plant, microbial, and human cellular signal transduction pathways.

  15. Lack of evidence for a marked endogenous component determining food intake in humans during forced desynchrony.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Jim; Jones, Kay; Edwards, Ben; Harrison, Yvonne; Nevill, Alan; Reilly, Thomas

    2004-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate the relative importance of endogenous and exogenous factors in determining food intake, 14 healthy subjects were studied while living in an Isolation Unit (where external time cues were absent) for eighteen 28 h "days" (equal to 21 solar days). The subjects were free to spend their waking time as they chose, and they had a free choice of what they ate and when they ate it. The only restrictions were that no naps were allowed in the "daytime," that some time was required to perform a variety of tests at regular intervals throughout the 18.67 h waking periods, and that any food preparation had to be performed by the subjects themselves. Core (rectal) temperature and activity were monitored throughout, and the subjects answered a questionnaire on their eating habits at 3 h intervals during the waking periods. The questionnaire investigated reasons for eating or not eating a meal during the previous 3 h and, if a meal had been eaten, its type, the factors influencing that choice, and the subjects' subjective responses (hunger before, enjoyment during, and satiety after) to it. The results were analyzed (two-way ANOVA) in terms of both the imposed day length (the exogenous component) and the free-running period of the temperature rhythm (the endogenous component). Results indicated that by far the main reason for eating/not eating was hunger/lack of hunger rather than factors such as food availability and time-pressure. There were statistically significant effects of time within the imposed waking periods upon the type of meal eaten--"breakfast" tending to be a snack, "lunch" a small hot meal, and the "evening meal" a large hot meal. Hot meals (whether small or large) were associated with more hunger before the meal, more enjoyment of the meal, and a greater degree of satiety afterward than were cold meals. These effects suggest that the individuals adjusted their eating habits to fit in with the imposed wake times. By contrast, the effect

  16. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Hibbert, Sarah A; Watson, Rachel E B; Gibbs, Neil K; Costello, Patrick; Baldock, Clair; Weiss, Anthony S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Sherratt, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths) here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr) content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm(2)) of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB). We show that: i) purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR)-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii) exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins) are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR exposure

  17. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Sarah A.; Watson, Rachel E.B.; Gibbs, Neil K.; Costello, Patrick; Baldock, Clair; Weiss, Anthony S.; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Sherratt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths) here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr) content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm2) of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB). We show that: i) purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR)-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii) exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins) are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR exposure

  18. Fluorescence and Docking Studies of the Interaction between Human Serum Albumin and Pheophytin.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Otávio Augusto; Amorim, Ana Paula de O; Castro, Larissa H E; Sant'Anna, Carlos Mauricio R; de Oliveira, Márcia C C; Cesarin-Sobrinho, Dari; Netto-Ferreira, José Carlos; Ferreira, Aurélio B B

    2015-01-01

    In the North of Brazil (Pará and Amazonas states) the leaves of the plant Talinum triangulare (popular: cariru) replace spinach as food. From a phytochemical point of view, they are rich in compounds of the group of pheophytins. These substances, related to chlorophyll, have photophysical properties that give them potential application in photodynamic therapy. Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the main endogenous vehicles for biodistribution of molecules by blood plasma. Association constants and thermodynamic parameters for the interaction of HSA with pheophytin from Talinum triangulare were studied by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence techniques, and molecular modeling (docking). Fluorescence quenching of the HSA's internal fluorophore (tryptophan) at temperatures 296 K, 303 K, and 310 K, resulted in values for the association constants of the order of 10⁴ L∙mol(-1), indicating a moderate interaction between the compound and the albumin. The negative values of ΔG° indicate a spontaneous process; ΔH° = 15.5 kJ∙mol(-1) indicates an endothermic process of association and ΔS° = 0.145 kJ∙mol(-1)∙K(-1) shows that the interaction between HSA and pheophytin occurs mainly by hydrophobic factors. The observed Trp fluorescence quenching is static: there is initial non-fluorescent association, in the ground state, HSA:Pheophytin. Possible solution obtained by a molecular docking study suggests that pheophytin is able to interact with HSA by means of hydrogen bonds with three lysine and one arginine residues, whereas the phytyl group is inserted in a hydrophobic pocket, close to Trp-214. PMID:26516829

  19. Identification and characterization of glycosylation sites in human serum clusterin.

    PubMed Central

    Kapron, J. T.; Hilliard, G. M.; Lakins, J. N.; Tenniswood, M. P.; West, K. A.; Carr, S. A.; Crabb, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Clusterin is a ubiquitous, heterodimeric glycoprotein with multiple possible functions that are likely influenced by glycosylation. Identification of oligosaccharide attachment sites and structural characterization of oligosaccharides in human serum clusterin has been performed by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry revealed two molecular weight species of holoclusterin (58,505 +/- 250 and 63,507 +/- 200). Mass spectrometry also revealed molecular heterogeneity associated with both the alpha and beta subunits of clusterin, consistent with the presence of multiple glycoforms. The data indicate that clusterin contains 17-27% carbohydrate by weight, the alpha subunit contains 0-30% carbohydrate and the beta subunit contains 27-30% carbohydrate. Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry with stepped collision energy scanning was used to selectively identify and preparatively fractionate tryptic glycopeptides. Edman sequence analysis was then used to confirm the identities of the glycopeptides and to define the attachment sites within each peptide. A total of six N-linked glycosylation sites were identified, three in the alpha subunit (alpha 64N, alpha 81N, alpha 123N) and three in the beta subunit (beta 64N, beta 127N, and beta 147N). Seven different possible types of oligosaccharide structures were identified by mass including: a monosialobiantennary structure, bisialobiantennary structures without or with one fucose, trisialotriantennary structures without or with one fucose, and possibly a trisialotriantennary structure with two fucose and/or a tetrasialotriantennary structure. Site beta 64N exhibited the least glycosylation diversity, with two detected types of oligosaccharides, and site beta 147N exhibited the greatest diversity, with five or six detected types of oligosaccharides. Overall, the most abundant glycoforms detected were bisialobiantennary without fucose and the least

  20. Analysis of human serum from women affected by cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia Y; Briones-Cerecero, Erika P; Chagolla-López, Alicia; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Santos, Leticia; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the first causes of death in Mexican women population. The plasma proteome has a wide dynamic range concentrations of different protein and their alterations reflect the physiological state of the individual's health. The aim of this study was to characterize the 2D-PAGE serum patterns from healthy women and with different levels of cervical lesions. Changes in haptoglobin, apolipoproteins, and transthyretin, when comparing the serum from healthy women and serum from patients with different levels of cervical lesion were found. The Western blot analysis showed increasing concentrations of metalloproteinases (MMP's), proteins with important biological roles in tumor development and metastasis. Protein profiles in conjunction with MS, bioinformatics, and Western blot analysis, allow us to compile information for the acquisition of results to proposed candidates biomarkers of cervical cancer among Mexican women population.

  1. Expression of melanotransferrin isoforms in human serum: relevance to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Richard R; Bertrand, Yanick; Nguyen, Quynh-Tran; Demeule, Michel; Gabathuler, Reinhard; Kennard, Malcolm L; Gauthier, Serge; Béliveau, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Levels of soluble melanotransferrin in serum have been reported to be higher in patients with Alzheimer's disease than in control subjects. The present study investigated melanotransferrin in human body fluids in the light of these findings. To clarify the correlation between melanotransferrin and Alzheimer's disease, the melanotransferrin content was determined by non-reducing, denaturing SDS/PAGE and Western blotting. Under these conditions, serum melanotransferrin migrated at 79 and 82 kDa. Melanotransferrin antigenicity and the relative proportions of the two forms were very sensitive to factors that altered its conformation, including disulphide bridges, pH and bivalent cations. Serum melanotransferrin levels were not significantly different between control subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease using whole serum, EDTA-supplemented serum or serum immunoglobulin-depleted by Protein G-Sepharose and enriched by affinity precipitation with the lectin from Asparagus pea. Glycosylated forms of serum melanotransferrin bound to Asparagus lectin manifested similar patterns on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in samples from controls and Alzheimer's disease subjects. Melanotransferrin was also present in saliva and at a high level in urine, but contents were similar in controls and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Together, these results demonstrate that serum melanotransferrin exists in various conformations depending on the binding of bivalent cations or following post-translational modification. These data also indicate that human serum melanotransferrin levels are unchanged in subjects with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:12809550

  2. Partitioning of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between human serum and breast milk: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mannetje, Andrea 't; Coakley, Jonathan; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree; Douwes, Jeroen

    2012-11-01

    The literature was reviewed to assess the relationship between the lipid adjusted concentration in human serum and breast milk (expressed as the serum/milk ratio) of a broad range of POPs in paired samples. Thirteen studies were identified, including seven studies that reported serum/milk ratios for polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), ten for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and five for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Mean serum/milk ratios ranged between 0.7 and 25 depending on the compound and congener. For PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs, a clear trend of increasing mean serum/milk ratio by increasing molar volume, hydrophobicity and number of halogen substitutes was observed. The mean serum/milk ratios reported by the 13 studies summarized here will aid comparison between human POPs exposure studies using either serum or milk samples. More studies are needed to allow a valid comparison between data obtained from analysis of breast milk and serum samples for a broader range of POPs. Furthermore such studies may shed light on compound specific factors as well as other determinants that may affect the partitioning and partition kinetics of POPs between serum and breast milk.

  3. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception on human serum enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, M; Mukherjee, P; Biswas, R; Chakraborty, A S; Kushari, J

    1981-01-01

    Activities of five enzymes were determined biochemically in the serum of a woman taking the injectable contraceptive, depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), 150 mg every 3 months for 2 years. The specific activities of SGOT, SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-the enzymes commonly discerned in tests on the function of the liver-do not show any change with long-term treatment of this steroid contraceptive. Activities of serum acid phosphatase (ACP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in red cells show significant increase. DMPA contraception has no apparent harmful effect on liver function, although the rise in ACP and AChE activities may be related to some pathological condition.

  4. Human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) proviruses with Rec protein coding capacity and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jens; Ehlhardt, Sandra; Seifert, Markus; Sauter, Marlies; Müller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus; Mehraein, Yasmin; Zang, Klaus-Dieter; Meese, Eckart

    2004-04-25

    The human endogenous retrovirus family HERV-K(HML-2) encodes the so-called Rec protein that displays functional similarities to the HIV(REV) protein. The number of proviruses producing Rec protein was hitherto unknown. We therefore analyzed the human genome sequence data and determined seven HERV-K(HML-2) proviruses potentially capable of producing Rec both on the mRNA and the protein level. We analyzed Rec mRNA expression in the Tera-1 cell line and in synovial tissue, and in the expressed sequence tag (EST) database. Diagnostic nucleotides assigned transcriptionally active and Rec-encoding proviruses to human chromosomes 6, 7, 11, and 12. Differently spliced mRNAs were also identified. The various active proviruses encode almost identical Rec proteins. Our study contributes to the understanding of the biology of HERV-K(HML-2) Rec protein. Our study further demonstrates that minor sequence differences among proviruses allow assigning HERV transcripts to particular proviral loci. Extended studies will eventually yield a more complete image of HERV transcription, regulation, and biological significance in diverse human tissues.

  5. Minimized human telomerase maintains telomeres and resolves endogenous roles of H/ACA proteins, TCAB1, and Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Vogan, Jacob M; Zhang, Xiaozhu; Youmans, Daniel T; Regalado, Samuel G; Johnson, Joshua Z; Hockemeyer, Dirk; Collins, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    We dissected the importance of human telomerase biogenesis and trafficking pathways for telomere maintenance. Biological stability of human telomerase RNA (hTR) relies on H/ACA proteins, but other eukaryotes use other RNP assembly pathways. To investigate additional rationale for human telomerase assembly as H/ACA RNP, we developed a minimized cellular hTR. Remarkably, with only binding sites for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), minimized hTR assembled biologically active enzyme. TERT overexpression was required for cellular interaction with minimized hTR, indicating that H/ACA RNP assembly enhances endogenous hTR-TERT interaction. Telomere maintenance by minimized telomerase was unaffected by the elimination of the telomerase holoenzyme Cajal body chaperone TCAB1 or the Cajal body scaffold protein Coilin. Surprisingly, wild-type hTR also maintained and elongated telomeres in TCAB1 or Coilin knockout cells, with distinct changes in telomerase action. Overall, we elucidate trafficking requirements for telomerase biogenesis and function and expand mechanisms by which altered telomere maintenance engenders human disease. PMID:27525486

  6. A Novel Function of RNAs Arising From the Long Terminal Repeat of Human Endogenous Retrovirus 9 in Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lai; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Candotti, Fabio; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Beaucage, Serge L.; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Calvert, Valerie; Juhl, Hartmut; Mills, Frederick; Mason, Karen; Shastri, Neal; Chik, Josh; Xu, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The human genome contains approximately 50 copies of the replication-defective human endogenous retrovirus 9 (ERV-9) and thousands of copies of its solitary long term repeat (sLTR) element. While some sLTRs are located upstream of critical genes and have enhancer activity, other sLTRs are located within introns and may be transcribed as RNAs. We found that intronic RNAs arising from U3 sLTRs of ERV-9 were expressed as both sense (S) and antisense (AS) transcripts in all human cells tested but that expression levels differed in malignant versus nonmalignant cells. In nonmalignant cells, AS was expressed at higher levels than S and at higher levels than in malignant cells; in malignant cells, AS was expressed at amounts equivalent to those of S RNA. Critically, U3 AS RNA was found to physically bind to key transcription factors for cellular proliferation, including NF-Y, p53, and sp1, indicating that such RNA transcripts may function as decoy targets or traps for NF-Y and thus inhibit the growth of human cancer cells. Indeed, short U3 oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) based on these RNA sequences ably inhibited proliferation of cancer cell lines driven by cyclins B1/B2, the gene targets of NF-Y. PMID:23097441

  7. Minimized human telomerase maintains telomeres and resolves endogenous roles of H/ACA proteins, TCAB1, and Cajal bodies

    PubMed Central

    Vogan, Jacob M; Zhang, Xiaozhu; Youmans, Daniel T; Regalado, Samuel G; Johnson, Joshua Z; Hockemeyer, Dirk; Collins, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    We dissected the importance of human telomerase biogenesis and trafficking pathways for telomere maintenance. Biological stability of human telomerase RNA (hTR) relies on H/ACA proteins, but other eukaryotes use other RNP assembly pathways. To investigate additional rationale for human telomerase assembly as H/ACA RNP, we developed a minimized cellular hTR. Remarkably, with only binding sites for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), minimized hTR assembled biologically active enzyme. TERT overexpression was required for cellular interaction with minimized hTR, indicating that H/ACA RNP assembly enhances endogenous hTR-TERT interaction. Telomere maintenance by minimized telomerase was unaffected by the elimination of the telomerase holoenzyme Cajal body chaperone TCAB1 or the Cajal body scaffold protein Coilin. Surprisingly, wild-type hTR also maintained and elongated telomeres in TCAB1 or Coilin knockout cells, with distinct changes in telomerase action. Overall, we elucidate trafficking requirements for telomerase biogenesis and function and expand mechanisms by which altered telomere maintenance engenders human disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18221.001 PMID:27525486

  8. Dependence of the solvent proton 1/T1 on the iron content in normal human serum.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A; Chu, S C; Osmanoglu, S

    1988-07-01

    The iron content dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) of solvent protons in healthy human serum has been studied by FT NMR at 60 MHz. A linear relationship has been established between 1/T1 and the iron content (with a correlation of 0.89). Our data suggest that Fe(III)-transferrin can contribute to the relaxation rate in healthy human serum. PMID:2849703

  9. Differentiation and quantification of endogenous and recombinant-methionyl human leptin in clinical plasma samples by immunocapture/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Heilig, Joseph S

    2012-11-01

    Therapeutic recombinant-methionyl human leptin (r-metHu-Leptin, Mr 16155) shares an identical amino acid sequence with endogenous leptin (endo-leptin, Mr 16024), with the addition of an N-terminal methionyl incorporated during recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Current immunochemistry-based assays do not allow discrimination between the drug and endo-leptin because of cross reactivity. Using the immunoassay, the total plasma concentration measured in some clinical study subjects receiving r-metHu-Leptin can reach supra-physiological levels. To determine which leptin species contributes to the elevated concentrations detected in some subjects, a mass spectrometry-based method allowing discrimination and quantification of both leptin species was developed. Endo-leptin and r-metHu-Leptin were enriched from plasma matrix proteins by immuno capture, and subsequently injected onto a reversed phase analytical column coupled to an API 4000 Q-TRAP LC-MS/MS system. Multiple charge state ions and specific MRMs were monitored to provide unambiguous differentiation between endo-leptin and r-metHu-Leptin. A "top down" assay distinguishing the two forms of leptin was successfully developed and had a linear range from 15.63 to 1000 ng/ml, low limit of quantification of 15.63 ng/ml. The method was applied to selected clinical samples and revealed that the elevated leptin concentrations observed in some subjects reflected accumulation of r-metHu-Leptin. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for unambiguous differentiation of r-metHu-Leptin from endogenous leptin in human plasma. Using this method, specific quantitative information was obtained for pharmacokinetic studies in a clinical trial. The method should prove useful in quantifying this investigational drug against endo-leptin background in future clinical studies. PMID:22795822

  10. Endogenous Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Bicuspid Aortic Valve Associated Aortopathy in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Oliver J.; Moorjani, Narain; Torrens, Christopher; Ohri, Sunil K.; Cagampang, Felino R.

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is the most common congenital cardiac abnormality and predisposes patients to life-threatening aortic complications including aortic aneurysm. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most commonly used methods to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms involved in aortopathy. The accuracy of the gene expression data is dependent on normalization by appropriate housekeeping (HK) genes, whose expression should remain constant regardless of aortic valve morphology, aortic diameter and other factors associated with aortopathy. Here, we identified an appropriate set of HK genes to be used as endogenous reference for quantifying gene expression in ascending aortic tissue using a spin column-based RNA extraction method. Ascending aortic biopsies were collected intra-operatively from patients undergoing aortic valve and/or ascending aortic surgery. These patients had BAV or tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), and the aortas were either dilated (≥4.5cm) or undilated. The cohort had an even distribution of gender, valve disease and hypertension. The expression stability of 12 reference genes were investigated (ATP5B, ACTB, B2M, CYC1, EIF4A2, GAPDH, SDHA, RPL13A, TOP1, UBC, YWHAZ, and 18S) using geNorm software. The most stable HK genes were found to be GAPDH, UBC and ACTB. Both GAPDH and UBC demonstrated relative stability regardless of valve morphology, aortic diameter, gender and age. The expression of B2M and SDHA were found to be the least stable HK genes. We propose the use of GAPDH, UBC and ACTB as reference genes for gene expression studies of BAV aortopathy using ascending aortic tissue. PMID:27727313

  11. Genetic variants of human organic anion transporter 4 demonstrate altered transport of endogenous substrates

    PubMed Central

    Shima, James E.; Komori, Takafumi; Taylor, Travis R.; Stryke, Doug; Kawamoto, Michiko; Johns, Susan J.; Carlson, Elaine J.; Ferrin, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Apical reabsorption from the urine has been shown to be important for such processes as the maintenance of critical metabolites in the blood and the excretion of nephrotoxic compounds. The solute carrier (SLC) transporter OAT4 (SLC22A11) is expressed on the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and is known to mediate the transport of a variety of xenobiotic and endogenous organic anions. Functional characterization of genetic variants of apical transporters thought to mediate reabsorption, such as OAT4, may provide insight into the genetic factors influencing the complex pathways involved in drug elimination and metabolite reclamation occurring in the kidney. Naturally occurring genetic variants of OAT4 were identified in public databases and by resequencing DNA samples from 272 individuals comprising 4 distinct ethnic groups. Nine total nonsynonymous variants were identified and functionally assessed using uptake of three radiolabeled substrates. A nonsense variant, R48Stop, and three other variants (R121C, V155G, and V155M) were found at frequencies of at least 2% in an ethnic group specific fashion. The L29P, R48Stop, and H469R variants displayed a complete loss of function, and kinetic analysis identified a reduced Vmax in the common nonsynonymous variants. Plasma membrane levels of OAT4 protein were absent or reduced in the nonfunctional variants, providing a mechanistic reason for the observed loss of function. Characterization of the genetic variants of reabsorptive transporters such as OAT4 is an important step in understanding variability in tubular reabsorption with important implications in innate homeostatic processes and drug disposition. PMID:20668102

  12. Water-Soluble alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes of cigarette smoke induce carbonylation of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Graziano; Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Giustarini, Daniela; Gornati, Rosalba; Rossi, Ranieri; Colombo, Roberto; Carini, Marina; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella

    2010-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for developing pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases as well as some forms of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which smoking contributes to disease remains a major research focus. Increased levels of carbonylated serum proteins are present in smokers; albumin is the major carbonylated protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of older smokers. We have investigated the susceptibility of human serum albumin (HSA) to alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde-induced carbonylation when exposed to whole-phase cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Fluorescence studies with fluorescent probes showed depletion of HSA Cys34 free thiol and marked decrease of free Lys residues. Spectrophotometric and immunochemical carbonyl assays after carbonyl derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine revealed the formation of covalent carbonyl adducts. Nanoscale capillary liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry analysis detected acrolein and crotonaldehyde Michael adducts at Cys34, Lys525, Lys351, and His39 at all the CSE concentrations tested. Lys541 and Lys545 were also found to form a Schiff base with acrolein. The carbonyl scavenger drugs, hydralazine and pyridoxamine, partially prevented CSE-induced HSA carbonylation. Carbonylation of HSA associated with cigarette smoking might result in modifications of its antioxidant properties and transport functions of both endogenous and exogenous compounds.

  13. NAA For Human Serum Analysis: Comparison With Conventional Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A. G.; Azevedo, Maria R.

    2010-08-04

    Instrumental and Comparator methods of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) were applied to determine elements of clinical relevancy in serum samples of adult population (Sao Paulo city, Brazil). A comparison with the conventional analyses, Colorimetric for calcium, Titrymetric for chlorine and Ion Specific Electrode for sodium and potassium determination were also performed permitting a discussion about the performance of NAA methods for clinical chemistry research.

  14. ENHANCED CONCENTRATION AND ANALYSIS METHOD FOR MEASURING WATER SOLUABLE ENDOGENOUS COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BREATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled human breath analysis has become a standard technique for assessing exposure to exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trihalomethanes from water chlorination; aromatics, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates from fuels usage; and various chlorinated solvents from i...

  15. Comparative Analysis of KnockOut™ Serum with Fetal Bovine Serum for the In Vitro Long-Term Culture of Human Limbal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The limbal epithelial cells can be maintained on 3T3 feeder layer with fetal bovine serum supplemented culture medium, and these cells have been used to successfully treat limbal stem cell deficiency. However, fetal bovine serum contains unknown components and displays quantitative and qualitative lot-to-lot variations. To improve the culture condition, the defined KnockOut serum replacement was investigated to replace fetal bovine serum for culturing human limbal epithelial cell. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were cultured in KnockOut serum and fetal bovine serum supplemented medium, respectively. The cell growth rate, gene expression, and maintenance of limbal epithelial stem cells were studied and compared between these two groups. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were isolated and successfully serially cultivated in this novel KnockOut serum supplemented medium; the cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance were similar to those of cells grown in fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. These data suggests that this KnockOut serum supplemented medium is an efficient replacement to traditional fetal bovine serum supplemented medium for limbal epithelial cell culture, and this medium has great potential for long term maintenance of limbal epithelial cells, limbal epithelial stem cells transplantation, and tissue regeneration. PMID:27446607

  16. Estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D2 and D3 receptors in humans using the agonist radiotracer [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Borlido, Carol; Remington, Gary; Gerretsen, Philip; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-11-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET) and an acute dopamine depletion challenge it is possible to estimate endogenous dopamine levels occupying dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) in humans in vivo. Our group has developed [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO, the first agonist radiotracer with preferential in vivo affinity for D3R. Thus, the use of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO offers the novel possibility of (i) estimating in vivo endogenous dopamine levels at D2/3R using an agonist radiotracer, and (ii) estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D3R in extrastriatal regions such as the substantia nigra, hypothalamus, and ventral pallidum. Ten healthy participants underwent a [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO PET scan under baseline conditions and another under acute endogenous dopamine depletion achieved via oral administration of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (64 mg/kg). [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding was sensitive to acute dopamine depletion, allowing in vivo estimates of endogenous dopamine in D2R-rich regions (caudate and putamen), mixed D2/3R-rich regions (ventral striatum and globus pallidus), and extrastriatal D3R-rich regions (hypothalamus and ventral pallidum). Dopamine depletion decreased self-reported vigor, which was correlated with the reduction in dopamine levels in the globus pallidus. [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO is a suitable radiotracer for use in estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D2R and D3R in neuropsychiatric populations.

  17. Estimating Endogenous Dopamine Levels at D2 and D3 Receptors in Humans using the Agonist Radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Borlido, Carol; Remington, Gary; Gerretsen, Philip; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET) and an acute dopamine depletion challenge it is possible to estimate endogenous dopamine levels occupying dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) in humans in vivo. Our group has developed [11C]-(+)-PHNO, the first agonist radiotracer with preferential in vivo affinity for D3R. Thus, the use of [11C]-(+)-PHNO offers the novel possibility of (i) estimating in vivo endogenous dopamine levels at D2/3R using an agonist radiotracer, and (ii) estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D3R in extrastriatal regions such as the substantia nigra, hypothalamus, and ventral pallidum. Ten healthy participants underwent a [11C]-(+)-PHNO PET scan under baseline conditions and another under acute endogenous dopamine depletion achieved via oral administration of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (64 mg/kg). [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding was sensitive to acute dopamine depletion, allowing in vivo estimates of endogenous dopamine in D2R-rich regions (caudate and putamen), mixed D2/3R-rich regions (ventral striatum and globus pallidus), and extrastriatal D3R-rich regions (hypothalamus and ventral pallidum). Dopamine depletion decreased self-reported vigor, which was correlated with the reduction in dopamine levels in the globus pallidus. [11C]-(+)-PHNO is a suitable radiotracer for use in estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D2R and D3R in neuropsychiatric populations. PMID:24874713

  18. Regulated expression of human CD4 rescues helper T cell development in mice lacking expression of endogenous CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, N; Sawada, S; Littman, D R

    1993-01-01

    During T cell development, precursor thymocytes that co-express the CD4 and CD8 glycoproteins give rise to mature progeny expressing one of these molecules to the exclusion of the other. Continued expression of only CD4 is the hallmark of mature helper T cells, whereas cytotoxic T cells express CD8 and extinguish CD4. The differentiation program that generates the two T cell subsets is likely to be intimately tied to regulation of expression of these cell surface molecules. We now describe the use of a murine CD4 enhancer in the generation of transgenic mice expressing physiologic levels of human CD4. The transgene is appropriately regulated during T cell development and includes the necessary cis-acting sequences for extinguishing expression in the CD8 lineage. Furthermore, in mice whose endogenous CD4 gene is inactivated, the transgenic human CD4 mediates rescue of the CD4 lineage and restoration of normal helper cell functions. The generation of these mice exemplifies a general approach for developing reliable animal models for the human immune system. Images PMID:8467804

  19. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolite profiling of liver extracts from SCID and chimeric humanized mice following repeated oral administration of troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Alan J; Baker, David R; Hobby, Kirsten; Ashton, Simon; Michopoulos, Filippos; Spagou, Konstantina; Loftus, Neil J; Wilson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    1. Metabonomic analysis, via a combination of untargeted and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and untargeted (1)H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling, was performed on aqueous (AQ) and organic liver extracts from control (SCID) and chimeric humanized (PXB) mice dosed with troglitazone at 0, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day for seven days. 2. LC-MS analysis of AQ liver extracts showed a more "human-like" profile for troglitazone metabolites for PXB, compared with SCID, mice. 3. LC-MS detected differences in endogenous metabolites, particularly lipid species in dosed mice, including elevated triacylglycerols and 1-alkyl,2-acylglycerophosphates as well as lowered diacylglycerophosphocholines and 1-alkyl,2-acylglycerophosphocholines for PXB compared with SCID mouse liver extracts. Following drug administration changes in the relative proportions of the ions for various unsaturated fatty acids were observed for both types of mouse, some of which were specific to PXB or SCID mice. 4.  (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that AQ PXB mouse liver extracts had elevated amounts of inosine, fumarate, creatine, aspartate, trimethylamine N-oxide, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, choline, glutamine, glutamate, acetate, alanine and lactate relative to SCID mice and decreased histidine, glycogen, α- and β-glucose, taurine, and glutathione. Increased uracil and tyrosine concentrations were detected for PXB mice on troglitazone administration. 5. Metabonomic profiling thus showed clear differences between humanized and SCID mice, including after administration of troglitazone.

  20. A human serum mannose-binding protein inhibits in vitro infection by the human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In vitro infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of CD4+ H9 lymphoblasts is inhibited by a mannose-binding protein (MBP) purified from human serum. In addition, MBP is able to selectively bind to HIV- infected H9 cells and HIV-infected cells from the monocyte cell line U937. These results indicate MBP most likely recognizes high mannose glycans known to be present on gp120 in the domain that is recognized by CD4 and thereby inhibits viral entry to susceptible cells. In support of this contention, recombinant gp120 binds directly to MBP; the binding is saturable, mannan inhibitable, removed by N-glycanase treatment, and dependent on divalent cations. PMID:2909656

  1. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABAρ receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABAρ1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABAρ receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen.

  2. Occurrence of a multimeric high-molecular-weight glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kunjithapatham, Rani; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Devine, Lauren; Boronina, Tatiana N; O'Meally, Robert N; Cole, Robert N; Torbenson, Michael S; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-04-01

    Cellular glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a phylogenetically conserved, ubiquitous enzyme that plays an indispensable role in energy metabolism. Although a wealth of information is available on cellular GAPDH, there is a clear paucity of data on its extracellular counterpart (i.e., the secreted or extracellular GAPDH). Here, we show that the extracellular GAPDH in human serum is a multimeric, high-molecular-weight, yet glycolytically active enzyme. The high-molecular-weight multimers of serum GAPDH were identified by immunodetection on one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using multiple antibodies specific for various epitopes of GAPDH. Partial purification of serum GAPDH by DEAE Affigel affinity/ion exchange chromatography further established the multimeric composition of serum GAPDH. In vitro data demonstrated that human cell lines secrete a multimeric, high-molecular-weight enzyme similar to that of serum GAPDH. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis of extracellular GAPDH from human cell lines confirmed the presence of unique peptides of GAPDH in the high-molecular-weight subunits. Furthermore, data from pulse-chase experiments established the presence of high-molecular-weight subunits in the secreted, extracellular GAPDH. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the presence of a high-molecular-weight, enzymatically active secretory GAPDH in human serum that may have a hitherto unknown function in humans.

  3. Microchip-based human serum atherogenic lipoprotein profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Jun; Liu, Weiwei; Yu, Bo; Jin, Qinghui; Guan, Ming

    2014-12-15

    Owing to the mounting evidence of serum lipid changes in atherosclerosis, there has been increasing interest in developing new methods for analyzing atherogenic lipoprotein profiles. The separation of lipoprotein and lipoprotein subclasses has been demonstrated using a microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) system [Chromatographia 74 (2011) 799-805]. In contrast to this previous study, the current report demonstrates that sdLDL peak efficiencies can be improved dramatically by adding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the sample. Moreover, NBD C6-ceramide was identified as a satisfactory dye for specific labeling and quantitation of individual serum lipoproteins. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with ultracentrifuge separated small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL). A high correlation was observed between these two methods for sdLDL cholesterol. Lipid levels were investigated between atherosclerotic patients and healthy controls. The variation of serum atherogenic lipoprotein profiles for atherosclerotic patients pre- and post-treatment was assessed by microchip CE. This method has potential for the rapid and sensitive detection of different lipoprotein classes as well as their subclasses and, therefore, is suitable for routine clinical applications. Microchip-based atherogenic lipoprotein profile assays will greatly improve the analysis of risk factors in atherosclerosis and will provide useful information for monitoring the effect of therapies on atherosclerotic disease.

  4. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Ragunath; Lyn, Rodney K.; Srinivasan, Prashanth; Delcorde, Julie; Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne; Pezacki, John P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  5. The susceptibility of Campylobacter concisus to the bactericidal effects of normal human serum.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Karina Frahm; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with Barrett's oesophagus, enteritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite having invasive potential in intestinal epithelial cells in-vitro, bacteraemic cases with C. concisus are extremely scarce, having only been reported once. Therefore, we conducted a serum resistance assay to investigate the bactericidal effects of human complement on C. concisus in comparison to some other Campylobacter species. In total, 22 Campylobacter strains were tested by incubation with normal human serum and subsequent cultivation in microaerobic conditions for 48 hours. Killing time was evaluated by decrease in total CFU over time for incubation with different serum concentrations. Faecal isolates of C. concisus showed inoculum reduction to less than 50% after 30 min. Campylobacter jejuni was sensitive to serum, but killing was delayed and a bacteraemic Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus isolate was completely serum resistant. Interestingly, sensitivity of enteric C. concisus to human serum was not associated to different faecal-calprotectin levels. We find that faecal isolates of C. concisus are sensitive to the bactericidal effects of serum, which may explain why C. concisus is not associated to bacteraemia.

  6. Normal human serum contains a natural IgM antibody cytotoxic for human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ollert, M W; David, K; Schmitt, C; Hauenschild, A; Bredehorst, R; Erttmann, R; Vogel, C W

    1996-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is characterized by the second highest spontaneous regression of any human malignant disorder, a phenomenon that remains to be elucidated. In this study, a survey of 94 normal human adult sera revealed a considerable natural humoral cytotoxicity against human NB cell lines in approximately one-third of the tested sera of both genders. Specific cell killing by these sera was in the range of 40% to 95%. Serum cytotoxicity was dependent on an intact classical pathway of complement. By several lines of evidence, IgM antibodies were identified as the cytotoxic factor in the sera. Further analyses revealed that a 260-kDa protein was recognized by natural IgM of cytotoxic sera in Western blots of NB cell extracts. The antigen was expressed on the surface of seven human NB cell lines but not on human melanoma or other control tumor cell lines derived from kidney, pancreas, colon, bone, skeletal muscle, lymphatic system, and bone marrow. Furthermore, no reactivity was observed with normal human fibroblasts, melanocytes, and epidermal keratinocytes. The antigen was expressed in vivo as detected by immunohistochemistry in both the tumor of a NB patient and NB tumors established in nude rats from human NB cell lines. Most interestingly, the IgM anti-NB antibody was absent from the sera of 11 human NB patients with active disease. The anti-NB IgM also could not be detected in tumor tissue obtained from a NB patient. Collectively, our data suggest the existence of a natural humoral immunological tumor defense mechanism, which could account for the in vivo phenomenon of spontaneous NB tumor regression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633097

  7. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei; Huang, Yongyi; Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Lihe

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder

  8. Unraveling the binding mechanism of asiatic acid with human serum albumin and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Gokara, Mahesh; Malavath, Tirupathi; Kalangi, Suresh Kumar; Reddana, Pallu; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AsA), a naturally occurring pentacyclictriterpenoid found in Centella asiatica, plays a major role in neuroprotection, anticancer, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities. Human serum albumin (HSA), a blood plasma protein, participates in the regulation of plasma osmotic pressure and transports endogenous and exogenous substances. The study undertaken to analyze the drug-binding mechanisms of HSA is crucial in understanding the bioavailability of drugs. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic activity of AsA on HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines and its binding, conformational, docking, molecular simulation studies with HSA under physiological pH 7.2. These studies revealed a clear decrease in the viability of HepG2 cells upon exposure to AsA in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 45 μM. Further studies showed the quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of HSA by AsA with a binding constant of KAsA = 3.86 ± 0.01 × 10(4) M(-1), which corresponds to the free energy of (ΔG) -6.3 kcal M(-1) at 25 °C. Circular dichroism (CD) studies revealed that there is a clear decrease in the α-helical content from 57.50 ± 2.4 to 50% ± 2.3 and an increase in the β-turns from 25 ± 0.65 to 29% ± 0.91 and random coils from 17.5% ± 0.95 to 21% ± 1.2, suggesting partial unfolding of HSA. Autodock studies revealed that the AsA is bound to the subdomain IIA with hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. From molecular dynamics, simulation data (RMSD, Rg and RMSF) emphasized the local conformational changes and rigidity of the residues of both HSA and HSA-AsA complexes. PMID:23844909

  9. Binding affinity and agonist activity of putative endogenous cannabinoids at the human neocortical CB1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Marc; Zentner, Josef; Honegger, Jürgen; Feuerstein, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the affinity of putative endocannabinoids (2-arachidonylglycerol, 2-AG; noladin ether, virodhamine) for the human neocortical CB1 receptor. Functional activity of these compounds (including anandamide, AEA) was determined by examining basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation. Assays were performed with synaptosomes, prepared from fresh human neocortical tissue. Receptor affinity was assessed from competition binding experiments with the CB1/2 agonist [3H]-CP55.940 in absence or presence of a protease inhibitor to assess enzymatic stability. Noladin ether and virodhamine inhibited [3H]-CP55.940 binding (Ki: 98, 1740 nM, respectively). Protease inhibition decreased the Ki value of virodhamine (Ki: 912 nM), but left that of noladin ether unchanged. 2-AG almost lacked affinity (Ki lymphoblasic )10 microM). Basal cAMP formation was unaffected by AEA and noladin ether, but strongly enhanced by 2-AG and virodhamine. Forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation was inhibited by AEA and noladin ether (IC50: 69, 427 nM, respectively) to the same extent as by CP55.940 (Imax each approximately 30%). Inhibitions by AEA or noladin ether were blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. Virodhamine increased forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation, also in presence of AM251, by approximately 20%. 2-AG had no effect; in presence of AM251, however, 10 microM 2-AG stimulated cAMP formation by approximately 15%. Our results suggest, that AEA and noladin ether are full CB1 receptor agonists in human neocortex, whereas virodhamine may act as a CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist. Particularly the (patho)physiological role of 2-AG should be further investigated, since its CB1 receptor affinity and agonist activity especially in humans might be lower than generally assumed. PMID:15588725

  10. Endogenous production of infectious Inoue-Melnick virus in a human meningioma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Y; Inoue, Y K; Hollinshead, A C

    1987-11-01

    We investigated continuous production of Inoue-Melnick virus (IMV) in the MG-1 cell line, established from human meningioma. The infectious virus, identified as a type 1 virus, was mostly recovered extracellularly. Assay of MG-1 cells as infective centers indicated that most of the cells were capable of producing infectious virus. By immunofluorescence, more than 90% of the cells were found to have IMV-associated cytoplasmic antigen(s) (IMCA).

  11. Single cell genomics reveals activation signatures of endogenous SCAR's networks in aneuploid human embryos and clinically intractable malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2016-10-10

    Somatic mutations and chromosome instability are hallmarks of genomic aberrations in cancer cells. Aneuploidies represent common manifestations of chromosome instability, which is frequently observed in human embryos and malignant solid tumors. Activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-derived loci is documented in preimplantation human embryos, hESC, and multiple types of human malignancies. It remains unknown whether the HERV activation may highlight a common molecular pathway contributing to the frequent occurrence of chromosome instability in the early stages of human embryonic development and the emergence of genomic aberrations in cancer. Single cell RNA sequencing analysis of human preimplantation embryos reveals activation of specific LTR7/HERVH loci during the transition from the oocytes to zygotes and identifies HERVH network signatures associated with the aneuploidy in human embryos. The correlation patterns' analysis links transcriptome signatures of the HERVH network activation of the in vivo matured human oocytes with gene expression profiles of clinical samples of prostate tumors supporting the existence of a cancer progression pathway from putative precursor lesions (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) to localized and metastatic prostate cancers. Tracking signatures of HERVH networks' activation in tumor samples from cancer patients with known long-term therapy outcomes enabled patients' stratification into sub-groups with markedly distinct likelihoods of therapy failure and death from cancer. Genome-wide analyses of human-specific genetic elements of stem cell-associated retroviruses (SCARs)-regulated networks in 12,093 clinical tumor samples across 29 cancer types revealed pan-cancer genomic signatures of clinically-lethal therapy resistant disease defined by the presence of somatic non-silent mutations (SNMs), gene-level copy number changes, and transcripts and proteins' expression of SCARs-regulated host genes. More than 73% of all

  12. Human Serum-Specific Activation of Alternative Sigma Factors, the Stress Responders in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Tang-Siegel, Gaoyan; Bumgarner, Roger; Ruiz, Teresa; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Chen, Weizhen; Chen, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a known pathogen causing periodontal disease and infective endocarditis, is a survivor in the periodontal pocket and blood stream; both environments contain serum as a nutrient source. To screen for unknown virulence factors associated with this microorganism, A. actinomycetemcomitans was grown in serum-based media to simulate its in vivo environment. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed distinct growth phenotypes only in the presence of human serum, and they were grouped into high- and low-responder groups. High-responders comprised mainly serotype c strains, and showed an unusual growth phenomenon, featuring a second, rapid increase in turbidity after 9-h incubation that reached a final optical density 2- to 7-fold higher than low-responders. Upon further investigation, the second increase in turbidity was not caused by cell multiplication, but by cell death. Whole transcriptomic analysis via RNA-seq identified 35 genes that were up-regulated by human serum, but not horse serum, in high-responders but not in low-responders, including prominently an alternative sigma factor rpoE (σE). A lacZ reporter construct driven by the 132-bp rpoE promoter sequence of A. actinomycetemcomitans responded dramatically to human serum within 90 min of incubation only when the construct was carried by a high responder strain. The rpoE promoter is 100% identical among high- and low-responder strains. Proteomic investigation showed potential interactions between human serum protein, e.g. apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data clearly indicated a different activation process for rpoE in high- versus low-responder strains. This differential human serum-specific activation of rpoE, a putative extra-cytoplasmic stress responder and global regulator, suggests distinct in vivo adaptations among different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:27490177

  13. Human Serum-Specific Activation of Alternative Sigma Factors, the Stress Responders in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Tang-Siegel, Gaoyan; Bumgarner, Roger; Ruiz, Teresa; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Chen, Weizhen; Chen, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a known pathogen causing periodontal disease and infective endocarditis, is a survivor in the periodontal pocket and blood stream; both environments contain serum as a nutrient source. To screen for unknown virulence factors associated with this microorganism, A. actinomycetemcomitans was grown in serum-based media to simulate its in vivo environment. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed distinct growth phenotypes only in the presence of human serum, and they were grouped into high- and low-responder groups. High-responders comprised mainly serotype c strains, and showed an unusual growth phenomenon, featuring a second, rapid increase in turbidity after 9-h incubation that reached a final optical density 2- to 7-fold higher than low-responders. Upon further investigation, the second increase in turbidity was not caused by cell multiplication, but by cell death. Whole transcriptomic analysis via RNA-seq identified 35 genes that were up-regulated by human serum, but not horse serum, in high-responders but not in low-responders, including prominently an alternative sigma factor rpoE (σE). A lacZ reporter construct driven by the 132-bp rpoE promoter sequence of A. actinomycetemcomitans responded dramatically to human serum within 90 min of incubation only when the construct was carried by a high responder strain. The rpoE promoter is 100% identical among high- and low-responder strains. Proteomic investigation showed potential interactions between human serum protein, e.g. apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data clearly indicated a different activation process for rpoE in high- versus low-responder strains. This differential human serum-specific activation of rpoE, a putative extra-cytoplasmic stress responder and global regulator, suggests distinct in vivo adaptations among different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:27490177

  14. Iron absorption in humans: bovine serum albumin compared with beef muscle and egg white

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, R.F.; Lynch, S.R.; Trinidad, T.P.; Dassenko, S.A.; Cook, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the influence of bovine serum albumin and beef meat on nonheme iron absorption in humans and on dialyzable iron in vitro. The addition of serum albumin to a maize gruel had no significant effect on nonheme Fe absorption whereas the addition of beef meat caused a threefold increase. When added to a bread meal, serum albumin caused a modest 60% increase in nonheme Fe absorption and beef meat had no effect. When added to a protein-free meal, serum albumin reduced Fe absorption by 47% compared with a 72% reduction on addition of egg white. The bioavailability of nonheme Fe from meals containing serum albumin was consistently overestimated by the in vitro technique. We conclude that the facilitation of nonheme Fe absorption by meat is not a general property of all animal protein but is better explained by the action of one or more specific animal tissues.

  15. Oxidized Lipoprotein as a Major Vessel Cell Proliferator in Oxidized Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is correlated with the incidence of several diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer, and oxidized biomolecules have been determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress; however, the detailed molecular relationship between generated oxidation products and the promotion of diseases has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, to clarify the role of serum oxidation products in vessel cell proliferation, which is related to the incidence of atherosclerosis and cancer, the major vessel cell proliferator in oxidized human serum was investigated. Oxidized human serum was prepared by free radical exposure, separated using gel chromatography, and then each fraction was added to several kinds of vessel cells including endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. It was found that a high molecular weight fraction in oxidized human serum specifically induced vessel cell proliferation. Oxidized lipids were contained in this high molecular weight fraction, while cell proliferation activity was not observed in oxidized lipoprotein-deficient serum. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induced vessel cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that oxidized lipoproteins containing lipid oxidation products function as a major vessel cell proliferator in oxidized human serum. These findings strongly indicate the relevance of determination of oxidized lipoproteins and lipid oxidation products in the diagnosis of vessel cell proliferation-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. PMID:27483438

  16. Derepression of an endogenous long terminal repeat activates the CSF1R proto-oncogene in human lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Björn; Walter, Korden; Kreher, Stephan; Kumar, Raman; Hummel, Michael; Lenze, Dido; Köchert, Karl; Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Richter, Julia; Soler, Eric; Stadhouders, Ralph; Jöhrens, Korinna; Wurster, Kathrin D; Callen, David F; Harte, Michael F; Giefing, Maciej; Barlow, Rachael; Stein, Harald; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Janz, Martin; Cockerill, Peter N; Siebert, Reiner; Dörken, Bernd; Bonifer, Constanze; Mathas, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Mammalian genomes contain many repetitive elements, including long terminal repeats (LTRs), which have long been suspected to have a role in tumorigenesis. Here we present evidence that aberrant LTR activation contributes to lineage-inappropriate gene expression in transformed human cells and that such gene expression is central for tumor cell survival. We show that B cell-derived Hodgkin's lymphoma cells depend on the activity of the non-B, myeloid-specific proto-oncogene colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). In these cells, CSF1R transcription initiates at an aberrantly activated endogenous LTR of the MaLR family (THE1B). Derepression of the THE1 subfamily of MaLR LTRs is widespread in the genome of Hodgkin's lymphoma cells and is associated with impaired epigenetic control due to loss of expression of the corepressor CBFA2T3. Furthermore, we detect LTR-driven CSF1R transcripts in anaplastic large cell lymphoma, in which CSF1R is known to be expressed aberrantly. We conclude that LTR derepression is involved in the pathogenesis of human lymphomas, a finding that might have diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications.

  17. Plant polyphenols mobilize endogenous copper in human peripheral lymphocytes leading to oxidative DNA breakage: a putative mechanism for anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Asfar Sohail; Bhat, Showket Hussain; Hanif, Sarmad; Hadi, S M

    2006-01-23

    Plant polyphenols are important components of human diet and a number of them are considered to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. They are recognized as naturally occurring antioxidants but also act as prooxidants catalyzing DNA degradation in the presence of transition metal ions such as copper. Using human peripheral lymphocytes and Comet assay we have previously confirmed that resveratrol-Cu(II) is indeed capable of causing DNA degradation in cells. In this paper we show that the polyphenols alone (in the absence of added copper) are also capable of causing DNA breakage in cells. Incubation of lymphocytes with neocuproine inhibited the DNA degradation confirming that Cu(I) is an intermediate in the DNA cleavage reaction. Further, we have also shown that polyphenols generate oxidative stress in lymphocytes which is inhibited by scavengers of reactive oxygen species and neocuproine. These results are in further support of our hypothesis that anticancer mechanism of plant polyphenols involves mobilization of endogenous copper, possibly chromatin bound copper, and the consequent prooxidant action.

  18. Human-specific endogenous retroviral insert serves as an enhancer for the schizophrenia-linked gene PRODH

    PubMed Central

    Suntsova, Maria; Gogvadze, Elena V.; Salozhin, Sergey; Gaifullin, Nurshat; Eroshkin, Fedor; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Martynova, Natalia; Kulikov, Kirill; Malakhova, Galina; Tukhbatova, Gulnur; Bolshakov, Alexey P.; Ghilarov, Dmitry; Garazha, Andrew; Aliper, Alexander; Cantor, Charles R.; Solokhin, Yuri; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Balaban, Pavel; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic, whole-genome analysis of enhancer activity of human-specific endogenous retroviral inserts (hsERVs), we identified an element, hsERVPRODH, that acts as a tissue-specific enhancer for the PRODH gene, which is required for proper CNS functioning. PRODH is one of the candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and other neurological disorders. It codes for a proline dehydrogenase enzyme, which catalyses the first step of proline catabolism and most likely is involved in neuromediator synthesis in the CNS. We investigated the mechanisms that regulate hsERVPRODH enhancer activity. We showed that the hsERVPRODH enhancer and the internal CpG island of PRODH synergistically activate its promoter. The enhancer activity of hsERVPRODH is regulated by methylation, and in an undermethylated state it can up-regulate PRODH expression in the hippocampus. The mechanism of hsERVPRODH enhancer activity involves the binding of the transcription factor SOX2, whch is preferentially expressed in hippocampus. We propose that the interaction of hsERVPRODH and PRODH may have contributed to human CNS evolution. PMID:24218577

  19. Immunotoxicity Assessment of Rice-Derived Recombinant Human Serum Albumin Using Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai; Cheng, Qin; Liu, Zhenwei; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Yan; Ruan, Honggang; Zhou, Lu; Xiong, Jie; Xiao, Ruijing; Liu, Shengwu; Zhang, Qiuping; Yang, Daichang

    2014-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is extensively used in clinics to treat a variety of diseases, such as hypoproteinemia, hemorrhagic shock, serious burn injuries, cirrhotic ascites and fetal erythroblastosis. To address supply shortages and high safety risks from limited human donors, we recently developed recombinant technology to produce HSA from rice endosperm. To assess the risk potential of HSA derived from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA) before a First-in-human (FIH) trial, we compared OsrHSA and plasma-derived HSA (pHSA), evaluating the potential for an immune reaction and toxicity using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results indicated that neither OsrHSA nor pHSA stimulated T cell proliferation at 1x and 5x dosages. We also found no significant differences in the profiles of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets between OsrHSA- and pHSA-treated cells. Furthermore, the results showed that there were no significant differences between OsrHSA and pHSA in the production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-4. Our results demonstrated that OsrHSA has equivalent immunotoxicity to pHSA when using the PBMC model. Moreover, this ex vivo system could provide an alternative approach to predict potential risks in novel biopharmaceutical development. PMID:25099245

  20. DTPA complexation of bismuth in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Montavon, G; Le Du, A; Champion, J; Rabung, T; Morgenstern, A

    2012-07-28

    The in vivo(212)Pb/(212)Bi generator is promising for application in targeted alpha therapy (TAT) of cancer. One main limitation of its therapeutic application is due to potential release of (212)Bi from the radioconjugate upon radioactive decay of the mother nuclide (212)Pb, potentially leading to irradiation of healthy tissue. The objective of the present work is to assess whether the chelate CHX-A''-DTPA (N-(2-aminoethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N',N''-pentaacetic acid) bound to a biological carrier molecule may be able to re-complex released (212)Bi under in vivo conditions to limit its translocation from the target site. CHX-A''-DTPA was bound to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) to mimic a model conjugate and the stability of the Bi-CHX-A''-DTPA-BGG conjugate was studied in blood serum by ultrafiltration. TRLFS experiments using Cm(III) as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that linking CHX-A''-DTPA to BGG does not affect the coordination properties of the ligand. Furthermore, comparable stability constants were observed between Bi(III) and free CHX-A''-DTPA, BGG-bound CHX-A''-DTPA and DTPA. The complexation constants determined between Bi(III) and the chelate molecules are sufficiently high to allow ultra trace amounts of the ligand to efficiently compete with serum transferrin controlling Bi(III) speciation in blood plasma conditions. Nevertheless, CHX-A''-DTPA is not able to complex Bi(III) generated in blood serum because of the strong competition between Bi(III) and Fe(II) for the ligand. In other words, CHX-A''-DTPA is not "selective" enough to limit Bi(iii) release in the body when applying the (212)Pb/(212)Bi in vivo generator. PMID:22678751

  1. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    PubMed

    Soloski, Mark J; Crowder, Lauren A; Lahey, Lauren J; Wagner, Catriona A; Robinson, William H; Aucott, John N

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005) in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL19 (MIP3B) were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively). There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  2. DNAzyme hybridization, cleavage, degradation, and sensing in undiluted human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Chen, Qingyun; Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2015-04-01

    RNA-cleaving DNAzymes provide a unique platform for developing biosensors. However, a majority of the work has been performed in clean buffer solutions, while the activity of some important DNAzymes in biological sample matrices is still under debate. Two RNA-cleaving DNAzymes (17E and 10-23) are the most widely used. In this work, we carefully studied a few key aspects of the 17E DNAzyme in human blood serum, including hybridization, cleavage activity, and degradation kinetics. Since direct fluorescence monitoring is difficult due to the opacity of serum, denaturing and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis were combined for studying the interaction between serum proteins and DNAzymes. The 17E DNAzyme retains its activity in 90% human blood serum with a cleavage rate of 0.04 min(-1), which is similar to that in the PBS buffer (0.06 min(-1)) with a similar ionic strength. The activity in serum can be accelerated to 0.3 min(-1) with an additional 10 mM Ca(2+). As compared to 17E, the 10-23 DNAzyme produces negligible cleavage in serum. Degradation of both the substrate and the DNAzyme strand is very slow in serum, especially at room temperature. Degradation occurs mainly at the fluorophore label (linked to DNA via an amide bond) instead of the DNA phosphodiester bonds. Serum proteins can bind more tightly to the 17E DNAzyme complex than to the single-stranded substrate or enzyme. The 17E DNAzyme hybridizes extremely fast in serum. With this understanding, the detection of DNA using the 17E DNAzyme is demonstrated in serum.

  3. A critical review of methods for comparing estrogenic activity of endogenous and exogenous chemicals in human milk and infant formula.

    PubMed Central

    Borgert, Christopher J; LaKind, Judy S; Witorsch, Raphael J

    2003-01-01

    The two primary sources of nutrition for infants are human milk and infant formula. Both contain an array of endogenous and exogenous chemicals that may act through many separate hormonal mechanisms. The safety of infant nutrition sources has been questioned based on the possibility that exogenous chemicals may exert adverse effects on nursing or formula-fed infants through estrogen-mediated mechanisms. In response to these and other concerns, the National Research Council recommended assessing the estrogenic potency of natural and anthropogenic hormonally active agents. Furthermore, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency specifically recommended testing chemicals present in human milk as a representative mixture to which large segments of the population are exposed. To date, no clinical or epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that levels of chemicals currently found in human milk or infant formulas cause adverse effects in infants. Nonetheless, the question is sufficiently important to warrant a consideration of how best to evaluate potential estrogenic risks. We reviewed the types of data available for measuring estrogenic potency as well as methods for estimating health risks from mixtures of chemicals in infant nutrition sources that act via estrogenic mechanisms. We conclude that the science is insufficiently developed at this time to allow a credible assessment of health risks to infants based on estimates of estrogenic potency or on an understanding of toxicologic effects mediated by estrogenic mechanisms. However, clinical and epidemiologic data for infant nutrition sources may provide insights about risks of such substances in human milk and infant formulas. PMID:12826475

  4. Knock-Down of Endogenous Bornavirus-Like Nucleoprotein 1 Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Oligodendroglia Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Sun, Lin; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Yujie; Liu, Siwen; Zhou, Jingjing; Xu, Xiaoyan; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) have been discovered in the genomes of various animals including humans, whose functions have been seldom studied. To explore the biological functions of human EBLNs, we constructed a lentiviral vector expressing a short-hairpin RNA against human EBLN1, which successfully inhibited EBLN1 expression by above 80% in infected human oligodendroglia cells (OL cells). We found that EBLN1 silencing suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest, and promoted apoptosis in OL cells. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that 1067 genes were up-regulated, and 2004 were down-regulated after EBLN1 silencing. The top 10 most upregulated genes were PI3, RND3, BLZF1, SOD2, EPGN, SBSN, INSIG1, OSMR, CREB3L2, and MSMO1, and the top 10 most-downregulated genes were KRTAP2-4, FLRT2, DIDO1, FAT4, ESCO2, ZNF804A, SUV420H1, ZC3H4, YAE1D1, and NCOA5. Pathway analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in pathways related to the cell cycle, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, p53 signaling, and apoptosis. The gene expression profiles were validated by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting these 20 most-changed genes. Three genes closely related to glioma, RND3, OSMR, and CREB3L2, were significantly upregulated and might be the key factors in EBLN1 regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of OL cells. This study provides evidence that EBLN1 plays a key role in regulating cell life and death, thereby opening several avenues of investigation regarding EBLN1 in the future. PMID:27023521

  5. Knock-Down of Endogenous Bornavirus-Like Nucleoprotein 1 Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Oligodendroglia Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Peng; Sun, Lin; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Yujie; Liu, Siwen; Zhou, Jingjing; Xu, Xiaoyan; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) have been discovered in the genomes of various animals including humans, whose functions have been seldom studied. To explore the biological functions of human EBLNs, we constructed a lentiviral vector expressing a short-hairpin RNA against human EBLN1, which successfully inhibited EBLN1 expression by above 80% in infected human oligodendroglia cells (OL cells). We found that EBLN1 silencing suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest, and promoted apoptosis in OL cells. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that 1067 genes were up-regulated, and 2004 were down-regulated after EBLN1 silencing. The top 10 most upregulated genes were PI3, RND3, BLZF1, SOD2, EPGN, SBSN, INSIG1, OSMR, CREB3L2, and MSMO1, and the top 10 most-downregulated genes were KRTAP2-4, FLRT2, DIDO1, FAT4, ESCO2, ZNF804A, SUV420H1, ZC3H4, YAE1D1, and NCOA5. Pathway analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in pathways related to the cell cycle, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, p53 signaling, and apoptosis. The gene expression profiles were validated by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting these 20 most-changed genes. Three genes closely related to glioma, RND3, OSMR, and CREB3L2, were significantly upregulated and might be the key factors in EBLN1 regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of OL cells. This study provides evidence that EBLN1 plays a key role in regulating cell life and death, thereby opening several avenues of investigation regarding EBLN1 in the future. PMID:27023521

  6. Frequent Infection of Human Cancer Xenografts with Murine Endogenous Retroviruses in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Naseer, Asif; Terry, Anne; Gilroy, Kathryn; Kilbey, Anna; Watts, Ciorsdaidh; Mackay, Nancy; Bell, Margaret; Mason, Susan; Blyth, Karen; Cameron, Ewan; Neil, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Infection of human cancer xenografts in mice with murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) is a long-standing observation, but the likelihood of infection in vivo and its biological consequences are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a prospective study in commonly used xenograft recipient strains. From BALB/c nude mice engrafted with MCF7 human mammary carcinoma cells, we isolated a virus that was virtually identical to Bxv1, a locus encoding replication-competent xenotropic MLV (XMLV). XMLV was detected in 9/17 (53%) independently isolated explants. XMLV was not found in primary leukemias or in THP1 leukemia cells grown in Bxv1-negative NSG (NOD/SCID/γCnull) mice, although MCF7 explants harbored replication-defective MLV proviruses. To assess the significance of infection for xenograft behavior in vivo, we examined changes in growth and global transcription in MCF7 and the highly susceptible Raji Burkitt lymphoma cell line chronically infected with XMLV. Raji cells showed a stronger transcriptional response that included up-regulation of chemokines and effectors of innate antiviral immunity. In conclusion, the risk of de novo XMLV infection of xenografts is high in Bxv1 positive mice, while infection can have positive or negative effects on xenograft growth potential with significant consequences for interpretation of many xenograft studies. PMID:25912714

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the interaction between cyclovirobuxine D and human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ren; Liu, Jianming; Dong, Qiao; Fan, Jing

    2014-07-01

    Cyclovirobuxine D is an active compound extracted from the plant Buxux microphylla, and widely available as medications; however, its abuse may casts potential detrimental effects on human health. By using multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling, the interaction of cyclovirobuxine D with human serum albumin was investigated. The fluorescence results manifested that static type was the operative mechanism for the interaction with human serum albumin. The structural investigation of the complexed HSA through CD, three-dimensional, FT-IR and synchronous fluorescence shown the polypeptide chain of HSA partially destabilizing. Docking studies revealed the molecule to be bound in the subdomain IIA. Finally, we investigated the distance between the bound ligand and Trp-214 of human serum albumin.

  8. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo.

  9. Understanding the foundations of the structural similarities between marketed drugs and endogenous human metabolites

    PubMed Central

    O'Hagan, Steve; Kell, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent comparison showed the extensive similarities between the structural properties of metabolites in the reconstructed human metabolic network (“endogenites”) and those of successful, marketed drugs (“drugs”). Results: Clustering indicated the related but differential population of chemical space by endogenites and drugs. Differences between the drug-endogenite similarities resulting from various encodings and judged by Tanimoto similarity could be related simply to the fraction of the bitstrings set to 1. By extracting drug/endogenite substructures, we develop a novel family of fingerprints, the Drug Endogenite Substructure (DES) encodings, based on the ranked frequency of the various substructures. These provide a natural assessment of drug-endogenite likeness, and may be used as descriptors with which to derive quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Conclusions: “Drug-endogenite likeness” seems to have utility, and leads to a simple, novel and interpretable substructure-based molecular encoding for cheminformatics. PMID:26029108

  10. Modulation of Endogenous Hormone Action by Recombinant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Robert S.; Donner, David B.; Fletcher Starnes, H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1987-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the toxic manifestations of overwhelming bacterial infection and in the tissue wasting that often accompanies prolonged infections and malignancy. We have examined a possible role of TNF in the early metabolic alterations following acute tissue injury or sepsis. Recombinant human TNF stimulated rat liver amino acid uptake up to 5-fold in vivo and there was a concomitant increase in plasma glucagon. In vitro TNF had no direct effect on hepatocyte amino acid uptake, but it markedly enhanced the stimulation of amino acid transport by glucagon, without an alteration in binding of glucagon to hepatocytes. This permissive effect of TNF on glucagon action represents an interrelationship between the immune and endocrine systems, and it may help to explain the mechanism of hormonal regulation of both the anabolic and catabolic responses to acute injury.

  11. Serum Autotaxin/ENPP2 Correlates with Insulin Resistance in Older Humans with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Valerie L.; Trybula, Joy S.; Wills, Rachel C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Dubé, John J.; Kienesberger, Petra C.; Kershaw, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipocyte-derived lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The ATX/LPA pathway in adipose tissue has recently been implicated in obesity and insulin resistance in animal models, but the role of circulating ATX in humans remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum ATX and insulin resistance. Methods In this retrospective study, older (60–75 years), non-diabetic human participants with overweight or obesity (BMI 25–37 kg/m2), were characterized for metabolic phenotype including measures of energy, glucose, and lipid homeostasis. The relationship between serum ATX and metabolic parameters was then determined using correlative and predictive statistics. Results Serum ATX was higher in females than in males. After controlling for sex, serum ATX correlated with multiple measures of adiposity and glucose homeostasis/insulin action. Serum ATX and BMI also independently predicted glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance after controlling for sex and medication use. Conclusion Serum ATX correlates with and predicts measures of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in older humans, suggesting that it may be a potential pathogenic factor and/or diagnostic/therapeutic target for insulin resistance in this population. PMID:26727116

  12. A new treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of parabens in human serum samples.

    PubMed

    Vela-Soria, F; Ballesteros, O; Rodríguez, I; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, L; Cela, R; Navalón, A

    2013-09-01

    Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are a family of compounds that have been in use since the 1920s as preservatives in cosmetic formulations, with one of the lowest rates of skin problems reported in dermatological patients. However, in the last few years, many scientific publications have demonstrated that parabens are weak endocrine disruptors, meaning that they can interfere with the function of endogenous hormones, increasing the risk of breast cancer. In the present work, a new sample treatment method is introduced based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of the most commonly used parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben) from human serum samples followed by separation and quantification using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method involves an enzymatic treatment to quantify the total content of parabens. The extraction parameters (solvent and disperser solvent, extractant and dispersant volume, pH of the sample, salt addition, and extraction time) were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring (13)C6-labeled was used as surrogate. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 ng mL(-1) and an interday variability (evaluated as relative standard deviations) from 3.8 to 11.9 % were obtained. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration standard and a spike recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 96 to 106 %, and a good linearity up to concentrations of 100 ng mL(-1) was obtained. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of target compounds in human serum samples.

  13. A new treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of parabens in human serum samples.

    PubMed

    Vela-Soria, F; Ballesteros, O; Rodríguez, I; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, L; Cela, R; Navalón, A

    2013-09-01

    Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are a family of compounds that have been in use since the 1920s as preservatives in cosmetic formulations, with one of the lowest rates of skin problems reported in dermatological patients. However, in the last few years, many scientific publications have demonstrated that parabens are weak endocrine disruptors, meaning that they can interfere with the function of endogenous hormones, increasing the risk of breast cancer. In the present work, a new sample treatment method is introduced based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of the most commonly used parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben) from human serum samples followed by separation and quantification using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method involves an enzymatic treatment to quantify the total content of parabens. The extraction parameters (solvent and disperser solvent, extractant and dispersant volume, pH of the sample, salt addition, and extraction time) were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring (13)C6-labeled was used as surrogate. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 ng mL(-1) and an interday variability (evaluated as relative standard deviations) from 3.8 to 11.9 % were obtained. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration standard and a spike recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 96 to 106 %, and a good linearity up to concentrations of 100 ng mL(-1) was obtained. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of target compounds in human serum samples. PMID:23857141

  14. ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERUM IGE-REACTIVITY WITH MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although molds have demonstrated the ability to induce allergic asthma-like responses in mouse models, their role in human disease is unclear. This study was undertaken to provide insight into the prevalence of human IgE-reactivity and identify the target mold protein(s). The st...

  15. A system for assaying homologous recombination at the endogenous human thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, M.B.; Little, J.B. ); Potter, H. ); Yandell, D.W. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-08-01

    A system for assaying human interchromosomal recombination in vitro was developed, using a cell line containing two different mutant thymidine kinase genes (TK) on chromosomes 17. Heteroalleles were generated in the TK{sup +/+} parent B-lymphoblast cell line WIL-2 by repeated exposure to the alkylating nitrogen mustard ICR-191, which preferentially causes +1 or {minus}1 frameshifts. Resulting TK{sup {minus}/{minus}} mutants were selected in medium containing the toxic thymidine analog trifluorothymidine. In two lines, heterozygous frameshifts were located in exons 4 and 7 of the TK gene separated by {approx}8 kilobases. These lines undergo spontaneous reversion to TK{sup +} at a frequency of < 10{sup {minus}7}, and revertants can be selected in cytidine/hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium. The nature and location of these heteroallelic mutations make large deletions, rearrangements, nondisjunction, and reduplication unlikely mechanisms for reversion to TK{sup +}. The mode of reversion to TK{sup +} was specifically assessed by DNA sequencing, use of single-strand conformation polymorphisms, and analysis of various restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the TK gene on chromosome 17. The data suggest that a proportion of revertants has undergone recombination and gene conversion at the TK locus, with concomitant loss of frameshifts and allele loss at linked RFLPs. Models are presented for the origin of two recombinants.

  16. Determination of neomycin and bacitracin in human or rabbit serum by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mascher, Daniel G; Unger, Christian P; Mascher, Hermann J

    2007-01-17

    The method for the simultaneous determination of neomycin and bacitracin in human or rabbit serum was developed by using ion pairing reversed phase chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection with electrospray (ESI) in positive mode. Both substances elute under these conditions at the same time and also kanamycin as internal standard elutes almost at the same time. The sample preparation was simple-only using 0.1 mL serum by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Neomycin and bacitracin were detected as two-fold charged ions as well as the internal standard. The calibration range of these quite difficult detectable substances was 0.2-50 microg/mL of serum. The method was validated for both human or rabbit serum. The inter batch precision of quality control samples in human serum for neomycin ranged from 4.46% to 8.99% and for bacitracin from 6.85% to 11.17%. The inter batch accuracy for neomycin ranged from 98.7% to 100.7% and for bacitracin from 99.2% to 103.0%. At lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) level of 0.2 microg/mL inter batch precision in human serum for neomycin was 12.05% and for bacitracin 11.91%, whereas accuracies were 99.9% for neomycin and 102.7% for bacitracin. Bench top stability in human or rabbit serum was given over three freeze thaw cycles and 4h at room temperature. The method can be considered to be specific and recoveries for sample preparation were high.

  17. Identification of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human adipose tissue and serum.

    PubMed

    Sledzinski, Tomasz; Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Kaska, Lukasz; Stefaniak, Tomasz; Swierczynski, Julian

    2013-08-01

    Fatty acids containing a cyclopropane ring in their structure (cyclopropane FA) have been found in a wide variety of bacteria, a number of protozoa, and Myriapoda. Little is known about cyclopropane FA in mammal, especially in human tissues. The present study deals with the identification of cyclopropane FA in adipose tissue and serum of humans and rats. Fatty acids extracted from the adipose tissue and serum obtained from obese women during bariatric surgery were methylated and analyzed on GC-MS. We have identified: cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-octyl, cyclopropanenonanoic acid, and 2-[[2-[(2-ethylcyclopropyl)methyl]cyclopropyl]methyl] acid in human adipose tissue. We confirmed the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl by derivatization of FA extracted from human adipose tissue to picolinyl esters. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was the main cyclopropane FA (approximately 0.4 % of total fatty acids in human adipose tissue, and about 0.2 % of total fatty acids in the serum). In adipose tissue cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was found mainly in triacylglycerols, whereas in serum in phospholipids and triacylglycerols. The cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl has also been found in serum, and adipose tissue of rats in amounts comparable to humans. The content of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl decreased in adipose tissue of rats maintained on a restricted diet for 1 month. In conclusion, we demonstrated that cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl is present in human adipose tissue and serum. Adipose tissue cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl is stored mainly in triacylglycerols and the storage of this cyclopropane FA is affected by food restriction.

  18. Matrix-free analysis of selected benzodiazepines in human serum samples using alternating trilinear decomposition modeling of fast liquid chromatography diode array detection data.

    PubMed

    Vosough, Maryam; Iravani, Negar J

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a simple and efficient bioanalytical procedure for simultaneous determination of alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam in human serum samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection, regarding a fast elution methodology in 4 min. Briefly, this method consists of a simple liquid extraction step of serum samples followed by HPLC analysis on a C18 column. After confirming the absence of matrix effect, an external standard methodology has been applied for quantification purposes. Due to the presence of serum endogenous components as uncalibrated components in the sample, the second-order calibration based on alternating trilinear decomposition has been applied on a set of absorbance matrices collected as a function of retention time and wavelengths. Acceptable resolution and quantification results were achieved in the presence of matrix interferences and the second-order advantage was fully exploited. The average recoveries for alprazolam, clonazepam and diazepam were 89.1%, 96.3% and 94.7% and relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were equal or lower than 8.1% and 9.4%, respectively. The developed method enabled us to determine the analytes in the various serum samples in the presence of overlapped profiles, while keeping experimental time and extraction step at the minimum. PMID:26653472

  19. Matrix-free analysis of selected benzodiazepines in human serum samples using alternating trilinear decomposition modeling of fast liquid chromatography diode array detection data.

    PubMed

    Vosough, Maryam; Iravani, Negar J

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a simple and efficient bioanalytical procedure for simultaneous determination of alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam in human serum samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection, regarding a fast elution methodology in 4 min. Briefly, this method consists of a simple liquid extraction step of serum samples followed by HPLC analysis on a C18 column. After confirming the absence of matrix effect, an external standard methodology has been applied for quantification purposes. Due to the presence of serum endogenous components as uncalibrated components in the sample, the second-order calibration based on alternating trilinear decomposition has been applied on a set of absorbance matrices collected as a function of retention time and wavelengths. Acceptable resolution and quantification results were achieved in the presence of matrix interferences and the second-order advantage was fully exploited. The average recoveries for alprazolam, clonazepam and diazepam were 89.1%, 96.3% and 94.7% and relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were equal or lower than 8.1% and 9.4%, respectively. The developed method enabled us to determine the analytes in the various serum samples in the presence of overlapped profiles, while keeping experimental time and extraction step at the minimum.

  20. A biosensor of high-density lipoprotein of human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Kai-Han; Chu, Wei-Lin; Tsou, Yu-Shih; Wu, Li-Ching; Li, Chien-Feng

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor for the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film (LCPCF) is demonstrated. The sensing mechanism is based on a polar-polar interaction between orientation of LC directors and HDL in human serum. The concentration of polar HDL in human serum affects the orientations of LC directors at the interface between LCPCF and the human serum. In addition, the surface free energy of LCPCF changes with the applied voltage due to the electrically tunable orientations of LC directors anchored among the polymer grains of LCPCF. As a result, the droplet motion of human serum on LCPCF under applied voltages can sense the concentration of HDL in human serum.

  1. Human eosinophil major basic protein is an endogenous allosteric antagonist at the inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Fryer, A D

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of MBP with the M2 muscarinic receptor is allosteric. This effect of MBP suggests that it may function as an endogenous allosteric inhibitor of agonist binding to the M2 muscarinic receptor. Inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by MBP was reversible by treatment with heparin, which binds and neutralizes MBP. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) also inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors and inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes. On a molar basis, EPO is less potent than MBP. Neither eosinophil cationic protein nor eosinophil-derived neurotoxin affected binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors. Thus both MBP and EPO are selective allosteric antagonists at M2 receptors. The effects of these proteins may be important causes of M2 receptor dysfunction and enhanced vagally mediated bronchoconstriction in asthma. Images PMID:8473484

  2. Using competitive protein adsorption to measure fibrinogen in undiluted human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seokheun; Wang, Ran; Lajevardi-Khosh, Arad; Chae, Junseok

    2010-12-01

    We report a unique sensing mechanism based on competitive protein adsorption to measure fibrinogen, a cardiovascular biomarker, in undiluted human serum. The method uses physical adsorption of proteins to a surface rather than complex and time-consuming immobilization procedures. Two fibrinogen concentrations were differentiated in spiked in human serum [3.0 mg/ml (normal concentration) versus 3.2 mg/ml (abnormal concentration with heart disease)]. Real-time surface plasmon resonance signals were monitored as fibrinogen displaced a preadsorbed protein, IgM, on a hydrophobic gold surface. The relatively strong-affinity protein, IgM, was displaced primarily by fibrinogen and much less by other proteins in human serum.

  3. The influence of fatty acids on theophylline binding to human serum albumin. Comparative fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Szkudlarek-Haśnik, A.; Zubik-Skupień, I.; Góra, A.; Dubas, M.; Korzonek-Szlacheta, I.; Wielkoszyński, T.; Żurawiński, W.; Sosada, K.

    2012-04-01

    Theophylline, popular diuretic, is used to treat asthma and bronchospasm. In blood it forms complexes with albumin, which is also the main transporter of fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to describe the influence of fatty acids (FA) on binding of theophylline (Th) to human serum albumin (HSA) in the high affinity binding sites. Binding parameters have been obtained on the basis of the fluorescence analysis. The data obtained for the complex of Th and natural human serum albumin (nHSA) obtained from blood of obese patients qualified for surgical removal of stomach was compared with our previous studies on the influence of FA on the complex of Th and commercially available defatted human serum albumin (dHSA).

  4. In vitro studies on the impact of human serum on the antibacterial effect of faropenem.

    PubMed

    MacGowan, A; Bowker, K

    2004-02-01

    The interaction between faropenem and serum in determining antibacterial effect was studied using three target pathogens and two different in vitro methodologies. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, capsulate and non capsulate Haemophilus influenzae, all faropenem MIC 0.12 mg/L, were tested in a range of pharmacologically realistic faropenem concentrations with various proportions of serum up to 75%. Using simulated serum bactericidal titres the presence of human serum reduced the activity of faropenem against S. pneumoniae as did heat-treated serum for non-capsulate H. influenzae. Serum on its own was bactericidal against H. influenzae probably due to the presence of complement. The antibacterial effects of combinations of faropenem and serum was assessed in time-kill curves by calculation of the area-under-the bacterial-kill-curve (AUBKC). This was then related to faropenem concentration and the proportion of serum using three-dimensional plots. Serum on its own was mildly inhibitory of the growth of S. aureus, supported improved growth of S. pneumoniae at some proportions and was rapidly bactericidal to H. influenzae, especially the non-capsulate strains. Faropenem had a marked antibacterial effect against all three species in the range 0-2.5 mg/L. Increasing the faropenem concentration from 2.5-10 mg/L produced little or no additional effect. The combination of serum and faropenem had little impact on the antibacterial effect against S. pneumoniae and S. aureus but free drug concentrations were likely to be greater than the MIC in all the combinations used. Against capsulate H. influenzae the effect of serum and faropenem was broadly equivalent while against non-capsulate strains the activity of serum was so great it is difficult to assess the impact of faropenem alone. The interaction between serum and antibiotic in determining antibacterial effect is complex and critically dependent on the proportions of serum and drug concentrations

  5. Immuno-column for on-line quantification of human serum IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in human serum samples.

    PubMed

    Molina, Luis; Messina, Germán A; Stege, Patrícia W; Salinas, Eloy; Raba, Julio

    2008-09-15

    This study report an human serum IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori quantitation procedure based on the multiple use of an immobilized H. pylori antigen on an immuno-column incorporated into an a flow-injection (FI) analytical system. The immuno-adsorbent column was prepared by packing 3-aminopropyl-modified controlled-pore glass (APCPG) covalently linking H. pylori antigens in a 3-cm of Teflon tubing (0.5 i.d.). Antibodies in the serum sample are allowed to react immunologically with the immobilized H. pylori antigen, and the bound antibodies are quantified by alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme-labeled second antibodies specific to human IgG. p-Aminophenyl phosphate (pAPP) was converted to p-aminophenol (pAP) by AP and an electroactive product was quantified on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (GCE-CNTs) at 0.30 V. The total assay time was 25 min. The calculated detection limits for amperometric detection and the ELISA procedure are 0.62 and 1.8 UmL(-1), respectively. Reproducibility assays were made using repetitive standards of H. pylori-specific antibody and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 5%. The immuno-affinity method showed higher sensitivity and lower time-consumed, demonstrate its potential usefulness for early assessment of human serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori. PMID:18761158

  6. Endogenous microRNAs in human microvascular endothelial cells regulate mRNAs encoded by hypertension-related genes.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Alison J; Baker, Maria Angeles; Liu, Yong; Liu, Pengyuan; Cowley, Allen W; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically identify endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in endothelial cells that regulate mRNAs encoded by genes relevant to hypertension. Small RNA deep sequencing was performed in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Of the 50 most abundant miRNAs identified, 30 had predicted target mRNAs encoded by genes with known involvement in hypertension or blood pressure regulation. The cells were transfected with anti-miR oligonucleotides to inhibit each of the 30 miRNAs and the mRNA abundance of predicted targets was examined. Of 95 miRNA-target pairs examined, the target mRNAs were significantly upregulated in 35 pairs and paradoxically downregulated in 8 pairs. The result indicated significant suppression of the abundance of mRNA encoded by ADM by endogenous miR-181a-5p, ATP2B1 by the miR-27 family, FURIN by miR-125a-5p, FGF5 by the let-7 family, GOSR2 by miR-27a-3p, JAG1 by miR-21-5p, SH2B3 by miR-30a-5p, miR-98, miR-181a-5p, and the miR-125 family, TBX3 by the miR-92 family, ADRA1B by miR-22-3p, ADRA2A by miR-30a-5p and miR-30e-5p, ADRA2B by miR-30e-5p, ADRB1 by the let-7 family and miR-98, EDNRB by the miR-92 family, and NOX4 by the miR-92 family, miR-100-5p, and miR-99b-5p (n=3-9; P<0.05 versus scrambled anti-miR). Treatment with anti-miR-21 decreased blood pressure in mice fed a 4% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the miRNAs targeting NOX4 mRNA increased H2O2 release from endothelial cells. The findings indicate widespread, tonic control of mRNAs encoded by genes relevant to blood pressure regulation by endothelial miRNAs and provide a novel and uniquely informative basis for studying the role of miRNAs in hypertension.

  7. Reactivity and endogenous modification by nitrite and hydrogen peroxide: does human neuroglobin act only as a scavenger?

    PubMed Central

    Nicolis, Stefania; Monzani, Enrico; Ciaccio, Chiara; Ascenzi, Paolo; Moens, Luc; Casella, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    NGB (human neuroglobin), a recently discovered haem protein of the globin family containing a six-co-ordinated haem, is expressed in nervous tissue, but the physiological function of NGB is currently unknown. As well as playing a role in neuronal O2 homoeostasis, NGB is thought to act as a scavenger of reactive species. In the present study, we report on the reactivity of metNGB (ferric-NGB), which accumulates in vivo as a result of the reaction of oxyNGB (oxygenated NGB) with NO, towards NO2− and H2O2. NO2− co-ordination of the haem group accounts for the activity of metNGB in the nitration of phenolic substrates. The two different metNGB forms, with and without the internal disulfide bond between Cys46 (seventh residue on the inter-helix region between helices C and D) and Cys55 (fifth residue on helix D), exhibit different reactivity, the former being more efficient in activating NO2−. The kinetics of the reactions, the NO2−-binding studies and the analysis of the nitrated products from different substrates all support the hypothesis that metNGB is able to generate an active species with the chemical properties of peroxynitrite, at pathophysiological concentrations of NO2− and H2O2. Without external substrates, the targets of the reactive species generated by the metNGB/NO2−/H2O2 system are endogenous tyrosine (resulting in the production of 3-nitrotyrosine) and cysteine (oxidized to sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid) residues. These endogenous modifications were characterized by HPLC-MS/MS (tandem MS) analysis of metNGB after reaction with NO2− and H2O2 under various conditions. The internal S–S bond affects the functional properties of the protein. Therefore metNGB acts not only as scavenger of toxic species, but also as a target of the self-generated reactive species. Self-modification of the protein may be related to or inhibit its postulated neuroprotective activity. PMID:17600531

  8. Exogenous and Endogeneous Disialosyl Ganglioside GD1b Induces Apoptosis of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Ji-Min; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Abekura, Fukushi; Park, Jun-Young; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Kichoon; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Young-Choon; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gangliosides have been known to play a role in the regulation of apoptosis in cancer cells. This study has employed disialyl-ganglioside GD1b to apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using exogenous treatment of the cells with GD1b and endogenous expression of GD1b in MCF-7 cells. First, apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was observed after treatment of GD1b. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b reduced cell growth rates in a dose and time dependent manner during GD1b treatment, as determined by XTT assay. Among the various gangliosides, GD1b specifically induced apoptosis of the MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assays showed that GD1b specifically induces apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells with Annexin V binding for apoptotic actions in early stage and propidium iodide (PI) staining the nucleus of the MCF-7 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b activated apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP (Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase), without any change in the expression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis molecules such as Bax and Bcl-2. Second, to investigate the effect of endogenously produced GD1b on the regulation of cell function, UDP-gal: β1,3-galactosyltransferase-2 (GD1b synthase, Gal-T2) gene has been transfected into the MCF-7 cells. Using the GD1b synthase-transfectants, apoptosis-related signal proteins linked to phenotype changes were examined. Similar to the exogenous GD1b treatment, the cell growth of the GD1b synthase gene-transfectants was significantly suppressed compared with the vector-transfectant cell lines and transfection activated the apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP, but not the levels of expression of Bax and Bcl-2. GD1b-induced apoptosis was blocked by caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD. Therefore, taken together, it was concluded that GD1b could play an important role in the regulation of breast cancer apoptosis. PMID:27144558

  9. Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K (HERV-K) Particles Package and Transmit HERV-K–Related Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H.; Dube, Derek; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Chan, Susana; Meng, Fan; Dai, Manhong; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Gitlin, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) make up 8% of the human genome. While the youngest of these retroviruses, HERV-K(HML-2), termed HK2, is able to code for all viral proteins and produce virus-like particles, it is not known if these virus particles package and transmit HK2-related sequences. Here, we analyzed the capacity of HK2 for packaging and transmitting HK2 sequences. We created an HK2 probe, termed Bogota, which can be packaged into HK2 viruses, and transfected it into cells that make HK2 particles. Supernatants of the transfected cells, which contained HK2 viral particles, then were added to target cells, and the transmissibility of the HK2 Bogota reporter was tracked by G418 resistance. Our studies revealed that contemporary HK2 virions produced by some teratocarcinoma and breast cancer cell lines, as well as by peripheral blood lymphocytes from lymphoma patients, can package HK2 Bogota probes, and these viruses transmitted these probes to other cells. After transmission, HK2 Bogota transcripts undergo reverse transcription, a step impaired by antiretroviral agents or by introduction of mutations into the probe sequences required for reverse transcription. HK2 viruses were more efficiently transmitted in the presence of HK2 Rec or HIV-1 Tat and Vif. Transmitted Bogota probes formed episomes but did not integrate into the cellular genome. Resistance to integration might explain the relatively low number of HK2 insertions that were acquired during the last 25 million years of evolution. Whether transient transmission of modern HK2 sequences, which encode two putative oncoproteins, can lead to disease remains to be studied. IMPORTANCE Retroviruses invaded the genome of human ancestors over the course of millions of years, yet these viruses generally have been inactivated during evolution, with only remnants of these infectious sequences remaining in the human genome. One of these viruses, termed HK2, still is capable of producing virus particles

  10. Serum-induced potentiation of tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human monocytes in response to staphylococcal peptidoglycan: involvement of different serum factors.

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, E; Rollof, J; Verhoef, J; Van Dijk, H; Fleer, A

    1994-01-01

    Peptidoglycan from a Staphylococcus epidermidis strain, isolated from a patient with septicemia, was preincubated with human serum. This mixture was then investigated for its potency to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by human blood monocytes. TNF was measured in the supernatants by using a bioassay and/or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for TNF alpha (TNF-alpha). Although earlier studies indicated that staphylococcal peptidoglycan alone is a relatively poor stimulator of TNF-alpha production, the present study shows that human serum highly potentiates peptidoglycan-induced TNF-alpha release by human monocytes. In the presence of serum and in the low-dose range, peptidoglycan was almost as potent as endotoxin. At high peptidoglycan concentrations, monocytes showed an extremely high TNF-alpha response, but again only in the presence of serum. At low peptidoglycan doses, the stimulatory effect of serum was abrogated by heat treatment or depleting serum of complement components C1 and C3/C4, which suggests a role for the classical complement pathway. At high doses of peptidoglycan, the serum stimulatory effect depended mainly on immunoglobulin G. PMID:8063400

  11. Further Evidence that Human Endogenous Retrovirus K102 is a Replication Competent Foamy Virus that may Antagonize HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Marian P.; Larocque, Louise J.; Giulivi, Antonio; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the research were to determine if a foamy effect on macrophages was due to human endogenous retrovirus K102 (HERV-K102) replication, and to further address its potential significance in HIV-1 infection. Methods: An RT-PCR HERV-K HML-2 pol method was used to screen the unknown HERV, and isolated bands were sent for sequencing. Confirmation of RNA expression was performed by a real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) pol ddCt method. Rabbit antibodies to Env peptides were used to assess expression by immunohistology and processing of Env by western blots. A qPCR pol ddCt method to ascertain genomic copy number was performed on genomic DNA isolated from plasma comparing HIV-1 exposed seronegative (HESN) commercial sex workers (CSW) to normal controls and contrasted with HIV-1 patients. Results: HERV-K102 expression, particle production and replication were associated with foamy macrophage generation in the cultures of cord blood mononuclear cells under permissive conditions. A five-fold increased HERV-K102 pol genomic copy number was found in the HESN cohort over normal which was not found in HIV-1 positive patients (p=0.0005). Conclusions: This work extends the evidence that HERV-K102 has foamy virus attributes, is replication competent, and is capable of high replication rate in vivo and in vitro. This may be the first characterization of a replication-competent, foamy-like virus of humans. High particle production inferred by increased integration in the HESN cohort over HIV-1 patients raises the issue of the clinical importance of HERV-K102 particle production as an early protective innate immune response against HIV-1 replication. PMID:26793281

  12. Radioimmunoassay for zearalenone and zearalanol in human serum: production, properties, and use of porcine antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Thouvenot, D.; Morfin, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    To produce antigens susceptible to raise antibodies for resorcylic acid lactones, the 6'-carboxymethyloxime derivatives of zearalenone and zearalanone were bound to bovine serum albumin. Pigs could be immunized by using these antigens, the best titer in antibodies being obtained with the zearalenone antigen. The procine antibodies were specific for the resorcylic acid lactones of structural resemblance with zearalenone. This specificity made the antibodies usable for a radioimmunoassay of zearalenone and zearalanol, which may be found in human and animal sera. The range of the assay was between 0.25 and 10 ng. The limit of detection was 5 ppb (5 ng/ml) in human serum.

  13. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, M.; Bilal, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results.

  14. Induced Long-Range Attractive Potentials of Human Serum Albumin by Ligand Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Takaaki; Komatsu, Teruyuki; Nakagawa, Akito; Tsuchida, Eishun

    2007-05-18

    Small-angle x-ray scattering and dielectric spectroscopy investigation on the solutions of recombinant human serum albumin and its heme hybrid revealed that heme incorporation induces a specific long-range attractive potential between protein molecules. This is evidenced by the enhanced forward intensity upon heme binding, despite no hindrance to rotatory Brownian motion, unbiased colloid osmotic pressure, and discontiguous nearest-neighbor distance, confirming monodispersity of the proteins. The heme-induced potential may play a trigger role in recognition of the ligand-filled human serum albumins in the circulatory system.

  15. [Isolation of a gamma heavy chain fragment from normal human serum].

    PubMed

    Irurzun, P L; Miranda, M P

    1976-01-01

    Several components of catodic electrophoretic migration in serum and urine are present in normal individuals and in rabbit serum. There also exists in man and in some animals, serum fractions of low molecular weight. These types of serum components may be or may not be related with the IgG. In a previous study we have isolated two components in the slow catodic electrophoretic area of the normal human serum (NHS). One of them was identified as an IgG subclass and the other component presented a clear line of precipitation to gamma heavy chain specific immuno-serum. This latter component was found in the post gamma-globulin area crossing the IgG arc in the I.E. analysis. Its molecular weight was variable from 3700 to 9500. In this paper a differential analysis of the gamma fragment isolated for us, is made and its relationship with Fc subfragments of pepsin-digested IgG is studied. In order to obtain this comparative study, the electrophoresis, gel diffusion immunoelectrophoresis gel chromatography and analytic ultracentrifugation techniques are employed. The post-gammaglobulin fraction has been isolated from total normal human serum without previous manipulation, or with the gammaglobulin fraction precipitated with saturated ammonium sulphate, in Sephadex G-200 chromatography. These two fractions present similar immunelectrophoretical characteristics. The constant sedimentation is 0.90 S and the approximated molecular weight is 7000. Since the pepsin digestion of IgG produced Fc subfragments of low molecular weight, we have isolated and submitted this immunoglobulin to peptic digestion. The G-75 Sephadex filtration shows an isolated post-gamma-globulin of I.E. sedimentation constant and molecular weight whose characteristics are similar to the isolated serum post-gammaglobulin fraction. The antigenical analysis in I.D. shows a total identity between the pepsin digested post-gammaglobulin and the fragment obtained for us from the human serum to an anti-heavy gamma

  16. Binding of radioiodinated human. beta. -endorphin to serum proteins from rats and humans, determined by several methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1985-10-07

    Binding of immunoreactive radioiodinated human ..beta..-endorphin (/sup 125/I-..beta..-EP) to rat serum was demonstrated by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in pooled rat serum on Sephadex G-200. Two radioactive peaks associated with proteins eluted from the column. The first peak eluted at the void volume containing lipoproteins, ..cap alpha../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 2/-macroglobulins, and the second peak at the fraction of albumin. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP to albumin was directly proved by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin on Sephadex G-200. Equilibrium dialysis was not applicable to investigating the interaction of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP with serum proteins, because of the intense nonspecific adsorption to the semi-permeable membrane and the degradation of the peptide during dialysis. Therefore, in order to quantitatively evaluate the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in sera from rats and humans, the authors utilized four other methods (ultrafiltration, charcoal adsorption, polyethylene glycol precipitation and equilibrium gel filtration). These methods corresponded well with each other and indicated 35-44% binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in rat serum. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in normal human serum was 36%, determined by ultrafiltration. Serum protein binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP was concentration independent over the concentration range studied (1-1000 nM). 23 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  17. Optical quantification of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasagani, Vimal Kumar

    In order to increase the automation and efficiency for a national reference laboratory, the ability to quantify interferences like Hemolysis, Icterus, and Lipemia in serum samples is investigated. The system is intended as a screening step prior to clinical analysis of medical samples to prevent false results caused by the interferences. The system is based on selective absorption of transmitted light by the interferences that cause loss of light at specific wavelengths. The absorption spectra of interferences are analyzed to identify the appropriate wavelengths, resulting in a mathematical formulation between the absorbance and concentrations. An absorption wavelength is selected so that the transmitted power of light through a tube with the sample significantly decreased due to the presence of condition of interest, while the reference wavelength is selected so that the transmitted light varies mostly due to the presence of tube material and labels and does not vary due to the presence of interference. A computational model is formulated using a commercial software package, ANSYS FLUENT, in order to understand the absorption and scattering effects, the thermal effects of higher power irradiation on the biological samples, as well as to determine the radiant power of transmitted light through the sample for different power levels. The Discrete Ordinates Method is used to model the radiation through a participating medium. The temperature distribution and spectral power of transmitted radiation are determined for water in a tube for different wavelengths used in the current system.

  18. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Luotamo, M; Järvisalo, J; Aitio, A

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in the environment. Occupational exposure to PCBs takes place, e.g., in manufacture and repair of capacitors and transformers. A special type of exposure of workers to PCBs may occur in connection with accidents where capacitors or transformers containing PCBs products are damaged, as in the case of a fire or electric arcing. The quantitation of PCBs poses several problems: There are 209 different homologs and isomers of PCBs. The isomers of PCBs have different responses in the electron capture detector, and the pattern of PCBs in biological specimens is different from that of commercial products. In this study a method was worked out for the analysis of PCBs in serum with the purpose of estimating occupation exposure to PCBs. The PCBs were extracted to an organic solvent, and the extract was purified by use of sulfuric acid and silica columns. Capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used. For separation, temperature programming was used. PMID:3928361

  19. Ethics, Human Use, and the Department of Defense Serum Repository.

    PubMed

    Pavlin, Julie A; Welch, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR) contains a growing archive of sera from service members collected to perform medical surveillance, clinical diagnosis, and epidemiologic studies to identify, prevent, and control diseases associated with military service. The specimens are a mandatory collection under DoD and U.S. regulations and do not include informed consent for uses beyond force health protection. Any use of the specimens for research requires deidentification of the samples and must be approved by Institutional Review Boards. However, as expansion of the DoDSR is contemplated, ethical considerations of sample collection, storage, and use must be carefully reconsidered. Other similar programs for research use of specimens collected for public health purpose are also undergoing similar reviews. It is recommended that at a minimum, service members are informed of the potential storage and use of their specimens and are allowed to opt out of additional use, or a broad informed consent is provided. The DoDSR provides a tremendous resource to the DoD and global health community, and to ensure its continued existence and improvement, the DoD must stay consistent with all principles of research ethics. PMID:26444892

  20. Loss-of-function variants influence the human serum metabolome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Alexander H; Metcalf, Ginger A; Muzny, Donna M; Morrison, Alanna C; White, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H; Gibbs, Richard A; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-08-01

    The metabolome is a collection of small molecules resulting from multiple cellular and biological processes that can act as biomarkers of disease, and African-Americans exhibit high levels of genetic diversity. Exome sequencing of a sample of deeply phenotyped African-Americans allowed us to analyze the effects of annotated loss-of-function (LoF) mutations on 308 serum metabolites measured by untargeted liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In an independent sample, we identified and replicated four genes harboring six LoF mutations that significantly affected five metabolites. These sites were related to a 19 to 45% difference in geometric mean metabolite levels, with an average effect size of 25%. We show that some of the affected metabolites are risk predictors or diagnostic biomarkers of disease and, using the principle of Mendelian randomization, are in the causal pathway of disease. For example, LoF mutations in SLCO1B1 elevate the levels of hexadecanedioate, a fatty acid significantly associated with increased blood pressure levels and risk of incident heart failure in both African-Americans and an independent sample of European-Americans. We show that SLCO1B1 LoF mutations significantly increase the risk of incident heart failure, thus implicating the metabolite in the causal pathway of disease. These results reveal new avenues into gene function and the understanding of disease etiology by integrating -omic technologies into a deeply phenotyped population study. PMID:27602404

  1. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-11-23

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses.

  2. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Cross, James H.; Bradbury, Richard S.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jallow, Amadou T.; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M.; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  3. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  4. Chemotyping the distribution of vitamin D metabolites in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Miriam J.; Stokes, Caroline S.; Lammert, Frank; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2016-02-01

    Most studies examining the relationships between vitamin D and disease or health focus on the main 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) metabolite, thus potentially overlooking contributions and dynamic effects of other vitamin D metabolites, the crucial roles of several of which have been previously demonstrated. The ideal assay would determine all relevant high and low-abundant vitamin D species simultaneously. We describe a sensitive quantitative assay for determining the chemotypes of vitamin D metabolites from serum after derivatisation and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). We performed a validation according to the ‘FDA Guidance for Industry Bioanalytical Method Validation’. The proof-of-concept of the method was then demonstrated by following the metabolite concentrations in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) during the course of a vitamin D supplementation study. The new quantitative profiling assay provided highly sensitive, precise and accurate chemotypes of the vitamin D metabolic process rather than the usually determined 25(OH)D3 concentrations.

  5. Loss-of-function variants influence the human serum metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Li, Alexander H.; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Morrison, Alanna C.; White, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The metabolome is a collection of small molecules resulting from multiple cellular and biological processes that can act as biomarkers of disease, and African-Americans exhibit high levels of genetic diversity. Exome sequencing of a sample of deeply phenotyped African-Americans allowed us to analyze the effects of annotated loss-of-function (LoF) mutations on 308 serum metabolites measured by untargeted liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In an independent sample, we identified and replicated four genes harboring six LoF mutations that significantly affected five metabolites. These sites were related to a 19 to 45% difference in geometric mean metabolite levels, with an average effect size of 25%. We show that some of the affected metabolites are risk predictors or diagnostic biomarkers of disease and, using the principle of Mendelian randomization, are in the causal pathway of disease. For example, LoF mutations in SLCO1B1 elevate the levels of hexadecanedioate, a fatty acid significantly associated with increased blood pressure levels and risk of incident heart failure in both African-Americans and an independent sample of European-Americans. We show that SLCO1B1 LoF mutations significantly increase the risk of incident heart failure, thus implicating the metabolite in the causal pathway of disease. These results reveal new avenues into gene function and the understanding of disease etiology by integrating -omic technologies into a deeply phenotyped population study. PMID:27602404

  6. Loss-of-function variants influence the human serum metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Li, Alexander H.; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Morrison, Alanna C.; White, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The metabolome is a collection of small molecules resulting from multiple cellular and biological processes that can act as biomarkers of disease, and African-Americans exhibit high levels of genetic diversity. Exome sequencing of a sample of deeply phenotyped African-Americans allowed us to analyze the effects of annotated loss-of-function (LoF) mutations on 308 serum metabolites measured by untargeted liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In an independent sample, we identified and replicated four genes harboring six LoF mutations that significantly affected five metabolites. These sites were related to a 19 to 45% difference in geometric mean metabolite levels, with an average effect size of 25%. We show that some of the affected metabolites are risk predictors or diagnostic biomarkers of disease and, using the principle of Mendelian randomization, are in the causal pathway of disease. For example, LoF mutations in SLCO1B1 elevate the levels of hexadecanedioate, a fatty acid significantly associated with increased blood pressure levels and risk of incident heart failure in both African-Americans and an independent sample of European-Americans. We show that SLCO1B1 LoF mutations significantly increase the risk of incident heart failure, thus implicating the metabolite in the causal pathway of disease. These results reveal new avenues into gene function and the understanding of disease etiology by integrating -omic technologies into a deeply phenotyped population study.

  7. Serum Is the Preferred Clinical Specimen for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Zerva, L.; Bourantas, K.; Mitka, S.; Kansouzidou, A.; Legakis, N. J.

    2001-01-01

    Human brucellosis poses a significant public health problem in many developing countries and requires fast and accurate diagnosis. A PCR assay amplifying part of the 31-kDa Brucella abortus antigenic protein gene sequence was developed and applied to whole-blood and serum samples from 31 brucellosis patients and 45 healthy individuals. All patients except one had detectable Brucella DNA in either whole blood or serum (combined sensitivity, 97%), but the assay sensitivity was higher with serum samples (94%) than with whole-blood samples (61%). The assay specificity was excellent (100%). A confirmatory PCR assay targeting another Brucella gene region (omp-2) was also developed but lacked sensitivity. Serum is the optimal specimen for the diagnosis of brucellosis by PCR, a choice that leads to assay simplification and shortens turnaround time. PMID:11283112

  8. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co γ-rays ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Vaiphei, S Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Chaubey, R C; Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving (60)Co γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of (60)Co γ-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min(-1) at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ΔCt pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of γ-ray-exposed human blood samples.

  9. Electroanalytical determination of donepezil HCl in tablets and human serum by differential pulse and osteryoung square wave voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Golcu, A; Ozkan, S A

    2006-09-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride (DNP) is used for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The voltammetric behavior of DNP was studied at a glassy carbon electrode using cyclic, linear sweep, differential pulse (DPV) and square-wave (OSWV) voltammetric techniques. DNP exhibited irreversible anodic waves within the pH range 1.80 and 9.00 in different supporting electrolytes. The peak was characterized as being irreversible and diffusion-controlled. The possible mechanism of the oxidation process is discussed. The current-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range from 1 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-4) M in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 7.0 with a correlation coefficient between 0.997 and 0.999 in supporting electrolyte and human serum samples using the DPV and SWV techniques. The repeatability and reproducibility of the methods for both media (supporting electrolyte and serum sample) were determined. Precision and accuracy of the developed methods were demonstrated by recovery studies. The standard addition method was used for the recovery studies. No electroactive interferences were found in biological fluids from endogenous substances or additives present in tablets. The methods developed were successfully applied to the determination of DNP in tablets and in spiked human serum.

  10. Stable isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative profiling of tryptophan-related neuroactive substances in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hényková, Eva; Vránová, Hana Přikrylová; Amakorová, Petra; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Žukauskaitė, Asta; Vlčková, Magdaléna; Urbánek, Lubor; Novák, Ondřej; Mareš, Jan; Kaňovský, Petr; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-03-11

    Many compounds related to L-tryptophan (L-TRP) have interesting biological or pharmacological activity, and their abnormal neurotransmission seems to be linked to a wide range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. A high-throughput method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography connected to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of L-TRP and 16 of its metabolites in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), representing both major and minor routes of L-TRP catabolism. The combination of a fast LC gradient with selective tandem mass spectrometry enabled accurate analysis of almost 100 samples in 24h. The standard isotope dilution method was used for quantitative determination. The method's lower limits of quantification for serum and cerebrospinal fluid ranged from 0.05 to 15nmol/L and 0.3 to 45nmol/L, respectively. Analytical recoveries ranged from 10.4 to 218.1% for serum and 22.1 to 370.0% for CSF. The method's accuracy ranged from 82.4 to 128.5% for serum matrix and 90.7 to 127.7% for CSF matrix. All intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were below 15%. These results demonstrate that the new method is capable of quantifying endogenous serum and CSF levels of a heterogeneous group of compounds spanning a wide range of concentrations. The method was used to determine the physiological levels of target analytes in serum and CSF samples from 18 individuals, demonstrating its reliability and potential usefulness in large-scale epidemiological studies.

  11. Killing of an encapsulated strain of Escherichia coli by human serum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P W; Kroll, H P

    1983-01-01

    Changes in cell viability and in factors affecting metabolic integrity were examined after exposure of Escherichia coli LP1092 to human serum. Antibody-dependent classical pathway activity accounted for the rapid killing of strain LP1092 by complement. Removal of serum lysozyme by bentonite absorption or by neutralization with anti-human lysozyme immunoglobulin G resulted in a reduction in the rate of killing; optimal activity could be restored by the addition of physiological amounts of egg-white lysozyme. The pattern of 86Rb+ and alkaline phosphatase release obtained after serum treatment did not support the view that complement simultaneously disrupts cytoplasmic and outer membrane integrity. Macromolecular synthesis was affected late in the reaction sequence; complete inhibition of precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA, and protein occurred only after almost total loss of bacterial colony-forming ability. Addition of chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, to the bactericidal system resulted in a marked reduction in the rate of serum killing. Killing was completely inhibited by an inhibitor (KCN) and an uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol) of oxidative phosphorylation. Exposure of LP1092 cells to serum was followed by a rapid and large increase in intracellular ATP levels; ATP synthesis did not occur when bacteria were exposed to dialyzed serum, which killed LP1092 cells at a much reduced rate. Addition of glucose or serum ultrafiltrate to dialyzed serum restored optimal bactericidal activity. We suggest that optimal killing of gram-negative bacteria is an energy-dependent process requiring an input of bacterially generated ATP. PMID:6185430

  12. Endogenous Antibodies for Tumor Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Barrie S.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Darcy, David G.; Smith, Peter T.; Williams, Andrew R.; Lim, Irene Isabel P.; Johnson, Linda K.; Gönen, Mithat; Simon, Joel S.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of cancer immunology has provided diagnostic and therapeutic instruments through serum autoantibody biomarkers and exogenous monoclonal antibodies. While some endogenous antibodies are found within or surrounding transformed tissue, the extent to which this exists has not been entirely characterized. We find that in transgenic and xenograft mouse models of cancer, endogenous gamma immunoglobulin (IgG) is present at higher concentration in malignantly transformed organs compared to non-transformed organs in the same mouse or organs of cognate wild-type mice. The enrichment of endogenous antibodies within the malignant tissue provides a potential means of identifying and tracking malignant cells in vivo as they mutate and diversify. Exploiting these antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is possible through the use of agents that bind endogenous antibodies. PMID:24875800

  13. Transport of circulating serum cholesterol by human renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Clayman, R.V.; Figenshau, R.S.; Prigge, W.F.; Forstrom, L.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Clear cell renal cancer contains a large quantity of cholesterol ester (300-mg./gm. protein). To determine whether abnormalities in cholesterol transport could account for this sterol accumulation, the uptake, release, and imaging capabilities of intravenously injected /sup 131/I-6-iodomethyl-29-norcholesterol, a cholesterol analogue, were studied preoperatively in five patients with clear cell renal cancer. At surgery, samples of the liver, tumor, adrenal, and non-tumor kidney were obtained for analysis. /sup 131/I-sterol uptake by the tumor, when normalized for cholesterol content, was less than for adrenal, liver or kidney. In contrast, release of preloaded /sup 131/I-sterol from the human tumors was consistently slower than for normal kidney. The reduced release of free cholesterol from renal cancer cells may, in part, be responsible for the accumulation of cholesterol in human renal cancer.

  14. Detection of α-fetoprotein in human serum using carbon nanotube transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hye-Mi; Park, Dong-Won; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Beom Soo; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2009-03-01

    We have fabricated antibody-coated carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNT-FET) sensor for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP), single chain glycoprotein of 70 kDa that is normally expressed in the fetal liver, in human serum. The AFP-specific antibodies were immobilized on CNT with linker molecule such as pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. To prevent nonspecific adsorption of antigen, we performed blocking procedure using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Antibody-antigen binding was determined by measuring electrical conductance change of FET and took an average of thereshold voltage change before and after binding. Also we checked concentration-dependent conductance change in human serum using both p-type SWNT-FETs and n-type SWNT-FETs.

  15. Endogenous production of interleukin 15 by activated human monocytes is critical for optimal production of interferon-gamma by natural killer cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, W E; Ross, M E; Baiocchi, R A; Marien, M J; Boiani, N; Grabstein, K; Caligiuri, M A

    1995-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes that constitutively express functional IL-2 receptors. We have shown that recombinant human IL-15 uses the IL-2 receptor to activate human NK cells and can synergize with recombinant human IL-12 to stimulate NK cell production of IFN-gamma in vitro. IFN-gamma production by NK cells is critical in the prevention of overwhelming infection by obligate intracellular microbial pathogens in several experimental animal models. Herein, we demonstrate that human monocytes produce IL-15 protein within 5 h of activation with LPS. Using an IL-15-neutralizing antiserum in a coculture of LPS-activated monocytes and NK cells, we demonstrate that monocyte-derived IL-15 is critical for optimal NK cell production of IFN-gamma. Endogenous IL-15 activates NK cells through the IL-2 receptor, and with endogenous IL-12, regulates NK cell IFN-gamma after monocyte activation by LPS. These in vitro studies are the first to characterize a function for endogenous IL-15, and as such, suggest an important role for IL-15 during the innate immune response. IL-15 may be an important ligand for the NK cell IL-2 receptor in vivo. Images PMID:8675621

  16. Generation of TALE nickase-mediated gene-targeted cows expressing human serum albumin in mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Wu, Yongyan; Lan, Hui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-02-08

    Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs. After co-transfecting the bovine fetal fibroblasts with human serum albumin (HSA) gene-targeting vector and TALE nickase expression vectors, approximately 4.8% (40/835) of the cell clones contained HSA at BLG locus. Unexpectedly, one homozygous gene-targeted cell clone (1/835, 0.1%) was obtained by targeting both alleles of BLG in a single round of transfection. The recombinant protein mimicking the endogenous BLG was highly expressed and correctly folded in the mammary glands of the targeted cows, and the expression level of HSA was significantly increased in the homozygous targeted cows. Results suggested that the combination of TALE nickase-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer is a feasible and safe approach in producing gene-targeted livestock.

  17. Generation of TALE nickase-mediated gene-targeted cows expressing human serum albumin in mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Wu, Yongyan; Lan, Hui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription- activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs. After co-transfecting the bovine fetal fibroblasts with human serum albumin (HSA) gene-targeting vector and TALE nickase expression vectors, approximately 4.8% (40/835) of the cell clones contained HSA at BLG locus. Unexpectedly, one homozygous gene-targeted cell clone (1/835, 0.1%) was obtained by targeting both alleles of BLG in a single round of transfection. The recombinant protein mimicking the endogenous BLG was highly expressed and correctly folded in the mammary glands of the targeted cows, and the expression level of HSA was significantly increased in the homozygous targeted cows. Results suggested that the combination of TALE nickase-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer is a feasible and safe approach in producing gene-targeted livestock. PMID:26853907

  18. Candida albicans Shaving to Profile Human Serum Proteins on Hyphal Surface

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Elvira; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.; Hernández-Haro, Carolina; Hernáez, María L.; Nombela, César; Monteoliva, Lucía; Gil, Concha

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human opportunistic fungus and it is responsible for a wide variety of infections, either superficial or systemic. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus and its ability to switch between yeast and hyphae is essential for its virulence. Once C. albicans obtains access to the human body, the host serum constitutes a complex environment of interaction with C. albicans cell surface in bloodstream. To draw a comprehensive picture of this relevant step in host-pathogen interaction during invasive candidiasis, we have optimized a gel-free shaving proteomic strategy to identify both, human serum proteins coating C. albicans cells and fungi surface proteins simultaneously. This approach was carried out with normal serum (NS) and heat inactivated serum (HIS). We identified 214 human and 372 C. albicans unique proteins. Proteins identified in C. albicans included 147 which were described as located at the cell surface and 52 that were described as immunogenic. Interestingly, among these C. albicans proteins, we identified 23 GPI-anchored proteins, Gpd2 and Pra1, which are involved in complement system evasion and 7 other proteins that are able to attach plasminogen to C. albicans surface (Adh1, Eno1, Fba1, Pgk1, Tdh3, Tef1, and Tsa1). Furthermore, 12 proteins identified at the C. albicans hyphae surface induced with 10% human serum were not detected in other hypha-induced conditions. The most abundant human proteins identified are involved in complement and coagulation pathways. Remarkably, with this strategy, all main proteins belonging to complement cascades were identified on the C. albicans surface. Moreover, we identified immunoglobulins, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic proteins such as apolipoproteins and others. Additionally, we identified more inhibitors of complement and coagulation pathways, some of them serpin proteins (serine protease inhibitors), in HIS vs. NS. On the other hand, we detected a higher amount of C3 at the C. albicans surface in

  19. Ascorbic acid mobilizes endogenous copper in human peripheral lymphocytes leading to oxidative DNA breakage: a putative mechanism for anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Showket Hussain; Azmi, Asfar Sohail; Hanif, Sarmad; Hadi, S M

    2006-01-01

    Several decades back ascorbic acid was proposed as an effective anticancer agent. However, this idea remained controversial and the mechanism of action unclear. In this paper, we show that ascorbic acid at a concentration reported to be achievable through high doses of oral consumption is capable of cytotoxic action against normal cells. Several antioxidants of both animal as well as plant origin including ascorbic acid also possess prooxidant properties. Copper is an essential component of chromatin and can take part in redox reactions. Previously we have proposed a mechanism for the cytotoxic action of plant antioxidants against cancer cells that involves mobilization of endogenous copper ions and the consequent generation of reactive oxygen species. Using human peripheral lymphocytes and Comet assay we show here that ascorbic acid is able to cause oxidative DNA breakage in normal cells at a concentration of 100-200 microM. Neocuproine, a Cu(I) specific sequestering agent inhibited DNA breakage in a dose dependent manner indicating that Cu(I) is an intermediate in the DNA cleavage reaction. The results are in support of our above hypothesis that involves events that lead to a prooxidant action by antioxidants. The results would support the idea that even a plasma concentration of around 200 microM. would be sufficient to cause pharmacological tumor cell death particularly when copper levels are elevated. This would account for the observation of several decades back by Pauling and co-workers where oral doses of ascorbic acid in gram quantities were found to be effective in treating some cancers.

  20. Autocrine enhancement of leukotriene synthesis by endogenous leukotriene B4 and platelet-activating factor in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, P. P.; McColl, S. R.; Braquet, P.; Borgeat, P.

    1994-01-01

    1. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), two potent lipid mediators synthesized by activated neutrophils, are known to stimulate several neutrophil functional responses. In this study, we have determined that endogenous LTB4 and PAF exert autocrine effects on LT synthesis, as well as the underlying mechanism involved. 2. Pretreatment of neutrophils with either pertussis toxin (PT), or with receptor antagonists for LTB4 and PAF, resulted in an inhibition of LT synthesis induced by calcium ionophore, A23187. This inhibition was most marked at submaximal (100-300 nM) A23187 concentrations, whilst it was least at ionophore concentrations which induce maximal LT synthesis (1-3 microM). Thus newly-synthesized PAF and LTB4 can enhance LT synthesis induced by A23187 under conditions where the LT-generating system is not fully activated. 3. In recombinant human (rh) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-primed neutrophils, LT synthesis in response to chemoattractants (fMet-Leu-Phe or rhC5a) was also significantly inhibited by the LTB4 receptor antagonist, and to a lesser extent by PAF receptor antagonists. 4. Further investigation revealed that LTB4 and/or PAF exert their effects on LT synthesis via an effect on arachidonic acid (AA) availability, as opposed to 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) activation. Indeed, the receptor antagonists, as well as PT, inhibited LT synthesis and AA release to a similar extent, whereas 5-LO activation (assessed with an exogenous 5-LO substrate) was virtually unaffected under the same conditions. Accordingly, we showed that addition of exogenous LTB4 could enhance AA availability in response to chemoattractant challenge in rhGM-CSF-primed cells, without significantly affecting the 5-LO activation status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8019762

  1. Theophylline increases coronary vascular tone in humans: evidence for a role of endogenous adenosine in flow regulation.

    PubMed

    Edlund, A; Sollevi, A

    1995-11-01

    To elucidate the role of adenosine in coronary vasoregulation, we studied the effects of adenosine antagonism (by theophylline) on coronary blood flow at different levels of adenosine formation (stimulated by hypoxia and exercise). Six healthy subjects were studied. Coronary sinus (CS) blood flow (thermodilution) and cardiac oxygen extraction [(A-CS)O2D] were determined while breathing room air at rest, and 12% oxygen, both at rest and during light exercise, on two occasions. One of the experiments was performed during infusion of theophylline. The basal CS flow was 118 (67-168) mL min-1 (mean and 95% confidence interval), and the (A-CS)O2D was 125 (111-142) mL L-1. Inhalation of 12% O2 decreased the arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation to 83 (80-86)% at rest and to 77 (73-81)% during exercise. CS flow increased to 167 (93-214) and 261 (179-343) mL min-1, respectively, and (A-CS)O2D decreased to 102 (85-119) and 94 (77-111) mL L-1, respectively. Theophylline, at a dose lacking effects on myocardial work, markedly attenuated the coronary flow response to exogenous adenosine, and decreased CS flow to 89 (58-119), 120 (79-161) and 190 (162-218) mL min-1 at normoxic rest, hypoxic rest and hypoxic exercise, respectively. The overall decrease amounted to 23% (P < 0.05). The calculated coronary vascular conductance also decreased by 23% (P < 0.05) and (A-CS)O2D increased by 15% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the data support the hypothesis that endogenous adenosine is involved in regulation of human coronary tone.

  2. Determination of element levels in human serum: Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Łyżwa, P.; Łyżwa, K.; Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Stabrawa, I.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.; Antczak, G.; Borkowska, B.; Góźdź, S.

    2016-08-01

    Deficiency or excess of elements could disrupt proper functioning of the human body and could lead to several disorders. Determination of their concentrations in different biological human fluids and tissues should become a routine practice in medical treatment. Therefore the knowledge about appropriate element concentrations in human organism is required. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Pb) in human serum and to define the reference values of element concentration. Samples of serum were obtained from 105 normal presumably healthy volunteers (66 women aged between 15 and 78 years old; 39 men aged between 15 and 77 years old). Analysis has been done for the whole studied population and for subgroups by sex and age. It is probably first so a wide study of elemental composition of serum performed in the case of Świętokrzyskie region. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) method was used to perform the elemental analysis. Spectrometer S2 Picofox (Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH) was used to identify and measure elemental composition of serum samples. Finally, 1st and 3rd quartiles were accepted as minimum and maximum values of concentration reference range.

  3. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  4. Synergistic action of photosensitizers and normal human serum in a bactericidal process. I. Effect of chlorophylls.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Andrzej; Jankowski, Stanisław; Mirończyk, Agnieszka

    2003-01-01

    Susceptibility of some Gram-negative strains against the bactericidal action of normal human serum (NHS) and of chlorophyll, which induces production of reactive oxygen species by light, was studied. A synergistic bactericidal activity of NHS and chlorophyll against E. coli K1 and Shigella flexneri strains was observed.

  5. LC/MS lipid profiling from human serum: a new method for global lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Di Veroli, Alessandra; Valeri, Aurora; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have improved the sensitivity and selectivity of LC/MS analyzers, providing very efficient tools for lipidomics research. In particular, the nine lipid classes that constitute 99 % of the human serum lipidome (sterols, cholesteryl esters, phosphocholines, phosphoethanolamines, sphingomyelins, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, lysophosphocholines, and diacylglycerols) can be easily detected. However, until today there has not been a unique technique for sample preparation that provides a satisfactory recovery for all of these nine classes together. In this work, we have developed and validated a new one-phase extraction (OPE) method that overcomes this limitation. This method was also compared with the gold standard lipid extraction methods such as Folch, Bligh & Dyer, and recently developed methods with methanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether. Results demonstrate that the mixture of methanol/chloroform/MTBE (MMC) provides a recovery very close to 100 % for all nine lipid classes of the human serum investigated. For this extraction method, 100 μL of human serum is incubated with 2 mL of the solvents mixture, then vortexed and centrifuged. For its simplicity of execution, rapidity, reproducibility, and the reduced volume of sample required, this method opens the door to the use of human serum lipid profiling for large-scale applications in scientific research and clinical trials.

  6. The distribution of iron between the metal-binding sites of transferrin human serum.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1980-02-01

    The Makey & Seal [(1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 453, 250--256] method of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in buffer containing 6 M-urea was used to determine the distribution of iron between the N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding sites of transferrin in human serum. In fresh serum the two sites are unequally occupied; there is preferential occupation of the N-terminal site. On incubation of the serum at 37 degrees C the preference of iron for the N-terminal site becomes more marked. On storage of serum at -15 degrees C the iron distribution changes so that there is a marked preference for the C-terminal site. Dialysis of serum against buffer at pH 7.4 also causes iron to be bound much more strongly by the C-terminal than by the N-terminal site. The original preference for the N-terminal site can be resroted to the dialysed serum by addition of the diffusible fraction.

  7. The distribution of iron between the metal-binding sites of transferrin human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1980-01-01

    The Makey & Seal [(1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 453, 250--256] method of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in buffer containing 6 M-urea was used to determine the distribution of iron between the N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding sites of transferrin in human serum. In fresh serum the two sites are unequally occupied; there is preferential occupation of the N-terminal site. On incubation of the serum at 37 degrees C the preference of iron for the N-terminal site becomes more marked. On storage of serum at -15 degrees C the iron distribution changes so that there is a marked preference for the C-terminal site. Dialysis of serum against buffer at pH 7.4 also causes iron to be bound much more strongly by the C-terminal than by the N-terminal site. The original preference for the N-terminal site can be resroted to the dialysed serum by addition of the diffusible fraction. Images Fig. 1. PMID:7396826

  8. Identification of Serum Biomarkers for Gastric Cancer Diagnosis Using a Human Proteome Microarray.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Wang, Jingfang; Li, Jianfang; Zhang, Hainan; Guo, Shujuan; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zhenggang; Lan, Bin; Ding, Youcheng; Xu, Ming; Li, Wei; Gu, Xiaonian; Qi, Chong; Zhu, Heng; Shao, Zhifeng; Liu, Bingya; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to globally discover serum biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). GC serum autoantibodies were discovered and validated using serum samples from independent patient cohorts encompassing 1,401 participants divided into three groups, i.e. healthy, GC patients, and GC-related disease group. To discover biomarkers for GC, the human proteome microarray was first applied to screen specific autoantibodies in a total of 87 serum samples from GC patients and healthy controls. Potential biomarkers were identified via a statistical analysis protocol. Targeted protein microarrays with only the potential biomarkers were constructed and used to validate the candidate biomarkers using 914 samples. To provide further validation, the abundance of autoantibodies specific to the biomarker candidates was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the serum biomarkers. Finally, the efficacy of prognosis efficacy of the final four biomarkers was evaluated by analyzing the clinical records. The final panel of biomarkers consisting of COPS2, CTSF, NT5E, and TERF1 provides high diagnostic power, with 95% sensitivity and 92% specificity to differentiate GC patients from healthy individuals. Prognosis analysis showed that the panel could also serve as independent predictors of the overall GC patient survival. The panel of four serum biomarkers (COPS2, CTSF, NT5E, and TERF1) could serve as a noninvasive diagnostic index for GC, and the combination of them could potentially be used as a predictor of the overall GC survival rate. PMID:26598640

  9. Transcriptional and functional studies of Human Endogenous Retrovirus envelope EnvP(b) and EnvV genes in human trophoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Amandine Thiery, Maxime Lafond, Julie Barbeau, Benoit

    2012-03-30

    HERV (Human Endogenous Retrovirus)-encoded envelope proteins are implicated in the development of the placenta. Indeed, Syncytin-1 and -2 play a crucial role in the fusion of human trophoblasts, a key step in placentation. Other studies have identified two other HERV env proteins, namely EnvP(b) and EnvV, both expressed in the placenta. In this study, we have fully characterized both env transcripts and their expression pattern and have assessed their implication in trophoblast fusion. Through RACE analyses, standard spliced transcripts were detected, while EnvV transcripts demonstrated alternative splicing at its 3 Prime end. Promoter activity and expression of both genes were induced in forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells and in primary trophoblasts. Although we have confirmed the fusogenic activity of EnvP(b), overexpression or silencing experiments revealed no impact of this protein on trophoblast fusion. Our results demonstrate that both env genes are expressed in human trophoblasts but are not required for syncytialization.

  10. Moderate consumption of wine, through both its phenolic compounds and alcohol content, promotes hydroxytyrosol endogenous generation in humans. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Papaseit, Esther; Pujadas, Mitona; Fitó, Montserrat; Robledo, Patricia; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Cheynier, Véronique; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Escudier, Jean-Louis; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    In humans, urinary hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) concentrations have been associated to alcohol and wine consumption. To explore the role of wine components on promoting an endogenous OHTyr generation we performed a cross-over, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial (n = 28 healthy volunteers). Ethanol (wine and vodka), dealcoholized wine, and placebo were administered. Alcohol, dealcoholized wine, and particularly wine promoted a de novo OHTyr generation in vivo in humans. Potential OHTyr precursors (tyrosine, tyrosol, tyramine) were investigated in rats. Tyrosol was metabolized to OHTyr. Collating both studies, it is postulated that an increased Tyr bioavailability, a shift to a reductive pathway in dopamine and tyramine oxidative metabolism, and the biotransformation of Tyr to OHTyr were mechanisms involved in the OHTyr endogenous generation.

  11. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) Suppresses the Effects of Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) on Human T Cell Activation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Michael S.; Houtman, Jon C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with well characterized anti-microbial properties. Because of these properties, GML is widely used in food, cosmetics, and personal care products and currently being tested as a therapeutic for menstrual associated toxic shock syndrome, superficial wound infections, and HIV transmission. Recently, we have described that GML potently suppresses select T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling events, leading to reduced human T cell effector functions. However, how soluble host factors present in the blood and at sites of infection affect GML-mediated human T cell suppression is unknown. In this study, we have characterized how human serum albumin (HSA) affects GML-induced inhibition of human T cells. We found that HSA and other serum albumins bind to 12 carbon acyl side chain of GML at low micromolar affinities and restores the TCR-induced formation of LAT, PLC-γ1, and AKT microclusters at the plasma membrane. Additionally, HSA reverses GML mediated inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and partially restores cytokine production in GML treated cells. Our data reveal that HSA, one of the most abundant proteins in the human serum and at sites of infections, potently reverses the suppression of human T cells by GML. This suggests that GML-driven human T cell suppression depends upon the local tissue environment, with albumin concentration being a major determinant of GML function. PMID:27764189

  12. Determination of total thyroxine in human serum by hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yong, Sharon; Chen, Yizhao; Lee, Tong Kooi; Lee, Hian Kee

    2014-08-01

    Determination of total thyroxine in human serum using hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) has been accomplished for the first time. HF-LPME serves as an inexpensive sample pretreatment and the cleanup method that is nearly solvent-free. Thyroxine was extracted through a water immiscible organic solvent immobilized in the wall pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber into 20μl of an aqueous acceptor phase inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. This technique produced extracts that had comparable cleanness with those obtained using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Serum samples with endogenous thyroxine were spiked with isotopically-labeled thyroxine and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after HF-LPME extraction. Extraction parameters including the organic phase, acid/base concentration of acceptor phase, stirring speed and extraction time were optimized. The calibration range was found to be linear over 1-1000ng/g with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 ng/g. For quantification of total thyroxine in human serum, 6 subsamples were prepared and the results indicated very good precision with a relative standard deviation of <1.3%. The difference from the SPE method was less than 1.2%, with independent t-test showing insignificant bias. Two reference materials of human serum were analyzed, and our obtained values were compared with the reference values. The results showed very good precision with RSD around 0.2% and the deviation from the reference values were -3.1% and -2.1%. The newly developed method is precise, accurate, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly.

  13. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Dora I A; Gibson, Glenn R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review existing studies concerning the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on serum cholesterol concentrations, with particular attention on the possible mechanisms of their action. Although not without exception, results from animal and human studies suggest a moderate cholesterol-lowering action of dairy products fermented with appropriate strain(s) of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Mechanistically, probiotic bacteria ferment food-derived indigestible carbohydrates to produce short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which can then cause a decrease in the systemic levels of blood lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis and/or redistributing cholesterol from plasma to the liver. Furthermore, some bacteria may interfere with cholesterol absorption from the gut by deconjugating bile salts and therefore affecting the metabolism of cholesterol, or by directly assimilating cholesterol. For prebiotic substances, the majority of studies have been done with the fructooligosaccharides inulin and oligofructose, and although convincing lipid-lowering effects have been observed in animals, high dose levels had to be used. Reports in humans are few in number. In studies conducted in normal-lipidemic subjects, two reported no effect of inulin or oligofructose on serum lipids, whereas two others reported a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (19 and 27%, respectively) with more modest changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol. At present, data suggest that in hyperlipidemic subjects, any effects that do occur result primarily in reductions in cholesterol, whereas in normal lipidemic subjects, effects on serum triglycerides are the dominant feature.

  14. Production of human growth hormone in transgenic rice seeds: co-introduction of RNA interference cassette for suppressing the gene expression of endogenous storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Takanari; Ozaki, Shinji; Saito, Yuhi; Kuroda, Masaharu; Morita, Shigeto; Satoh, Shigeru; Masumura, Takehiro

    2012-03-01

    Rice seeds are potentially useful hosts for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, low yields of recombinant proteins have been observed in many cases because recombinant proteins compete with endogenous storage proteins. Therefore, we attempt to suppress endogenous seed storage proteins by RNA interference (RNAi) to develop rice seeds as a more efficient protein expression system. In this study, human growth hormone (hGH) was expressed in transgenic rice seeds using an endosperm-specific promoter from a 10 kDa rice prolamin gene. In addition, an RNAi cassette for reduction of endogenous storage protein expressions was inserted into the hGH expression construct. Using this system, the expression levels of 13 kDa prolamin and glutelin were effectively suppressed and hGH polypeptides accumulated to 470 μg/g dry weight at the maximum level in transgenic rice seeds. These results suggest that the suppression of endogenous protein gene expression by RNAi could be of great utility for increasing transgene products.

  15. Binding and hydrolysis of soman by human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Nachon, Florian; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Verdier, Laurent; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Brasme, Bernardo; Gillon, Emilie; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana; Masson, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Human plasma and fatty acid free human albumin were incubated with soman at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C. Four methods were used to monitor the reaction of albumin with soman: progressive inhibition of the aryl acylamidase activity of albumin, the release of fluoride ion from soman, 31P NMR, and mass spectrometry. Inhibition (phosphonylation) was slow with a bimolecular rate constant of 15 +/- 3 M(-1) min (-1). MALDI-TOF and tandem mass spectrometry of the soman-albumin adduct showed that albumin was phosphonylated on tyrosine 411. No secondary dealkylation of the adduct (aging) occurred. Covalent docking simulations and 31P NMR experiments showed that albumin has no enantiomeric preference for the four stereoisomers of soman. Spontaneous reactivation at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C, measured as regaining of aryl acylamidase activity and decrease of covalent adduct (pinacolyl methylphosphonylated albumin) by NMR, occurred at a rate of 0.0044 h (-1), indicating that the adduct is quite stable ( t1/2 = 6.5 days). At pH 7.4 and 22 degrees C, the covalent soman-albumin adduct, measured by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, was more stable ( t1/2 = 20 days). Though the concentration of albumin in plasma is very high (about 0.6 mM), its reactivity with soman (phosphonylation and phosphotriesterase activity) is too slow to play a major role in detoxification of the highly toxic organophosphorus compound soman. Increasing the bimolecular rate constant of albumin for organophosphates is a protein engineering challenge that could lead to a new class of bioscavengers to be used against poisoning by nerve agents. Soman-albumin adducts detected by mass spectrometry could be useful for the diagnosis of soman exposure. PMID:18163544

  16. Reactivation of codogenic endogenous retroviral (ERV) envelope genes in human endometrial carcinoma and prestages: Emergence of new molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Falk; Wachter, David; Ekici, Arif B.; Wolf, Friedericke; Thieme, Franziska; Ruprecht, Klemens; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Strick, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EnCa) is the most common invasive gynaecologic carcinoma. Over 85% of EnCa are classified as endometrioid, expressing steroid hormone receptors and mostly involving pathological prestages. Human endogenous retroviruses (ERV) are chromosomally integrated genes, account for about 8% of the human genome and are implicated in the etiology of carcinomas. The majority of ERV envelope (env) coding genes are either not present or not consistently represented between common gene expression microarrays. The aim of this study was to analyse the absolute gene expression of all known 21 ERV env genes including 19 codogenic and two env genes with premature stop codons in EnCa, endometrium as well as in hyperplasia and polyps. For EnCa seven env genes had high expression with >200 mol/ng cDNA (e.g. envH1-3, Syncytin-1, envT), two middle >50 mol/ng cDNA (envFc2, erv-3) and 12 low <50 mol/ng cDNA (e.g. Syncytin-2, envV2). Regarding tumor parameters, Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-2 were significantly over-expressed in advanced stage pT2 compared to pT1b. In less differentiated EnCa Syncytin-1, erv-3, envT and envFc2 were significantly over-expressed. Syncytin-1, Syncytin-2 and erv-3 were specific to glandular epithelial cells of polyps, hyperplasia and EnCa using immunohistochemistry. An analysis of 10 patient-matched EnCa with endometrium revealed that the ERV-W 5' long terminal repeat regulating Syncytin-1 was hypomethylated, including the ERE and CRE overlapping MeCP2 sites. Functional analyses showed that 10 env genes were regulated by methylation in EnCa using the RL95-2 cell line. In conclusion, over-expressed env genes could serve as indicators for pathological pre-stages and EnCa. PMID:23085571

  17. Fenamiphos is recalcitrant to the hydrolysis by alloforms PON1 Q192R of human serum.

    PubMed

    Damianys, Almenares-López; Fernanda, Martínez-Salazar María; Laura, Ortiz-Hernández María; Rafael, Vazquez-Duhalt; Antonio, Monroy-Noyola

    2013-03-01

    Fenamiphos (ethyl 4-methylthio-m-tolyl isopropylphosphoramidate) is a racemic organophosphorus nematicide widely used in agriculture around the world. The paraoxonase 1 from human serum (PON1) is a phosphotriesterase (PTE) that hydrolyses several xenobiotics including drugs and organophosphorus compounds (OPs). In this work, the separation of the enantiomers of fenamiphos by HPLC using the column CHIRALCEL OJ and a mobile phase of hexane/ethanol (99/1) is presented. A liquid-liquid extraction method was implemented for the characterization of commercial nematicide hydrolysis by PON1 Q192R alloforms of human serum from children and adults. The results show a recovery of 94% for each isomer from the biological matrix. The method resulted linear response in a range concentration between 50 and 800μM with a detection and quantification limit between 0.6 and 2μM for the (+)-fenamiphos, and between 0.7 and 2.3μM for the (-)-fenamiphos. The levels of the Ca(2+)-dependent hydrolysis (residual concentration [μM]) quantified during 30min of reaction were only just 4-14% for both fenamiphos enantiomers with the three alloforms of PON1 Q192R of the two groups of serum studied. These results demonstrate that human serum PON1 is could be involved in the detoxification of a limited number of organophosphorus insecticides.

  18. Alteration of human serum albumin tertiary structure induced by glycation. Spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Chudzik, M.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Sułkowska, A.

    2016-01-01

    The modification of human serum albumin (HSA) structure by non-enzymatic glycation is one of the underlying factors that contribute to the development of complications of diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present work was to estimate how glycation of HSA altered its tertiary structure. Changes of albumin conformation were investigated by comparison of glycated (gHSA) and non-glycated human serum albumin (HSA) absorption spectra, red edge excitation shift (REES) and synchronous spectra. Effect of glycation on human serum albumin tertiary structure was also investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Formation of gHSA Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) caused absorption of UV-VIS light between 310 nm and 400 nm while for non-glycated HSA in this region no absorbance has been registered. Analysis of red edge excitation shift effect allowed for observation of structural changes of gHSA in the hydrophobic pocket containing the tryptophanyl residue. Moreover changes in the microenvironment of tryptophanyl and tyrosyl residues brought about AGEs on the basis of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy have been confirmed. The influence of glycation process on serum albumin binding to 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonamide (DNSA), 2-(p-toluidino) naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (TNS), has been studied. Fluorescence analysis showed that environment of both binding site I and II is modified by galactose glycation.

  19. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Leo; Salonen, Anne; Kekkonen, Riina A; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Jalanka-Tuovinen, Jonna; Palva, Airi; Orešič, Matej; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Proteobacteria may be involved in the metabolism of dietary and endogenous lipids, and provide a scientific rationale for further human studies to explore the role of intestinal microbes in host lipid metabolism.

  20. Reduced Insulin Sensitivity Is Related to Less Endogenous Dopamine at D2/3 Receptors in the Ventral Striatum of Healthy Nonobese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Borlido, Carol; Hahn, Margaret; Feng, Zhe; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Remington, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food addiction is a debated topic in neuroscience. Evidence suggests diabetes is related to reduced basal dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, similar to persons with drug addiction. It is unknown whether insulin sensitivity is related to endogenous dopamine levels in the ventral striatum of humans. We examined this using the agonist dopamine D2/3 receptor radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO and an acute dopamine depletion challenge. In a separate sample of healthy persons, we examined whether dopamine depletion could alter insulin sensitivity. Methods: Insulin sensitivity was estimated for each subject from fasting plasma glucose and insulin using the Homeostasis Model Assessment II. Eleven healthy nonobese and nondiabetic persons (3 female) provided a baseline [11C]-(+)-PHNO scan, 9 of which provided a scan under dopamine depletion, allowing estimates of endogenous dopamine at dopamine D2/3 receptor. Dopamine depletion was achieved via alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (64mg/kg, P.O.). In 25 healthy persons (9 female), fasting plasma and glucose was acquired before and after dopamine depletion. Results: Endogenous dopamine at ventral striatum dopamine D2/3 receptor was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r(7)=.84, P=.005) and negatively correlated with insulin levels (r(7)=-.85, P=.004). Glucose levels were not correlated with endogenous dopamine at ventral striatum dopamine D2/3 receptor (r(7)=-.49, P=.18). Consistently, acute dopamine depletion in healthy persons significantly decreased insulin sensitivity (t(24)=2.82, P=.01), increased insulin levels (t(24)=-2.62, P=.01), and did not change glucose levels (t(24)=-0.93, P=.36). Conclusion: In healthy individuals, diminished insulin sensitivity is related to less endogenous dopamine at dopamine D2/3 receptor in the ventral striatum. Moreover, acute dopamine depletion reduces insulin sensitivity. These findings may have important implications for neuropsychiatric populations with metabolic

  1. [The effect of anti-human AFP serum for AFP producing stomach cancer xenotransplanted nude mice].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Akimoto, R; Mai, M; Sakai, T; Sudo, K

    1984-04-01

    The effect of anti-human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on growth, serum AFP levels and histological changes of two lines of AFP producing stomach cancer serially xenotransplanted in nude mice were examined. The efficacy of anti-human AFP antibody on tumor growth was observed specifically for the tumor producing AFP, but there was great difference on growth between two lines. The AFP levels of the serum disclosed a rapid decrease after administration of antibody and maintained as level of Ong/ml for a long period. On histopathologic examination, there were not observed any changes on the tumor cells and structure and necrotic change was not demonstrated. By the immunohistochemical examination (PAP method), anti-human AFP antibody was identified in tumor even 50 th days later after injection.

  2. Human adipose derived stroma/stem cells grow in serum-free medium as floating spheres.

    PubMed

    Dromard, C; Bourin, P; André, M; De Barros, S; Casteilla, L; Planat-Benard, V

    2011-04-01

    With the goal of obtaining clinically safe human adipose-derived stroma/stem cells (ASC) and eliminating the use of serum, we have developed a new culture system that allows the expansion of ASC as spheres in a defined medium. These spheres can be passaged several times. They are not only aggregated cells but rather originate from single cells as clonal spheres can be obtained after seeding at very low density and reform clonal spheres after dissociation. These spheres can also revert to monolayer growth when plated in medium containing human plasma and even generate fibroblast-like colonies (CFU-f). Under several differentiation-specific media, spheres-derived ASC maintain their capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, endothelial cells and adipocytes. These results indicate that human ASC can be maintained in a serum-free 3D culture system, which is of great interest for the expansion in bioreactors of autologous ASC and their use in clinical trials.

  3. [The development of biochip to detect anti-cholera antibodies in human blood serum].

    PubMed

    Utkin, D V; Osina, N A; Spitsin, A N; Kireev, M N; Gromova, O V; Zakharova, T L; Naidenova, E V; Kuklev, V E

    2015-02-01

    The full-scaled agglutinating immunoassay is commonly applied to detect content of antibodies to cholera agent Vibrio cholerae human in blood serum under application of serological diagnostic. The time of analysis implementation amounts to 18 hours. To shorten time of detection of antibodies a biological microchip (biochip) was developed. The biochip represents an activated slide with immobilized corpuscle and soluble antigen cholera agent (O-antigens, cholera toxin). The experimental work resulted in development of scheme of biochip and selection of optimal conditions of sorption and implementation of immunologic analysis using biochip. The application of biochip facilitated to detect specific antibodies to antigens of cholera agent in commercial experimental animal serums and blood serums of ill patients. The time of analysis implementation amounted to 2-3 hours. The results are substantiated by bacteriological and serological methods. PMID:26027261

  4. [The development of biochip to detect anti-cholera antibodies in human blood serum].

    PubMed

    Utkin, D V; Osina, N A; Spitsin, A N; Kireev, M N; Gromova, O V; Zakharova, T L; Naidenova, E V; Kuklev, V E

    2015-02-01

    The full-scaled agglutinating immunoassay is commonly applied to detect content of antibodies to cholera agent Vibrio cholerae human in blood serum under application of serological diagnostic. The time of analysis implementation amounts to 18 hours. To shorten time of detection of antibodies a biological microchip (biochip) was developed. The biochip represents an activated slide with immobilized corpuscle and soluble antigen cholera agent (O-antigens, cholera toxin). The experimental work resulted in development of scheme of biochip and selection of optimal conditions of sorption and implementation of immunologic analysis using biochip. The application of biochip facilitated to detect specific antibodies to antigens of cholera agent in commercial experimental animal serums and blood serums of ill patients. The time of analysis implementation amounted to 2-3 hours. The results are substantiated by bacteriological and serological methods.

  5. Loss of susceptibility to complement lysis in Entamoeba histolytica HM1 by treatment with human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, J; Tovar, R

    1986-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica HM1, exposed to a series of treatment with normal human serum (NHS), progressively lost susceptibility to complement lysis. Trophozoites were incubated daily with unheated or heat-inactivated NHS for 2 hr at 36 degrees, starting with 10% v/v serum and increasing by 5% every 3 days up to 40% NHS. Resistance to complement lysis was also obtained with two different HM1 clones but not with the low virulent strain HK9. Induction of resistance dependent on the number of NHS treatments, with a maximal 50% reduction occurring after 11 treatments. Susceptibility to complement-dependent lysis was regained 6 weeks after serum treatments were terminated, suggesting that resistance to lysis was an acquired rather than a genetic property. PMID:2874111

  6. Proliferation and responsiveness to estrogen of human endometrial cancer cells under serum-free culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Holinka, C F; Anzai, Y; Hata, H; Kimmel, N; Kuramoto, H; Gurpide, E

    1989-06-15

    Studies of hormonal growth regulation in cultured human endometrial cancer cells are limited by the requirement of exogenous growth factors, usually supplied by addition of serum. The present report provides evidence that estradiol can stimulate proliferation of endometrial cancer cells of the Ishikawa line in the absence of serum or added growth factors. Mitogenic effects of estrogen were demonstrated in two different experimental systems, in cells attached to the substratum of mammalian tissue culture dishes, and in cells forming colonies in soft agar under anchorage-independent conditions. Addition of estradiol to a mixture of serum-free, phenol red-free Dulbecco's minimal essential medium and Ham's F-12 medium, supplemented with L-glutamine and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid [basal medium: (BM)] significantly increased the proliferation of cells attached to culture dishes. Dose-response experiments revealed maximal estradiol stimulation at 10 nM; significant responses were also observed at 1 nM and at 100 nM concentrations. The mitogenic effect of 10 nM estradiol was comparable to that of 1% charcoal-treated fetal bovine serum and the two effects were additive. The presence of estradiol in serum-free BM resulted in a shortening of the doubling time of exponentially proliferating cells from 38 to 29 h. From the labeling index, measured after exposure to a pulse of [3H]thymidine, and from the mitotic index, both determined in exponentially proliferating cells, the lengths of the S and M phases were calculated to be 11 and 1 h, respectively. From these data it was estimated that estradiol shortened the G1 phase by approximately 40%, from 22 to 13 h. Estradiol doubled the colony formation efficiency of cells plated in BM containing 0.3% agar in the absence of serum as well as in the presence of 1% charcoal-treated fetal bovine serum. The stimulation of colony formation by estradiol was influenced by medium components, since no effects were

  7. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi-bing; Huang, Rong-dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = —0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans. PMID:26439934

  8. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-E; Wu, Yun-Li; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Huang, Rong-Dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans. PMID:26439934

  9. Serum antibody response to recombinant major inner capsid protein following human infection with group B rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, J J; Mouzinho, A; Lindsay, D A; Glass, R I; Fang, Z Y; Taylor, J L

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant major inner capsid protein (VP6) of the IDIR strain of group B rotavirus (GBR) was incorporated in a solid-phase immunoassay to access antibody response to infection in humans. Expression of VP6 in insect cells permitted design of a highly sensitive assay that avoided the contaminants present in GBR antigens obtained from fecal specimens. Among patients infected with the ADRV strain of GBR in China, increased reactivity with recombinant VP6 was observed in convalescent-phase sera in comparison with sera obtained shortly after infection (P = 0.0084). Anti-VP6 antibodies were detectable as soon as 7 days after onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, and serum reactivity persisted in specimens drawn more than 1 year after infection. Solid-phase immunoassay with recombinant VP6 was next employed in order to assess anti-GBR antibody in 513 serum specimens obtained from 423 Maryland residents (ages, 7 months to 96 years; median age, 42 years). Four individuals (< 1%) exhibited serum antibodies directed against the recombinant VP6 (ages, 54 to 95 years; mean age, 77 years). Examination of 129 additional serum specimens including some from other geographic regions of the United States failed to reveal the presence of anti-GBR antibody. Anti-GBR antibody was also not detected in any of 131 serum specimens from 60 staff and residents of a nursing home in Switzerland. While infection of humans with GBR has been uncommon in these locations outside of China, the detection of serum antibodies in older individuals in the United States either indicated an unknown, age-related risk factor or may have indicated infection in the more distant past. The availability of these reagents should allow surveys for GBR infection among additional populations that have not previously been investigated. PMID:8077413

  10. Effects of Endogenous Formaldehyde in Nasal Tissues on Inhaled Formmaldehyde Dosimetry Predictions in the Rat, Monkey, and Human Nasal Passages

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Formaldehyde, a nasal carcinogen, is also an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde rely on internal dose calculations in the upper respiratory tract which ...

  11. Urea as an endogenous surrogate in human microdialysis to determine relative recovery of drugs: analytics and applications.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Oliver; Buerger, Cornelia; Plock, Nele; Joukhadar, Christian; Kloft, Charlotte

    2006-04-11

    During in vivo microdialysis studies time-consuming and laborious bedside calibration methods, e.g. retrodialysis, have to be performed. To reduce the burden on the patient it would be desirable to establish a reliable, time-saving calibration technique to obtain the in vivo recovery describing the relative drug transfer across the membrane of the microdialysis probe. The performed study aimed to evaluate and validate the use of urea as an endogenous reference compound to determine relative in vivo recovery of anti-infectives, e.g. linezolid used herein as model drug. In order to meet the special requirements imposed by microdialysis to measure urea concentrations in very small sample volumes ( approximately 10 microL) a photometric assay in 96-well microtiter plates was established based on the method of Berthelot. Subsequently, concentration- and flow rate-dependence were evaluated in vitro to determine the relative recovery (RR) of urea. Finally, urea and linezolid concentrations in human microdialysis samples were measured. The developed assay was validated according to international guidelines and met all requirements. Relative in vitro recovery was found to be independent from concentration and dependent on flow rate. Subsequently, relative in vivo recovery of urea was correlated with relative in vivo recovery of linezolid obtained by the traditional retrodialysis method. In healthy volunteers, the mean ratio of the relative recovery of linezolid to the relative recovery of urea was 0.6 for the subcutaneous (s.c.: CV 33.4%, n = 48) and 0.7 for the intramuscular probe (i.m.: CV 18.8%, n = 40), respectively. In critically ill patients this ratio was 0.7 for both tissues (s.c.: CV 32.8%, n = 18; i.m.: CV 22.1%, n = 17). Successful calibration of the urea reference technique without the need to use in vitro data will further promote the application of microdialysis in clinical studies especially in critically ill patients, as it reduces the imposed burden to a

  12. Serum concentrations of methaqualone after repeated oral doses of a combination formulation to human subjects.

    PubMed

    White, C; Doyle, E; Chasseaud, L F; Taylor, T

    1976-09-30

    Concentrations of methaqualone have been measured in the serum of five male human subjects receiving five consecutive evening doses of a combination formulation containing methaqualone (250 mg), carbromal (300 mg) and benactyzine (0.33 mg) in each tablet. After administration of the first dose, mean peak serum concentrations of methaqualone (1.2 mug/ml) occurred at 3 h. After obtaining peak levels, mean concentrations of methaqualone declined rapidly during the next 6 h and thereafter more slowly during the next 18 h. After administration of the last (fifth) dose, mean peak serum concentrations of methaqualone (1.9 mug/ml; 1.5 mug/ml above the predose level) occurred at 2 h. After attaining peak levels, mean concentrations of methaqualone declined rapidly during the next 6 h, and thereafter more slowly, with a half-life of approximately 10 h. Mean concentrations of methaqualone in serum samples 24 h after the second, third, fourth or fifth doses were not significantly different (0.3 mug/ml - 0.6 mug/ml) during this period of dosing. This suggests that significant accumulation of methaqualone in the serum did not occur during a period of five consecutive evening doses of the combination formulation.

  13. A bioassay system for two types of colony stimulating factor in human serum.

    PubMed

    Francis, G E

    1980-07-01

    The biological assay of factors with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating activity in human serum poses special problems. Assays based on colony counts suggest, often erroneously, that serum lacks colony stimulating factors (CSF) but interacts with other materials to potentiate or produce factors. Although the scoring of total clone numbers reveals the presence of CSF in serum, this is still no sufficient for the interpretation of the effects of mixing materials containing CSF, because increments in clone numbers are not directly proportional to increments in CSF. This is particularly important in serum assays because two types of activity are present, one which stimulates progenitor cells directly, and another which results from the interation of serum and bone marrow adherent CSF-producing) cells or peripheral blood leucocytes, indicating the presence of both direct acting and "adherent cell dependent" CSF. A biological assay is described which uses analysis of dose-response curves of clone formation in agar culture, and allows simultaneous assay of both types of activity. The criteria for the selection of suitable target progenitor cell populations are discussed.

  14. Increases in Endogenous or Exogenous Progestins Promote Virus-Target Cell Interactions within the Non-human Primate Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Ann M.; Fought, Angela J.; Kotnik Halavaty, Katarina; Anderson, Meegan R.; Jimenez, Maria L.; McRaven, Michael D.; Gioia, Casey J.; Henning, Tara R.; Smith, James M.; Pereira, Lara E.; Butler, Katherine; McNicholl, S. Janet M.; Hendry, R. Michael; Hope, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are mounting data suggesting that HIV-1 acquisition in women can be affected by the use of certain hormonal contraceptives. However, in non-human primate models, endogenous or exogenous progestin-dominant states are shown to increase acquisition. To gain mechanistic insights into this increased acquisition, we studied how mucosal barrier function and CD4+ T-cell and CD68+ macrophage density and localization changed in the presence of natural progestins or after injection with high-dose DMPA. The presence of natural or injected progestins increased virus penetration of the columnar epithelium and the infiltration of susceptible cells into a thinned squamous epithelium of the vaginal vault, increasing the likelihood of potential virus interactions with target cells. These data suggest that increasing either endogenous or exogenous progestin can alter female reproductive tract barrier properties and provide plausible mechanisms for increased HIV-1 acquisition risk in the presence of increased progestin levels. PMID:27658293

  15. Serum-free suspension culturing of human cells: adaptation, growth, and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Biaggio, Rafael Tagé; Abreu-Neto, Mário Soares; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Swiech, Kamilla

    2015-08-01

    Human cell lines have attracted great interest because they are capable of producing glycosylated proteins that are more similar to native human proteins, thereby reducing the potential for immune responses. However, these cells have not been extensively characterized and cultured under serum-free suspension conditions. In this work, we describe the adaptation, growth, and cryopreservation of the human cell lines SK-Hep-1, HepG2, and HKB-11 under serum-free suspension conditions. The results showed that both HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 adapted to serum-free suspension cultures in FreeStyle and SFM II, respectively. Kinetic characterization showed that the HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 cells reached cell densities as high as 8.6 × 10(6) and 1.9 × 10(6) cells/mL, respectively. The maximum specific growth rates (μ max) were similar for both cells (0.0159/h for HKB-11 and 0.0186/h for SK-Hep-1). The growth limitation of adapted cells does not appear to be associated with glucose or glutamine depletion, nor with the formation of lactate in inhibitory concentrations. However, in both cases, ammonia production reached concentrations that are considered inhibitory to mammalian cells (2-5 mM). The adapted cells were also successfully cryopreserved under serum-free formulations. The SK-HEP-1 and HKB-11 cells that were adapted to serum-free suspension conditions might be suitable for use in the manufacturing of recombinant proteins, thereby eliminating the potential for the introduction of adventitious process contamination and greatly simplifying downstream protein purification. PMID:25822314

  16. Nalmefene induced elevation in serum prolactin in normal human volunteers: partial kappa opioid agonist activity?

    PubMed

    Bart, Gavin; Schluger, James H; Borg, Lisa; Ho, Ann; Bidlack, Jean M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2005-12-01

    In humans, mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists lower tuberoinfundibular dopamine, which tonically inhibits prolactin release. Serum prolactin is, therefore, a useful biomarker for tuberoinfundibular dopamine. The current study evaluated the unexpected finding that the relative mu- and kappa-opioid receptor selective antagonist nalmefene increases serum prolactin, indicating possible kappa-opioid receptor agonist activity. In all, 33 healthy human volunteers (14 female) with no history of psychiatric or substance use disorders received placebo, nalmefene 3 mg, and nalmefene 10 mg in a double-blind manner. Drugs were administered between 0900 and 1000 on separate days via 2-min intravenous infusion. Serial blood specimens were analyzed for serum levels of prolactin. Additional in vitro studies of nalmefene binding to cloned human kappa-opioid receptors transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells were performed. Compared to placebo, both doses of nalmefene caused significant elevations in serum prolactin (p<0.002 for nalmefene 3 mg and p<0.0005 for nalmefene 10 mg). There was no difference in prolactin response between the 3 and 10 mg doses. Binding assays confirmed nalmefene's affinity at kappa-opioid receptors and antagonism of mu-opioid receptors. [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding studies demonstrated that nalmefene is a full antagonist at mu-opioid receptors and has partial agonist properties at kappa-opioid receptors. Elevations in serum prolactin following nalmefene are consistent with this partial agonist effect at kappa-opioid receptors. As kappa-opioid receptor activation can lower dopamine in brain regions important to the persistence of alcohol and cocaine dependence, the partial kappa agonist effect of nalmefene may enhance its therapeutic efficacy in selected addictive diseases.

  17. Serum-free suspension culturing of human cells: adaptation, growth, and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Biaggio, Rafael Tagé; Abreu-Neto, Mário Soares; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Swiech, Kamilla

    2015-08-01

    Human cell lines have attracted great interest because they are capable of producing glycosylated proteins that are more similar to native human proteins, thereby reducing the potential for immune responses. However, these cells have not been extensively characterized and cultured under serum-free suspension conditions. In this work, we describe the adaptation, growth, and cryopreservation of the human cell lines SK-Hep-1, HepG2, and HKB-11 under serum-free suspension conditions. The results showed that both HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 adapted to serum-free suspension cultures in FreeStyle and SFM II, respectively. Kinetic characterization showed that the HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 cells reached cell densities as high as 8.6 × 10(6) and 1.9 × 10(6) cells/mL, respectively. The maximum specific growth rates (μ max) were similar for both cells (0.0159/h for HKB-11 and 0.0186/h for SK-Hep-1). The growth limitation of adapted cells does not appear to be associated with glucose or glutamine depletion, nor with the formation of lactate in inhibitory concentrations. However, in both cases, ammonia production reached concentrations that are considered inhibitory to mammalian cells (2-5 mM). The adapted cells were also successfully cryopreserved under serum-free formulations. The SK-HEP-1 and HKB-11 cells that were adapted to serum-free suspension conditions might be suitable for use in the manufacturing of recombinant proteins, thereby eliminating the potential for the introduction of adventitious process contamination and greatly simplifying downstream protein purification.

  18. Human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors: Levels and profiles in paired maternal and cord serum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Yu; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) precursors, the indirect source of PFAA exposure, have been observed in environmental and human samples. However, the maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals has not been well examined. In this study, 50 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Jiangsu province of China were analyzed for fifteen PFAA precursors. Among the detected PFAAs, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), N-methyl- and N-ethyl-perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetates had comparable detection rate in both maternal and cord sera, while the mean concentrations and detection rates of 8:2 FTS and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were higher in maternal sera compared to cord sera (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance and least significant difference tests showed that the youngest maternal age group (21-24 years old) had the highest concentration of 6:2 FTS in cord sera. Maternal serum PFOSA was found significantly correlated with the cord serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (Spearman test, r = 0.361, P = 0.010), indicating that maternal serum PFOSA might be an indirect source of PFOS in fetuses. The obtained results suggested the potential prenatal exposure and human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors.

  19. Immunoassay for detection of antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus in serum.

    PubMed

    Otsyula, M G; Yee, J A; Suleman, M A; Marx, P A; Jennings, M B

    1996-04-01

    We developed a simple, inexpensive, rapid assay for the detection of antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serum. The immunoassay uses inactivated SIV and HIV-1 gp41 transmembrane recombinant protein as antigenic adsorbents on a nitrocellulose filter membrane. Diluted serum, with the addition of Protein-A-Gold, is gravity-filtered through the filter membrane, blocked, and buffer-washed. Antibodies to HIV or SIV or both in serum bind to the appropriate antigen, and the resulting antigen-antibody complex reacts with Protein-A-Gold to produce a readable pink color. Field evaluation of the test on 30 human and 70 nonhuman primate sera in Kenya and Zaire indicated that the test had at least 93 and 90% correlation with Western blot sensitivity and specificity respectively. Prior refrigeration of the test kit and incubation of sera during testing were not required. This result indicates that the test may be a rapid, economical, and simple test for detecting HIV, SIV, or both in serum. This immunoassay can be useful for carrying out HIV and SIV serosurveys in countries with limited or no laboratory facilities. PMID:8723237

  20. Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, J. Allen; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K. . E-mail: mross@cvm.msstate.edu

    2007-05-15

    Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are {approx} 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts ({approx} 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be

  1. The use of synthetic culture medium and patient serum for human in vitro fertilization and embryo replacement.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, W; Kemeter, P; Menezo, Y

    1986-04-01

    The use of heat-inactivated patient serum as both fertilization and embryo replacement medium was compared in a prospective randomized study with a fully synthetic culture medium containing human serum albumin without serum addition (B3 INRA Menezo). Another series of the author's IVF program was analyzed retrospectively when a commercially available synthetic medium with bovine serum albumin (B2 INRA Menezo) or B3, as mentioned above, was used without serum addition for fertilization but with 50-100% patient serum as embryo replacement medium. Fertilization rates were significantly higher in the synthetic culture media (70%) than in serum (57%). The rate of polyploid fertilization was significantly lowest in B3 medium. There was a clear trend toward better pregnancy rates when high-percentage or 100% patient serum was used for embryo replacement, no matter if one, two, three, four or more embryos were replaced. We conclude that there should be no need for any kind of serum addition to fertilization media. The present study proves our previous observation that the use of serum seems to be beneficial as embryo replacement medium. This might well be explained by a "protein stick effect" due to the high macromolecular contents of serum rather than by viscosity measurements, since no significant increase in viscosity was observed when a high percentage of serum was added to culture media.

  2. Precolumn affinity capillary electrophoresis for the identification of clinically relevant proteins in human serum: application to human cardiac troponin I.

    PubMed

    Dalluge, J J; Sander, L C

    1998-12-15

    An approach has been developed to the on-line extraction and identification of clinical disease-state marker proteins in human serum. Fabrication of capillaries with integral packed beds for the online determination of human cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a diagnostic marker for myocardial infarction, at clinically relevant levels (2 nmol/L) in serum is demonstrated. The technique, termed precolumn affinity capillary electrophoresis (PA-CE), utilizes a short (approximately 5 mm) packed bed of porous silica containing covalently immobilized monoclonal anti-cTnI antibodies directly integrated within a separation capillary for the selective retention of cTnI from a complex matrix. Following a rinsing step to eliminate nonspecifically bound serum proteins and other impurities from the column, desorption of the antigen into the separation region of the PA-CE capillary for subsequent measurement of femto-molar amounts of cTnI by CE is effected by the injection of an appropriate elution buffer. Advantages of this approach over previously reported affinity preconcentration techniques, related applications for PA-CE technology, and its potential for use in the development of a certified reference material for cTnI in serum are discussed. PMID:9868922

  3. Killing of Gram-negative bacteria with normal human serum and normal bovine serum: use of lysozyme and complement proteins in the death of Salmonella strains O48.

    PubMed

    Bugla-Płoskońska, G; Kiersnowski, A; Futoma-Kołoch, B; Doroszkiewicz, W

    2009-08-01

    Serum is an environment in which bacterial cells should not exist. The serum complement system provides innate defense against microbial infections. It consists of at least 35 proteins, mostly in pre-activated enzymatic forms. The activation of complement is achieved through three major pathways: the classical, alternative, and lectin. Lysozyme, widely present in body fluids, catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta 1,4 linkage between N-acetyloglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid in the bacterial cell wall and cooperates with the complement system in the bactericidal action of serum. In this study, ten strains of serotype O48 Salmonella, mainly associated with warm-blooded vertebrates and clinically important causing diarrhea in infants and children, were tested. The results demonstrated that the most efficient killing of Salmonella O48 occurred when all the components of normal bovine serum (NBS) and normal human serum (NHS) cooperated. To prove the role of lysozyme in the bactericidal activity of bovine and human serum, the method of serum adsorption onto bentonite (montmorillonite, MMT) was used. In order to investigate structural transitions accompanying the adsorption of serum components, we applied X-ray diffraction methods. The results of this investigation suggested that apart from lysozyme, other proteins (as, e.g., C3 protein or IgG immunoglobulin) were adsorbed on MMT particles. It was also shown that Ca(2+) cations can be adsorbed on bentonite. This may explain the different sensitivities of the serovars belonging to the same O48 Salmonella serotype to NBS and NHS devoid of lysozyme.

  4. Killing of Gram-negative bacteria with normal human serum and normal bovine serum: use of lysozyme and complement proteins in the death of Salmonella strains O48.

    PubMed

    Bugla-Płoskońska, G; Kiersnowski, A; Futoma-Kołoch, B; Doroszkiewicz, W

    2009-08-01

    Serum is an environment in which bacterial cells should not exist. The serum complement system provides innate defense against microbial infections. It consists of at least 35 proteins, mostly in pre-activated enzymatic forms. The activation of complement is achieved through three major pathways: the classical, alternative, and lectin. Lysozyme, widely present in body fluids, catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta 1,4 linkage between N-acetyloglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid in the bacterial cell wall and cooperates with the complement system in the bactericidal action of serum. In this study, ten strains of serotype O48 Salmonella, mainly associated with warm-blooded vertebrates and clinically important causing diarrhea in infants and children, were tested. The results demonstrated that the most efficient killing of Salmonella O48 occurred when all the components of normal bovine serum (NBS) and normal human serum (NHS) cooperated. To prove the role of lysozyme in the bactericidal activity of bovine and human serum, the method of serum adsorption onto bentonite (montmorillonite, MMT) was used. In order to investigate structural transitions accompanying the adsorption of serum components, we applied X-ray diffraction methods. The results of this investigation suggested that apart from lysozyme, other proteins (as, e.g., C3 protein or IgG immunoglobulin) were adsorbed on MMT particles. It was also shown that Ca(2+) cations can be adsorbed on bentonite. This may explain the different sensitivities of the serovars belonging to the same O48 Salmonella serotype to NBS and NHS devoid of lysozyme. PMID:19294463

  5. Functional characterization of the lectin pathway of complement in human serum.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anja; Bouwman, Lee H; Munoz, Jeric; Zuiverloon, Tahlita; Faber-Krol, Maria C; Fallaux-van den Houten, Francien C; Klar-Mohamad, Ngaisah; Hack, C Erik; Tilanus, Marcel G; Daha, Mohamed R

    2003-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a major initiator of the lectin pathway (LP) of complement. Polymorphisms in exon 1 of the MBL gene are associated with impaired MBL function and infections. Functional assays to assess the activity of the classical pathway (CP) and the alternative pathway (AP) of complement in serum are broadly used in patient diagnostics. We have now developed a functional LP assay that enables the specific quantification of autologous MBL-dependent complement activation in human serum. Complement activation was assessed by ELISA using coated mannan to assess the LP and coated IgM to assess the CP. Normal human serum (NHS) contains IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against mannan, as shown by ELISA. These antibodies are likely to induce CP activation. Using C1q-blocking and MBL-blocking mAb, it was confirmed that both the LP and the CP contribute to complement activation by mannan. In order to quantify LP activity without interference of the CP, LP activity was measured in serum in the presence of C1q-blocking Ab. Activation of serum on coated IgM via the CP resulted in a dose-dependent deposition of C1q, C4, C3, and C5b-9. This activation and subsequent complement deposition was completely inhibited by the C1q-blocking mAb 2204 and by polyclonal Fab anti-C1q Ab. Evaluation of the LP in the presence of mAb 2204 showed a strong dose-dependent deposition of C4, C3, and C5b-9 using serum from MBL-wildtype (AA) but not MBL-mutant donors (AB or BB genotype), indicating that complement activation under these conditions is MBL-dependent and C1q-independent. Donors with different MBL genotypes were identified using a newly developed oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) for detection of MBL exon 1 polymorphisms. We describe a novel functional assay that enables quantification of autologous complement activation via the LP in full human serum up to the formation of the membrane attack complex. This assay offers novel possibilities for patient diagnostics as well as

  6. Human IgG detection in serum on polymer based Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensors.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Eva; Bruck, Roman; Müellner, Paul; Schlederer, Thomas; Hainberger, Rainer; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We report a new method for detecting human IgG (hIgG) in serum on integrated-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensors realized in a high index contrast polymer material system. In the linear range of the sensor (5-200 nM) we observed excellent signal recoveries (95-110%) in buffer and serum samples, which indicate the absence of matrix effects. Signal enhancement was reached by using secondary anti-human IgG antibodies, which bind to immobilized target IgGs and allow detecting concentrations down to 100 pM. This polymer based optical sensor is fully compatible with cost-efficient mass production technologies, which makes it an attractive alternative to inorganic optical sensors. Graphical abstract of the hIgG measured on polymer based photonic sensors using a direct binding assay and a signal enhancement strategy with secondary antibodies.

  7. Time-insensitive fluorescent sensor for human serum albumin and its unusual red shift.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sara E; Williams, Jessica M; Ando, Shin; Koide, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    The concentration of human serum albumin (HSA) indicates the health state of individuals and is routinely measured by UV spectroscopy with bromocresol. However, this method tends to overestimate HSA, and more critically, depends highly on the timing, in seconds, of the measurements. Here, we report an analog of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein that can be used as a fluorescent sensor to quantify HSA in human sera. The accuracy of this new method proved superior to that of bromocresol when an international standard serum sample was analyzed. This method is more convenient than the bromocresol method because it allows for fluorescence measurements during a >15 min period. Colorimetric analysis was also performed to further investigate the effects of the binding of the sensor to HSA. These spectroscopic studies suggest that absorption and emission changes upon HSA binding may be due to the dehydration of the dye and/or stabilization of the tritylic cation species.

  8. Spectral Fluorescence Properties of an Anionic Oxacarbocyanine Dye in Complexes with Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronkin, P. G.; Tatikolov, A. S.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral fluorescence properties of the anionic oxacarbocyanine dye 3,3'-di-(γ-sulfopropyl)-5,5'-diphenyl-9-ethyloxacarbocyanine betaine (OCC) were studied in solutions and in complexes with human serum albumin (HSA). Interaction with HSA leads to a significant increase in the fluorescence of the dye. We studied quenching of the fluorescence of OCC in a complex with HSA by ibuprofen and warfarin. Data on quenching of fluorescence by ibuprofen indicate binding of the dye to binding site II of subdomain IIIA in the HSA molecule. Synchronous fluorescence spectra of human serum albumin in the presence of OCC showed that complexation with OCC does not lead to appreciable rearrangement of the protein molecule at the binding site.

  9. Determination of estradiol valerate in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum by flow injection chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwen; Xie, Liangxiao; Liu, Hongshuang; Xu, Shichao; Hu, Bingcheng; Cao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the detection of trace estradiol valerate (EV) in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum was developed by inhibition of luminol chemiluminescence (CL) by estradiol valerate on the zinc deuteroporphyrin (ZnDP)-enhanced luminol-K3 Fe(CN)6 chemiluminescence system. Under optimized experimental conditions, CL intensity and concentration of estradiol valerate had a good linear relationship in the ranges of 8.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-5) g/mL. Detection limit (3σ) was estimated to be 3.5 × 10(-8) g/mL. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of estradiol valerate in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum and recoveries were 97.0-105.0% and 95.5-106.0%, respectively. The possible mechanism of the CL system is discussed.

  10. Human IgG detection in serum on polymer based Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensors.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Eva; Bruck, Roman; Müellner, Paul; Schlederer, Thomas; Hainberger, Rainer; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We report a new method for detecting human IgG (hIgG) in serum on integrated-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensors realized in a high index contrast polymer material system. In the linear range of the sensor (5-200 nM) we observed excellent signal recoveries (95-110%) in buffer and serum samples, which indicate the absence of matrix effects. Signal enhancement was reached by using secondary anti-human IgG antibodies, which bind to immobilized target IgGs and allow detecting concentrations down to 100 pM. This polymer based optical sensor is fully compatible with cost-efficient mass production technologies, which makes it an attractive alternative to inorganic optical sensors. Graphical abstract of the hIgG measured on polymer based photonic sensors using a direct binding assay and a signal enhancement strategy with secondary antibodies. PMID:26663736

  11. Non-caeruloplasmin copper and ferroxidase activity in mammalian serum. Ferroxidase activity and phenanthroline-detectable copper in human serum in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Evans, P J; Bomford, A; Halliwell, B

    1989-01-01

    It is thought that 5-10% of human serum copper consists of copper ions complexed with histidine, amino acids or albumin. The phenanthroline assay developed by Gutteridge (Biochem. J. 218, 983-985; 1984) is shown to measure all these forms of copper down to a sensitivity of 0.1 mumol/dm3, yet it does not detect any copper ions in freshly-prepared serum or plasma from rats, mice, rabbits or guinea-pigs, or freshly-prepared serum from humans. It is concluded that the "non-caeruloplasmin copper pool" is much smaller than has previously been supposed. No phenanthroline-detectable copper could be measured in serum freshly prepared from four patients with uncomplicated Wilson's disease, but it could be measured in serum from a patient with fulminant hepatic failure. After liver transplantation, concentrations of phenanthroline-detectable copper in this patient fell to zero within two days. Studies on the ferroxidase activity of freshly-prepared serum or plasma samples shows that little ferroxidase II activity is present in samples from healthy adults or from the patient with Wilson's disease and fulminant hepatic failure. In all the patients, ferroxidase I activities are sub-normal. Freshly-prepared plasma or serum samples from several animal species generally show lower ferroxidase I and greater ferroxidase II activities than do human samples, but only in rabbits does ferroxidase II account for a high proportion of total plasma ferroxidase activity. Storage of biological fluids can cause release of copper from caeruloplasmin and a rise in ferroxidase II activity; these events may have confused some earlier studies.

  12. Expression of the human endogenous retrovirus-K transmembrane envelope, Rec and Np9 proteins in melanomas and melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Kristina; Hahn, Silvia; Hofmann, Maja; Trefzer, Uwe; Ozel, Muhsin; Sterry, Wolfram; Löwer, Johannes; Löwer, Roswitha; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2006-06-01

    The human endogenous retrovirus-K encodes two potential tumor proteins, Rec and Np9. Rec is related to the Rev protein of HIV-1 and has been shown to be associated with tumor development in nude mice. Having shown the expression of human endogenous retrovirus-K in human melanomas and melanoma cell lines, tools were developed to allow the expression of the transmembrane envelope, Rec and Np9 mRNA and proteins to be studied in more detail. The expression of spliced env, rec and np9 was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of primers developed to discriminate between full-length and spliced mRNA. Env-specific, Rec-specific and Np9-specific antisera were produced, characterized and used to study protein expression in melanomas and melanoma cell lines by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Existence of human endogenous retrovirus-K Rec and Np9-specific antibodies in the sera of melanoma patients were analyzed by Western blot of immunofluorescence studies. The expression of both spliced env and rec mRNA was detected in 39% of the melanomas and in 40% of the melanoma cell lines and np9 mRNA was detected in 29 and 21%, respectively. In normal neonatal melanocytes, spliced rec mRNA was detected in the absence of spliced env mRNA. Using antisera specific for Rec and Np9, Rec protein was found in 14% of the melanomas but Np9 in none. In addition, cell surface expression of the putatively immunosuppressive transmembrane envelope protein and release of virus particles were shown. Antibodies specific for neither Rec nor Np9 were detected. The transmembrane envelope protein, Rec and Np9 proteins are expressed in melanoma cells with a pattern similar to that seen in teratocarcinoma cell lines. Additional experiments are needed to determine their involvement, if any, in cell proliferation and tumor progression.

  13. Forster resonance energy transfer in the system of human serum albumin-xanthene dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochubey, V. I.; Pravdin, A. B.; Melnikov, A. G.; Konstantinova, I.; Alonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    The processes of interaction of fluorescent probes: eosin and erythrosine with human serum albumin (HSA) were studied by the methods of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Extinction coefficients of probes were determined. Critical transfer radius and the energy transfer efficiency were defined by fluorescence quenching of HSA. Analysis of the excitation spectra of HSA revealed that the energy transfer process is carried out mainly between tryptophanyl and probes.

  14. Rising serum values of beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in patients with progressive vulvar carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    de Bruijn, H. W.; ten Hoor, K. A.; Krans, M.; van der Zee, A. G.

    1997-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) were measured in 50% of patients with locoregional recurrences or progressive vulvar carcinoma (n = 14). At diagnosis of vulvar cancer, however, the incidence of elevated serum levels was low (5%) in 104 patients. The rising serum levels during progression of disease indicate that the synthesis of the beta-subunit hCG can be increased in vulvar carcinoma. PMID:9099973

  15. Chemometric resolution of fully overlapped CE peaks: quantitation of carbamazepine in human serum in the presence of several interferences.

    PubMed

    Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Culzoni, María J; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2008-11-01

    Drug monitoring in serum samples was performed using second-order data generated by CE-DAD, processed with a suitable chemometric strategy. Carbamazepine could be accurately quantitated in the presence of its main metabolite (carbamazepine epoxide), other therapeutic drugs (lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, phenylephrine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, acetyl salicylic acid), and additional serum endogenous components. The analytical strategy consisted of the following steps: (i) serum sample clean-up to remove matrix interferences, (ii) data pre-processing, in order to reduce the background and to correct for electrophoretic time shifts, and (iii) resolution of fully overlapped CE peaks (corresponding to carbamazepine, its metabolite, lamotrigine and unexpected serum components) by the well-known multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm, which extracts quantitative information that can be uniquely ascribed to the analyte of interest. The analyte concentration in serum samples ranged from 2.00 to 8.00 mg/L. Mean recoveries were 102.6% (s=7.7) for binary samples, and 94.8% (s=13.5) for spiked serum samples, while CV (%)=4.0 was computed for five replicate, indicative of the acceptable accuracy and precision of the proposed method. PMID:19035405

  16. Effect of synthetic carrier ampholytes on saturation of human serum transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Oratore, A; D'Alessandro, A M; D'Andrea, G

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the effect in solution of synthetic carrier ampholytes on the saturation of human serum transferrin. By spectrophotometric titrations of human serum transferrin with various Fe3+-carrier ampholyte solutions, we demonstrated that under these conditions carrier ampholytes behave as typical chelators, their binding curves being very similar to that obtained with disodium nitrilotriacetate. On performing titration experiments at three different pH values, carrier ampholytes act like nitrilotriacetate at pH 7.5, but the former are more effective iron donors at pH 8.4 and worse iron donors at pH 5.2. Spectrophotometric titrations of isolated C-terminal and N-terminal fragments obtained from human serum transferrin by thermolysin cleavage show no differences between them, and no differences with respect to the whole protein except that they contain half the number of binding sites. In order to determine a site-specificity of iron in the presence of ampholytes, the classical urea/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis technique was adopted. Under saturating conditions carrier ampholyte solutions act mostly on the C-terminal site, whereas desaturating agents remove iron preferentially from the N-terminal site. Our findings support the hypothesis that Ampholine may chelate Fe3+ as well as many other compounds. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2730592

  17. Effects of non-enzymatic glycation in human serum albumin. Spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, A.; Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Chudzik, M.; Równicka-Zubik, J.

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), transporting protein, is exposed during its life to numerous factors that cause its functions become impaired. One of the basic factors - glycation of HSA - occurs in diabetes and may affect HSA-drug binding. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) leads to diseases e.g. diabetic and non-diabetic cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer disease, renal disfunction and in normal aging. The aim of the present work was to estimate how non-enzymatic glycation of human serum albumin altered its tertiary structure using fluorescence technique. We compared glycated human serum albumin by glucose (gHSAGLC) with HSA glycated by fructose (gHSAFRC). We focused on presenting the differences between gHSAFRC and nonglycated (HSA) albumin used acrylamide (Ac), potassium iodide (KI) and 2-(p-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (TNS). Changes of the microenvironment around the tryptophan residue (Trp-214) of non-glycated and glycated proteins was investigated by the red-edge excitation shift method. Effect of glycation on ligand binding was examined by the binding of phenylbutazone (PHB) and ketoprofen (KP), which a primary high affinity binding site in serum albumin is subdomain IIA and IIIA, respectively. At an excitation and an emission wavelength of λex 335 nm and λem 420 nm, respectively the increase of fluorescence intensity and the blue-shift of maximum fluorescence was observed. It indicates that the glycation products decreases the polarity microenvironment around the fluorophores. Analysis of red-edge excitation shift method showed that the red-shift for gHSAFRC is higher than for HSA. Non-enzymatic glycation also caused, that the Trp residue of gHSAFRC becomes less accessible for the negatively charged quencher (I-), KSV value is smaller for gHSAFRC than for HSA. TNS fluorescent measurement demonstrated the decrease of hydrophobicity in the glycated albumin. KSV constants for gHSA-PHB systems are higher than for the unmodified serum

  18. Effects of non-enzymatic glycation in human serum albumin. Spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, A; Sułkowska, A; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M; Chudzik, M; Równicka-Zubik, J

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), transporting protein, is exposed during its life to numerous factors that cause its functions become impaired. One of the basic factors --glycation of HSA--occurs in diabetes and may affect HSA-drug binding. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) leads to diseases e.g. diabetic and non-diabetic cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer disease, renal disfunction and in normal aging. The aim of the present work was to estimate how non-enzymatic glycation of human serum albumin altered its tertiary structure using fluorescence technique. We compared glycated human serum albumin by glucose (gHSA(GLC)) with HSA glycated by fructose (gHSA(FRC)). We focused on presenting the differences between gHSA(FRC) and nonglycated (HSA) albumin used acrylamide (Ac), potassium iodide (KI) and 2-(p-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (TNS). Changes of the microenvironment around the tryptophan residue (Trp-214) of non-glycated and glycated proteins was investigated by the red-edge excitation shift method. Effect of glycation on ligand binding was examined by the binding of phenylbutazone (PHB) and ketoprofen (KP), which a primary high affinity binding site in serum albumin is subdomain IIA and IIIA, respectively. At an excitation and an emission wavelength of λex 335nm and λem 420nm, respectively the increase of fluorescence intensity and the blue-shift of maximum fluorescence was observed. It indicates that the glycation products decreases the polarity microenvironment around the fluorophores. Analysis of red-edge excitation shift method showed that the red-shift for gHSA(FRC) is higher than for HSA. Non-enzymatic glycation also caused, that the Trp residue of gHSA(FRC) becomes less accessible for the negatively charged quencher (I(-)), KSV value is smaller for gHSA(FRC) than for HSA. TNS fluorescent measurement demonstrated the decrease of hydrophobicity in the glycated albumin. KSV constants for gHSA-PHB systems are higher than for the

  19. Amphetamine induced endogenous opioid release in the human brain detected with [¹¹C]carfentanil PET: replication in an independent cohort.

    PubMed

    Mick, Inge; Myers, Jim; Stokes, Paul R A; Erritzoe, David; Colasanti, Alessandro; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Clark, Luke; Gunn, Roger N; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Searle, Graham E; Waldman, Adam D; Parkin, Mark C; Brailsford, Alan D; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to replicate a previous study which showed that endogenous opioid release, following an oral dose of amphetamine, can be detected in the living human brain using [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Nine healthy volunteers underwent two [11C]carfentanil PET scans, one before and one 3 h following oral amphetamine administration (0.5 mg/kg). Regional changes in [11C]carfentanil BPND from pre- to post-amphetamine were assessed. The amphetamine challenge led to significant reductions in [11C]carfentanil BPND in the putamen, thalamus, frontal lobe, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate, cerebellum and insula cortices, replicating our earlier findings. None of the participants experienced significant euphoria/'high', supporting the use of oral amphetamine to characterize in vivo endogenous opioid release following a pharmacological challenge. [11C]carfentanil PET is able to detect changes in binding following an oral amphetamine challenge that reflects endogenous opioid release and is suitable to characterize the opioid system in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Serum Neutralization Assay Can Efficiently Replace Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for Detection and Quantitation of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Human and Animal Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Di Gennaro, Annapia; Casaccia, Claudia; Conte, Annamaria; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A serum neutralization assay (SN) was compared with the official plaque reduction neutralization test for the quantitation of West Nile virus antibodies. A total of 1,348 samples from equid sera and 38 from human sera were tested by these two methods. Statistically significant differences were not observed, thus supporting the use of SN for routine purposes. PMID:25100824

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IgA antibody in breast milk and serum.

    PubMed

    Duprat, C; Mohammed, Z; Datta, P; Stackiw, W; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Kreiss, J K; Holmes, K K; Plummer, F A; Embree, J E

    1994-07-01

    Breast-feeding plays a potentially significant role in mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The additional transmission risk attributable to breast-feeding and the factors that enhance or inhibit transmission are presently unknown. One mechanism by which breast milk might inhibit HIV-1 transmission is the presence of specific antibodies directed against HIV-1 in breast milk of seropositive mothers. In this study serum and breast milk samples from women in Nairobi, Kenya, were tested to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 IgA antibodies. A Western blot test developed in our laboratory was used to detect anti-HIV-1 immunoglobulin A in serum and anti-HIV-1 secretory IgA (sIgA) in breast milk. Ninety-four percent of 63 HIV-1 seropositive women had anti-HIV-1 IgA in serum and 59% had anti-HIV-1 sIgA in their breast milk. No significant associations with maternal characteristics or serum anti-HIV-1 IgA or IgG banding patterns and the presence of anti-HIV-1 sIgA in breast milk were found. No protective effect of anti-HIV-1 sIgA was seen regarding mother to child transmission; however, further studies are necessary to determine the effect of these antibodies in maternal sera or in breast milk on the efficacy of HIV-1 transmission.

  2. Mapping the response of human fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) promoter to serum availability and lipoic acid in HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengna; Erickson, Anjeza; Yi, Xiaohua; Moreau, Régis

    2016-03-01

    The hormone-like polypeptide, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is a major modulator of lipid and glucose metabolism and an exploratory treatment strategy for obesity related metabolic disorders. The costs of recombinant FGF21 and mode of delivery by injection are important constraints to its wide therapeutic use. The stimulation of endogenous FGF21 production through diet is being explored as an alternative approach. To that end, we examined the mechanism(s) by which serum manipulation and lipoic acid (a dietary activator of FGF21) induce FGF21 in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Serum withdrawal markedly induced FGF21 mRNA levels (88 fold) and FGF21 secreted in the media (19 fold). Lipoic acid induced FGF21 mRNA 7 fold above DMSO-treated control cells and FGF21 secretion 3 fold. These effects were several-fold greater than those of PPARα agonist, Wy14643, which failed to induce FGF21 above and beyond the induction seen with serum withdrawal. The use of transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, revealed that de novo mRNA synthesis drives FGF21 secretion in response to serum starvation. Four previously unrecognized loci in FGF21 promoter were nucleosome depleted and enriched in acetylated histone H3 revealing their role as transcriptional enhancers and putative transcription factor binding sites. FGF21 did not accumulate to a significant degree in induced HepG2 cells, which secreted FGF21 time dependently in media. We conclude that lipoic acid cell signaling connects with the transcriptional upregulation of FGF21 and it may prove to be a safe and affordable means to stimulate FGF21 production. PMID:26691139

  3. Investigation into the interaction of losartan with human serum albumin and glycated human serum albumin by spectroscopic and molecular dynamics simulation techniques: A comparison study.

    PubMed

    Moeinpour, Farid; Mohseni-Shahri, Fatemeh S; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Nassirli, Hooriyeh

    2016-09-25

    The interaction between losartan and human serum albumin (HSA), as well as its glycated form (gHSA) was studied by multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics simulation under physiological conditions. The binding information, including the binding constants, effective quenching constant and number of binding sites showed that the binding partiality of losartan to HSA was higher than to gHSA. The findings of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated that the binding of losartan to HSA and gHSA would alter the protein conformation. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drug were evaluated on the basis of the Förster theory, and it was indicated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA and gHSA to the losartan happened with a high possibility. According to molecular dynamics simulation, the protein secondary and tertiary structure changes were compared in HSA and gHSA for clarifying the obtained results.

  4. Binding of human serum albumin to N-(p-ethoxy-phenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl)thiourea and synchronous fluorescence determination of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fengling; Wang, Junli; Cui, Yanrui; Li, Jianping; Lu, Yan; Fan, Jing; Yao, Xiaojun

    2007-06-01

    The binding of N-(p-ethoxy-phenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl)thiourea (EPNT) to human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated under simulative physiological conditions by fluorescence spectra in combination with UV absorption spectroscopy and a molecular modeling method. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of EPNT to HSA was observed, and the quenching mechanism was suggested to be static quenching according to the Stern-Volmer equation. The binding constants (K) at different temperatures as well as thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (DeltaH) and entropy change (DeltaS), were calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and the vant' Hoff equation. This indicated that a hydrophobic interaction was a predominant intermolecular force for stabilizing the complex, which is in agreement with the results of molecule modeling study. The effects of energy transfer and other ions on the binding constant were considered. In addition, synchronous fluorescence technology was successfully applied to the determination of HSA added into the EPNT solution. PMID:17575357

  5. Serum methanol concentrations in rats and in men after a single dose of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Airoldi, L; Fanelli, R

    1986-03-01

    Serum methanol concentrations were measured in rats and in humans given oral aspartame. The dose given to rats was the FDA's projected 99th percentile daily intake for humans, assuming aspartame were to replace all sucrose sweeteners in the diet (34 mg/kg). Four male adult volunteers each received 500 mg, equivalent to 6-8.7 mg/kg, which is approximately the FDA's estimate of mean daily human consumption. Both treatments caused a rise in serum methanol. In rats the mean peak value was 3.1 mg/litre 1 hr after administration; serum methanol returned to endogenous values 4 hr after treatment. In the men, the mean rise over endogenous values was 1.06 mg/litre after 45 min. Two hours after treatment, serum methanol had returned to basal levels. The temporary serum methanol increase showed peak values within the range of individual basal levels.

  6. Analysis of lysergic acid amide in human serum and urine after ingestion of Argyreia nervosa seeds.

    PubMed

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W

    2012-08-01

    The ergot alkaloid lysergic acid amide (LSA) is a secondary plant constituent in a number of plants, but it is mainly present in considerable amounts in Convolvulaceae, like Argyreia nervosa. Due to its close structural similarity to lysergic acid diethylamide, LSA is considered as psychedelic and therefore promoted as so-called "legal high" in various internet forums. During a human behavioral study with orally administered seeds of A. nervosa, blood and urine samples were obtained. The present study describes the validation of a sensitive and robust high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection, which was applied to the study samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification in human serum were 0.05 and 0.17 ng/mL, respectively, and in urine, the LOD was 0.15 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision and accuracy were below 15 % relative standard deviation with a bias better than ±15 %. No conversion of LSA to its epimer iso-LSA was noted during analyses. The LSA concentrations in the authentic human serum samples were in the range of 0.66 to 3.15 ng/mL approximately 2 h after ingestion. In urine, LSA could be found 1-24 h after ingestion; after 48 h, no LSA could be detected. The LSA epimer iso-LSA was also detected in serum and urine in varying ratios. In conclusion, LSA serum levels in the low nanogram per milliliter range correlated with severe vegetative adverse effects (nausea, weakness, fatigue, tremor, blood pressure elevation) and a psychosis-like state, which led to study termination.

  7. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  8. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  9. Determination of ribavirin in human serum using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van der Lijke, Henk; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Kok, Wim Th; Greijdanus, Ben; Uges, Donald R A

    2012-01-15

    A method has been developed for the determination of ribavirin in human serum for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes, using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Separation was obtained with a mobile phase gradient starting and ending in 100% aqueous conditions using a Waters Atlantis® T3 column (100×2mm, 3μm). The entire sample preparation consisted of dilution, followed by ultrafiltration. From the clear ultrafiltrate 5μL was injected on the LC-MS/MS system. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.2-10mg/L with within-run and between-run precisions (CVs) in the range of 0-10%. The method was validated with respect to specificity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability and meets the requirements of the FDA. The method was extensively tested for matrix effects by determining the variation of the slopes of calibration curves in different sources of serum and plasma. This method is suitable for the determination of ribavirin in human serum for therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:22265514

  10. A simpler and faster capillary electrophoresis method for determination of mianserin enantiomers in human serum.

    PubMed

    Grodner, Błazej; Pachecka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    A stereospecific sample stacking capillary zone electrophoresis method is described for determination of S(+) and R(-) enantiomers of mianserin (1,2,3,4,10,14b-hexahydro-2-methyldibenzo[c,f]pyrazino[1,2-a]azepine) in human serum. The enantiomers of mianserin were extracted from human serum in one step extraction procedure using the mixture n-heptane:ethyl acetate (80:20, v/v). After separation of layers and freezing at -28 degrees C the organic layer was decanted and evaporated under a stream of nitrogen. The sample was dissolved in the mixture: water:methanol:acetonitrile (2:1:1, v/v/v). Separation was conducted in an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid (0.075M) adjusted to pH = 3.0 with concentrated triethylamine, and 2 mmole/L of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The analytes were measured by ultraviolet detection at 214 nm after separation on a Fused-Silica eCAP capillary. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. Recovery of the enantiomers from serum ranged from 82.94 to 90.37%. Total time of analysis was 49 minutes, whereas the other methods needed up to 100 minutes.

  11. Carbofuran poisoning detected by mass spectrometry of butyrylcholinesterase adduct in human serum.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Ricordel, Ivan; Tong, Larry; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Baud, Frédéric; Mégarbane, Bruno; Maury, Eric; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-03-01

    Carbofuran is a pesticide whose acute toxicity is due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma is inhibited by carbofuran and serves as a biomarker of poisoning by carbofuran. The goal was to develop a method to positively identify poisoning by carbofuran. Sera from an attempted murder and an attempted suicide were analyzed for the presence of carbofuran adducts on BChE. The BChE from 1 ml of serum was rapidly purified on a 0.2 ml procainamide-Sepharose column. Speed was essential because the carbofuran-BChE adduct decarbamylates with a half-life of about 2 h. The partially purified BChE was boiled to denature the protein, thus stopping decarbamylation and making the protein vulnerable to digestion with trypsin. The labeled peptide was partially purified by HPLC before analysis by LC/MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode on the QTRAP 2000 mass spectrometer. Carbofuran was found to be covalently bound to Ser 198 of human BChE in serum samples from two poisoning cases. Multiple reaction monitoring triggered MS/MS spectra positively identified the carbofuran-BChE adduct. In conclusion a mass spectrometry method to identify carbofuran poisoning in humans has been developed. The method uses 1 ml of serum and detects low-level exposure associated with as little as 20% inhibition of plasma butyrylcholinesterase.

  12. Gene expression changes in human islets exposed to type 1 diabetic serum

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew M.; Kanak, Mazhar A.; Grishman, Ellen K.; Chaussabel, Damien; Levy, Marlon F.; Naziruddin, Bashoo

    2012-01-01

    A major obstacle to the success of islet cell transplantation as a standard treatment for labile type 1 diabetes mellitus is the immediate loss of up to 70% of the transplanted islet mass. Activation of the complement cascade and coagulation factors has been implicated in initiating the destruction of the islet graft. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression changes in islet cells following exposure to type 1 diabetes mellitus serum (T1DM). Isolated human pancreatic islet cells were cultured for 2 d to stabilize islet cell gene expression. Cultured islets were divided into three groups for treatment as follows: group 1 was treated with autologous donor serum, while groups two and three were treated with sera from ABO-matched allogeneic donors or autoantibody positive type 1 diabetic patient, respectively. Complement was detected using anti-C3 FITC and CH50 assay. Islet gene expression was analyzed using Illumina micro-array technology. Results were confirmed using real-time PCR. Immunofluorescent imaging demonstrated complement deposition only in the T1DM condition. Gene array and class prediction analysis generated a list of 50 genes that were able to predict the effect of T1DM serum on islets. Quantitative PCR corroborated microarray results. Both techniques demonstrated upregulation of MMP9 (243%), IL-1β (255%), IL-11 (220%), IL-12A (132%), RAD (343%) and a concomitant downregulation of IL-1RN (64%) in islets treated with T1DM serum. Islets treated with T1DM serum overexpressed genes associated with angiogenesis while decreasing transcription of genes that protect islets from inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. PMID:22885994

  13. On-site preparation of technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chuang, Mei-Hua; Chiu, Jainn-Shiun; Cham, Thau-Ming; Chung, Mei-Ing

    2007-04-01

    Technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin (Tc-99m HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical for clinical applications, such as cardiac function tests or protein-losing gastroenteropathy assessment. However, because of transfusion-induced infectious diseases, the safety of serum products is a serious concern. In this context, serum products acquired from patients themselves are the most ideal tracer. However, the development of rapid separation and easy clinical labeling methods is not yet well established. Under such situation, products from the same ethnic group or country are now recommended by the World Health Organization as an alternative preparation. This article describes the on-site preparation of Tc-99m HSA from locally supplied serum products. Different formulations were prepared and the labeling efficiency and stability were examined. Radio-labeling efficiencies were more than 90% in all preparation protocols, except for one that omitted the stannous solution. The most cost-effective protocol contained HSA 0.1 mg, treated with stannous fluoride 0.2 mg, and mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate 30 mCi. A biodistribution study was performed in rats using a gamma camera immediately after intravenous administration of radiolabeled HSA. Tissue/organ uptake was obtained by measuring the radioactivity in organs after sacrificing the rats at timed intervals. The biologic half-life was about 32 min, determined from sequential venous blood collections. These data indicate that our preparation of Tc-99m HSA is useful and potentially applicable clinically. In addition, this on-site preparation provides the possibility of labeling a patient's own serum for subsequent clinical application.

  14. Electrochemical biosensor for quantitation of anti-DNA autoantibodies in human serum.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Robert L; Wall, David; Konstantinov, Konstantin N

    2014-01-15

    Measurement of serum autoantibody is a critical tool in the diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases. However, rapid and convenient methods at the point-of care have not been achieved in large part because any one antibody species is a heterogeneous and miniscule fraction of the total serum immunoglobulin displaying identical properties other than its antigen-binding specificity. The present system addresses these challenges by vacuum-mediated transport of diluted serum through an antigen-coated porous membrane. To measure anti-DNA autoantibodies, native DNA was immobilized into a poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane pre-coated with a synthetic phenylalanine/lysine co-polymer. Flow-through of primary and peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies over the course of 3 min enhanced productive antibody-antigen interactions by bringing the reactants into close mutual proximity. Signal was quantified electrochemically during the enzymatic conversion of the tetramethylbenzidine substrate to a charge-transfer complex. The electrochemical signals generated by sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus using this device showed good quantitative correlation with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and displayed similar detection limits. Inter- and intra-assay variability and electrode uniformity were favorable as was a two-month test of the stability of the DNA-coated membrane. While refining the fluidics requirements of this biosensor will be needed, its capacity to quantify over the course of 30 min anti-DNA antibodies in fresh human serum without background reactivity of normal serum makes this a promising technology as a point-of care device of clinical utility.

  15. Simultaneous determination of the bilirubin oxidation end products Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B in human serum using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Raphael A; Kahnes, Marcel; Bauer, Michael; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bilirubin oxidation end products (BOXes) appear upon endogenous heme degradation and can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid after hemorrhagic stroke. BOXes are assumed to contribute to delayed cerebral vasospasm and secondary loss of brain tissue. Here, we present a validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the sensitive determination of the regio-isomers Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B in human serum. We found that Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B appear in serum of healthy volunteers. The sample preparation includes the addition of 5-bromonicotinamide as internal standard and protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Baseline-separation was achieved on a C-18 column with a binary solvent gradient of formic acid in water/acetonitrile at 1 mL/min within a total analysis time of 17 min. Using single reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode, the linear working ranges were 2.74-163 pg/μL (Z-BOX A) and 2.12-162.4 pg/μL (Z-BOX B) with R(2)>0.995. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <10%. The inherent analyte concentrations of Z-BOX A (14.4 ± 5.1 nM) and Z-BOX B (10.9 ± 3.1 nM) in pooled human serum were determined by standard addition. The photolability of both analytes was demonstrated. This method enables to monitor Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B as a prerequisite to systematically study the biological significance of higher order metabolites of heme degradation.

  16. Rapid quantitation of human epididymis protein 4 in human serum by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous immunoassay (AlphaLISA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Lin, Guanfeng; Liu, Tiancai; Liang, Junyu; Ren, Zhiqi; Liang, Rongliang; Chen, Baihong; Huang, Wenhua; Wu, Yingsong

    2016-10-01

    A sensitive, rapid and homogeneous reaction measurement method for quantitation of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in human serum by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous immunoassay (AlphaLISA) was described. Built on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by one biotinylated monoclonal antibody combining on the surface of streptavidin coated donor beads, and "sandwiched" by another monoclonal antibody coated on acceptor beads. The coefficient variations of the method were lower than 10%, and the recoveries were in the range of 90-110% for serum samples. A value of 0.88pmol/l was identified as the minimum detectable dose of the present method for HE4. Compared with the results from electrochemiluminescence immunoassay kit (Roche) in 170 serum samples, there was a satisfied correlation coefficient of 0.984. The present assay demonstrated high sensitivity, wider effective detection range and excellent reproducibility for quantitation of HE4 can be useful for early screening and prognosis evaluation of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27568283

  17. Rapid quantitation of human epididymis protein 4 in human serum by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous immunoassay (AlphaLISA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Lin, Guanfeng; Liu, Tiancai; Liang, Junyu; Ren, Zhiqi; Liang, Rongliang; Chen, Baihong; Huang, Wenhua; Wu, Yingsong

    2016-10-01

    A sensitive, rapid and homogeneous reaction measurement method for quantitation of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in human serum by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous immunoassay (AlphaLISA) was described. Built on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by one biotinylated monoclonal antibody combining on the surface of streptavidin coated donor beads, and "sandwiched" by another monoclonal antibody coated on acceptor beads. The coefficient variations of the method were lower than 10%, and the recoveries were in the range of 90-110% for serum samples. A value of 0.88pmol/l was identified as the minimum detectable dose of the present method for HE4. Compared with the results from electrochemiluminescence immunoassay kit (Roche) in 170 serum samples, there was a satisfied correlation coefficient of 0.984. The present assay demonstrated high sensitivity, wider effective detection range and excellent reproducibility for quantitation of HE4 can be useful for early screening and prognosis evaluation of patients with ovarian cancer.

  18. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  19. Zinc phthalocyanine-conjugated with bovine serum albumin mediated photodynamic therapy of human larynx carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, E. P. O.; Santos, E. D.; Gonçalves, C. S.; Cardoso, M. A. G.; Soares, C. P.; Beltrame, M., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    Phthalocyanines, which are classified as second-generation photosensitizers, have advantageous photophysical properties, and extensive studies have demonstrated their potential applications in photodynamic therapy. The present work describes the preparation of a new zinc phthalocyanine conjugated to bovine serum albumin (compound 4a) and its photodynamic efficiency in human larynx-carcinoma cells (HEp-2 cells). The unconjugated precursor (compound 4) was also studied. Compounds 4 and 4a penetrated efficiently into the cell, exhibiting cytoplasmic localization, and showed no cytotoxicity in the dark. However, high photodynamic activities were observed in HEp-2 cells after treatments with 5 µM photosensitizers and 4.5 J cm-2 light. These conditions were sufficient to decrease the cell viability to 57.93% and 32.75% for compounds 4 and 4a, respectively. The present results demonstrated high photodynamic efficiency of zinc phthalocyanine conjugated with bovine serum albumin in destroying the larynx-carcinoma cells.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for human pancreatic ribonuclease and measurement of serum immunoreactive pancreatic ribonuclease in patients with malignant tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, M.; Ogawa, M.; Ohta, T.; Kurokawa, E.; Kitahara, T.; Murata, A.; Matsuda, K.; Kosaki, G.; Watanabe, T.; Wada, H.

    1984-05-01

    A method for radioimmunoassay of human pancreatic RNase was developed. The method is sensitive, reproducible, and specific. Almost no cross-reactivity exists between human pancreatic and liver RNases. A good correlation was observed between the serum concentration of pancreatic RNase as measured by radioimmunoassay and its enzymatic activity using polycytidylic acid as substrate. The concentration of serum pancreatic RNase correlates well with age, blood urea nitrogen, and albumin contents but does not correlate with serum amylase activity. Using the data of 52 patients with malignant tumors except pancreatic cancer, serum RNase level could be expressed by a multiple regression equation: Immunoreactive RNase content in pancreatic cancer was elevated in patients with complications from renal failure. Serum pancreatic RNase contents in patients with pancreatic cancer measured by radioimmunoassay agreed well with the values calculated using the equation derived from the data of patients with other malignant tumors.

  1. In vitro biotransformation of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) in human liver and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Eede, Nele; Erratico, Claudio; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Maho, Walid; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-04-15

    Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is a plasticizer present in indoor dust, reaching levels of several micrograms per gram. Such levels could lead to significant daily exposure of adults and children. Currently, no toxicokinetic data are available to estimate TBOEP clearance in humans after uptake and therefore, one objective of this study was to investigate intrinsic clearance of TBOEP by human liver microsome (HLM) and serum enzymes. Another objective was to generate information to identify and prioritize several metabolites of TBOEP for investigation of human exposure by biomonitoring. 1D and 2D-NMR methodologies were successfully applied on a mixture of the metabolites to confirm the structure of 3-HO-TBOEP (bis(2-butoxyethyl) 3-hydroxyl-2-butoxyethyl phosphate) and to tentatively assign structures to 1-HO-TBOEP and 2-HO-TBOEP. HO-TBOEP isomers and bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), bis(2-butoxyethyl) hydroxyethyl phosphate (BBOEHEP) were further monitored by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Rates of formation of BBOEHEP and HO-TBOEP metabolites by liver enzymes were best described by the Michaelis–Menten model. Apparent K{sub m} values for BBOEHEP, 3-HO-TBOEP, and sum of 1- and 2-HO-TBOEP isomer formation were 152, 197 and 148 μM, respectively. Apparent V{sub max} values for the formation of BBOEHEP, 3-HO-TBOEP, and the sum of 1- and 2-HO-TBOEP isomers were 2560, 643, and 254 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. No detectable formation of BBOEP occurred with liver or serum enzymes. Our findings indicate that intrinsic clearance of TBOEP is mainly catalyzed by oxidative enzymes in the liver and that its major in vitro metabolite is BBOEHEP. These findings can be applied in human biomonitoring studies and risk assessment. - Highlights: • First steps in the elucidation of TBOEP toxicokinetics • Quantification of TBOEP metabolites in human serum and liver microsomes • No detectable formation of BBOEP occurred with liver or serum

  2. Gonadotrophin secretion patterns in testicular cancer patients with greatly increased human chorionic gonadotrophin serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, S; Gerth, R; Mann, K; Dirnhofer, S; Berger, P

    1998-12-01

    Despite the fact that a number of alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormone axis have been identified in patients with testicular cancer, little is known about the gonadotrophin secretion pattern in such patients who have greatly increased human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) serum concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess this issue in detail using a longitudinal study design and a panel of highly sensitive and specific immunoassays. Eleven patients with non-seminomatous (n=11), and one with seminomatous testicular cancer with pretreatment hCG serum concentrations exceeding 10(5) pg/ml (>1000 mIU/ml) were selected and followed for a mean of 166 days (mean of 14 serum samples/patient) after initial diagnosis. Serum concentrations of hCG, its free alpha- (hCGalpha) and beta- (hCGbeta) subunits, human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteinizing hormone (hLH) were determined by highly sensitive and specific enzymometric immunoassays based on a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MCA) established in our laboratory. A potential FSH-like activity (FSA) of hCG in the respective sera was determined by radioreceptor assays (RRA) for LH/CG and FSH. Specificity of FSA at the level of the receptor was assessed by MCA-based immunoabsorption studies. At diagnosis, hCG (9.8x10(7)+/-4.84x10(7) pg/ml; range 1.1x10(5)-5x10(8) pg/ml) was greatly increased and serum hFSH was undetectable (<9 pg/ml) in 11 patients, and one patient had very low, albeit detectable (approximately 30 pg/ml) hFSH concentrations. hLH was below the limit of detection (<2 pg/ml) in five individuals. During successful chemotherapy, hCG rapidly declined to physiological concentrations and hFSH/hLH returned to normal or even reached supraphysiological values. There was a highly significant negative correlation between hCG and hFSH (P=0.0001) and, to a lesser extent, hLH (P=0.0265). The ability of serum hCG to block the binding of [125I]rFSH (rat FSH) to its receptor was found to

  3. The effect of the putative endogenous imidazoline receptor ligand, clonidine-displacing substance, on insulin secretion from rat and human islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Susan L F; Atlas, Daphne; James, Roger F L; Morgan, Noel G

    1997-01-01

    The effects of a rat brain extract containing clonidine-displacing substance (CDS), a putative endogenous imidazoline receptor ligand, on insulin release from rat and human isolated islets of Langerhans were investigated.CDS was able to potentiate the insulin secretory response of rat islets incubated at 6 mM glucose, in a dose-dependent manner. The magnitude of this effect was similar to that in response to the well-characterized imidazoline secretagogue, efaroxan.CDS, like other imidazoline secretagogues, was also able to reverse the inhibitory action of diazoxide on glucose-induced insulin release, in both rat and human islets.These effects of CDS on secretion were reversed by the imidazoline secretagogue antagonists, RX801080 and the newly defined KU14R, providing the first evidence that imidazoline-mediated actions of CDS can be blocked by specific imidazoline antagonists.The effects of CDS on insulin secretion were unaffected when the method of preparation involved centri-filtration through a 3,000 Da cut-off membrane or when the extract was treated with protease. These results confirm that the active principle is of low molecular weight and is not a peptide.Overall, the data suggest that CDS behaves as a potent endogenous insulin secretagogue acting at the islet imidazoline receptor. PMID:9138700

  4. Custom human endogenous retroviruses dedicated microarray identifies self-induced HERV-W family elements reactivated in testicular cancer upon methylation control

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Juliette; Montgiraud, Cécile; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Bonnaud, Bertrand; Arsac, Maud; Ruel, Karine; Bouton, Olivier; Mallet, François

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are an inherited part of the eukaryotic genomes, and represent ∼400 000 loci in the human genome. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) can be divided into distinct families, composed of phylogenetically related but structurally heterogeneous elements. The majority of HERVs are silent in most physiological contexts, whereas a significant expression is observed in pathological contexts, such as cancers. Owing to their repetitive nature, few of the active HERV elements have been accurately identified. In addition, there are no criteria defining the active promoters among HERV long-terminal repeats (LTRs). Hence, it is difficult to understand the HERV (de)regulation mechanisms and their implication on the physiopathology of the host. We developed a microarray to specifically detect the LTR-containing transcripts from the HERV-H, HERV-E, HERV-W and HERV-K(HML-2) families. HERV transcriptome was analyzed in the placenta and seven normal/tumoral match-pair samples. We identified six HERV-W loci overexpressed in testicular cancer, including a usually placenta-restricted transcript of ERVWE1. For each locus, specific overexpression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and comparison of the activity of U3 versus U5 regions suggested a U3-promoted transcription coupled with 5′R initiation. The analysis of DNA from tumoral versus normal tissue revealed that hypomethylation of U3 promoters in tumors is a prerequisite for their activation. PMID:20053729

  5. Development, evaluation and application of an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for the simultaneous determination of aciclovir and its metabolite 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Darville, J M; Lovering, A M; MacGowan, A P

    2007-07-01

    9-Carboxymethoxymethylguanine (CMMG), the main metabolite of aciclovir (ACV), is a putative neurotoxin. Measurement of CMMG in body fluids may aid patient management. We describe the development, validation and application of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of ACV and CMMG in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recovery was between 94% and 100% at all concentrations both from serum (range 0-20 mg/L) and CSF (0-5 mg/L). The intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation (CV)) was <2% and the inter-assay precision (CV) was <5%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively, in both body fluids. Significant interference from endogenous material or from drugs in clinical samples was not seen. CMMG was detected in most of the 55 clinical samples containing ACV, but little correlation was found between the levels of the drug and its metabolite.

  6. An optimized single chain TCR scaffold relying on the assembly with the native CD3-complex prevents residual mispairing with endogenous TCRs in human T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Knies, Diana; Klobuch, Sebastian; Xue, Shao-An; Birtel, Matthias; Echchannaoui, Hakim; Yildiz, Oezlem; Omokoko, Tana; Guillaume, Philippe; Romero, Pedro; Stauss, Hans; Sahin, Ugur; Herr, Wolfgang; Theobald, Matthias; Thomas, Simone; Voss, Ralf-Holger

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer envisions the adoptive transfer of T-cells genetically engineered with tumor-specific heterodimeric α/β T-cell receptors (TCRα/β). However, potential mispairing of introduced TCRα/β-chains with endogenous β/α-ones may evoke unpredictable autoimmune reactivities. A novel single chain (sc)TCR format relies on the fusion of the Vα-Linker-Vβ-fragment to the TCR Cβ-domain and coexpression of the TCR Cα-domain capable of recruiting the natural CD3-complex for full and hence, native T-cell signaling. Here, we tested whether such a gp100(280-288)- or p53(264-272) tumor antigen-specific scTCR is still prone to mispairing with TCRα. In a human Jurkat-76 T-cell line lacking endogenous TCRs, surface expression and function of a scTCR could be reconstituted by any cointroduced TCRα-chain indicating mispairing to take place on a molecular basis. In contrast, transduction into human TCRα/β-positive T-cells revealed that mispairing is largely reduced. Competition experiments in Jurkat-76 confirmed the preference of dcTCR to selfpair and to spare scTCR. This also allowed for the generation of dc/scTCR-modified cytomegalovirus/tumor antigen-bispecific T-cells to augment T-cell activation in CMV-infected tumor patients. Residual mispairing was prevented by strenghtening the Vα-Li-Vβ-fragment through the design of a novel disulfide bond between a Vα- and a linker-resident residue close to Vβ. Multimer-stainings, and cytotoxicity-, IFNγ-secretion-, and CFSE-proliferation-assays, the latter towards dendritic cells endogenously processing RNA-electroporated gp100 antigen proved the absence of hybrid scTCR/TCRα-formation without impairing avidity of scTCR/Cα in T-cells. Moreover, a fragile cytomegalovirus pp65(495-503)-specific scTCR modified this way acquired enhanced cytotoxicity. Thus, optimized scTCR/Cα inhibits residual TCR mispairing to accomplish safe adoptive immunotherapy for bulk endogenous TCRα/β-positive T-cells. PMID:27028870

  7. Humanized culture of periosteal progenitors in allogeneic serum enhances osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Scott J; Owen, Helen C; Tam, Wai Long; Solie, Lien; Van Cromphaut, Sophie J; Van den Berghe, Greet; Luyten, Frank P

    2014-02-01

    The translation of stem cell-based regenerative solutions from the laboratory to the clinic is often hindered by the culture conditions used to expand cell populations. Although fetal bovine serum (FBS) is widely used, regulatory bodies and safety concerns encourage alternative, xeno-free culturing practices. In an attempt to apply this approach to a bone-forming combination product of human periosteal progenitors (human periosteum derived cells) on a clinically used calcium phosphate carrier, FBS was substituted for human allogeneic serum (hAS) during cell expansion. It was found that cell proliferation was increased in hAS along with an apparent commitment to the osteogenic lineage, indicated by enhanced Runx2 expression, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization. Following analysis of signaling pathways, it was found that interferon-mediated signaling was downregulated, whereas JAK-STAT signaling was upregulated. STAT3 phosphorylation was enhanced in hAS-cultured human periosteum derived cells, inhibition of which ablated the proliferative effect of hAS. Furthermore, following in vivo implantation of hAS-cultured cells on NuOss scaffolds, enhanced bone formation was observed compared with FBS (71% increase, p < .001). Interestingly, the de novo-formed bone appeared to have a higher ratio of immature regions to mature regions, indicating that after 8 weeks implantation, tissue-formation processes were continuing. Integration of the implant with the environment appeared to be altered, with a decrease in calcium phosphate grain size and surface area, indicative of accelerated resorption. This study highlights the advantages of using humanized culture conditions for the expansion of human periosteal progenitors intended for bone regeneration.