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Sample records for human siah-1 interacting

  1. STAT3 Potentiates SIAH-1 Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of β-Catenin in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minkyung; Yi, Eun Hee; Kim, Byung-Hak; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Park, Jung Youl; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Wan; Choi, Kang-Yell; Ye, Sang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The β-catenin functions as an adhesion molecule and a component of the Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of the Wnt ligand, β-catenin is constantly phosphorylated, which designates it for degradation by the APC complex. This process is one of the key regulatory mechanisms of β-catenin. The level of β-catenin is also controlled by the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase SIAH-1 via a phosphorylation-independent degradation pathway. Similar to β-catenin, STAT3 is responsible for various cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and differentiation. However, little is known about how these molecules work together to regulate diverse cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the regulatory relationship between STAT3 and β-catenin in HEK293T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that β-catenin-TCF-4 transcriptional activity was suppressed by phosphorylated STAT3; furthermore, STAT3 inactivation abolished this effect and elevated activated β-catenin levels. STAT3 also showed a strong interaction with SIAH-1, a regulator of active β-catenin via degradation, which stabilized SIAH-1 and increased its interaction with β-catenin. These results suggest that activated STAT3 regulates active β-catenin protein levels via stabilization of SIAH-1 and the subsequent ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in HEK293T cells. PMID:27871173

  2. High Glucose-induced Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis Depends on Association of GAPDH and Siah1.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Sandra; McCollum, Gary W; Jayagopal, Ashwath; Penn, John S

    2015-11-20

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, and its prevalence is growing. Current therapies for DR address only the later stages of the disease, are invasive, and have limited effectiveness. Retinal pericyte death is an early pathologic feature of DR. Although it has been observed in diabetic patients and in animal models of DR, the cause of pericyte death remains unknown. A novel pro-apoptotic pathway initiated by the interaction between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase, seven in absentia homolog 1 (Siah1), was recently identified in ocular tissues. In this article we examined the involvement of the GAPDH/Siah1 interaction in human retinal pericyte (hRP) apoptosis. HRP were cultured in 5 mm normal glucose, 25 mm l- or d-glucose for 48 h (osmotic control and high glucose treatments, respectively). Siah1 siRNA was used to down-regulate Siah1 expression. TAT-FLAG GAPDH and/or Siah1-directed peptides were used to block GAPDH and Siah1 interaction. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to analyze the effect of high glucose on the association of GAPDH and Siah1. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin V staining and caspase-3 enzymatic activity assay. High glucose increased Siah1 total protein levels, induced the association between GAPDH and Siah1, and led to GAPDH nuclear translocation. Our findings demonstrate that dissociation of the GAPDH/Siah1 pro-apoptotic complex can block high glucose-induced pericyte apoptosis, widely considered a hallmark feature of DR. Thus, the work presented in this article can provide a foundation to identify novel targets for early treatment of DR.

  3. SIAH-1 interacts with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded ORF45 protein and promotes its ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Abada, Rinat; Dreyfuss-Grossman, Tsofia; Herman-Bachinsky, Yifat; Geva, Haim; Masa, Shiri-Rivka; Sarid, Ronit

    2008-03-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also referred to as human herpesvirus 8, is a potentially tumorigenic virus implicated in the etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. The open reading frame 45 (ORF45) protein, encoded by the KSHV genome, is capable of inhibiting virus-dependent interferon induction and appears to be essential for both early and late stages of infection. In the present study, we show, both in yeast two-hybrid assays and in mammalian cells, that the ORF45 protein interacts with the cellular ubiquitin E3 ligase family designated seven in absentia homologue (SIAH). We provide evidence that SIAH-1 promotes the degradation of KSHV ORF45 through a RING domain-dependent mechanism and via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Furthermore, our data indicate the involvement of SIAH-1 in the regulation of the expression of ORF45 in KSHV-infected cells. Since the availability of KSHV ORF45 is expected to influence the course of KSHV infection, our findings identify a novel biological role for SIAH proteins as modulators of virus infection.

  4. SIAH-1 Interacts with the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Encoded ORF45 Protein and Promotes Its Ubiquitylation and Proteasomal Degradation▿

    PubMed Central

    Abada, Rinat; Dreyfuss-Grossman, Tsofia; Herman-Bachinsky, Yifat; Geva, Haim; Masa, Shiri-Rivka; Sarid, Ronit

    2008-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also referred to as human herpesvirus 8, is a potentially tumorigenic virus implicated in the etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. The open reading frame 45 (ORF45) protein, encoded by the KSHV genome, is capable of inhibiting virus-dependent interferon induction and appears to be essential for both early and late stages of infection. In the present study, we show, both in yeast two-hybrid assays and in mammalian cells, that the ORF45 protein interacts with the cellular ubiquitin E3 ligase family designated seven in absentia homologue (SIAH). We provide evidence that SIAH-1 promotes the degradation of KSHV ORF45 through a RING domain-dependent mechanism and via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Furthermore, our data indicate the involvement of SIAH-1 in the regulation of the expression of ORF45 in KSHV-infected cells. Since the availability of KSHV ORF45 is expected to influence the course of KSHV infection, our findings identify a novel biological role for SIAH proteins as modulators of virus infection. PMID:18077711

  5. Dimerization and phosphatase activity of calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1 interacting protein: the influence of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Topolska-Woś, Agnieszka M.; Shell, Steven M.; Kilańczyk, Ewa; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Chazin, Walter J.; Filipek, Anna

    2015-01-01

    CacyBP/SIP [calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1 [seven in absentia homolog 1 (Siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1)] interacting protein] is a multifunctional protein whose activity includes acting as an ERK1/2 phosphatase. We analyzed dimerization of mouse CacyBP/SIP in vitro and in mouse neuroblastoma cell line (NB2a) cells, as well as the structure of a full-length protein. Moreover, we searched for the CacyBP/SIP domain important for dimerization and dephosphorylation of ERK2, and we analyzed the role of dimerization in ERK1/2 signaling in NB2a cells. Cell-based assays showed that CacyBP/SIP forms a homodimer in NB2a cell lysate, and biophysical methods demonstrated that CacyBP/SIP forms a stable dimer in vitro. Data obtained using small-angle X-ray scattering supported a model in which CacyBP/SIP occupies an anti-parallel orientation mediated by the N-terminal dimerization domain. Site-directed mutagenesis established that the N-terminal domain is indispensable for full phosphatase activity of CacyBP/SIP. We also demonstrated that the oligomerization state of CacyBP/SIP as well as the level of post-translational modifications and subcellular distribution of CacyBP/SIP change after activation of the ERK1/2 pathway in NB2a cells due to oxidative stress. Together, our results suggest that dimerization is important for controlling phosphatase activity of CacyBP/SIP and for regulating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.—Topolska-Woś, A. M., Shell, S. M., Kilańczyk, E., Szczepanowski, R. H., Chazin, W. J., Filipek, A. Dimerization and phosphatase activity of calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1 interacting protein: the influence of oxidative stress. PMID:25609429

  6. Calcyclin Binding Protein/Siah-1 Interacting Protein Is a Hsp90 Binding Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Agnieszka; Bieganowski, Paweł; Prus, Wiktor; Krzemień-Ojak, Łucja; Kądziołka, Beata; Fabczak, Hanna; Filipek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone activity is tightly regulated by interaction with many co-chaperones. Since CacyBP/SIP shares some sequence homology with a known Hsp90 co-chaperone, Sgt1, in this work we performed a set of experiments in order to verify whether CacyBP/SIP can interact with Hsp90. By applying the immunoprecipitation assay we have found that CacyBP/SIP binds to Hsp90 and that the middle (M) domain of Hsp90 is responsible for this binding. Furthermore, the proximity ligation assay (PLA) performed on HEp-2 cells has shown that the CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 complexes are mainly localized in the cytoplasm of these cells. Using purified proteins and applying an ELISA we have shown that Hsp90 interacts directly with CacyBP/SIP and that the latter protein does not compete with Sgt1 for the binding to Hsp90. Moreover, inhibitors of Hsp90 do not perturb CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 binding. Luciferase renaturation assay and citrate synthase aggregation assay with the use of recombinant proteins have revealed that CacyBP/SIP exhibits chaperone properties. Also, CacyBP/SIP-3xFLAG expression in HEp-2 cells results in the appearance of more basic Hsp90 forms in 2D electrophoresis, which may indicate that CacyBP/SIP dephosphorylates Hsp90. Altogether, the obtained results suggest that CacyBP/SIP is involved in regulation of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. PMID:27249023

  7. S100A6 binding protein and Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP): spotlight on properties and cellular function.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gabriela; Filipek, Anna

    2011-10-01

    The CacyBP/SIP protein (S100A6 binding protein and Siah-1 interacting protein) was originally discovered in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells as a S100A6 (calcyclin) target (Filipek and Wojda in Biochem J 320:585-587, 1996; Filipek and Kuźnicki in J Neurochem 70(5):1793-1798, 1998) and later on as a Siah-1 interacting protein (Matsuzawa and Reed in Mol Cell 7(5):915-926, 2001). CacyBP/SIP binds several target proteins such as some calcium binding proteins of the S100 family (Filipek et al. in J Biol Chem 277(32):28848-28852, 2002), Skp1 (Matsuzawa and Reed in Mol Cell 7(5):915-926, 2001), tubulin (Schneider et al. in Biochim Biophys Acta 1773(11):1628-1636, 2007) and ERK1/2 (Kilanczyk et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 380:54-59, 2009). Studies concerning distribution of CacyBP/SIP show that it is present in various tissues and that a particularly high level of CacyBP/SIP is observed in brain (Jastrzebska et al. in J Histochem Cytochem 48(9):1195-1202, 2000). Regarding the function of CacyBP/SIP, there are some reports suggesting its role in cellular processes such as ubiquitination, proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis, cytoskeletal rearrangement or regulation of transcription. This review describes the properties of CacyBP/SIP and summarizes all findings concerning its cellular function.

  8. Distinct expression patterns of the E3 ligase SIAH-1 and its partner Kid/KIF22 in normal tissues and in the breast tumoral processes.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoni-Giovanelli, Heriberto; Fernandez, Plinio; Veiga, Lucía; Podgorniak, Marie-Pierre; Powell, Darren J; Candeias, Marco M; Mourah, Samia; Calvo, Fabien; Marín, Mónica

    2010-02-09

    SIAH proteins are the human members of an highly conserved family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Several data suggest that SIAH proteins may have a role in tumor suppression and apoptosis. Previously, we reported that SIAH-1 induces the degradation of Kid (KIF22), a chromokinesin protein implicated in the normal progression of mitosis and meiosis, by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. In human breast cancer cells stably transfected with SIAH-1, Kid/KIF22 protein level was markedly reduced whereas, the Kid/KIF22 mRNA level was increased. This interaction has been further elucidated through analyzing SIAH and Kid/KIF22 expression in both paired normal and tumor tissues and cell lines. It was observed that SIAH-1 protein is widely expressed in different normal tissues, and in cells lines but showing some differences in western blotting profiles. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that the intracellular distribution of SIAH-1 and Kid/KIF22 appears to be modified in human tumor tissues compared to normal controls. When mRNA expression of SIAH-1 and Kid/KIF22 was analyzed by real-time PCR in normal and cancer breast tissues from the same patient, a large variation in the number of mRNA copies was detected between the different samples. In most cases, SIAH-1 mRNA is decreased in tumor tissues compared to their normal counterparts. Interestingly, in all breast tumor tissues analyzed, variations in the Kid/KIF22 mRNA levels mirrored those seen with SIAH-1 mRNAs. This concerted variation of SIAH-1 and Kid/KIF22 messengers suggests the existence of an additional level of control than the previously described protein-protein interaction and protein stability regulation. Our observations also underline the need to re-evaluate the results of gene expression obtained by qRT-PCR and relate it to the protein expression and cellular localization when matched normal and tumoral tissues are analyzed.

  9. Structure of the S100A6 complex with a fragment from the C-terminal domain of Siah-1 interacting protein: A novel mode for S100 protein target recognition†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Tae; Dimitrova, Yoana N.; Schneider, Gabriela; Ridenour, Whitney B.; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Soss, Sarah E.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Filipek, Anna; Chazin, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    S100A6 is a member of the S100 subfamily of Ca2+ binding EF-hand proteins that has been shown to interact with calcyclin binding protein/Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP; SIP), a subunit of an SCF-like E3 ligase complex (SCF-TBL1) formed under genotoxic stress. SIP serves as a scaffold in this complex, linking the E2-recruiting module Siah-1 to the substrate-recruiting module Skp1-TBL1. A cell-based functional assay suggests that S100A6 modulates the activity of SCF-TBL1. The results from the cell-based experiments could be enhanced if it were possible to selectively inhibit S100A6-SIP interactions without perturbing any other functions of the two proteins. To this end, the structure of the S100A6-SIP complex was determined in solution by NMR and the strength of the interaction was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry. In an initial step, the minimal binding region in SIP for S100A6 was mapped to a 31 residue fragment (Ser189-Arg219) in the C-terminal domain. The structure of the S100A6-SIP(189–219) complex revealed that SIP(189–219) forms two helices, the first of which (Met193-Tyr200) interacts with S100A6 in a canonical binding mode. The second helix (Met207-Val216) lies over the S100A6 dimer interface, a mode of binding to S100A6 that has not previously been observed for any target bound to an S100 protein. A series of structure-based SIP mutations showed reduced S100A6 binding affinity, setting the stage for direct functional analysis of S100A6-SIP interactions. PMID:18803400

  10. Silencing of SIAH1 in SH-SY5Y affects α-synuclein degradation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Jin; Li, Xiu-Ming; Cai, Zeng-Lin; Li, Xiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    Seven in absentia homolog (SIAH) is a ubiquitin ligase that monoubiquitinates α-synuclein. Lewy bodies are characteristically rich in monoubiquitinated α-synuclein. We aimed to determine the effect of siRNA-SIAH1 on α-synuclein autophagy and UPS degradation in SH-SY5Y. SIAH1 expression was measured with real-time quantitative PCR and Western Blot. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assay; cell apoptosis assayed by flow cytometry. Relative protein expressions were measured by Western Blot. mRNA levels of relative protein were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of α-synuclein, LC3-II and SIAH1 were observed by confocal microscopy. We found: (1) Transfection efficiency of SIAH1-siRNA into SH-SY5 measured approximately 89% by flow cytometry. (2) siRNA silencing of SIAH1 promoted cellular proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. (3) Protein and mRNA expression of α-synuclein, LC3-II and p53 decreased after SIAH1 knockdown. E1 protein and mRNA levels increased after SIAH1 siRNA. These data show silencing SIAH1 increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. SIAH1 knockdown enhanced the clearance of non-aggregated α-synuclein by UPS. SIAH1 is a potential target for treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26722480

  11. SIAH-1 promotes apoptosis and tumor suppression through a network involving the regulation of protein folding, unfolding, and trafficking: Identification of common effectors with p53 and p21Waf1

    PubMed Central

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre; Lethrone, Florence; Prieur, Sylvie; Piouffre, Laurence; Israeli, David; Tuynder, Marcel; Nemani, Mona; Pasturaud, Patricia; Gendron, Marie-Claude; Dausset, Jean; Oren, Moshe; Amson, Robert B.; Telerman, Adam

    1999-01-01

    We have previously described biological model systems for studying tumor suppression in which, by using H-1 parvovirus as a selective agent, cells with a strongly suppressed malignant phenotype (KS or US) were derived from malignant cell lines (K562 or U937). By using cDNA display on the K562/KS cells, 15 cDNAs were now isolated, corresponding to genes differentially regulated in tumor suppression. Of these, TSAP9 corresponds to a TCP-1 chaperonin, TSAP13 to a regulatory proteasome subunit, and TSAP21 to syntaxin 11, a vesicular trafficking molecule. The 15 cDNAs were used as a molecular fingerprint in different tumor-suppression models. We found that a similar pattern of differential regulation is shared by activation of p53, p21Waf1, and the human homologue of Drosophila seven in absentia, SIAH-1. Because SIAH-1 is differentially expressed in the various models, we characterized it at the protein and functional levels. The 32-kDa, mainly nuclear protein encoded by SIAH-1, can induce apoptosis and promote tumor suppression. These results suggest the existence of a common mechanism of tumor suppression and apoptosis shared by p53, p21Waf1, and SIAH-1 and involving regulation of the cellular machinery responsible for protein folding, unfolding, and trafficking. PMID:10393949

  12. Siah1/SIP regulates p27(kip1) stability and cell migration under metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yoshito; Fukushima, Toru; Okemoto, Kazuo; Tanaka, Keiichiro; Bowtell, David D L; Ronai, Ze'ev; Reed, John C; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2011-08-01

    p27(kip1) has been implicated in cell cycle regulation, functioning as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. In addition, p27 was also shown to affect cell migration, with accumulation of cytoplasmic p27 associated with tumor invasiveness. However, the mechanism underlying p27 regulation as a cytoplasmic protein is poorly understood. Here we show that glucose starvation induces proteasome-dependent degradation of cytoplasmic p27, accompanied by a decrease in cell motility. We also show that the glucose limitation-induced p27 degradation is regulated through an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex involving Siah1 and SIP/CacyBP. SIP (-/-) embryonic fibroblasts have increased levels of cytosolic p27 and exhibit increased cell motility compared to wild-type cells. These observations suggest that the Siah1/SIP E3 ligase complex regulates cell motility through degradation of p27.

  13. Siah1/2 Ubiquitin Ligases in ER Stress Signaling in Melanoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    year will establish novel therapeutic modality for treatment of cancer , focused on melanoma. Major Task 3: Determine the effect of Siah1/2 and ER...demonstrate the importance of these activities to prostate NE lesions/tumors that are known to be the more aggressive form of prostate cancer ...1,902,606 Associate Director: Ronai, Z. 1.2 calendar (10%) Program Leader: Ronai, Z. 1.2 calendar (10%) Cancer Center Support Grant Goals: To provide

  14. The Role of Siah1-Induced Degradation of Beta-Catenin in Androgen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    2 Introduction…………………………………………………………….…………....4 Body …………………………………………………………………………………….5 Key Research Accomplishments………………………………………….………10...the relevant proteins that are targeted for degradation by Siah1 besides β- Catenin? 5 Body : We have made excellent progress in the first year of...resistant tumor cells. Cancer Res. (1996) 56:1374-1381. 2. Sanchez-Prieto, R., Lleonart, M., Ramon, Y., and Cajal , S. Lack of correlaqtion between p53

  15. The Role of Siah1-Induced Degradation of Beta-Catenin in Androgen Receptor Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    2 Introduction…………………………………………………………….…………....4 Body …………………………………………………………………………………….5 Key Research Accomplishments...targeted for degradation by Siah1 besides β- Catenin? 6 Body : We have made excellent progress in the first year of renewed funding towards...1374-1381. 2. Sanchez-Prieto, R., Lleonart, M., Ramon, Y., and Cajal , S. Lack of correlaqtion between p53 protein level and sensitivity of DNA

  16. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun; Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Choi, Il-Whan; Jeong, Yongsu; Shin, Jae-Gook; Oh, Sangtaek

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  17. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  18. Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  19. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  20. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  1. Negative Human Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, John M.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine man's most negative experiences as he perceives them. The results indicated that teachers were involved more often than any other person in the most negative experience reported. Improved human relations skills are clearly indicated for those in higher education as well as in public schools. (Author)

  2. CacyBP/SIP protein is important for the proliferation of human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hengliang; Gao, Yong; Tang, Yuan; Wu, Yuxuan; Gong, Hui; Du, Jin; Zheng, Bao; Hu, Jinxia; Shi, Qiong; Yu, Rutong

    2014-04-01

    Recently, calcyclin-binding protein or Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), a component of a novel ubiquitinylation pathway, could regulate the β-catenin degradation (Fukushima et al., Immunity 2006, 24, 29-39). However, the potential role of CacyBP/SIP itself in human glioma cells has not been clarified. Here, we found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed highly in human glioma tissues. Silencing of CacyBP/SIP by short-hairpin RNA severely suppressed the proliferation of human glioma cell U251, which was at least partly mediated by downregulation of phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and phospho-β-catenin (p-β-catenin) as well as upregulation of p53 and p21. Furthermore, overexpression of CacyBP/SIP obviously promoted the proliferation of human glioma U251, which exhibited the exactly contrary trend in the expression of p-Akt, p-β-catenin, p53, and p21. Taken together, these findings suggest that CacyBP/SIP plays important roles in the proliferation of human glioma cell which might be involved in the development of human glioma.

  3. Five Papers on Human-Machine Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Donald A.

    Different aspects of human-machine interaction are discussed in the five brief papers that comprise this report. The first paper, "Some Observations on Mental Models," discusses the role of a person's mental model in the interaction with systems. The second paper, "A Psychologist Views Human Processing: Human Errors and Other…

  4. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  5. Enhancing Learning through Human Computer Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing Learning Through Human Computer Interaction is an excellent reference source for human computer interaction (HCI) applications and designs. This "Premier Reference Source" provides a complete analysis of online business training programs and e-learning in the higher education sector. It describes a range of positive outcomes for linking…

  6. Structure of the SCAN Domain of Human Paternally Expressed Gene 3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C.; Hunter, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Human paternally expressed gene 3 protein (PEG3) is a large multi-domain entity with diverse biological functions, including acting as a transcription factor. PEG3 contains twelve Cys2-His2 type zinc finger domains, extended regions of predicted disorder and at the N-terminus a SCAN domain. PEG3 has been identified as partner of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Siah1, an association we sought to investigate. An efficient bacterial recombinant expression system of the human PEG3-SCAN domain was prepared and crystals appeared spontaneously when the protein was being concentrated after purification. The structure was determined at 1.95 Å resolution and reveals a polypeptide fold of five helices in an extended configuration. An extensive dimerization interface, using almost a quarter of the solvent accessible surface, and key salt bridge interactions explain the stability of the dimer. Comparison with other SCAN domains reveals a high degree of conservation involving residues that contribute to the dimer interface. The PEG3-SCAN domain appears to constitute an assembly block, enabling PEG3 homo- or heterodimerization to control gene expression in a combinatorial fashion. PMID:23936039

  7. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  8. Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments are presented along with a list of attendees. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the state-of-technology and level of maturity of several areas in human-computer interaction and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of these facilities in the design/fabrication and operation of future high-performance engineering systems.

  9. Human-Computer Interaction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Alan J.; Finlay, Janet E.; Abowd, Gregory D.; Beale, Russell

    This book examines human-computer interaction (HCI), with a focus on designing computer technology to be more usable by people. The book provides a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject through a synthesis of computer science, cognitive science, psychology, and sociology, and stresses a principled approach to interactive systems design that…

  10. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  11. Creating Interactive Virtual Humans: Some Assembly Required

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    the synthetic environment. For example, Mr. Bubb of Zoesis Studios (see Figure 5) is tightly responsive to unpredictable and con- tinuous changes in...other alterna- tives is an important open problem in vir- tual human research. The future of androids remains to be seen, but realistic interactive...computer.org/intelligent 61 Figure 5. Mr. Bubb is an interactive character developed by Zoesis Studios that reacts continously to the user’s social interactions

  12. The Science of Human Interaction and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There is a missing link between our understanding of teaching as high-level social phenomenon and teaching as a physiological phenomenon of brain activity. We suggest that the science of human interaction is the missing link. Using over one-million days of human-behavior data, we have discovered that "collective activenes" (CA), which indicates…

  13. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  14. Multimodal interaction for human-robot teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Dustin; Schurr, Nathan; Ayers, Jeanine; Rousseau, Jeff; Fertitta, John; Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have the potential for supporting small dismounted teams in mapping facilities, maintaining security in cleared buildings, and extending the team's reconnaissance and persistent surveillance capability. In order for such autonomous systems to integrate with the team, we must move beyond current interaction methods using heads-down teleoperation which require intensive human attention and affect the human operator's ability to maintain local situational awareness and ensure their own safety. This paper focuses on the design, development and demonstration of a multimodal interaction system that incorporates naturalistic human gestures, voice commands, and a tablet interface. By providing multiple, partially redundant interaction modes, our system degrades gracefully in complex environments and enables the human operator to robustly select the most suitable interaction method given the situational demands. For instance, the human can silently use arm and hand gestures for commanding a team of robots when it is important to maintain stealth. The tablet interface provides an overhead situational map allowing waypoint-based navigation for multiple ground robots in beyond-line-of-sight conditions. Using lightweight, wearable motion sensing hardware either worn comfortably beneath the operator's clothing or integrated within their uniform, our non-vision-based approach enables an accurate, continuous gesture recognition capability without line-of-sight constraints. To reduce the training necessary to operate the system, we designed the interactions around familiar arm and hand gestures.

  15. Analysis of human emotion in human-robot interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blar, Noraidah; Jafar, Fairul Azni; Abdullah, Nurhidayu; Muhammad, Mohd Nazrin; Kassim, Anuar Muhamed

    2015-05-01

    There is vast application of robots in human's works such as in industry, hospital, etc. Therefore, it is believed that human and robot can have a good collaboration to achieve an optimum result of work. The objectives of this project is to analyze human-robot collaboration and to understand humans feeling (kansei factors) when dealing with robot that robot should adapt to understand the humans' feeling. Researches currently are exploring in the area of human-robot interaction with the intention to reduce problems that subsist in today's civilization. Study had found that to make a good interaction between human and robot, first it is need to understand the abilities of each. Kansei Engineering in robotic was used to undergo the project. The project experiments were held by distributing questionnaire to students and technician. After that, the questionnaire results were analyzed by using SPSS analysis. Results from the analysis shown that there are five feelings which significant to the human in the human-robot interaction; anxious, fatigue, relaxed, peaceful, and impressed.

  16. Formal verification of human-automation interaction.

    PubMed

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a formal and rigorous approach to the analysis of operator interaction with machines. It addresses the acute problem of detecting design errors in human-machine interaction and focuses on verifying the correctness of the interaction in complex and automated control systems. The paper describes a systematic methodology for evaluating whether the interface provides the necessary information about the machine to enable the operator to perform a specified task successfully and unambiguously. It also addresses the adequacy of information provided to the user via training material (e.g., user manual) about the machine's behavior. The essentials of the methodology, which can be automated and applied to the verification of large systems, are illustrated by several examples and through a case study of pilot interaction with an autopilot aboard a modern commercial aircraft. The expected application of this methodology is an augmentation and enhancement, by formal verification, of human-automation interfaces.

  17. Interactions between human behaviour and ecological systems

    PubMed Central

    Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the interactions between human behaviour and ecological systems tends to focus on the direct effects of human activities on ecosystems, such as biodiversity loss. There is also increasing research effort directed towards ecosystem services. However, interventions to control people's use of the environment alter the incentives that natural resource users face, and therefore their decisions about resource use. The indirect effects of conservation interventions on biodiversity, modulated through human decision-making, are poorly studied but are likely to be significant and potentially counterintuitive. This is particularly so where people are dependent on multiple natural resources for their livelihoods, when both poverty and biodiversity loss are acute. An inter-disciplinary approach is required to quantify these interactions, with an understanding of human decision-making at its core; otherwise, predictions about the impacts of conservation policies may be highly misleading. PMID:22144389

  18. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  19. Human-Computer Interactions and Decision Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Narang A. Cohill J. Pittman J. Elkerton M. Revesman R. Fainter C. Rieger L. Folley J. Schurick M. Hakkinen A. Siochi D. Johnson T. Spine C. Ku M. Sti...W., Yunten, T., , Johnson , D. H. DMS: A comprehensive system for managing human- computer dialogue. In Proceedings of Human Factors in Computer...interactive system. Wel! known software metrics are used in this analysis. 3. The Dialogue Author a. Reports Johnson , D. H., Hartson, H. R. The role

  20. Computer Human Interaction for Image Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, David Volk

    1991-01-01

    Presents an approach to developing viable image computer-human interactions (CHI) involving user metaphors for comprehending image data and methods for locating, accessing, and displaying computer images. A medical-image radiology workstation application is used as an example, and feedback and evaluation methods are discussed. (41 references) (LRW)

  1. Is Human-Computer Interaction Social or Parasocial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundar, S. Shyam

    Conducted in the attribution-research paradigm of social psychology, a study examined whether human-computer interaction is fundamentally social (as in human-human interaction) or parasocial (as in human-television interaction). All 30 subjects (drawn from an undergraduate class on communication) were exposed to an identical interaction with…

  2. Policy Interactions in Human-Landscape Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-01-01

    Given the heightened pace and extent of human interactions with landscapes, there is increasing recognition of the interdependence of hydrogeomorphological, ecological, and human systems in understanding human-landscape interactions. There is also widespread agreement for greater integration across disciplinary boundaries to generate new knowledge urgently needed for theory building to understand, predict, and respond to rapidly changing human-landscape systems. The development of new conceptual frameworks, methods, tools, and collaborations linking across the natural and social sciences are key elements to such integration. In an effort to contribute to a broader conceptual framework for human-landscape systems, this paper describes how environmental policy research has contributed to four integrative themes—thresholds and tipping points; spatial scales and boundaries; feedback loops; and time scales and lags—developed by participants in an NSF-sponsored interdisciplinary workshop. As a broad and heterogeneous body of literature, environmental policy research reflects a diversity of methodological and theoretical approaches around institutions, actors, processes, and ideas. We integrate across multiple subfields and research programs to help identify complementarities in research that may support future interdisciplinary collaborative work. We conclude with a discussion of future research questions to help advance greater interdisciplinary research around human-landscape systems.

  3. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  4. User Localization During Human-Robot Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Martín, F.; Gorostiza, Javi F.; Malfaz, María; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented. PMID:23012577

  5. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis, Jennifer; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is about understanding and shaping the interactions between humans and robots (Goodrich & Schultz, 2007). It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human s ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively (Crandall, Goodrich, Olsen Jr., & Nielsen, 2005) It is also critical to evaluate the effects of human-robot interfaces and command modalities on operator mental workload (Sheridan, 1992) and situation awareness (Endsley, Bolt , & Jones, 2003). By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed that support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for design. Because the factors associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI are too numerous to address in 3 years of research, the proposed research concentrates on three manageable areas applicable to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) robot systems. These topic areas emerged from the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 work that included extensive literature reviews and observations of NASA systems. The three topic areas are: 1) video overlays, 2) camera views, and 3) command modalities. Each area is described in detail below, along with relevance to existing NASA human-robot systems. In addition to studies in these three topic areas, a workshop is proposed for FY12. The workshop will bring together experts in human-robot interaction and robotics to discuss the state of the practice as applicable to research in space robotics. Studies proposed in the area of video overlays consider two factors in the implementation of augmented reality (AR) for operator displays during teleoperation. The first of these factors is the type of navigational guidance provided by AR symbology. In the proposed

  6. Interaction of Human Hemoglobin with Methotrexate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, M.; Gradinaru, R.

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the interaction between methotrexate and human hemoglobin using steady-state ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence quenching methods. Fluorescence quenching was found to be valuable in assessing drug binding to hemoglobin. The quenching of methotrexate is slightly smaller than the quenching observed with related analogs (dihydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate). The quenching studies were performed at four different temperatures and various pH values. The number of binding sites for tryptophan is ~1. Parameter-dependent assays revealed that electrostatic forces play an essential role in the methotrexate-hemoglobin interaction. Furthermore, the complex was easily eluted using gel filtration chromatography.

  7. Five Papers on Human-Machine Interaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD-AI6 031 CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN DIEGO LA JOLLA CENTER FOR HUMAN -- ETC FIG 5/ B FIVE PAPERS ON HUMAN-MACHINE INTERACTION.(U) MAY 82 0 A NORMAN N0001...model in order - -et the_ necessary results. Mental models will be constrained by such things as the user’s technical background, previous experiences ...especially apt to be the case when a person has experience with a number of different systems, all very similar, but each with some slightly different set of

  8. Endocrine immune interactions in human parturition.

    PubMed

    Golightly, E; Jabbour, H N; Norman, J E

    2011-03-15

    Human parturition is an inflammatory event, modulated and influenced by a host of other environmental and physiological processes, including the endocrine hormones. Complex bidirectional communication occurs between the two systems to bring about some of the changes that are seen in labour, an event that is not yet fully understood. Preterm birth is a major problem in obstetrics and neonatology, with dysfunctional labour or prolonged pregnancy also making increasingly significant contributions to maternal morbidity. With better understanding of normal and abnormal parturition we may be able to develop novel ways of treating these complications of pregnancy and reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. This review discusses the crucial role that endocrine-immune interaction plays in the process of labour and in the processes of abnormal and preterm labour. We propose that amongst these complex interactions it is the immune system that is the driving force behind human parturition.

  9. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  10. Interaction of Staphylococci with Human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Tyler K.; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Freedman, Brett; Porter, Adeline R.; Voyich, Jovanka M.; Otto, Michael; Schneewind, Olaf; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human infections worldwide. The pathogen produces numerous molecules that can interfere with recognition and binding by host innate immune cells, an initial step required for the ingestion and subsequent destruction of microbes by phagocytes. To better understand the interaction of this pathogen with human immune cells, we compared the association of S. aureus and S. epidermidis with leukocytes in human blood. We found that a significantly greater proportion of B cells associated with S. epidermidis relative to S. aureus. Complement components and complement receptors were important for the binding of B cells with S. epidermidis. Experiments using staphylococci inactivated by ultraviolet radiation and S. aureus isogenic deletion mutants indicated that S. aureus secretes molecules regulated by the SaeR/S two-component system that interfere with the ability of human B cells to bind this bacterium. We hypothesize that the relative inability of B cells to bind S. aureus contributes to the microbe’s success as a human pathogen. PMID:27711145

  11. The interactive evolution of human communication systems.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nicolas; Garrod, Simon; Roberts, Leo; Swoboda, Nik

    2010-04-01

    This paper compares two explanations of the process by which human communication systems evolve: iterated learning and social collaboration. It then reports an experiment testing the social collaboration account. Participants engaged in a graphical communication task either as a member of a community, where they interacted with seven different partners drawn from the same pool, or as a member of an isolated pair, where they interacted with the same partner across the same number of games. Participants' horizontal, pair-wise interactions led "bottom up" to the creation of an effective and efficient shared sign system in the community condition. Furthermore, the community-evolved sign systems were as effective and efficient as the local sign systems developed by isolated pairs. Finally, and as predicted by a social collaboration account, and not by an iterated learning account, interaction was critical to the creation of shared sign systems, with different isolated pairs establishing different local sign systems and different communities establishing different global sign systems.

  12. Frequency interactions in human epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Cotic, Marija; Zalay, Osbert; Valiante, Taufik; Carlen, Peter L; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2011-01-01

    We have used two algorithms, wavelet phase coherence (WPC) and modulation index (MI) analysis to study frequency interactions in the human epileptic brain. Quantitative analyses were performed on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) segments from three patients with neocortical epilepsy. Interelectrode coherence was measured using WPC and intraelectrode frequency interactions were analyzed using MI. WPC was performed on electrode pairings and the temporal evolution of phase couplings in the following frequency ranges: 1-4 Hz, 4-8 Hz, 8-13 Hz, 13-30 Hz and 30-100 Hz was studied. WPC was strongest in the 1-4 Hz frequency range during both seizure and non-seizure activities; however, WPC values varied minimally between electrode pairings. The 13-30 Hz band showed the lowest WPC values during seizure activity. MI analysis yielded two prominent patterns of frequency-specific activity, during seizure and non-seizure activities, which were present across all patients.

  13. Scaling laws of human interaction activity.

    PubMed

    Rybski, Diego; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernán A

    2009-08-04

    Even though people in our contemporary technological society are depending on communication, our understanding of the underlying laws of human communicational behavior continues to be poorly understood. Here we investigate the communication patterns in 2 social Internet communities in search of statistical laws in human interaction activity. This research reveals that human communication networks dynamically follow scaling laws that may also explain the observed trends in economic growth. Specifically, we identify a generalized version of Gibrat's law of social activity expressed as a scaling law between the fluctuations in the number of messages sent by members and their level of activity. Gibrat's law has been essential in understanding economic growth patterns, yet without an underlying general principle for its origin. We attribute this scaling law to long-term correlation patterns in human activity, which surprisingly span from days to the entire period of the available data of more than 1 year. Further, we provide a mathematical framework that relates the generalized version of Gibrat's law to the long-term correlated dynamics, which suggests that the same underlying mechanism could be the source of Gibrat's law in economics, ranging from large firms, research and development expenditures, gross domestic product of countries, to city population growth. These findings are also of importance for designing communication networks and for the understanding of the dynamics of social systems in which communication plays a role, such as economic markets and political systems.

  14. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  15. Unsupervised Synchrony Discovery in Human Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wen-Sheng; Zeng, Jiabei; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    People are inherently social. Social interaction plays an important and natural role in human behavior. Most computational methods focus on individuals alone rather than in social context. They also require labelled training data. We present an unsupervised approach to discover interpersonal synchrony, referred as to two or more persons preforming common actions in overlapping video frames or segments. For computational efficiency, we develop a branch-and-bound (B&B) approach that affords exhaustive search while guaranteeing a globally optimal solution. The proposed method is entirely general. It takes from two or more videos any multi-dimensional signal that can be represented as a histogram. We derive three novel bounding functions and provide efficient extensions, including multi-synchrony detection and accelerated search, using a warm-start strategy and parallelism. We evaluate the effectiveness of our approach in multiple databases, including human actions using the CMU Mocap dataset [1], spontaneous facial behaviors using group-formation task dataset [37] and parent-infant interaction dataset [28]. PMID:27346988

  16. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  17. Interaction between bioactive glasses and human dentin.

    PubMed

    Efflandt, S E; Magne, P; Douglas, W H; Francis, L F

    2002-06-01

    This study explores the interaction between bioactive glasses and dentin from extracted human teeth in simulated oral conditions. Bioactive glasses in the Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) and MgO-CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) systems were prepared as polished disks. Teeth were prepared by grinding to expose dentin and etching with phosphoric acid. A layer of saliva was placed between the two, and the pair was secured with an elastic band and immersed in saliva at 37 degrees C for 5, 21 or 42 days. The bioactive glasses adhered to dentin, while controls showed no such interaction. A continuous interface between the bioactive glass and dentin was imaged using cryogenic-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, after alcohol dehydration and critical point drying, fracture occurred due to stresses from dentin shrinkage. SEM investigations showed a microstructurally different material at the fractured interface. Chemical analyses revealed that ions from the glass penetrated into the dentin and that the surface of the glass in contact with the dentin was modified. Microdiffractometry showed the presence of apatite at the interface. Bonding appears to be due to an affinity of collagen for the glass surface and chemical interaction between the dentin and glass, leading to apatite formation at the interface.

  18. Loving Machines: Theorizing Human and Sociable-Technology Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw-Garlock, Glenda

    Today, human and sociable-technology interaction is a contested site of inquiry. Some regard social robots as an innovative medium of communication that offer new avenues for expression, communication, and interaction. Other others question the moral veracity of human-robot relationships, suggesting that such associations risk psychological impoverishment. What seems clear is that the emergence of social robots in everyday life will alter the nature of social interaction, bringing with it a need for new theories to understand the shifting terrain between humans and machines. This work provides a historical context for human and sociable robot interaction. Current research related to human-sociable-technology interaction is considered in relation to arguments that confront a humanist view that confine 'technological things' to the nonhuman side of the human/nonhuman binary relation. Finally, it recommends a theoretical approach for the study of human and sociable-technology interaction that accommodates increasingly personal relations between human and nonhuman technologies.

  19. On the Rhetorical Contract in Human-Computer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenger, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the rhetorical contract--i.e., the expectations for appropriate interaction--as it develops in human-computer interaction revealed that direct manipulation interfaces were more likely to establish social expectations. Study results suggest that the social nature of human-computer interactions can be examined with reference to the…

  20. HIV-1, human interaction database: current status and new features.

    PubMed

    Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J Rodney; Ptak, Roger G; Pruitt, Kim D

    2015-01-01

    The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 protein-human protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12,786 protein-protein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14,102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set.

  1. Soil and Human Interactions in Maya Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 1990s, we have studied Maya interaction with soils in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and elsewhere. We studied upland and lowland soils, but here we focus on seasonal or 'Bajo' wetlands and perennial wetlands for different reasons. Around the bajos, the ancient Maya focused on intensive agriculture and habitation despite the difficulties their Vertisol soils posed. For the perennial wetlands, small populations spread diffusely through Mollisol and Histisol landscapes with large scale, intensive agro-ecosystems. These wetlands also represent important repositories for both environmental change and how humans responded in situ to environmental changes. Work analyzing bajo soils has recorded significant diversity but the soil and sediment record shows two main eras of soil instability: the Pleistocene-Holocene transition as rainfall fluctuated and increased and tropical forest pulsed through the region, and the Maya Preclassic to Classic 3000 to 1000 BP as deforestation, land use intensity, and drying waxed and waned. The ancient Maya adapted their bajo soil ecosystems successfully through agro-engineering but they also withdrew in many important places in the Late Preclassic about 2000 BP and Terminal Classic about 1200 BP. We continue to study and debate the importance of perennial wetland agro-ecosystems, but it is now clear that Maya interaction with these soil landscapes was significant and multifaceted. Based on soil excavation and coring with a broad toolkit of soil stratigraphy, chemistry, and paleoecology from 2001 to 2013, our results show the ancient Maya interacted with their wetland soils to maintain cropland for maize, tree crops, arrow root, and cassava against relative sea level rise, increased flooding, and aggradation by gypsum precipitation and sedimentation. We have studied these interactions across an area of 2000 km2 in Northern Belize to understand how Maya response varied and how these soil environments varied over time and distance

  2. Protein interactions in human genetic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schuster-Böckler, Benjamin; Bateman, Alex

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel method that combines protein structure information with protein interaction data to identify residues that form part of an interaction interface. Our prediction method can retrieve interaction hotspots with an accuracy of 60% (at a 20% false positive rate). The method was applied to all mutations in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, predicting 1,428 mutations to be related to an interaction defect. Combining predicted and hand-curated sets, we discuss how mutations affect protein interactions in general. PMID:18199329

  3. Eyeblink Synchrony in Multimodal Human-Android Interaction.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Kyohei; Nakano, Tamami; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    2016-12-23

    As the result of recent progress in technology of communication robot, robots are becoming an important social partner for humans. Behavioral synchrony is understood as an important factor in establishing good human-robot relationships. In this study, we hypothesized that biasing a human's attitude toward a robot changes the degree of synchrony between human and robot. We first examined whether eyeblinks were synchronized between a human and an android in face-to-face interaction and found that human listeners' eyeblinks were entrained to android speakers' eyeblinks. This eyeblink synchrony disappeared when the android speaker spoke while looking away from the human listeners but was enhanced when the human participants listened to the speaking android while touching the android's hand. These results suggest that eyeblink synchrony reflects a qualitative state in human-robot interactions.

  4. Management Education: Reflective Learning on Human Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clydesdale, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe an attempt to develop a more effective technique to teach self-awareness and relationship skills. Design/methodology/approach: A journal is used in combination with a model of human nature. The model lists human characteristics that the management trainee must identify in themselves and others they interact…

  5. Eyeblink Synchrony in Multimodal Human-Android Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tatsukawa, Kyohei; Nakano, Tamami; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    As the result of recent progress in technology of communication robot, robots are becoming an important social partner for humans. Behavioral synchrony is understood as an important factor in establishing good human-robot relationships. In this study, we hypothesized that biasing a human’s attitude toward a robot changes the degree of synchrony between human and robot. We first examined whether eyeblinks were synchronized between a human and an android in face-to-face interaction and found that human listeners’ eyeblinks were entrained to android speakers’ eyeblinks. This eyeblink synchrony disappeared when the android speaker spoke while looking away from the human listeners but was enhanced when the human participants listened to the speaking android while touching the android’s hand. These results suggest that eyeblink synchrony reflects a qualitative state in human-robot interactions. PMID:28009014

  6. Affect in Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    even without deliberately modeling them: for example, if a robot backs away from a staircase it might be interpreted as a fear of falling by a person...chosen to deliberately embed explicit models of affect into robots, with the express purpose of enhancing the relationship between the human and robot...many psychological models of human affect have been explored. Two examples that have had commercial success are described

  7. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  8. The protein interaction landscape of the human CMGC kinase group.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Keskitalo, Salla; Van Drogen, Audrey; Nurkkala, Helka; Vichalkovski, Anton; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2013-04-25

    Cellular information processing via reversible protein phosphorylation requires tight control of the localization, activity, and substrate specificity of protein kinases, which to a large extent is accomplished by complex formation with other proteins. Despite their critical role in cellular regulation and pathogenesis, protein interaction information is available for only a subset of the 518 human protein kinases. Here we present a global proteomic analysis of complexes of the human CMGC kinase group. In addition to subgroup-specific functional enrichment and modularity, the identified 652 high-confidence kinase-protein interactions provide a specific biochemical context for many poorly studied CMGC kinases. Furthermore, the analysis revealed a kinase-kinase subnetwork and candidate substrates for CMGC kinases. Finally, the presented interaction proteome uncovered a large set of interactions with proteins genetically linked to a range of human diseases, including cancer, suggesting additional routes for analyzing the role of CMGC kinases in controlling human disease pathways.

  9. Human - Ecosystem Interactions: The Case of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human and ecosystem exposure studies evaluate exposure of sensitive and vulnerable populations. We will discuss how ecosystem exposure modeling studies completed for input into the US Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) to evaluate the response of aquatic ecosystems to changes in mercu...

  10. Ergonomics of Human-Computer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helander, Martin G.; Palanivel, Thiagarajan

    1992-01-01

    Addresses research results and controversies concerning the ergonomic design of computer work stations ranging from the traditional concerns with anthropometric fashions, work posture, and visual performance to the recent considerations about human information processing capacities and awareness of problem-solving strategies. (eight references)…

  11. A Human View Model for Socio-Technical Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Holly A.; Tolk, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Human View was developed as an additional architectural viewpoint to focus on the human part of a system. The Human View can be used to collect and organize data in order to understand how human operators interact and impact the other elements of a system. This framework can also be used to develop a model to describe how humans interact with each other in network enabled systems. These socio-technical interactions form the foundation of the emerging area of Human Interoperability. Human Interoperability strives to understand the relationships required between human operators that impact collaboration across networked environments, including the effect of belonging to different organizations. By applying organizational relationship concepts from network theory to the Human View elements, and aligning these relationships with a model developed to identify layers of coalition interoperability, the conditions for different levels for Human Interoperability for network enabled systems can be identified. These requirements can then be captured in the Human View products to improve the overall network enabled system.

  12. Motor contagion during human-human and human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Bisio, Ambra; Sciutti, Alessandra; Nori, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio; Fadiga, Luciano; Sandini, Giulio; Pozzo, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Motor resonance mechanisms are known to affect humans' ability to interact with others, yielding the kind of "mutual understanding" that is the basis of social interaction. However, it remains unclear how the partner's action features combine or compete to promote or prevent motor resonance during interaction. To clarify this point, the present study tested whether and how the nature of the visual stimulus and the properties of the observed actions influence observer's motor response, being motor contagion one of the behavioral manifestations of motor resonance. Participants observed a humanoid robot and a human agent move their hands into a pre-specified final position or put an object into a container at various velocities. Their movements, both in the object- and non-object- directed conditions, were characterized by either a smooth/curvilinear or a jerky/segmented trajectory. These trajectories were covered with biological or non-biological kinematics (the latter only by the humanoid robot). After action observation, participants were requested to either reach the indicated final position or to transport a similar object into another container. Results showed that motor contagion appeared for both the interactive partner except when the humanoid robot violated the biological laws of motion. These findings suggest that the observer may transiently match his/her own motor repertoire to that of the observed agent. This matching might mediate the activation of motor resonance, and modulate the spontaneity and the pleasantness of the interaction, whatever the nature of the communication partner.

  13. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  14. Technology-Enhanced Human Interaction in Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C

    2017-03-20

    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. New Theoretical Approaches for Human-Computer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Presents a critique of recent theoretical developments in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) together with an overview of HCI practice. This chapter discusses why theoretically based approaches have had little impact on the practice of interaction design and suggests mechanisms to enable designers and researchers to better articulate…

  16. Human-Robot Interaction: A Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    operated devices with no or minimal autonomy (Figure 2.1). In 1898, Nicola Tesla demon - strated a radio-controlled boat, which he described as incorporating...vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 325–336, 2003. [110] M. A. Goodrich, E. R. Boer, J. W. Crandall, R. W. Ricks, and M. L. Quigley, “Behavioral entropy in human...Factors, 2003. [174] P. C. Leger, A. Trebi-Ollennu, J. R. Wright, S. A. Maxwell , R. G. Bonitz, J. J. Biesiadecki, F. R. Hartman, B. K. Cooper, E. T

  17. Functional interactions as big data in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2013-11-01

    Noninvasive studies of human brain function hold great potential to unlock mysteries of the human mind. The complexity of data generated by such studies, however, has prompted various simplifying assumptions during analysis. Although this has enabled considerable progress, our current understanding is partly contingent upon these assumptions. An emerging approach embraces the complexity, accounting for the fact that neural representations are widely distributed, neural processes involve interactions between regions, interactions vary by cognitive state, and the space of interactions is massive. Because what you see depends on how you look, such unbiased approaches provide the greatest flexibility for discovery.

  18. Formal Aspects of Human-Automation Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael; Moodi, Michael; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    While new versions of automated control systems such as flight guidance systems are introduced at a rapid pace, it is widely recognized that user interaction with these machines is increasingly problematic. One cause for this difficulty that is commonly cited in the literature, is the discrepancy between the machine's behavior and the operator's (e.g., pilot) expectations. This paper discusses a formal approach to the analysis of operator's interaction with complex automated control systems. We focus attention on the issue of interface correctness; that is, on the question whether the display provides adequate information about the machine's configurations (states, modes, and associated parameters) and transitions, so as to enable the operator to successfully perform the specified set of tasks. To perform the analysis several assumptions are made: (1) A complete formal model of the machine's behavior is available (e.g., as a state transition system, or as a hybrid-machine); (2) A specification of operator's tasks is available and can be formally described (e.g., the reliable and predictable transition between activities involved in executing a climb to a new altitude); (3) The pilot is well trained and has a correct 'mental' model of the machine's response-map. By 'comparing' the machine's model with the set of operator's tasks we formally (i.e., mathematically) evaluate two questions: 1) does the machine's output interface (display) enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the current configuration (e.g., mode) of the machine is, and 2) does the display enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the next configuration of the machine will be, in response to a specified interaction by the operator (e.g., engaging a mode or changing a parameter such as a speed or target altitude). This paper describes a methodology for conducting such an evaluation using examples from automated flight control systems of modem 'glass cockpit' jetliners

  19. Polymicrobial Interactions: Impact on Pathogenesis and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian M.; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; O'May, Graeme A.; Costerton, J. William

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Microorganisms coexist in a complex milieu of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses on or within the human body, often as multifaceted polymicrobial biofilm communities at mucosal sites and on abiotic surfaces. Only recently have we begun to appreciate the complicated biofilm phenotype during infection; moreover, even less is known about the interactions that occur between microorganisms during polymicrobial growth and their implications in human disease. Therefore, this review focuses on polymicrobial biofilm-mediated infections and examines the contribution of bacterial-bacterial, bacterial-fungal, and bacterial-viral interactions during human infection and potential strategies for protection against such diseases. PMID:22232376

  20. Modeling Human Dynamics of Face-to-Face Interaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-04-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of interconversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents that perform a random walk in a two-dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  1. Self-Powered Human-Interactive Transparent Nanopaper Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Junwen; Zhu, Hongli; Zhong, Qize; Dai, Jiaqi; Li, Wenbo; Jang, Soo-Hwan; Yao, Yonggang; Henderson, Doug; Hu, Qiyi; Hu, Liangbing; Zhou, Jun

    2015-07-28

    Self-powered human-interactive but invisible electronics have many applications in anti-theft and anti-fake systems for human society. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrate a transparent paper-based, self-powered, and human-interactive flexible system. The system is based on an electrostatic induction mechanism with no extra power system appended. The self-powered, transparent paper device can be used for a transparent paper-based art anti-theft system in museums or for a smart mapping anti-fake system in precious packaging and documents, by virtue of the advantages of adding/removing freely, having no impairment on the appearance of the protected objects, and being easily mass manufactured. This initial study bridges the transparent nanopaper with a self-powered and human-interactive electronic system, paving the way for the development of smart transparent paper electronics.

  2. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  3. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, human protein interaction database at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Fu, William; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E; Katz, Kenneth S; Maglott, Donna R; Pruitt, Kim D; Ptak, Roger G

    2009-01-01

    The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Protein Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/HIVInteractions, was created to catalog all interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins published in the peer-reviewed literature. The database serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. To facilitate this discovery approach, the following information for each HIV-1 human protein interaction is provided and can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, Entrez Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. Currently, 2589 unique HIV-1 to human protein interactions and 5135 brief descriptions of the interactions, with a total of 14,312 PMID references to the original articles reporting the interactions, are stored in this growing database. In addition, all protein-protein interactions documented in the database are integrated into Entrez Gene records and listed in the 'HIV-1 protein interactions' section of Entrez Gene reports. The database is also tightly linked to other databases through Entrez Gene, enabling users to search for an abundance of information related to HIV pathogenesis and replication.

  5. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    PubMed

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  6. Analysis of Human-Spacesuit Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts sustain injuries of various natures such as finger delamination, joint pain, and redness due to their interaction with the space suit. The role of the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility is to understand the biomechanics, environmental variables, and ergonomics of the suit. This knowledge is then used to make suggestions for improvement in future iterations of the space suit assembly to prevent injuries while allowing astronauts maneuverability, comfort, and tactility. The projects I was involved in were the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit stiffness study and the glove feasibility study. The EMU project looked at the forces exerted on the shoulder, arm, and wrist when subjects performed kinematic tasks with and without a pressurized suit. The glove study consisted of testing three conditions - the Series 4000 glove, the Phase VI glove, and the no glove condition. With more than forty channels of sensor data total, it was critical to develop programs that could analyze data with basic descriptive statistics and generate relevant graphs to help understand what happens within the space suit and glove. In my project I created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in MATLAB that would help me visualize what each sensor was doing within a task. The GUI is capable of displaying overlain plots and can be synchronized with video. This was helpful during the stiffness testing to visualize how the forces on the arm acted while the subject performed tasks such as shoulder adduction/abduction and bicep curls. The main project of focus, however, was the glove comparison study. I wrote MATLAB programs which generated movies of the strain vectors during specific tasks. I also generated graphs that summarized the differences between each glove for the strain, shear and FSR sensors. Preliminary results indicate that the Phase VI glove places less strain and shear on the hand. Future work includes continued data analysis of surveys and sensor data. In the end

  7. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  8. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions

  9. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    PubMed

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  10. A Human-Information Interaction Perspective on Augmented Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Griffith, Douglas

    2006-10-15

    Nearly a half-century ago, J.C.R. Licklider expressed a vision for “man-machine symbiosis,” coupling human brains and computing machines in a partnership that “will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” Until relatively recently, this vision was largely left idle by human factors engineering (HFE) research that grew over the decades from an initial focus on design of equipment to accommodate human limitations to cognitive systems engineering research to a more recent perspective focusing on design of human-information interaction. These perspective shifts and insights have brought a degree of success to the field in design efforts aimed at enhancing human-system performance. In recent years, the research area of augmented cognition has begun to shift the focus once more not only to enhancing the interaction environment, but also the cognitive abilities of the human operators and decision makers themselves. Ambitious goals of increasing total cognitive capacity through augmented cognition technologies are still on the horizon of this research program. This paper describes a framework within which augmented cognition research may identify requirements that compensate for human information processing shortcomings and augment human potential.

  11. Human enterovirus 71 protein interaction network prompts antiviral drug repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lu; Li, Kang; Jin, Chaozhi; Wang, Jian; Li, Qingjun; Zhang, Qiling; Cheng, Qiyue; Yang, Jing; Bo, Xiaochen; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-01-01

    As a predominant cause of human hand, foot, and mouth disease, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to serious diseases and result in severe consequences that threaten public health and cause widespread panic. Although the systematic identification of physical interactions between viral proteins and host proteins provides initial information for the recognition of the cellular mechanism involved in viral infection and the development of new therapies, EV71-host protein interactions have not been explored. Here, we identified interactions between EV71 proteins and host cellular proteins and confirmed the functional relationships of EV71-interacting proteins (EIPs) with virus proliferation and infection by integrating a human protein interaction network and by functional annotation. We found that most EIPs had known interactions with other viruses. We also predicted ATP6V0C as a broad-spectrum essential host factor and validated its essentiality for EV71 infection in vitro. EIPs and their interacting proteins were more likely to be targets of anti-inflammatory and neurological drugs, indicating their potential to serve as host-oriented antiviral targets. Thus, we used a connectivity map to find drugs that inhibited EIP expression. We predicted tanespimycin as a candidate and demonstrated its antiviral efficiency in vitro. These findings provide the first systematic identification of EV71-host protein interactions, an analysis of EIP protein characteristics and a demonstration of their value in developing host-oriented antiviral therapies. PMID:28220872

  12. Human enterovirus 71 protein interaction network prompts antiviral drug repositioning.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Li, Kang; Jin, Chaozhi; Wang, Jian; Li, Qingjun; Zhang, Qiling; Cheng, Qiyue; Yang, Jing; Bo, Xiaochen; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-02-21

    As a predominant cause of human hand, foot, and mouth disease, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to serious diseases and result in severe consequences that threaten public health and cause widespread panic. Although the systematic identification of physical interactions between viral proteins and host proteins provides initial information for the recognition of the cellular mechanism involved in viral infection and the development of new therapies, EV71-host protein interactions have not been explored. Here, we identified interactions between EV71 proteins and host cellular proteins and confirmed the functional relationships of EV71-interacting proteins (EIPs) with virus proliferation and infection by integrating a human protein interaction network and by functional annotation. We found that most EIPs had known interactions with other viruses. We also predicted ATP6V0C as a broad-spectrum essential host factor and validated its essentiality for EV71 infection in vitro. EIPs and their interacting proteins were more likely to be targets of anti-inflammatory and neurological drugs, indicating their potential to serve as host-oriented antiviral targets. Thus, we used a connectivity map to find drugs that inhibited EIP expression. We predicted tanespimycin as a candidate and demonstrated its antiviral efficiency in vitro. These findings provide the first systematic identification of EV71-host protein interactions, an analysis of EIP protein characteristics and a demonstration of their value in developing host-oriented antiviral therapies.

  13. The GOURD model of human-computer interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbogen, G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a model, the GOURD model, that can be used to measure the goodness of {open_quotes}interactivity{close_quotes} of an interface design and qualifies how to improve the design. The GOURD model describes what happens to the computer and to the human during a human-computer interaction. Since the interaction is generally repeated, the traversal of the model repeatedly is similar to a loop programming structure. Because the model measures interaction over part or all of the application, it can also be used as a classifier of the part or the whole application. But primarily, the model is used as a design guide and a predictor of effectiveness.

  14. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C.; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject’s own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual “teacher.” We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof. PMID:25114256

  15. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  16. Human Computer Interaction Issues in Clinical Trials Management Systems

    PubMed Central

    Starren, Justin B.; Payne, Philip R.O.; Kaufman, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system. PMID:17238728

  17. Human Norovirus Interactions with Histo-Blood Group Antigens and Human Milk Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Schroten, Horst; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses interact with both human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The former are believed to be important for a virus infection, while the latter might act as natural decoys in the host during an infection. However, certain noroviruses are known to bind poorly to HBGAs and yet still cause infections; some interact with numerous HBGA types but are nonprevalent; and yet others bind HBGAs and seem to be increasing in prevalence. HBGAs and HMOs can be found as soluble antigens in humans, can be structurally alike, and can interact with equivalent residues at identical binding pockets on the capsid. In this Gem, we discuss HBGA and HMO binding studies for human noroviruses, concentrating on the clinically important genogroup II noroviruses. In short, the roles of HBGA and HMO interactions in norovirus infections are still unclear. PMID:27122582

  18. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  19. Human-Swarm Interactions Based on Managing Attractors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-06

    further claim that using quorum sensing allows a human to manage trade-offs between the scalability of interactions and mitigating the vulnerability...influence can cause the swarm to switch between attractors. We further claim that using quorum sensing allows a human to manage trade- offs between the...attractors of dynamic systems, bio-inspired swarms, quorum sensing 1. INTRODUCTION Swarms provide complex behaviors out of simple agents following simple

  20. Human-Computer Interaction in the School of Computer Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    The School of Computer Science (SCS) faculty who are interested in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) present their position on what role HCI can play...in Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science . The authors present a short description of the need for HCI research and recommend a task/human...organizations at CMU. The authors recommend that the Computer Science Department form a new area in HCI. Research around the periphery of the task

  1. Peptide-protein interactions within human hair keratins.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Célia F; Matamá, Teresa; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2017-03-15

    We selected 1235 decapeptides from human hair proteins encoded by human genes of keratins and keratin associated proteins. The peptides were linked to glass arrays and screened for their affinity towards a solution of human hair extracted keratin fraction. Based on the physicochemical properties of the peptides, ten variables were studied: content of different types of amino acid side chains (cysteine, hydrophobic, polar, basic, acidic, aromatic rings, amide, alcohol side chains), isoelectric point, and net charge. We found differences statistically significant on the binding affinity of peptides based on their content of cysteine, hydrophobic and polar amino acids, mainly containing alcohols. These results point to the formation of hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds between small peptides and human hair keratins as the main driving forces for the interaction of possible cosmetic peptides, namely designed to strength human hair. As so, our results enlighten the nature of the interaction of keratin based materials with human hair, which are claimed to enhance hair fiber strength, and enable a more directed and sustained hair care peptide design.

  2. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    PubMed

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  3. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture

    PubMed Central

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Eichler, Evan E.

    2009-01-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, ‘anthropogeny’ (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any ‘genes versus environment’ dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture — perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity. PMID:18802414

  4. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    sciences of linear programming, engineering , and parsing have relegated the soft sciences into the background. I have seen this in software... engineering , where the hard functional requirements push the soft nonfunctional requirements into the background. Our terminology, functional versus...human-computer interaction (HCI), it must harden. Their vision is for psychology to provide engineering style theory that influences the design of

  5. Human Resources Skills: Learning through an Interactive Multimedia Business Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Johanna; Drummond, Damon

    2000-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the design and development of an interactive multimedia simulation package for management education called Business Simulation which combines the concepts of case study methods with business simulation games. It is designed to provide students with skills-based training in human resources management, particularly…

  6. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Robert D.; Martin, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection. PMID:27746585

  7. Quantifying Engagement: Measuring Player Involvement in Human-Avatar Interactions.

    PubMed

    Norris, Anne E; Weger, Harry; Bullinger, Cory; Bowers, Alyssa

    2014-05-01

    This research investigated the merits of using an established system for rating behavioral cues of involvement in human dyadic interactions (i.e., face-to-face conversation) to measure involvement in human-avatar interactions. Gameplay audio-video and self-report data from a Feasibility Trial and Free Choice study of an effective peer resistance skill building simulation game (DRAMA-RAMA™) were used to evaluate reliability and validity of the rating system when applied to human-avatar interactions. The Free Choice study used a revised game prototype that was altered to be more engaging. Both studies involved girls enrolled in a public middle school in Central Florida that served a predominately Hispanic (greater than 80%), low-income student population. Audio-video data were coded by two raters, trained in the rating system. Self-report data were generated using measures of perceived realism, predictability and flow administered immediately after game play. Hypotheses for reliability and validity were supported: Reliability values mirrored those found in the human dyadic interaction literature. Validity was supported by factor analysis, significantly higher levels of involvement in Free Choice as compared to Feasibility Trial players, and correlations between involvement dimension sub scores and self-report measures. Results have implications for the science of both skill-training intervention research and game design.

  8. Quantifying Engagement: Measuring Player Involvement in Human-Avatar Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Weger, Harry; Bullinger, Cory; Bowers, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the merits of using an established system for rating behavioral cues of involvement in human dyadic interactions (i.e., face-to-face conversation) to measure involvement in human-avatar interactions. Gameplay audio-video and self-report data from a Feasibility Trial and Free Choice study of an effective peer resistance skill building simulation game (DRAMA-RAMA™) were used to evaluate reliability and validity of the rating system when applied to human-avatar interactions. The Free Choice study used a revised game prototype that was altered to be more engaging. Both studies involved girls enrolled in a public middle school in Central Florida that served a predominately Hispanic (greater than 80%), low-income student population. Audio-video data were coded by two raters, trained in the rating system. Self-report data were generated using measures of perceived realism, predictability and flow administered immediately after game play. Hypotheses for reliability and validity were supported: Reliability values mirrored those found in the human dyadic interaction literature. Validity was supported by factor analysis, significantly higher levels of involvement in Free Choice as compared to Feasibility Trial players, and correlations between involvement dimension sub scores and self-report measures. Results have implications for the science of both skill-training intervention research and game design. PMID:24748718

  9. Interactions between parasites and microbial communities in the human gut

    PubMed Central

    Berrilli, Federica; Di Cave, David; Cavallero, Serena; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The interactions between intestinal microbiota, immune system, and pathogens describe the human gut as a complex ecosystem, where all components play a relevant role in modulating each other and in the maintenance of homeostasis. The balance among the gut microbiota and the human body appear to be crucial for health maintenance. Intestinal parasites, both protozoans and helminths, interact with the microbial community modifying the balance between host and commensal microbiota. On the other hand, gut microbiota represents a relevant factor that may strongly interfere with the pathophysiology of the infections. In addition to the function that gut commensal microbiota may have in the processes that determine the survival and the outcome of many parasitic infections, including the production of nutritive macromolecules, also probiotics can play an important role in reducing the pathogenicity of many parasites. On these bases, there is a growing interest in explaining the rationale on the possible interactions between the microbiota, immune response, inflammatory processes, and intestinal parasites. PMID:23162802

  10. Adapting GOMS to Model Human-Robot Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, Jill; Scholtz, Jean; Kieras, David

    2007-03-09

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) has been maturing in tandem with robots’ commercial success. In the last few years HRI researchers have been adopting—and sometimes adapting—human-computer interaction (HCI) evaluation techniques to assess the efficiency and intuitiveness of HRI designs. For example, Adams (2005) used Goal Directed Task Analysis to determine the interaction needs of officers from the Nashville Metro Police Bomb Squad. Scholtz et al. (2004) used Endsley’s (1988) Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique to determine robotic vehicle supervisors’ awareness of when vehicles were in trouble and thus required closer monitoring or intervention. Yanco and Drury (2004) employed usability testing to determine (among other things) how well a search-andrescue interface supported use by first responders. One set of HCI tools that has so far seen little exploration in the HRI domain, however, is the class of modeling and evaluation techniques known as formal methods.

  11. A Framework for Modeling Human-Machine Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafto, Michael G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Modern automated flight-control systems employ a variety of different behaviors, or modes, for managing the flight. While developments in cockpit automation have resulted in workload reduction and economical advantages, they have also given rise to an ill-defined class of human-machine problems, sometimes referred to as 'automation surprises'. Our interest in applying formal methods for describing human-computer interaction stems from our ongoing research on cockpit automation. In this area of aeronautical human factors, there is much concern about how flight crews interact with automated flight-control systems, so that the likelihood of making errors, in particular mode-errors, is minimized and the consequences of such errors are contained. The goal of the ongoing research on formal methods in this context is: (1) to develop a framework for describing human interaction with control systems; (2) to formally categorize such automation surprises; and (3) to develop tests for identification of these categories early in the specification phase of a new human-machine system.

  12. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    PubMed

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations.

  13. Perceiving emotions in human-human and human-animal interactions: Hemodynamic prefrontal activity (fNIRS) and empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Balconi, Michela

    2015-09-25

    In the last years social neuroscience research attempted to identify the neural networks underlying the human ability to perceive others' emotions, a core process in establishing meaningful social bonds. A large amount of papers arose and identified common and specific empathy-based networks with respect to stimulus type and task. Despite the great majority of studies focused on human-human contexts, we do not establish relations with only other humans, but also with non-human animals. The aim of the present work was to explore the brain mechanisms involved in empathic concern for people who interacts with both peers and other species. Participants have been assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while viewing pictures depicting humans interacting with both other men and women (human-human condition: HH), or with dogs and cats (human-animal: HA). Results showed that aggressive HH interactions elicited greater prefrontal activity (PFC) than HA ones while, when considering HA interactions, friendly ones were related to higher cortical activity. Finally, oxy (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) increasing related to the processing of aggressive interactions positively correlated with different empathic measures, within more specific brain regions. Results were elucidated with respect to available evidence on emotion perception, empathic neural mechanisms and their functional meaning for human-animal contexts.

  14. Molecular interactions of graphene oxide with human blood plasma proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenry, Affa Affb Affc; Loh, Kian Ping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between graphene oxide (GO) and human blood plasma proteins. To gain an insight into the bio-physico-chemical activity of GO in biological and biomedical applications, we performed a series of biophysical assays to quantify the molecular interactions between GO with different lateral size distributions and the three essential human blood plasma proteins. We elucidate the various aspects of the GO-protein interactions, particularly, the adsorption, binding kinetics and equilibrium, and conformational stability, through determination of quantitative parameters, such as GO-protein association constants, binding cooperativity, and the binding-driven protein structural changes. We demonstrate that the molecular interactions between GO and plasma proteins are significantly dependent on the lateral size distribution and mean lateral sizes of the GO nanosheets and their subtle variations may markedly influence the GO-protein interactions. Consequently, we propose the existence of size-dependent molecular interactions between GO nanosheets and plasma proteins, and importantly, the presence of specific critical mean lateral sizes of GO nanosheets in achieving very high association and fluorescence quenching efficiency of the plasma proteins. We anticipate that this work will provide a basis for the design of graphene-based and other related nanomaterials for a plethora of biological and biomedical applications.

  15. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd. Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (kq) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  16. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  17. Computational Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions of Human Tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Su-Fang; Oh, Sangho; Si, Yue-Xiu; Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Han, Hong-Yan; Lee, Jinhyuk; Qian, Guo-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The various studies on tyrosinase have recently gained the attention of researchers due to their potential application values and the biological functions. In this study, we predicted the 3D structure of human tyrosinase and simulated the protein-protein interactions between tyrosinase and three binding partners, four and half LIM domains 2 (FHL2), cytochrome b-245 alpha polypeptide (CYBA), and RNA-binding motif protein 9 (RBM9). Our interaction simulations showed significant binding energy scores of −595.3 kcal/mol for FHL2, −859.1 kcal/mol for CYBA, and −821.3 kcal/mol for RBM9. We also investigated the residues of each protein facing toward the predicted site of interaction with tyrosinase. Our computational predictions will be useful for elucidating the protein-protein interactions of tyrosinase and studying its binding mechanisms. PMID:22577521

  18. The Interaction Between Human Papillomaviruses and the Stromal Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Woodby, B; Scott, M; Bodily, J

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small, double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in stratified squamous epithelia and cause a variety of malignancies. Current efforts in HPV biology are focused on understanding the virus-host interactions that enable HPV to persist for years or decades in the tissue. The importance of interactions between tumor cells and the stromal microenvironment has become increasingly apparent in recent years, but how stromal interactions impact the normal, benign life cycle of HPVs, or progression of lesions to cancer is less understood. Furthermore, how productively replicating HPV impacts cells in the stromal environment is also unclear. Here we bring together some of the relevant literature on keratinocyte-stromal interactions and their impacts on HPV biology, focusing on stromal fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. We discuss how HPV oncogenes in infected cells manipulate other cells in their environment, and, conversely, how neighboring cells may impact the efficiency or course of HPV infection.

  19. Weak interactive forces govern the interaction between a non-ionic surfactant with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Narayani; Mondal, Ramakanta; Deshmukh, Arundhati; Dutta, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2015-08-01

    The effect of the non-ionic surfactant Tween 40 (TW40) on Human Serum Albumin (HSA) has been studied by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) methods. Our steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic results reveal the perturbation of the native protein conformation upon interaction with TW40. The interaction of TW40 with HSA does not occur in a sequential manner unlike another anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Our major conclusion is that the HSA-TW40 interaction is mainly driven by weak forces like van der Waal/hydrogen bonding interactions. This is also generalized from the results of interaction of HSA with another non-ionic surfactant TW80.

  20. Space station crew safety: Human factors interaction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this space station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  1. The epigenetic lorax: gene–environment interactions in human health

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Keith E; Sapienza, Carmen; Engel, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an explosion of information on genetic factors underlying common human diseases and disorders. This ‘human genomics’ information revolution has occurred as a backdrop to a rapid increase in the rates of many human disorders and diseases. For example, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have increased at rates that cannot be due to changes in the genetic structure of the population, and are difficult to ascribe to changes in diagnostic criteria or ascertainment. A likely cause of the increased incidence of these disorders is increased exposure to environmental factors that modify gene function. Many environmental factors that have epidemiological association with common human disorders are likely to exert their effects through epigenetic alterations. This general mechanism of gene–environment interaction poses special challenges for individuals, educators, scientists and public policy makers in defining, monitoring and mitigating exposures. PMID:22920179

  2. Meaningful interactions can enhance visual discrimination of human agents.

    PubMed

    Neri, Peter; Luu, Jennifer Y; Levi, Dennis M

    2006-09-01

    The ability to interpret and predict other people's actions is highly evolved in humans and is believed to play a central role in their cognitive behavior. However, there is no direct evidence that this ability confers a tangible benefit to sensory processing. Our quantitative behavioral experiments show that visual discrimination of a human agent is influenced by the presence of a second agent. This effect depended on whether the two agents interacted (by fighting or dancing) in a meaningful synchronized fashion that allowed the actions of one agent to serve as predictors for the expected actions of the other agent, even though synchronization was irrelevant to the visual discrimination task. Our results demonstrate that action understanding has a pervasive impact on the human ability to extract visual information from the actions of other humans, providing quantitative evidence of its significance for sensory performance.

  3. Interaction of mycotoxin zearalenone with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Gerner, Zsófia; Lemli, Beáta

    2017-03-27

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium species. Fungal contamination of cereals and plants can result in the formation of ZEN, leading to its presence in different foods, animal feeds, and drinks. Because ZEN is an endocrine disruptor, it causes reproductive disorders in farm animals and hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. Despite toxicokinetic properties of ZEN were studied in more species, we have no information regarding the interaction of ZEN with serum albumin. Since albumin commonly plays an important role in the toxicokinetics of different toxins, interaction of ZEN with albumin has of high biological importance. Therefore the interaction of ZEN with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using spectroscopic methods, ultrafiltration, and molecular modeling studies. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies demonstrate that ZEN forms complex with HSA. Binding constant (K) of ZEN-HSA complex was quantified with fluorescence quenching technique. The determined binding constant (logK=5.1) reflects the strong interaction of ZEN with albumin suggesting the potential biological importance of ZEN-HSA complex formation. Based on the results of the investigations with site markers as well as docking studies, ZEN occupies a non-conventional binding site on HSA. Considering the above listed observations, we should keep in mind this interaction if we would like to precisely understand the toxicokinetic behavior of ZEN.

  4. TP53 mutations, expression and interaction networks in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaosheng; Sun, Qingrong

    2017-01-01

    Although the associations of p53 dysfunction, p53 interaction networks and oncogenesis have been widely explored, a systematic analysis of TP53 mutations and its related interaction networks in various types of human cancers is lacking. Our study explored the associations of TP53 mutations, gene expression, clinical outcomes, and TP53 interaction networks across 33 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We show that TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in a number of cancers, and its mutations appear to be early events in cancer initiation. We identified genes potentially repressed by p53, and genes whose expression correlates significantly with TP53 expression. These gene products may be especially important nodes in p53 interaction networks in human cancers. This study shows that while TP53-truncating mutations often result in decreased TP53 expression, other non-truncating TP53 mutations result in increased TP53 expression in some cancers. Survival analyses in a number of cancers show that patients with TP53 mutations are more likely to have worse prognoses than TP53-wildtype patients, and that elevated TP53 expression often leads to poor clinical outcomes. We identified a set of candidate synthetic lethal (SL) genes for TP53, and validated some of these SL interactions using data from the Cancer Cell Line Project. These predicted SL genes are promising candidates for experimental validation and the development of personalized therapeutics for patients with TP53-mutated cancers. PMID:27880943

  5. TP53 mutations, expression and interaction networks in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosheng; Sun, Qingrong

    2017-01-03

    Although the associations of p53 dysfunction, p53 interaction networks and oncogenesis have been widely explored, a systematic analysis of TP53 mutations and its related interaction networks in various types of human cancers is lacking. Our study explored the associations of TP53 mutations, gene expression, clinical outcomes, and TP53 interaction networks across 33 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We show that TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in a number of cancers, and its mutations appear to be early events in cancer initiation. We identified genes potentially repressed by p53, and genes whose expression correlates significantly with TP53 expression. These gene products may be especially important nodes in p53 interaction networks in human cancers. This study shows that while TP53-truncating mutations often result in decreased TP53 expression, other non-truncating TP53 mutations result in increased TP53 expression in some cancers. Survival analyses in a number of cancers show that patients with TP53 mutations are more likely to have worse prognoses than TP53-wildtype patients, and that elevated TP53 expression often leads to poor clinical outcomes. We identified a set of candidate synthetic lethal (SL) genes for TP53, and validated some of these SL interactions using data from the Cancer Cell Line Project. These predicted SL genes are promising candidates for experimental validation and the development of personalized therapeutics for patients with TP53-mutated cancers.

  6. Athletic equipment microbiota are shaped by interactions with human skin

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Mariah; Gibbons, Sean M.; Lax, Simon; ...

    2015-06-19

    Background: Americans spend the vast majority of their lives in built environments. Even traditionally outdoor pursuits, such as exercising, are often now performed indoors. Bacteria that colonize these indoor ecosystems are primarily derived from the human microbiome. The modes of human interaction with indoor surfaces and the physical conditions associated with each surface type determine the steady-state ecology of the microbial community. Results: Bacterial assemblages associated with different surfaces in three athletic facilities, including floors, mats, benches, free weights, and elliptical handles, were sampled every other hour (8 am to 6 pm) for 2 days. Surface and equipment type hadmore » a stronger influence on bacterial community composition than the facility in which they were housed. Surfaces that were primarily in contact with human skin exhibited highly dynamic bacterial community composition and non-random co-occurrence patterns, suggesting that different host microbiomes—shaped by selective forces—were being deposited on these surfaces through time. Bacterial assemblages found on the floors and mats changed less over time, and species co-occurrence patterns appeared random, suggesting more neutral community assembly. Conclusions: These longitudinal patterns highlight the dramatic turnover of microbial communities on surfaces in regular contact with human skin. By uncovering these longitudinal patterns, this study promotes a better understanding of microbe-human interactions within the built environment.« less

  7. Athletic equipment microbiota are shaped by interactions with human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Mariah; Gibbons, Sean M.; Lax, Simon; Eshoo-Anton, Tifani W.; Owens, Sarah M.; Kennedy, Suzanne; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad T.

    2015-06-19

    Background: Americans spend the vast majority of their lives in built environments. Even traditionally outdoor pursuits, such as exercising, are often now performed indoors. Bacteria that colonize these indoor ecosystems are primarily derived from the human microbiome. The modes of human interaction with indoor surfaces and the physical conditions associated with each surface type determine the steady-state ecology of the microbial community. Results: Bacterial assemblages associated with different surfaces in three athletic facilities, including floors, mats, benches, free weights, and elliptical handles, were sampled every other hour (8 am to 6 pm) for 2 days. Surface and equipment type had a stronger influence on bacterial community composition than the facility in which they were housed. Surfaces that were primarily in contact with human skin exhibited highly dynamic bacterial community composition and non-random co-occurrence patterns, suggesting that different host microbiomes—shaped by selective forces—were being deposited on these surfaces through time. Bacterial assemblages found on the floors and mats changed less over time, and species co-occurrence patterns appeared random, suggesting more neutral community assembly. Conclusions: These longitudinal patterns highlight the dramatic turnover of microbial communities on surfaces in regular contact with human skin. By uncovering these longitudinal patterns, this study promotes a better understanding of microbe-human interactions within the built environment.

  8. Kinematic design to improve ergonomics in human machine interaction.

    PubMed

    Schiele, André; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2006-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel kinematic design paradigm for ergonomic human machine interaction. Goals for optimal design are formulated generically and applied to the mechanical design of an upper-arm exoskeleton. A nine degree-of-freedom (DOF) model of the human arm kinematics is presented and used to develop, test, and optimize the kinematic structure of an human arm interfacing exoskeleton. The resulting device can interact with an unprecedented portion of the natural limb workspace, including motions in the shoulder-girdle, shoulder, elbow, and the wrist. The exoskeleton does not require alignment to the human joint axes, yet is able to actuate each DOF of our redundant limb unambiguously and without reaching into singularities. The device is comfortable to wear and does not create residual forces if misalignments exist. Implemented in a rehabilitation robot, the design features of the exoskeleton could enable longer lasting training sessions, training of fully natural tasks such as activities of daily living and shorter dress-on and dress-off times. Results from inter-subject experiments with a prototype are presented, that verify usability over the entire workspace of the human arm, including shoulder and shoulder girdle.

  9. Visual exploration and analysis of human-robot interaction rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming

  10. Ultrastructural interaction between spermatozoon and human oviductal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Pilar; Salgado, Ana María; Cortés, Manuel E

    2012-04-01

    The oviduct is an important organ for successful mammalian reproduction. In this work, human oviducts were inseminated and their explants analyzed using scanning electron microscopy in order to study, at a finer ultrastructual level, the interaction between spermatozoon and oviduct in vitro. Results show unequivocally a spermatozoon tightly attached through the acrosomal region of its head to several cilia of the human tubal epithelial cells. This finding proves that spermatozoa do indeed adhere to the endosalpinx, a fact of utmost relevance for the physiology of the reproductive process, since it supports the idea of a spermatozoa reservoir being formed in the oviduct, which is also briefly discussed.

  11. Emotional contagion and proto-organizing in human interaction dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hazy, James K.; Boyatzis, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper combines the complexity notions of phase transitions and tipping points with recent advances in cognitive neuroscience to propose a general theory of human proto-organizing. It takes as a premise that a necessary prerequisite for organizing, or “proto-organizing,” occurs through emotional contagion in subpopulations of human interaction dynamics in complex ecosystems. Emotional contagion is posited to engender emotional understanding and identification with others, a social process that acts as a mechanism that enables (or precludes) cooperative responses to opportunities and risks. Propositions are offered and further research is suggested. PMID:26124736

  12. Kernel Method Based Human Model for Enhancing Interactive Evolutionary Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiangfu; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A fitness landscape presents the relationship between individual and its reproductive success in evolutionary computation (EC). However, discrete and approximate landscape in an original search space may not support enough and accurate information for EC search, especially in interactive EC (IEC). The fitness landscape of human subjective evaluation in IEC is very difficult and impossible to model, even with a hypothesis of what its definition might be. In this paper, we propose a method to establish a human model in projected high dimensional search space by kernel classification for enhancing IEC search. Because bivalent logic is a simplest perceptual paradigm, the human model is established by considering this paradigm principle. In feature space, we design a linear classifier as a human model to obtain user preference knowledge, which cannot be supported linearly in original discrete search space. The human model is established by this method for predicting potential perceptual knowledge of human. With the human model, we design an evolution control method to enhance IEC search. From experimental evaluation results with a pseudo-IEC user, our proposed model and method can enhance IEC search significantly. PMID:25879050

  13. Kernel method based human model for enhancing interactive evolutionary optimization.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yan; Zhao, Qiangfu; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A fitness landscape presents the relationship between individual and its reproductive success in evolutionary computation (EC). However, discrete and approximate landscape in an original search space may not support enough and accurate information for EC search, especially in interactive EC (IEC). The fitness landscape of human subjective evaluation in IEC is very difficult and impossible to model, even with a hypothesis of what its definition might be. In this paper, we propose a method to establish a human model in projected high dimensional search space by kernel classification for enhancing IEC search. Because bivalent logic is a simplest perceptual paradigm, the human model is established by considering this paradigm principle. In feature space, we design a linear classifier as a human model to obtain user preference knowledge, which cannot be supported linearly in original discrete search space. The human model is established by this method for predicting potential perceptual knowledge of human. With the human model, we design an evolution control method to enhance IEC search. From experimental evaluation results with a pseudo-IEC user, our proposed model and method can enhance IEC search significantly.

  14. Exploring host–microbiota interactions in animal models and humans

    PubMed Central

    Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Howitt, Michael R.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2013-01-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host–microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host–microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies. PMID:23592793

  15. Interaction of p53 with the human Rad51 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Buchhop, S; Gibson, M K; Wang, X W; Wagner, P; Stürzbecher, H W; Harris, C C

    1997-01-01

    p53 is thought to function in the maintenance of genomic stability by modulating transcription and interacting with cellular proteins to influence the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis. p53 mutations occur in >50% of human cancers, and cells which lack wild type p53 accumulate karyotypic abnormalities such as amplifications, deletions, inversions and translocations. We propose that p53 hinders these promiscuous recombinational events by interacting with cellular recombination and repair machinery. We recently reported that p53 can directly bind in vivo to human Rad51 (hRad51) protein and in vitro to its bacterial homologue RecA. We used GST-fusion and his-tagged protein systems to further investigate the physical interaction between p53 and hRad51, homologue of the yeast Rad51 protein that is involved in recombination and DNA double strand repair. The hRad51 binds to wild-type p53 and to a lesser extent, point mutants 135Y, 249S and 273H. This binding is not mediated by a DNA or RNA intermediate. Mapping studies using a panel of p53 deletion mutants indicate that hRad51 could bind to two regions of p53; one between amino acids 94 and 160 and a second between 264 and 315. Addition of anti-p53 antibody PAb421 (epitope 372-381 amino acids) inhibited the interaction with hRad51. In contrast, p53 interacts with the region between aa 125 and 220 of hRad51, which is highly conserved among Rad51 related proteins from bacteria to human. In Escherichia coli ecA protein, this region is required for homo-oligomerization, suggesting that p53 might disrupt the interaction between RecA and Rad51 subunits, thus inhibiting biochemical functions of Rad51 like proteins. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that p53 interaction with hRAD51 may influence DNA recombination and repair and that additional modifications of p53 by mutation and protein binding may affect this interaction. PMID:9380510

  16. Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2005-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

  17. Excimer laser interaction with dentin of the human tooth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Gilliam, Ruth L.; Baker, George R.

    1989-01-01

    The use an excimer laser produced many unusual conical structures within the dentin of the inner part of the human tooth. By varying the frequency of the laser one can disperse the energy and cause more bleeding in laser surgery, but not destroy the cells associated with the incision. Therefore, the healing process will virtually be without scarring. Whereas, using the infrared laser the blood loss would be less, but the healing process would tend to be longer because cells are being destroyed due to the cauterization effect of the laser. The question is, are these structures produced as an interaction with the laser or are they an intrinsic part of the structure. The effects of the laser interaction upon dentin was studied, and in using electron microscopy the interaction of the excimer laser upon the tooth dentin and other various biological tissue is more clearly understood.

  18. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  19. Reduced-order models for vertical human-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter

    2016-09-01

    For slender and lightweight structures, the vibration serviceability under crowd- induced loading is often critical in design. Currently, designers rely on equivalent load models, upscaled from single-person force measurements. Furthermore, it is important to consider the mechanical interaction with the human body as this can significantly reduce the structural response. To account for these interaction effects, the contact force between the pedestrian and the structure can be modelled as the superposition of the force induced by the pedestrian on a rigid floor and the force resulting from the mechanical interaction between the structure and the human body. For the case of large crowds, however, this approach leads to models with a very high system order. In the present contribution, two equivalent reduced-order models are proposed to approximate the dynamic behaviour of the full-order coupled crowd-structure system. A numerical study is performed to evaluate the impact of the modelling assumptions on the structural response to pedestrian excitation. The results show that the full-order moving crowd model can be well approximated by a reduced-order model whereby the interaction with the pedestrians in the crowd is modelled using a single (equivalent) SDOF system.

  20. Fibre-matrix interaction in the human annulus fibrosus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zaoyang; Shi, Xiaohao; Peng, Xiongqi; Caner, Ferhun

    2012-01-01

    Although the mechanical behaviour of the human annulus fibrosus has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models. The objective of this study is to identify the significance of the fibre-matrix interaction in the human annulus fibrosus by careful investigation of the experimental data, the theoretical constitutive models, and the numerical simulation results in the literature. Based on the experimental results from biaxial and uniaxial tests, it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the matrix can be well simulated by an incompressible neo-Hookean type model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on fibre stretch ratio, which can only be explained by fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that this interaction takes place anisotropically between the matrix and the fibres distributed in different proportions in different directions. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by this fibre orientation dispersion.

  1. Global Mapping of Human RNA-RNA Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Eesha; Sterne-Weiler, Tim; O'Hanlon, Dave; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2016-05-19

    The majority of the human genome is transcribed into non-coding (nc)RNAs that lack known biological functions or else are only partially characterized. Numerous characterized ncRNAs function via base pairing with target RNA sequences to direct their biological activities, which include critical roles in RNA processing, modification, turnover, and translation. To define roles for ncRNAs, we have developed a method enabling the global-scale mapping of RNA-RNA duplexes crosslinked in vivo, "LIGation of interacting RNA followed by high-throughput sequencing" (LIGR-seq). Applying this method in human cells reveals a remarkable landscape of RNA-RNA interactions involving all major classes of ncRNA and mRNA. LIGR-seq data reveal unexpected interactions between small nucleolar (sno)RNAs and mRNAs, including those involving the orphan C/D box snoRNA, SNORD83B, that control steady-state levels of its target mRNAs. LIGR-seq thus represents a powerful approach for illuminating the functions of the myriad of uncharacterized RNAs that act via base-pairing interactions.

  2. A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

  3. A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

  4. Norovirus-host interaction: multi-selections by human HBGAs

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or ligands of noroviruses (NoVs) raises a question about the potential role of host factors in the evolution and diversity of NoVs. Recent structural analysis of selected strains in the two major genogroups of human NoVs (GI and GII) demonstrated highly conserved HBGA binding interfaces within the two groups but not between them, indicating convergent evolution of GI and GII NoVs. GI and GII NoVs are likely introduced to humans from different non-human hosts with the HBGAs as a common niche. Each genogroup has further diverged into multiple sub-lineages (genotypes) through selections by the polymorphic HBGAs of the hosts. An elucidation of such pathogen-host interaction, including determination of the phenotypes of NoV-HBGAs interaction for each genotype, is important in understanding the epidemiology, classification and disease control and prevention of NoVs. A model of this multi-selection of NoVs by HBGAs is proposed. PMID:21705222

  5. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    PubMed

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  6. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  7. Interaction of Human Serum Albumin with Metal Protoporphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used in biotechnology, nanotechnology, and molecular biophysics, since it can provide information on a wide range of molecular processes, e.g. the interactions of solvent molecules with fluorophores, conformational changes, and binding interactions etc. In this study, we present the photophysical properties of the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with a series of metal compound of Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), including ZnPPIX, FePPIX, MgPPIX, MnPPIX and SnPPIX respectively, as well as the free base PPIX. Binding constants were retrieved independently using the Benesi-Hildebrand analysis of the porphyrin emission or absorption spectra and the fluorescence quenching (i.e. Stern-Volmer analysis) and reveal that the two methods yield a difference of approximately one order or magnitude between the two. Fluorescence lifetimes was used to probe whether binding of the porphyrin changes the conformation of the protein or if the interaction places the porphyrin at a location that can prompt resonance energy transfer with the lone Tryptophan residue. In recent years it has been discovered that HSA provides a specific binding site for metal-chelated protoporphyrins in subdomain IA. This has opened a novel field of study over the importance of this site for biomedical applications but it has also created the potential for a series of biotechnological applications of the HSA/protoporphyrin complexes. Our study provides a preliminary investigation of the interaction with metal-chelated protoporphyrins that had not been previously investigated.

  8. Optimized Assistive Human-Robot Interaction Using Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Modares, Hamidreza; Ranatunga, Isura; Lewis, Frank L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-03-01

    An intelligent human-robot interaction (HRI) system with adjustable robot behavior is presented. The proposed HRI system assists the human operator to perform a given task with minimum workload demands and optimizes the overall human-robot system performance. Motivated by human factor studies, the presented control structure consists of two control loops. First, a robot-specific neuro-adaptive controller is designed in the inner loop to make the unknown nonlinear robot behave like a prescribed robot impedance model as perceived by a human operator. In contrast to existing neural network and adaptive impedance-based control methods, no information of the task performance or the prescribed robot impedance model parameters is required in the inner loop. Then, a task-specific outer-loop controller is designed to find the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model to adjust the robot's dynamics to the operator skills and minimize the tracking error. The outer loop includes the human operator, the robot, and the task performance details. The problem of finding the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem which minimizes the human effort and optimizes the closed-loop behavior of the HRI system for a given task. To obviate the requirement of the knowledge of the human model, integral reinforcement learning is used to solve the given LQR problem. Simulation results on an x - y table and a robot arm, and experimental implementation results on a PR2 robot confirm the suitability of the proposed method.

  9. Our Professional Responsibilities Relative to Human-Animal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bustad, L. K.; Hines, L.

    1984-01-01

    An interesting area with great potential for benefiting and enriching the lives and conditions of people and animals is opening to us in research, service and teaching. By working with colleagues in other disciplines, we can develop new and creative ways to realize the great promise inherent in people-animal interactions properly studied and utilized. Veterinarians who understand that a strong human-companion animal bond can augment people's mental and physical states will help develop sound and effective companion animal programs for individuals who are lonely or handicapped and for persons in the school systems of the community, as well as its hospices, nursing and convalescent homes, prisons and other institutions. Children experiencing the deep satisfaction of interacting with animals while young will more likely become responsible pet owners and advocates as adults. The image of the profession is enhanced when children and adults see veterinarians as concerned teachers and compassionate health professionals. We as professionals will be required not only to update our knowledge and skills, but to acquire new knowledge in fields of animal and human behavior, psychology and sociology. We are needed on interdisciplinary research teams to study human-animal interactions. We will also be asked to commit time and personal energies in community programs, sometimes with no remuneration. But if skilled health professionals like veterinarians do not take the lead in establishing sound, long-term companion animal programs in their own communities, everyone will suffer including the animals. How we, as individual professionals, respond will be an important reflection of our compassion and our humanity. PMID:17422458

  10. Choice of Human-Computer Interaction Mode in Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hondori, Hossein Mousavi; Khademi, Maryam; Dodakian, Lucy; McKenzie, Alison; Lopes, Cristina V.; Cramer, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Advances in technology are providing new forms of human-computer interaction. The current study examined one form of human-computer interaction, augmented reality (AR), whereby subjects train in the real world workspace with virtual objects projected by the computer. Motor performances were compared with those obtained while subjects used a traditional human-computer interaction, i.e., a personal computer (PC) with a mouse. Methods Patients used goal-directed arm movements to play AR and PC versions of the Fruit Ninja video game. The two versions required the same arm movements to control the game but had different cognitive demands. With AR, the game was projected onto the desktop, where subjects viewed the game plus their arm movements simultaneously, in the same visual coordinate space. In the PC version, subjects used the same arm movements but viewed the game by looking up at a computer monitor. Results Among 18 patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke, the AR game was associated with 21% higher game scores (p=0.0001), 19% faster reaching times (p=0.0001), and 15% less movement variability (p=0.0068), as compared to the PC game. Correlations between game score and arm motor status were stronger with the AR version. Conclusions Motor performances during the AR game were superior to those during the PC game. This result is due in part to the greater cognitive demands imposed by the PC game, a feature problematic for some patients but preferred for others. Mode of human-computer interface influences rehabilitation therapy demands and can be individualized for patients. PMID:26138411

  11. [Study on the interaction of doxycycline with human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao-Ying; Chen, Lin; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the interaction of doxycycline (DC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by the inner filter effects, displacement experiments and molecular docking methods, based on classic multi-spectroscopy. With fluorescence quenching method at 298 and 310 K, the binding constants Ka, were determined to be 2. 73 X 10(5) and 0. 74X 10(5) L mol-1, respectively, and there was one binding site between DC and HSA, indicating that the binding of DC to HSA was strong, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy change, AH and enthropy change, delta S) were calculated to be -83. 55 kJ mol-1 and -176. 31 J mol-1 K-1 via the Vant' Hoff equation, which indicated that the interaction of DC with HSA was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Based on the Föster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the specific binding distance between Trp-214 (acceptor) and DC (donor) was 4. 98 nm, which was similar to the result confirmed by molecular docking. Through displacement experiments, sub-domain IIA of HSA was assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DC. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of DC to HSA induced the conformation change of HSA and increased the disclosure of some part of hydrophobic regions that had been buried before. The results of FTIR spectroscopy showed that DC bound to HSA led to the slight unfolding of the polypeptide chain of HSA. Furthermore, the binding details between DC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking methods, which revealed that DC was bound at sub-domain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and pi-pi interactions. The experimental results provide theoretical basis and reliable data for the study of the interaction between small drug molecule and human serum albumin

  12. Water use regimes: Characterizing direct human interaction with hydrologic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, P.K.; Vogel, R.M.; Steeves, P.A.; Zarriello, P.J.; DeSimone, L.A.; Ries, Kernell G.

    2007-01-01

    [1] The sustainability of human water use practices is a rapidly growing concern in the United States and around the world. To better characterize direct human interaction with hydrologic systems (stream basins and aquifers), we introduce the concept of the water use regime. Unlike scalar indicators of anthropogenic hydrologic stress in the literature, the water use regime is a two-dimensional, vector indicator that can be depicted on simple x-y plots of normalized human withdrawals (hout) versus normalized human return flows (hin). Four end-member regimes, natural-flow-dominated (undeveloped), human-flow-dominated (churned), withdrawal-dominated (depleted), and return-flow-dominated (surcharged), are defined in relation to limiting values of hout and hin. For illustration, the water use regimes of 19 diverse hydrologic systems are plotted and interpreted. Several of these systems, including the Yellow River Basin, China, and the California Central Valley Aquifer, are shown to approach particular end-member regimes. Spatial and temporal regime variations, both seasonal and long-term, are depicted. Practical issues of data availability and regime uncertainty are addressed in relation to the statistical properties of the ratio estimators hout and hin. The water use regime is shown to be a useful tool for comparative water resources assessment and for describing both historic and alternative future pathways of water resource development at a range of scales. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Program Predicts Time Courses of Human/Computer Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vera, Alonso; Howes, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    CPM X is a computer program that predicts sequences of, and amounts of time taken by, routine actions performed by a skilled person performing a task. Unlike programs that simulate the interaction of the person with the task environment, CPM X predicts the time course of events as consequences of encoded constraints on human behavior. The constraints determine which cognitive and environmental processes can occur simultaneously and which have sequential dependencies. The input to CPM X comprises (1) a description of a task and strategy in a hierarchical description language and (2) a description of architectural constraints in the form of rules governing interactions of fundamental cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. The output of CPM X is a Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) chart that presents a schedule of predicted cognitive, motor, and perceptual operators interacting with a task environment. The CPM X program allows direct, a priori prediction of skilled user performance on complex human-machine systems, providing a way to assess critical interfaces before they are deployed in mission contexts.

  14. In vivo analysis of human nucleoporin repeat domain interactions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Songli; Powers, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC), assembled from ∼30 proteins termed nucleoporins (Nups), mediates selective nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. A subset of nucleoporins bear a domain with multiple phenylalanine–glycine (FG) motifs. As binding sites for transport receptors, FG Nups are critical in translocation through the NPC. Certain FG Nups are believed to associate via low-affinity, cohesive interactions to form the permeability barrier of the pore, although the form and composition of this functional barrier are debated. We used green fluorescent protein–Nup98/HoxA9 constructs with various numbers of repeats and also substituted FG domains from other nucleoporins for the Nup98 domain to directly compare cohesive interactions in live cells by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We find that cohesion is a function of both number and type of FG repeats. Glycine–leucine–FG (GLFG) repeat domains are the most cohesive. FG domains from several human nucleoporins showed no interactions in this assay; however, Nup214, with numerous VFG motifs, displayed measurable cohesion by FRAP. The cohesive nature of a human nucleoporin did not necessarily correlate with that of its yeast orthologue. The Nup98 GLFG domain also functions in pore targeting through binding to Nup93, positioning the GLFG domain in the center of the NPC and supporting a role for this nucleoporin in the permeability barrier. PMID:23427268

  15. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human-Robot Interaction.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aĺvaro; Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez de Gorostiza; Salichs, Miguel Ángel

    2015-07-03

    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human-robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human-robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications.

  16. Head Motion Modeling for Human Behavior Analysis in Dyadic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Baucom, Brian; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computational study of head motion in human interaction, notably of its role in conveying interlocutors’ behavioral characteristics. Head motion is physically complex and carries rich information; current modeling approaches based on visual signals, however, are still limited in their ability to adequately capture these important properties. Guided by the methodology of kinesics, we propose a data driven approach to identify typical head motion patterns. The approach follows the steps of first segmenting motion events, then parametrically representing the motion by linear predictive features, and finally generalizing the motion types using Gaussian mixture models. The proposed approach is experimentally validated using video recordings of communication sessions from real couples involved in a couples therapy study. In particular we use the head motion model to classify binarized expert judgments of the interactants’ specific behavioral characteristics where entrainment in head motion is hypothesized to play a role: Acceptance, Blame, Positive, and Negative behavior. We achieve accuracies in the range of 60% to 70% for the various experimental settings and conditions. In addition, we describe a measure of motion similarity between the interaction partners based on the proposed model. We show that the relative change of head motion similarity during the interaction significantly correlates with the expert judgments of the interactants’ behavioral characteristics. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed head motion model, and underscore the promise of analyzing human behavioral characteristics through signal processing methods. PMID:26557047

  17. Protein Phosphatase 1α Interacting Proteins in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sara L.C.; Domingues, Sara C.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A.B.; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a major serine/threonine-phosphatase whose activity is dependent on its binding to regulatory subunits known as PP1 interacting proteins (PIPs), responsible for targeting PP1 to a specific cellular location, specifying its substrate or regulating its action. Today, more than 200 PIPs have been described involving PP1 in panoply of cellular mechanisms. Moreover, several PIPs have been identified that are tissue and event specific. In addition, the diversity of PP1/PIP complexes can further be achieved by the existence of several PP1 isoforms that can bind preferentially to a certain PIP. Thus, PP1/PIP complexes are highly specific for a particular function in the cell, and as such, they are excellent pharmacological targets. Hence, an in-depth survey was taken to identify specific PP1α PIPs in human brain by a high-throughput Yeast Two-Hybrid approach. Sixty-six proteins were recognized to bind PP1α, 39 being novel PIPs. A large protein interaction databases search was also performed to integrate with the results of the PP1α Human Brain Yeast Two-Hybrid and a total of 246 interactions were retrieved. PMID:22321011

  18. The vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans: neural interactions between cardiovascular reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    1. Over the past 5 years, there has been emerging evidence that the vestibular system regulates sympathetic nerve activity in humans. We have studied this issue in humans by using head-down rotation (HDR) in the prone position. 2. These studies have clearly demonstrated increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and calf vascular resistance during HDR. These responses are mediated by engagement of the otolith organs and not the semicircular canals. 3. However, differential activation of sympathetic nerve activity has been observed during HDR. Unlike MSNA, skin sympathetic nerve activity does not increase with HDR. 4. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes (i.e. barorereflexes and skeletal muscle reflexes) has shown an additive interaction for MSNA. 5. The additive interaction between the baroreflexes and vestibulosympathetic reflex suggests that the vestibular system may assist in defending against orthostatic challenges in humans by elevating MSNA beyond that of the baroreflexes. 6. In addition, the further increase in MSNA via otolith stimulation during isometric handgrip, when arterial pressure is elevated markedly, indicates that the vestibulosympathetic reflex is a powerful activator of MSNA and may contribute to blood pressure and flow regulation during dynamic exercise. 7. Future studies will help evaluate the importance of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in clinical conditions associated with orthostatic hypotension.

  19. Analyzing human-landscape interactions: tools that integrate.

    PubMed

    Zvoleff, Alex; An, Li

    2014-01-01

    Humans have transformed much of Earth's land surface, giving rise to loss of biodiversity, climate change, and a host of other environmental issues that are affecting human and biophysical systems in unexpected ways. To confront these problems, environmental managers must consider human and landscape systems in integrated ways. This means making use of data obtained from a broad range of methods (e.g., sensors, surveys), while taking into account new findings from the social and biophysical science literatures. New integrative methods (including data fusion, simulation modeling, and participatory approaches) have emerged in recent years to address these challenges, and to allow analysts to provide information that links qualitative and quantitative elements for policymakers. This paper brings attention to these emergent tools while providing an overview of the tools currently in use for analysis of human-landscape interactions. Analysts are now faced with a staggering array of approaches in the human-landscape literature--in an attempt to bring increased clarity to the field, we identify the relative strengths of each tool, and provide guidance to analysts on the areas to which each tool is best applied. We discuss four broad categories of tools: statistical methods (including survival analysis, multi-level modeling, and Bayesian approaches), GIS and spatial analysis methods, simulation approaches (including cellular automata, agent-based modeling, and participatory modeling), and mixed-method techniques (such as alternative futures modeling and integrated assessment). For each tool, we offer an example from the literature of its application in human-landscape research. Among these tools, participatory approaches are gaining prominence for analysts to make the broadest possible array of information available to researchers, environmental managers, and policymakers. Further development of new approaches of data fusion and integration across sites or disciplines pose

  20. Analyzing Human-Landscape Interactions: Tools That Integrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvoleff, Alex; An, Li

    2014-01-01

    Humans have transformed much of Earth's land surface, giving rise to loss of biodiversity, climate change, and a host of other environmental issues that are affecting human and biophysical systems in unexpected ways. To confront these problems, environmental managers must consider human and landscape systems in integrated ways. This means making use of data obtained from a broad range of methods (e.g., sensors, surveys), while taking into account new findings from the social and biophysical science literatures. New integrative methods (including data fusion, simulation modeling, and participatory approaches) have emerged in recent years to address these challenges, and to allow analysts to provide information that links qualitative and quantitative elements for policymakers. This paper brings attention to these emergent tools while providing an overview of the tools currently in use for analysis of human-landscape interactions. Analysts are now faced with a staggering array of approaches in the human-landscape literature—in an attempt to bring increased clarity to the field, we identify the relative strengths of each tool, and provide guidance to analysts on the areas to which each tool is best applied. We discuss four broad categories of tools: statistical methods (including survival analysis, multi-level modeling, and Bayesian approaches), GIS and spatial analysis methods, simulation approaches (including cellular automata, agent-based modeling, and participatory modeling), and mixed-method techniques (such as alternative futures modeling and integrated assessment). For each tool, we offer an example from the literature of its application in human-landscape research. Among these tools, participatory approaches are gaining prominence for analysts to make the broadest possible array of information available to researchers, environmental managers, and policymakers. Further development of new approaches of data fusion and integration across sites or disciplines

  1. Zipper-interacting protein kinase interacts with human cell division cycle 14A phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Haiying; Ye, Zi; Leong, Mancheong; He, Min; Li, Qin; Hu, Renming; Zhang, Shuo

    2015-04-01

    Zipper‑interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) is a novel serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of a large family of protein kinases, known as the death‑associated protein kinases. However, the function of ZIPK has yet to be fully elucidated, as few physiological substrates have currently been identified. In the present study, a yeast two‑hybrid screen was used and the human cell division cycle 14A (HsCdc14A) phosphatase was identified as a novel ZIPK binding protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the interaction between these proteins. The interaction between ZIPK and HsCdc14A was confirmed by in vitro experiments. In addition, ZIPK‑mediated phosphorylation was shown to activate the phosphatase activity of HsCdc14A. These findings indicated that ZIPK may also be involved in the regulation of the cell cycle in human cells, by interacting with HsCdc14A.

  2. Generating Phenotypical Erroneous Human Behavior to Evaluate Human-automation Interaction Using Model Checking

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Matthew L.; Bass, Ellen J.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2012-01-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in unanticipated ways. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. Model-driven design and analysis techniques provide engineers with formal methods tools and techniques capable of evaluating how human behavior can contribute to system failures. This paper presents a novel method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both normative and erroneous human behavior from normative task models. The generated erroneous behavior is capable of replicating Hollnagel’s zero-order phenotypes of erroneous action for omissions, jumps, repetitions, and intrusions. Multiple phenotypical acts can occur in sequence, thus allowing for the generation of higher order phenotypes. The task behavior model pattern capable of generating erroneous behavior can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human-automation interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. We present benchmarks related to the size of the statespace and verification time of models to show how the erroneous human behavior generation process scales. We demonstrate the method with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. A potential problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. A design intervention is presented which prevents this problem from occurring. We discuss how our method could be used to evaluate larger applications and recommend future paths of development. PMID:23105914

  3. User stress detection in human-computer interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jing; Barreto, Armando B; Chin, Craig; Li, Chao

    2005-01-01

    The emerging research area of Affective Computing seeks to advance the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) by enabling computers to interact with users in ways appropriate to their affective states. Affect recognition, including the use of psychophysiologcal measures (e.g. heart rate), facial expressions, speech recognition etc. to derive an assessment of user affective state based on factors from the current task context, is an important foundation required for the development of Affective Computing. Our research focuses on the use of three physiological signals: Blood Volume Pulse (BVP), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Pupil Diameter (PD), to automatically monitor the level of stress in computer users. This paper reports on the hardware and software instrumentation development and signal processing approach used to detect the stress level of a subject interacting with a computer, within the framework of a specific experimental task, which is called the 'Stroop Test'. For this experiment, a computer game was implemented and adapted to make the subject experience the Stroop Effect, evoked by the mismatch between the font color and the meaning of a certain word (name of a color) displayed, while his/her BVP, GSR and PD signals were continuously recorded. Several data processing techniques were applied to extract effective attributes of the stress level of the subjects throughout the experiment. Current results indicate that there exists interesting similarity among changes in those three signals and the shift in the emotional states when stress stimuli are applied to the interaction environment.

  4. Interactions between the human RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed

    Acker, J; de Graaff, M; Cheynel, I; Khazak, V; Kedinger, C; Vigneron, M

    1997-07-04

    As an initial approach to characterizing the molecular structure of the human RNA polymerase II (hRPB), we systematically investigated the protein-protein contacts that the subunits of this enzyme may establish with each other. To this end, we applied a glutathione S-transferase-pulldown assay to extracts from Sf9 insect cells, which were coinfected with all possible combinations of recombinant baculoviruses expressing hRPB subunits, either as untagged polypeptides or as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. This is the first comprehensive study of interactions between eukaryotic RNA polymerase subunits; among the 116 combinations of hRPB subunits tested, 56 showed significant to strong interactions, whereas 60 were negative. Within the intricate network of interactions, subunits hRPB3 and hRPB5 play a central role in polymerase organization. These subunits, which are able to homodimerize and to interact, may constitute the nucleation center for polymerase assembly, by providing a large interface to most of the other subunits.

  5. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person’s interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks. PMID:25114228

  6. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-09

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks.

  7. Interaction of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields with humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1991-07-01

    At a macroscopic level, the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on humans are well understood based on fundamental physical principles, but far less is known about the nature of the interactions at a cellular or molecular level. Current evidence suggests the effects of ELF on cellular biochemistry are due to interactions with the cell membrane. Elucidation of the mechanism that underlies this transmembrane signaling is critical for a molecular-level understanding of ELF field effects. Further research is also required to clarify a possible link between ELF exposure and increased cancer risk, since estimated ELF exposure in occupational or residential settings is much lower that the levels used in laboratory studies. There is a clear need for additional epidemiological research in which qualitative dosimetry is used to characterize ELF exposure and careful attention is given to possible effects of confounding variables. 24 refs.

  8. Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2013-06-01

    Connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural and functional properties of social networks. However, the bursty activity of dyadic interactions may hinder the discrimination of inactive ties from large interevent times in active ones. We develop a principled method to detect tie de-activation and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset (~19 months, ~20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active in time. On average men display higher capacity than women, and this capacity decreases for both genders over their lifespan. Separating communication capacity from activity reveals a diverse range of tie activation strategies, from stable to exploratory. This allows us to draw novel relationships between individual strategies for human interaction and the evolution of social networks at global scale.

  9. Human-Interaction Challenges in UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous UAVs provide a platform for intelligent surveillance in application domains ranging from security and military operations to scientific information gathering and land management. Surveillance tasks are often long duration, requiring that any approach be adaptive to changes in the environment or user needs. We describe a decision- theoretic model of surveillance, appropriate for use on our autonomous helicopter, that provides a basis for optimizing the value of information returned by the UAV. From this approach arise a range of challenges in making this framework practical for use by human operators lacking specialized knowledge of autonomy and mathematics. This paper describes our platform and approach, then describes human-interaction challenges arising from this approach that we have identified and begun to address.

  10. Interactive association of drugs binding to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Zhang, Yao; Liang, Hong

    2014-02-27

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is an abundant plasma protein, which attracts great interest in the pharmaceutical industry since it can bind a remarkable variety of drugs impacting their delivery and efficacy and ultimately altering the drug's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Additionally, HSA is widely used in clinical settings as a drug delivery system due to its potential for improving targeting while decreasing the side effects of drugs. It is thus of great importance from the viewpoint of pharmaceutical sciences to clarify the structure, function, and properties of HSA-drug complexes. This review will succinctly outline the properties of binding site of drugs in IIA subdomain within the structure of HSA. We will also give an overview on the binding characterization of interactive association of drugs to human serum albumin that may potentially lead to significant clinical applications.

  11. Mixed-Initiative Human-Robot Interaction: Definition, Taxonomy, and Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-Initiative Human-Robot Interaction: Definition , Taxonomy, and Survey Shu Jiang and Ronald C. Arkin School of Interactive Computing Georgia...some definitions of mixed-initiative interaction (MII) from the perspective of human-computer interaction (HCI) to introduce the basic concepts of...MII. We then synthesize these definitions to the robotic context for mixed-initiative human- robot teams. A taxonomy for mixed-initiative in human

  12. Understanding human-landscape interactions in the "Anthropocene".

    PubMed

    Harden, Carol P; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A; Gerlak, Andrea K; McDowell, Patricia F; McNamara, Dylan E; Peterson, Jeffrey M; Poff, N LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A; Solecki, William D; Wohl, Ellen E

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)--"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"--suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified--thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops--serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science.

  13. Understanding Human-Landscape Interactions in the "Anthropocene"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, Carol P.; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R.; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; McDowell, Patricia F.; McNamara, Dylan E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A.; Solecki, William D.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)—"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"—suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified—thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops—serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science.

  14. Scaling identity connects human mobility and social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Deville, Pierre; Song, Chaoming; Eagle, Nathan; Blondel, Vincent D.; Barabási, Albert-László; Wang, Dashun

    2016-01-01

    Massive datasets that capture human movements and social interactions have catalyzed rapid advances in our quantitative understanding of human behavior during the past years. One important aspect affecting both areas is the critical role space plays. Indeed, growing evidence suggests both our movements and communication patterns are associated with spatial costs that follow reproducible scaling laws, each characterized by its specific critical exponents. Although human mobility and social networks develop concomitantly as two prolific yet largely separated fields, we lack any known relationships between the critical exponents explored by them, despite the fact that they often study the same datasets. Here, by exploiting three different mobile phone datasets that capture simultaneously these two aspects, we discovered a new scaling relationship, mediated by a universal flux distribution, which links the critical exponents characterizing the spatial dependencies in human mobility and social networks. Therefore, the widely studied scaling laws uncovered in these two areas are not independent but connected through a deeper underlying reality. PMID:27274050

  15. Spoken language interaction with model uncertainty: an adaptive human-robot interaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Finale; Roy, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Spoken language is one of the most intuitive forms of interaction between humans and agents. Unfortunately, agents that interact with people using natural language often experience communication errors and do not correctly understand the user's intentions. Recent systems have successfully used probabilistic models of speech, language and user behaviour to generate robust dialogue performance in the presence of noisy speech recognition and ambiguous language choices, but decisions made using these probabilistic models are still prone to errors owing to the complexity of acquiring and maintaining a complete model of human language and behaviour. In this paper, a decision-theoretic model for human-robot interaction using natural language is described. The algorithm is based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which allows agents to choose actions that are robust not only to uncertainty from noisy or ambiguous speech recognition but also unknown user models. Like most dialogue systems, a POMDP is defined by a large number of parameters that may be difficult to specify a priori from domain knowledge, and learning these parameters from the user may require an unacceptably long training period. An extension to the POMDP model is described that allows the agent to acquire a linguistic model of the user online, including new vocabulary and word choice preferences. The approach not only avoids a training period of constant questioning as the agent learns, but also allows the agent actively to query for additional information when its uncertainty suggests a high risk of mistakes. The approach is demonstrated both in simulation and on a natural language interaction system for a robotic wheelchair application.

  16. When Humanoid Robots Become Human-Like Interaction Partners: Corepresentation of Robotic Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenzel, Anna; Chinellato, Eris; Bou, Maria A. Tirado; del Pobil, Angel P.; Lappe, Markus; Liepelt, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In human-human interactions, corepresenting a partner's actions is crucial to successfully adjust and coordinate actions with others. Current research suggests that action corepresentation is restricted to interactions between human agents facilitating social interaction with conspecifics. In this study, we investigated whether action…

  17. A Challenge for Developers: Preserving the Interactivity of Human Relations in a Standalone Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, F. E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the efforts taken by the Cornell Interactive Theater Ensemble to provide interactive human relations training on date rape using live dramatizations, video with facilitated audience participation, and an electronic multimedia format with decision trees for interactive involvement. (EA)

  18. Thalamocortical interactions underlying visual fear conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Lithari, Chrysa; Moratti, Stephan; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    Despite a strong focus on the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, recent works point to a more distributed network supporting fear conditioning. We aimed to elucidate interactions between subcortical and cortical regions in fear conditioning in humans. To do this, we used two fearful faces as conditioned stimuli (CS) and an electrical stimulation at the left hand, paired with one of the CS, as unconditioned stimulus (US). The luminance of the CS was rhythmically modulated leading to "entrainment" of brain oscillations at a predefined modulation frequency. Steady-state responses (SSR) were recorded by MEG. In addition to occipital regions, spectral analysis of SSR revealed increased power during fear conditioning particularly for thalamus and cerebellum contralateral to the upcoming US. Using thalamus and amygdala as seed-regions, directed functional connectivity was calculated to capture the modulation of interactions that underlie fear conditioning. Importantly, this analysis showed that the thalamus drives the fusiform area during fear conditioning, while amygdala captures the more general effect of fearful faces perception. This study confirms ideas from the animal literature, and demonstrates for the first time the central role of the thalamus in fear conditioning in humans.

  19. Field Guide for Designing Human Interaction with Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Thronesbery, Carroll G.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of this Field Guide approach address the problems of designing innovative software to support user tasks. The requirements for novel software are difficult to specify a priori, because there is not sufficient understanding of how the users' tasks should be supported, and there are not obvious pre-existing design solutions. When the design team is in unfamiliar territory, care must be taken to avoid rushing into detailed design, requirements specification, or implementation of the wrong product. The challenge is to get the right design and requirements in an efficient, cost-effective manner. This document's purpose is to describe the methods we are using to design human interactions with intelligent systems which support Space Shuttle flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at NASA/Johnson Space Center. Although these software systems usually have some intelligent features, the design challenges arise primarily from the innovation needed in the software design. While these methods are tailored to our specific context, they should be extensible, and helpful to designers of human interaction with other types of automated systems. We review the unique features of this context so that you can determine how to apply these methods to your project Throughout this Field Guide, goals of the design methods are discussed. This should help designers understand how a specific method might need to be adapted to the project at hand.

  20. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  1. Flavonoid interactions with human transthyretin: combined structural and thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Trivella, Daniela B B; dos Reis, Caio V; Lima, Luís Maurício T R; Foguel, Débora; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-10-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a carrier protein involved in human amyloidosis. The development of small molecules that may act as TTR amyloid inhibitors is a promising strategy to treat these pathologies. Here we selected and characterized the interaction of flavonoids with the wild type and the V30M amyloidogenic mutant TTR. TTR acid aggregation was evaluated in vitro in the presence of the different flavonoids. The best TTR aggregation inhibitors were studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) in order to reveal their thermodynamic signature of binding to TTRwt. Crystal structures of TTRwt in complex with the top binders were also obtained, enabling us to in depth inspect TTR interactions with these flavonoids. The results indicate that changing the number and position of hydroxyl groups attached to the flavonoid core strongly influence flavonoid recognition by TTR, either by changing ligand affinity or its mechanism of interaction with the two sites of TTR. We also compared the results obtained for TTRwt with the V30M mutant structure in the apo form, allowing us to pinpoint structural features that may facilitate or hamper ligand binding to the V30M mutant. Our data show that the TTRwt binding site is labile and, in particular, the central region of the cavity is sensible for the small differences in the ligands tested and can be influenced by the Met30 amyloidogenic mutation, therefore playing important roles in flavonoid binding affinity, mechanism and mutant protein ligand binding specificities.

  2. Bayesian Safety Risk Modeling of Human-Flightdeck Automation Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Usage of automatic systems in airliners has increased fuel efficiency, added extra capabilities, enhanced safety and reliability, as well as provide improved passenger comfort since its introduction in the late 80's. However, original automation benefits, including reduced flight crew workload, human errors or training requirements, were not achieved as originally expected. Instead, automation introduced new failure modes, redistributed, and sometimes increased workload, brought in new cognitive and attention demands, and increased training requirements. Modern airliners have numerous flight modes, providing more flexibility (and inherently more complexity) to the flight crew. However, the price to pay for the increased flexibility is the need for increased mode awareness, as well as the need to supervise, understand, and predict automated system behavior. Also, over-reliance on automation is linked to manual flight skill degradation and complacency in commercial pilots. As a result, recent accidents involving human errors are often caused by the interactions between humans and the automated systems (e.g., the breakdown in man-machine coordination), deteriorated manual flying skills, and/or loss of situational awareness due to heavy dependence on automated systems. This paper describes the development of the increased complexity and reliance on automation baseline model, named FLAP for FLightdeck Automation Problems. The model development process starts with a comprehensive literature review followed by the construction of a framework comprised of high-level causal factors leading to an automation-related flight anomaly. The framework was then converted into a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) using the Hugin Software v7.8. The effects of automation on flight crew are incorporated into the model, including flight skill degradation, increased cognitive demand and training requirements along with their interactions. Besides flight crew deficiencies, automation system

  3. Lectinlike interactions of Fusobacterium nucleatum with human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, D F; Novak, M J; Vora, S A; Mourad, J; Kriger, P S

    1989-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum expresses lectinlike adherence factors which mediate binding to a variety of human tissue cells. Adherence is selectively inhibited by galactose, lactose, and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. In this study, adherence of F. nucleatum to human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was investigated. The results indicated that the fusobacteria adhered to live and metabolically inactivated or fixed PMNs. Adherence of F. nucleatum resulted in activation of PMNs as determined by PMN aggregation, membrane depolarization, increased intracellular free Ca2+, superoxide anion production, and lysozyme release. Transmission electron micrographs showed that F. nucleatum was phagocytized by the PMNs. Microbicidal assays indicated that greater than 98% of F. nucleatum organisms were killed by PMNs within 60 min. Adherence to and activation of PMNs by F. nucleatum were inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or lactose greater than galactose, whereas equal concentrations of glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, mannose, and fucose had little or no effect on F. nucleatum-PMN interactions. Pretreatment of the fusobacteria with heat (80 degrees C, 20 min) or proteases inhibited adherence to and activation of PMNs, but superoxide production was also stimulated by heated bacteria. The results indicate that interaction of F. nucleatum with PMNs is lectinlike and is probably mediated by fusobacterial proteins which bind to other human tissue cells. Adherence of F. nucleatum to PMNs in the absence of serum opsonins, such as antibodies and complement, may play an important role in PMN recognition and killing of F. nucleatum in the gingival sulcus and in the subsequent release of PMN factors associated with tissue destruction. Images PMID:2553609

  4. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans.

    PubMed

    Hovelsrud, Grete K; McKenna, Meghan; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing rapid social and environmental changes, and while the peoples of the north have a long history of adapting, the current changes in climate pose unprecedented challenges to the marine mammal-human interactions in the Arctic regions. Arctic marine mammals have been and remain an important resource for many of the indigenous and nonindigenous people of the north. Changes in climate are likely to bring about profound changes to the environment in which these animals live and subsequently to the hunting practices and livelihoods of the people who hunt them. Climate change will lead to reduction in the sea ice extent and thickness and will likely increase shipping through the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage and oil and gas activities in Arctic areas previously inaccessible. Such activities will lead to more frequent interactions between humans and marine mammals. These activities may also change the distribution of marine mammals, affecting the hunters. This paper has three parts. First, an overview of marine mammal harvesting activities in the different circumpolar regions provides a snapshot of current practices and conditions. Second, case studies of selected Arctic regions, indigenous groups, and species provide insight into the manner in which climate change is already impacting marine mammal harvesting activities in the Arctic. Third, we describe how climate change is likely to affect shipping and oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic and describe the possible implications of these changes for the marine mammal populations. We conclude that many of the consequences of climate change are likely to be negative for marine mammal hunters and for marine mammals. Lack of adequate baseline data, however, makes it difficult to identify specific causal mechanisms and thus to develop appropriate conservation measures. Nonetheless, the future of Arctic marine mammals and human uses of them depends on

  5. Humans in Biogeophysical Models: Colonial Period Human-Environment Interactions in the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolari, A.; Greco, F.; Green, M.; Lally, M.; Hermans, C.

    2008-12-01

    Earth system models increasingly require representation of human activities and the important role they play in the environment. At the most fundamental level, human decisions are driven by the need to acquire basic resources - nutrients, energy, water, and space - each derived from the biogeophysical setting. Modern theories in Ecological Economics place these basic resources at the base of a consumption hierarchy (from subsistence to luxury resources) on which societies and economies are built. Human decisions at all levels of this hierarchy are driven by dynamic environmental, social, and economic factors. Therefore, models merging socio-economic and biogeophysical dynamics are required to predict the evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle. To provide an example, our study focuses on changes to the hydrologic cycle during the United States colonial period (1600 to 1800). Both direct, intentional, human water use (e.g. water supply, irrigation, or hydropower) and indirect, unintentional effects resulting from the use of other resources (e.g. deforestation or beaver trapping) are considered. We argue that water was not the limiting resource to either the Native or Colonist population growth. However, food and tobacco production and harvesting of beaver pelts led to indirect interventions and consequent changes in the hydrologic cycle. The analysis presented here suggests the importance of incorporating human decision- making dynamics with existing geophysical models to fully understand trajectories of human-environment interactions. Predictive tools of this type are critical to characterizing the long-term signature of humans on the landscape and hydrologic cycle.

  6. Flow-structure-acoustic interaction in a human voice model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stefan; Kniesburges, Stefan; Müller, Stefan; Delgado, Antonio; Link, Gerhard; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Döllinger, Michael

    2009-03-01

    For the investigation of the physical processes of human phonation, inhomogeneous synthetic vocal folds were developed to represent the full fluid-structure-acoustic coupling. They consisted of polyurethane rubber with a stiffness in the range of human vocal folds and were mounted in a channel, shaped like the vocal tract in the supraglottal region. This test facility permitted extensive observations of flow-induced vocal fold vibrations, the periodic flow field, and the acoustic signals in the far field of the channel. Detailed measurements were performed applying particle-image velocimetry, a laser-scanning vibrometer, a microphone, unsteady pressure sensors, and a hot-wire probe, with the aim of identifying the physical mechanisms in human phonation. The results support the existence of the Coanda effect during phonation, with the flow attaching to one vocal fold and separating from the other. This behavior is not linked to one vocal fold and changes stochastically from cycle to cycle. The oscillating flow field generates a tonal sound. The broadband noise is presumed to be caused by the interaction of the asymmetric flow with the downstream-facing surfaces of the vocal folds, analogous to trailing-edge noise.

  7. Human-Computer Interaction with Medical Decisions Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolf, Jurine A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1994-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been available to medical diagnosticians for some time, yet their acceptance and use have not increased with advances in technology and availability of DSS tools. Medical DSSs will be necessary on future long duration space missions, because access to medical resources and personnel will be limited. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts at NASA's Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) have been working toward understanding how humans use DSSs, with the goal of being able to identify and solve the problems associated with these systems. Work to date consists of identification of HCI research areas, development of a decision making model, and completion of two experiments dealing with 'anchoring'. Anchoring is a phenomenon in which the decision maker latches on to a starting point and does not make sufficient adjustments when new data are presented. HFEL personnel have replicated a well-known anchoring experiment and have investigated the effects of user level of knowledge. Future work includes further experimentation on level of knowledge, confidence in the source of information and sequential decision making.

  8. Pleistocene megafaunal interaction networks became more vulnerable after human arrival.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mathias M; Koch, Paul L; Fariña, Richard A; de Aguiar, Marcus A M; dos Reis, Sérgio F; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2015-09-07

    The end of the Pleistocene was marked by the extinction of almost all large land mammals worldwide except in Africa. Although the debate on Pleistocene extinctions has focused on the roles of climate change and humans, the impact of perturbations depends on properties of ecological communities, such as species composition and the organization of ecological interactions. Here, we combined palaeoecological and ecological data, food-web models and community stability analysis to investigate if differences between Pleistocene and modern mammalian assemblages help us understand why the megafauna died out in the Americas while persisting in Africa. We show Pleistocene and modern assemblages share similar network topology, but differences in richness and body size distributions made Pleistocene communities significantly more vulnerable to the effects of human arrival. The structural changes promoted by humans in Pleistocene networks would have increased the likelihood of unstable dynamics, which may favour extinction cascades in communities facing extrinsic perturbations. Our findings suggest that the basic aspects of the organization of ecological communities may have played an important role in major extinction events in the past. Knowledge of community-level properties and their consequences to dynamics may be critical to understand past and future extinctions.

  9. Interactions between Human Norovirus Surrogates and Acanthamoeba spp.

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Tun-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks, as well as virus-related waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Here, we hypothesize that common free-living amoebae (FLA)—ubiquitous in the environment, known to interact with pathogens, and frequently isolated from water and fresh produce—could potentially act as reservoirs of HuNoV and facilitate the environmental transmission of HuNoVs. To investigate FLA as reservoirs for HuNoV, the interactions between two Acanthamoeba species, A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, as well as two HuNoV surrogates, murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV), were evaluated. The results showed that after 1 h of amoeba-virus incubation at 25°C, 490 and 337 PFU of MNV-1/ml were recovered from A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, respectively, while only few or no FCVs were detected. In addition, prolonged interaction of MNV-1 with amoebae was investigated for a period of 8 days, and MNV-1 was demonstrated to remain stable at around 200 PFU/ml from day 2 to day 8 after virus inoculation in A. castellanii. Moreover, after a complete amoeba life cycle (i.e., encystment and excystment), infectious viruses could still be detected. To determine the location of virus associated with amoebae, immunofluorescence experiments were performed and showed MNV-1 transitioning from the amoeba surface to inside the amoeba over a 24-h period. These results are significant to the understanding of how HuNoVs may interact with other microorganisms in the environment in order to aid in its persistence and survival, as well as potential transmission in water and to vulnerable food products such as fresh produce. PMID:25841006

  10. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called "Ghost-in-the-Machine" (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer's requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  11. Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Krzysztof

    Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere

  12. Metaphors for the Nature of Human-Computer Interaction in an Empowering Environment: Interaction Style Influences the Manner of Human Accomplishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Herman G.; Hartson, H. Rex

    1992-01-01

    Describes human-computer interface needs for empowering environments in computer usage in which the machine handles the routine mechanics of problem solving while the user concentrates on its higher order meanings. A closed-loop model of interaction is described, interface as illusion is discussed, and metaphors for human-computer interaction are…

  13. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  14. Human-computer interaction: psychology as a science of design.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J M

    1997-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.

  15. Optoelectronic investigation of nanodiamond interactions with human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficek, M.; Wróbel, M. S.; Wasowicz, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present optoelectronic investigation of in vitro interactions of whole human blood with different nanodiamond biomarkers. Plasmo-chemical modifications of detonation nanodiamond particles gives the possibility for controlling their surface for biological applications. Optical investigations reveal the biological activity of nanodiamonds in blood dependent on its surface termination. We compare different types of nanodiamonds: commercial non-modified detonation nanodiamonds, and nanodiamonds modified by MW PACVD method with H2-termination, and chemically modified nanodiamond with O2-termination. The absorption spectra, and optical microscope investigations were conducted. The results indicate haemocompatibility of non-modified detonation nanodiamond as well as modified nanodiamonds, which enables their application for drug delivery, as well as sensing applications.

  16. Interaction of nanosilver particles with human lymphocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhornik, Alena; Baranova, Ludmila; Volotovski, Igor; Chizhik, Sergey; Drozd, Elizaveta; Sudas, Margarita; Buu Ngo, Quoc; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Huynh, Thi Ha; Hien Dao, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The damaging effects of nanoparticles were hypothesized to be the oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species and initiation of inflammatory reactions. In this context a study on the effects of nanosilver particles on the formation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocyte culture was carried out. The obtained results showed that fluorescence intensity considerably increased after cells had interacted with nanosilver particles of varying concentrations, indicating the formation of reactive oxygen species and their accumulation in lymphocyte cells. Morphological study of the lymphocyte cells under the effects of nanosilver particles showed that the change in morphology depends on the concentration and size of nanosilver particles: for a size ≤20 nm the lymphocyte cell significantly shrank with pronounced differences in the morphological structure of the cell membrane, but for a size ≥200 nm no change was observed.

  17. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  18. A multimodal emotion detection system during human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F; Salichs, Miguel A

    2013-11-14

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human-robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human-robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately.

  19. Reputation, a universal currency for human social interactions.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred

    2016-02-05

    Decision rules of reciprocity include 'I help those who helped me' (direct reciprocity) and 'I help those who have helped others' (indirect reciprocity), i.e. I help those who have a reputation to care for others. A person's reputation is a score that members of a social group update whenever they see the person interacting or hear at best multiple gossip about the person's social interactions. Reputation is the current standing the person has gained from previous investments or refusal of investments in helping others. Is he a good guy, can I trust him or should I better avoid him as a social partner? A good reputation pays off by attracting help from others, even from strangers or members from another group, if the recipient's reputation is known. Any costly investment in others, i.e. direct help, donations to charity, investment in averting climate change, etc. increases a person's reputation. I shall argue and illustrate with examples that a person's known reputation functions like money that can be used whenever the person needs help. Whenever possible I will present tests of predictions of evolutionary theory, i.e. fitness maximizing strategies, mostly by economic experiments with humans.

  20. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K B; Nettle, D; McElreath, R

    2015-12-05

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such 'strong situations' will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background.

  1. Interactions between Mycobacterium xenopi, amoeba and human cells.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, M; Adékambi, T; Raoult, D

    2007-02-01

    Outbreaks due to Mycobacterium xenopi have been linked with contaminated water. M. xenopi has been shown to interact with the biofilm formed in water distribution systems and to be hosted by free-living Acanthamoeba. The present study investigated the interaction between M. xenopi and A. polyphaga amoeba, and between M. xenopi and human fibroblast HEL cells. Examination using the light microscopy together with electronic and confocal microscopy demonstrated that M. xenopi was located within the amoeba and in HEL cells. The Light Cycler measurement of the M. xenopi:A. polyphaga DNA ratio and the M. xenopi:HEL cell DNA ratio demonstrated intra-amoebal and intracellular growth of M. xenopi with doubling-times of five-days and 10 days, respectively. Intra-amoebal M. xenopi survived protozoan encystment and germination. These data demonstrate that M. xenopi is a facultative intra-amoebal and intracellular pathogen. Testing intra-amoebal M. xenopi might be necessary to properly evaluate decontamination procedures for hospital water supply systems in order to achieve eradication.

  2. Wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaewook; Voyles, Richard M.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary work on a novel wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction in hazardous environments. Interacting with traditional input devices can be clumsy and inconvenient for the operator in hazardous environments due to the bulkiness of multiple system components and troublesome wires. During a collapsed structure search, for example, protective clothing, uneven footing, and "snag" points in the environment can render traditional input devices impractical. Wearable computing has been studied by various researchers to increase the portability of devices and to improve the proprioceptive sense of the wearer's intentions. Specifically, glove-like input devices to recognize hand gestures have been developed for general-purpose applications. But, regardless of their performance, prior gloves have been fragile and cumbersome to use in rough environments. In this paper, we present a new wearable joystick to remove the wires from a simple, two-degree of freedom glove interface. Thus, we develop a wearable joystick that is low cost, durable and robust, and wire-free at the glove. In order to evaluate the wearable joystick, we take into consideration two metrics during operator tests of a commercial robot: task completion time and path tortuosity. We employ fractal analysis to measure path tortuosity. Preliminary user test results are presented that compare the performance of both a wearable joystick and a traditional joystick.

  3. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, K. B.; Nettle, D.; McElreath, R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such ‘strong situations’ will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background. PMID:26503684

  4. Reputation, a universal currency for human social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Milinski, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Decision rules of reciprocity include ‘I help those who helped me’ (direct reciprocity) and ‘I help those who have helped others’ (indirect reciprocity), i.e. I help those who have a reputation to care for others. A person's reputation is a score that members of a social group update whenever they see the person interacting or hear at best multiple gossip about the person's social interactions. Reputation is the current standing the person has gained from previous investments or refusal of investments in helping others. Is he a good guy, can I trust him or should I better avoid him as a social partner? A good reputation pays off by attracting help from others, even from strangers or members from another group, if the recipient's reputation is known. Any costly investment in others, i.e. direct help, donations to charity, investment in averting climate change, etc. increases a person's reputation. I shall argue and illustrate with examples that a person's known reputation functions like money that can be used whenever the person needs help. Whenever possible I will present tests of predictions of evolutionary theory, i.e. fitness maximizing strategies, mostly by economic experiments with humans. PMID:26729939

  5. Agent Based Modeling of Human Gut Microbiome Interactions and Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Shashkova, Tatiana; Popenko, Anna; Tyakht, Alexander; Peskov, Kirill; Kosinsky, Yuri; Bogolubsky, Lev; Raigorodskii, Andrei; Ischenko, Dmitry; Alexeev, Dmitry; Govorun, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    Background Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the human health. It is involved in the digestion and protects the host against external pathogens. Examination of the intestinal microbiome interactions is required for understanding of the community influence on host health. Studies of the microbiome can provide insight on methods of improving health, including specific clinical procedures for individual microbial community composition modification and microbiota correction by colonizing with new bacterial species or dietary changes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we report an agent-based model of interactions between two bacterial species and between species and the gut. The model is based on reactions describing bacterial fermentation of polysaccharides to acetate and propionate and fermentation of acetate to butyrate. Antibiotic treatment was chosen as disturbance factor and used to investigate stability of the system. System recovery after antibiotic treatment was analyzed as dependence on quantity of feedback interactions inside the community, therapy duration and amount of antibiotics. Bacterial species are known to mutate and acquire resistance to the antibiotics. The ability to mutate was considered to be a stochastic process, under this suggestion ratio of sensitive to resistant bacteria was calculated during antibiotic therapy and recovery. Conclusion/Significance The model confirms a hypothesis of feedbacks mechanisms necessity for providing functionality and stability of the system after disturbance. High fraction of bacterial community was shown to mutate during antibiotic treatment, though sensitive strains could become dominating after recovery. The recovery of sensitive strains is explained by fitness cost of the resistance. The model demonstrates not only quantitative dynamics of bacterial species, but also gives an ability to observe the emergent spatial structure and its alteration, depending on various feedback mechanisms

  6. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  7. Time scale interactions and the coevolution of humans and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-09-01

    We present a coevolutionary view of hydrologic systems, revolving around feedbacks between environmental and social processes operating across different time scales. This brings to the fore an emphasis on emergent phenomena in changing water systems, such as the levee effect, adaptation to change, system lock-in, and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system. Guidance is provided for the framing and modeling of these phenomena to test alternative hypotheses about how they arose. A plurality of coevolutionary models, from stylized to comprehensive system-of-system models, may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesize the observed dynamics in a wide range of case studies. Future research opportunities lie in exploring emergent phenomena arising from time scale interactions through historical, comparative, and process studies of human-water feedbacks.

  8. Interacting Effects of TSH and Insulin on Human Differentiated Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Felske, D; Gagnon, A; Sorisky, A

    2015-08-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, characterized by an isolated rise in TSH serum levels with normal thyroid function, is a pro-inflammatory state associated with insulin resistance. Adipocytes express TSH receptors, but it is not known if TSH can directly inhibit insulin signaling. Using primary human differentiated adipocytes, we examined the effects of TSH on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and whether conventional PKC (cPKC) were involved. The effect of insulin on TSH-stimulated lipolysis was also investigated. TSH inhibited insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in adipocytes by 54%. TSH activated cPKC, and Gö6976, a PKCα and -β1 inhibitor, prevented the inhibitory effect of TSH on the insulin response. Insulin reduced the ability of TSH to activate cPKC and to stimulate lipolysis.Our data reveal novel interactions between TSH and insulin. TSH inhibits insulin-stimulated Akt signaling in a cPKC-dependent fashion, whereas insulin blocks TSH-stimulated cPKC activity and lipolysis. TSH and insulin act on differentiated human adipocytes to modulate their respective intracellular signals.

  9. Investigating joint attention mechanisms through spoken human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Staudte, Maria; Crocker, Matthew W

    2011-08-01

    Referential gaze during situated language production and comprehension is tightly coupled with the unfolding speech stream (Griffin, 2001; Meyer, Sleiderink, & Levelt, 1998; Tanenhaus, Spivey-Knowlton, Eberhard, & Sedivy, 1995). In a shared environment, utterance comprehension may further be facilitated when the listener can exploit the speaker's focus of (visual) attention to anticipate, ground, and disambiguate spoken references. To investigate the dynamics of such gaze-following and its influence on utterance comprehension in a controlled manner, we use a human-robot interaction setting. Specifically, we hypothesize that referential gaze is interpreted as a cue to the speaker's referential intentions which facilitates or disrupts reference resolution. Moreover, the use of a dynamic and yet extremely controlled gaze cue enables us to shed light on the simultaneous and incremental integration of the unfolding speech and gaze movement. We report evidence from two eye-tracking experiments in which participants saw videos of a robot looking at and describing objects in a scene. The results reveal a quantified benefit-disruption spectrum of gaze on utterance comprehension and, further, show that gaze is used, even during the initial movement phase, to restrict the spatial domain of potential referents. These findings more broadly suggest that people treat artificial agents similar to human agents and, thus, validate such a setting for further explorations of joint attention mechanisms.

  10. Evidence Report: Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.

  11. Human insulin prepared by recombinant DNA techniques and native human insulin interact identically with insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, L M; Piron, M A; De Meyts, P

    1981-01-01

    Human insulin synthesized from A and B chains separately produced in Escherichia coli from cloned synthetic genes (prepared by the Eli Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN) was characterized by examining its interaction with human cultured lymphocytes, human circulating erythrocytes in vitro, and isolated rat fat cells. The binding behavior of the biosynthetic insulin with human cells was indistinguishable from that of native human or porcine insulins, with respect to affinity, association and dissociation kinetics, negative cooperativity, and the down-regulation of lymphocyte receptors. Similarly, the biosynthetic insulin was as potent as the native insulins in stimulating lipogenesis in isolated rat fat cells. We also examined the receptor binding characteristics of 125I-labeled human and porcine insulins monoiodinated solely at Tyr-A14, which were obtained by means of high-performance liquid chromatography of the iodination reaction mixture (this material was prepared by B. Frank, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories). In all aspects studied, the pure [TyrA14-125I]iodoinsulins were superior as tracers to the monoiodoinsulin purified by the more conventional method of gel filtration. PMID:7015337

  12. In our own image? Emotional and neural processing differences when observing human-human vs human-robot interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Quadflieg, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Notwithstanding the significant role that human-robot interactions (HRI) will play in the near future, limited research has explored the neural correlates of feeling eerie in response to social robots. To address this empirical lacuna, the current investigation examined brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while a group of participants (n = 26) viewed a series of human-human interactions (HHI) and HRI. Although brain sites constituting the mentalizing network were found to respond to both types of interactions, systematic neural variation across sites signaled diverging social-cognitive strategies during HHI and HRI processing. Specifically, HHI elicited increased activity in the left temporal-parietal junction indicative of situation-specific mental state attributions, whereas HRI recruited the precuneus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) suggestive of script-based social reasoning. Activity in the VMPFC also tracked feelings of eeriness towards HRI in a parametric manner, revealing a potential neural correlate for a phenomenon known as the uncanny valley. By demonstrating how understanding social interactions depends on the kind of agents involved, this study highlights pivotal sub-routes of impression formation and identifies prominent challenges in the use of humanoid robots.

  13. Human-dog interactions in a guide-dog training program.

    PubMed

    Koda, N; Shimoju, S

    1999-06-01

    We analyzed dyadic interactions between 12 neutered dogs (6 females and 6 males) and 44 humans (20 women, 14 men, and 10 girls) who were unfamiliar with each other. We also examined the effect of sex differences in dogs and humans as well as age differences in humans on human-dog interactions in a guide-dog training program. Female dogs more actively regulated their distance from humans than male dogs. Dogs made contact with women more frequently than with men, and men made contact with dogs more frequently than women. Girls initiated interactions with dogs more frequently than women; girls formed reciprocal interactions with dogs less frequently than women.

  14. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  15. Peptide interactions stabilize and restructure human papillomavirus type 16 E6 to interact with p53.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Tina; Brimer, Nicole; Vande Pol, Scott B

    2012-10-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 (16E6) binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP and p53, thereby targeting degradation of p53 (M. Scheffner, B. A. Werness, J. M. Huibregtse, A. J. Levine, and P. M. Howley, Cell 63:1129-1136, 1990). Here we show that minimal 16E6-binding LXXLL peptides reshape 16E6 to confer p53 interaction and stabilize 16E6 in vivo but that degradation of p53 by 16E6 requires E6AP expression. These experiments establish a general mechanism for how papillomavirus E6 binding to LXXLL peptides reshapes E6 to then act as an adapter molecule.

  16. Peptide Interactions Stabilize and Restructure Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 To Interact with p53

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Tina; Brimer, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 (16E6) binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP and p53, thereby targeting degradation of p53 (M. Scheffner, B. A. Werness, J. M. Huibregtse, A. J. Levine, and P. M. Howley, Cell 63:1129–1136, 1990). Here we show that minimal 16E6-binding LXXLL peptides reshape 16E6 to confer p53 interaction and stabilize 16E6 in vivo but that degradation of p53 by 16E6 requires E6AP expression. These experiments establish a general mechanism for how papillomavirus E6 binding to LXXLL peptides reshapes E6 to then act as an adapter molecule. PMID:22896608

  17. Interaction of human lactoferrin with the rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Debanne, M.T.; Regoeczi, E.; Sweeney, G.D.; Krestynski, F.

    1985-04-01

    Binding of human lactoferrin (hLf) by purified rat liver plasma membranes was studied to clarify whether the liver possesses specific hLf receptors. The binding was rapid between 4 degrees and 37 degrees C, with a pH optimum close to 5.0. At 22 degrees C and in glycine-NaOH (5 mM, pH 7.4) containing 150 mM NaCl and 0.5% albumin, 1 microgram of membrane bound a maximum of 11.8 ng hLf. The dissociation constant of the interaction was 1.6 X 10(-7) M. Other proteins of high isoelectric points (lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, and particularly salmine sulfate) and a piperazine derivative inhibited hLf binding in a concentration- dependent manner. In contrast, monosaccharides (galactose, N- acetylgalactosamine, mannose, and fucose) were ineffective. By omitting NaCl from the incubation buffer, binding was increased 3.6-fold. Erythrocyte ghosts bound hLf less firmly and alveolar macrophages more firmly than hepatic plasma membranes. Liver cell fractionations performed after the intravenous injection of labeled hLf showed that approximately 88% of the hepatic radioligand was associated with parenchymal cells. When binding was expressed per unit of cell volume, however, more hLf was present in nonparenchymal than in parenchymal cells, implying that the above value was determined by the relative cell masses rather than affinities alone. It is concluded that the binding of hLf by hepatic plasma membranes is electrostatic, i.e., is mediated by the cationic nature of the ligand, and that it is explicable in terms of a ''specific nonreceptor interaction'' of the generalized type proposed by Cuatrecasas and Hollenberg.

  18. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Interacts With Inflammation in Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cao, Stewart Siyan; Luo, Katherine L; Shi, Lynn

    2016-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical organelle for normal cell function and homeostasis. Disturbance in the protein folding process in the ER, termed ER stress, leads to the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) that encompasses a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways. The UPR can either restore ER homeostasis or activate pro-apoptotic pathways depending on the type of insults, intensity and duration of the stress, and cell types. ER stress and the UPR have recently been linked to inflammation in a variety of human pathologies including autoimmune, infectious, neurodegenerative, and metabolic disorders. In the cell, ER stress and inflammatory signaling share extensive regulators and effectors in a broad spectrum of biological processes. In spite of different etiologies, the two signaling pathways have been shown to form a vicious cycle in exacerbating cellular dysfunction and causing apoptosis in many cells and tissues. However, the interaction between ER stress and inflammation in many of these diseases remains poorly understood. Further understanding of the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology may enable the development of novel therapies that spontaneously target these pathogenic pathways.

  20. Interactions between occlusion and human brain function activities.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, C; Morokuma, M; Yoneyama, Y; Matsuda, R; Lee, J S

    2013-02-01

    There are few review articles in the area of human research that focus on the interactions between occlusion and brain function. This systematic review discusses the effect of occlusion on the health of the entire body with a focus on brain function. Available relevant articles in English from 1999 to 2011 were assessed in an online database and as hard copies in libraries. The selected 19 articles were classified into the following five categories: chewing and tongue movements, clenching and grinding, occlusal splints and occlusal interference, prosthetic rehabilitation, and pain and stimulation. The relationships between the brain activity observed in the motor and sensory cortices and movements of the oral and maxillofacial area, such as those produced by gum chewing, tapping and clenching, were investigated. It was found that the sensorimotor cortex was also affected by the placement of the occlusal interference devices, splints and implant prostheses. Brain activity may change depending on the strength of the movements in the oral and maxillofacial area. Therefore, mastication and other movements stimulate the activity in the cerebral cortex and may be helpful in preventing degradation of a brain function. However, these findings must be verified by evidence gathered from more subjects.

  1. Human performance measures for interactive haptic-audio-visual interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dawei; Bhatti, Asim; Nahavandi, Saeid; Horan, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation are becoming increasingly important in modern society and it is essential to improve our understanding of system usability and efficacy from the users' perspective. This paper introduces a novel evaluation method designed to assess human user capability when undertaking technical and procedural training using virtual training systems. The evaluation method falls under the user-centered design and evaluation paradigm and draws on theories of cognitive, skill-based and affective learning outcomes. The method focuses on user interaction with haptic-audio-visual interfaces and the complexities related to variability in users' performance, and the adoption and acceptance of the technologies. A large scale user study focusing on object assembly training tasks involving selecting, rotating, releasing, inserting, and manipulating three-dimensional objects was performed. The study demonstrated the advantages of the method in obtaining valuable multimodal information for accurate and comprehensive evaluation of virtual training system efficacy. The study investigated how well users learn, perform, adapt to, and perceive the virtual training. The results of the study revealed valuable aspects of the design and evaluation of virtual training systems contributing to an improved understanding of more usable virtual training systems.

  2. User Interactive Software for Analysis of Human Physiological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William; Taylor, Bruce C.; Acharya, Soumydipta

    2006-01-01

    Ambulatory physiological monitoring has been used to study human health and performance in space and in a variety of Earth-based environments (e.g., military aircraft, armored vehicles, small groups in isolation, and patients). Large, multi-channel data files are typically recorded in these environments, and these files often require the removal of contaminated data prior to processing and analyses. Physiological data processing can now be performed with user-friendly, interactive software developed by the Ames Psychophysiology Research Laboratory. This software, which runs on a Windows platform, contains various signal-processing routines for both time- and frequency- domain data analyses (e.g., peak detection, differentiation and integration, digital filtering, adaptive thresholds, Fast Fourier Transform power spectrum, auto-correlation, etc.). Data acquired with any ambulatory monitoring system that provides text or binary file format are easily imported to the processing software. The application provides a graphical user interface where one can manually select and correct data artifacts utilizing linear and zero interpolation and adding trigger points for missed peaks. Block and moving average routines are also provided for data reduction. Processed data in numeric and graphic format can be exported to Excel. This software, PostProc (for post-processing) requires the Dadisp engineering spreadsheet (DSP Development Corp), or equivalent, for implementation. Specific processing routines were written for electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electromyography, blood pressure, skin conductance level, impedance cardiography (cardiac output, stroke volume, thoracic fluid volume), temperature, and respiration

  3. Interaction of streaming and attention in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Rupp, André; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Serially presented tones are sometimes segregated into two perceptually distinct streams. An ongoing debate is whether this basic streaming phenomenon reflects automatic processes or requires attention focused to the stimuli. Here, we examined the influence of focused attention on streaming-related activity in human auditory cortex using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Listeners were presented with a dichotic paradigm in which left-ear stimuli consisted of canonical streaming stimuli (ABA_ or ABAA) and right-ear stimuli consisted of a classical oddball paradigm. In phase one, listeners were instructed to attend the right-ear oddball sequence and detect rare deviants. In phase two, they were instructed to attend the left ear streaming stimulus and report whether they heard one or two streams. The frequency difference (ΔF) of the sequences was set such that the smallest and largest ΔF conditions generally induced one- and two-stream percepts, respectively. Two intermediate ΔF conditions were chosen to elicit bistable percepts (i.e., either one or two streams). Attention enhanced the peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1-N1 complex, but only for ambiguous ΔF conditions, consistent with the notion that automatic mechanisms for streaming tightly interact with attention and that the latter is of particular importance for ambiguous sound sequences.

  4. Interactions of human serum albumin with doxorubicin in different media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M.; Turov, Vladimir V.; Krupska, Tetyana V.; Tsapko, Magdalina D.

    2017-02-01

    Interactions of human serum albumin (10 wt% H2O and 0.3 wt% sodium caprylate) with doxorubicin hydrochloride (1 wt%) were studied alone or with addition of HCl (3.6 wt% HCl) using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A model of hydrated HSA/12DOX was calculated using PM7 method with COSMO showing large variations in the binding constant depending on structural features of DOX/HSA complexes. DOX molecules/ions displace bound water from narrow intramolecular voids in HSA that leads to diminution of freezing-melting point depression of strongly bound water (SBW). Structure of weakly bound water (WBW) depends much weaker on the presence of DOX than SBW because a major fraction of DOX is bound to adsorption sites of HSA. Addition of HCl results in strong changes in structure of macromolecules and organization of water in hydration shells of HSA (i.e., mainly SBW) and in the solution (i.e., WBW + non-bound bulk water).

  5. Stress, alcohol and drug interaction: an update of human research

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Magdalena; Wand, Gary S.

    2008-01-01

    A challenging question that continues unanswered in the field of addiction is why some individuals are more vulnerable to substance use disorders than others. Numerous risk factors for alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including exposure to various forms of stress, have been identified in clinical studies. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this relationship remain unclear. Critical neurotransmitters, hormones and neurobiological sites have been recognized, which may provide the substrates that convey individual differences in vulnerability to addiction. With the advent of more sophisticated measures of brain function in humans, such as functional imaging technology, the mechanisms and neural pathways involved in the interactions between drugs of abuse, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and stress systems are beginning to be characterized. This review provides a neuroadaptive perspective regarding the role of the hormonal and brain stress systems in drug addiction with a focus on the changes that occur during the transition from occasional drug use to drug dependence. We also review factors that contribute to different levels of hormonal/brain stress activation, which has implications for understanding individual vulnerability to drug dependence. Ultimately, these efforts may improve our chances of designing treatment strategies that target addiction at the core of the disorder. PMID:18855803

  6. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  7. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory (AT) has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved versus unresolved) attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual's attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions) may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat) in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum) and cortical (insula, cingulate) limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective evaluation mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive control processes, subserving mental state attribution and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), among others. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that affective evaluation is decreased in avoidantly but increased in anxiously attached individuals. In turn, although data on cognitive control is still scarce, it points toward a possible enhancement of mental state representations associated with

  8. GHB and Ethanol Effects and Interactions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Dung; Dyer, Jo Ellen; Benowitz, Neal L.; Haller, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a common drug of abuse that can produce serious toxicity, particularly when used with other sedatives. We examined the individual and combined effects of GHB and ethanol in human volunteers. Methods Sixteen healthy adults (7 men) were given 50 mg/kg GHB (Xyrem), 0.6 g/kg ethanol in 2 doses, alone and combined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Plasma concentrations, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and oxygen saturation (O2sat) were serially monitored for 24 hours. Results Adverse events included 2 instances of hypotension and 6 episodes of vomiting with GHB-plus-ethanol ingestion. Oxygen saturation was decreased by GHB and ethanol individually, and maximally decreased by the drugs combined (max −2.1% ± 0.3%, P < 0.0001 vs placebo). Compared with baseline, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly decreased, and HR was increased by ethanol but not affected by GHB alone (maximum systolic BP change −15.7 ± 3.0 mm Hg, P = 0.0006; maximum HR change 13.5 ± 2.3 beats per minute, P = 0.006). Ethanol coingestion resulted in 16% higher GHB maximal plasma concentration and 29% longer elimination half-life, indicating possible enhanced bioavailability or reduced clearance of GHB caused by ethanol, however, these effects were not statistically significant. Conclusions Modest doses of GHB do not affect hemodynamic function, but O2sat was decreased. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate-plus-ethanol resulted in more adverse effects, including gastrointestinal disturbances, hypotension, and decreased O2sat, but only minimal pharmacokinetic interactions were observed. PMID:16974199

  9. Satellite Perspectives on Highland - Lowland Human Interaction in Ancient Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönnqvist, M.; Törmä, M.; Lönnqvist, K.; Nuñez, M.

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays we can travel by GoogleEarth 3D to Syria (http://www.worldcountries.info/GoogleEarth/GoogleEarth-Syria.php) and zoom in on the desert landscape of the mountainous region of Jebel Bishri between the Euphrates river and the Syrian Desert. This is the area, where the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project SYGIS worked in 2000-2010 studying the relationship of humans with their environment from ancient times to the present. What kind of landscape views and visions did the ancients have and how did they utilize them? The present paper focuses on seeking answers for these questions by combining satellite data sources, such as imagery and radar data, with location information of archaeological remains collected on the ground. Landsat as well as QuickBird imagery have been fused with SRTM mission and ASTER DEM data in creating 3D landscape models and fly-over simulations. The oasis of El Kowm on the western piedmont of the mountain seems to have served as a base camp for early huntergatherers and pastoral nomads dwelling seasonally in the region of Jebel Bishri. According to the archaeological finds, the interaction between the lowland and the mountain people already started during the Palaeolithic era but was continued by pastoral nomads of the region from the Neolithic period onwards. The Upper Palaeolithic period meant a clear change in cognitive thinking and obviously in understanding the properties of landscape, visibility and perceiving sceneries in 3D. Mobility of hunter-gatherers and pastoral nomads is based on subsistence economy, but mobility also enhances visions and prospects of phenomena appearing in the horizon.

  10. Human-Robot Interaction in High Vulnerability Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require successful integration of the human with highly complex systems. Highly complex systems are likely to involve humans, automation, and some level of robotic assistance. The complex environments will require successful integration of the human with automation, with robots, and with human-automation-robot teams to accomplish mission critical goals. Many challenges exist for the human performing in these types of operational environments with these kinds of systems. Systems must be designed to optimally integrate various levels of inputs and outputs based on the roles and responsibilities of the human, the automation, and the robots; from direct manual control, shared human-robotic control, or no active human control (i.e. human supervisory control). It is assumed that the human will remain involved at some level. Technologies that vary based on contextual demands and on operator characteristics (workload, situation awareness) will be needed when the human integrates into these systems. Predictive models that estimate the impact of the technologies on the system performance and the on the human operator are also needed to meet the challenges associated with such future complex human-automation-robot systems in extreme environments.

  11. Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus in human term syncytiotrophoblast cells coinfected with both viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, F D; Mosborg-Petersen, P; Kiss, J; Aboagye-Mathiesen, G; Hager, H; Juhl, C B; Gergely, L; Zdravkovic, M; Aranyosi, J; Lampé, L

    1995-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may interact in the pathogenesis of AIDS. The placental syncytiotrophoblast layer serves as the first line of defense of the fetus against viruses. We analyzed the patterns of replication of HIV-1 and HCMV in singly an dually infected human term syncytiotrophoblast cells cultured in vitro. Syncytiotrophoblast cells exhibited restricted permissiveness for HIV-1, while HCMV replication was restricted at the level of immediate-early and early gene products in the singly infected cells. We found that the syncytiotrophoblasts as an overlapping cell population could be coinfected with HIV-1 and HCMV. HIV-1 replication was markedly upregulated by previous or simultaneous infection of the cells with HCMV, whereas prior HIV-1 infection of the cells converted HCMV infection from a nonpermissive to a permissive one. No simultaneous enhancement of HCMV and HIV-1 expression was observed in the dually infected cell cultures. Major immediate-early proteins of HCMV were necessary for enhancement of HIV-1 replication, and interleukin-6 production induced by HCMV and further increased by replicating HIV-1 synergized with these proteins to produce this effect. Permissive replication cycle of HCMV was induced by the HIV-1 tat gene product. We were unable to detect HIV-1 (HCMV) or HCMV (HIV-1) pseudotypes in supernatant fluids from dually infected cell cultures. Our results suggest that interactions between HIV-1 and HCMV in coinfected syncytiotrophoblast cells may contribute to the transplacental transmission of both viruses. PMID:7884869

  12. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior.

  13. The Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong-A; Lee, Dong Hwan; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    There are an increasing number of outbreaks of human pathogens related to fresh produce. Thus, the growth of human pathogens on plants should be explored. Human pathogens can survive under the harsh environments in plants, and can adhere and actively invade plants. Plant-associated microbiota or insects contribute to the survival and transmission of enteric pathogens in plants. Human enteric pathogens also trigger plant innate immunity, but some pathogens–such as Salmonella–can overcome this defense mechanism. PMID:25288993

  14. [An interactive three-dimensional model of the human body].

    PubMed

    Liem, S L

    2009-01-01

    Driven by advanced computer technology, it is now possible to show the human anatomy on a computer. On the internet, the Visible Body programme makes it possible to navigate in all directions through the anatomical structures of the human body, using mouse and keyboard. Visible Body is a wonderful tool to give insight in the human structures, body functions and organs.

  15. Appearance-based human gesture recognition using multimodal features for human computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dan; Gao, Hua; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Ohya, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The use of gesture as a natural interface plays an utmost important role for achieving intelligent Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Human gestures include different components of visual actions such as motion of hands, facial expression, and torso, to convey meaning. So far, in the field of gesture recognition, most previous works have focused on the manual component of gestures. In this paper, we present an appearance-based multimodal gesture recognition framework, which combines the different groups of features such as facial expression features and hand motion features which are extracted from image frames captured by a single web camera. We refer 12 classes of human gestures with facial expression including neutral, negative and positive meanings from American Sign Languages (ASL). We combine the features in two levels by employing two fusion strategies. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, and LDA is used to choose the most discriminative elements by projecting the feature on a discriminative expression space. The second strategy is applied on decision level. Weighted decisions from single modalities are fused in a later stage. A condensation-based algorithm is adopted for classification. We collected a data set with three to seven recording sessions and conducted experiments with the combination techniques. Experimental results showed that facial analysis improve hand gesture recognition, decision level fusion performs better than feature level fusion.

  16. Metazoa Ludens: Mixed Reality Interaction and Play Between Humans and Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Although animals and pets are so important for families and society, in modern urban lifestyles we can spend little time with our animal friends. Interactive media should be aimed to enhance not only human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. Thus, we promote a new type of inter-species media interaction which allows human users to interact and play with their small pet friends (in this case hamsters) remotely via the Internet through a mixed reality based game system “Metazoa Ludens”. We scientifically examined the effectiveness of this system in a two-pronged approach. Firstly and most importantly, the positive effects to the hamsters were ensured using Body Condition Score study. Secondly, the method of Duncan was used to assess the strength of preference of the hamsters towards Metazoa Ludens. Lastly, the effectiveness of this remote interaction with respect to the human users as a interactive gaming system with their pets/friends (hamsters) was examined based on Csikszentmihalyi's (Beyond boredom and anxiety, 1975) Flow theory. The results of both studies inform of positive remote interaction between human users and their pet friends using our research system. This research is not aimed just at providing specific experimental results on the implemented research system, but is aimed as a wider lesson for human-to-animal interactive media. Thus also the lessons learned are extrapolated and detailed in this chapter as a framework in general for human-to-animal interaction systems.

  17. Functional features and protein network of human sperm-egg interaction.

    PubMed

    Sabetian, Soudabeh; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Abu Naser, Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of the sperm-egg interaction at the molecular level is one of the unresolved problems in sexual reproduction, and understanding the molecular mechanism is crucial in solving problems in infertility and failed in vitro fertilization (IVF). Many molecular interactions in the form of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the sperm-egg membrane interaction. Due to the complexity of the problem such as difficulties in analyzing in vivo membrane PPIs, many efforts have failed to comprehensively elucidate the fusion mechanism and the molecular interactions that mediate sperm-egg membrane fusion. The main purpose of this study was to reveal possible protein interactions and associated molecular function during sperm-egg interaction using a protein interaction network approach. Different databases have been used to construct the human sperm-egg interaction network. The constructed network revealed new interactions. These included CD151 and CD9 in human oocyte that interact with CD49 in sperm, and CD49 and ITGA4 in sperm that interact with CD63 and CD81, respectively, in the oocyte. These results showed that the different integrins in sperm may be involved in human sperm-egg interaction. It was also suggested that sperm ADAM2 plays a role as a protein candidate involved in sperm-egg membrane interaction by interacting with CD9 in the oocyte. Interleukin-4 receptor activity, receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity, and manganese ion transmembrane transport activity are the major molecular functions in sperm-egg interaction protein network. The disease association analysis indicated that sperm-egg interaction defects are also reflected in other disease networks such as cardiovascular, hematological, and breast cancer diseases. By analyzing the network, we identified the major molecular functions and disease association genes in sperm-egg interaction protein. Further experimental studies will be required to confirm the significance of these new

  18. Are children with autism more responsive to animated characters? A study of interactions with humans and human-controlled avatars.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elizabeth J; Williams, Diane L; Hodgins, Jessica K; Lehman, Jill F

    2014-10-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4- to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and cartoon characters who sought social responses. We found superior gestural and verbal responses to the therapist; intermediate response levels to the avatar and the actor; and poorest responses to the cartoon characters, although attention was equivalent across conditions. These results suggest that even avatars that provide live, responsive interactions are not superior to human therapists in eliciting verbal and non-verbal communication from children with autism in this age range.

  19. Predicting and Analyzing Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Human Host

    PubMed Central

    Rapanoel, Holifidy A.; Mazandu, Gaston K.; Mulder, Nicola J.

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends greatly on how the host responds to the bacteria and how the bacteria manipulates the host, which is facilitated by protein–protein interactions. Thus, to understand this process, there is a need for elucidating protein interactions between human and Mtb, which may enable us to characterize specific molecular mechanisms allowing the bacteria to persist and survive under different environmental conditions. In this work, we used the interologs method based on experimentally verified intra-species and inter-species interactions to predict human-Mtb functional interactions. These interactions were further filtered using known human-Mtb interactions and genes that are differentially expressed during infection, producing 190 interactions. Further analysis of the subcellular location of proteins involved in these human-Mtb interactions confirms feasibility of these interactions. We also conducted functional analysis of human and Mtb proteins involved in these interactions, checking whether these proteins play a role in infection and/or disease, and enriching Mtb proteins in a previously predicted list of drug targets. We found that the biological processes of the human interacting proteins suggested their involvement in apoptosis and production of nitric oxide, whereas those of the Mtb interacting proteins were relevant to the intracellular environment of Mtb in the host. Mapping these proteins onto KEGG pathways highlighted proteins belonging to the tuberculosis pathway and also suggested that Mtb proteins might use the host to acquire nutrients, which is in agreement with the intracellular lifestyle of Mtb. This indicates that these interactions can shed light on the interplay between Mtb and its human host and thus, contribute to the process of designing novel drugs with new biological mechanisms of action. PMID:23844013

  20. Convergent Flows: Humanities Scholars and Their Interactions with Electronic Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukovic, Suzana

    2008-01-01

    This article reports research findings related to converging formats, media, practices, and ideas in the process of academics' interaction with electronic texts during a research project. The findings are part of the results of a study that explored interactions of scholars in literary and historical studies with electronic texts as primary…

  1. Lymphoid Cell-Glioma Cell Interaction Enhances Cell Coat Production by Human Gliomas: Novel Suppressor Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.; Macchi, Beatrice; Papazoglou, Savvas; Oldfield, Edward H.; Kornblith, Paul L.; Smith, Barry H.; Gately, Maurice K.

    1983-05-01

    Certain human glioma lines produce mucopolysaccharide coats that impair the generation of cytolytic lymphocytes in response to these lines in vitro. Coat production is substantially enhanced by the interaction of glioma cells with a macromolecular factor released by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture. This interaction thus constitutes an unusual mechanism by which inflammatory cells may nonspecifically suppress the cellular immune response to at least one class of solid tumors in humans.

  2. Toxic interactions among environmental pollutants: corroborating laboratory observations with human experience.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, K; Brodeur, J

    1994-01-01

    Combined exposures to multiple chemicals may result in interactions leading to a significant increase or decrease in the overall toxicity of the mixture compared to the summation of the toxicity of the components. A large number of chemical interactions have been described in animal studies by administering high doses of chemicals by routes and scenarios often different from anticipated human exposures. Though limited, there is some evidence for the occurrence of several supra-additive (the combined effects are greater than the simple summation of the individual effects) and infra-additive (the combined effects are smaller than the simple summation of the individual effects) chemical interactions in humans. For example, toxicokinetic interactions between several solvents have been found to occur in the workplace, whereas those involving pesticides have been reported less frequently, especially during accidental exposures. Toxic interactions involving nutritionally important metals and metalloids appear to occur more frequently, since several of them have an important role in a variety of physiological and biochemical processes. On the contrary, there is not much evidence to confirm the occurrence of toxic interactions among the commonly encountered inorganic gaseous pollutants in humans. Overall, the majority of chemical interactions observed in animal studies have neither been investigated in humans nor been extrapolated to humans based on appropriate mechanistic considerations. Future research efforts in the chemical interactions arena should address these issues by focusing on the development of mechanistically and biologically based models that allow predictions of the extent of interactions likely to be observed in humans. PMID:7698071

  3. The Role of Siah1-Induced Degradation of beta-Catenin in Androgen Receptor Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Table of Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………….…………....4 Body ...β- Catenin? The aims have not changed from the original proposal. 5 Body : We have made excellent progress over the entire research period...function in drug-resistant tumor cells. Cancer Res. (1996) 56:1374-1381. 2. Sanchez-Prieto, R., Lleonart, M., Ramon, Y., and Cajal , S. Lack of

  4. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Almand, Erin A.; Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease. PMID:28335562

  5. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection.

    PubMed

    Almand, Erin A; Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-03-21

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease.

  6. Widespread Macromolecular Interaction Perturbations in Human Genetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Taipale, Mikko; Fuxman Bass, Juan I.; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Yang, Fan; Peng, Jian; Weile, Jochen; Karras, Georgios I.; Wang, Yang; Kovács, István A.; Kamburov, Atanas; Krykbaeva, Irina; Lam, Mandy H.; Tucker, George; Khurana, Vikram; Sharma, Amitabh; Liu, Yang-Yu; Yachie, Nozomu; Zhong, Quan; Shen, Yun; Palagi, Alexandre; San-Miguel, Adriana; Fan, Changyu; Balcha, Dawit; Dricot, Amelie; Jordan, Daniel M.; Walsh, Jennifer M.; Shah, Akash A.; Yang, Xinping; Stoyanova, Ani; Leighton, Alex; Calderwood, Michael A.; Jacob, Yves; Cusick, Michael E.; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Whitesell, Luke J.; Sunyaev, Shamil; Berger, Bonnie; Barabási, Albert-László; Charloteaux, Benoit; Hill, David E.; Hao, Tong; Roth, Frederick P.; Xia, Yu; Walhout, Albertha J.M.; Lindquist, Susan; Vidal, Marc

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY How disease-associated mutations impair protein activities in the context of biological networks remains mostly undetermined. Although a few renowned alleles are well characterized, functional information is missing for over 100,000 disease-associated variants. Here we functionally profile several thousand missense mutations across a spectrum of Mendelian disorders using various interaction assays. The majority of disease-associated alleles exhibit wild-type chaperone binding profiles, suggesting they preserve protein folding or stability. While common variants from healthy individuals rarely affect interactions, two-thirds of disease-associated alleles perturb protein-protein interactions, with half corresponding to “edgetic” alleles affecting only a subset of interactions while leaving most other interactions unperturbed. With transcription factors, many alleles that leave protein-protein interactions intact affect DNA binding. Different mutations in the same gene leading to different interaction profiles often result in distinct disease phenotypes. Thus disease-associated alleles that perturb distinct protein activities rather than grossly affecting folding and stability are relatively widespread. PMID:25910212

  7. Human Ku70/80 interacts directly with hTR, the RNA component of human telomerase.

    PubMed

    Ting, Nicholas S Y; Yu, Yaping; Pohorelic, Brant; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Beattie, Tara L

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of telomere integrity requires the dynamic interplay between telomerase, telomere-associated proteins and DNA repair proteins. These interactions are vital to suppress DNA damage responses and changes in chromosome dynamics that can result in aneuploidy or other transforming aberrations. The interaction between the DNA repair protein Ku and the RNA component of telomerase (TLC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be important for maintaining telomere length. Here, we sought to determine whether this interaction was conserved in higher eukaryotes. Although there is no sequence similarity between TLC1 and the RNA component (hTR) of human telomerase, we show that human Ku70/80 interacts with hTR both in vitro and in a cellular context. Specifically, Ku70/80 interacts with a 47 nt region of the 3' end of hTR, which resembles the stem-loop region of the yeast Ku70/80 binding domain on TLC1. Furthermore, utilizing immunoprecipitation/RT-PCR experiments, we show that Ku interacts with hTR in cell lines deficient in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (hTERT), suggesting that this interaction does not require hTERT. These data suggest that Ku interacts directly with hTR, independent of hTERT, providing evidence for the conservation of the interaction between Ku and telomerase RNA among various species and provide significant insight into how Ku is involved in telomere maintenance in higher eukaryotes.

  8. Human Ku70/80 interacts directly with hTR, the RNA component of human telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Nicholas S. Y.; Yu, Yaping; Pohorelic, Brant; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Beattie, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of telomere integrity requires the dynamic interplay between telomerase, telomere-associated proteins and DNA repair proteins. These interactions are vital to suppress DNA damage responses and changes in chromosome dynamics that can result in aneuploidy or other transforming aberrations. The interaction between the DNA repair protein Ku and the RNA component of telomerase (TLC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be important for maintaining telomere length. Here, we sought to determine whether this interaction was conserved in higher eukaryotes. Although there is no sequence similarity between TLC1 and the RNA component (hTR) of human telomerase, we show that human Ku70/80 interacts with hTR both in vitro and in a cellular context. Specifically, Ku70/80 interacts with a 47 nt region of the 3′ end of hTR, which resembles the stem–loop region of the yeast Ku70/80 binding domain on TLC1. Furthermore, utilizing immunoprecipitation/RT–PCR experiments, we show that Ku interacts with hTR in cell lines deficient in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (hTERT), suggesting that this interaction does not require hTERT. These data suggest that Ku interacts directly with hTR, independent of hTERT, providing evidence for the conservation of the interaction between Ku and telomerase RNA among various species and provide significant insight into how Ku is involved in telomere maintenance in higher eukaryotes. PMID:15824061

  9. CIDeR: multifactorial interaction networks in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Martin; Höhn, Veit; Brauner, Barbara; Dunger, Irmtraud; Fobo, Gisela; Frishman, Goar; Montrone, Corinna; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Waegele, Brigitte; Ruepp, Andreas

    2012-07-18

    The pathobiology of common diseases is influenced by heterogeneous factors interacting in complex networks. CIDeR http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/cider/ is a publicly available, manually curated, integrative database of metabolic and neurological disorders. The resource provides structured information on 18,813 experimentally validated interactions between molecules, bioprocesses and environmental factors extracted from the scientific literature. Systematic annotation and interactive graphical representation of disease networks make CIDeR a versatile knowledge base for biologists, analysis of large-scale data and systems biology approaches.

  10. Literature review of human microbes' interaction with plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maguire, B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Human carried microorganisms, which cannot practically be excluded from human supporting agricultural systems of extra terrestrial stations, are considered. These microorganisms damage the plants on which the people depend for oxygen and food. The inclusion of carefully screened or constructed, but more or less normal, phylloplane and rhizosphere microbial communities is studied.

  11. Applications of artificial intelligence in safe human-robot interactions.

    PubMed

    Najmaei, Nima; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2011-04-01

    The integration of industrial robots into the human workspace presents a set of unique challenges. This paper introduces a new sensory system for modeling, tracking, and predicting human motions within a robot workspace. A reactive control scheme to modify a robot's operations for accommodating the presence of the human within the robot workspace is also presented. To this end, a special class of artificial neural networks, namely, self-organizing maps (SOMs), is employed for obtaining a superquadric-based model of the human. The SOM network receives information of the human's footprints from the sensory system and infers necessary data for rendering the human model. The model is then used in order to assess the danger of the robot operations based on the measured as well as predicted human motions. This is followed by the introduction of a new reactive control scheme that results in the least interferences between the human and robot operations. The approach enables the robot to foresee an upcoming danger and take preventive actions before the danger becomes imminent. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Interaction between arsenic trioxide and human primary cells: emphasis on human cells of myeloid origin.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Antoine, Francis; Girard, Denis

    2009-03-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3); ATO) is considered to be one of the most potent drugs in cancer chemotherapy and is highly effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is well established that treatment of APL patients with ATO is associated with the disappearance of the PML-RARalpha fusion transcript, the characteristic APL gene product of the chromosomal translocation t(15;17). Although its mode of action is still not fully understood, ATO is known to induce cell apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspases. Several reports have indicated that ATO acts principally by inducing cell apoptosis not only in APL, but in a variety of non-APL cells including myeloma cells, chronic myeloid leukemia cells and cells of immune origin, including B or T lymphocytes, macrophages and, more recently, neutrophils. There is an increasing amount of data, including some from our laboratory, concerning the interaction between ATO and human primary cells. The focus of this review will be to cover the role of ATO in human immune primary cells with special emphasis on cells of myeloid origin.

  13. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  14. HIV-1 Interacts with Human Endogenous Retrovirus K (HML-2) Envelopes Derived from Human Primary Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brinzevich, Daria; Young, George R.; Sebra, Robert; Ayllon, Juan; Maio, Susan M.; Deikus, Gintaras; Chen, Benjamin K.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Simon, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are viruses that have colonized the germ line and spread through vertical passage. Only the more recently acquired HERVs, such as the HERV-K (HML-2) group, maintain coding open reading frames. Expression of HERV-Ks has been linked to different pathological conditions, including HIV infection, but our knowledge on which specific HERV-Ks are expressed in primary lymphocytes currently is very limited. To identify the most expressed HERV-Ks in an unbiased manner, we analyzed their expression patterns in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. We observe that three HERV-Ks (KII, K102, and K18) constitute over 90% of the total HERV-K expression in primary human lymphocytes of five different donors. We also show experimentally that two of these HERV-K env sequences (K18 and K102) retain their ability to produce full-length and posttranslationally processed envelope proteins in cell culture. We show that HERV-K18 Env can be incorporated into HIV-1 but not simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) particles. Moreover, HERV-K18 Env incorporation into HIV-1 virions is dependent on HIV-1 matrix. Taken together, we generated high-resolution HERV-K expression profiles specific for activated human lymphocytes. We found that one of the most abundantly expressed HERV-K envelopes not only makes a full-length protein but also specifically interacts with HIV-1. Our findings raise the possibility that these endogenous retroviral Env proteins could directly influence HIV-1 replication. IMPORTANCE Here, we report the HERV-K expression profile of primary lymphocytes from 5 different healthy donors. We used a novel deep-sequencing technology (PacBio SMRT) that produces the long reads necessary to discriminate the complexity of HERV-K expression. We find that primary lymphocytes express up to 32 different HERV-K envelopes, and that at least two of the most expressed Env proteins

  15. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions.

  16. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Selvam; Sastri, Narayan P.; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue–human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by mapping the dengue–human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus. The whole dataset has been catalogued in a searchable database, called DenHunt (http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/DenHunt/). PMID:27618709

  17. Human-robot interaction for field operation of an autonomous helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Henry L.; Frew, Eric W.; Woodley, Bruce R.; Rock, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    The robustness of autonomous robotic systems to unanticipated circumstances is typically insufficient for use in the field. The many skills of a human user often fill this gap in robotic capability. To incorporate the human into the system, a useful interaction between man and machine must exist. This interaction should enable useful communication to be exchanged in a natural way between human and robot on a variety of levels. This paper describes the current human-robot interaction of the Stanford HUMMINGBIRD autonomous helicopter. In particular, the paper discuses the elements of the system that enable multiple levels of communication. An intelligent system agent manages the different inputs given to the helicopter. An advanced user interface gives the user and helicopter a method for exchanging useful information. Using this human-robot interaction, the HUMMINGBIRD has carried out various autonomous search, tracking, and retrieval missions.

  18. Structured learning of human interactions in TV shows.

    PubMed

    Patron-Perez, Alonso; Marszalek, Marcin; Reid, Ian; Zisserman, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is recognition and spatiotemporal localization of two-person interactions in video. Our approach is person-centric. As a first stage we track all upper bodies and heads in a video using a tracking-by-detection approach that combines detections with KLT tracking and clique partitioning, together with occlusion detection, to yield robust person tracks. We develop local descriptors of activity based on the head orientation (estimated using a set of pose-specific classifiers) and the local spatiotemporal region around them, together with global descriptors that encode the relative positions of people as a function of interaction type. Learning and inference on the model uses a structured output SVM which combines the local and global descriptors in a principled manner. Inference using the model yields information about which pairs of people are interacting, their interaction class, and their head orientation (which is also treated as a variable, enabling mistakes in the classifier to be corrected using global context). We show that inference can be carried out with polynomial complexity in the number of people, and describe an efficient algorithm for this. The method is evaluated on a new dataset comprising 300 video clips acquired from 23 different TV shows and on the benchmark UT--Interaction dataset.

  19. CacyBP/SIP interacts with tubulin in neuroblastoma NB2a cells and induces formation of globular tubulin assemblies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gabriela; Nieznanski, Krzysztof; Kilanczyk, Ewa; Bieganowski, Paweł; Kuznicki, Jacek; Filipek, Anna

    2007-11-01

    CacyBP/SIP, originally identified as a S100A6 (calcyclin) target, was later shown to interact with some other members of the S100 family as well as with Siah-1 and Skp1 proteins. Recently, it has been shown that CacyBP/SIP is up-regulated during differentiation of cardiomyocytes. In this work we show that the level of CacyBP/SIP is higher in differentiated neuroblastoma NB2a cells than in undifferentiated ones and that in cells overexpressing CacyBP/SIP the level of GAP-43, a marker of differentiation, was increased. Since the process of differentiation is accompanied by an extensive rearrangement of microtubules, we examined whether CacyBP/SIP interacted with tubulin. By applying cross-linking experiments we found that these two proteins bind directly. The dissociation constant of the tubulin-CacyBP/SIP complex determined by the surface plasmon resonance technique is 1.57 x 10(-7 )M which suggests that the interaction is tight. The interaction and co-localization of CacyBP/SIP and tubulin was also demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity chromatography and immunofluorescence methods. Light scattering measurements and electron microscopy studies revealed that CacyBP/SIP, but not its homologue, Sgt1, increased tubulin oligomerization. Altogether, our results suggest that CacyBP/SIP, via its interaction with tubulin, might contribute to the differentiation of neuroblastoma NB2a cells.

  20. Neuroimaging the interaction of mind and metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Alexandra E.; Small, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal and metabolic signals interact with neural circuits orchestrating behavior to guide food intake. Neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enable the identification of where in the brain particular mental processes like desire, satiety and pleasure occur. Once these neural circuits are described it then becomes possible to determine how metabolic and hormonal signals can alter brain response to influence psychological states and decision-making processes to guide intake. Here, we provide an overview of the contributions of functional neuroimaging to the understanding of how subjective and neural responses to food and food cues interact with metabolic/hormonal factors. PMID:24024114

  1. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  2. Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Human Information Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to understand the interactions of perception, effort, emotion, time and performance during the performance of multiple information tasks using Web information technologies. Method: Twenty volunteers from a university participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to obtain general background information and…

  3. Interpersonal Dynamics; Essays and Readings on Human Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennis, Warren G.; And Others

    This book delineates underlying concepts, areas of concern, and research findings in the field of interpersonal relations. Section 1 deals with the expressive or emotional aspects of interaction (love, hate, ambivalence, alienation) as they occur in marriage, friendship, family life, and less permanent social situations. The next three sections…

  4. Inferring High-Confidence Human Protein-Protein Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Similarly, the top-ranked interaction between L-threonine dehydrogenase ( TDH ) and aminoacetone synthetase (alias of GCAT) catalyzes the conversion of L...acetyltransferase TDH 2 L-threonine dehydrogenase 2 577.4 11.0 1328.0 CXCL16 4 Inducible T cell co-stimulator CXCR6 4 Inducible T cell co-stimulator

  5. The importance of gene-environment interactions in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Reddon, Hudson; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Meyre, David

    2016-09-01

    The worldwide obesity epidemic has been mainly attributed to lifestyle changes. However, who becomes obese in an obesity-prone environment is largely determined by genetic factors. In the last 20 years, important progress has been made in the elucidation of the genetic architecture of obesity. In parallel with successful gene identifications, the number of gene-environment interaction (GEI) studies has grown rapidly. This paper reviews the growing body of evidence supporting gene-environment interactions in the field of obesity. Heritability, monogenic and polygenic obesity studies provide converging evidence that obesity-predisposing genes interact with a variety of environmental, lifestyle and treatment exposures. However, some skepticism remains regarding the validity of these studies based on several issues, which include statistical modelling, confounding, low replication rate, underpowered analyses, biological assumptions and measurement precision. What follows in this review includes (1) an introduction to the study of GEI, (2) the evidence of GEI in the field of obesity, (3) an outline of the biological mechanisms that may explain these interaction effects, (4) methodological challenges associated with GEI studies and potential solutions, and (5) future directions of GEI research. Thus far, this growing body of evidence has provided a deeper understanding of GEI influencing obesity and may have tremendous applications in the emerging field of personalized medicine and individualized lifestyle recommendations.

  6. Figure-ground interaction in the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G; Wade, Alex R; Pettet, Mark W; Vildavski, Vladimir Y; Norcia, Anthony M

    2008-07-18

    Discontinuities in feature maps serve as important cues for the location of object boundaries. Here we used multi-input nonlinear analysis methods and EEG source imaging to assess the role of several different boundary cues in visual scene segmentation. Synthetic figure/ground displays portraying a circular figure region were defined solely by differences in the temporal frequency of the figure and background regions in the limiting case and by the addition of orientation or relative alignment cues in other cases. The use of distinct temporal frequencies made it possible to separately record responses arising from each region and to characterize the nature of nonlinear interactions between the two regions as measured in a set of retinotopically and functionally defined cortical areas. Figure/background interactions were prominent in retinotopic areas, and in an extra-striate region lying dorsal and anterior to area MT+. Figure/background interaction was greatly diminished by the elimination of orientation cues, the introduction of small gaps between the two regions, or by the presence of a constant second-order border between regions. Nonlinear figure/background interactions therefore carry spatially precise, time-locked information about the continuity/discontinuity of oriented texture fields. This information is widely distributed throughout occipital areas, including areas that do not display strong retinotopy.

  7. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations with different social experiences: family and kennel dogs; dog experts and non-experts. Dogs' gazing behaviour was similar to humans: both species gazed longer at the actors in social interaction than in non-social images. However, humans gazed longer at the actors in dog than human social interaction images, whereas dogs gazed longer at the actors in human than dog social interaction images. Both species also made more saccades between actors in images representing non-conspecifics, which could indicate that processing social interaction of non-conspecifics may be more demanding. Dog experts and non-experts viewed the images very similarly. Kennel dogs viewed images less than family dogs, but otherwise their gazing behaviour did not differ, indicating that the basic processing of social stimuli remains similar regardless of social experiences.

  8. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations with different social experiences: family and kennel dogs; dog experts and non-experts. Dogs' gazing behaviour was similar to humans: both species gazed longer at the actors in social interaction than in non-social images. However, humans gazed longer at the actors in dog than human social interaction images, whereas dogs gazed longer at the actors in human than dog social interaction images. Both species also made more saccades between actors in images representing non-conspecifics, which could indicate that processing social interaction of non-conspecifics may be more demanding. Dog experts and non-experts viewed the images very similarly. Kennel dogs viewed images less than family dogs, but otherwise their gazing behaviour did not differ, indicating that the basic processing of social stimuli remains similar regardless of social experiences. PMID:26473057

  9. HUMAN-ECOSYSTEM INTERACTIONS: THE CASE OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human and ecosystem exposure studies evaluate exposure of sensitive and vulnerable populations. We will discuss how ecosystem exposure modeling studies completed for input into the US Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) to evaluate the response of aquatic ecosystems to changes in mercu...

  10. Ecological Interactions of Bacteria in the Human Gut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falony, Gwen; de Vuyst, Luc

    The colon or large intestine is one of the most important organs of the human body (Macfarlane and Cummings, 1991). Moreover, its inhabitants, the colon microbiota, are the key elements of the human digestive ecosystem. The vast complexity of the human large-intestinal microbiota has inspired researchers to consider it as an organ itself, located inside the colon and acquired postnatally (Bäckhed et al., 2005; Zocco et al., 2007). From a physiologist's point of view, this image of the colon microbiota is relevant: like an organ, it is composed of different cell lineages that communicate with both one another and the host; it consumes, stores, and redistributes energy; it mediates physiologically important chemical transformations; and it is able to maintain and repair itself through self-replication (Bäckhed et al., 2005). As a microbial organ, the human colon community does not only broaden the digestive abilities of the host (Gill et al., 2006), but also influences body processes far beyond digestion (Roberfroid, 2005b; Turnbaugh et al., 2007).

  11. Cooperative Interactions During Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Immortalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Immortal Transformation of Cultured Human Mammary Epithelial Cells. Cellular Oncology, 26:248-251, 2004. Rodier , F., Kim, S-H., Nijjar, T., Yaswen, P...Promoter, Mol. Cell Biol.: 25:3923-3933, 2005. Goldstein, J, Rodier , F, Garbe, J, Stampfer, M, Campisi, J, Caspase-independent cytochrome c release is a

  12. Interaction between Locale and Taxon Strategies in Human Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redhead, Edward S.; Hamilton, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    Three computer-based experiments which tested human participants in a non-immersive virtual watermaze task sought to determine factors which dictate whether the presence of a visual platform disrupts locale learning and taxon learning. In Experiment 1, the visible platform disrupted locale but not taxon learning based on viewpoint-independent and…

  13. Interaction of human plasma fibronectin with viral proteins of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Torre, D; Pugliese, A; Ferrario, G; Marietti, G; Forno, B; Zeroli, C

    1994-02-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is present in soluble and matrix forms in various body fluids and tissues, and has been shown to bind to several pathogens, including viruses. The interaction of FN with viral proteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) was investigated by immunofluorescence technique using a cell line chronically infected with HIV-1 (H9-V). The results of this study showed that FN binds to HIV-1 infected cells, especially at FN concentration of 5 micrograms/ml. In addition, FN-pentapeptide has shown the ability to bind to HIV-1 infected cells. On the other hand, preincubation with antibodies against FN abolished the binding of FN to HIV-1 infected cells. Finally, FN has shown to bind to HIV-1 glycoproteins, including gp41 and gp120. In contrast, no binding to HIV-1 core proteins, including p15 and p24, was noted. We suggest that FN, in binding HIV-1 particles, may reduce viremia and thus may be involved in the clearance of viral proteins from the cells.

  14. The Effect of Information Level on Human-Agent Interaction for Route Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    more time may not necessarily mean an “ overload ” of information . All participants in both experiments successfully met their performance goal of...ARL-TR-7563 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Information Level on Human-Agent Interaction for Route Planning...Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Information Level on Human-Agent Interaction for Route Planning by Julia L Wright, Michael W Boyce

  15. A Language Use Perspective on the Design of Human-Computer Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    1 A LANGUAGE USE PERSPECTIVE ON THE DESIGN OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Derek Brock Naval Research Lab Washington, DC, 20375, USA brock...4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a ...00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Language Use Perspective on the Design of Human-Computer Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  16. Human-Robot Interaction: Intention Recognition and Mutual Entrainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-18

    motion generation [7]. A dance partner robot, PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot) has also been developed in the aim of creating a robot who can dance ...Waltz involves two dancers. Understanding of the female dancer’s abilities in dancing may help designing robots that can physically interact with...entertainment and rehabilitation purposes [5]. Another reason 2 Figure 1: One developed dance partner robot [6] is that waltz is the pHHI in well

  17. On the Interaction of Compressible Flow and Human Vocal Folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopová, J.; Feistauer, M.; Horáček, J.; Kosík, A.; Kučera, V.

    The paper is devoted to the numerical solution of interaction of compressible flow with elastic structure with application to the simulation of flow in vocal folds. It is described by the coupling of compressible Navier-Stokes equations and dynamical elasticity system, solved by the combination of the discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of the flow field and conforming finite elements for the elasticity problem.

  18. Regulation and Entrainment in Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    applications for domestic, health care related, or entertainment based robots motivate the development of robots that can socially interact with, learn...picture shows WE-3RII, an expressive face robot developed at Waseda University. The middle right picture shows Robita, an upper-torso robot also... developed at Waseda University to track speaking turns. The far right picture shows our expressive robot, Kismet, developed at MIT. The two leftmost photos

  19. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  20. Teaching human poses interactively to a social robot.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A

    2013-09-17

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  1. Autonomous Navigation for Mobile Robots with Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, James; Johns, Edward; Valibeik, Salman; Wong, Charence; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    Dynamic and complex indoor environments present a challenge for mobile robot navigation. The robot must be able to simultaneously map the environment, which often has repetitive features, whilst keep track of its pose and location. This chapter introduces some of the key considerations for human guided navigation. Rather than letting the robot explore the environment fully autonomously, we consider the use of human guidance for progressively building up the environment map and establishing scene association, learning, as well as navigation and planning. After the guide has taken the robot through the environment and indicated the points of interest via hand gestures, the robot is then able to use the geometric map and scene descriptors captured during the tour to create a high-level plan for subsequent autonomous navigation within the environment. Issues related to gesture recognition, multi-cue integration, tracking, target pursuing, scene association and navigation planning are discussed.

  2. Acanthamoeba castellanii: morphological analysis of the interaction with human cornea.

    PubMed

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; González-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth Iliana; Cristóbal-Ramos, Ana Ruth; González-Lázaro, Mónica; Salinas-Moreno, Edmundo; Méndez-Cruz, Rene; Sánchez-Cornejo, Manuel; De la Torre-González, Enrique; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2010-09-01

    The present study demonstrates that when Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites are co-cultivated with isolated human corneas, the amoeba can be invasive and cause damage to the intact corneal epithelium without the requirement of previous corneal abrasion. After adhesion, A. castellanii trophozoites migrate between cells forming bumps on the corneal cell layers and reaching Bowman s membrane in 3h, although no evidence of cell damage was observed until the phagocytic process was detected. Likewise, conditioned medium produced damage to the corneal cells that was proportional to the time of incubation, but this cytophatic effect involved only the most superficial layer of the human cornea and was not enough to explain amoebic invasion of Bowman s membrane. As a result of our observations, we suggest that the mechanical action of the trophozoites and phagocytosis of corneal cells during the process of corneal invasion are more important than previously suggested.

  3. A Toolset for Supporting Iterative Human Automation: Interaction in Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of automation has greatly extended humans' capability to accomplish tasks, including those that are difficult, complex and safety critical. The majority of Human - Automation Interacton (HAl) results in more efficient and safe operations, ho,,:,ever ertain unpected atomatlon behaviors or "automation surprises" can be frustrating and, In certain safety critical operations (e.g. transporttion, manufacturing control, medicine), may result in injuries or. the loss of life.. (Mellor, 1994; Leveson, 1995; FAA, 1995; BASI, 1998; Sheridan, 2002). This papr describes he development of a design tool that enables on the rapid development and evaluation. of automaton prototypes. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a design platform upon which automation surprise vulnerability analyses can be integrated.

  4. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  5. NIE Conference on Studies in Teaching; Panel 2, Teaching as Human Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, N. L., Ed.

    The goal of this panel was to develop the means to improve the reliability, validity, and utility of analyses of human interaction in learning settings. Research on interaction itself, as well as its association with the variables of student learning, student characteristics, setting characteristics, and teacher education were all concerns of this…

  6. A comparative genomic approach for identifying synthetic lethal interactions in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Raamesh; Asiedu, Michael K; Klebig, Mitchell; Sutor, Shari; Kuzmin, Elena; Nelson, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff; Shin, Seung Ho; Yoshida, Minoru; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Wigle, Dennis A; Myers, Chad L

    2013-10-15

    Synthetic lethal interactions enable a novel approach for discovering specific genetic vulnerabilities in cancer cells that can be exploited for the development of therapeutics. Despite successes in model organisms such as yeast, discovering synthetic lethal interactions on a large scale in human cells remains a significant challenge. We describe a comparative genomic strategy for identifying cancer-relevant synthetic lethal interactions whereby candidate interactions are prioritized on the basis of genetic interaction data available in yeast, followed by targeted testing of candidate interactions in human cell lines. As a proof of principle, we describe two novel synthetic lethal interactions in human cells discovered by this approach, one between the tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 and PSMA4, and another between alveolar soft-part sarcoma-associated ASPSCR1 and PSMC2. These results suggest therapeutic targets for cancers harboring mutations in SMARCB1 or ASPSCR1 and highlight the potential of a targeted, cross-species strategy for identifying synthetic lethal interactions relevant to human cancer.

  7. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  8. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  9. Integrating HCI into IDT: Charting the Human Computer Interaction Competencies Necessary for Instructional Media Production Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie; Sugar, William

    2004-01-01

    A report on the efforts made to describe the range of human-computer interaction skills necessary to complete a program of study in Instructional Design Technology. Educators responsible for instructional media production courses have not yet articulated which among the wide range of possible interactions students must master for instructional…

  10. Human Interactive Analysis Using Video: Mapping the Dynamics of Complex Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explains human interactive analysis as an architecture for using computer interactive technologies in the analysis of complex work environments. A project at the Naval Training Systems Center that used video-audio data to develop a multimedia database is described; the analysis and management of data are discussed; and decision processes are…

  11. Dietary whole grain-microbiota interactions: Insights into mechanisms for human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes the presentations from the “Dietary whole grain-microbiota interactions: Insights into mechanisms for human health” symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA on April 28, 2014. The symposium focused on the interactive effects of whole grains and non-digestible...

  12. Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of the Research on Its Affective and Social Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaudelin, Colette; Dussault, Marc; Brodeur, Monique

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a review of 34 qualitative and non-qualitative studies related to affective and social aspects of student-computer interactions. Highlights include the nature of the human-computer interaction (HCI); the interface, comparing graphic and text types; and the relation between variables linked to HCI, mainly trust, locus of control,…

  13. The Human Factors of Graphic Interaction: Tasks and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    adjectives, adverbs , prepositions) of the language. The commands are the semantics of the input language, while the collection of information...presentation is to bring out some of the human factors issues which are germane to the design of the techniques, and to discuss any experiments which are...anecdotal reports of draftsmen and designers using light pens for hours without problems. We have found no germane experiments. Learning of hand-eye

  14. Scalable Solutions for Interactive Virtual Humans that can Manipulate Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    A scalable approach is therefore sought for addressing such different requirements in an unified framework. Related Work Only few animation frameworks... animation of human grasping using forward and in- verse kinematics. Computer & Graphics 23:145–154. Baerlocher, P., and Boulic, R. 1998. Task-priority...formu- lations for the kinematic control of highly redundant artic - ulated structures. In Proceedings of IEEE IROS’98, 323– 329. Baerlocher, P. 2001

  15. Human Metabolism and Interactions of Deployment-Related Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    initial studies using human hepatocytes. HPLC methods have been either adapted or developed to facilitate these studies. The results will enable findings...sequence has been realigned in order to facilitate reporting and improve readability. The new, overall, headings are as follows: 1. Development of new HPLC ...involved was testosterone. 1. Development of new HPLC methods and/or modification and validation of available methods for analysis of the test

  16. Human-Swarm Interactions Based on Managing Attractors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    influence can cause the swarm to switch between attractors. We further claim that using quorum sensing allows a human to manage trade- offs between...attractors of dynamic systems, bio-inspired swarms, quorum sensing 1. INTRODUCTION Swarms provide complex behaviors out of simple agents following simple...the notion of quorum sensing , as found in biological systems and show how this can be applied to a swarm. In addition to increasing the scalability of

  17. Complexion as a Soft Biometric in Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    cues that humans use for recognition. Sinha et al. [14] demonstrated that pigmentation cues provide as much dis- tinctiveness as shape cues. This...local binary patterns. In this paper, we capture complexion using both Hue- Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting ...Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302 Respondents should be aware

  18. The interaction between human papillomavirus and other viruses.

    PubMed

    Guidry, J T; Scott, R S

    2017-03-02

    The etiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in anogenital tract and head and neck cancers is well established. However, only a low percentage of HPV-positive women develop cancer, indicating that HPV is necessary but not sufficient in carcinogenesis. Several biological and environmental cofactors have been implicated in the development of HPV-associated carcinoma that include immune status, hormonal changes, parity, dietary habits, tobacco usage, and co-infection with other sexually transmissible agents. Such cofactors likely contribute to HPV persistent infection through diverse mechanisms related to immune control, efficiency of HPV infection, and influences on tumor initiation and progression. Conversely, HPV co-infection with other factors may also harbor anti-tumor effects. Here, we review epidemiological and experimental studies investigating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), BK virus (BKV), JC virus (JCV), and adeno-associated virus (AAV) as viral cofactors in or therapeutic factors against the development of genital and oral HPV-associated carcinomas.

  19. Human-computer interaction in distributed supervisory control tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of activities concerned with the development and applications of the Operator Function Model (OFM) is presented. The OFM is a mathematical tool to represent operator interaction with predominantly automated space ground control systems. The design and assessment of an intelligent operator aid (OFMspert and Ally) is particularly discussed. The application of OFM to represent the task knowledge in the design of intelligent tutoring systems, designated OFMTutor and ITSSO (Intelligent Tutoring System for Satellite Operators), is also described. Viewgraphs from symposia presentations are compiled along with papers addressing the intent inferencing capabilities of OFMspert, the OFMTutor system, and an overview of intelligent tutoring systems and the implications for complex dynamic systems.

  20. Pragmatic Frames for Teaching and Learning in Human-Robot Interaction: Review and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Wrede, Britta; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    One of the big challenges in robotics today is to learn from human users that are inexperienced in interacting with robots but yet are often used to teach skills flexibly to other humans and to children in particular. A potential route toward natural and efficient learning and teaching in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is to leverage the social competences of humans and the underlying interactional mechanisms. In this perspective, this article discusses the importance of pragmatic frames as flexible interaction protocols that provide important contextual cues to enable learners to infer new action or language skills and teachers to convey these cues. After defining and discussing the concept of pragmatic frames, grounded in decades of research in developmental psychology, we study a selection of HRI work in the literature which has focused on learning-teaching interaction and analyze the interactional and learning mechanisms that were used in the light of pragmatic frames. This allows us to show that many of the works have already used in practice, but not always explicitly, basic elements of the pragmatic frames machinery. However, we also show that pragmatic frames have so far been used in a very restricted way as compared to how they are used in human-human interaction and argue that this has been an obstacle preventing robust natural multi-task learning and teaching in HRI. In particular, we explain that two central features of human pragmatic frames, mostly absent of existing HRI studies, are that (1) social peers use rich repertoires of frames, potentially combined together, to convey and infer multiple kinds of cues; (2) new frames can be learnt continually, building on existing ones, and guiding the interaction toward higher levels of complexity and expressivity. To conclude, we give an outlook on the future research direction describing the relevant key challenges that need to be solved for leveraging pragmatic frames for robot learning and teaching.

  1. Promoting one health: the University of Missouri Research Center for Human/Animal Interaction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2013-01-01

    The University of Missouri's College of Veterinary Medicine is home to the Research Center for Human-Animal Interaction. This center uniquely addresses a growing area of research that focuses on how the human-animal bond impacts health in people and animals. This article highlights the One Health basis for the center, several research projects, and future goals for the center.

  2. Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions for the Occupational Specialist. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Juanita B.; Boland, Jeanne M.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist interact effectively with a variety of students, teachers, co-workers and employees. Other modules in this set of three are Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational…

  3. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

  4. The Origins of Human Interaction. The Van Zelst Lecture in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Joseph N.

    In the field of communication studies the preeminent forms of explanation of human behavior have been the social and psychological, but biological origins may be as important to understanding human communication as are social origins. Communication research suggests a biological basis for certain patterns of adult interaction. Although these…

  5. Crabby Interactions: Fifth Graders Explore Human Impact on the Blue Crab Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Tonya D.; McCollough, Cherie A.; Moore, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a two-day lesson in which fifth-grade students took on the role of marine biology scientists, using their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to explore human impact on the blue crab ecosystem. The purpose of "Crabby Interactions" was to help students understand the impact of human activities on the local…

  6. Interaction of probiotics and pathogens--benefits to human health?

    PubMed

    Salminen, Seppo; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Collado, Maria Carmen; Vesterlund, Satu; El-Nezami, Hani

    2010-04-01

    The probiotic terminology has matured over the years and currently a unified definition has been formed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have been reported to remove heavy metals, cyanotoxins and mycotoxins from aqueous solutions. The binding processes appear to be species and strain specific. The most efficient microbial species and strains in the removal of these compounds vary between components tested. However, it is of interest to note that most strains characterized until now do not bind positive components or nutrients in the diet. This has significant implications to future detoxification biotechnology development. In a similar manner, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria interact directly with viruses and pathogens in food and water as well as toxin producing microbes and some toxins. This review updates information and aims to characterize these interactions in association. The target is to understand probiotic health effects and to relate the mechanisms and actions to future potential of specific probiotic bacteria on decontamination of foods and water, and diets. The same aim is targeted in characterizing the role of probiotics in inactivating pathogens and viruses of health importance to facilitate the establishment of novel means of disease risk reduction related health benefits.

  7. Effects of human chromosome 12 on interactions between Tat and TAR of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, A; Cujec, T P; Peterlin, B M

    1994-01-01

    Rates of transcriptions of the human immunodeficiency virus are greatly increased by the viral trans activator Tat. In vitro, Tat binds to the 5' bulge of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA stem-loop, which is present in all viral transcripts. In human cells, the central loop in TAR and its cellular RNA-binding proteins are also critical for the function of Tat. Previously, we demonstrated that in rodent cells (CHO cells), but not in those which contain the human chromosome 12 (CHO12 cells), Tat-TAR interactions are compromised. In this study, we examined the roles of the bulge and loop in TAR in Tat trans activation in these cells. Whereas low levels of trans activation depended solely on interactions between Tat and the bulge in CHO cells, high levels of trans activation depended also on interactions between Tat and the loop in CHO12 cells. Since the TAR loop binding proteins in these two cell lines were identical and different from their human counterpart, the human chromosome 12 does not encode TAR loop binding proteins. In vivo binding competition studies with TAR decoys confirmed that the binding of Tat to TAR is more efficient in CHO12 cells. Thus, the protein(s) encoded on human chromosome 12 helps to tether Tat to TAR via its loop, which results in high levels of trans activation. Images PMID:8083988

  8. Biomolecular Interaction Study of Cyclolinopeptide A with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Ben; Gui, Bo; Maley, Jason; Reaney, Martin; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics, energetics, and structure of Cyclolinopeptide A binding with Human Serum Albumin were investigated with surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. The complex is formed through slow recognition kinetics that is temperature sensitive in the range of 20°C–37°C. The overall reaction was observed to be endothermic (ΔH = 204 kJ mol−1) and entropy driven (ΔS = 746 J mol−1K−1) with overall small changes to the tertiary structure. PMID:21436992

  9. Investigation of astrocyte - oligodendrocyte interactions in human cultures.

    PubMed

    John, Gareth R

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by CNS demyelination and oligodendrocyte depletion, axonal loss, and reactive astrogliosis. Myelin loss causes conduction block, while remyelination is associated with recovery of conduction and return of function. Reactive astrocytes are a prominent feature of MS plaques, and have been implicated as producing factors regulating oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and myelin formation. Understanding their impact on these events may lead to new approaches for oligodendrocyte protection and/or remyelination in MS. Here, we outline protocols for the establishment and analysis of primary monocultures and cocultures of human astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. These approaches are designed to facilitate analysis of mechanisms underlying astrocytic regulation of progenitor survival and myelin repair.

  10. Effects of laser interaction with living human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanova, O. E.; Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Smirnova, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    With the help of a highly sensitive laser device with the wavelength λ = 0.808 pm, which is optimal for deep penetration of the radiation into biological tissues, the effects associated with the appearance of uncontrolled human infrasonic vibrations of different frequencies were investigated. It was established that the observed fluctuations are associated with the vascular system which is characterized by its own respiratory movements, occurring synchronously with the movements of the respiratory muscles, the operation of the heart muscle, and the effect of compression ischemia. The effect of “enlightenment” of a tissue is observed with stopping of blood flow in vessels by applying a tourniquet on the wrist.

  11. Assessing neuromuscular mechanisms in human-exoskeleton interaction.

    PubMed

    Sylla, N; Bonnet, V; Venture, G; Armande, N; Fraisse, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose to evaluate a 7 DOF exoskeleton in terms of motion control. Using criteria from the human motor control literature, inverse optimization was performed to assess an industrial screwing movement. The results of our study show that the hybrid composition of the free arm movement was accurately determined. At contrary, when wearing the exoskeleton, which produces an arbitrary determined torque compensation, the motion is different from the naturally adopted one. This study is part of the evaluation and comprehension of the complex neuromuscular mechanism resulting in wearing an exoskeleton several hours per day for industrial tasks assistance.

  12. Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2004-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a long-term program to develop human-robot systems for sustained, affordable space exploration. To support this mission, we are working to improve human-robot interaction and performance on planetary surfaces. Rather than building robots that function as glorified tools, our focus is to enable humans and robots to work as partners and peers. In this paper. we describe our approach, which includes contextual dialogue, cognitive modeling, and metrics-based field testing.

  13. Identification of membrane proteins mediating the interaction of human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, D; Jennings, L; Edwards, H

    1980-01-01

    Membrane glycoproteins that mediate platelet-platelet interactions were investigated by identifying those associated with the cytoskeletal structures from aggregated platelets. The cytoskeletal structures from washed platelets, thrombin-activated platelets (platelets incubated with thrombin in the presence of mM EDTA to prevent aggregation) and thrombin- aggregated platelets (platelets activated in the presence of mM Ca(++) were prepared by first treating platelet suspensions with 1 percent Triton X-100 and 5 mM EGTA and then isolating the insoluble residue by centrifugation. The readily identifiable structures in electron micrographs of the residue from washed platelets had the shape and dimensions of actin filaments. Analysis of this residue from washed platelets had the shape and dimensions of actin filaments. Analysis of this residue by SDS gel electrophoresis showed that it consisted primarily of three proteins: actin (mol wt = 43,000), myosin (mol wt = 200,000) and a high molecular weight polypeptide (mol wt = 255,000) which had properties indentical to actin-binding protein (filamin). When platelets are activated with thrombin in the presence of EDTA to prevent aggregation, there was a marked increase in the amount of insoluble precipitate in the subsequent Triton extraction. Transmission electron microscopy showed that this residue not only contained the random array of actin filaments as seen above, but also organized structures from individual platelets which appeared as balls of electron-dense filamentous material approximately 1mum in diameter. SDS polyacrylamide gel analysis of the Triton residue of activated platelets showed that this preparation contained more actin, myosin and actin-binding protein than that from washed platelets plus polypeptides with mol wt of 56,000 and 90,000 and other minor polypeptides. Thus, thrombin activation appeared to increase polymerization of actin in association with other cytoskeletal proteins into structures that

  14. Learning in human-dolphin interactions at zoological facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Diane L.

    This research aimed to better understand learning in zoological settings, particularly learning about marine mammals, by investigating the research question, what do people learn through interacting with dolphins in zoological facilities? Sociocultural situated learning theory, specifically a Community of Practice (CoP) model of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991), was the theoretical framework. The CoP model allowed for diversity of knowledge, interest, motivations, and goals that existed among the community of animal enthusiasts at three commercial zoological facilities, and also for peripheral to more central types of participation. I collected data through interviews of spectators, visitors, and trainers (n=51), observations (n=16), and an online questionnaire of past-visitors (n=933). Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed based on the National Science Foundation's (Friedman, 2008) and the National Research Council's (2009) frameworks for informal science education. Five principal findings answered the research question. First, all participants gained new knowledge within three broad categories: (a) dolphin physiology and natural history, (b) care and training of dolphins, and (c) conservation. Second, all participants constructed personal meanings by connecting the activity to experiences, beliefs, and practices outside the interaction context. Almost all participants made associations with conservation. Third, most participants shifted their attitudes and gained a sense of personal agency about beginning or increasing stewardship actions. Fourth, visitors learned interspecies etiquette skills; trainers learned skills in dolphin training and management, people management, and teaching. Fifth, visitors had long-lasting memories of the experience that occurred eight months to 18 years in the past. Popular cultural ideas about dolphins and the ways the dolphins were represented influenced visitors' expectations and the types of learning. Potential physical

  15. Interactions between cardiac, respiratory, and brain activity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musizza, Bojan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and α-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency was obtained from recordings of the excursions of thorax by application of the Hilbert transform. To obtain the instantaneous frequency of α-waves, the EEG signal recorded from the forehead was first analysed using the wavelet transform. Then the frequency band corresponding to α-waves was extracted and the Hilbert transform applied. Synchronization analysis was performed and the direction of coupling was ascertained, using pairs of instantaneous frequencies in each case. It is shown that the systems are weakly bidirectionally coupled. It was confirmed that, in conscious healthy humans, respiration drives cardiac activity. We also demonstrate from these analyses that α-activity drives both respiration and cardiac activity.

  16. Interaction of Choriocarcinoma Cells and Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    August, Charles S.; Cox, Sheila T.; Naughton, Michael A.

    1979-01-01

    Cultured choriocarcinoma (Be Wo) cells exist that share many of the morphologic and bio-synthetic properties of normal human trophoblasts. In an attempt to develop a model for the immunologic relationship between a sensitized mother and fetus, we mixed Be Wo cells with mitogen-activated cytotoxic lymphocytes in vitro. Be Wo cells were resistant to the cytolytic effects of the activated lymphocytes despite 24-h exposure and intimate cell-to-cell contact as determined by microscopy. Control target cells, a line of human hepatoma cells, were readily destroyed. Cytotoxicity was measured by determining residual radioactivity of [3H]thymidine-labeled target cells after exposure to activated lymphocytes. Employing the quantitative assay, we confirmed the morphologic results and showed that Be Wo and a number of other choriocarcinoma cell lines were resistant to the cytotoxic effects of lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and allogeneic cells in mixed lymphocyte cultures. Moreover, Be Wo cells were resistant to injury over a wide range of killer to target cell ratios. Significant killing of the Be Wo cells occurred only after prolonged exposure (48 and 72 h) to the activated lymphocytes. We suggest that one mechanism that may assist the fetus (or a choriocarcinoma) in its immunologic survival is the intrinsic resistance of trophoblast cells to lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity. Images PMID:570981

  17. Human macrophage differentiation involves an interaction between integrins and fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Laouar, A.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Collart, F.; Huberman, E.

    1997-03-14

    The authors have examined the role of integrins and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in macrophage differentiation of (1) human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (2) human peripheral blood monocytes induced by either PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Increased {beta}{sub 1} integrin and fibronectin (FN) gene expression was observed in PMA-treated HL-60 cells and PMA- or M-CSF-treated monocytes, even at a time preceding the manifestation of macrophage markers. Treated HL-60 cells and monocytes also released and deposited FN on the culture dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in protein kinase C {beta} (PKC{beta}) and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, failed to express FN after PMA treatment. Restoration of PKC{beta} resulted in PMA-induced FN gene expression and macrophage differentiation. The macrophage phenotype induced in HL-60 cells or monocytes was attenuated by anti-{beta}{sub 1} integrin or anti-FN MAbs. The authors suggest that macrophage differentiation involves activation of PKC and expression of specific integrins and ECM proteins. The stimulated cells, through their integrins, attach and spread on these substrates by binding to the deposited ECM proteins. This attachment and spreading in turn, through integrin signaling, leads to the macrophage phenotype.

  18. Modeling human diseases: an education in interactions and interdisciplinary approaches

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, most investigators in the biomedical arena exploit one model system in the course of their careers. Occasionally, an investigator will switch models. The selection of a suitable model system is a crucial step in research design. Factors to consider include the accuracy of the model as a reflection of the human disease under investigation, the numbers of animals needed and ease of husbandry, its physiology and developmental biology, and the ability to apply genetics and harness the model for drug discovery. In my lab, we have primarily used the zebrafish but combined it with other animal models and provided a framework for others to consider the application of developmental biology for therapeutic discovery. Our interdisciplinary approach has led to many insights into human diseases and to the advancement of candidate drugs to clinical trials. Here, I draw on my experiences to highlight the importance of combining multiple models, establishing infrastructure and genetic tools, forming collaborations, and interfacing with the medical community for successful translation of basic findings to the clinic. PMID:27483497

  19. Cognitive conflict in human-automation interactions: a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Dehais, Frédéric; Causse, Mickaël; Vachon, François; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    The review of literature in sociology and distributed artificial intelligence reveals that the occurrence of conflict is a remarkable precursor to the disruption of multi-agent systems. The study of this concept could be applied to human factors concerns, as man-system conflict appears to provoke perseveration behavior and to degrade attentional abilities with a trend to excessive focus. Once entangled in such conflicts, the human operator will do anything to succeed in his current goal even if it jeopardizes the mission. In order to confirm these findings, an experimental setup, composed of a real unmanned ground vehicle, a ground station is developed. A scenario involving an authority conflict between the participants and the robot is proposed. Analysis of the effects of the conflict on the participants' cognition and arousal is assessed through heart-rate measurement (reflecting stress level) and eye-tracking techniques (index of attentional focus). Our results clearly show that the occurrence of the conflict leads to perseveration behavior and can induce higher heart rate as well as excessive attentional focus. These results are discussed in terms of task commitment issues and increased arousal. Moreover, our results suggest that individual differences may predict susceptibility to perseveration behavior.

  20. Complement Interaction with Trypanosomatid Promastigotes in Normal Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Mercedes; Moreno, Inmaculada; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Toraño, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    In normal human serum (NHS), axenic promastigotes of Crithidia, Phytomonas, and Leishmania trigger complement activation, and from 1.2 to 1.8 × 105 C3 molecules are deposited per promastigote within 2.5 min. In Leishmania, promastigote C3 binding capacity remains constant during in vitro metacyclogenesis. C3 deposition on promastigotes activated through the classical complement pathway reaches a 50% maximum after ∼50 s, and represents >85% of total C3 bound. In C1q- and C2-deficient human sera, promastigotes cannot activate the classical pathway (CP) unless purified C1q or C2 factors, respectively, are supplemented, demonstrating a requirement for CP factor in promastigote C3 opsonization. NHS depleted of natural anti-Leishmania antibodies cannot trigger promastigote CP activation, but IgM addition restores C3 binding. Furthermore, Leishmania binds natural antibodies in ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA)-treated NHS; after EDTA removal, promastigote-bound IgM triggers C3 deposition in natural antibody-depleted NHS. Serum collectins and pentraxins thus do not participate significantly in NHS promastigote C3 opsonization. Real-time kinetic analysis of promastigote CP-mediated lysis indicates that between 85–95% of parasites are killed within 2.5 min of serum contact. These data indicate that successful Leishmania infection in man must immediately follow promastigote transmission, and that Leishmania evasion strategies are shaped by the selective pressure exerted by complement. PMID:11854358

  1. Interactions between Integrase Inhibitors and human Arginase 1.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Lucia; Pizzoferrato, Michela; Miscioscia, Fabiola Teresa; Topai, Alessandra; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2017-04-11

    The neuro-pathogenic mechanism(s) underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are mostly unknown. HIV-infected macrophages and microglial cells play a crucial role and the metabolic fate of L-arginine may be highly relevant for microglia activation. In this context Arginase (ARG), which uses L-arginine as substrate, can be on the same time a target and source of oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated whether Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs) share with the other antiretroviral drugs the ability to inhibit ARG activity. We used the previously validated cell model, namely the human microglia cell line (CHME-5), as well as the computational chemistry approach. Furthermore, here we characterized the activity of purified human ARG in a cell-free in vitro system, and investigated the effects of INSTIs in this newly validated model. Overall evidence shows that Dolutegravir, Raltegravir and Elvitegravir inhibit ARG activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of the Ebola virus infection related human genes using protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Cao, HuanHuan; Zhang, YuHang; Zhao, Jia; Zhu, Liucun; Wang, Yi; Li, JiaRui; Feng, Yuanming; Zhang, Ning

    2017-03-10

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). It is reported that human could be infected by EBOV with a high fatality rate. However, association factors between EBOV and host still tend to be ambiguous. According to the "guilt by association" (GBA) principle, proteins interacting with each other are very likely to function similarly or the same. Based on this assumption, we tried to obtain EBOV infection-related human genes in a protein-protein interaction network using Dijkstra algorithm. We hope it could contribute to the discovery of novel effective treatments. Finally, 15 genes were selected as potential EBOV infection-related human genes.

  3. Modeling the performance of the human (pilot) interaction in a synthetic flight domain: Information theoretic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    Current advances in computing technology are devoid of formal methods that describe the theories of how information is shared between humans and machines. Specifically, in the domain of human-machine interaction, a common mathematical foundation is lacking. The aim of this paper is to propose a formal method of human-machine (H-M) interaction paradigm from the information view point. The methods presented are interpretation- and context-free and can be used both in experimental analysis as well as in modeling problems.

  4. Observation of interactive behavior increases corticospinal excitability in humans: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Mori, Hirotaka; Kushiro, Keisuke; Uehara, Shintaro

    2015-11-01

    In humans, observation of others' behaviors increases corticospinal excitability (CSE), which is interpreted in the contexts of motor resonance and the "mirror neuron system" (MNS). It has been suggested that observation of another individual's behavior manifests an embodied simulation of his/her mental state through the MNS. Thus, the MNS may involve understanding others' intentions of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions (i.e., social cognition), and may therefore exhibit a greater response when observing human-interactive behaviors that require a more varied and complex understanding of others. In the present study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the primary motor cortex of participants observing human-interactive behaviors between two individuals (c.f. one person reaching toward an object in another person's hand) and non-interactive individual behavior (c.f. one person reaching toward an object on a dish). We carefully controlled the kinematics of behaviors in these two conditions to exclude potential effects of MNS activity changes associated with kinematic differences between visual stimuli. Notably, motor evoked potentials, that reflect CSE, from the first dorsal interosseous muscle exhibited greater amplitude when the participants observed interactive behaviors than when they observed non-interactive behavior. These results provide neurophysiological evidence that the MNS is activated to a greater degree during observation of human-interactive behaviors that contain additional information about the individuals' mental states, supporting the view that the MNS plays a critical role in social cognition in humans.

  5. Metaphors to Drive By: Exploring New Ways to Guide Human-Robot Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Bruemmer; David I. Gertman; Curtis W. Nielsen

    2007-08-01

    Autonomous behaviors created by the research and development community are not being extensively utilized within energy, defense, security, or industrial contexts. This paper provides evidence that the interaction methods used alongside these behaviors may not provide a mental model that can be easily adopted or used by operators. Although autonomy has the potential to reduce overall workload, the use of robot behaviors often increased the complexity of the underlying interaction metaphor. This paper reports our development of new metaphors that support increased robot complexity without passing the complexity of the interaction onto the operator. Furthermore, we illustrate how recognition of problems in human-robot interactions can drive the creation of new metaphors for design and how human factors lessons in usability, human performance, and our social contract with technology have the potential for enormous payoff in terms of establishing effective, user-friendly robot systems when appropriate metaphors are used.

  6. A Multimodal Emotion Detection System during Human-Robot Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F.; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately. PMID:24240598

  7. The interaction of C.I. acid red 27 with human hemoglobin in solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2010-08-02

    The nature of the interaction between human hemoglobin and C.I. acid red 27 was investigated systematically by ultraviolet-vis absorbance, circular dichroism, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques at pH 7.40. The quenching mechanism, binding constants, and the number of binding sites were determined by the quenching of human hemoglobin fluorescence in presence of C.I. acid red 27. The results showed that the nature of the quenching was of static type and the process of binding acid red 27 on human hemoglobin was a spontaneous molecular interaction procedure. The electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions played a major role in stabilizing the complex; The distance r between donor and acceptor was obtained to be 4.40 nm according to Förster's theory; The effect of acid red 27 on the conformation of human hemoglobin was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra.

  8. Multi-tasking arbitration and behaviour design for human-interactive robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Onishi, Masaki; Hosoe, Shigeyuki; Luo, Zhiwei

    2013-05-01

    Robots that interact with humans in household environments are required to handle multiple real-time tasks simultaneously, such as carrying objects, collision avoidance and conversation with human. This article presents a design framework for the control and recognition processes to meet these requirements taking into account stochastic human behaviour. The proposed design method first introduces a Petri net for synchronisation of multiple tasks. The Petri net formulation is converted to Markov decision processes and processed in an optimal control framework. Three tasks (safety confirmation, object conveyance and conversation) interact and are expressed by the Petri net. Using the proposed framework, tasks that normally tend to be designed by integrating many if-then rules can be designed in a systematic manner in a state estimation and optimisation framework from the viewpoint of the shortest time optimal control. The proposed arbitration method was verified by simulations and experiments using RI-MAN, which was developed for interactive tasks with humans.

  9. Structural dynamics and DNA interaction of human TFIID

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT TFIID is a large protein complex required for the recognition and binding of eukaryotic gene core promoter sequences and for the recruitment of the rest of the general transcription factors involved in initiation of eukaryotic protein gene transcription. Cryo-electron microscopy studies have demonstrated the conformational complexity of human TFIID, where one-third of the mass of the complex can shift its position by well over 100 Å. This conformational plasticity appears to be linked to the capacity of TFIID to bind DNA, and suggests how it would allow both the recognition of different core promoter elements and the tuning of its binding affinity by regulatory factors. PMID:27935424

  10. Human macrophage differentiation involves an interaction between integrins and fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Laouar, A.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Collart, F.; Huberman, E.

    1996-11-15

    The authors have examined the role of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family of adhesion receptors (VLA) and the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) in macrophage differentiation of (1) human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (2) human peripheral blood monocytes induced by either PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M=CSF). Increased VLA and FN gene expression was observed as early as 4 h after PMA treatment of HL-60 cells and PMA- or M-CSF-treatment of monocytes, and it preceded the manifestation of macrophage markers. Treated HL-60 cells and monocytes also released and deposited FN on the surface of the tissue culture dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in protein kinase C {beta} and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, exhibited elevated levels of the VLA antigen but failed to express the FN gene. Incubation of HL-525 cells on dishes precoated with exogenous FN resulted in a macrophage differentiation. The macrophage phenotype induced in HL-60 cells, HL-525 cells, or monocytes was attenuated to various degrees by anti-VLA or anti-FN MAbs or by exogenous RGDS, a VLA-binding motif on FN. The authors suggest that macrophage differentiation is initiated by the activation of protein kinase C, which leads to the expression of the integrin, FN and related genes. The integrins mediate cell attachment and spreading on appropriate substrates by binding to deposited extracellular proteins such as FN. This attachment and spreading, in turn, leads to the expression of genes that code for the macrophage functions.

  11. Interaction between arsenic trioxide (ATO) and human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known to be mediated by its ability to induce cell apoptosis in a variety of cells, including neutrophils. More recently, we demonstrated that ATO induced several parameters involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neutrophil apoptosis but that caspase-4 was not involved. The aim of this study was to better understand how neutrophils are activated by ATO and to further demonstrate that ATO is an ER stressor. Human neutrophils were isolated from healthy blood donors and incubated in vitro in the presence or absence of ATO and several parameters were investigated. We found that ATO induced the expression of the proapoptotic GADD153 protein, a key player involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis, activated nuclear nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activities, and increased prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) production. Using an antibody array approach, we found that ATO increased the production of several cytokines, with interleukin 8 (IL-8) being the predominant one. We confirmed that ATO increased the production of IL-8 by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not inhibit IL-8 production. The results of the present study further support the notion that ATO is an ER stressor and that, although its toxic effect is mediated by induction of apoptosis, this chemical also induced, in parallel, NF-κB activation, the production of PGE2 and several cytokines probably involved in other cell functions. Also, we conclude that the production of IL-8 is not induced by a caspase-4-dependent mechanism, suggesting that ATO-induced caspase-4 activation is involved in other as yet unidentified functions in human neutrophils.

  12. Integrated interactions database: tissue-specific view of the human and model organism interactomes.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Max; Pastrello, Chiara; Sheahan, Nicholas; Jurisica, Igor

    2016-01-04

    IID (Integrated Interactions Database) is the first database providing tissue-specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) for model organisms and human. IID covers six species (S. cerevisiae (yeast), C. elegans (worm), D. melonogaster (fly), R. norvegicus (rat), M. musculus (mouse) and H. sapiens (human)) and up to 30 tissues per species. Users query IID by providing a set of proteins or PPIs from any of these organisms, and specifying species and tissues where IID should search for interactions. If query proteins are not from the selected species, IID enables searches across species and tissues automatically by using their orthologs; for example, retrieving interactions in a given tissue, conserved in human and mouse. Interaction data in IID comprises three types of PPI networks: experimentally detected PPIs from major databases, orthologous PPIs and high-confidence computationally predicted PPIs. Interactions are assigned to tissues where their proteins pairs or encoding genes are expressed. IID is a major replacement of the I2D interaction database, with larger PPI networks (a total of 1,566,043 PPIs among 68,831 proteins), tissue annotations for interactions, and new query, analysis and data visualization capabilities. IID is available at http://ophid.utoronto.ca/iid.

  13. Interaction of serum sex steroid-binding globulin with cell membranes of human decidual tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Avvakumov, G.V.; Survilo, L.I.; Strel'chenok, O.A.

    1986-01-20

    The interaction of the sex steroid-binding globulin (SBG) of human blood with plasma membranes of cells from human decidual tissue - the target tissue of estradiol - was studied. It was shown that SBG in complex with estradiol is capable of interacting specifically with these membranes. The dissociation (K/sub dis/) of this interaction is equal to (3.5 +/- 2.0) 10/sup -12/ M. The interaction of the SBG-estradiol complex with the membranes is characterized by high selectivity: such blood serum globulins as albumin, orosomucoid, transferrin, transcortin, and thyroxine-binding globulin do not compete with SBG for its binding sites on the membranes. The SBG-testosterone complex and SBG without steroid are also incapable of interacting with the membranes.

  14. Human Development Theories: A Comparison of Classic Human Development Theorists and the Implications for a Model of Developmental Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollhoff, Jim

    This paper explores several theories of human development, with particular attention to the development of social interaction. Part 1 compares and contrasts major developmental theories, including those of Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Kohlberg, Kegan, Fowler, and Selman. From birth to 1 year, infants are laying the foundation that will guide their…

  15. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  16. Temporal accuracy of human cortico-cortical interactions

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    The precision in space and time of interactions among multiple cortical sites was evaluated by examining repeating precise spatiotemporal patterns of instances in which cortical currents showed brief amplitude undulations. The amplitudes of the cortical current dipoles were estimated by applying a variant of synthetic aperture magnetometry to magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of subjects tapping to metric auditory rhythms of drum beats. Brief amplitude undulations were detected in the currents by template matching at a rate of 2–3 per second. Their timing was treated as point processes, and precise spatiotemporal patterns were searched for. By randomly teetering these point processes within a time window W, we estimated the accuracy of the timing of these brief amplitude undulations and compared the results with those obtained by applying the same analysis to traces composed of random numbers. The results demonstrated that the timing accuracy of patterns was better than 3 ms. Successful classification of two different cognitive processes based on these patterns suggests that at least some of the repeating patterns are specific to a cognitive process. PMID:26843604

  17. A Preliminary Study of Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lees, David; Schreiner, John; Siegel, Michael; Hiatt, Laura M.; Nourbakhsh, Illah; Simmons, Reid; Ambrose, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction (P2P-HRI) project is developing techniques to improve task coordination and collaboration between human and robot partners. Our work is motivated by the need to develop effective human-robot teams for space mission operations. A central element of our approach is creating dialogue and interaction tools that enable humans and robots to flexibly support one another. In order to understand how this approach can influence task performance, we recently conducted a series of tests simulating a lunar construction task with a human-robot team. In this paper, we describe the tests performed, discuss our initial results, and analyze the effect of intervention on task performance.

  18. ALIX-CHMP4 Interactions in the Human ESCRT Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.; Fisher, R.D.; Whitby, F.G.; Sundquist, W.I.; Hill, C.P.

    2009-05-26

    The ESCRT pathway facilitates membrane fission events during enveloped virus budding, multivesicular body formation, and cytokinesis. To promote HIV budding and cytokinesis, the ALIX protein must bind and recruit CHMP4 subunits of the ESCRT-III complex, which in turn participate in essential membrane remodeling functions. Here, we report that the Bro1 domain of ALIX binds specifically to C-terminal residues of the human CHMP4 proteins (CHMP4A-C). Crystal structures of the complexes reveal that the CHMP4 C-terminal peptides form amphipathic helices that bind across the conserved concave surface of ALIX{sub Bro1}. ALIX-dependent HIV-1 budding is blocked by mutations in exposed ALIX{sub Bro1} residues that help contribute to the binding sites for three essential hydrophobic residues that are displayed on one side of the CHMP4 recognition helix (M/L/IxxLxxW). The homologous CHMP1-3 classes of ESCRT-III proteins also have C-terminal amphipathic helices, but, in those cases, the three hydrophobic residues are arrayed with L/I/MxxxLxxL spacing. Thus, the distinct patterns of hydrophobic residues provide a 'code' that allows the different ESCRT-III subunits to bind different ESCRT pathway partners, with CHMP1-3 proteins binding MIT domain-containing proteins, such as VPS4 and Vta1/LIP5, and CHMP4 proteins binding Bro1 domain-containing proteins, such as ALIX.

  19. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2015-01-01

    The oceans' continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins, (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services. These include primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  20. The role of metacognition in human social interactions.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D

    2012-08-05

    Metacognition concerns the processes by which we monitor and control our own cognitive processes. It can also be applied to others, in which case it is known as mentalizing. Both kinds of metacognition have implicit and explicit forms, where implicit means automatic and without awareness. Implicit metacognition enables us to adopt a we-mode, through which we automatically take account of the knowledge and intentions of others. Adoption of this mode enhances joint action. Explicit metacognition enables us to reflect on and justify our behaviour to others. However, access to the underlying processes is very limited for both self and others and our reports on our own and others' intentions can be very inaccurate. On the other hand, recent experiments have shown that, through discussions of our perceptual experiences with others, we can detect sensory signals more accurately, even in the absence of objective feedback. Through our willingness to discuss with others the reasons for our actions and perceptions, we overcome our lack of direct access to the underlying cognitive processes. This creates the potential for us to build more accurate accounts of the world and of ourselves. I suggest, therefore, that explicit metacognition is a uniquely human ability that has evolved through its enhancement of collaborative decision-making.

  1. Interaction of Candida albicans with Human Leukocytes and Serum1

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Robert I.; Cline, Martin J.

    1969-01-01

    A quantitative assay of candidacidal activity based on differential staining of non-viable Candida albicans by methylene blue was developed and applied to studies of leukocytes from normal individuals and patients with fungal and other infections. Serum factors were necessary for optimal phagocytosis of C. albicans but lacked direct candidacidal activity. Normal human neutrophils (38 studies) killed 29.0 ± 7.4% of ingested C. albicans in 1 hr. Eosinophils and monocytes killed a smaller percentage. Neutrophil candidacidal activity did not require protein or ribonucleic acid synthesis by the leukocyte but was inhibited by anaerobic conditions, potassium cyanide, and colchicine. Leukocytes of a patient with hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency and of three children with chronic granulomatous disease phagocytized C. albicans normally, yet failed to kill them. Our data suggest that the neutrophil can play an important role in resistance to Candida infection and that the lysosomal enzyme myeloperoxidase and its oxidant substrate hydrogen peroxide are the major participants in neutrophil candidacidal activity. Images PMID:4182532

  2. 5-Fluorouracil-radiation interactions in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, D.J.; Lepek, K.J.; Rich, T.A.

    1995-07-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of cellular proliferation and cell cycle stage on the ability of postirradiation 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to radiosensitize cultured human colon adenocarcinoma Clone A cells. Cell survival curves were generated for irradiated: (a) log- and plateau-phase Clone A cells; and (b) Clone A cells separated by centrifugal elutriation into the various phases of the cell cycle; with and without postirradiation treatment with 100 {mu}g/ml 5-FU. Postirradiation treatment with 5-FU sensitized proliferating cells to a greater degree than it sensitized cells growing in plateau phase. The {beta} component of cell kill in log-phase cells was increased by a factor of 1.5 with a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.21 at the 0.01 survival level. Plateau-phase cells showed less radiosensitization (sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.13 at the 0.01 survival level); however, there was a mild increase in both {alpha} and {beta} kill in plateau-phase cells. Elutriated G{sub 1} cells were the most radiosensitive, independent of treatment with 5-FU. The phase of the cell cycle had little effect on the ability of fluorouracil to radiosensitize Clone A cells. Proliferating cells are more susceptible to radiosensitization with 5-FU than plateau-phase cells are, but this effect appears to be independent of the phase of the cell cycle. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  4. RAID: a comprehensive resource for human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wu, Deng; Chen, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinxurong; Fan, Dandan; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Mingyue; Tan, Puwen; Xu, Jintian; Yi, Ying; Wang, Yuting; Zou, Hua; Hu, Yongfei; Fan, Kaili; Kang, Juanjuan; Huang, Yan; Miao, Zhengqiang; Bi, Miaoman; Jin, Nana; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianzhen; Wang, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Transcriptomic analyses have revealed an unexpected complexity in the eukaryote transcriptome, which includes not only protein-coding transcripts but also an expanding catalog of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Diverse coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) perform functions through interaction with each other in various cellular processes. In this project, we have developed RAID (http://www.rna-society.org/raid), an RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction database. RAID intends to provide the scientific community with all-in-one resources for efficient browsing and extraction of the RNA-associated interactions in human. This version of RAID contains more than 6100 RNA-associated interactions obtained by manually reviewing more than 2100 published papers, including 4493 RNA-RNA interactions and 1619 RNA-protein interactions. Each entry contains detailed information on an RNA-associated interaction, including RAID ID, RNA/protein symbol, RNA/protein categories, validated method, expressing tissue, literature references (Pubmed IDs), and detailed functional description. Users can query, browse, analyze, and manipulate RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction. RAID provides a comprehensive resource of human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction network. Furthermore, this resource will help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular function network.

  5. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  6. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions.

    PubMed

    Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, E M; Weiss, D S; Gushin, V; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, C R

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  7. Rhythm Patterns Interaction - Synchronization Behavior for Human-Robot Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents’ tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans. PMID:24752212

  8. HPIminer: A text mining system for building and visualizing human protein interaction networks and pathways.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Suresh; Kalpana, Raja; Monickaraj, Pankaj Moses; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge on protein-protein interactions (PPI) and their related pathways are equally important to understand the biological functions of the living cell. Such information on human proteins is highly desirable to understand the mechanism of several diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Because much of that information is buried in biomedical literature, an automated text mining system for visualizing human PPI and pathways is highly desirable. In this paper, we present HPIminer, a text mining system for visualizing human protein interactions and pathways from biomedical literature. HPIminer extracts human PPI information and PPI pairs from biomedical literature, and visualize their associated interactions, networks and pathways using two curated databases HPRD and KEGG. To our knowledge, HPIminer is the first system to build interaction networks from literature as well as curated databases. Further, the new interactions mined only from literature and not reported earlier in databases are highlighted as new. A comparative study with other similar tools shows that the resultant network is more informative and provides additional information on interacting proteins and their associated networks.

  9. How does human-induced environmental change influence host-parasite interactions?

    PubMed

    Budria, Alexandre; Candolin, Ulrika

    2014-04-01

    Host-parasite interactions are an integral part of ecosystems that influence both ecological and evolutionary processes. Humans are currently altering environments the world over, often with drastic consequences for host-parasite interactions and the prevalence of parasites. The mechanisms behind the changes are, however, poorly known. Here, we explain how host-parasite interactions depend on two crucial steps--encounter rate and host-parasite compatibility--and how human activities are altering them and thereby host-parasite interactions. By drawing on examples from the literature, we show that changes in the two steps depend on the influence of human activities on a range of factors, such as the density and diversity of hosts and parasites, the search strategy of the parasite, and the avoidance strategy of the host. Thus, to unravel the mechanisms behind human-induced changes in host-parasite interactions, we have to consider the characteristics of all three parts of the interaction: the host, the parasite and the environment. More attention should now be directed to unfold these mechanisms, focusing on effects of environmental change on the factors that determine encounter rate and compatibility. We end with identifying several areas in urgent need of more investigations.

  10. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions during adaptation of the human reach.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Timothy; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether visual and proprioceptive estimates of transient (midreach) target capture errors contribute to motor adaptation according to the probabilistic rules of information integration used for perception. Healthy adult humans grasped and moved a robotic handle between targets in the horizontal plane while the robot generated springlike loads that varied unpredictably from trial to trial. For some trials, a visual cursor faithfully tracked hand motion. In others, the handle's position was locked and subjects viewed motion of a point-mass cursor driven by hand forces. In yet other trials, cursor feedback was dissociated from hand motion or altogether eliminated. We used time- and frequency-domain analyses to characterize how sensorimotor memories influence performance on subsequent reaches. When the senses were used separately, subjects were better at rejecting physical disturbances applied to the hand than virtual disturbances applied to the cursor. In part, this observation reflected differences in how participants used sensorimotor memories to adapt to perturbations when performance feedback was limited to only proprioceptive or visual information channels. When both vision and proprioception were available to guide movement, subjects processed memories in a manner indistinguishable from the vision-only condition, regardless of whether the cursor tracked the hand faithfully or whether we experimentally dissociated motions of the hand and cursor. This was true even though, on average, perceptual uncertainty in the proprioceptive estimation of movement extent exceeded that of visual estimation by just 47%. In contrast to perceptual tasks wherein vision and proprioception both contribute to an optimal estimate of limb state, our findings support a switched-input, multisensory model of predictive load compensation wherein visual feedback of transient performance errors overwhelmingly dominates proprioception in determining adaptive reach performance.

  11. Interactions of human blood-platelets with vaccinia

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, C.E.B.

    1989-01-01

    These investigations were conducted to determine whether vaccinia (strain WR) adsorbs to the human platelet and alters specific platelet activities, namely, the uptake of {sup 14}C-serotonin, the release of {sup 14}C-serotonin and also the release of {sup 14}C-serotonin stimulated by thrombin. Vaccinia did not alter the platelet uptake of {sup 14}C-serotonin. To determine if vaccinia induces a release of {sup 14}C-serotonin from platelets, vaccinia was added to washed or unwashed {sup 14}C-serotonin labeled platelets, and the release of {sup 14}C-Serotonin into the supernatant was measured. Less than 8% of the {sup 14}C-Serotonin was released. The action of vaccinia to alter the platelet release of {sup 14}C-serotonin induced by thrombin was monitored by measuring the radioactivity released from thrombin stimulated {sup 14}C-serotonin labeled platelets incubated with or without vaccinia. Vaccinia inhibited the thrombin induced release of {sup 14}C-serotonin from platelets at a virus to platelet ratios of 5 through 80 plaque forming units (p.f.u.)/platelet. The inhibition was dose dependent. The binding of virus to platelets was determined by a plaque assay of a washed mixture of vaccinia virus and platelets. After inoculation of mixture onto a monolayer of BSC40 cells at a virus to platelet ratio of 0.1 p.f.u./platelet, 50 cell-bound-virus per 130,000-150,000 platelets were enumerated. Vaccinia was observed to inhibit the thrombin induced clot formation of plasma by a thrombin clotting time test. Scanning electron micrographs of the clot formed in the presence of vaccinia revealed a close packed fibrous structure lacking the cross-linked mesh-like pattern seen in a normal clot. Transmission electron micrographs showed an increase in the length and a close packing of the fibrin threads.

  12. A Simple Model for Human and Nature Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J.; Kalnay, E.

    2012-12-01

    There are widespread concerns that current trends in population and resource-use are unsustainable, but the possibilities of an overshoot and collapse remain unclear and controversial. Collapses of civilizations have occurred many times in the past 5000 years, often followed by centuries of economic, intellectual, and population decline. Many different natural and social phenomena have been invoked to explain specific collapses, but a general explanation remains elusive. Two important features seem to appear across societies that have collapsed: Ecological Strain and Economic Stratification. Our new model (Human And Nature DYnamics, HANDY) has just four equations that describe the evolution of Elites, Commoners, Nature, and Wealth. Mechanisms leading to collapse are discussed and the measure "Carrying Capacity" is developed and defined. The model shows that societal collapse can happen due to either one of two independent factors: (1) over-consumption of natural resources, and/or (2) deep inequity between Elites and Commoners. The model also portrays two distinct types of collapse: (i) collapse followed by recovery of nature, and (ii) full collapse. The model suggests that the estimation of Carrying Capacity is a practical means for early detection of a collapse. Collapse can be avoided, and population can reach a sustainable equilibrium, if the rate of depletion of nature is reduced to a sustainable level, and if resources are distributed in a reasonably equitable fashion.; A type-ii (full) collapse is shown in this figure. With high inequality and high depletion, societies are doomed to collapse. Wealth starts to decrease when population rises above the carrying capacity. The large gap between carrying capacity and its maximum is a result of depletion factor being much larger than the sustainable limit. ; It is possible to overshoot, oscillate, and eventually converge to an equilibrium, even in an inequitable society. However, it requires policies that control

  13. Experimental study of Human Adenoviruses interactions with clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellou, Maria; Syngouna, Vasiliki; Paparrodopoulos, Spyros; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos

    2014-05-01

    Clays are used to establish low permeability liners in landfills, sewage lagoons, water retention ponds, golf course ponds, and hazardous waste sites. Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are waterborne viruses which have been used as viral indicators of fecal pollution. The objective of this study was to investigate the survival of HAdV in static and dynamic clay systems. The clays used as a model were crystalline aluminosilicates: kaolinite and bentonite. The adsorption and survival of HAdVs onto these clays were characterized at two different controlled temperatures (4 and 25o C) under static and dynamic batch conditions. Control tubes, in the absence of clay, were used to monitor virus inactivation due to factors other than adsorption to clays (e.g. inactivation or sorption onto the tubes walls). For both static and dynamic batch experiments, samples were collected for a maximum period of seven days. This seven day time - period was determined to be sufficient for the virus-clay systems to reach equilibrium. To infer the presence of infectious HAdV particles, all samples were treated with Dnase and the extraction of viral nucleid acid was performed using a commercial viral RNA kit. All samples were analyzed by Real - Time PCR which was used to quantify viral particles in clays. Samples were also tested for virus infectivity by A549 cell cultures. Exposure time intervals in the range of seven days (0.50-144 hours) resulted in a load reduction of 0.74 to 2.96 logs for kaolinite and a reduction of 0.89 to 2.92 for bentonite. Furthermore, virus survival was higher onto bentonite than kaolinite (p

  14. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions during adaptation of the human reach

    PubMed Central

    Judkins, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether visual and proprioceptive estimates of transient (midreach) target capture errors contribute to motor adaptation according to the probabilistic rules of information integration used for perception. Healthy adult humans grasped and moved a robotic handle between targets in the horizontal plane while the robot generated springlike loads that varied unpredictably from trial to trial. For some trials, a visual cursor faithfully tracked hand motion. In others, the handle's position was locked and subjects viewed motion of a point-mass cursor driven by hand forces. In yet other trials, cursor feedback was dissociated from hand motion or altogether eliminated. We used time- and frequency-domain analyses to characterize how sensorimotor memories influence performance on subsequent reaches. When the senses were used separately, subjects were better at rejecting physical disturbances applied to the hand than virtual disturbances applied to the cursor. In part, this observation reflected differences in how participants used sensorimotor memories to adapt to perturbations when performance feedback was limited to only proprioceptive or visual information channels. When both vision and proprioception were available to guide movement, subjects processed memories in a manner indistinguishable from the vision-only condition, regardless of whether the cursor tracked the hand faithfully or whether we experimentally dissociated motions of the hand and cursor. This was true even though, on average, perceptual uncertainty in the proprioceptive estimation of movement extent exceeded that of visual estimation by just 47%. In contrast to perceptual tasks wherein vision and proprioception both contribute to an optimal estimate of limb state, our findings support a switched-input, multisensory model of predictive load compensation wherein visual feedback of transient performance errors overwhelmingly dominates proprioception in determining adaptive reach performance. PMID

  15. An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research: Aircrew-vehicle system interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research in human factors in the aircraft cockpit and a proposed program augmentation were reviewed. The dramatic growth of microprocessor technology makes it entirely feasible to automate increasingly more functions in the aircraft cockpit; the promise of improved vehicle performance, efficiency, and safety through automation makes highly automated flight inevitable. An organized data base and validated methodology for predicting the effects of automation on human performance and thus on safety are lacking and without such a data base and validated methodology for analyzing human performance, increased automation may introduce new risks. Efforts should be concentrated on developing methods and techniques for analyzing man machine interactions, including human workload and prediction of performance.

  16. Human-pet interaction and loneliness: a test of concepts from Roy's adaptation model.

    PubMed

    Calvert, M M

    1989-01-01

    This research used two key concepts from Roy's adaptation model of nursing to examine the relationship between human-pet interaction and loneliness in nursing home residents. These concepts included (a) environmental stimuli as factors influencing adaptation and (b) interdependence as a mode of response to the environment. The hypothesis of this study asserted that the residents of a nursing home who had greater levels of interaction with a pet program would experience less loneliness than those who had lower levels of interaction with a pet. The study used an ex post facto nonexperimental design with 65 subjects. The simplified version of the revised UCLA loneliness scale was used to measure loneliness. Reported level of human-pet interaction was measured according to a four-point scale (1 = no interaction, 4 = quite a lot of interaction). The hypothesis was supported at the p less than 0.03 level of significance. Implications for practice through organizing pet programs in situations where loneliness exists are discussed. Recommendations for future research include replicating the study using a larger sample and developing a comprehensive human-pet interaction tool.

  17. Reconstructability analysis as a tool for identifying gene-gene interactions in studies of human diseases.

    PubMed

    Shervais, Stephen; Kramer, Patricia L; Westaway, Shawn K; Cox, Nancy J; Zwick, Martin

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of common human diseases for which the genetic component may include an epistatic interaction of multiple genes. Detecting these interactions with standard statistical tools is difficult because there may be an interaction effect, but minimal or no main effect. Reconstructability analysis (RA) uses Shannon's information theory to detect relationships between variables in categorical datasets. We applied RA to simulated data for five different models of gene-gene interaction, and find that even with heritability levels as low as 0.008, and with the inclusion of 50 non-associated genes in the dataset, we can identify the interacting gene pairs with an accuracy of > or =80%. We applied RA to a real dataset of type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) cases and controls, and closely approximated the results of more conventional single SNP disease association studies. In addition, we replicated prior evidence for epistatic interactions between SNPs on chromosomes 2 and 15.

  18. Interaction of human adenoviruses and coliphages with kaolinite and bentonite.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Maria I; Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Tselepi, Maria A; Kokkinos, Petros A; Paparrodopoulos, Spyros C; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-06-01

    Human adenoviruses (hAdVs) are pathogenic viruses responsible for public health problems worldwide. They have also been used as viral indicators in environmental systems. Coliphages (e.g., MS2, ΦX174) have also been studied as indicators of viral pollution in fecally contaminated water. Our objective was to evaluate the distribution of three viral fecal indicators (hAdVs, MS2, and ΦΧ174), between two different phyllosilicate clays (kaolinite and bentonite) and the aqueous phase. A series of static and dynamic experiments were conducted under two different temperatures (4, 25°C) for a time period of seven days. HAdV adsorption was examined in DNase I reaction buffer (pH=7.6, and ionic strength (IS)=1.4mM), whereas coliphage adsorption in phosphate buffered saline solution (pH=7, IS=2mM). Moreover, the effect of IS on hAdV adsorption under static conditions was evaluated. The adsorption of hAdV was assessed by real-time PCR and its infectivity was tested by cultivation methods. The coliphages MS2 and ΦΧ174 were assayed by the double-layer overlay method. The experimental results have shown that coliphage adsorption onto both kaolinite and bentonite was higher for the dynamic than the static experiments; whereas hAdV adsorption was lower under dynamic conditions. The adsorption of hAdV increased with decreasing temperature, contrary to the results obtained for the coliphages. This study examines the combined effect of temperature, agitation, clay type, and IS on hAdV adsorption onto clays. The results provide useful new information on the effective removal of viral fecal indicators (MS2, ΦX174 and hAdV) from dilute aqueous solutions by adsorption onto kaolinite and bentonite. Factors enabling enteric viruses to penetrate soils, groundwater and travel long distances within aquifers are important public health issues. Because the observed adsorption behavior of surrogate coliphages MS2 and ΦΧ174 is substantially different to that of hAdV, neither MS2 nor

  19. Human-Computer Interaction and Sociological Insight: A Theoretical Examination and Experiment in Building Affinity in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oren, Michael Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The juxtaposition of classic sociological theory and the, relatively, young discipline of human-computer interaction (HCI) serves as a powerful mechanism for both exploring the theoretical impacts of technology on human interactions as well as the application of technological systems to moderate interactions. It is the intent of this dissertation…

  20. Dimensions of Human-Work Domain Interaction: A Preliminary Analysis for the Design of a Corporate Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hong

    2003-01-01

    Applies the cognitive system engineering approach to investigate human-work interaction at a corporate setting. Reports preliminary analysis of data collected from diary analysis and interview of 20 subjects. Results identify three dimensions for each of four interactive activities involved in human-work interaction and their relationships.…

  1. Human respiratory syncytial virus N, P and M protein interactions in HEK-293T cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andressa P; Simabuco, Fernando M; Tamura, Rodrigo E; Guerrero, Manuel C; Ribeiro, Paulo G G; Libermann, Towia A; Zerbini, Luiz F; Ventura, Armando M

    2013-10-01

    Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) protein interactions with host cell components is crucial to devise antiviral strategies. Viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein and matrix protein genes were optimized for human codon usage and cloned into expression vectors. HEK-293T cells were transfected with these vectors, viral proteins were immunoprecipitated, and co-immunoprecipitated cellular proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. Cell proteins identified with higher confidence scores were probed in the immunoprecipitation using specific antibodies. The results indicate that nucleoprotein interacts with arginine methyl-transferase, methylosome protein and Hsp70. Phosphoprotein interacts with Hsp70 and tropomysin, and matrix with tropomysin and nucleophosmin. Additionally, we performed immunoprecipitation of these cellular proteins in cells infected with HRSV, followed by detection of co-immunoprecipitated viral proteins. The results indicate that these interactions also occur in the context of viral infection, and their potential contribution for a HRSV replication model is discussed.

  2. Interactions of the antiviral and antiparkinson agent amantadine with lipid membranes and human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Altamirano, Mariella; Villena, Fernando; Dukes, Nathan; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-07-01

    Aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms of its interactions with cell membranes, human erythrocyte and molecular models of the red cell membrane were utilized. The latter consisted of bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. The capacity of amantadine to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In an attempt to further elucidate its effects on cell membranes, the present work also examined amantadine influence on the morphology of intact human erythrocytes by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that amantadine induced morphological changes to human erythrocytes and interacted in a concentration-dependent manner with DMPC bilayers in contrast to DMPE that was hardly affected by the presence of the drug.

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the interaction between cyclovirobuxine D and human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ren; Liu, Jianming; Dong, Qiao; Fan, Jing

    2014-07-01

    Cyclovirobuxine D is an active compound extracted from the plant Buxux microphylla, and widely available as medications; however, its abuse may casts potential detrimental effects on human health. By using multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling, the interaction of cyclovirobuxine D with human serum albumin was investigated. The fluorescence results manifested that static type was the operative mechanism for the interaction with human serum albumin. The structural investigation of the complexed HSA through CD, three-dimensional, FT-IR and synchronous fluorescence shown the polypeptide chain of HSA partially destabilizing. Docking studies revealed the molecule to be bound in the subdomain IIA. Finally, we investigated the distance between the bound ligand and Trp-214 of human serum albumin.

  4. Analysis of the binding interaction in uric acid - Human hemoglobin system by spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-01-31

    The binding interaction between human hemoglobin and uric acid has been studied for the first time, by UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence techniques. Characteristic effects observed for human hemoglobin intrinsic fluorescence during interaction with uric acid at neutral pH point at the formation of stacking non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes. All the calculated parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants, as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters confirm the existence of static quenching. The results of synchronous fluorescence measurements indicate that the fluorescence quenching of human hemoglobin originates both from Trp and Tyr residues and that the addition of uric acid could significantly hinder the physiological functions of human hemoglobin.

  5. NHERF2/SIP-1 interacts with mouse SRY via a different mechanism than human SRY.

    PubMed

    Thevenet, Laurie; Albrecht, Kenneth H; Malki, Safia; Berta, Philippe; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte; Poulat, Francis

    2005-11-18

    In mammals, male sex determination is controlled by the SRY protein, which drives differentiation of the bipotential embryonic gonads into testes by activating the Sertoli cell differentiation program. The morphological effects of SRY are well documented; however, its molecular mechanism of action remains unknown. Moreover, SRY proteins display high sequence variability among mammalian species, which makes protein motifs difficult to delineate. We previously isolated SIP-1/NHERF2 as a human SRY-interacting protein. SIP-1/NHERF2, a PDZ protein, interacts with the C-terminal extremity of the human SRY protein. Here we showed that the interaction of SIP-1/NHERF2 and SRY via the SIP-1/NHERF2 PDZ1 domain is conserved in mice. However, the interaction occurs via a domain that is internal to the mouse SRY protein and involves a different recognition mechanism than human SRY. Furthermore, we show that mouse and human SRY induce nuclear accumulation of the SIP-1/NHERF2 protein in cultured cells. Finally, a transgenic mouse line expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the mouse Sry promoter allowed us to show that SRY and SIP-1/NHERF2 are co-expressed in the nucleus of pre-Sertoli cells during testis determination. Taken together, our results suggested that the function of SIP-1/NHERF2 as an SRY cofactor during testis determination is conserved between human and mouse.

  6. Coronaviruses and the human airway: a universal system for virus-host interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Hulda R; Dijkman, Ronald

    2016-02-06

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are large RNA viruses that infect the human respiratory tract. The emergence of both Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory syndrome CoVs as well as the yearly circulation of four common CoVs highlights the importance of elucidating the different mechanisms employed by these viruses to evade the host immune response, determine their tropism and identify antiviral compounds. Various animal models have been established to investigate HCoV infection, including mice and non-human primates. To establish a link between the research conducted in animal models and humans, an organotypic human airway culture system, that recapitulates the human airway epithelium, has been developed. Currently, different cell culture systems are available to recapitulate the human airways, including the Air-Liquid Interface (ALI) human airway epithelium (HAE) model. Tracheobronchial HAE cultures recapitulate the primary entry point of human respiratory viruses while the alveolar model allows for elucidation of mechanisms involved in viral infection and pathogenesis in the alveoli. These organotypic human airway cultures represent a universal platform to study respiratory virus-host interaction by offering more detailed insights compared to cell lines. Additionally, the epidemic potential of this virus family highlights the need for both vaccines and antivirals. No commercial vaccine is available but various effective antivirals have been identified, some with potential for human treatment. These morphological airway cultures are also well suited for the identification of antivirals, evaluation of compound toxicity and viral inhibition.

  7. Interactive Structure (EUCLID) For Static And Dynamic Representation Of Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Ch.; Steck, R.

    1983-07-01

    A specific software (EUCLID) for static and dynamic representation of human models is described. The data processing system is connected with ERGODATA and used in interactive mode by intrinsic or specific functions. More or less complex representations in 3-D view of models of the human body are developed. Biostereometric and conventional anthropometric raw data from the data bank are processed for different applications in ergonomy.

  8. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  9. Visual-vestibular interaction in humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Visual-vestibular interaction using 60 percent constant velocity earth horizontal axis yaw rotation, simulating both the horizontal semicircular canals and the otolith organs, was measured in seven human subjects. Subjects were tested with their eyes open in the dark (EOD) while fixating upon a target rotating with them (FIX), and while observing stationary optokinetic stripes (VVR). Resulting nystagmus slow component velocity (SCV) was analyzed for EOD, FIX, and VVR conditions. It is concluded that the visual-vestibular interactions during EHA differ significantly from those during rotation about the vertical; specifically, there is a nonlinear interaction between linear acceleration and optokinetic nystagmus.

  10. Macaque-human interactions and the societal perceptions of macaques in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sha, John Chih Mun; Gumert, Michael D; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Chan, Sharon; Fuentes, Agustín

    2009-10-01

    Humans and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) interface in several locations in Singapore. We investigated six of these interface zones to assess the level of conflict between the two species. We observed macaque-to-human interactions and distributed questionnaires to residents and visitors of nature reserves. We observed an average of two macaque-to-human interactions per hour at the sites, which included affiliative or submissive behaviors (46.9%), aggression (19.1%), taking food and other items (18.5%) searching bins, cars, and houses (13.4%), and nonaggressive contact (2.1%). Two-thirds of interactions occurred when a human was carrying food or food cues, and one-quarter occurred when a human provoked macaques. Only 8% of interactions occurred without a clear human-triggered context. Our interview showed one-third of respondents experienced nuisance problems from macaques. They had items taken from them (50.5%) and received threats (31.9%). Residents reported more nuisance problems than visitors, and their perceptions toward macaques differed. Residents were more aware of the consequences of food provisioning and that there were regulations against feeding. Residents fed macaques less and held more negative sentiments toward macaques. Nearly half of the interviewed people held neutral attitudes toward macaques and only 26.2% of respondents thought conflict with macaques warranted urgent action. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents supported education programs to ameliorate human-macaque conflict, and less than 15% supported removing or eradicating macaques. 87.6% felt that it is importance to conserve and protect macaques. Our results show that human-macaque conflict exists in Singapore, but that it may not be severe. Human behavior is largely responsible for macaque-to-human interactions, and thus could be lessened with management of human behavior in interface zones (i.e. restrict food carrying and provocation). Moreover, our interviews shows people

  11. Immunoglobulin-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. Binding of agaropectin and heparin by human IgG proteins

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of immunoglobulins with certain acidic polysaccharides was demonstrated by the binding of the sulfated glycans agaropectin and heparin by certain human IgG proteins. Heparin-binding IgG proteins can distinguish between the molecular forms of heparin derived from porcine intestine, bovine lung, and rat skin. The major specificity of these proteins is for native and certain high molecular weight subunit components of rat skin heparin. The interactions with multi-chain and single chain rat skin heparin are stable under physiological conditions and involve the Fab and, more specifically, the Fv region of the IgG molecule. These reactions occur as a result of an electrostatic interaction between cationic sites on certain IgG proteins and anionic sulfate resides of agaropectin or heparin. The characteristics of heparin-IgG interaction resemble those of heparin with other plasma proteins, the interactions of which have biological significance. PMID:7252414

  12. Determining confidence of predicted interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins using conformal method.

    PubMed

    Nouretdinov, Ilia; Gammerman, Alex; Qi, Yanjun; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Identifying protein-protein interactions (PPI's) is critical for understanding virtually all cellular molecular mechanisms. Previously, predicting PPI's was treated as a binary classification task and has commonly been solved in a supervised setting which requires a positive labeled set of known PPI's and a negative labeled set of non-interacting protein pairs. In those methods, the learner provides the likelihood of the predicted interaction, but without a confidence level associated with each prediction. Here, we apply a conformal prediction framework to make predictions and estimate confidence of the predictions. The conformal predictor uses a function measuring relative 'strangeness' interacting pairs to check whether prediction of a new example added to the sequence of already known PPI's would conform to the 'exchangeability' assumption: distribution of interacting pairs is invariant with any permutations of the pairs. In fact, this is the only assumption we make about the data. Another advantage is that the user can control a number of errors by providing a desirable confidence level. This feature of CP is very useful for a ranking list of possible interactive pairs. In this paper, the conformal method has been developed to deal with just one class - class interactive proteins - while there is not clearly defined of 'non-interactive'pairs. The confidence level helps the biologist in the interpretation of the results, and better assists the choices of pairs for experimental validation. We apply the proposed conformal framework to improve the identification of interacting pairs between HIV-1 and human proteins.

  13. Temporal interaction in electrical hearing elucidates auditory nerve dynamics in humans.

    PubMed

    Karg, S A; Lackner, C; Hemmert, W

    2013-05-01

    In cochlear implants, severe limitations arise from electrical crosstalk between channels. Therefore, the current trend in cochlear implants is to increase stimulation rates to encode signals with higher temporal precision. However, the fundamental question: "What is the limit of temporal precision due to inherent neuronal dynamics of the stimulated neurons?" has not yet been resolved. In this study we have developed a double-pulse method and, for the first time, reversed stimulus polarity systematically between consecutive pulses to elucidate subthreshold-induced temporal interaction effects. This method allowed us to determine the time-course of subthreshold temporal interaction in human subjects which identifies the limits of encoded temporal precision. Our results show significant temporal interaction up to 600 μs inter-pulse interval. In all the cases tested we saw a facilitation effect on threshold. Interaction effects at a 20% below threshold pre-conditioning stimulation showed up to 38% ± 6% threshold reduction. These results imply that there is significant temporal interaction between two subsequent pulses. This interaction diminishes the precision of amplitude coding. We predict interaction effects on temporal precision and channel interaction. For (interleaved) stimulation with short inter-pulse intervals it is interesting to consider our interaction results; and it may become important to consider them for future coding strategies where high temporal precision is required. In an increasing group of binaural implanted patients this will be the case when interaural time differences are encoded with μs precision.

  14. Electromagnetic field interactions with the human body: Observed effects and theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard.

  15. Human-armadillo interaction in Ceará, Brazil: Potential for transmission of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ligia; Kendall, Carl; Sousa, Cesar Augusto Barros de; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Graham, Jove; Rodrigues, Laura; Fernandes, Rafael Lima; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2015-12-01

    Several factors suggest that armadillos present an important risk for human leprosy infection. This study uses semi-structured interviews to better illustrate how human interaction with armadillos may increase the risk of leprosy transmission. The participants were all residents of the state of Ceará, in northeastern Brazil, all acknowledged contact with armadillos either through hunting, through cooking, or through consumption of its meat. This study raises important issues about contact between human beings and armadillos. The interviews provide evidence of numerous situations in which leprosy transmission via the armadillo is possible. At a minimum, people who hunt armadillos need to be made aware of the risk of infection.

  16. Structure and Protein–Protein Interactions of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the transfer of glucuronic acid from UDP-glucuronic acid to various xenobiotics and endobiotics. Since UGTs comprise rate-limiting enzymes for metabolism of various compounds, co-administration of UGT-inhibiting drugs and genetic deficiency of UGT genes can cause an increased blood concentration of these compounds. During the last few decades, extensive efforts have been made to advance the understanding of gene structure, function, substrate specificity, and inhibition/induction properties of UGTs. However, molecular mechanisms and physiological importance of the oligomerization and protein–protein interactions of UGTs are still largely unknown. While three-dimensional structures of human UGTs can be useful to reveal the details of oligomerization and protein–protein interactions of UGTs, little is known about the protein structures of human UGTs due to the difficulty in solving crystal structures of membrane-bound proteins. Meanwhile, soluble forms of plant and bacterial UGTs as well as a partial domain of human UGT2B7 have been crystallized and enabled us to predict three-dimensional structures of human UGTs using a homology-modeling technique. The homology-modeled structures of human UGTs do not only provide the detailed information about substrate binding or substrate specificity in human UGTs, but also contribute with unique knowledge on oligomerization and protein–protein interactions of UGTs. Furthermore, various in vitro approaches indicate that UGT-mediated glucuronidation is involved in cell death, apoptosis, and oxidative stress as well. In the present review article, recent understandings of UGT protein structures as well as physiological importance of the oligomerization and protein–protein interactions of human UGTs are discussed. PMID:27822186

  17. Interaction of anticancer drug clofarabine with human serum albumin and human α-1 acid glycoprotein. Spectroscopic and molecular docking approach.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Nusrat, Saima; Alam, Parvez; Zaidi, Nida; Khan, Mohsin Vahid; Zaman, Masihuz; Shahein, Yasser E; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2017-02-20

    The binding interaction between clofarabine, an important anticancer drug and two important carrier proteins found abundantly in human plasma, Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and α-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) was investigated by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results obtained from fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity of HSA and AAG is quenched by clofarabine and the static mode of fluorescence quenching is operative. UV-vis spectroscopy deciphered the formation of ground state complex between anticancer drug and the two studied proteins. Clofarabine was found to bind at 298K with both AAG and HSA with the binding constant of 8.128×10(3) and 4.120×10(3) for AAG and HSA, respectively. There is stronger interaction of clofarabine with AAG as compared to HSA. The Gibbs free energy change was found to be negative for the interaction of clofarabine with AAG and HSA indicating that the binding process is spontaneous. Binding of clofarabine with HSA and AAG induced ordered structures in both proteins and lead to molecular compaction. Clofarabine binds to HSA near to drug site II. Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were the main bonding forces between HSA-clofarabine and AAG-clofarabine as revealed by docking results. This study suggests the importance of binding of anticancer drug to AAG spatially in the diseases like cancers where the plasma concentration of AAG increases many folds. Design of drug dosage can be adjusted accordingly to achieve optimal treatment outcome.

  18. Design Science in Human-Computer Interaction: A Model and Three Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestopnik, Nathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world.…

  19. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  20. Aircraft-vehicle system interaction. An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research in the areas of man machine interaction and human factors engineering are assessed in relation to improved effeciency and aviation safety. The appropriateness, relevance, adequacy, and timeliness of the research is evaluated, and recommendations are provided regarding the objectives, approach and content.

  1. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    PubMed

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  2. A Project-Based Learning Setting to Human-Computer Interaction for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Cornelia; Geisler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamentals of human-computer interaction resp. usability engineering is getting more and more important in technical domains. However this interdisciplinary field of work and corresponding degree programs are not broadly known. Therefore at the Hochschule Ruhr West, University of Applied Sciences, a program was developed to give…

  3. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  4. A Framework and Implementation of User Interface and Human-Computer Interaction Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peslak, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that up to 50 % of the effort in development of information systems is devoted to user interface development (Douglas, Tremaine, Leventhal, Wills, & Manaris, 2002; Myers & Rosson, 1992). Yet little study has been performed on the inclusion of important interface and human-computer interaction topics into a current…

  5. Revisiting human-environment interactions in Chaco Canyon and the American Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betancourt, Julio L.; Guiterman, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Chaco Canyon was the center of a regionally integrated system. Despite a century of research, questions remain about its rise and fall, and the role of human-environment interactions. The answers may lie in current events and new tools and perspectives.

  6. Interacting with a Computer-Simulated Pet: Factors Influencing Children's Humane Attitudes and Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yueh-Feng; Kaufman, David

    2014-01-01

    Previous research by Tsai and Kaufman (2010a, 2010b) has suggested that computer-simulated virtual pet dogs can be used as a potential medium to enhance children's development of empathy and humane attitudes toward animals. To gain a deeper understanding of how and why interacting with a virtual pet dog might influence children's social and…

  7. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  8. Personality Factors in Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocius, Kym E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews studies investigating the relation between personality characteristics and human-computer interaction. The review is divided into three areas: (1) how personality traits are related to programing aptitude and achievement; (2) personality traits of people who use program skills in their profession; and (3) the relation between personality…

  9. Implementations of the CC'01 Human-Computer Interaction Guidelines Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaris, Bill; Wainer, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E.; Stalvey, RoxAnn H.; Shannon, Christine; Leventhal, Laura; Barnes, Julie; Wright, John; Schafer, J. Ben; Sanders, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In today's technology-laden society human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important knowledge area for computer scientists and software engineers. This paper surveys existing approaches to incorporate HCI into computer science (CS) and such related issues as the perceived gap between the interests of the HCI community and the needs of CS…

  10. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue

    2015-12-04

    Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases.

  11. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  12. Cognitive engineering models: A prerequisite to the design of human-computer interaction in complex dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter examines a class of human-computer interaction applications, specifically the design of human-computer interaction for the operators of complex systems. Such systems include space systems (e.g., manned systems such as the Shuttle or space station, and unmanned systems such as NASA scientific satellites), aviation systems (e.g., the flight deck of 'glass cockpit' airplanes or air traffic control) and industrial systems (e.g., power plants, telephone networks, and sophisticated, e.g., 'lights out,' manufacturing facilities). The main body of human-computer interaction (HCI) research complements but does not directly address the primary issues involved in human-computer interaction design for operators of complex systems. Interfaces to complex systems are somewhat special. The 'user' in such systems - i.e., the human operator responsible for safe and effective system operation - is highly skilled, someone who in human-machine systems engineering is sometimes characterized as 'well trained, well motivated'. The 'job' or task context is paramount and, thus, human-computer interaction is subordinate to human job interaction. The design of human interaction with complex systems, i.e., the design of human job interaction, is sometimes called cognitive engineering.

  13. Identification of Posttranslational Modification-Dependent Protein Interactions Using Yeast Surface Displayed Human Proteome Libraries.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The identification of proteins that interact specifically with posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation is often necessary to understand cellular signaling pathways. Numerous methods for identifying proteins that interact with posttranslational modifications have been utilized, including affinity-based purification and analysis, protein microarrays, phage display, and tethered catalysis. Although these techniques have been used successfully, each has limitations. Recently, yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries have been utilized to identify protein fragments with affinity for various target molecules, including phosphorylated peptides. When coupled with fluorescently activated cell sorting and high throughput methods for the analysis of selection outputs, yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries can rapidly and efficiently identify protein fragments with affinity for any soluble ligand that can be fluorescently detected, including posttranslational modifications. In this review we compare the use of yeast surface display libraries to other methods for the identification of interactions between proteins and posttranslational modifications and discuss future applications of the technology.

  14. Lack of in vitro interactions using human liver microsomes between rabeprazole and anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Tamaro, Ilaria; Genazzani, Armando; Canonico, Pierluigi; Grosa, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    The potential interactions between rabeprazole, a widely used proton pump inhibitor, and anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, methotrexate, doxorubicin, etoposide) or drugs commonly present in the therapy of oncological patients (fluoxetine and ondansetron), were studied using in vitro human liver microsomes. The interactions between rabeprazole and the anticancer drugs were evaluated by measuring their concentrations in test and control incubations with HPLC-DAD-UV methods. To achieve this aim, nine HPLC-DAD-UV methods were developed using different stationary and mobile phases. The methods were then validated for the following parameters: selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. As expected rabeprazole did not significantly inhibit the metabolism of the evaluated drugs in human liver microsomal preparations at the selected concentrations. These results shows that rabeprazole probably could be devoid of pharmacokinetic interactions with common drugs used during chemotherapy.

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Human-Water Interactions: The Role of Time-Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloeschl, G.; Sivapalan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the interest in hydrological modeling in the past decades revolved around resolving spatial variability. With the rapid changes brought about by human impacts on the hydrologic cycle, there is now an increasing need to refocus on time dependency. We present a co-evolutionary view of hydrologic systems, in which every part of the system including human systems, co-evolve, albeit at different rates. The resulting coupled human-nature system is framed as a dynamical system, characterized by interactions of fast and slow time scales and feedbacks between environmental and social processes. This gives rise to emergent phenomena such as the levee effect, adaptation to change and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system in a dynamic way. The co-evolutionary approach differs from the traditional view of water resource systems analysis as it allows for path dependence, multiple equilibria, lock-in situations and emergent phenomena. The approach may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesise the observed dynamics of different case studies. Future research opportunities include the study of how changes in human values are connected to human-water interactions, historical analyses of trajectories of system co-evolution in individual places and comparative analyses of contrasting human-water systems in different climate and socio-economic settings. Reference Sivapalan, M. and G. Blöschl (2015) Time Scale Interactions and the Co-evolution of Humans and Water. Water Resour. Res., 51, in press.

  16. Compliance control based on PSO algorithm to improve the feeling during physical human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongliang; Sun, Yu; Gao, Peng; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Robots play more important roles in daily life and bring us a lot of convenience. But when people work with robots, there remain some significant differences in human-human interactions and human-robot interaction. It is our goal to make robots look even more human-like. We design a controller which can sense the force acting on any point of a robot and ensure the robot can move according to the force. First, a spring-mass-dashpot system was used to describe the physical model, and the second-order system is the kernel of the controller. Then, we can establish the state space equations of the system. In addition, the particle swarm optimization algorithm had been used to obtain the system parameters. In order to test the stability of system, the root-locus diagram had been shown in the paper. Ultimately, some experiments had been carried out on the robotic spinal surgery system, which is developed by our team, and the result shows that the new controller performs better during human-robot interaction.

  17. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2006-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  18. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  19. A Small Covalent Allosteric Inhibitor of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase Subunit Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Coseno, Molly; Ficarro, Scott B; Mansueto, My Sam; Komazin-Meredith, Gloria; Boissel, Sandrine; Filman, David J; Marto, Jarrod A; Hogle, James M; Coen, Donald M

    2017-02-10

    Human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase comprises a catalytic subunit, UL54, and an accessory subunit, UL44, the interaction of which may serve as a target for the development of new antiviral drugs. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified a small molecule, (5-((dimethylamino)methylene-3-(methylthio)-6,7-dihydrobenzo[c]thiophen-4(5H)-one), that selectively inhibits the interaction of UL44 with a UL54-derived peptide in a time-dependent manner, full-length UL54, and UL44-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis. A crystal structure of the compound bound to UL44 revealed a covalent reaction with lysine residue 60 and additional noncovalent interactions that cause steric conflicts that would prevent the UL44 connector loop from interacting with UL54. Analyses of the reaction of the compound with model substrates supported a resonance-stabilized conjugation mechanism, and substitution of the lysine reduced the ability of the compound to inhibit UL44-UL54 peptide interactions. This novel covalent inhibitor of polymerase subunit interactions may serve as a starting point for new, needed drugs to treat human cytomegalovirus infections.

  20. Macaque–Human Interactions and the Societal Perceptions of Macaques in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    SHA, JOHN CHIH MUN; GUMERT, MICHAEL D.; LEE, BENJAMIN P. Y-H.; JONES-ENGEL, LISA; CHAN, SHARON; FUENTES, AGUSTÍN

    2015-01-01

    Humans and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) interface in several locations in Singapore. We investigated six of these interface zones to assess the level of conflict between the two species. We observed macaque-to-human interactions and distributed questionnaires to residents and visitors of nature reserves. We observed an average of two macaque-to-human interactions per hour at the sites, which included affiliative or submissive behaviors (46.9%), aggression (19.1%), taking food and other items (18.5%) searching bins, cars, and houses (13.4%), and nonaggressive contact (2.1%). Two-thirds of interactions occurred when a human was carrying food or food cues, and one-quarter occurred when a human provoked macaques. Only 8% of interactions occurred without a clear human-triggered context. Our interview showed one-third of respondents experienced nuisance problems from macaques. They had items taken from them (50.5%) and received threats (31.9%). Residents reported more nuisance problems than visitors, and their perceptions toward macaques differed. Residents were more aware of the consequences of food provisioning and that there were regulations against feeding. Residents fed macaques less and held more negative sentiments toward macaques. Nearly half of the interviewed people held neutral attitudes toward macaques and only 26.2% of respondents thought conflict with macaques warranted urgent action. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents supported education programs to ameliorate human–macaque conflict, and less than 15% supported removing or eradicating macaques. 87.6% felt that it is importance to conserve and protect macaques. Our results show that human–macaque conflict exists in Singapore, but that it may not be severe. Human behavior is largely responsible for macaque-to-human interactions, and thus could be lessened with management of human behavior in interface zones (i.e. restrict food carrying and provocation). Moreover, our interviews shows

  1. Development of Methodologies, Metrics, and Tools for Investigating Human-Robot Interaction in Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, Neta; Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Sandor, Aniko; Boyer, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Robonaut, and Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), as well as interviews with robotics trainers, robot operators, and developers of gesture interfaces. A survey of methods and metrics used in HRI was completed to identify those most applicable to space robotics. These methods and metrics included techniques and tools associated with task performance, the quantification of human-robot interactions and communication, usability, human workload, and situation awareness. The need for more research in areas such as natural interfaces, compensations for loss of signal and poor video quality, psycho-physiological feedback, and common HRI testbeds were identified. The initial findings from these activities and planned future research are discussed. Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator

  2. An improved method for predicting interactions between virus and human proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungmin; Alguwaizani, Saud; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, De-Shuang; Park, Byunkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of virus proteins with host proteins plays a key role in viral infection and consequent pathogenesis. Many computational methods have been proposed to predict protein-protein interactions (PPIs), but most of the computational methods are intended for PPIs within a species rather than PPIs across different species such as virus-host PPIs. We developed a method that represents key features of virus and human proteins of variable length into a feature vector of fixed length. The key features include the relative frequency of amino acid triplets (RFAT), the frequency difference of amino acid triplets (FDAT) between virus and host proteins, and amino acid composition (AC). We constructed several support vector machine (SVM) models to evaluate our method and to compare our method with others on PPIs between human and two types of viruses: human papillomaviruses (HPV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Comparison of our method to others with same datasets of HPV-human PPIs and HCV-human PPIs showed that the performance of our method is significantly higher than others in all performance measures. Using the SVM model with gene ontology (GO) annotations of proteins, we predicted new HPV-human PPIs. We believe our approach will be useful in predicting heterogeneous PPIs.

  3. A Dynamic Protein Interaction Landscape of the Human Centrosome-Cilium Interface.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gagan D; Coyaud, Étienne; Gonçalves, João; Mojarad, Bahareh A; Liu, Yi; Wu, Qianzhu; Gheiratmand, Ladan; Comartin, David; Tkach, Johnny M; Cheung, Sally W T; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Hasegan, Monica; Knight, James D; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Schueler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Moffat, Jason; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Raught, Brian; Pelletier, Laurence

    2015-12-03

    The centrosome is the primary microtubule organizing center of the cells and templates the formation of cilia, thereby operating at a nexus of critical cellular functions. Here, we use proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) to map the centrosome-cilium interface; with 58 bait proteins we generate a protein topology network comprising >7,000 interactions. Analysis of interaction profiles coupled with high resolution phenotypic profiling implicates a number of protein modules in centriole duplication, ciliogenesis, and centriolar satellite biogenesis and highlights extensive interplay between these processes. By monitoring dynamic changes in the centrosome-cilium protein interaction landscape during ciliogenesis, we also identify satellite proteins that support cilia formation. Systematic profiling of proximity interactions combined with functional analysis thus provides a rich resource for better understanding human centrosome and cilia biology. Similar strategies may be applied to other complex biological structures or pathways.

  4. Structural Basis for Novel Interactions between Human TLS Polymerases and PCNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hishiki, Asami; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    TransLesion Synthesis (TLS) is a DNA damage tolerance mechanism that allows continued DNA synthesis, even in the presence of damaged DNA templates. In response to DNA damage, TLS polymerases are recruited to replication forks via interactions with ubiquitinated Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) involving PCNA-interacting protein box (PIP-box) and ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs). We now report the first crystal structures of human PCNA in complex with three TLS polymerase peptides containing the non-canonical PIP-box. TLS polymerases interact with PCNA in different ways, both from one another and from canonical PIP-box peptides. Furthermore, we discuss these TLS polymerases interact with ubiquitinated PCNA.

  5. Interaction of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with human red blood cell membranes: size and surface effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yannan; Sun, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Guannan; Trewyn, Brian G; Slowing, Igor I; Lin, Victor S-Y

    2011-02-22

    The interactions of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of different particle sizes and surface properties with human red blood cell (RBC) membranes were investigated by membrane filtration, flow cytometry, and various microscopic techniques. Small MCM-41-type MSNs (∼100 nm) were found to adsorb to the surface of RBCs without disturbing the membrane or morphology. In contrast, adsorption of large SBA-15-type MSNs (∼600 nm) to RBCs induced a strong local membrane deformation leading to spiculation of RBCs, internalization of the particles, and eventual hemolysis. In addition, the relationship between the degree of MSN surface functionalization and the degree of its interaction with RBC, as well as the effect of RBC-MSN interaction on cellular deformability, were investigated. The results presented here provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of RBC-MSN interaction and the hemolytic activity of MSNs and will assist in the rational design of hemocompatible MSNs for intravenous drug delivery and in vivo imaging.

  6. I want what you've got: Cross platform portabiity and human-robot interaction assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Julie L. Marble, Ph.D.*.; Douglas A. Few; David J. Bruemmer

    2005-08-01

    Human-robot interaction is a subtle, yet critical aspect of design that must be assessed during the development of both the human-robot interface and robot behaviors if the human-robot team is to effectively meet the complexities of the task environment. Testing not only ensures that the system can successfully achieve the tasks for which it was designed, but more importantly, usability testing allows the designers to understand how humans and robots can, will, and should work together to optimize workload distribution. A lack of human-centered robot interface design, the rigidity of sensor configuration, and the platform-specific nature of research robot development environments are a few factors preventing robotic solutions from reaching functional utility in real word environments. Often the difficult engineering challenge of implementing adroit reactive behavior, reliable communication, trustworthy autonomy that combines with system transparency and usable interfaces is overlooked in favor of other research aims. The result is that many robotic systems never reach a level of functional utility necessary even to evaluate the efficacy of the basic system, much less result in a system that can be used in a critical, real-world environment. Further, because control architectures and interfaces are often platform specific, it is difficult or even impossible to make usability comparisons between them. This paper discusses the challenges inherent to the conduct of human factors testing of variable autonomy control architectures and across platforms within a complex, real-world environment. It discusses the need to compare behaviors, architectures, and interfaces within a structured environment that contains challenging real-world tasks, and the implications for system acceptance and trust of autonomous robotic systems for how humans and robots interact in true interactive teams.

  7. Probabilistic assembly of human protein interaction networks from label-free quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sardiu, Mihaela E.; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji; Swanson, Selene K.; Conaway, Ronald C.; Conaway, Joan W.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale affinity purification and mass spectrometry studies have played important roles in the assembly and analysis of comprehensive protein interaction networks for lower eukaryotes. However, the development of such networks for human proteins has been slowed by the high cost and significant technical challenges associated with systematic studies of protein interactions. To address this challenge, we have developed a method for building local and focused networks. This approach couples vector algebra and statistical methods with normalized spectral counting (NSAF) derived from the analysis of affinity purifications via chromatography-based proteomics. After mathematical removal of contaminant proteins, the core components of multiprotein complexes are determined by singular value decomposition analysis and clustering. The probability of interactions within and between complexes is computed solely based upon NSAFs using Bayes' approach. To demonstrate the application of this method to small-scale datasets, we analyzed an expanded human TIP49a and TIP49b dataset. This dataset contained proteins affinity-purified with 27 different epitope-tagged components of the chromatin remodeling SRCAP, hINO80, and TRRAP/TIP60 complexes, and the nutrient sensing complex Uri/Prefoldin. Within a core network of 65 unique proteins, we captured all known components of these complexes and novel protein associations, especially in the Uri/Prefoldin complex. Finally, we constructed a probabilistic human interaction network composed of 557 protein pairs. PMID:18218781

  8. Investigation of the interaction of deltamethrin (DM) with human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaman; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yuhao; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of Deltamethrin (DM) with human serum albumin (HSA) under the condition of simulating human blood pH environment (pH = 7.4) was investigated by fluorescence, UV-Vis absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. It was shown that DM was a static quencher of HSA. The binding constants (Ka) are 3.598 × 104 L mol-1 (25 °C); the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH = -3.269 × 104 kJ mol-1, ΔS = -22.81 kJ mol-1 k-1, ΔG = -25889.8 kJ mol-1) obtained with the thermodynamic equation. The hydrogen bond and Vander Waals were the main driving force. The effect of DM on the conformation of HSA was observed by three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra, indicating that the interaction between DM and HSA was achieved through the binding of DM with the tryptophan and tyrosine residues of HSA. The study on the interaction of DM and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was researched and compared. Difference exists in the interactions of with each of the serum albumins. We will verify and supplement that DM residue in animals and human metabolism, toxicology and other mechanisms are different.

  9. Numerical simulation of stress amplification induced by crack interaction in human femur bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alia, Noor; Daud, Ruslizam; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Azman, Wan Zuki; Faizal, Ahmad; Aisyah, Siti

    2015-05-01

    This research is about numerical simulation using a computational method which study on stress amplification induced by crack interaction in human femur bone. Cracks in human femur bone usually occur because of large load or stress applied on it. Usually, the fracture takes longer time to heal itself. At present, the crack interaction is still not well understood due to bone complexity. Thus, brittle fracture behavior of bone may be underestimated and inaccurate. This study aims to investigate the geometrical effect of double co-planar edge cracks on stress intensity factor (K) in femur bone. This research focuses to analyze the amplification effect on the fracture behavior of double co-planar edge cracks, where numerical model is developed using computational method. The concept of fracture mechanics and finite element method (FEM) are used to solve the interacting cracks problems using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory. As a result, this study has shown the identification of the crack interaction limit (CIL) and crack unification limit (CUL) exist in the human femur bone model developed. In future research, several improvements will be made such as varying the load, applying thickness on the model and also use different theory or method in calculating the stress intensity factor (K).

  10. Human UBL5 protein interacts with coilin and meets the Cajal bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Švéda, Martin; Častorálová, Markéta; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš; Knejzlík, Zdeněk

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Localization of the UBL5 protein in Hela cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy and biochemical fractionation. •Colocalization of UBL5 with Cajal bodies was observed. •Interaction of UBL5 with coilin was proven by pull-down. -- Abstract: UBL5 protein, a structural homologue of ubiquitin, was shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and transcription regulation in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. However, role of the UBL5 human orthologue is still elusive. In our study, we observed that endogenous human UBL5 that was localized in the nucleus, partially associates with Cajal bodies (CBs), nuclear domains where spliceosomal components are assembled. Simultaneous expression of exogenous UBL5 and coilin resulted in their nuclear colocalization in HeLa cells. The ability of UBL5 to interact with coilin was proved by GST pull-down assay using coilin that was either in vitro translated or extracted from HEK293T cells. Further, our results showed that the UBL5–coilin interaction was not influenced by coilin phosphorylation. These results suggest that UBL5 could be targeted to CBs via its interaction with coilin. Relation between human UBL5 protein and CBs is in the agreement with current observations about yeast orthologue Hub1 playing important role in alternative splicing.

  11. Modeling 4D Human-Object Interactions for Joint Event Segmentation, Recognition, and Object Localization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Zhao, Yibiao; Zheng, Nanning; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a 4D human-object interaction (4DHOI) model for solving three vision tasks jointly: i) event segmentation from a video sequence, ii) event recognition and parsing, and iii) contextual object localization. The 4DHOI model represents the geometric, temporal, and semantic relations in daily events involving human-object interactions. In 3D space, the interactions of human poses and contextual objects are modeled by semantic co-occurrence and geometric compatibility. On the time axis, the interactions are represented as a sequence of atomic event transitions with coherent objects. The 4DHOI model is a hierarchical spatial-temporal graph representation which can be used for inferring scene functionality and object affordance. The graph structures and parameters are learned using an ordered expectation maximization algorithm which mines the spatial-temporal structures of events from RGB-D video samples. Given an input RGB-D video, the inference is performed by a dynamic programming beam search algorithm which simultaneously carries out event segmentation, recognition, and object localization. We collected and released a large multiview RGB-D event dataset which contains 3,815 video sequences and 383,036 RGB-D frames captured by three RGB-D cameras. The experimental results on three challenging datasets demonstrate the strength of the proposed method.

  12. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P. Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  13. Interactive machine learning for health informatics: when do we need the human-in-the-loop?

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning (ML) is the fastest growing field in computer science, and health informatics is among the greatest challenges. The goal of ML is to develop algorithms which can learn and improve over time and can be used for predictions. Most ML researchers concentrate on automatic machine learning (aML), where great advances have been made, for example, in speech recognition, recommender systems, or autonomous vehicles. Automatic approaches greatly benefit from big data with many training sets. However, in the health domain, sometimes we are confronted with a small number of data sets or rare events, where aML-approaches suffer of insufficient training samples. Here interactive machine learning (iML) may be of help, having its roots in reinforcement learning, preference learning, and active learning. The term iML is not yet well used, so we define it as "algorithms that can interact with agents and can optimize their learning behavior through these interactions, where the agents can also be human." This "human-in-the-loop" can be beneficial in solving computationally hard problems, e.g., subspace clustering, protein folding, or k-anonymization of health data, where human expertise can help to reduce an exponential search space through heuristic selection of samples. Therefore, what would otherwise be an NP-hard problem, reduces greatly in complexity through the input and the assistance of a human agent involved in the learning phase.

  14. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  15. Model-based safety analysis of human-robot interactions: the MIRAS walking assistance robot.

    PubMed

    Guiochet, Jérémie; Hoang, Quynh Anh Do; Kaaniche, Mohamed; Powell, David

    2013-06-01

    Robotic systems have to cope with various execution environments while guaranteeing safety, and in particular when they interact with humans during rehabilitation tasks. These systems are often critical since their failure can lead to human injury or even death. However, such systems are difficult to validate due to their high complexity and the fact that they operate within complex, variable and uncertain environments (including users), in which it is difficult to foresee all possible system behaviors. Because of the complexity of human-robot interactions, rigorous and systematic approaches are needed to assist the developers in the identification of significant threats and the implementation of efficient protection mechanisms, and in the elaboration of a sound argumentation to justify the level of safety that can be achieved by the system. For threat identification, we propose a method called HAZOP-UML based on a risk analysis technique adapted to system description models, focusing on human-robot interaction models. The output of this step is then injected in a structured safety argumentation using the GSN graphical notation. Those approaches have been successfully applied to the development of a walking assistant robot which is now in clinical validation.

  16. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  17. Interactions involving the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C and XRCC3 in human cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Claudia; Collins, David W.; Albala, Joanna S.; Thompson, Larry H.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Homologous recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks and crosslinks in human cells is likely to require Rad51 and the five Rad51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2 and Rad51D/Rad51L3), as has been shown in chicken and rodent cells. Previously, we reported on the interactions among these proteins using baculovirus and two- and three-hybrid yeast systems. To test for interactions involving XRCC3 and Rad51C, stable human cell lines have been isolated that express (His)6-tagged versions of XRCC3 or Rad51C. Ni2+-binding experiments demonstrate that XRCC3 and Rad51C interact in human cells. In addition, we find that Rad51C, but not XRCC3, interacts directly or indirectly with Rad51B, Rad51D and XRCC2. These results argue that there are at least two complexes of Rad51 paralogs in human cells (Rad51C-XRCC3 and Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2), both containing Rad51C. Moreover, Rad51 is not found in these complexes. X-ray treatment did not alter either the level of any Rad51 paralog or the observed interactions between paralogs. However, the endogenous level of Rad51C is moderately elevated in the XRCC3-overexpressing cell line, suggesting that dimerization between these proteins might help stabilize Rad51C.

  18. The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Innes, Clinton; Anand, Madhur; Bauch, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems can exhibit alternative stables states, whereby under the same environmental conditions, the ecosystem could equally well reside either in one state or another, depending on the initial conditions. We develop a mathematical model that couples a simplified forest-grassland mosaic model to a dynamic model of opinions about conservation priorities in a population, based on perceptions of ecosystem rarity. Weak human influence increases the region of parameter space where alternative stable states are possible. However, strong human influence precludes bistability, such that forest and grassland either co-exist at a single, stable equilibrium, or their relative abundance oscillates. Moreover, a perturbation can shift the system from a stable state to an oscillatory state. We conclude that human-environment interactions can qualitatively alter the composition of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. The human role in such systems should be viewed as dynamic, responsive element rather than as a fixed, unchanging entity.

  19. Utilizing Yeast Surface Human Proteome Display Libraries to Identify Small Molecule-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The identification of proteins that interact with small bioactive molecules is a critical but often difficult and time-consuming step in understanding cellular signaling pathways or molecular mechanisms of drug action. Numerous methods for identifying small molecule-interacting proteins have been developed and utilized, including affinity-based purification followed by mass spectrometry analysis, protein microarrays, phage display, and three-hybrid approaches. Although all these methods have been used successfully, there remains a need for additional techniques for analyzing small molecule-protein interactions. A promising method for identifying small molecule-protein interactions is affinity-based selection of yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries. Large and diverse libraries displaying human protein fragments on the surface of yeast cells have been constructed and subjected to FACS-based enrichment followed by comprehensive exon microarray-based output analysis to identify protein fragments with affinity for small molecule ligands. In a recent example, a proteome-wide search has been successfully carried out to identify cellular proteins binding to the signaling lipids PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Known phosphatidylinositide-binding proteins such as pleckstrin homology domains were identified, as well as many novel interactions. Intriguingly, many novel nuclear phosphatidylinositide-binding proteins were discovered. Although the existence of an independent pool of nuclear phosphatidylinositides has been known about for some time, their functions and mechanism of action remain obscure. Thus, the identification and subsequent study of nuclear phosphatidylinositide-binding proteins is expected to bring new insights to this important biological question. Based on the success with phosphatidylinositides, it is expected that the screening of yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries will be of general use for the discovery of novel small

  20. Structure and interactions of the human programmed cell death 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoxiao; Veverka, Vaclav; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Waters, Lorna C; Muskett, Frederick W; Morgan, Sara H; Huo, Jiandong; Yu, Chao; Evans, Edward J; Leslie, Alasdair J; Griffiths, Meryn; Stubberfield, Colin; Griffin, Robert; Henry, Alistair J; Jansson, Andreas; Ladbury, John E; Ikemizu, Shinji; Carr, Mark D; Davis, Simon J

    2013-04-26

    PD-1, a receptor expressed by T cells, B cells, and monocytes, is a potent regulator of immune responses and a promising therapeutic target. The structure and interactions of human PD-1 are, however, incompletely characterized. We present the solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structure of the human PD-1 extracellular region and detailed analyses of its interactions with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. PD-1 has typical immunoglobulin superfamily topology but differs at the edge of the GFCC' sheet, which is flexible and completely lacks a C" strand. Changes in PD-1 backbone NMR signals induced by ligand binding suggest that, whereas binding is centered on the GFCC' sheet, PD-1 is engaged by its two ligands differently and in ways incompletely explained by crystal structures of mouse PD-1 · ligand complexes. The affinities of these interactions and that of PD-L1 with the costimulatory protein B7-1, measured using surface plasmon resonance, are significantly weaker than expected. The 3-4-fold greater affinity of PD-L2 versus PD-L1 for human PD-1 is principally due to the 3-fold smaller dissociation rate for PD-L2 binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is entropically driven, whereas PD-1/PD-L2 binding has a large enthalpic component. Mathematical simulations based on the biophysical data and quantitative expression data suggest an unexpectedly limited contribution of PD-L2 to PD-1 ligation during interactions of activated T cells with antigen-presenting cells. These findings provide a rigorous structural and biophysical framework for interpreting the important functions of PD-1 and reveal that potent inhibitory signaling can be initiated by weakly interacting receptors.

  1. Umami-bitter interactions: the suppression of bitterness by umami peptides via human bitter taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-09

    Taste-taste interactions often showed in human psychophysical studies. Considering that each tastant in foodstuffs individually stimulates its responsible gustatory systems to elicit relevant taste modalities, taste-taste interaction should be performed in taste receptor cell-based assay. While umami substances have been proposed to suppress the bitterness of various chemicals in human sensory evaluation, the bitter-umami interaction has not been explored in bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs. We investigated umami-bitter taste interactions by presenting umami peptides with bitter substance (salicin) on Ca(2+)-flux signaling assay using hTAS2R16-expressing cells. Five representative umami peptides (Glu-Asp, Glu-Glu, Glu-Ser, Asp-Glu-Ser, and Glu-Gly-Ser) derived from soybean markedly attenuated the salicin-induced intracellular calcium influx in a time-dependent manner, respectively, while Gly-Gly, a tasteless peptide did not. The efficacies of Glu-Glu suppressing salicin-induced activation of hTAS2R16 were higher than that of probenecid, a specific antagonist of hTAS2R16. According to Ca(2+)-flux signaling assay using the mixtures of salicin and umami peptides, all five umami peptides suppressed salicin-induced intracellular calcium influx in a noncompetitive manner. These results may provide evidence that umami peptides suppress bitter taste via bitter taste receptor(s). This is the first report which defines the interaction between bitter and umami taste in taste receptor level.

  2. Portable tongue-supported human computer interaction system design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Quain, Rohan; Khan, Masood Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Tongue supported human-computer interaction (TSHCI) systems can help critically ill patients interact with both computers and people. These systems can be particularly useful for patients suffering injuries above C7 on their spinal vertebrae. Despite recent successes in their application, several limitations restrict performance of existing TSHCI systems and discourage their use in real life situations. This paper proposes a low-cost, less-intrusive, portable and easy to use design for implementing a TSHCI system. Two applications of the proposed system are reported. Design considerations and performance of the proposed system are also presented.

  3. Investigation of the interaction between five alkaloids and human hemoglobin by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    He, Wu; Dou, Huanjing; Li, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaogai; Wang, Lvjing; Wang, Ruiyong; Chang, Junbiao

    2014-04-05

    This work studied the interaction of human hemoglobin (HHb) with aminophylline, acefylline, caffeine, theophylline and diprophylline systematically by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Five alkaloids caused the fluorescence quenching of HHb by the formation of alkaloids-HHb complex. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were obtained. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize these complexes. Results of thermodynamic analysis and molecular modeling showed that aminophylline was the strongest quencher and diprophylline was the weakest quencher.

  4. Structural insights into the human GW182-PABC interaction in microRNA-mediated deadenylation.

    PubMed

    Jinek, Martin; Fabian, Marc R; Coyle, Scott M; Sonenberg, Nahum; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2010-02-01

    GW182-family proteins are essential for microRNA-mediated translational repression and deadenylation in animal cells. Here we show that a conserved motif in the human GW182 paralog TNRC6C interacts with the C-terminal domain of polyadenylate binding protein 1 (PABC) and present the crystal structure of the complex. Mutations at the complex interface impair mRNA deadenylation in mammalian cell extracts, suggesting that the GW182-PABC interaction contributes to microRNA-mediated gene silencing.

  5. Glycation Contributes to Interaction Between Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Collagen Type I.

    PubMed

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Enander, Karin; Magnusson, Per

    2016-03-01

    Bone is a biological composite material comprised primarily of collagen type I and mineral crystals of calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA), which together provide its mechanical properties. Bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), produced by osteoblasts, plays a pivotal role in the mineralization process. Affinity contacts between collagen, mainly type II, and the crown domain of various ALP isozymes were reported in a few in vitro studies in the 1980s and 1990s, but have not attracted much attention since, although such interactions may have important implications for the bone mineralization process. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding properties of human collagen type I to human bone ALP, including the two bone ALP isoforms B1 and B2. ALP from human liver, human placenta and E. coli were also studied. A surface plasmon resonance-based analysis, supported by electrophoresis and blotting, showed that bone ALP binds stronger to collagen type I in comparison with ALPs expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. Further, the B2 isoform binds significantly stronger to collagen type I in comparison with the B1 isoform. Human bone and liver ALP (with identical amino acid composition) displayed pronounced differences in binding, revealing that post-translational glycosylation properties govern these interactions to a large extent. In conclusion, this study presents the first evidence that glycosylation differences in human ALPs are of crucial importance for protein-protein interactions with collagen type I, although the presence of the ALP crown domain may also be necessary. Different binding affinities among the bone ALP isoforms may influence the mineral-collagen interface, mineralization kinetics, and degree of bone matrix mineralization, which are important factors determining the material properties of bone.

  6. Comparative interactomics for virus-human protein-protein interactions: DNA viruses versus RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Durmuş, Saliha; Ülgen, Kutlu Ö

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are obligatory intracellular pathogens and completely depend on their hosts for survival and reproduction. The strategies adopted by viruses to exploit host cell processes and to evade host immune systems during infections may differ largely with the type of the viral genetic material. An improved understanding of these viral infection mechanisms is only possible through a better understanding of the pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) that enable viruses to enter into the host cells and manipulate the cellular mechanisms to their own advantage. Experimentally-verified protein-protein interaction (PPI) data of pathogen-host systems only became available at large scale within the last decade. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the current PHI networks belonging to DNA and RNA viruses and their human host, to get insights into the infection strategies used by these viral groups. We investigated the functional properties of human proteins in the PHI networks, to observe and compare the attack strategies of DNA and RNA viruses. We observed that DNA viruses are able to attack both human cellular and metabolic processes simultaneously during infections. On the other hand, RNA viruses preferentially interact with human proteins functioning in specific cellular processes as well as in intracellular transport and localization within the cell. Observing virus-targeted human proteins, we propose heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and transporter proteins as potential antiviral therapeutic targets. The observed common and specific infection mechanisms in terms of viral strategies to attack human proteins may provide crucial information for further design of broad and specific next-generation antiviral therapeutics.

  7. Toward a 3D model of human brain development for studying gene/environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Hogberg, Helena T; Bressler, Joseph; Christian, Kimberly M; Harris, Georgina; Makri, Georgia; O'Driscoll, Cliona; Pamies, David; Smirnova, Lena; Wen, Zhexing; Hartung, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to establish and characterize an in vitro model of the developing human brain for the purpose of testing drugs and chemicals. To accurately assess risk, a model needs to recapitulate the complex interactions between different types of glial cells and neurons in a three-dimensional platform. Moreover, human cells are preferred over cells from rodents to eliminate cross-species differences in sensitivity to chemicals. Previously, we established conditions to culture rat primary cells as three-dimensional aggregates, which will be humanized and evaluated here with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The use of iPSCs allows us to address gene/environment interactions as well as the potential of chemicals to interfere with epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, iPSCs afford us the opportunity to study the effect of chemicals during very early stages of brain development. It is well recognized that assays for testing toxicity in the developing brain must consider differences in sensitivity and susceptibility that arise depending on the time of exposure. This model will reflect critical developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, lineage specification, migration, axonal growth, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis, which will probably display differences in sensitivity to different types of chemicals. Functional endpoints will evaluate the complex cell-to-cell interactions that are affected in neurodevelopment through chemical perturbation, and the efficacy of drug intervention to prevent or reverse phenotypes. The model described is designed to assess developmental neurotoxicity effects on unique processes occurring during human brain development by leveraging human iPSCs from diverse genetic backgrounds, which can be differentiated into different cell types of the central nervous system. Our goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the personalized model using iPSCs derived from individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

  8. Functional metabolic interactions of human neuron-astrocyte 3D in vitro networks

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Daniel; Terrasso, Ana P.; Teixeira, Ana P.; Brito, Catarina; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of human neural tissue-like 3D structures holds great promise for disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine strategies. Promoting the establishment of complex cell-cell interactions, 3D culture systems enable the development of human cell-based models with increased physiological relevance, over monolayer cultures. Here, we demonstrate the establishment of neuronal and astrocytic metabolic signatures and shuttles in a human 3D neural cell model, namely the glutamine-glutamate-GABA shuttle. This was indicated by labeling of neuronal GABA following incubation with the glia-specific substrate [2-13C]acetate, which decreased by methionine sulfoximine-induced inhibition of the glial enzyme glutamine synthetase. Cell metabolic specialization was further demonstrated by higher pyruvate carboxylase-derived labeling in glutamine than in glutamate, indicating its activity in astrocytes and not in neurons. Exposure to the neurotoxin acrylamide resulted in intracellular accumulation of glutamate and decreased GABA synthesis. These results suggest an acrylamide-induced impairment of neuronal synaptic vesicle trafficking and imbalanced glutamine-glutamate-GABA cycle, due to loss of cell-cell contacts at synaptic sites. This work demonstrates, for the first time to our knowledge, that neural differentiation of human cells in a 3D setting recapitulates neuronal-astrocytic metabolic interactions, highlighting the relevance of these models for toxicology and better understanding the crosstalk between human neural cells. PMID:27619889

  9. Strategies to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for human hair follicle bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Manabu; Veraitch, Ophelia

    2013-05-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration depend on intensive but well-orchestrated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal components. Accordingly, the enhancement of this crosstalk represents a promising approach to achieve successful bioengineering of human hair follicles. The present article summarizes the techniques, both currently available and potentially feasible, to promote epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) necessary for human hair follicle regeneration. The strategies include the preparation of epithelial components with high receptivity to trichogenic dermal signals and/or mesenchymal cell populations with potent hair inductive capacity. In this regard, bulge epithelial stem cells, keratinocytes predisposed to hair follicle fate or keratinocyte precursor cells with plasticity may provide favorable epithelial cell populations. Dermal papilla cells sustaining intrinsic hair inductive capacity, putative dermal papilla precursor cells in the dermal sheath/neonatal dermis or trichogenic dermal cells derived from undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates as hair inductive dermal cells. The most established protocol for in vivo hair follicle reconstitution is co-grafting of epithelial and mesenchymal components into immunodeficient mice. In theory, combination of individually optimized cellular components of respective lineages should elicit most intensive EMIs to form hair follicles. Still, EMIs can be further ameliorated by the modulation of non-cell autonomous conditions, including cell compartmentalization to replicate the positional relationship in vivo and humanization of host environment by preparing human stromal bed. These approaches may not always synergistically intensify EMIs, however, step-by-step investigation probing optimal combinations should maximally enhance EMIs to achieve successful human hair follicle bioengineering.

  10. Incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator–prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape

    PubMed Central

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Schultner, Jannik; Nimmo, Dale G.; Fischer, Joern; Hanspach, Jan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kehoe, Laura; Ritchie, Euan G.

    2015-01-01

    Apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. However, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. In particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? Combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predator and prey distributions in a human-dominated landscape in Transylvania, Romania. By global standards this system is diverse, including apex predators (brown bear and wolf), mesopredators (red fox) and large herbivores (roe and red deer). Humans and free-ranging dogs represent additional predators in the system. Using structural equation modelling, we found that apex predators suppress lower trophic levels, especially herbivores. However, direct and indirect top-down effects of humans affected the ecosystem more strongly, influencing species at all trophic levels. Our study highlights the need to explicitly embed humans and their influences within trophic cascade theory. This will greatly expand our understanding of species interactions in human-modified landscapes, which compose the majority of the Earth's terrestrial surface. PMID:26336169

  11. Incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator-prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape.

    PubMed

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Schultner, Jannik; Nimmo, Dale G; Fischer, Joern; Hanspach, Jan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kehoe, Laura; Ritchie, Euan G

    2015-09-07

    Apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. However, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. In particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? Combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predator and prey distributions in a human-dominated landscape in Transylvania, Romania. By global standards this system is diverse, including apex predators (brown bear and wolf), mesopredators (red fox) and large herbivores (roe and red deer). Humans and free-ranging dogs represent additional predators in the system. Using structural equation modelling, we found that apex predators suppress lower trophic levels, especially herbivores. However, direct and indirect top-down effects of humans affected the ecosystem more strongly, influencing species at all trophic levels. Our study highlights the need to explicitly embed humans and their influences within trophic cascade theory. This will greatly expand our understanding of species interactions in human-modified landscapes, which compose the majority of the Earth's terrestrial surface.

  12. Modeling and Simulation for Exploring Human-Robot Team Interaction Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Bruemmer, David Jonathon; Davis, Midge Lee

    2001-12-01

    Small-sized and micro-robots will soon be available for deployment in large-scale forces. Consequently, the ability of a human operator to coordinate and interact with largescale robotic forces is of great interest. This paper describes the ways in which modeling and simulation have been used to explore new possibilities for human-robot interaction. The paper also discusses how these explorations have fed implementation of a unified set of command and control concepts for robotic force deployment. Modeling and simulation can play a major role in fielding robot teams in actual missions. While live testing is preferred, limitations in terms of technology, cost, and time often prohibit extensive experimentation with physical multi-robot systems. Simulation provides insight, focuses efforts, eliminates large areas of the possible solution space, and increases the quality of actual testing.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Human Body Movement and Group Interactions in Response to Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Frank; Leman, Marc; Lesaffre, Micheline; de Bruyn, Leen

    Quantification of time series that relate to physiological data is challenging for empirical music research. Up to now, most studies have focused on time-dependent responses of individual subjects in controlled environments. However, little is known about time-dependent responses of between-subject interactions in an ecological context. This paper provides new findings on the statistical analysis of group synchronicity in response to musical stimuli. Different statistical techniques were applied to time-dependent data obtained from an experiment on embodied listening in individual and group settings. Analysis of inter group synchronicity are described. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Cross Correlation Function (CCF) were found to be valid methods to estimate group coherence of the resulting movements. It was found that synchronicity of movements between individuals (human-human interactions) increases significantly in the social context. Moreover, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the type of music is the predominant factor in both the individual and the social context.

  14. Large-scale in silico modeling of metabolic interactions between cell types in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan E; Schramm, Gunnar; Bordbar, Aarash; Schellenberger, Jan; Andersen, Michael P; Cheng, Jeffrey K; Patel, Nilam; Yee, Alex; Lewis, Randall A; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-12-01

    Metabolic interactions between multiple cell types are difficult to model using existing approaches. Here we present a workflow that integrates gene expression data, proteomics data and literature-based manual curation to model human metabolism within and between different types of cells. Transport reactions are used to account for the transfer of metabolites between models of different cell types via the interstitial fluid. We apply the method to create models of brain energy metabolism that recapitulate metabolic interactions between astrocytes and various neuron types relevant to Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of the models identifies genes and pathways that may explain observed experimental phenomena, including the differential effects of the disease on cell types and regions of the brain. Constraint-based modeling can thus contribute to the study and analysis of multicellular metabolic processes in the human tissue microenvironment and provide detailed mechanistic insight into high-throughput data analysis.

  15. Why E-Business Must Evolve beyond Market Orientation: Applying Human Interaction Models to Computer-Mediated Corporate Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kevin McCullough

    2001-01-01

    Considers the design of corporate communications for electronic business and discusses the increasing importance of corporate interaction as companies work in virtual environments. Compares sociological and psychological theories of human interaction and relationship formation with organizational interaction theories of corporate relationship…

  16. Genome-wide map of regulatory interactions in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Nastaran; Phanstiel, Douglas H.; He, Chao; Grubert, Fabian; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Kasowski, Maya; Zhang, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that interactions between regulatory genomic elements play an important role in regulating gene expression. We generated a genome-wide interaction map of regulatory elements in human cells (ENCODE tier 1 cells, K562, GM12878) using Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) experiments targeting six broadly distributed factors. Bound regions covered 80% of DNase I hypersensitive sites including 99.7% of TSS and 98% of enhancers. Correlating this map with ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data sets revealed cohesin, CTCF, and ZNF143 as key components of three-dimensional chromatin structure and revealed how the distal chromatin state affects gene transcription. Comparison of interactions between cell types revealed that enhancer–promoter interactions were highly cell-type-specific. Construction and comparison of distal and proximal regulatory networks revealed stark differences in structure and biological function. Proximal binding events are enriched at genes with housekeeping functions, while distal binding events interact with genes involved in dynamic biological processes including response to stimulus. This study reveals new mechanistic and functional insights into regulatory region organization in the nucleus. PMID:25228660

  17. Effects of molecular model, ionic strength, divalent ions, and hydrophobic interaction on human neurofilament conformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonseong; Kim, Seonghoon; Chang, Rakwoo; Jayanthi, Lakshmi; Gebremichael, Yeshitila

    2013-01-07

    The present study examines the effects of the model dependence, ionic strength, divalent ions, and hydrophobic interaction on the structural organization of the human neurofilament (NF) brush, using canonical ensemble Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of a coarse-grained model with the amino-acid resolution. The model simplifies the interactions between the NF core and the sidearm or between the sidearms by the sum of excluded volume, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions, where both monovalent salt ions and solvents are implicitly incorporated into the electrostatic interaction potential. Several important observations are made from the MC simulations of the coarse-grained model NF systems. First, the mean-field type description of monovalent salt ions works reasonably well in the NF system. Second, the manner by which the NF sidearms are arranged on the surface of the NF backbone core has little influence on the lateral extension of NF sidearms. Third, the lateral extension of the NF sidearms is highly affected by the ionic strength of the system: at low ionic strength, NF-M is most extended but at high ionic strength, NF-H is more stretched out because of the effective screening of the electrostatic interaction. Fourth, the presence of Ca(2+) ions induces the attraction between negatively charged residues, which leads to the contraction of the overall NF extension. Finally, the introduction of hydrophobic interaction does not change the general structural organization of the NF sidearms except that the overall extension is contracted.

  18. A system dynamics model of human-water interaction in anthropogenic droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Peter; Buytaert, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Modelling is set to be a key part of socio-hydrology's quest to understand the dynamics and long-term consequences of human-water interactions. As a subject in its infancy, still learning the questions to ask, conceptual models are of particular use in trying to understand the general nature of human-water systems. The conceptual model of Di Baldassarre et al. (2013), which investigates human-flood interactions, has been widely discussed, prompting great steps forward in understanding and coverage of socio-hydrology. The development of further conceptual models could generate further discussion and understanding. Flooding is one archetypal example of a system of human-water interaction; another is the case of water stress and drought. There has been a call to recognise and understand anthropogenic drought (Aghakouchak et al. 2015), and so this study investigates the nature of the socio-hydrological dynamics involved in these situations. Here we present a system dynamics model to simulate human-water interactions in the context of water-stressed areas, where drought is induced via a combination of lower than usual water availability and relatively high water use. It is designed based on an analysis of several case-studies where recent droughts have occurred, or where the prospect of drought looms. The locations investigated are Spain, Southeast Brazil, Northeast China and California. The numerical system dynamics model is based on causal loop, and stocks and flows diagrams, which are in turn developed from the qualitative analysis of the different cases studied. The study uses a comparative approach, which has the advantage of eliciting general system characteristics from the similarities between cases, while using the differences to determine the important factors which lead to different system behaviours. References: Aghakouchak, A., Feldman, D., Hoerling, M., Huxman, T., Lund, J., 2015. Recognize anthropogenic drought. Nature, 524, pp.409-411. Di Baldassarre, G

  19. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human-Robot Interaction.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tatsuro; Murata, Shingo; Arie, Hiroaki; Ogata, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language-behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, "internal dynamics" refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language-behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language-behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  20. Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using An Artificial Physics Approach (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using An Artificial Physics Approach LT Brenton Campbell ADVISORS: Asst Professor Dr. Timothy Chung Senior Lecturer ...Artificial Physics Approach (Briefing Charts) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Artificial Physics (AP) ● Based on Newtonian Physics • Each agent is treated as a point particle – Position x – Velocity v • Discrete time step used to

  1. Interaction of Salmonella typhi strains with cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Sizemore, D R; Elsinghorst, E A; Eck, L C; Branstrom, A A; Hoover, D L; Warren, R L; Rubin, F A

    1997-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) provided this laboratory with a tool to develop a primary-cell assay for evaluating the relative virulence of newly constructed Salmonella typhi carrier strains. In this study, the interaction with and survival within MDM were compared for delta aroA143-attenuated strains, wild-type virulent strains, and the current oral-vaccine strain, Ty21a. PMID:8975929

  2. Managing Workload in Human-Robot Interaction: A Review of Empirical Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    proceedings for the past five years: human factors, presence, human–computer interaction ( HCI ), and journals of the IEEE. To be selected for inclusion in our...the visual sensory channel is typically the limiting factor on user performance. What follows are some guidelines for reducing these visual demands to...but implementation should follow existing guidelines for multimodal research (Coovert et al., 2008). 3.3. Unresolved issues in device design A principal

  3. Proceedings of the topical meeting on advances in human factors research on man/computer interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: expert systems and knowledge engineering-I; verification and validation of software; methods for modeling UMAN/computer performance; MAN/computer interaction problems in producing procedures -1-2; progress and problems with automation-1-2; experience with electronic presentation of procedures-2; intelligent displays and monitors; modeling user/computer interface; and computer-based human decision-making aids.

  4. Interactions of the human MCM-BP protein with MCM complex components and Dbf4.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tin; Jagannathan, Madhav; Shire, Kathy; Frappier, Lori

    2012-01-01

    MCM-BP was discovered as a protein that co-purified from human cells with MCM proteins 3 through 7; results which were recapitulated in frogs, yeast and plants. Evidence in all of these organisms supports an important role for MCM-BP in DNA replication, including contributions to MCM complex unloading. However the mechanisms by which MCM-BP functions and associates with MCM complexes are not well understood. Here we show that human MCM-BP is capable of interacting with individual MCM proteins 2 through 7 when co-expressed in insect cells and can greatly increase the recovery of some recombinant MCM proteins. Glycerol gradient sedimentation analysis indicated that MCM-BP interacts most strongly with MCM4 and MCM7. Similar gradient analyses of human cell lysates showed that only a small amount of MCM-BP overlapped with the migration of MCM complexes and that MCM complexes were disrupted by exogenous MCM-BP. In addition, large complexes containing MCM-BP and MCM proteins were detected at mid to late S phase, suggesting that the formation of specific MCM-BP complexes is cell cycle regulated. We also identified an interaction between MCM-BP and the Dbf4 regulatory component of the DDK kinase in both yeast 2-hybrid and insect cell co-expression assays, and this interaction was verified by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins from human cells. In vitro kinase assays showed that MCM-BP was not a substrate for DDK but could inhibit DDK phosphorylation of MCM4,6,7 within MCM4,6,7 or MCM2-7 complexes, with little effect on DDK phosphorylation of MCM2. Since DDK is known to activate DNA replication through phosphorylation of these MCM proteins, our results suggest that MCM-BP may affect DNA replication in part by regulating MCM phosphorylation by DDK.

  5. SIG -- The Role of Human-Computer Interaction in Next-Generation Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Jacques Hugo; Christian Richard; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this CHI Special Interest Group (SIG) is to facilitate the convergence between human-computer interaction (HCI) and control room design. HCI researchers and practitioners actively need to infuse state-of-the-art interface technology into control rooms to meet usability, safety, and regulatory requirements. This SIG outlines potential HCI contributions to instrumentation and control (I&C) and automation in control rooms as well as to general control room design.

  6. Human UBL5 protein interacts with coilin and meets the Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Svéda, Martin; Castorálová, Markéta; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš; Knejzlík, Zdeněk

    2013-06-28

    UBL5 protein, a structural homologue of ubiquitin, was shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and transcription regulation in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. However, role of the UBL5 human orthologue is still elusive. In our study, we observed that endogenous human UBL5 that was localized in the nucleus, partially associates with Cajal bodies (CBs), nuclear domains where spliceosomal components are assembled. Simultaneous expression of exogenous UBL5 and coilin resulted in their nuclear colocalization in HeLa cells. The ability of UBL5 to interact with coilin was proved by GST pull-down assay using coilin that was either in vitro translated or extracted from HEK293T cells. Further, our results showed that the UBL5-coilin interaction was not influenced by coilin phosphorylation. These results suggest that UBL5 could be targeted to CBs via its interaction with coilin. Relation between human UBL5 protein and CBs is in the agreement with current observations about yeast orthologue Hub1 playing important role in alternative splicing.

  7. Personal experience and reputation interact in human decisions to help reciprocally.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Broek, Eva; Egas, Martijn

    2013-04-22

    There is ample evidence that human cooperative behaviour towards other individuals is often conditioned on information about previous interactions. This information derives both from personal experience (direct reciprocity) and from experience of others (i.e. reputation; indirect reciprocity). Direct and indirect reciprocity have been studied separately, but humans often have access to both types of information. Here, we experimentally investigate information use in a repeated helping game. When acting as donor, subjects can condition their decisions to help recipients with both types of information at a small cost to access such information. We find that information from direct interactions weighs more heavily in decisions to help, and participants tend to react less forgivingly to negative personal experience than to negative reputation. Moreover, effects of personal experience and reputation interact in decisions to help. If a recipient's reputation is positive, the personal experience of the donor has a weak effect on the decision to help, and vice versa. Yet if the two types of information indicate conflicting signatures of helpfulness, most decisions to help follow personal experience. To understand the roles of direct and indirect reciprocity in human cooperation, they should be studied in concert, not in isolation.

  8. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanpin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns.Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer inHCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis.

  9. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments†

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Petersen, Ole W.

    2010-01-01

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell–cell versus cell–ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages. PMID:20023793

  10. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  11. Observation of interactions of human serum components with transferrin by affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Taga, Atsushi; Maruyama, Rie; Yamamoto, Yuka; Honda, Susumu

    2008-01-22

    Interaction of human transferrin (TF) with human serum components was investigated by affinity capillary electrophoresis. It was found that any peaks of human serum protein fractions did not give migration time change on addition of intact TF to running buffer (50mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.5), whereas two peaks belonging to alpha-globulin fraction showed marked acceleration upon addition of desialylated TF. These results provide strong evidence that the sialic acid residue in TF masks its binding ability to serum proteins. The association constants of desialylated TF to these interactive components, estimated based on the double reciprocal plot of migration time change vs. glycoprotein concentration, were at a high level of 10(7)M(-1). TF is well known as a ferric ion transfer protein, and hence formation of this protein might be changed by ferric ion. The presence of iron(II) played no essential role in this interaction, though its influence was not negligible.

  12. Predicting human plasma protein binding of drugs using plasma protein interaction QSAR analysis (PPI-QSAR).

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Chen, Zhuxi; Xu, Xuejun; Sui, Xiaofan; Guo, Tao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jiwen

    2011-09-01

    A novel method, named as the plasma protein-interaction QSAR analysis (PPI-QSAR) was used to construct the QSAR models for human plasma protein binding. The intra-molecular descriptors of drugs and inter-molecular interaction descriptors resulted from the docking simulation between drug molecules and human serum albumin were included as independent variables in this method. A structure-based in silico model for a data set of 65 antibiotic drugs was constructed by the multiple linear regression method and validated by the residual analysis, the normal Probability-Probability plot and Williams plot. The R(2) and Q(2) values of the entire data set were 0.87 and 0.77, respectively, for the training set were 0.86 and 0.72, respectively. The results indicated that the fitted model is robust, stable and satisfies all the prerequisites of the regression models. Combining intra-molecular descriptors with inter-molecular interaction descriptors between drug molecules and human serum albumin, the drug plasma protein binding could be modeled and predicted by the PPI-QSAR method successfully.

  13. Toward flexible and wearable human-interactive health-monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Takei, Kuniharu; Honda, Wataru; Harada, Shingo; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji

    2015-03-11

    This Progress Report introduces flexible wearable health-monitoring devices that interact with a person by detecting from and stimulating the body. Interactive health-monitoring devices should be highly flexible and attach to the body without awareness like a bandage. This type of wearable health-monitoring device will realize a new class of electronics, which will be applicable not only to health monitoring, but also to other electrical devices. However, to realize wearable health-monitoring devices, many obstacles must be overcome to economically form the active electrical components on a flexible substrate using macroscale fabrication processes. In particular, health-monitoring sensors and curing functions need to be integrated. Here recent developments and advancements toward flexible health-monitoring devices are presented, including conceptual designs of human-interactive devices.

  14. Fluorescence study on the interaction of human serum albumin with Butein in liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, Mahmut

    2016-02-01

    The interaction of Butein with human serum albumin in L-egg lecithin phosphatidycholine (PC) liposome has been investigated by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The results of the fluorescence measurement indicated that Butein effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static quenching. The Stern-Volmer plots in all the liposome solutions showed a positive deviation from the linearity. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the hydrophobic interactions appeared be the major interaction forces between Butein and HSA. The effect of Butein on the conformation of HSA was also investigated by the synchronous fluorescence under the same experimental conditions. In addition, the partition coefficient of the Butein in the PC liposomes was also determined by using the fluorescence quenching process. The obtained results can be of biological significance in pharmacology and clinical medicine.

  15. The impact of social context on learning and cognitive demands for interactive virtual human simulations.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Rebecca; Johnson, Teresa R; Khalil, Mohammed K; Cendán, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Interactive virtual human (IVH) simulations offer a novel method for training skills involving person-to-person interactions. This article examines the effectiveness of an IVH simulation for teaching medical students to assess rare cranial nerve abnormalities in both individual and small-group learning contexts. Individual (n = 26) and small-group (n = 30) interaction with the IVH system was manipulated to examine the influence on learning, learner engagement, perceived cognitive demands of the learning task, and instructional efficiency. Results suggested the IVH activity was an equally effective and engaging instructional tool in both learning structures, despite learners in the group learning contexts having to share hands-on access to the simulation interface. Participants in both conditions demonstrated a significant increase in declarative knowledge post-training. Operation of the IVH simulation technology imposed moderate cognitive demand but did not exceed the demands of the task content or appear to impede learning.

  16. The impact of social context on learning and cognitive demands for interactive virtual human simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Rebecca; Johnson, Teresa R.; Khalil, Mohammed K.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive virtual human (IVH) simulations offer a novel method for training skills involving person-to-person interactions. This article examines the effectiveness of an IVH simulation for teaching medical students to assess rare cranial nerve abnormalities in both individual and small-group learning contexts. Individual (n = 26) and small-group (n = 30) interaction with the IVH system was manipulated to examine the influence on learning, learner engagement, perceived cognitive demands of the learning task, and instructional efficiency. Results suggested the IVH activity was an equally effective and engaging instructional tool in both learning structures, despite learners in the group learning contexts having to share hands-on access to the simulation interface. Participants in both conditions demonstrated a significant increase in declarative knowledge post-training. Operation of the IVH simulation technology imposed moderate cognitive demand but did not exceed the demands of the task content or appear to impede learning. PMID:24883241

  17. Interaction of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium with Intestinal Organoids Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Forbester, Jessica L; Goulding, David; Vallier, Ludovic; Hannan, Nicholas; Hale, Christine; Pickard, Derek; Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Dougan, Gordon

    2015-07-01

    The intestinal mucosa forms the first line of defense against infections mediated by enteric pathogens such as salmonellae. Here we exploited intestinal "organoids" (iHOs) generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to explore the interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with iHOs. Imaging and RNA sequencing were used to analyze these interactions, and clear changes in transcriptional signatures were detected, including altered patterns of cytokine expression after the exposure of iHOs to bacteria. S. Typhimurium microinjected into the lumen of iHOs was able to invade the epithelial barrier, with many bacteria residing within Salmonella-containing vacuoles. An S. Typhimurium invA mutant defective in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 invasion apparatus was less capable of invading the iHO epithelium. Hence, we provide evidence that hIPSC-derived organoids are a promising model of the intestinal epithelium for assessing interactions with enteric pathogens.

  18. Human Milk Blocks DC-SIGN-Pathogen Interaction via MUC1.

    PubMed

    Koning, Nathalie; Kessen, Sabine F M; Van Der Voorn, J Patrick; Appelmelk, Ben J; Jeurink, Prescilla V; Knippels, Leon M J; Garssen, Johan; Van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of breastfeeding are well-recognized and include both immediate neonatal protection against pathogens and long-term protection against allergies and autoimmune diseases. Although several proteins have been identified to have anti-viral or anti-bacterial effects like secretory IgA or lactoferrin, the mechanisms of immune modulation are not fully understood. Recent studies identified important beneficial effects of glycans in human milk, such as those expressed in oligosaccharides or on glycoproteins. Glycans are recognized by the carbohydrate receptors C-type lectins on dendritic cell (DC) and specific tissue macrophages, which exert important functions in immune modulation and immune homeostasis. A well-characterized C-type lectin is dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which binds terminal fucose. The present study shows that in human milk, MUC1 is the major milk glycoprotein that binds to the lectin domain of DC-SIGN and prevents pathogen interaction through the presence of Lewis x-type oligosaccharides. Surprisingly, this was specific for human milk, as formula, bovine or camel milk did not show any presence of proteins that interacted with DC-SIGN. The expression of DC-SIGN is found in young infants along the entire gastrointestinal tract. Our data thus suggest the importance of human milk glycoproteins for blocking pathogen interaction to DC in young children. Moreover, a potential benefit of human milk later in life in shaping the infants immune system through DC-SIGN cannot be ruled out.

  19. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet; Quistgaard, Esben M.; Nordlund, Par; Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Torres, Jaume

    2015-08-15

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target.

  20. Formulation of human-structure interaction system models for vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprani, Colin C.; Ahmadi, Ehsan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, human-structure interaction system models for vibration in the vertical direction are considered. This work assembles various moving load models from the literature and proposes extension of the single pedestrian to a crowd of pedestrians for the FE formulation for crowd-structure interaction systems. The walking pedestrian vertical force is represented as a general time-dependent force, and the pedestrian is in turn modelled as moving force, moving mass, and moving spring-mass-damper. The arbitrary beam structure is modelled using either a formulation in modal coordinates or finite elements. In each case, the human-structure interaction (HSI) system is first formulated for a single walking pedestrian and then extended to consider a crowd of pedestrians. Finally, example applications for single pedestrian and crowd loading scenarios are examined. It is shown how the models can be used to quantify the interaction between the crowd and bridge structure. This work should find use for the evaluation of existing and new footbridges.

  1. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Goutam; Panicker, Lata

    2014-12-01

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a `heme' group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV-vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20-30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the `heme' groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  2. The effect of protein corona composition on the interaction of carbon nanotubes with human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Silvia H; Diduch, Lukas L; Tegegn, Tseday Z; Orecna, Martina; Strader, Michael B; Karnaukhova, Elena; Bonevich, John E; Holada, Karel; Simak, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising nanomaterials for use in medicine. The blood biocompatibility of CNT is a critical safety issue. In the bloodstream, proteins bind to CNT through non-covalent interactions to form a protein corona, thereby largely defining the biological properties of the CNT. Here, we characterize the interactions of carboxylated-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTCOOH) with common human proteins and investigate the effect of the different protein coronas on the interaction of CNTCOOH with human blood platelets (PLT). Molecular modeling and different photophysical techniques were employed to characterize the binding of albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG), γ-globulins (IgG) and histone H1 (H1) on CNTCOOH. We found that the identity of protein forming the corona greatly affects the outcome of CNTCOOH's interaction with blood PLT. Bare CNTCOOH-induced PLT aggregation and the release of platelet membrane microparticles (PMP). HSA corona attenuated the PLT aggregating activity of CNTCOOH, while FBG caused the agglomeration of CNTCOOH nanomaterial, thereby diminishing the effect of CNTCOOH on PLT. In contrast, the IgG corona caused PLT fragmentation, and the H1 corona induced a strong PLT aggregation, thus potentiating the release of PMP.

  3. Dynamical Interactions Between Human Populations and Landscapes in Barrier Island Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2003-12-01

    Although much research has focused on how humans affect landscapes or how landform processes affect humans, little attention has been paid to dynamical interactions between the two. Based on the hypothesis that landscape and human dynamics both self-organize into a temporal hierarchy of scale-separated behaviors, we model the evolution of a coupled human population and barrier island system. Barrier islands are represented as a series of alongshore nodes, with each node specifying the width, height, cross-shore position, and profile of the island and the beach width, dune position and dune height. These characteristics evolve according to rules governing sediment transport during acretionary phases, erosion from storms, dune growth and migration, tidal delta formation, overwash, inlet formation, alongshore sediment transport, and dune and backbarrier vegetation growth. At each of these nodes, human populations and their cultural accoutrements are represented by mean property value, fraction of land used for tourist accommodations and tourist population. The dynamics of these variables is determined by simulating the competition for economic resources amongst the local population and the desire of the tourist population for adequate recreational beaches. The human and barrier subsystems are coupled through beach replenishment and a dependence of tourist population on beach width. Model results fall into three general categories of dynamical behavior, as classified by the (linearized) time scale of recovery from perturbations for the uncoupled systems. When the time scale for barrier islands is much less than that of the human population, the long-time-scale evolution of the barrier island follows human dynamics. In the reverse case, the long-time-scale evolution of the human population follows barrier dynamics. When the time scales are similar, new long-time-scale, spatially varying behavior of the coupled system emerges. Implications for prediction and optimization

  4. Human sensorimotor communication: a theory of signaling in online social interactions.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Dindo, Haris

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of communication is recognized in several disciplines, it is rarely studied in the context of online social interactions and joint actions. During online joint actions, language and gesture are often insufficient and humans typically use non-verbal, sensorimotor forms of communication to send coordination signals. For example, when playing volleyball, an athlete can exaggerate her movements to signal her intentions to her teammates (say, a pass to the right) or to feint an adversary. Similarly, a person who is transporting a table together with a co-actor can push the table in a certain direction to signal where and when he intends to place it. Other examples of "signaling" are over-articulating in noisy environments and over-emphasizing vowels in child-directed speech. In all these examples, humans intentionally modify their action kinematics to make their goals easier to disambiguate. At the moment no formal theory exists of these forms of sensorimotor communication and signaling. We present one such theory that describes signaling as a combination of a pragmatic and a communicative action, and explains how it simplifies coordination in online social interactions. We cast signaling within a "joint action optimization" framework in which co-actors optimize the success of their interaction and joint goals rather than only their part of the joint action. The decision of whether and how much to signal requires solving a trade-off between the costs of modifying one's behavior and the benefits in terms of interaction success. Signaling is thus an intentional strategy that supports social interactions; it acts in concert with automatic mechanisms of resonance, prediction, and imitation, especially when the context makes actions and intentions ambiguous and difficult to read. Our theory suggests that communication dynamics should be studied within theories of coordination and interaction rather than only in terms of the maximization of information

  5. Antipseudomonal agents exhibit differential pharmacodynamic interactions with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes against established biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen infecting the lower respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, where it forms tracheobronchial biofilms. Pseudomonas biofilms are refractory to antibacterials and to phagocytic cells with innate immunity, leading to refractory infection. Little is known about the interaction between antipseudomonal agents and phagocytic cells in eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Herein, we investigated the capacity of three antipseudomonal agents, amikacin (AMK), ceftazidime (CAZ), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), to interact with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) against biofilms and planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from sputa of CF patients. Three of the isolates were resistant and three were susceptible to each of these antibiotics. The concentrations studied (2, 8, and 32 mg/liter) were subinhibitory for biofilms of resistant isolates, whereas for biofilms of susceptible isolates, they ranged between sub-MIC and 2 × MIC values. The activity of each antibiotic alone or in combination with human PMNs against 48-h mature biofilms or planktonic cells was determined by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. All combinations of AMK with PMNs resulted in synergistic or additive effects against planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates compared to each component alone. More than 75% of CAZ combinations exhibited additive interactions against biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates, whereas CIP had mostly antagonistic interaction or no interaction with PMNs against biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Our findings demonstrate a greater positive interaction between AMK with PMNs than that observed for CAZ and especially CIP against isolates of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract of CF patients.

  6. Human ketosteroid receptors interact with hazardous phthalate plasticizers and their metabolites: an in silico study.

    PubMed

    Sarath Josh, M K; Pradeep, S; Vijayalekshmy Amma, K S; Sudha Devi, R; Balachandran, S; Sreejith, M N; Benjamin, Sailas

    2016-06-01

    Phthalic acid esters or phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants known for their adverse health effects in test animals and, of late, in humans. Thus, in this molecular docking study - using Glide (Schrödinger) - the molecular interactions of 31 ligands, including 12 diphthalates, their monophthalates and phthalic acid with selected human ketosteroid receptors, i.e., androgen (hAR), progesterone (hPR) and glucocorticoid (hGR) receptors were explored and their binding affinities were compared with that of corresponding natural steroids and a known endocrine disrupting xenobiotic, bisphenol A (BPA). Mostly, diphthalates and monophthalates showed the potential for antisteroidal activity by interacting with hAR, hPR and hGR. Of them, diphenyl phthalate showed the highest G score (-7.70 kcal mol(-1) ) with hAR, and the crucial amino acid (aa) residues in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of this receptor involved in the molecular interactions were Phe 764, Leu 704, Asn 705 and Thr 877. The mono-iso-decyl phthalate showed the highest G score (-8.36) with the hPR, and the crucial aa residues in the LBD interactions were Arg 766 Gln 725 and Phe 778. The mono-iso-decyl phthalate also showed more affinity (-8.44) towards hGR than the natural ligand, and the aa residues in the LBD interactions were Gln 570 and Met 604. In addition to these, some other phthalates established comparable interactions with certain aa residues located in the LBD of these receptors, which resulted in higher G scores. Contrastingly, BPA and some natural ligands tested in this study showed lower G scores with these receptors than certain phthalates reported herein, i.e., certain phthalates are more toxic than the proven toxic BPA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human–robot interaction

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called “Ghost-in-the-Machine” (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer’s requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human–robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience. PMID:26582998

  8. DETERMINING CONFIDENCE OF PREDICTED INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HIV-1 AND HUMAN PROTEINS USING CONFORMAL METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Nouretdinov, Ilia; Gammerman, Alex; Qi, Yanjun; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Identifying protein-protein interactions (PPI’s) is critical for understanding virtually all cellular molecular mechanisms. Previously, predicting PPI’s was treated as a binary classification task and has commonly been solved in a supervised setting which requires a positive labeled set of known PPI’s and a negative labeled set of non-interacting protein pairs. In those methods, the learner provides the likelihood of the predicted interaction, but without a confidence level associated with each prediction. Here, we apply a conformal prediction framework to make predictions and estimate confidence of the predictions. The conformal predictor uses a function measuring relative ’strangeness’ interacting pairs to check whether prediction of a new example added to the sequence of already known PPI’s would conform to the ’exchangeability’ assumption: distribution of interacting pairs is invariant with any permutations of the pairs. In fact, this is the only assumption we make about the data. Another advantage is that the user can control a number of errors by providing a desirable confidence level. This feature of CP is very useful for a ranking list of possible interactive pairs. In this paper, the conformal method has been developed to deal with just one class - class interactive proteins - while there is not clearly defined of ’non-interactive’ pairs. The confidence level helps the biologist in the interpretation of the results, and better assists the choices of pairs for experimental validation. We apply the proposed conformal framework to improve the identification of interacting pairs between HIV-1 and human proteins. PMID:22174286

  9. Identification of Odorant-Receptor Interactions by Global Mapping of the Human Odorome

    PubMed Central

    Audouze, Karine; Tromelin, Anne; Le Bon, Anne Marie; Belloir, Christine; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Kristiansen, Karsten; Brunak, Søren; Taboureau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The human olfactory system recognizes a broad spectrum of odorants using approximately 400 different olfactory receptors (hORs). Although significant improvements of heterologous expression systems used to study interactions between ORs and odorant molecules have been made, screening the olfactory repertoire of hORs remains a tremendous challenge. We therefore developed a chemical systems level approach based on protein-protein association network to investigate novel hOR-odorant relationships. Using this new approach, we proposed and validated new bioactivities for odorant molecules and OR2W1, OR51E1 and OR5P3. As it remains largely unknown how human perception of odorants influence or prevent diseases, we also developed an odorant-protein matrix to explore global relationships between chemicals, biological targets and disease susceptibilities. We successfully experimentally demonstrated interactions between odorants and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Overall, these results illustrate the potential of integrative systems chemical biology to explore the impact of odorant molecules on human health, i.e. human odorome. PMID:24695519

  10. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  11. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host–pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    In, Julie G.; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K.; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human ‘mini-guts’ has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5+ intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt–villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host pathogen interactions. PMID:27677718

  12. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ledall, Jérémy; Fruchon, Séverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-11-14

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes.

  13. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    In, Julie G; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human 'mini-guts' has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5(+) intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt-villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host-pathogen interactions.

  14. Aviation Safety: Modeling and Analyzing Complex Interactions between Humans and Automated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha; Brat, Guillaume; Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Raimondi, Franco; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The on-going transformation from the current US Air Traffic System (ATS) to the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) will force the introduction of new automated systems and most likely will cause automation to migrate from ground to air. This will yield new function allocations between humans and automation and therefore change the roles and responsibilities in the ATS. Yet, safety in NextGen is required to be at least as good as in the current system. We therefore need techniques to evaluate the safety of the interactions between humans and automation. We think that current human factor studies and simulation-based techniques will fall short in front of the ATS complexity, and that we need to add more automated techniques to simulations, such as model checking, which offers exhaustive coverage of the non-deterministic behaviors in nominal and off-nominal scenarios. In this work, we present a verification approach based both on simulations and on model checking for evaluating the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation. Models are created using Brahms (a multi-agent framework) and we show that the traditional Brahms simulations can be integrated with automated exploration techniques based on model checking, thus offering a complete exploration of the behavioral space of the scenario. Our formal analysis supports the notion of beliefs and probabilities to reason about human behavior. We demonstrate the technique with the Ueberligen accident since it exemplifies authority problems when receiving conflicting advices from human and automated systems.

  15. [Identification of rat and human hemoglobin acetilation sites after its interaction with acetylsalicylic acid].

    PubMed

    Shreĭner, E V; Murashko, E A; Dubrovskiĭ, Ia D; Krasnov, N V; Podol'skaia, E P; Babakov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of interaction of 0.1 mg/mL acetylsalicylic acid with purified human and rat globin in vitro during 24 h at 37 degrees C was investigated. The rat globin can be modified with acetylsalicylic acid on aminoacid residues K-17, K-57, K-91, K-140 in alpha subunit as well as on K-18, K-77 in beta subunit. The human globin can be modified with acetylsalicylic acid on aminoacid residues K-17, K-41, K-57 and K-91 in alpha subunit as well as on K-18, K-96 and K- 133 in beta subunit. We identified of acetetylated lysines K-17 and K-57 in alpha subunit of human hemoglobin after incubation whole blood with 0.1 mg/mL acetylsalicylic acid during 3 h.

  16. An integrated workflow for charting the human interaction proteome: insights into the PP2A system

    PubMed Central

    Glatter, Timo; Wepf, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Protein complexes represent major functional units for the execution of biological processes. Systematic affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) yielded a wealth of information on the compendium of protein complexes expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, global AP-MS analysis of human protein complexes is hampered by the low throughput, sensitivity and data robustness of existing procedures, which limit its application for systems biology research. Here, we address these limitations by a novel integrated method, which we applied and benchmarked for the human protein phosphatase 2A system. We identified a total of 197 protein interactions with high reproducibility, showing the coexistence of distinct classes of phosphatase complexes that are linked to proteins implicated in mitosis, cell signalling, DNA damage control and more. These results show that the presented analytical process will substantially advance throughput and reproducibility in future systematic AP-MS studies on human protein complexes. PMID:19156129

  17. An integrated workflow for charting the human interaction proteome: insights into the PP2A system.

    PubMed

    Glatter, Timo; Wepf, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Protein complexes represent major functional units for the execution of biological processes. Systematic affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) yielded a wealth of information on the compendium of protein complexes expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, global AP-MS analysis of human protein complexes is hampered by the low throughput, sensitivity and data robustness of existing procedures, which limit its application for systems biology research. Here, we address these limitations by a novel integrated method, which we applied and benchmarked for the human protein phosphatase 2A system. We identified a total of 197 protein interactions with high reproducibility, showing the coexistence of distinct classes of phosphatase complexes that are linked to proteins implicated in mitosis, cell signalling, DNA damage control and more. These results show that the presented analytical process will substantially advance throughput and reproducibility in future systematic AP-MS studies on human protein complexes.

  18. Structural basis for phosphoinositide substrate recognition, catalysis, and membrane interactions in human inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Trésaugues, Lionel; Silvander, Camilla; Flodin, Susanne; Welin, Martin; Nyman, Tomas; Gräslund, Susanne; Hammarström, Martin; Berglund, Helena; Nordlund, Pär

    2014-05-06

    SHIP2, OCRL, and INPP5B belong to inositol polyphosphate 5-phophatase subfamilies involved in insulin regulation and Lowes syndrome. The structural basis for membrane recognition, substrate specificity, and regulation of inositol polyphosphate 5-phophatases is still poorly understood. We determined the crystal structures of human SHIP2, OCRL, and INPP5B, the latter in complex with phosphoinositide substrate analogs, which revealed a membrane interaction patch likely to assist in sequestering substrates from the lipid bilayer. Residues recognizing the 1-phosphate of the substrates are highly conserved among human family members, suggesting similar substrate binding modes. However, 3- and 4-phosphate recognition varies and determines individual substrate specificity profiles. The high conservation of the environment of the scissile 5-phosphate suggests a common reaction geometry for all members of the human 5-phosphatase family.

  19. Redrawing the Map of Great Britain from a Network of Human Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Carlo; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Calabrese, Francesco; Andris, Clio; Reades, Jonathan; Martino, Mauro; Claxton, Rob; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Do regional boundaries defined by governments respect the more natural ways that people interact across space? This paper proposes a novel, fine-grained approach to regional delineation, based on analyzing networks of billions of individual human transactions. Given a geographical area and some measure of the strength of links between its inhabitants, we show how to partition the area into smaller, non-overlapping regions while minimizing the disruption to each person's links. We tested our method on the largest non-Internet human network, inferred from a large telecommunications database in Great Britain. Our partitioning algorithm yields geographically cohesive regions that correspond remarkably well with administrative regions, while unveiling unexpected spatial structures that had previously only been hypothesized in the literature. We also quantify the effects of partitioning, showing for instance that the effects of a possible secession of Wales from Great Britain would be twice as disruptive for the human network than that of Scotland. PMID:21170390

  20. Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest Novel Activities of Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pUL103

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Daniel A.; Glassbrook, James E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that causes severe disease in newborns and immunocompromised patients. During infection, the host cell endosecretory system is remodeled to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). We and others previously identified the conserved, multifunctional HCMV virion tegument protein pUL103 as important for cVAC biogenesis and efficient secondary envelopment. To help define its mechanisms of action and predict additional functions, we used two complementary methods, coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and proximity biotinylation (BioID), to identify viral and cellular proteins that interact with pUL103. By using the two methods in parallel and applying stringent selection criteria, we identified potentially high-value interactions of pUL103 with 13 HCMV and 18 cellular proteins. Detection of the previously identified pUL103-pUL71 interaction, as well as verification of several interactions by reverse co-IP, supports the specificity of our screening process. As might be expected for a tegument protein, interactions were identified that suggest distinct roles for pUL103 across the arc of lytic infection, including interactions with proteins involved in cellular antiviral responses, nuclear activities, and biogenesis and transport of cytoplasmic vesicles. Further analysis of some of these interactions expands our understanding of the multifunctional repertoire of pUL103: we detected HCMV pUL103 in nuclei of infected cells and identified an ALIX-binding domain within the pUL103 sequence. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is able to reconfigure the host cell machinery to establish a virion production factory, the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). cVAC biogenesis and operation represent targets for development of novel HCMV antivirals. We previously showed that the HCMV tegument protein pUL103 is required for cVAC biogenesis. Using pUL103 as bait, we investigated viral and

  1. Similarities and differences of emotions in human-machine and human-human interactions: what kind of emotions are relevant for future companion systems?

    PubMed

    Walter, Steffen; Wendt, Cornelia; Böhnke, Jan; Crawcour, Stephen; Tan, Jun-Wen; Chan, Andre; Limbrecht, Kerstin; Gruss, Sascha; Traue, Harald C

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-technical intelligence is envisioned to be constantly available and capable of adapting to the user's emotions. However, the question is: what specific emotions should be reliably recognised by intelligent systems? Hence, in this study, we have attempted to identify similarities and differences of emotions between human-human (HHI) and human-machine interactions (HMI). We focused on what emotions in the experienced scenarios of HMI are retroactively reflected as compared with HHI. The sample consisted of N = 145 participants, who were divided into two groups. Positive and negative scenario descriptions of HMI and HHI were given by the first and second groups, respectively. Subsequently, the participants evaluated their respective scenarios with the help of 94 adjectives relating to emotions. The correlations between the occurrences of emotions in the HMI versus HHI were very high. The results do not support the statement that only a few emotions in HMI are relevant.

  2. Constructing the HBV-human protein interaction network to understand the relationship between HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have clearly validated the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with chronic HBV infection are at increased risk of HCC, in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis. Methods We catalogued all published interactions between HBV and human proteins, identifying 250 descriptions of HBV and human protein interactions and 146 unique human proteins that interact with HBV proteins by text mining. Results Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HBV are made up of core proteins that are interconnected with many pathways. A global analysis based on functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HBV. Conclusions By connecting the cellular proteins targeted by HBV, we have constructed a central network of proteins associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, which might be to regard as the basis of a detailed map for tracking new cellular interactions, and guiding future investigations. PMID:21078198

  3. Deciphering Key Residues Involved in the Virulence-promoting Interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Human Plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Christophe; Terrasse, Rémi; Thielens, Nicole M; Vernet, Thierry; Gaboriaud, Christine; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie

    2017-02-10

    Bacterial pathogens recruit circulating proteins to their own surfaces, co-opting the host protein functions as a mechanism of virulence. Particular attention has focused on the binding of plasminogen (Plg) to bacterial surfaces, as it has been shown that this interaction contributes to bacterial adhesion to host cells, invasion of host tissues, and evasion of the immune system. Several bacterial proteins are known to serve as receptors for Plg including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cytoplasmic enzyme that appears on the cell surface in this moonlighting role. Although Plg typically binds to these receptors via several lysine-binding domains, the specific interactions that occur have not been documented in all cases. However, identification of the relevant residues could help define strategies for mitigating the virulence of important human pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp). To shed light on this question, we have described a combination of peptide-spot array screening, competition and SPR assays, high-resolution crystallography, and mutational analyses to characterize the interaction between SpGAPDH and Plg. We identified three SpGAPDH lysine residues that were instrumental in defining the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the interaction. Altogether, the integration of the data presented in this work allows us to propose a structural model for the molecular interaction of the SpGAPDH-Plg complex.

  4. Toxicological interactions of silver nanoparticles and non-essential metals in human hepatocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Renata Rank; Bezerra, Arandi Ginane; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Kjeldsen, Frank; Filipak Neto, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Toxicological interaction represents a challenge to toxicology, particularly for novel contaminants. There are no data whether silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), present in a wide variety of products, can interact and modulate the toxicity of ubiquitous contaminants, such as nonessential metals. In the current study, we investigated the toxicological interactions of AgNP (size=1-2nm; zeta potential=-23mV), cadmium and mercury in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The results indicated that the co-exposures led to toxicological interactions, with AgNP+Cd being more toxic than AgNP+Hg. Early (2-4h) increases of ROS (DCF assay) and mitochondrial O2(-) levels (Mitosox® assay) were observed in the cells co-exposed to AgNP+Cd/Hg, in comparison to control and individual contaminants, but the effect was partially reverted in AgNP+Hg at the end of 24h-exposure. In addition, decreases of mitochondrial metabolism (MTT), cell viability (neutral red uptake assay), cell proliferation (crystal violet assay) and ABC-transporters activity (rhodamine accumulation assay) were also more pronounced in the co-exposure groups. Foremost, co-exposure to AgNP and metals potentiated cell death (mainly by necrosis) and Hg(2+) (but not Cd(2+)) intracellular levels (ICP-MS). Therefore, toxicological interactions seem to increase the toxicity of AgNP, cadmium and mercury.

  5. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jiang; Meng-Xia, Xie; Dong, Zheng; Yuan, Liu; Xiao-Yu, Li; Xing, Chen

    2004-04-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives possess various biological effects in remedy of many diseases. Interaction of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, with human serum albumin (HSA), and concomitant changes in its conformation were studied using fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed the presence of one binding site on HSA for cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives, and their binding constants ( KA) are caffeic acid> p-coumaric acid> cinnamic acid when Cdrug/ CHSA ranging from 1 to 10. The changes of the secondary structure of HSA after interacting with the three drugs are estimated, respectively by combining the curve-fitting results of amid I and amid III bands. The α-helix structure has a decrease of ≈9, 5 and 3% after HSA interacted with caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid, respectively. It was found that the hydroxyls substituted on aromatic ring of the drugs play an important role in the changes of protein's secondary structure. Combining the result of fluorescence quenching and the changes of secondary structure of HSA after interaction with the three drugs, the drug-HSA interaction mode was discussed.

  6. Gene-gene interactions contribute to eye colour variation in humans.

    PubMed

    Pośpiech, Ewelina; Draus-Barini, Jolanta; Kupiec, Tomasz; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Branicki, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    Prediction of phenotypes from genetic data is considered to be the first practical application of data gained from association studies, with potential importance for medicine and the forensic sciences. Multiple genes and polymorphisms have been found to be associated with variation in human pigmentation. Their analysis enables prediction of blue and brown eye colour with a reasonably high accuracy. More accurate prediction, especially in the case of intermediate eye colours, may require better understanding of gene-gene interactions affecting this polygenic trait. Using multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression methods, a study of gene-gene interactions was conducted based on variation in 11 known pigmentation genes examined in a cohort of 718 individuals of European descent. The study revealed significant interactions of a redundant character between the HERC2 and OCA2 genes affecting determination of hazel eye colour and between HERC2 and SLC24A4 affecting determination of blue eye colour. Our research indicates interactive effects of a synergistic character between HERC2 and OCA2, and also provides evidence for a novel strong synergistic interaction between HERC2 and TYRP1, both affecting determination of green eye colour.

  7. Divalent regulation and intersubunit interactions of human connexin26 (Cx26) hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Lopez, William; Liu, Yu; Harris, Andrew L; Contreras, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Control of plasma membrane connexin hemichannel opening is indispensable, and is achieved by physiological extracellular divalent ion concentrations. Here, we explore the differences between regulation by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of human connexin26 (hCx26) hemichannels and the role of a specific interaction in regulation by Ca (2+). To effect hemichannel closure, the apparent affinity of Ca(2+) (0.33 mM) is higher than for Mg(2+) (1.8 mM). Hemichannel closure is accelerated by physiological Ca(2+) concentrations, but non-physiological concentrations of extracellular Mg(2+) are required for this effect. Our recent report provided evidence that extracellular Ca(2+) facilitates hCx26 hemichannel closing by disrupting a salt bridge interaction between positions D50 and K61 that stabilizes the open state. New evidence from mutant cycle analysis indicates that D50 also interacts with Q48. We find that the D50-Q48 interaction contributes to stabilization of the open state, but that it is relatively insensitive to disruption by extracellular Ca(2+) compared with the D50-K61 interaction.

  8. In vitro characterization of axitinib interactions with human efflux and hepatic uptake transporters: implications for disposition and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Reyner, Eric L; Sevidal, Samantha; West, Mark A; Clouser-Roche, Andrea; Freiwald, Sascha; Fenner, Katherine; Ullah, Mohammed; Lee, Caroline A; Smith, Bill J

    2013-08-01

    Axitinib is an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase vascular endothelin growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transport properties of axitinib were determined in selected cellular systems. Axitinib exhibited high passive permeability in all cell lines evaluated (Papp ≥ 6 × 10(-6) cm/s). Active efflux was observed in Caco-2 cells, and further evaluation in multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells type 2 (MDCK) cells indicated that axitinib is at most only a weak substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) but not BCRP. Axitinib showed incomplete inhibition of P-gp-mediated transport of digoxin in Caco-2 cells and BCRP transport of topotecan in BCRP-transfected MDCK cells with IC50 values of 3 μM and 4.4 μM, respectively. Axitinib (10 mg) did not pose a risk for systemic drug interactions with P-gp or BCRP per regulatory guidance. A potential risk for drug interactions through inhibition of P-gp and BCRP in the gastrointestinal tract was identified because an axitinib dose of 10 mg divided by 250 mL was greater than 10-fold the IC50 for each transporter. However, a GastroPlus simulation that considered the low solubility of axitinib resulted in lower intestinal concentrations and suggested a low potential for gastrointestinal interactions with P-gp and BCRP substrates. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and OATP1B3 transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells transported axitinib to a minor extent but uptake into suspended hepatocytes was not inhibited by rifamycin SV suggesting that high passive permeability predominates. Mouse whole-body autoradiography revealed that [(14)C]axitinib-equivalents showed rapid absorption and distribution to all tissues except the brain. This suggests that efflux transport of axitinib may occur at the mouse blood-brain barrier.

  9. Human Dopamine Receptors Interaction Network (DRIN): a systems biology perspective on topology, stability and functionality of the network.

    PubMed

    Podder, Avijit; Jatana, Nidhi; Latha, N

    2014-09-21

    Dopamine receptors (DR) are one of the major neurotransmitter receptors present in human brain. Malfunctioning of these receptors is well established to trigger many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Taking into consideration that proteins function collectively in a network for most of the biological processes, the present study is aimed to depict the interactions between all dopamine receptors following a systems biology approach. To capture comprehensive interactions of candidate proteins associated with human dopamine receptors, we performed a protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis of all five receptors and their protein partners by mapping them into human interactome and constructed a human Dopamine Receptors Interaction Network (DRIN). We explored the topology of dopamine receptors as molecular network, revealing their characteristics and the role of central network elements. More to the point, a sub-network analysis was done to determine major functional clusters in human DRIN that govern key neurological pathways. Besides, interacting proteins in a pathway were characterized and prioritized based on their affinity for utmost drug molecules. The vulnerability of different networks to the dysfunction of diverse combination of components was estimated under random and direct attack scenarios. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is unique to put all five dopamine receptors together in a common interaction network and to understand the functionality of interacting proteins collectively. Our study pinpointed distinctive topological and functional properties of human dopamine receptors that have helped in identifying potential therapeutic drug targets in the dopamine interaction network.

  10. Crystal structure and interaction studies of the human FBxo3 ApaG domain

    PubMed Central

    Krzysiak, Troy C.; Chen, Bill B.; Lear, Travis; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Gronenborn, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of proinflammatory cytokines, mediated by tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), is in part triggered by the degradation of the F-box protein, FBxl2, via an E3 ligase that contains another F-box protein, FBxo3. The ApaG domain of FBxo3 is required for the interaction with and degradation of FBxl2 [Mallampalli RK et al., (2013) J Immunol 191, 5247–5255]. Here, we report the X-ray structure of the human FBxo3 ApaG domain, residues 278–407, at 2.0 Å resolution. Like bacterial ApaG proteins, this domain is characterized by a classic Immunoglobin/Fibronectin III-type fold, comprising a seven-stranded β-sheet core, surrounded by four extended loops. Although cation binding had been proposed for bacterial ApaG proteins, no interactions with Mg2+ or Co2+ were detected for the human ApaG domain. In addition, dinucleotide polyphosphates, which have been reported to be second messengers in the inflammation response and targets of the bacterial apaG-containing operon, are not bound by the human ApaG domain. In the context of the full-length protein, loop 1, comprising residues 294–303, is critical for the interaction with FBxl2. However, titration of the individual ApaG domain with a 15-mer FBxl2 peptide that was phosphorylated on the crucial T404, as well as the inability of the ApaG domain to interact with full-length FBxl2, assessed by coimmunoprecipitation, indicate that the ApaG domain alone is necessary, but not sufficient for binding and degradation of FBxl2. PMID:27010866

  11. Human brain proteins showing neuron-specific interactions with γ-secretase.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Hur, Ji-Yeun; Kihara, Takahiro; Teranishi, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Natsuko G; Ishikawa, Taizo; Wiehager, Birgitta; Winblad, Bengt; Tjernberg, Lars O; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia

    2015-07-01

    The transmembrane protease complex γ-secretase is a key enzyme in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis as it liberates the neurotoxic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ); however, the mechanism of regulation of its activity in various cell types and subcellular compartments is largely unknown. Several γ-secretase inhibitors have been developed, but none have been released due to side-effects that appear to arise from reduced processing of Notch, one of many γ-secretase substrates. Hence, it is desirable to specifically inhibit Aβ production. In our previous studies, we have identified several γ-secretase-associated proteins (GSAPs) from brain, which affect Aβ production without having any major effects on Notch processing. In the present study using detergent-resistant membranes prepared from brain, we have identified four GSAPs that affect Aβ production to a greater extent than Notch processing. We evaluated the interaction between GSAPs and γ-secretase in various cell types and their mRNA expression in various human organs. Using an in situ proximity ligation assay, we demonstrated that many GSAPs showed considerably greater interaction with γ-secretase in neurons than in human embryonic kidney cells stably over-expressing APP, and showed that several GSAPs are highly expressed in human brain. This study underscores the importance of studying protein-protein interactions in relevant cell types, and suggests that reducing Aβ production by interfering with brain- or neuron-specific γ-secretase/GSAP interactions may reduce the risk of unwanted side-effects associated with treatment of Alzheimer disease.

  12. The protein-protein interaction network of the human Sirtuin family.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankush; Costantini, Susan; Colonna, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Protein-protein interaction networks are useful for studying human diseases and to look for possible health care through a holistic approach. Networks are playing an increasing and important role in the understanding of physiological processes such as homeostasis, signaling, spatial and temporal organizations, and pathological conditions. In this article we show the complex system of interactions determined by human Sirtuins (Sirt) largely involved in many metabolic processes as well as in different diseases. The Sirtuin family consists of seven homologous Sirt-s having structurally similar cores but different terminal segments, being rather variable in length and/or intrinsically disordered. Many studies have determined their cellular location as well as biological functions although molecular mechanisms through which they act are actually little known therefore, the aim of this work was to define, explore and understand the Sirtuin-related human interactome. As a first step, we have integrated the experimentally determined protein-protein interactions of the Sirtuin-family as well as their first and second neighbors to a Sirtuin-related sub-interactome. Our data showed that the second-neighbor network of Sirtuins encompasses 25% of the entire human interactome, and exhibits a scale-free degree distribution and interconnectedness among top degree nodes. Moreover, the Sirtuin sub interactome showed a modular structure around the core comprising mixed functions. Finally, we extracted from the Sirtuin sub-interactome subnets related to cancer, aging and post-translational modifications for information on key nodes and topological space of the subnets in the Sirt family network.

  13. In vitro kinetic interactions of DEET, pyridostigmine and organophosphorus pesticides with human cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2011-04-25

    The simultaneous use of the repellent DEET, pyridostigmine, and organophosphorus pesticides has been assumed as a potential cause for the Gulf War Illness and combinations have been tested in different animal models. However, human in vitro data on interactions of DEET with other compounds are scarce and provoked the present in vitro study scrutinizing the interactions of DEET, pyridostigmine and pesticides with human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE). DEET showed to be a weak and reversible inhibitor of hAChE and hBChE. The IC(50) of DEET was calculated to be 21.7mM DEET for hAChE and 3.2mM DEET for hBChE. The determination of the inhibition kinetics of pyridostigmine, malaoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon with hAChE in the presence of 5mM DEET resulted in a moderate reduction of the inhibition rate constant k(i). The decarbamoylation velocity of pyridostigmine-inhibited hAChE was not affected by DEET. In conclusion, the in vitro investigation of interactions between human cholinesterases, DEET, pyridostigmine, malaoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon showed a weak inhibition of hAChE and hBChE by DEET. The inhibitory potency of the tested cholinesterase inhibitors was not enhanced by DEET and it did not affect the regeneration velocity of pyridostigmine-inhibited AChE. Hence, this in vitro study does not give any evidence of a synergistic effect of the tested compounds on human cholinesterases.

  14. Interaction matters: A perceived social partner alters the neural processing of human speech.

    PubMed

    Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that social interaction changes how communicative behaviors (e.g., spoken language, gaze) are processed, but the precise neural bases by which social-interactive context may alter communication remain unknown. Various perspectives suggest that live interactions are more rewarding, more attention-grabbing, or require increased mentalizing-thinking about the thoughts of others. Dissociating between these possibilities is difficult because most extant neuroimaging paradigms examining social interaction have not directly compared live paradigms to conventional "offline" (or recorded) paradigms. We developed a novel fMRI paradigm to assess whether and how an interactive context changes the processing of speech matched in content and vocal characteristics. Participants listened to short vignettes--which contained no reference to people or mental states--believing that some vignettes were prerecorded and that others were presented over a real-time audio-feed by a live social partner. In actuality, all speech was prerecorded. Simply believing that speech was live increased activation in each participant's own mentalizing regions, defined using a functional localizer. Contrasting live to recorded speech did not reveal significant differences in attention or reward regions. Further, higher levels of autistic-like traits were associated with altered neural specialization for live interaction. These results suggest that humans engage in ongoing mentalizing about social partners, even when such mentalizing is not explicitly required, illustrating how social context shapes social cognition. Understanding communication in social context has important implications for typical and atypical social processing, especially for disorders like autism where social difficulties are more acute in live interaction.

  15. Identification of Human Disease Genes from Interactome Network Using Graphlet Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lun; Wei, Dong-Qing; Qi, Ying-Xin; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Identifying genes related to human diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, etc., is an important task in biomedical research because of its applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. Interactome networks, especially protein-protein interaction networks, had been used to disease genes identification based on the hypothesis that strong candidate genes tend to closely relate to each other in some kinds of measure on the network. We proposed a new measure to analyze the relationship between network nodes which was called graphlet interaction. The graphlet interaction contained 28 different isomers. The results showed that the numbers of the graphlet interaction isomers between disease genes in interactome networks were significantly larger than random picked genes, while graphlet signatures were not. Then, we designed a new type of score, based on the network properties, to identify disease genes using graphlet interaction. The genes with higher scores were more likely to be disease genes, and all candidate genes were ranked according to their scores. Then the approach was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The precision of the current approach achieved 90% at about 10% recall, which was apparently higher than the previous three predominant algorithms, random walk, Endeavour and neighborhood based method. Finally, the approach was applied to predict new disease genes related to 4 common diseases, most of which were identified by other independent experimental researches. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the graphlet interaction is an effective tool to analyze the network properties of disease genes, and the scores calculated by graphlet interaction is more precise in identifying disease genes. PMID:24465923

  16. Raman Spectroscopic Signature Markers of Dopamine-Human Dopamine Transporter Interaction in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Silwal, Achut Prasad; Yadav, Rajeev; Sprague, Jon E; Lu, H Peter

    2017-04-04

    Dopamine (DA) controls many psychological and behavioral activities in the central nervous system (CNS) through interactions with the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) and dopamine receptors. The roles of DA in the function of the CNS are affected by the targeted binding of drugs to hDAT; thus, hDAT plays a critical role in neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology. An effective experimental method is necessary to study the DA-hDAT interaction and effects of variety of drugs like psychostimulants and anti-depressants that are dependent on this interaction. In searching for obtaining and identifying the Raman spectral signatures, we have used surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to record SERS spectrum from DA, Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK293), hDAT-HEK293, DA-HEK293, and DA-hDAT-HEK293. We have demonstrated a specific 2D-distribution SERS spectral analytical approach to analyze DA-hDAT interaction. Our study shows that the Raman modes at 807, 839, 1076, 1090, 1538, and 1665 cm-1 are related to DA-hDAT interaction, where Raman shift at 807 and 1076 cm-1 are the signature marker for bound state of DA to probe DA-hDAT interaction. On the basis of density function theory (DFT) calculation, Raman shift of bound state of DA at 807 cm-1 is related to combination of bending modes α(C3-O10-H21), α(C2-O11-H22), α(C7-C8-H18), α(C6-C4-H13), α(C7-C8-H19), α(C7-C8-N9), and Raman shift at 1076 cm-1 is related to combination of bending modes α(H19-N9-C8), γ(N9-H19), γ(C8-H19), γ(N9-H20), γ(C8-H18), and α(C7-C8-H18). These findings demonstrate that protein-ligand interactions can be confirmed by probing change in Raman shift of ligand molecules, which could be crucial to understanding molecular interactions between neurotransmitters and their receptors or transporters.

  17. Biochemical and biophysical investigations of the interaction between human glucokinase and pro-apoptotic BAD

    PubMed Central

    Rexford, Alix; Zorio, Diego A. R.

    2017-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD reportedly reside within a five-membered complex that localizes to the mitochondria of mammalian hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Photochemical crosslinking studies using a synthetic analog of BAD’s BH3 domain and in vitro transcription/translation experiments support a direct interaction between BAD and GCK. To investigate the biochemical and biophysical consequences of the BAD:GCK interaction, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human BAD. Consistent with published reports, recombinant BAD displays high affinity for Bcl-xL (KD = 7 nM), and phosphorylation of BAD at S118, within the BH3 domain, abolishes this interaction. Unexpectedly, we do not detect association of recombinant, full-length BAD with recombinant human pancreatic GCK over a range of protein concentrations using various biochemical methods including size-exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Furthermore, fluorescence polarization assays and isothermal titration calorimetry detect no direct interaction between GCK and BAD BH3 peptides. Kinetic characterization of GCK in the presence of high concentrations of recombinant BAD show modest (<15%) increases in GCK activity, observable only at glucose concentrations well below the K0.5 value. GCK activity is unaffected by BAD BH3 peptides. These results raise questions as to the mechanism of action of stapled peptide analogs modeled after the BAD BH3 domain, which reportedly enhance the Vmax value of GCK and stimulate insulin release in BAD-deficient islets. Based on our results, we postulate that the BAD:GCK interaction, and any resultant regulatory effect(s) upon GCK activity, requires the participation of additional members of the mitochondrial complex. PMID:28182770

  18. An inhibitory interaction of human cortical responses to stimuli preferentially exciting Aδ or C fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuan D.; Matre, Dagfinn; Casey, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Finely myelinated (type Aδ) and unmyelinated (type C) fibers are the major afferent inputs to spinothalamic tract neurons mediating sensory and reflex responses to noxious and thermal stimuli. These two fiber types differ in their sensory and biophysical properties, raising quest